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Sample records for points times roman

  1. European summer temperatures since Roman times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luterbacher, J; Werner, J P; Smerdon, J E; Fernández-Donado, L; González-Rouco, F J; Barriopedro, D; Ljungqvist, F C; Büntgen, U; Frank, D; Zorita, E; Wagner, S; Esper, J; McCarroll, D; Toreti, A; Jungclaus, J H; Bothe, O; Barriendos, M; Bertolin, C; Camuffo, D; Brázdil, R

    2016-01-01

    The spatial context is critical when assessing present-day climate anomalies, attributing them to potential forcings and making statements regarding their frequency and severity in a long-term perspective. Recent international initiatives have expanded the number of high-quality proxy-records and developed new statistical reconstruction methods. These advances allow more rigorous regional past temperature reconstructions and, in turn, the possibility of evaluating climate models on policy-relevant, spatio-temporal scales. Here we provide a new proxy-based, annually-resolved, spatial reconstruction of the European summer (June–August) temperature fields back to 755 CE based on Bayesian hierarchical modelling (BHM), together with estimates of the European mean temperature variation since 138 BCE based on BHM and composite-plus-scaling (CPS). Our reconstructions compare well with independent instrumental and proxy-based temperature estimates, but suggest a larger amplitude in summer temperature variability than previously reported. Both CPS and BHM reconstructions indicate that the mean 20th century European summer temperature was not significantly different from some earlier centuries, including the 1st, 2nd, 8th and 10th centuries CE. The 1st century (in BHM also the 10th century) may even have been slightly warmer than the 20th century, but the difference is not statistically significant. Comparing each 50 yr period with the 1951–2000 period reveals a similar pattern. Recent summers, however, have been unusually warm in the context of the last two millennia and there are no 30 yr periods in either reconstruction that exceed the mean average European summer temperature of the last 3 decades (1986–2015 CE). A comparison with an ensemble of climate model simulations suggests that the reconstructed European summer temperature variability over the period 850–2000 CE reflects changes in both internal variability and external forcing on multi-decadal time

  2. Discovery of ancient Roman "highway" reveals geomorphic changes in karst environments during historic times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Federico; Vinci, Giacomo; Forte, Emanuele; Furlani, Stefano; Pipan, Michele; Biolchi, Sara; De Min, Angelo; Fragiacomo, Andrea; Micheli, Roberto; Ventura, Paola; Tuniz, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    Sinkholes are a well-known geologic hazard but their past occurrence, useful for subsidence risk prediction, is difficult to define, especially for ancient historic times. Consequently, our knowledge about Holocene carbonate landscapes is often limited. A multidisciplinary study of Trieste Karst (Italy), close to early Roman military fortifications, led to the identification of possible ancient road tracks, cut by at least one sinkhole. Electrical Resistivity Tomography through the sinkhole has suggested the presence of a cave below its bottom, possibly responsible of the sinkhole formation, while Ground Penetrating Radar has detected no tectonic disturbances underneath the tracks. Additionally, archaeological surveys led to the discovery of over 200 Roman shoe hobnails within or close to the investigated route. According to these data, the tracks are interpreted as the remains of a main Roman road, whose itinerary has been reconstructed for more than 4 km together with other elements of ancient landscape. Our results provide the first known evidence of a Roman main road swallowed by sinkholes and suggest that Holocene karst landscapes could be much different from what previously believed. In fact, sinkholes visible nowadays in the investigated region could have been flat areas filled by sediments up to the Roman time.

  3. The island of Skyros from Late Roman to Early Modern times : an archaeological survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karambinis, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Aegean archaeology has mainly concentrated on Prehistoric and Greco-Roman times and has provided relatively little information on human activity and material culture in the medieval period. Historical research concerning the medieval era is sufficiently developed but archaeological research on the

  4. From Roman Times to Middle Ages. Settlement evolution and landscape archaeology in the territory of Salamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique ARIÑO GIL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study we gave the results of intensive survey in the Armuña area. In this new study a detailed interpretation is made of the data. After the field work it was observed that there no traces of pre-Roman occupation. The Roman settlement was developed suddenly in the area from the Flavian era onwards and maintained with few changes throughout the whole of the Empire. Aerial photography and the surface material make it possible to detect the presence of two villas (Aldealhama y Prado de Abajo with their attached dependencies. From the fifth century on the habitat points multiplied, although the quality of the buildings was inferior. The eighth-ninth centuries were a period with a gap in information which neither archaeological materials nor the sources can fill. From the eleventh century onwards the settlement was definitively established in the present-day towns. Data on settlement are complemented with those provided by a drilling for the extraction of a pollen record. During the Roman period forest cover was still important, although cereal crops were already present. From the fifth century on it is observed that preferential attention was given to livestock raising, which entails greater pressure on the forest. This process was interrupted around the eighth century, when livestock activity was withdrawn, although farming activity continued. The eleventh century offered greater agricultural diversity with the wine making its first appearance, as is corroborated by written documents of the era.

  5. Insurgency in Ancient Times: The Jewish Revolts Against the Seleucid and Roman Empires, 166 BC-73 AD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sorrells, William T

    2005-01-01

    This monograph examines two insurgencies conducted by the Jews in ancient times: the Maccabee Revolt against the Seleucid Empire from 166-164 BC, and the Revolt against the Roman Empire from 66-70 AD...

  6. Hippocrates in the pseudo-Galenic Introduction: or how was medicine taught in Roman times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The Pseudo-Galenic Introduction (Introductio Sive medicus, 14.674-797 K.), a medical handbook of the Roman period, witnesses the importance of Hippocrates in medical teaching at the time. Numerous quotations, allusions and reminiscences from the Hippocratic Corpus illustrate Hippocrates' authority for Pseudo-Galen. In the light of the first critical edition of the text (C. Petit, Les Belles Lettres, Paris, 2009), this article discusses the function of Hippocrates, and the various reminiscences of the Hippocratic Corpus, in order to assess Pseudo-Galen's quotation technique and, ultimately, his reliability as a source for the history of medicine.

  7. VAiRoma: A Visual Analytics System for Making Sense of Places, Times, and Events in Roman History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Isaac; Dou, Wewnen; Wang, Derek Xiaoyu; Sauda, Eric; Ribarsky, William

    2016-01-01

    Learning and gaining knowledge of Roman history is an area of interest for students and citizens at large. This is an example of a subject with great sweep (with many interrelated sub-topics over, in this case, a 3,000 year history) that is hard to grasp by any individual and, in its full detail, is not available as a coherent story. In this paper, we propose a visual analytics approach to construct a data driven view of Roman history based on a large collection of Wikipedia articles. Extracting and enabling the discovery of useful knowledge on events, places, times, and their connections from large amounts of textual data has always been a challenging task. To this aim, we introduce VAiRoma, a visual analytics system that couples state-of-the-art text analysis methods with an intuitive visual interface to help users make sense of events, places, times, and more importantly, the relationships between them. VAiRoma goes beyond textual content exploration, as it permits users to compare, make connections, and externalize the findings all within the visual interface. As a result, VAiRoma allows users to learn and create new knowledge regarding Roman history in an informed way. We evaluated VAiRoma with 16 participants through a user study, with the task being to learn about roman piazzas through finding relevant articles and new relationships. Our study results showed that the VAiRoma system enables the participants to find more relevant articles and connections compared to Web searches and literature search conducted in a roman library. Subjective feedback on VAiRoma was also very positive. In addition, we ran two case studies that demonstrate how VAiRoma can be used for deeper analysis, permitting the rapid discovery and analysis of a small number of key documents even when the original collection contains hundreds of thousands of documents.

  8. Coming of age in Roman Britain: Osteological evidence for pubertal timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Nichola A; Gowland, Rebecca L; Redfern, Rebecca C

    2016-04-01

    Puberty is a key transitional phase of the human life course, with important biological and social connotations. Novel methods for the identification of the pubertal growth spurt and menarche in skeletal remains have recently been proposed (Shapland and Lewis, 2013, 2014). In this study we applied the methods to two Romano-British cemetery samples (1st-early 5th centuries AD) in order to investigate the timing of puberty during this period and further assess the veracity of the methods. Shapland and Lewis' methods (2013, 2014) were applied to 38 adolescents (aged 8-20 years) from the British cemetery sites of Roman London (1st-early 5th centuries AD) and Queenford Farm, Oxfordshire (4th-early 5th centuries AD). Overall, the Romano-British males and females experienced the onset of puberty at similar ages to modern European adolescents, but subsequently experienced a longer period of pubertal development. Menarche occurred between the ages of 15 and 17 years for these Romano-British females, around 2 to 4 years later than for present-day European females. The observed Romano-British pattern of pubertal timing has various possible explanations, including exposure to environmental stressors in early urban environments. The pattern of pubertal timing is largely congruent with social age transitions alluded to in ancient texts and funerary evidence for this period. While there are limitations to the application of these techniques to archaeological samples, they were successfully applied in this study, and may have important implications for understandings of past life courses, as well as providing a long-term perspective on pubertal timing and biocultural interactions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Zero Point of Historical Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Khakimov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies are based on the assumption that there is a reference-starting point of the space-time – the Zero point of coordinate system. Due to the bifurcation in the Zero Point, the course of social processes changes sharply and the probabilistic causality replaces the deterministic one. For this reason, changes occur in the structure of social relations and statehood form as well as in the course of the ethnic processes. In such a way emerges a new discourse of the national behavior. With regard to the history of the Tatars and Tatarstan, such bifurcation points occurred in the periods of the formation: 1 of the Turkic Khaganate, which began to exist from the 6th century onward and became a qualitatively new State system that reformatted old elements in the new matrix introducing a new discourse of behavior; 2 of the Volga-Kama Bulgaria, where the rivers (Kama, Volga, Vyatka became the most important trade routes determining the singularity of this State. Here the nomadic culture was connected with the settled one and Islam became the official religion in 922; 3 and of the Golden Hordе, a powerful State with a remarkable system of communication, migration of huge human resources for thousands of kilometers, and extensive trade, that caused severe “mutations” in the ethnic terms and a huge mixing of ethnic groups. Given the dwelling space of Tatar population and its evolution within Russia, it can be argued that the Zero point of Tatar history, which conveyed the cultural invariants until today, begins in the Golden Horde. Neither in the Turkic khaganate nor in the Bulgar State, but namely in the Golden Horde. Despite the radical changes, the Russian Empire failed to transform the Tatars in the Russians. Therefore, contemporary Tatars preserved the Golden Horde tradition as a cultural invariant.

  10. Roman Chamomile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eczema, frostbite, diaper rash, bedsores (decubitus ulcers), and hemorrhoids. Roman chamomile is sometimes mixed with other herbs ... gums. Liver and gallbladder problems. Frostbite. Diaper rash. Hemorrhoids. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to rate ...

  11. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BIOETHICAL ISSUES FROM VIEW POINTS OF RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS ADMINISTRATION IN TURKEY, ROMAN CATHOLICISM AND ORTHODOX JUDAISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvercin, Cemal Huseyin; Munir, Kerim M

    2017-07-01

    The arguments set forth by religious authority are important since they play a crucial role in shaping the social values of the public and influence the decision of individuals in practice pertaining to bioethical issues. The Religious Affairs Administration (RAA) was established at the inception of the Republic of Turkey in 1924 to guide religious considerations moving out of the Ottoman caliphate to a secular bioethical framework. In this article, the bioethical views of the RAA under Islamic tradition is examined and contrasted with those influenced by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Judaic traditions. On bioethical deliberations related to the beginning and end-of-life, all three religious traditions justify sacredness of life and that of God's will in its preservation it. Assisted reproduction techniques between spouses is considered to be appropriate, although third party involvement is explicitly forbidden. Organ transplantation is approved by all three religious traditions, except uterine transplantation. Contraceptive practices are approved under certain conditions - views differ most on approaches to contraception and the appropriateness of methods. The RAA judgement on cloning is to prohibit it, like Roman Catholicism and Orthodox Judaism. In other topics, cosmetic surgery and gender determination are approved only for treatment.

  12. Essay about Roman ancient times in the region of the Đerdap in the literary work of Bele de Gonde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vladimir P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article would certainly be to take us back in time to the end of the 19*century, and to introduce us to the conditions of that time on the territory of the Đerdaps, which have been forever changed by the modern development of civilization. Along that path, we will follow the text of the very important but not well known literary work of the Hungarian engineer Bela de Gonda; L 'amelioration des Fortes de Per et des autres cataracts du Bas-Danube, which was announced in Budapest in 1898. It seems that the book itself was composed for the purpose of describing enormous technical works the construction of roads and navigable canals through ravines during the 19th century, which count Istvan Secenji began in 1833. However, one completely separate segment, which is also the subject framework of our article, is dedicated to the works of the Romans on the Danube. It is marked number four and in the original text it is titled Les Travaux des Remains Dans le Contrees du Bas-Danube. For the first time, translated from French with important notes and discussions, is a short but especially important segment of Bela de Gonda's book. Gonda tried to add to his own observations the experiences of previous researchers like Count F. Marsiljija (F. Marsigli from the beginning of the 18th century, and later G Teglasa (G. Teglas and the enthusiast Dj. Nojdeka (G. Nevdeck and P. Vasarheljija (P. Vasarhelyi from the 19th century. In that manner he composed an all-inclusive review of the then current knowledge of the Đerdap ancient times during the Roman period. Without any intention of disturbing the authentic expressions of Gonda, worthy on their own, the framework of observations points out the interpretations and realizations of modern researchers of the Đerdaps in ancient epochs. We believe that Gonda's expressions should certainly be considered an important supplement to our overall picture of the first explorations of the Đerdaps and their

  13. Greco-Roman Astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Roger

    Astrology was entrenched in the culture of the Roman Empire. The system and its influence is described as well as its relationship to mathematical astronomy at the time. The material remains are of two sorts: papyrus horoscopes and coins with astrological motifs.

  14. Greek and roman calendars

    CERN Document Server

    Hannah, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The smooth functioning of an ordered society depends on the possession of a means of regularising its activities over time. That means is a calendar, and its regularity is a function of how well it models the more or less regular movements of the celestial bodies - of the moon, the sun or the stars. Greek and Roman Calendars examines the ancient calendar as just such a time-piece, whose elements are readily described in astronomical and mathematical terms. The story of these calendars is one of a continuous struggle to maintain a correspondence with the regularity of the seasons and the sun, d

  15. Three Roman Innkeepers

    OpenAIRE

    Tatarin, Milovan

    2009-01-01

    In the critical publication of Dundo Maroje which in 1930 was edited for the seventh book of the edition Stari pisci hrvatski (Old Croatian writers) by Milan Rešetar, »three Roman innkeepers« are named as dramatis personae. They appear on the stage three times: act one, scene one; act two, scene nine; act four, scene nine. The aim of this work is to establish how many inns and how many innkeepers appear in the comedy and are their lines mixed.

  16. Biopolitics rudiments in Roman Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Régio de Almeida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a jurisprudential and philosophical reflection on Biopolitics in Roman Law, based on juridical figures such as sacred men, aliens, slaves and iustitium. Working at the edge of roman society, they represent a relation of inclusion or tolerance in a World centred on its citizens, which led to a state of exception or to integration modes of this marginality. Lessons for the present time can still be learned from this dynamic, when a new ius commune is proposed.http://dx.doi.org/10.14195/2183-1718_66_11

  17. Celtiberian metrology and its romanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard A. CURCHIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Celtiberian metrology has scarcely been investigated until now, with the exception of coin weights. On the basis of measurements of pre-Roman mud bricks, a Celtiberian foot of 24 cm is proposed. With regard to weights, we can accept a module of 9 g for silver jewelry and some bronze coins; however, loom weights do not conform to any metrological system. Over time, Roman measures of length (as indicated by the dimensions of bricks, tiles and architectural monuments and weight were adopted.

  18. Optimal time points sampling in pathway modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiyan

    2004-01-01

    Modelling cellular dynamics based on experimental data is at the heart of system biology. Considerable progress has been made to dynamic pathway modelling as well as the related parameter estimation. However, few of them gives consideration for the issue of optimal sampling time selection for parameter estimation. Time course experiments in molecular biology rarely produce large and accurate data sets and the experiments involved are usually time consuming and expensive. Therefore, to approximate parameters for models with only few available sampling data is of significant practical value. For signal transduction, the sampling intervals are usually not evenly distributed and are based on heuristics. In the paper, we investigate an approach to guide the process of selecting time points in an optimal way to minimize the variance of parameter estimates. In the method, we first formulate the problem to a nonlinear constrained optimization problem by maximum likelihood estimation. We then modify and apply a quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm, which combines the advantages of both quantum computing and evolutionary computing, to solve the optimization problem. The new algorithm does not suffer from the morass of selecting good initial values and being stuck into local optimum as usually accompanied with the conventional numerical optimization techniques. The simulation results indicate the soundness of the new method.

  19. The ALFA Roman Pot Detectors of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel Khalek, S.

    2016-11-23

    The ATLAS Roman Pot system is designed to determine the total proton-proton cross-section as well as the luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by measuring elastic proton scattering at very small angles. The system is made of four Roman Pot stations, located in the LHC tunnel in a distance of about 240~m at both sides of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station is equipped with tracking detectors, inserted in Roman Pots which approach the LHC beams vertically. The tracking detectors consist of multi-layer scintillating fibre structures readout by Multi-Anode-Photo-Multipliers.

  20. Putting Roman Dams in Context: a Virtual Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, M. J.; Du Vernay, J. P.; Mcleod, J. B.

    2017-08-01

    innovative perspective on a long time studied monument. In this paper it will be explored how deploying recent computer technologies to the Roman dam at Consuegra can advance our understanding of the history of local and regional landscape change and the technology of water management. In summer 2016, the dam has been documented with terrestrial laser scanning with two FARO Focus 3D x330 and aerial photogrammetry image capturing with a DJI Phantom 4 drone. Data was processed in various 3D software applications to generate 3D representations of the dam including 3D point clouds, animations, and meshed models.

  1. LHC Report: a Roman potpourri

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The last couple of weeks of operation have been a mixed bag, with time dedicated to TOTEM and ALFA, a floating machine development period and luminosity calibration runs. These special running periods were interleaved with some standard proton running where we’ve struggled a little to recover previous highs. The LHC has now returned to more routine operation.   The TOTEM and ALFA run required the development of special optics to produce large beam sizes and smaller angular spread at the interaction points in ATLAS and CMS. These special optics produce shallower angled proton-proton collisions than normal and thus allow experiments to probe the very small angle scattering regime. (For more information visit the TOTEM and ALFA websites.) The qualification of the new set-up at 4 TeV went well, paving the way for a 13-hour physics run for both TOTEM and ALFA with their Roman pots in position. Highlights from the 48-hour machine development period included the injection of high intensity bun...

  2. Querns and mills during Roman times at the northern frontier of the Roman Empire (Belgium, Northern France, Southern Netherlands, Western Germany: Unraveling geological and geographical provenances, a multidisciplinary research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibrecht Reniere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a multi-disciplinary provenance study of querns and millstones during the Roman period (1st-4th century CE in the northern part of the Roman Empire (provinces of Gallia Belgica and Germania Inferior. Comparative petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical analysis allowed an international team of archaeologists and geologists to identify the different raw materials used for the manufacturing of querns and millstones. As a result, (litho- stratigraphic assignments as well as geological-geographical provenances are suggested or corroborated for the broad spectrum of these natural geo-materials. We give evidence for the exploitation of at least seven different rock types. They include sedimentary rocks (fine- to coarse-grained quartzitic and arkosic sandstones, conglomerates, limestones and volcanic rocks (vesicular lavas derived from different geological strata in the following geological-geographical settings: the volcanic Eifel area (Pleistocene lava, the Ardennes Massif (Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks and the Paris and Northern Sea Basin (Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Furthermore we show that a large diversity existed within different productions (different types of hand-mills and mechanical powered mills and distribution patterns. This paper provides new data which will lead to new insights into the socio-economics of the local “Gallo-Roman” communities and into their networks within the northern Roman Empire.

  3. THE PHENOMENON OF ROMAN REPUBLICAN COINAGE IN PRE-ROMAN DACIA. A REXAMINATION OF THE EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Grigore Stan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a re-examination of the phenomenon of Roman Republican coinage during the pre-Roman period in Carpathian region. It is argued that by compiling the evidence into a multifaceted database, new insights are gained on the explanation of the currency in pre-Roman Dacia.Furthermore, the study employs statistical methods in an interdisciplinary approach to a better pinpoint the chronological point of entry for Republican denarii into the region. Due to the absence of archaeological context in many cases, coin hoards are the main focus of data collection.

  4. Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent “experiment” that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

  5. Roman Lyariev, About Knives

    OpenAIRE

    Gedeeva, Darina; Ubushieva, Bamba; Babaev, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Roman demonstrates and explains some of his hunting knives, including: -a knife made of a soft metal, -a foldable knife made of a hard metal and with a wooden handle, -a small foldable knife used for skinning animals, -a Swiss-style knife with a screwdriver, etc. He also shows diamond knife sharpeners and lanyards which are useful during hunting to dry clothes or to set up a tent. Most of these items have been given to Roman by his friends and relatives as presents. Arcadia

  6. Greek and Roman Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Fredella; Faggionato, Michael

    Designed for use with the text "Greek and Roman Myths," this junior high school learning activity packet introduces students to mythology and examines the influence of myths on contemporary culture. Over 20 exercises, tagged to specific readings in the text, cover identification of the major gods, the Prometheus myth, the Atlas myth,…

  7. Greek & Roman Mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Alma

    Activities and background information on Greek and Roman mythology are presented. The unit is designed for eighth graders, but many of the activities can be modified for other grade levels. The unit includes: (1) a content outline; (2) a list of instructional materials including suggested textbooks, teacher-prepared materials, and resource…

  8. Der Dichter Roman Svendborg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweppenhäuser, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Roman Svendborg? Mein Großvater, Hermann Schweppenhäuser, schenkte mir vor einigen Jahren einmal einen Gedichtband, dessen Verfasser mir bis lang noch nicht bekannt war. Damals noch ein junger dänischer Student der Skandinavistik waren mir schließlich nicht alle deutschsprachigen Dichter geläufig...

  9. Medicine in Balkans during the Roman Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykan, Daniş

    2017-08-04

    The aim of this study is to investigate the archaeological finds to enlighten the medical methods of treatments and operations applied in Balkans during Roman Period. Some independent local and regional find groups, taken from existing publications will be grouped together and a holistic point-of-view will be taken against medicine in Balkan Geography during Roman Period. Due to basic differences it contained, the data before Roman Period are excluded. Most of Greece and Aegean Islands are also excluded since the topic selected is "Medicine of Roman Period." Greece and Aegean Islands should be evaluated in another study in connection with West Anatolia which is closer than the Balkan Geography in terms of social relations. The spread of medical tools in Balkans during Roman Period is concentrated around military garrisons, and in settlements built around military pathways, and in settlements containing an amphitheater associated with gladiators. This spread is verified by the studies on Bulgaria in general. The data is also compatible with the assertion suggesting that the amount of application of pharmaceutical treatment increases when one moves away from the military centres.

  10. Dual-time-point Imaging and Delayed-time-point Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/Computed Tomography Imaging in Various Clinical Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand, Sina; Salavati, Ali; Antonsen Segtnan, Eivind

    2016-01-01

    The techniques of dual-time-point imaging (DTPI) and delayed-time-point imaging, which are mostly being used for distinction between inflammatory and malignant diseases, has increased the specificity of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET for diagnosis and prognosis of certain diseases. A gradually incr...

  11. The term origo in Roman epigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is sometimes very difficult to interpret the term origo, since it can refer to different elements such as birth, place of origin, family or tribe. From the Republican period the Romans used to include this type of information in their inscriptions after the mention of the name, although, curiously, they did not employ the term origo itself, but other forms of expression. In this work we suggest that in Roman epigraphy this term was used, from the end of the Second Century and during the first half of the Third Century A. D., mainly in the times of the Severan Dynasty.

  12. Time Eigenstates for Potential Functions without Extremal Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabino Torres-Vega

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper, we introduced a way to generate a time coordinate system for classical and quantum systems when the potential function has extremal points. In this paper, we deal with the case in which the potential function has no extremal points at all, and we illustrate the method with the harmonic and linear potentials.

  13. Homeless Point-In-Time (2007-2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — These raw data sets contain Point-in-Time (PIT) estimates and national PIT estimates of homelessness as well as national estimates of homelessness by state and...

  14. Title XVI / Supplemental Security Record Point In Time (SSRPT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This is the point-in-time database to house temporary Supplemental Security Record (SSR) images produced during the course of the operating day before they can be...

  15. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  16. THE EVOLUTION OF ROMAN FRONTIER CONCEPT AND POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cupcea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Roman power is, ideologically, infinite in time and space. Nevertheless, the Roman state had experienced a wide variety of territorial limits, evolving in time and space, more or less throughout a millennium. If at first the Roman state, limited to Rome metropolitan area, later to the Italian peninsula, was easily defensible, beginning with the heavy expansion, also came trouble. The Romans, always innovating, find solutions for the fortification of the contact zones with the Barbarians. The Roman frontier concept was fundamentally different from the modern one. If the defence of Roman possessions was obviously priority, the border should remain an open ensemble, allowing for the free circulation of people and goods, some of the fundamental Roman rights. The peak of Roman expansion, 2nd century A.D. brings also the maximum development of the Empire frontier. Dacia overlaps widely chronologically on this trend, this being one of the reasons for one of the most complex frontier system in the Empire.

  17. Change detection in polarimetric SAR data over several time points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Knut; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Skriver, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A test statistic for the equality of several variance-covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution is introduced. The test statistic is applied successfully to detect change in C-band EMISAR polarimetric SAR data over four time points.......A test statistic for the equality of several variance-covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution is introduced. The test statistic is applied successfully to detect change in C-band EMISAR polarimetric SAR data over four time points....

  18. The Roman Bazaar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    The Roman bazaar et et komparativt studie af handels og markedsforhold i Romerriget. Det er bogens tese, at vi bedre forstår den økonomiske udvikling i Romerriget hvis vi skifter vores sammenligningsgrundlag fra den tidligt moderne, europæiske kapitalisme til store agrare eller tributære imperier......, som fx Mogulernes rige i Indien. Hovedemner er den imperiale mobilisering af den agrare produktion og markedernes ofte fragmenterede karakter. Det sidste punkt understøttes vha. Clifford Geertz' analyse af Bazaar-markeder....

  19. Attention flexibly trades off across points in time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, Rachel N; Heeger, David J; Carrasco, Marisa

    2017-08-01

    Sensory signals continuously enter the brain, raising the question of how perceptual systems handle this constant flow of input. Attention to an anticipated point in time can prioritize visual information at that time. However, how we voluntarily attend across time when there are successive task-relevant stimuli has been barely investigated. We developed a novel experimental protocol that allowed us to assess, for the first time, both the benefits and costs of voluntary temporal attention when perceiving a short sequence of two or three visual targets with predictable timing. We found that when humans directed attention to a cued point in time, their ability to perceive orientation was better at that time but also worse earlier and later. These perceptual tradeoffs across time are analogous to those found across space for spatial attention. We concluded that voluntary attention is limited, and selective, across time.

  20. History and Point in Time in Enterprise Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gelu APOSTOL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available First part points out the main differences between temporal and non-temporal databases. In the second part, based on identification of the three main categories of time involved in database applications: user-defined time, valid time and transaction time, some relevant solutions for their implementation are discussed, mainly from the point of view of database organization and data access level of enterprise applications. The final part is dedicated to the influences of historical data in the business logic and presentation levels of enterprise applications and in application services, as security, workflow, reporting.

  1. When should we recommend use of dual time-point and delayed time-point imaging techniques in FDG PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Gang [Philadelphia VA Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Torigian, Drew A.; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zhuang, Hongming [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    FDG PET and PET/CT are now widely used in oncological imaging for tumor characterization, staging, restaging, and response evaluation. However, numerous benign etiologies may cause increased FDG uptake indistinguishable from that of malignancy. Multiple studies have shown that dual time-point imaging (DTPI) of FDG PET may be helpful in differentiating malignancy from benign processes. However, exceptions exist, and some studies have demonstrated significant overlap of FDG uptake patterns between benign and malignant lesions on delayed time-point images. In this review, we summarize our experience and opinions on the value of DTPI and delayed time-point imaging in oncology, with a review of the relevant literature. We believe that the major value of DTPI and delayed time-point imaging is the increased sensitivity due to continued clearance of background activity and continued FDG accumulation in malignant lesions, if the same diagnostic criteria (as in the initial standard single time-point imaging) are used. The specificity of DTPI and delayed time-point imaging depends on multiple factors, including the prevalence of malignancies, the patient population, and the cut-off values (either SUV or retention index) used to define a malignancy. Thus, DTPI and delayed time-point imaging would be more useful if performed for evaluation of lesions in regions with significant background activity clearance over time (such as the liver, the spleen, the mediastinum), and if used in the evaluation of the extent of tumor involvement rather than in the characterization of the nature of any specific lesion. Acute infectious and non-infectious inflammatory lesions remain as the major culprit for diminished diagnostic performance of these approaches (especially in tuberculosis-endemic regions). Tumor heterogeneity may also contribute to inconsistent performance of DTPI. The authors believe that selective use of DTPI and delayed time-point imaging will improve diagnostic accuracy and

  2. Ritual failure in Romans 6

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-05

    Aug 5, 2016 ... ISSN: (Online) 2072-8050, (Print) 0259-9422. Page 1 of ... understanding of Romans 6:1–14,2 where Paul develops his argument from an initial thesis statement ..... See Yarbro Collins (1989:42): 'Romans 6:1–14 the ritual of baptism is explicitly ..... his gospel of grace as antinomianism (Ferguson 2009:156;.

  3. Nets, Boats and Fishing in the Roman World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2002-01-01

    Ithas been claimed that in Roman times, net fishing was a shore-based technology, but a study of literary sources and pictorial evidence, mainly mosaics, show that net fishing from boats was widespread throughout the first four centuries AD....

  4. Roman iron axes manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrena, M.I.; Gomez de Salazar, J.M.; Soria, A.

    2008-01-01

    The results of metallographic, chemical and mechanical analysis of two Roman axes are presented. Insights into the technologies used by the Romans are considered. These axes were buried in a Roman village in La Olmeda, Palencia, Spain, which was built around the first century BC and it was later abandoned and destroyed in the fifth century AD. It has been observed that some artefacts, specifically axes show that the technology existed to increase hardness by solid-state welding of sheet steel of different carbon contents

  5. Point splitting in a curved space-time background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggatt, P.A.J.; Macfarlane, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    A prescription is given for point splitting in a curved space-time background which is a natural generalization of that familiar in quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills theory. It is applied (to establish its validity) to the verification of the gravitational anomaly in the divergence of a fermion axial current. Notable features of the prescription are that it defines a point-split current that can be differentiated straightforwardly, and that it involves a natural way of averaging (four-dimensionally) over the directions of point splitting. The method can extend directly from the spin-1/2 fermion case treated to other cases, e.g., to spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fermions. (author)

  6. Nonlinear triple-point problems on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Anderson

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We establish the existence of multiple positive solutions to the nonlinear second-order triple-point boundary-value problem on time scales, $$displaylines{ u^{Delta abla}(t+h(tf(t,u(t=0, cr u(a=alpha u(b+delta u^Delta(a,quad eta u(c+gamma u^Delta(c=0 }$$ for $tin[a,c]subsetmathbb{T}$, where $mathbb{T}$ is a time scale, $eta, gamma, deltage 0$ with $Beta+gamma>0$, $0

  7. Some issues on water in the southeast peninsula during Roman times and its use for agriculture | Algunas cuestiones sobre: «El agua en el sureste peninsular durante época romana. Su aprovechamiento para la agricultura»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Juana López Medina

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the importance of water and the development of different items to take of it advantage for the farming activity in the Roman world, and in the particular case of the south-east the Iberian Peninsula. To get to that point we analyse the documental sources (written as well as archeological. | Este trabajo es una reflexión sobre la importancia del aprovechamiento del agua para la actividad agrícola en el mundo romano, y en concreto en el sureste peninsular. Para ello se analiza tanto la documentación escrita como arqueológica, teniendo en cuenta que los datos que aporta esta última cada vez son mayores.

  8. Accuracy of multi-point boundary crossing time analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vogt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent multi-spacecraft studies of solar wind discontinuity crossings using the timing (boundary plane triangulation method gave boundary parameter estimates that are significantly different from those of the well-established single-spacecraft minimum variance analysis (MVA technique. A large survey of directional discontinuities in Cluster data turned out to be particularly inconsistent in the sense that multi-point timing analyses did not identify any rotational discontinuities (RDs whereas the MVA results of the individual spacecraft suggested that RDs form the majority of events. To make multi-spacecraft studies of discontinuity crossings more conclusive, the present report addresses the accuracy of the timing approach to boundary parameter estimation. Our error analysis is based on the reciprocal vector formalism and takes into account uncertainties both in crossing times and in the spacecraft positions. A rigorous error estimation scheme is presented for the general case of correlated crossing time errors and arbitrary spacecraft configurations. Crossing time error covariances are determined through cross correlation analyses of the residuals. The principal influence of the spacecraft array geometry on the accuracy of the timing method is illustrated using error formulas for the simplified case of mutually uncorrelated and identical errors at different spacecraft. The full error analysis procedure is demonstrated for a solar wind discontinuity as observed by the Cluster FGM instrument.

  9. Contribution in support of a Global Heritage Stone designation for the Leitha Limestone s.l. of eastern Austria because of its use in Roman times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshammer, Beatrix; Rohatsch, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The Leitha Limestone s.l., which has been proposed for Global Heritage Stone listing, comprises the red algae dominated sediments of shallow water carbonate platforms distributed around the Leitha Mountains, the Ruster Hills and other parts of the Vienna Basin. In our sense it comprehends the Leithakalk faciostratotype of the Badenian regional stage along with its lateral equivalents of near shore calcareous sandstones, breccias and conglomerates. It also includes the so called detrital Leithakalk, an informal name for calcareous algae sandstones of the Sarmatian regional stage that is perhaps comparable with the Skalica Formation and finally it covers the algae strata known from the Pannonian regional stage. Thus the Leitha Limestone s.l. belongs to the middle and upper part of the Miocene, i.e. ranging from about 16 to 10 my BP. The geoscientific focus of this multidisciplinary research is on deciphering the petrological types and carbonate facies of stone monuments and building stones and on comparing them with the successions of the strata outcropping in abandoned quarries. We are recording distinguishing lithological features and collecting appropriate field samples for microscopic, petrophysical, and geochemical analysis. The results of these analyses will be used to characterise the different varieties of Leitha Limestone s.l. of the investigated stone objects, with a view to setting up a catalogue based on lithological types that could be of considerable value for restoration and conservation too. Carnuntum was the regional metropolis of the Roman province Pannonia Superior and one of the legionary camps along the Danube Limes from about 40 AD to the end of the 5th century. It is situated about 40 km east of Vienna city centre, in the present-day market-town of Petronell-Carnuntum. Most of the stone objects from Carnuntum are made of the local quarried Leitha Limestone s.l. from the Hainburg Mountains and from ancient quarries in the Leitha Mountains

  10. The timing of control signals underlying fast point-to-point arm movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, M; Feldman, A G

    2001-04-01

    It is known that proprioceptive feedback induces muscle activation when the facilitation of appropriate motoneurons exceeds their threshold. In the suprathreshold range, the muscle-reflex system produces torques depending on the position and velocity of the joint segment(s) that the muscle spans. The static component of the torque-position relationship is referred to as the invariant characteristic (IC). According to the equilibrium-point (EP) hypothesis, control systems produce movements by changing the activation thresholds and thus shifting the IC of the appropriate muscles in joint space. This control process upsets the balance between muscle and external torques at the initial limb configuration and, to regain the balance, the limb is forced to establish a new configuration or, if the movement is prevented, a new level of static torques. Taken together, the joint angles and the muscle torques generated at an equilibrium configuration define a single variable called the EP. Thus by shifting the IC, control systems reset the EP. Muscle activation and movement emerge following the EP resetting because of the natural physical tendency of the system to reach equilibrium. Empirical and simulation studies support the notion that the control IC shifts and the resulting EP shifts underlying fast point-to-point arm movements are gradual rather than step-like. However, controversies exist about the duration of these shifts. Some studies suggest that the IC shifts cease with the movement offset. Other studies propose that the IC shifts end early in comparison to the movement duration (approximately, at peak velocity). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the duration of the IC shifts underlying fast point-to-point arm movements. Subjects made fast (hand peak velocity about 1.3 m/s) planar arm movements toward different targets while grasping a handle. Hand forces applied to the handle and shoulder/elbow torques were, respectively, measured from a force sensor placed

  11. Tacita Muta y el silencio femenino como arma del patriarcado romano. – Tacita Muta and the feminine silence as a weapon of the roman patriarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casamayor Mancisidor, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tacita Muta was a naiad punished by Jupiter who ripped her tongue out for talking excessively. She became a divinity that symbolized the prerogative of the feminine silence. The aim of the present article is to illustrate how the roman patriarchy imposed the duty of silence on women, taking the myth of Tacita as the starting point. We present several examples of deities, mythological characters and real women who also exemplified this female duty, along with others that transgressed the norm. All of this with the aim of getting deeper on gender relations in Roman times.

  12. On The Roman Domination Stable Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajian Majid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Roman dominating function (or just RDF on a graph G = (V,E is a function f : V → {0, 1, 2} satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2. The weight of an RDF f is the value f(V (G = Pu2V (G f(u. The Roman domination number of a graph G, denoted by R(G, is the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on G. A graph G is Roman domination stable if the Roman domination number of G remains unchanged under removal of any vertex. In this paper we present upper bounds for the Roman domination number in the class of Roman domination stable graphs, improving bounds posed in [V. Samodivkin, Roman domination in graphs: the class RUV R, Discrete Math. Algorithms Appl. 8 (2016 1650049].

  13. Inflection point inflation and time dependent potentials in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzhaki, Nissan; Kovetz, Ely D.

    2007-01-01

    We consider models of inflection point inflation. The main drawback of such models is that they suffer from the overshoot problem. Namely the initial condition should be fine tuned to be near the inflection point for the universe to inflate. We show that stringy realizations of inflection point inflation are common and offer a natural resolution to the overshoot problem

  14. Contribution to the use of marble in Central-Lusitania in Roman times: The stone architectural decoration of Ammaia (São Salvador da Aramenha, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taelman, Devi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a quantitative and qualitative study of the imported architectural decorative stone of the Roman town of Ammaia (São Salvador da Aramenha, Portugal, located centrally in the province of Lusitania. All studied ornamental stones were counted, weighed, classified and their provenance was determined. Six types of stone were used for the architectural decoration at Ammaia: white marble, pink–purple limestone, grey– white marble, two marble breccias and granite. Granite was the most widely used building stone and was used for the production of columns and capitals. Previous studies have established a local source for the Ammaia granite (Taelman et alii in press. The provenance of the remaining ornamental stones is primarily regional (the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Only the two marble breccia varieties were imported from the Mediterranean: africano from Teos (Turkey and breccia di Sciro from the island of Skyros also (Greece. The predominant use of regionally available stones is observed in other Roman towns located in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula, such as Emerita Augusta, Asturica Augusta and Munigua, and results mainly from the geographic location of the sites, remote from any seaport and/or navigable river.El presente trabajo presenta los resultados de una valorización cuantitativa y cualitativa de la utilización de las piedras decorativas arquitectónicas importadas de la ciudad romana lusitana de Ammaia (São Salvador da Aramenha, Portugal. Todas las piedras decorativas estudiadas fueron contadas, pesadas, clasificadas y su procedencia fue determinada. En la época romana se utilizaron seis tipos de piedra para la decoración arquitectónica de la ciudad de Ammaia: mármol blanco, caliza morada–rosa, mármol blanco y gris, dos brechas compuestas de fragmentos de mármol blanco y granito. El granito fue la piedra de construcción principal en Ammaia. Además, el granito se utiliz

  15. Interrogating Infanticide/ Child Euthanasia in the Roman Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is an attempt to examine infanticide practices in the Roman Christian era and interrogate infanticide and child euthanasia in the same era. It also attempts to point out infanticide practices in Abuja and makes a distinction between infanticide and child euthanasia in Abuja. The study employed ...

  16. The Roman Catholic position on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the history and grounds of the official position of the Roman Catholic Church that abortion under any circumstances, including abortion to save the life of the mother, should be prohibited. After an introduction that deplores the lack of mercy shown to killers of abortionists while Catholic priests threatened by pro-abortion forces are not offered protection, the article traces the historic development of the Catholic abortion policy and rebuts arguments that abortion was permitted in the early Christian Church. The next section explains Catholic views on the personhood of a conceptus and refutes the contentions of Joseph Donceel that early abortion should be permitted because of uncertainty about the nature of the conceptus and the possibility of delayed animation. The fourth section of the paper debates the points raised by Susan Teft Nicholson who maintains that the Catholic position regarding abortion rests on the Church's animosity towards sexual pleasure. The paper goes on to criticize Nicholson's claims that the Roman Catholic position on abortion is inconsistent with the Church's own understanding of the Principle of Double Effect because the Church fails to allow abortion in many cases where it would be permissible under the Principle. Section 6 describes the underlying motive of the Roman Catholic Church's abortion position as an attempt to protect the innocent fetus from deliberate death and to justify the Church's application of protection from deliberate killing to those who are innocent of aggressive action. This discussion is followed by a justification of the Church's prohibition of abortion in cases of aggression, such as the aggression ascribed to a fetus when a pregnancy imperials the life of a mother. It is concluded that the US will likely legalize suicide and mercy killing as it has the killing of innocent fetuses who are probably ensouled with personhood and are not formal aggressors.

  17. Observation of environmental radioactivity at definite time and definite point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokoshi, Yukio; Fukuchi, Ryoichi; Irie, Takayuki; Hosoda, Nagako; Okano, Yasuhiro; Shindo, Koutaro

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of environmental radioactivity in Tokyo Metropolis was carried out. The objects of measurement were rainwater, atmospheric floating dusts, spatial dose and the activated sludge in sewage treatment plants. Rainwater, atmospheric floating dusts and spatial dose were analyzed mainly considering radioactive fallout, and activated sludge was analyzed mainly considering radioactive medical matters. For the analysis of nuclides, a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector was used, and spatial dose rate was measured with a DBM type dose rate meter. In activated sludge, the nuclides used for radioactive medicines were found, but in rainwater, atmospheric floating dusts and spatial dose, particular abnormality was not found. The objective of this investigation is to collect over long period at definite time and definite points the data on environmental radioactivity in Tokyo, thus to grasp the level of normal values, and in abnormal case, to clarify the cause and to evaluate the exposure dose. The instruments used, the method of measuring each object and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  18. "Roman Pot" at the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    "Roman pots" are stainless steel containers, which can be moved from outside the vacuum chamber towards the beam. They house detectors which are conveniently at atmospheric pressure and can still be brought close to the limit of the circulating beam, to detect particles emanating at very small angles from the intersection of two colliding beams. Eifionydd Jones was the inventor of this device, highly successful at the ISR and now used again at the TOTEM experiment at the LHC. This particular Roman Pot, with a thickness of 0.2 mm, was built in 1980 for experiment R210 in intersection I-2, in preparation for proton-antiproton collisions in 1981. See also 7501065.

  19. The Roman and Islamic spice trade: New archaeological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Veen, Marijke; Morales, Jacob

    2015-06-05

    Tropical spices have long been utilized in traditional medicine and cuisine. New archaeological evidence highlights temporal changes in the nature and scale of the ancient spice trade and in the ancient usage of these plants. Furthermore, a study of their 'materiality' highlights that the impact of spices extends beyond their material properties. Here the botanical remains of spices recovered from archaeological excavations at a port active in the Roman and medieval Islamic spice trade are evaluated. Recent excavations at Quseir al-Qadim, an ancient port located on the Red Sea coast of Egypt, have provided new evidence for the spice trade. Due to the arid conditions ancient botanical remains were preserved in abundance and these included spices, as well as a wide range of other food plants. Quseir al-Qadim was active as a transport hub during both the Roman and Islamic periods (ca. AD 1-250, known as Myos Hormos, and again during ca. AD 1050-1500, known as Kusayr), and the remains thus facilitate a study of temporal change in the trade and usage of these spices. Standard archaeobotanical methods were used to recover, identify and analyze these remains. At least seven tropical spices were recovered from the excavations, as well as several other tropical imports, including black pepper (Piper nigrum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), turmeric (Curcuma sp.), fagara (cf. Tetradium ruticarpum), myrobalan (Terminalia bellirica and Terminalia chebula) and betelnut (Areca catechu). A marked contrast between the two chronological periods in the range of spices recovered points to changes in the nature and scale of the trade between the Roman and medieval Islamic periods, while differences in the contexts from which they were recovered help to identify temporal changes in the way in which the spices were utilized during those periods. Archaeological and textual evidence suggest that in antiquity spices were used in ritual (funeral rites

  20. Woman in Roman law: Subject or object of the law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Rome, legal status of woman and her factual possibilities of impact on public life were in serious discrepancy. General attitude of the legal status of woman in time of Romans is best shown by Papinian, 'In many provisions of our law, the position of woman is worse than of man (D.9.1.5.'. Every free Roman woman was considered a subject of law, according to classical Roman law. Nevertheless, there were extensive legislations that limited her legal and business capacity. Naturally, woman did not have legal personality in all periods of Roman state and her legal status was adjusted to the factual changes that had occurred in Roman society. What makes her position specific in Rome is progressive social role that did not exist in Greek-Asian world. From these previously mentioned views, which were confronting, it is possible to draw some doubts. Was woman really on the margins of political happenings, or was she an actual actor, even initiator, of some political events?.

  1. The TLRR II – Providing Digital Infrastructure to Research Roman Republican Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Jahn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The project Trials in the Late Roman Republic II (TLRR II aims at collecting, organizing, and analyzing information about Roman legal cases in an XML database. M. Alexander published the book “Trials in the Late Roman Republic, 149 BC to 50 BC” (TLRR I in 1990, and initiated the current project that will make Roman republican trials easily accessible with modern technology. For each case a short description is provided, a clear distinction between assumptions and facts is made, and an updated bibliography can be found at the end of each entry. The open access database can serve both as a reference work and as a starting point for further research in Roman Republican history. It could be a connecting link within the developing digital infrastructure for that era.

  2. Le faussaire roman

    CERN Document Server

    D'Anna, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    À l'aube du XXIe siècle, le monde de la science est sur le point de vivre une révolution. Le jeune physicien allemand Albert Hendrick Thebell, des célèbres laboratoires de recherche B-Labs, à Summit, dans le New Jersey, publie, dans les plus grandes revues scientifiques internationales, une série d'articles dans lesquels il prétend avoir obtenu des résultats extraordinaires qui pourraient révolutionner les bases mêmes de la technologie. Rapidement, la communauté scientifique puis les médias saluent en lui un futur prix Nobel; on compare même son génie à celui d'Albert Einstein. Le progrès scientifique semble avoir franchi une étape décisive, susceptible d'amener un futur meilleur. Mais ces découvertes sont-elles authentiques ? Car pendant ce temps, dans les mêmeslaboratoires, des voix s'élèvent pour contester non seulement les théories de Thebell mais aussi la légitimité même de ses expériences ; certains le soupçonnent d'avoir combiné la plus grande fraude scientifique de tous l...

  3. Flaubert lecteur de romans historiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Gendrel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Les notes de lectures de Flaubert dans sa correspondance permettent de dégager deux types de romans historiques : le roman à sujet ancien, qui se doit, pour être vraisemblable, d'éloigner les personnages en réduisant la part d'explications psychologiques, et le roman à sujet contemporain, qui au contraire allie prise de distance (historique ou sociale et rapprochement (psychologique. Victor Hugo excellerait dans le premier mais pas dans le second. Quant à Flaubert, son obsession sera de réussir dans les deux.Flaubert’s reading notes in his correspondence allow us to identify two types of historical novels: the novel with an ancient subject, which, to be plausible, must keep characters at a distance and limit psychological explanations, and the novel with a contemporary subject which, on the contrary, both keeps aloof from historical or social questions and draws nearer to psychological questions. Victor Hugo excelled in the first but not in the second posture.  As for Flaubert, his obsession was be to be successful in both.

  4. On the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnetani, Andrea; Prodi, Nicola; Pompoli, Roberto

    2008-09-01

    The interplay of architecture and acoustics is remarkable in ancient Greek and Roman theaters. Frequently they are nowadays lively performance spaces and the knowledge of the sound field inside them is still an issue of relevant importance. Even if the transition from Greek to Roman theaters can be described with a great architectural detail, a comprehensive and objective approach to the two types of spaces from the acoustical point of view is available at present only as a computer model study [P. Chourmouziadou and J. Kang, "Acoustic evolution of ancient Greek and Roman theaters," Appl. Acoust. 69, re (2007)]. This work addresses the same topic from the experimental point of view, and its aim is to provide a basis to the acoustical evolution from Greek to Roman theater design. First, by means of in situ and scale model measurements, the most important features of the sound field in ancient theaters are clarified and discussed. Then it has been possible to match quantitatively the role of some remarkable architectural design variables with acoustics, and it is seen how this criterion can be used effectively to define different groups of ancient theaters. Finally some more specific wave phenomena are addressed and discussed.

  5. Literacy and recitation in the Roman Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Fantin Vescovi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In our modern societies, the paradigm of reading is individual and silent. However, far from being the only one possible, this wasn’t even the main form of reading in the Ancient times. The text doesn’t exist outside its materiality, and, if the current standard is the printed object, it was, for a long time, a form of transmission connected to practices of orality. In the Roman world, the main form of circulation of the literary text was the recitation, which happened in various ways: public or private recitations, literary contests where the text was judged from an oral performance, and even recitation when the text was been produced. We aim at observing the reading practices of the Roman society through poetic texts and at getting to know the reading protocols of that society at the moment when the maximum expansion of the written culture is achieved, i.e., the first and second centuries AD. 

  6. Administrative Lead Time at Navy Inventory Control Points

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1994-01-01

    .... We also evaluated the internal controls established for administrative lead time and the adequacy of management's implementation of the DoD Internal Management Control Program for monitoring administrative lead time...

  7. Roman capitals from Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maver Andreja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article brings a detailed formal analysis of the Roman capitals from Sirmium, in the light of the stone analysis conducted on the material at the Museum of Srem and elsewhere in Sremska Mitrovica. The capitals dot the historical development of the town from the first half of the 2nd century until the 4th century. First made of regional limestone, they were later joined by those of limestone and marbles of distant source, whereby different stones in capitals coexisted almost throughout the town’s development. This was certainly the situation during the flourishing times of the late 3rd and the 4th century, when Sirmium, as one of the four capitals of the Roman Empire, stood within several formal circles of capitals. The plain-leaved capitals tie it to the rest of Pannonia, the Corinthianizing capitals to the provinces to the east and south, while part of the Asiatic capitals, the largest group, tie it to the wider area of the Mediterranean.

  8. The Gate of Heaven: Revisiting Roman Mithraic Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assasi, R.

    2016-01-01

    The definition and origins of Roman Mithraism remain highly problematic and controversial among modern scholars. The majority of research on Roman Mithraism focuses on interpreting the physical evidence because no considerable written narratives or theology from the religion survive. The most important Mithraic artifact is a repeated bull-slaying scene, which leaves no doubt that this figure conveys the core divine message of the cult. There is also another important Mithraic character that seems to be as important as the bull-slayer. This figure is a lion-headed man entwined by a snake. The author suggests that these figures represent the north ecliptic pole and argues for the importance of this astronomical reference in the Mithraic iconography and mythology. The author also demonstrates the possible relation of his proposed astrological model to the geocentric understanding of the axial precession around the ecliptic pole, where the Roman bull-slaying Mithras could be visualized in the form of a Mithraic constellation. This astrological model also is proposed to be the architectural design concept of Roman Mithraeum. The author also points to the core Christian symbols as possible contemporaneous parallels or derivatives of the Mithraic iconography and theology.

  9. Point-like Particles in Fuzzy Space-time

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Charles

    1999-01-01

    This paper is withdrawn as I am no longer using the term "fuzzy space- time" to describe the uncertainty in co-ordinate systems implicit in quantum logic. Nor am I using the interpretation that quantum logic can be regarded as a special case of fuzzy logic. This is because there are sufficient differences between quantum logic and fuzzy logic that the explanation is confusing. I give an interpretation of quantum logic in "A Theory of Quantum Space-time"

  10. Population and economy in the Bajo Ebro in Roman times. Basic concepts for a rural landscape model | Poblamiento y economía en el Bajo Ebro en época romana. Bases para un modelo de paisaje rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Revilla Calvo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the settlement patterns and the social-economic structures in Bajo Ebro in Roman times. It covers especifically relationships among settlements, rural landscape, structures of agricultural production and landowning. Likewise, the origin and historical evolution of these structures are studied, as well as their role within a broader political, social and economic framework in the Province of Tarraconensis. | El artículo analiza las formas del poblamiento y las estructuras socio-económicas del Bajo Ebro en época romana. Se plantean, en particular, las relaciones entre la distribución del habitat, el paisaje rural, las estructuras de la producción agrícola y de la propiedad. Se analiza igualmente el origen y evolución histórica de estas estructuras, así como su integración en un marco político, social y económico más amplio, constituido por la provincia Tarraconense.

  11. Just-In-Time Inventory: Proceed with caution exclamation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katterhenry, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    Today's economic climate, the emerging of independent power producers, pending deregulation, and environmental restraints are forcing the utility industry to adopt cost cutting measures in an effort to be more competitive and survive in tomorrow's market place. The cost cutting measure addressed in this paper is ''Just-In-Time Inventory'' of coal for fossil fueled power plants

  12. Simultaneous comparisons of treatments at multiple time points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallmann, Philip; Pretorius, Mias; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    that is measured repeatedly over time and contrast two basic modeling strategies: fitting a joint model across all occasions (with random effects and/or some residual covariance structure to account for heteroscedasticity and serial dependence), and a novel approach combining a set of simple marginal, i...

  13. Laser cleaning on Roman coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Karydas, A. G.; Klinkenberg, B.; Kokkoris, M.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Stavrou, E.; Vlastou, R.; Zarkadas, C.

    Ancient metal objects react with moisture and environmental chemicals to form various corrosion products. Because of the unique character and high value of such objects, any cleaning procedure should guarantee minimum destructiveness. The most common treatment used is mechanical stripping, in which it is difficult to avoid surface damage when employed. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. The basic criterion that motivated us to use lasers to clean Roman coins was the requirement of pulsed emission, in order to minimize heat-induced damages. In fact, the laser interaction with the coins has to be short enough, to produce a fast removal of the encrustation, avoiding heat conduction into the substrate. The cleaning effects of three lasers operating at different wavelengths, namely a TEA CO2 laser emitting at 10.6 μm, an Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm, and a 2ω-Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm have been compared on corroded Romans coins and various atomic and nuclear techniques have also been applied to evaluate the efficiency of the applied procedure.

  14. Maestro Roman Toi kodumaal / Tiiu Pikkur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pikkur, Tiiu, 1947-

    2007-01-01

    Helilooja ja koorijuht Roman Toi osalemisest muuseumiõhtul "Kaunimad laulud pühendan Sul!" 21. mail Eesti Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumis, helilooja 90. sünnipäevale pühendatud kontserdist 23. mail Tallinna Toomkirikus ja Roman Toi nimelisest kirikulaulude konkursist

  15. Single Finds. The case of Roman Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins......Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins...

  16. Astrology in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2018-04-01

    This article deals with astrology in Greek and Roman culture. It considers astrology's theoretical background, technical basis, interpretative conventions, social functions, religious and political uses, and theory of fate, as well as critiques of it. Astrology is the name given to a series of diverse practices based in the idea that the stars, planets, and other celestial phenomena possess significance and meaning for events on Earth. It assumes a link between Earth and sky in which all existence—spiritual, psychological, and physical—is interconnected. Most premodern cultures practiced a form of astrology. A particularly complex variety of it evolved in Mesopotamia in the first and second millennia BCE from where it was imported into the Hellenistic world from the early 4th century BCE onward. There it became attached to three philosophical schools: those pioneered by Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics, all of which shared the assumption that the cosmos is a single, living, integrated whole. Hellenistic astrology also drew on Egyptian temple culture, especially the belief that the soul could ascend to the stars. By the 1st century CE the belief in the close link between humanity and the stars had become democratized and diversified into a series of practices and schools of thought that ranged across Greek and Roman culture. It was practiced at the imperial court and in the street. It could be used to predict individual destiny, avert undesirable events, and arrange auspicious moments to launch new enterprises. It could advise on financial fortunes or the condition of one's soul. It was conceived of as natural science and justified by physical influences, or considered to be divination, concerned with communication with the gods and goddesses. In some versions the planets were neither influences nor causes of events on Earth, but timing devices, which indicated the ebb and flow of human affairs, like the hands on a modern clock. Astrology had a radical view of

  17. A Feedback Optimal Control Algorithm with Optimal Measurement Time Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Jost

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear model predictive control has been established as a powerful methodology to provide feedback for dynamic processes over the last decades. In practice it is usually combined with parameter and state estimation techniques, which allows to cope with uncertainty on many levels. To reduce the uncertainty it has also been suggested to include optimal experimental design into the sequential process of estimation and control calculation. Most of the focus so far was on dual control approaches, i.e., on using the controls to simultaneously excite the system dynamics (learning as well as minimizing a given objective (performing. We propose a new algorithm, which sequentially solves robust optimal control, optimal experimental design, state and parameter estimation problems. Thus, we decouple the control and the experimental design problems. This has the advantages that we can analyze the impact of measurement timing (sampling independently, and is practically relevant for applications with either an ethical limitation on system excitation (e.g., chemotherapy treatment or the need for fast feedback. The algorithm shows promising results with a 36% reduction of parameter uncertainties for the Lotka-Volterra fishing benchmark example.

  18. "Roman Baths" in Contemporary Spa Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Merc

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The commercialisation of images and symbols from antiquity, so characteristic of Slovenia since its independence, has been reflected over the last decade in spa tourism as well. Since the great crises in the sixties, and especially since the eighties, fifteen Slovene natural health resorts have concentrated on developing wellness and activities programs. This change in orientation has been accompanied by renovations, an expansion of the water surfaces and capacities, and new wellbeing, wellness, spirituality and beauty programs. An analysis of Slovene spas, wellness centres and hotel web pages shows that they frequently offer rooms, usually saunas, which are imitations of the Roman baths. These rooms are usually called "Roman saunas", "Tepidarium", "Caldarium", and "Roman-Irish baths". At Terme Ptuj, Zdravilišče Laško, Šmarješke Toplice, Grand Hotel Palace in Portorož, and Terme Čatež, saunas have been built or renovated in the Roman style. This trend of Roman rooms is a novelty, less than a decade old in Slovenia. The first sauna with a Roman theme, a Roman-Irish bath, was opened in 1997 in the Health and Beauty Centre at Terme Čatež. Modern Roman saunas are very popular, found not only in Slovenia but also in other parts of Europe, especially Germany and Austria. Their popularity has spread from the areas formerly occupied by the Romans to other parts of world, for example the USA and the Republic of South Africa. An analysis of Slovene saunas and wellness centres reveals a well-established trend to recreate certain parts of the Roman baths. This is attempted not only through Roman-style decorations, but also through certain structures particular to the Roman baths, such as the caldarium, tepidarium, and in one case even a laconicum. The approach, however, is highly eclectic, blending Roman, Greek and, above all, modern elements. The purpose of such rooms is to increase the appeal of the spas, while their design is mostly based on

  19. Dual time point 18FDG-PET/CT versus single time point 18FDG-PET/CT for the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules - A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Yinzhong; Lei, Junqiang; Tian, Jinhui; Zhai, Yanan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is one of the most common cancer types in the world. An accurate diagnosis of lung cancer is crucial for early treatment and management. Purpose: To perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dual time point 18F-fluorodexyglucose position emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) and single time point 18FDG-PET/CT in the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules. Material and Methods: PubMed (1966-2011.11), EMBASE (1974-2011.11), Web of Science (1972-2011.11), Cochrane Library (-2011.11), and four Chinese databases; CBM (1978-2011.11), CNKI (1994-2011.11), VIP (1989-2011.11), and Wanfang Database (1994-2011.11) were searched. Summary sensitivity, summary specificity, summary diagnostic odds ratios (DOR), and summary positive likelihood ratios (LR+) and negative likelihood ratios (LR-) were obtained using Meta-Disc software. Summary receiver-operating characteristic (SROC) curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dual time point 18FDG-PET/CT and single time point 18FDG-PET/CT. Results: The inclusion criteria were fulfilled by eight articles, with a total of 415 patients and 430 pulmonary nodules. Compared with the gold standard (pathology or clinical follow-up), the summary sensitivity of dual time point 18FDG-PET/CT was 79% (95%CI, 74.0 - 84.0%), and its summary specificity was 73% (95%CI, 65.0-79.0%); the summary LR+ was 2.61 (95%CI, 1.96-3.47), and the summary LR- was 0.29 (95%CI, 0.21 - 0.41); the summary DOR was 10.25 (95%CI, 5.79 - 18.14), and the area under the SROC curve (AUC) was 0.8244. The summary sensitivity for single time point 18FDG-PET/CT was 77% (95%CI, 71.9 - 82.3%), and its summary specificity was 59% (95%CI, 50.6 - 66.2%); the summary LR+ was 1.97 (95%CI, 1.32 - 2.93), and the summary LR- was 0.37 (95%CI, 0.29 - 0.49); the summary DOR was 6.39 (95%CI, 3.39 - 12.05), and the AUC was 0.8220. Conclusion: The results indicate that dual time point 18FDG-PET/CT and single

  20. European summer temperatures since Roman times

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luterbacher, J.; Werner, J. P.; Smerdon, J. E.; Fernandez-Donado, L.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Barriopedro, D.; Ljungqvist, F. C.; Büntgen, Ulf; Zorita, E.; Wagner, S.; Esper, J.; McCarroll, D.; Toreti, A.; Frank, D.; Jungclaus, J.; Barriendos, M.; Bertolin, C.; Bothe, O.; Brázdil, Rudolf; Camuffo, D.; Dobrovolný, Petr; Gagen, M.; Garica-Bustamante, E.; Ge, Q.; Gomez-Navarro, J. J.; Guiot, J.; Hao, Z.; Hegerl, G.; Holmgren, K.; Klimenko, V. V.; Martin-Chivelet, J.; Pfister, C.; Roberts, N.; Schindler, A.; Schurer, A.; Solomina, O.; von Gunten, L.; Wahl, E.; Wanner, H.; Wetter, O.; Xoplaki, E.; Yuan, N.; Zanchettin, D.; Zhang, H.; Zerefos, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2016), č. článku 024001. ISSN 1748-9326 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-04291S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : reconstructing climate anomalies * high-resolution paleoclimatology * northern-hemisphere temperature * tree-ring chronologies * last 1000 years * volcanic - eruptions * forcing reconstructions * bayesian algorithm * pmip simulations * past millennium * Common Era * heat waves * paleoclimatology * Bayesian hierarchical modelling * European summer temperature reconstruction * ensemble of climate model simulations * Medieval Climate Anomaly Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 4.404, year: 2016

  1. Den moderne tyske roman 1909-35

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ved siden af klassikken og romantikken er den tidlige modernisme vel nok den betydeligste periode i tysksproget litteratur. Det skyldes ikke mindst den perlerække af romaner, der udkom i første tredjedel af det 20. århundrede, og hvoraf mange i dag fremstår som indiskutable højdepunkter i såvel...... tysk som europæisk roman- og litteraturhistorie. I Den moderne tyske roman 1909-35 behandles en række af disse romaner for første gang samlet på dansk. Bogen består af otte romanfortolkninger samt en indledende artikel om den moderne romans historie og særpræg. Alle artikler er skrevet med et solidt...... interesserede læser. I overensstemmelse med dens formidlende sigte er der kun medtaget fortolkninger af romaner, der foreligger på dansk i en tidssvarende oversættelse. Af hensyn til den litteraturhistoriske bredde er der desuden kun medtaget én roman af samme forfatter.Bogen indeholder analyser af: Robert...

  2. LiDAR-IMU Time Delay Calibration Based on Iterative Closest Point and Iterated Sigma Point Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanli

    2017-03-08

    The time delay calibration between Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) is an essential prerequisite for its applications. However, the correspondences between LiDAR and IMU measurements are usually unknown, and thus cannot be computed directly for the time delay calibration. In order to solve the problem of LiDAR-IMU time delay calibration, this paper presents a fusion method based on iterative closest point (ICP) and iterated sigma point Kalman filter (ISPKF), which combines the advantages of ICP and ISPKF. The ICP algorithm can precisely determine the unknown transformation between LiDAR-IMU; and the ISPKF algorithm can optimally estimate the time delay calibration parameters. First of all, the coordinate transformation from the LiDAR frame to the IMU frame is realized. Second, the measurement model and time delay error model of LiDAR and IMU are established. Third, the methodology of the ICP and ISPKF procedure is presented for LiDAR-IMU time delay calibration. Experimental results are presented that validate the proposed method and demonstrate the time delay error can be accurately calibrated.

  3. COUNTERFEITING ROMAN COINS IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE I – III A.D. STUDY ON THE ROMAN PROVINCES OF DACIA AND PANNONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Bogdan Gaspar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the study of Roman silver coins, from archaeological sites located in Roman Dacia and Pannonia. Initially centred on the record of hybrid silver coins, the paper expanded its analysis on counterfeit pieces as well in order to fully understand all problems of roman silver coinage from the 1stto the 3rd centuries AD.The new and larger area of research had more than one implications, coin distribution on the studied sites, influx of coin in the province, quantity of recorded counterfeited pieces being just some of them. Thus every situation was discussed in different chapters, first presenting the coins and the laws that protected them, the studied sites and the analyse of the silver coins on these sites, the general and compared situation between the provinces, interpretation of the counterfeited and hybrid pieces and finally, conclusions on the subject.All these tasks have been achieved one step at a time, each archaeological site providing precious data which piled up and was finally pressed in order to present the correct historical situation.

  4. Using Oxygen and Carbon Isotopic Signatures in Order to Infer Climatic and Dietary Information in Roman Edessa, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Dimitra-Ermioni; Dotsika, Elissavet

    2017-12-01

    Even though many isotopic studies have been conducted on ancient populations from Greece for the purpose of dietary reconstruction; mostly through carbon and nitrogen isotopic signals of bone collagen, less attention has been given to the utility of apatite signatures (oxygen and carbon) as dietary and palaeoenvironmental tools. Moreover, until recently the isotopic signal of tooth enamel for both the purposes of environmental and dietary reconstructions has been rarely assessed in ancient Greek societies. Therefore, the present study aims to provide with novel isotopic information regarding Edessa; a town in Northern Greece, during the Roman period. The current study primarily aims to explore the possible differentiation between the present climatic conditions in Edessa in relation to those occurring at the Roman period. Secondly, this study aims to reveal the significant utility of enamel isotopic signatures (carbon and oxygen) in palaeoenvironmental and palaeodietary studies regarding ancient human remains. The isotopic analyses have been conducted at the Stable Isotope and Radiocarbon Unit of INN, NCSR “Demokritos”. The population of Roman Edessa (2nd-4th c. AD) consists of 22 individuals, providing with 19 bone samples and 16 enamel ones. The mean enamel oxygen value is at -7.7 ±1.1 %0, the bone apatite mean oxygen value at -9.2 ±1.9 %0, and finally the mean carbon enamel value is at -11.7 ±1.2 %0. Oxygen values probably indicate that Edessa had a cooler climate during the Roman times in relation to present conditions, even though more research should be carried out in order to be more certain. In addition, the possible existence of non-local individuals has been revealed through the oxygen teeth enamel-bone apatite spacing. Finally, the carbon enamel signature has pointed out possible differentiations between the adult and the juvenile diet. Based on Edessa’s findings, the stated study strongly encourages the enamel oxygen and carbon isotopic signals

  5. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  6. Tourist valorization of roman imperial city Felix Romuliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berić Dejan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry is a great potential for the development of Serbia. The main characteristics of the existing and potential tourist offer of Serbia are interesting and diverse natural resources and cultural and historical heritage. Felix Romuliana, established palace of the Roman emperor Galerius, is located in the valley of the Black Timok, near Zaječar and the village of Gamzigrad in eastern Serbia. The palace was built in the late third and early fourth century, as a testamentary construction. This is where the Roman emperor was buried and included among the gods. It is the best preserved example of Roman palatial architecture which in 2007 was added to the List of World Heritage of UNESCO. One of the key tasks of this paper is to point out ways of promoting and popularizing this tourism potential that can be used as a resource for the development of cultural tourism and as such strengthen the position of Serbia''s tourist offer in Europe. The aim of this paper is contained in the presentation of the site Felix Romuliana and extraction of the most important attractiveness through valorization, which on the bases of historical and cultural significance may be activated for tourism purposes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176020

  7. State Ownership of the praeda bellica during the Roman Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Piquer-Marí

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From a Public Law perspective, and with particular regards to the subject of public property, this paper examines the praeda bellica as an asset belonging to the Roman people during the times of the Republic. Through an analysis of the ownership of the praeda bellica, the research intends to provide an in depth understanding of legal and proprietary relationships shaping the Public branch of the Law.

  8. Evaluation of 2-point, 3-point, and 6-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging with flexible echo timing for muscle fat quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alexandra; Meyer, Heiko; Nickel, Marcel D; Nittka, Mathias; Raithel, Esther; Chaudry, Oliver; Friedberger, Andreas; Uder, Michael; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Quick, Harald H; Engelke, Klaus

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare 2-point (2pt), 3-point (3pt), and 6-point (6pt) Dixon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences with flexible echo times (TE) to measure proton density fat fraction (PDFF) within muscles. Two subject groups were recruited (G1: 23 young and healthy men, 31 ± 6 years; G2: 50 elderly men, sarcopenic, 77 ± 5 years). A 3-T MRI system was used to perform Dixon imaging on the left thigh. PDFF was measured with six Dixon prototype sequences: 2pt, 3pt, and 6pt sequences once with optimal TEs (in- and opposed-phase echo times), lower resolution, and higher bandwidth (optTE sequences) and once with higher image resolution (highRes sequences) and shortest possible TE, respectively. Intra-fascia PDFF content was determined. To evaluate the comparability among the sequences, Bland-Altman analysis was performed. The highRes 6pt Dixon sequences served as reference as a high correlation of this sequence to magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been shown before. The PDFF difference between the highRes 6pt Dixon sequence and the optTE 6pt, both 3pt, and the optTE 2pt was low (between 2.2% and 4.4%), however, not to the highRes 2pt Dixon sequence (33%). For the optTE sequences, difference decreased with the number of echoes used. In conclusion, for Dixon sequences with more than two echoes, the fat fraction measurement was reliable with arbitrary echo times, while for 2pt Dixon sequences, it was reliable with dedicated in- and opposed-phase echo timing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The relative timing between eye and hand rapid sequential pointing is affected by time pressure, but not by advance knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deconinck, F.; van Polanen, V.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Bennett, S.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of timing constraints and advance knowledge on eye-hand coordination strategy in a sequential pointing task. Participants were required to point at two successively appearing targets on a screen while the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) and the trial order were

  10. The Prodigies of The Albano Lake During Roman Age and Natural Hazard Assessment At Roma, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funiciello, R.; Giordano, G.; de Rita, D.

    Roma is built just 20 km to the northwest of the Pleistocene Colli Albani volcano, but is believed not exposed to relevant natural hazards, except for the Tiber river flood- ings, and local amplification of seismic waves from distal earthquakes. This belief has generally induced modern historians and geologists to discard as SmythologicalT the & cedil;many references to natural prodigies that are reported by many Roman-age historians. Recent studies have demonstrated that the Albano maar, the youngest volcanic cen- tre of the Colli Albani volcano and presently filled by a 175 m deep lake, protracted its activity to the Holocene triggering several catastrophic lahar events, likely related to lake withdrawal, the deposits of which are exposed to the southwest of Roma and reach its periphery. This finding youngs the history of the volcano and makes it rele- vant to pre-historic settlements, which ScarefullyT avoided the Albano maar slopes up & cedil;to the Bronze age. What is still unknown, though, is whether the lake experienced such fluctuations and overspills during historic times. Several Roman authors such as Ti- tus Livius, Dionigi d'Alicarnasso, Plutarco, Germanico, and many others wrote about the then well known 398 BC prodigious event, when, during the war between Roma and the Etruscan city of Veio, the gods anger caused the sudden rise and overspill of the Albano lake, reported as unrelated to climatic events, and the destructive flooding of the countryside. After that event Romans actually built a tunnel-drain which still operates regulating the lake level at 293 m a.s.l., 70 m below the maar rim elevation. Should those chronicles be truthful, we can join the geologic observation of Holocene lahar deposits from lake withdrawal with historical lake withdrawals, reassessing the natural hazard for the city of Roma under a point of view never explored before. This paper carefully explores the historical credibility of the 398 BC lake overspill event and its

  11. The ‘enemy within’ the post-Vatican II Roman Catholic Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham A. Duncan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Second Vatican Council (1962–1965 is regarded as one of the most significant processes in the ecumenical church history of the 20th century. At that time, a younger generation of Roman Catholic theologians began to make their mark in the church and within the ecumenical theological scene. Their work provided an ecumenical bridge between the Reforming and the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical traditions, notwithstanding the subsequent negative response of the Roman church hierarchy. Despite important advances, recent pontificates significantly altered the theological landscape and undermined much of the enthusiasm and commitment to unity. Roman Catholic theological dissent provided common ground for theological reflection. Those regarded as the ‘enemy within’ have become respected colleagues in the search for truth in global ecclesiastical perspective. This article will use the distinction between the history and the narratives of Vatican II.

  12. The Fulcum, the Late Roman and Byzantine Testudo: the Germanization of Roman Infantry Tactics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Rance

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The tactic of forming a shield-wall, although called by the Germanic name fulcum first in Maurice’s Strategicon in the sixth century, has a long history of use by the Roman legions, and is not an instance of Germanic influence on Roman tactics.

  13. A travel time forecasting model based on change-point detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Shupeng; GUANG, Xiaoping; QIAN, Yongsheng; ZENG, Junwei

    2017-06-01

    Travel time parameters obtained from road traffic sensors data play an important role in traffic management practice. A travel time forecasting model is proposed for urban road traffic sensors data based on the method of change-point detection in this paper. The first-order differential operation is used for preprocessing over the actual loop data; a change-point detection algorithm is designed to classify the sequence of large number of travel time data items into several patterns; then a travel time forecasting model is established based on autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. By computer simulation, different control parameters are chosen for adaptive change point search for travel time series, which is divided into several sections of similar state.Then linear weight function is used to fit travel time sequence and to forecast travel time. The results show that the model has high accuracy in travel time forecasting.

  14. The traces of roman metallurgy in Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Sofija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The archaeological traces of the Roman mining and metallurgy in eastern Serbia are rather frequent but insufficiently studied and published. Three mining-metallurgical regions abounding in gold, silver, copper, iron and lead could be distinguished there: 1. the upper course of the Pek river, metalla Pincensia, 2. the area between Bor, Zlot, Crna Reka and Rgotina and 3. the area in the river basin of Beli Timok, two latter ones had been organized as territoria metallorum. The archeometallurgical sites confirmed by investigations are: Kraku lu Jordan at the confluence of the Brodica river and the Pek river, Rudna Glava, Tilva Roš in Bor, Gamzigrad - Romuliana, Rgotina near Zaječar and Timacum Minus in the village Ravna near Knjaževac. Roman mining-metallurgical activities in eastern Serbia flourished from the end of the 3rd century, were interrupted by the invasion of Huns in AD 441. and restored in the time of emperors Anastasius and Justin I, in the end of the 5th - beginning of the 6th centuries. The Roman mining-metallurgical centers functioned in the 6th century until the Slav invasion in the beginning of the 7th century.

  15. Novel technique for prediction of time points for scheduling of multipurpose batch plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seid, R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available . Consequently this avoids costly computational times due to iterations. In the model by Majozi and Zhu (2001) the sequence constraint that pertains to tasks that consume and produce the same state, the starting time of the consuming task at time point p must...

  16. Change in silica sources in Roman and post-Roman glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerts, A.; Velde, B.; Janssens, K.; Dijkman, W.

    2003-01-01

    Although Roman and post-Empire glasses found in Europe are reputed to have a very constant composition and hence source of components, it appears that some 4-5th century and later specimens show evidence of a different source of silica (sand) component. Zirconium and titanium are the discriminating elements. Data presented here for 278 specimens from 1st to 4th century German and Belgian samples indicate a strongly homogeneous Zr and Ti content; N: number of analyzed samples while 62 samples from Maastricht show low Zr-Ti contents from 1st to 3rd century samples while 4-5th century samples show a strong trend of concomitant Ti and Zr increase. If the high values of Zr-Ti represent a new source of silica (sand) the trend from low to high content suggests that a significant amount of low Zr-Ti glass was recycled to form these glass objects. Similar high Ti content can be seen in analysis results reported for other but not all 4-5th century samples found in northern Europe while earlier productions show typical low Ti contents. Although the fusing agent for these glasses seems to have always been natron (a mineral deposit in the Nile delta) from Hellenistic times to the 9th century, a change in the silica source, indicated by variation of the Ti and Zr content, could very well reflect the results of political instability of the 4-5th century exemplified by the fragmentation of the Roman Empire into two parts

  17. Change in silica sources in Roman and post-Roman glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerts, A.; Velde, B.; Janssens, K.; Dijkman, W

    2003-04-18

    Although Roman and post-Empire glasses found in Europe are reputed to have a very constant composition and hence source of components, it appears that some 4-5th century and later specimens show evidence of a different source of silica (sand) component. Zirconium and titanium are the discriminating elements. Data presented here for 278 specimens from 1st to 4th century German and Belgian samples indicate a strongly homogeneous Zr and Ti content; N: number of analyzed samples while 62 samples from Maastricht show low Zr-Ti contents from 1st to 3rd century samples while 4-5th century samples show a strong trend of concomitant Ti and Zr increase. If the high values of Zr-Ti represent a new source of silica (sand) the trend from low to high content suggests that a significant amount of low Zr-Ti glass was recycled to form these glass objects. Similar high Ti content can be seen in analysis results reported for other but not all 4-5th century samples found in northern Europe while earlier productions show typical low Ti contents. Although the fusing agent for these glasses seems to have always been natron (a mineral deposit in the Nile delta) from Hellenistic times to the 9th century, a change in the silica source, indicated by variation of the Ti and Zr content, could very well reflect the results of political instability of the 4-5th century exemplified by the fragmentation of the Roman Empire into two parts.

  18. Change in silica sources in Roman and post-Roman glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, A.; Velde, B.; Janssens, K.; Dijkman, W.

    2003-04-01

    Although Roman and post-Empire glasses found in Europe are reputed to have a very constant composition and hence source of components, it appears that some 4-5th century and later specimens show evidence of a different source of silica (sand) component. Zirconium and titanium are the discriminating elements. Data presented here for 278 specimens from 1st to 4th century German and Belgian samples indicate a strongly homogeneous Zr and Ti content; N: number of analyzed samples while 62 samples from Maastricht show low Zr-Ti contents from 1st to 3rd century samples while 4-5th century samples show a strong trend of concomitant Ti and Zr increase. If the high values of Zr-Ti represent a new source of silica (sand) the trend from low to high content suggests that a significant amount of low Zr-Ti glass was recycled to form these glass objects. Similar high Ti content can be seen in analysis results reported for other but not all 4-5th century samples found in northern Europe while earlier productions show typical low Ti contents. Although the fusing agent for these glasses seems to have always been natron (a mineral deposit in the Nile delta) from Hellenistic times to the 9th century, a change in the silica source, indicated by variation of the Ti and Zr content, could very well reflect the results of political instability of the 4-5th century exemplified by the fragmentation of the Roman Empire into two parts.

  19. Roman Point of View to Foreign Countries and Their Inhabitants

    OpenAIRE

    Cennet, Bengü

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this article is to put forward the standpoint of Rome, which was the center of Antiquity and the host of people all around the world, towards foreign cities and inhabitans of these cities. This study, which was based on the works of famous authors and philosophers of Antiquity, contains the selections especially from the authors like Martialis, Ovidius, Seneca and Iuvenalis who for a specific period in their life stayed out of Rome for a while (whether because they were sent into exile...

  20. OPTIMASI OLSR ROUTING PROTOCOL PADA JARINGAN WIRELESS MESH DENGAN ADAPTIVE REFRESHING TIME INTERVAL DAN ENHANCE MULTI POINT RELAY SELECTING ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faosan Mapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wireless Mesh Network (WMN adalah suatu konektivitas jaringan yang self-organized, self-configured dan multi-hop. Tujuan dari WMN adalah menawarkan pengguna suatu bentuk jaringan nirkabel yang dapat dengan mudah berkomunikasi dengan jaringan konvensional dengan kecepatan tinggi dan dengan cakupan yang lebih luas serta biaya awal yang minimal. Diperlukan suatu desain protokol routing yang efisien untuk WMN yang secara adaptif dapat mendukung mesh routers dan mesh clients. Dalam tulisan ini, diusulkan untuk mengoptimalkan protokol OLSR, yang merupakan protokol routing proaktif. Digunakan heuristik yang meningkatkan protokol OLSR melalui adaptive refreshing time interval dan memperbaiki metode MPR selecting algorithm. Suatu analisa dalam meningkatkan protokol OLSR melalui adaptive refreshing time interval dan memperbaiki algoritma pemilihan MPR menunjukkan kinerja yang signifikan dalam hal throughput jika dibandingkan dengan protokol OLSR yang asli. Akan tetapi, terdapat kenaikan dalam hal delay. Pada simulasi yang dilakukan dapat disimpulkan bahwa OLSR dapat dioptimalkan dengan memodifikasi pemilihan node MPR berdasarkan cost effective dan penyesuaian waktu interval refreshing hello message sesuai dengan keadaan

  1. Visualizing Robustness of Critical Points for 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, B.

    2013-06-01

    Analyzing critical points and their temporal evolutions plays a crucial role in understanding the behavior of vector fields. A key challenge is to quantify the stability of critical points: more stable points may represent more important phenomena or vice versa. The topological notion of robustness is a tool which allows us to quantify rigorously the stability of each critical point. Intuitively, the robustness of a critical point is the minimum amount of perturbation necessary to cancel it within a local neighborhood, measured under an appropriate metric. In this paper, we introduce a new analysis and visualization framework which enables interactive exploration of robustness of critical points for both stationary and time-varying 2D vector fields. This framework allows the end-users, for the first time, to investigate how the stability of a critical point evolves over time. We show that this depends heavily on the global properties of the vector field and that structural changes can correspond to interesting behavior. We demonstrate the practicality of our theories and techniques on several datasets involving combustion and oceanic eddy simulations and obtain some key insights regarding their stable and unstable features. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Visualizing Robustness of Critical Points for 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, B.; Rosen, P.; Skraba, P.; Bhatia, H.; Pascucci, V.

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing critical points and their temporal evolutions plays a crucial role in understanding the behavior of vector fields. A key challenge is to quantify the stability of critical points: more stable points may represent more important phenomena or vice versa. The topological notion of robustness is a tool which allows us to quantify rigorously the stability of each critical point. Intuitively, the robustness of a critical point is the minimum amount of perturbation necessary to cancel it within a local neighborhood, measured under an appropriate metric. In this paper, we introduce a new analysis and visualization framework which enables interactive exploration of robustness of critical points for both stationary and time-varying 2D vector fields. This framework allows the end-users, for the first time, to investigate how the stability of a critical point evolves over time. We show that this depends heavily on the global properties of the vector field and that structural changes can correspond to interesting behavior. We demonstrate the practicality of our theories and techniques on several datasets involving combustion and oceanic eddy simulations and obtain some key insights regarding their stable and unstable features. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Method to minimize the low-frequency neutral-point voltage oscillations with time-offset injection for neutral-point-clamped inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Lee, Kyo-Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to reduce the low-frequency neutral-point voltage oscillations. The neutral-point voltage oscillations are considerably reduced by adding a time-offset to the three phase turn-on times. The proper time-offset is simply calculated considering the phase currents and dwell...

  4. Knee point search using cascading top-k sorting with minimized time complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Tseng, Shian-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Anomaly detection systems and many other applications are frequently confronted with the problem of finding the largest knee point in the sorted curve for a set of unsorted points. This paper proposes an efficient knee point search algorithm with minimized time complexity using the cascading top-k sorting when a priori probability distribution of the knee point is known. First, a top-k sort algorithm is proposed based on a quicksort variation. We divide the knee point search problem into multiple steps. And in each step an optimization problem of the selection number k is solved, where the objective function is defined as the expected time cost. Because the expected time cost in one step is dependent on that of the afterwards steps, we simplify the optimization problem by minimizing the maximum expected time cost. The posterior probability of the largest knee point distribution and the other parameters are updated before solving the optimization problem in each step. An example of source detection of DNS DoS flooding attacks is provided to illustrate the applications of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Method to Minimize the Low-Frequency Neutral-Point Voltage Oscillations With Time-Offset Injection for Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui-Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lee, Kyo-Beum

    2015-01-01

    time of small- and medium-voltage vectors. However, if the power factor is lower, there is a limitation to eliminate neutral-point oscillations. In this case, the proposed method can be improved by changing the switching sequence properly. Additionally, a method for neutral-point voltage balancing......This paper proposes a method to reduce the low-frequency neutral-point voltage oscillations. The neutral-point voltage oscillations are considerably reduced by adding a time offset to the three-phase turn-on times. The proper time offset is simply calculated considering the phase currents and dwell...

  6. Farey Statistics in Time n^{2/3} and Counting Primitive Lattice Points in Polygons

    OpenAIRE

    Patrascu, Mihai

    2007-01-01

    We present algorithms for computing ranks and order statistics in the Farey sequence, taking time O (n^{2/3}). This improves on the recent algorithms of Pawlewicz [European Symp. Alg. 2007], running in time O (n^{3/4}). We also initiate the study of a more general algorithmic problem: counting primitive lattice points in planar shapes.

  7. Dual time-point FDG PET/CT for differentiating benign from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) with the greatest uptake in the lesion were calculated for two time points (SUV1 and SUV2), and the percentage change over time per lesion was calculated (%DSUV). Routine histological findings served as the gold standard. Results. Histological examination showed that 14 ...

  8. Roman primacy and the development of the synodal institution in the period of the Arian controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov Georgii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is process of evolution of church organization in the 4th century, especially the relationships between Roman primacy and synodal institution in the epoch of the Arian controversy. The author examines evolution of the institution of the Roman synod and practice of participation of the Roman See in church councils outside Rome, focusing on the unsuccessful attempt to convene the general council in Rome in 382. Analysis of historical data shows that the ability of the Roman see to organize in a short time a representative council (mainly of the Italian bishops allowed Rome to claim for a special status within the church communion. In the same time the Roman See did not become in the 4th century the center of conciliar activity at the universal level. Participation of Rome in Ecumenical and Western councils was quite passive. In the second part of the paper the author attempts to reconstruct various models of church organization, which were typical for the western and the eastern episcopate in the 4th century. The author concludes that the real initiator of the development of universal primacy of Rome was not originally the pope, but the western episcopate (council of Serdica, 343. In the second part of the 4th century pope Damasus developed this conception, putting the principle of primacy of the Roman See as the chair of Peter above principle of synodal consensus. At the same time eastern bishops considered the Roman chair as the center of the West, rather than the head of the whole Church. Sometimes they invited bishop of Rome and other western bishops to act as arbiters in the eastern conflicts, but more often they defended the idea of full autonomy of the East.

  9. Definition of distance for nonlinear time series analysis of marked point process data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwayama, Koji, E-mail: koji@sat.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Institute for Food and Agriculture, Ryukoku Univeristy, 1-5 Yokotani, Seta Oe-cho, Otsu-Shi, Shiga 520-2194 (Japan); Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2017-01-30

    Marked point process data are time series of discrete events accompanied with some values, such as economic trades, earthquakes, and lightnings. A distance for marked point process data allows us to apply nonlinear time series analysis to such data. We propose a distance for marked point process data which can be calculated much faster than the existing distance when the number of marks is small. Furthermore, under some assumptions, the Kullback–Leibler divergences between posterior distributions for neighbors defined by this distance are small. We performed some numerical simulations showing that analysis based on the proposed distance is effective. - Highlights: • A new distance for marked point process data is proposed. • The distance can be computed fast enough for a small number of marks. • The method to optimize parameter values of the distance is also proposed. • Numerical simulations indicate that the analysis based on the distance is effective.

  10. Nogle britiske romaner i 2007 - og en nobelpris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgård, Ebbe

    2008-01-01

    Genanmeldelse af Dorris Lessing, The Golden Notebook, nyanmeldelse af romaner af Anne Enright, Graham Swift, Ian McEwan og Jonathan Coe. Vurdering af den britiske romans "state of the arts" 2007. Udgivelsesdato: februar......Genanmeldelse af Dorris Lessing, The Golden Notebook, nyanmeldelse af romaner af Anne Enright, Graham Swift, Ian McEwan og Jonathan Coe. Vurdering af den britiske romans "state of the arts" 2007. Udgivelsesdato: februar...

  11. Female Aspirants to the Roman Catholic Priesthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celmer, Virginia; Winer, Jane L.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated Holland vocational-personality types, job satisfaction, and psychological dysfunction among 85 parish priests, 55 nonparish priests, and 235 women who aspire to, but are barred from, ordination in the Roman Catholic Church. Found women's Holland-type code was most similar to code of clergy member as assigned by Dictionary of Holland…

  12. GRAN SASSO: Roman lead or physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascolini, Alessandro

    1991-09-15

    On June 15 at Oristano (Sardinia) a formal ceremony marked the start of an underwater archaeological campaign sponsored by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) to recover the load of a Roman freighter (navis oneraria) which sank off Sardinia carrying an exceptionally large load of lead.

  13. Kuulus Roman Viktjuki Teater Tallinnas / Meelis Kapstas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kapstas, Meelis, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    26. ja 27. mail Vene Kultuurikeskuses Roman Viktjuki Teatri külalisetendused. Mängitakse R. Viktjuki lavastust "Kellavärgiga apelsin" Anthony Burgessi romaani järgi ja Viktjuki versiooni Oscar Wilde'i kurbmängust "Salomé"

  14. Thracians in the Roman imperial navy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2017-01-01

    The Roman fleets of the imperial period were crewed by provincials, not by Italians. Of the sailors and soldiers whose names and geographical origin are attested epigraphically (on military diplomas or epitaphs) almost 15% claim a Thracian origin; and among these, the majority identify themselves...

  15. Greek and Roman Mythology: English, Mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargraves, Richard; Kenzel, Elaine

    The aim of the Quinmester course "Greek and Roman Mythology" is to help students understand mythological references in literature, art, music, science and technology. The subject matter includes: creation myths; myths of gods and heroes; mythological allusions in astrology, astronomy, literature, science, business, puzzles, and everyday…

  16. A Roman funerary inscription from Smederevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Péter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this short paper the authors publish a Hungarian wartime postcard from Smederevo (Serbia, from 1916. It is reported that a Roman gravestone was found on the banks of the Danube and the text of the lost stone monument was also added. The authors intend to interpret the funerary text that was incorrectly transcribed.

  17. Characterization of the Roman curse tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Zhang, Boyang; Fu, Lin

    2017-08-01

    The Roman curse tablet, produced in ancient Rome period, is a metal plate that inscribed with curses. In this research, several techniques were used to find out the physical structure and chemical composition of the Roman curse tablet, and testified the hypothesis that whether the tablet is made of pure lead or lead alloy. A sample of Roman Curse Tablet from the Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum was analyzed using several different characterization techniques to determine the physical structure and chemical composition. The characterization techniques used were including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Because of the small sample size, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) cannot test the sample. Results from optical microscopy and SEM, enlarged images of the sample surface were studied. The result revealed that the sample surface has a rough, non-uniform, and grainy surface. AFM provides three-dimensional topography of the sample surface, studying the sample surface in atomic level. DSC studies the thermal property, which is most likely a lead-alloy, not a pure lead. However, none of these tests indicated anything about the chemical composition. Future work will be required due to the lack of measures finding out its chemical composition. Therefore, from these characterization techniques above, the Roman curse tablet sample is consisted of lead alloy, not pure lead.

  18. Spatially heterogeneous dynamics investigated via a time-dependent four-point density correlation function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacevic, N.; Starr, F. W.; Schrøder, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    correlation function g4(r,t) and corresponding "structure factor" S4(q,t) which measure the spatial correlations between the local liquid density at two points in space, each at two different times, and so are sensitive to dynamical heterogeneity. We study g4(r,t) and S4(q,t) via molecular dynamics......Relaxation in supercooled liquids above their glass transition and below the onset temperature of "slow" dynamics involves the correlated motion of neighboring particles. This correlated motion results in the appearance of spatially heterogeneous dynamics or "dynamical heterogeneity." Traditional...... two-point time-dependent density correlation functions, while providing information about the transient "caging" of particles on cooling, are unable to provide sufficiently detailed information about correlated motion and dynamical heterogeneity. Here, we study a four-point, time-dependent density...

  19. New Bounds of Ostrowski–Gruss Type Inequality for (k + 1 Points on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eze R. Nwaeze

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present three new bounds of the Ostrowski--Gr\\"uss type inequality for points $x_0,x_1,x_2,\\cdots,x_k$ on time scales. Our results generalize result of Ng\\^o and Liu, and extend results of Ujevi\\'c to time scales with $(k+1$ points. We apply our results to the continuous, discrete, and quantum calculus to obtain many new interesting inequalities. An example is also considered. The estimates obtained in this paper will be very useful in numerical integration especially for the continuous case.

  20. Medications and their use in the Graeco-Roman era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Retief

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As from the 6th century BC Graeco-Roman medical therapy comprised three components, viz. diet and healthy lifestyle (regimen, surgery and medicaments (pharmacotherapy, of which the latter was the oldest. Although the Corpus Hippocraticum (5th century BC, with minor Egyptian influence, contained no text of medicines as such, and seemed to prefer regimen to medicaments, it nevertheless laid the foundation for the empirical use of pharmacotherapy (free of superstition and magic for the next millennium. The first Greek herbal was produced by Diocles in the 4th century BC, when the botanist Theophrastus also wrote his classic works on plants which contained a significant contribution on herbal medicines. The Alexandrian Medical School systematized and expanded Hippocratic medicine, and Herophilus introduced compound preparations. The concept that medicaments cure illness by restoring the bodily balance of humours and primary properties was largely perpetuated, but new views on physiology were gradually emerging. Unfortunately the bulk of original contributions from Hellenistic doctors are lost to posterity and only known to us through the writings of for example Celsus and Galen in Roman times. The interesting history of theriac, the so-called universal antidote, is reviewed. In the 1st century Dioscorides produced his Materia Medica which remained an authoritative pharmacopoeia up to modern times. Galen’s empiric views on pharmacotherapy (2nd century, still largely based on Hippocrates, became dogma in Medieval times, but mysticism and superstition gradually swept back into medicine. Retrospectively it is clear that with the exception of certain analgesics and narcotics like opium, Graeco-Roman medicaments were pharmacologically inert (even toxic and obtained positive results largely through a placebo effect.

  1. Empiric model for mean generation time adjustment factor for classic point kinetics equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, David A.B.V. de; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Goncalves, Alessandro da C., E-mail: david.goes@poli.ufrj.br, E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: alessandro@con.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    Point reactor kinetics equations are the easiest way to observe the neutron production time behavior in a nuclear reactor. These equations are derived from the neutron transport equation using an approximation called Fick's law leading to a set of first order differential equations. The main objective of this study is to review classic point kinetics equation in order to approximate its results to the case when it is considered the time variation of the neutron currents. The computational modeling used for the calculations is based on the finite difference method. The results obtained with this model are compared with the reference model and then it is determined an empirical adjustment factor that modifies the point reactor kinetics equation to the real scenario. (author)

  2. Empiric model for mean generation time adjustment factor for classic point kinetics equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, David A.B.V. de; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Goncalves, Alessandro da C.

    2017-01-01

    Point reactor kinetics equations are the easiest way to observe the neutron production time behavior in a nuclear reactor. These equations are derived from the neutron transport equation using an approximation called Fick's law leading to a set of first order differential equations. The main objective of this study is to review classic point kinetics equation in order to approximate its results to the case when it is considered the time variation of the neutron currents. The computational modeling used for the calculations is based on the finite difference method. The results obtained with this model are compared with the reference model and then it is determined an empirical adjustment factor that modifies the point reactor kinetics equation to the real scenario. (author)

  3. A point-based rendering approach for real-time interaction on mobile devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG XiaoHui; ZHAO QinPing; HE ZhiYing; XIE Ke; LIU YuBo

    2009-01-01

    Mobile device is an Important interactive platform. Due to the limitation of computation, memory, display area and energy, how to realize the efficient and real-time interaction of 3D models based on mobile devices is an important research topic. Considering features of mobile devices, this paper adopts remote rendering mode and point models, and then, proposes a transmission and rendering approach that could interact in real time. First, improved simplification algorithm based on MLS and display resolution of mobile devices is proposed. Then, a hierarchy selection of point models and a QoS transmission control strategy are given based on interest area of operator, interest degree of object in the virtual environment and rendering error. They can save the energy consumption. Finally, the rendering and interaction of point models are completed on mobile devices. The experiments show that our method is efficient.

  4. Bayesian inference for multivariate point processes observed at sparsely distributed times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper; Aukema, B.H.

    We consider statistical and computational aspects of simulation-based Bayesian inference for a multivariate point process which is only observed at sparsely distributed times. For specicity we consider a particular data set which has earlier been analyzed by a discrete time model involving unknown...... normalizing constants. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using continuous time processes compared to discrete time processes in the setting of the present paper as well as other spatial-temporal situations. Keywords: Bark beetle, conditional intensity, forest entomology, Markov chain Monte Carlo...

  5. Clinical Significance of F 18 FP CIT Dual Time Point PET Imaging in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jin Kyoung; Yoo, Ik Dong; Seo, Ye Young; Chung, Youg An; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Song, In Uk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of dual time point F 18 FP CIT PET imaging in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty four patients with PD (mean age 69.6) and 18 healthy people (mean age 70.26) underwent two sequential PET/CT scans (dual time point imaging) at 90 and 210 min after F 18 FP CIT injection. Tracer activity of region of interest was measured in the caudate, putamen and a reference region in the brain from both time points. The outcome parameter was the striatooccipital ratio (SOR). Normal SOR values were obtained in the control group. The percent change in tracer activity between 90 and 210 min images was calculated. The SOR values and the percent change in tracer activity were compared between the patients and healthy control group. The SOR values for the caudate, anterior and posterior putamen at both 90 and 210 min images were significantly reduced in the patients with PD. The lowest P value was obtained for the anterior and posterior putamen (p<0.001) at both time points. There were significant differences of the percent change in tracer activity for the anterior and posterior putamen in the two groups (p=0.01) F 18 FP CIT PET scans at 90 and 210 min after injection are both able to diagnose PD. Therefore, the 90 min image by itself in sufficient for diagnosing PD.

  6. A test of alternative estimators for volume at time 1 from remeasured point samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis A. Roesch; Edwin J. Green; Charles T. Scott

    1993-01-01

    Two estimators for volume at time 1 for use with permanent horizontal point samples are evaluated. One estimator, used traditionally, uses only the trees sampled at time 1, while the second estimator, originally presented by Roesch and coauthors (F.A. Roesch, Jr., E.J. Green, and C.T. Scott. 1989. For. Sci. 35(2):281-293). takes advantage of additional sample...

  7. In situ investigation of the surface silvering of late Roman coins by combined use of high energy broad-beam and low energy micro-beam X-ray fluorescence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F.P., E-mail: romanop@lns.infn.it [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); LNS, INFN, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Garraffo, S. [ITABC, CNR, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00016 Monterotondo, Roma (Italy); Pappalardo, L. [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); LNS, INFN, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Rizzo, F. [LNS, INFN, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    The compositional analysis of archeological metals performed with the X-ray Fluorescence technique (XRF) provides information on the ancient technology. One of the most interesting case-study concerns the techniques used by Romans for silvering the surface of coins. Different metallurgical processes have been suggested in previous studies. Recently the investigation has been addressed to the mercury-silvering and to its possible use in the mass-production of coins minted during the late period (after 294 AD). In the present paper the non-destructive investigation of the silvering process used for manufacturing the Roman nummi - the important typology of coin introduced by Diocletian in his monetary reform - is approached by the combined use of the standard X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and the low energy micro-X-Ray Fluorescence (LE-{mu}XRF) portable methods. The research was focused on the systematic determination of the mercury presence in a large number of samples and on its correlation with silver in the surface of the coins. 1041 Roman nummi belonging to the Misurata Treasure were analyzed in situ, at the Leptis Magna Museum (Al Khums, Libya). The treasure, composed of about 108 thousand silvered coins, gives the unique opportunity to study the Roman coinage in a wide interval of time (about 40 years in the period 294-333 AD) and in almost all the imperial mints operating in the Roman world. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Custom-building of a high energy broad-beam and a low energy micro-beam XRF Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In situ analysis of the silvering methods in late Roman nummi with plated surfaces Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The broad-beam XRF was applied for the detection of mercury traces in the coin alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The low energy micro-XRF was used to scan the surface patina of the coins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The correlation between mercury and silver at the coin surface was evidenced.

  8. Computationally determining the salience of decision points for real-time wayfinding support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Takemiya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the concept of computational salience to explain the discriminatory efficacy of decision points, which in turn may have applications to providing real-time assistance to users of navigational aids. This research compared algorithms for calculating the computational salience of decision points and validated the results via three methods: high-salience decision points were used to classify wayfinders; salience scores were used to weight a conditional probabilistic scoring function for real-time wayfinder performance classification; and salience scores were correlated with wayfinding-performance metrics. As an exploratory step to linking computational and cognitive salience, a photograph-recognition experiment was conducted. Results reveal a distinction between algorithms useful for determining computational and cognitive saliences. For computational salience, information about the structural integration of decision points is effective, while information about the probability of decision-point traversal shows promise for determining cognitive salience. Limitations from only using structural information and motivations for future work that include non-structural information are elicited.

  9. Modified mean generation time parameter in the neutron point kinetics equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Rodrigo C.; Gonçalves, Alessandro C.; Rosa, Felipe S.S., E-mail: alessandro@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: frosa@if.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes an approximation for the modified point kinetics equations proposed by NUNES et. al, 2015, through the adjustment of a kinetic parameter. This approximation consists of analyzing the terms of the modified point kinetics equations in order to identify the least important ones for the solution, resulting in a modification of the mean generation time parameter that incorporates all influences of the additional terms of the modified kinetics. This approximation is applied on the inverse kinetics, to compare the results with the inverse kinetics from the modified kinetics in order to validate the proposed model. (author)

  10. Modified mean generation time parameter in the neutron point kinetics equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, Rodrigo C.; Gonçalves, Alessandro C.; Rosa, Felipe S.S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an approximation for the modified point kinetics equations proposed by NUNES et. al, 2015, through the adjustment of a kinetic parameter. This approximation consists of analyzing the terms of the modified point kinetics equations in order to identify the least important ones for the solution, resulting in a modification of the mean generation time parameter that incorporates all influences of the additional terms of the modified kinetics. This approximation is applied on the inverse kinetics, to compare the results with the inverse kinetics from the modified kinetics in order to validate the proposed model. (author)

  11. Portable Dew Point Mass Spectrometry System for Real-Time Gas and Moisture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, C.; Gillespie, Stacey; Ratzel, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    A portable instrument incorporates both mass spectrometry and dew point measurement to provide real-time, quantitative gas measurements of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide, along with real-time, quantitative moisture analysis. The Portable Dew Point Mass Spectrometry (PDP-MS) system comprises a single quadrupole mass spectrometer and a high vacuum system consisting of a turbopump and a diaphragm-backing pump. A capacitive membrane dew point sensor was placed upstream of the MS, but still within the pressure-flow control pneumatic region. Pressure-flow control was achieved with an upstream precision metering valve, a capacitance diaphragm gauge, and a downstream mass flow controller. User configurable LabVIEW software was developed to provide real-time concentration data for the MS, dew point monitor, and sample delivery system pressure control, pressure and flow monitoring, and recording. The system has been designed to include in situ, NIST-traceable calibration. Certain sample tubing retains sufficient water that even if the sample is dry, the sample tube will desorb water to an amount resulting in moisture concentration errors up to 500 ppm for as long as 10 minutes. It was determined that Bev-A-Line IV was the best sample line to use. As a result of this issue, it is prudent to add a high-level humidity sensor to PDP-MS so such events can be prevented in the future.

  12. Wine vessels (Vasa vinaria in roman law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aličić Samir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of 'wine vessels' in Roman law comprises all the winecontaining recipients. There is no legal standardization of wine vessels by means of volume, and although the terms amphora, urna and culleus are used to designate both the vessels and the units of measure, these are two different meanings of the terms. In regard of the question, whether the vessels make appurtenance of the wine, jurisprudents of proculean school divided them in two categories. In the first category are those that follow legal status of wine, usually amphoras and other jars (cadi which are used for 'packaging', i. e. 'bottling' of the wine. The second category make mostly vats (cuppae and ceramic cisterns (dolia, which don't follow legal status of wine, making instead part of farming equipment of a landed property (instrumentum fundi and it's appurtenance. But, the roman jurists are not consistent regarding criteria for distinguishing these two categories.

  13. Beyond Romanization: The creolization of food. A framework for the study of faunal remains from Roman sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Hawkes

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the Roman conquest of Britain and the ensuing processes of Romanization have been studied for many years. The historical background to the development of the theory of Romanization has been widely discussed elsewhere (see Hingley 1996. Haverfield’s (1906 treatment of the topic was a major landmark in this development. He considered that the Roman conquest was a ‘good’ thing as it brought civilisation to the ‘natives’ who, recognising the superiority of Roman culture, willingly embraced `Roman-ness`. The theory of Romanization was further refined by Millett (1990 in The Romanization of Britain. The assumption that underlies Millett’s model is that cultural artefacts which to archaeologists look ‘Roman’ were perceived in the same way in the past. But need this be so? This paper will concern itself with looking at new approaches to culture change, especially relating to food, following the Roman conquest in Britain. It will aim to suggest methods of applying these new approaches to faunal remains, which will enable us to evolve a more subtle understanding of food in the Roman period.

  14. Time discretization of the point kinetic equations using matrix exponential method and First-Order Hold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yujin; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Parlos, Alexander G.; Chong, Kil To

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical solution for stiff differential equations using matrix exponential method. • The approximation is based on First Order Hold assumption. • Various input examples applied to the point kinetics equations. • The method shows superior useful and effective activity. - Abstract: A system of nonlinear differential equations is derived to model the dynamics of neutron density and the delayed neutron precursors within a point kinetics equation modeling framework for a nuclear reactor. The point kinetic equations are mathematically characterized as stiff, occasionally nonlinear, ordinary differential equations, posing significant challenges when numerical solutions are sought and traditionally resulting in the need for smaller time step intervals within various computational schemes. In light of the above realization, the present paper proposes a new discretization method inspired by system-theoretic notions and technically based on a combination of the matrix exponential method (MEM) and the First-Order Hold (FOH) assumption. Under the proposed time discretization structure, the sampled-data representation of the nonlinear point kinetic system of equations is derived. The performance of the proposed time discretization procedure is evaluated using several case studies with sinusoidal reactivity profiles and multiple input examples (reactivity and neutron source function). It is shown, that by applying the proposed method under a First-Order Hold for the neutron density and the precursor concentrations at each time step interval, the stiffness problem associated with the point kinetic equations can be adequately addressed and resolved. Finally, as evidenced by the aforementioned detailed simulation studies, the proposed method retains its validity and accuracy for a wide range of reactor operating conditions, including large sampling periods dictated by physical and/or technical limitations associated with the current state of sensor and

  15. Marius and Trajan: Two Great Roman Strategists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    soon respected as a good commander upon whom a soldier could count. His fairness of command is best demonstrated in an incident related by Plutarch ...to their discomfort and problems. (10:343) Plutarch also gave credit to Marius for altering the construction of the javelin. Marius replaced one of...Putnam’s Sons, 1927. 10. Plutarch (Translated by John Dryden, Revised by Arthur Hugh Clough). The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans. Chicago

  16. Sewerage system (cloaca) in Roman law

    OpenAIRE

    Aličić, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Sewerage system (cloaca), which implies any cavity through which waste water flows, has in Roman law a special legal protection due to its importance for public health preservation and safety of citizens. In Praetorian Edict, two interdicts are envisaged; one prohibitory, by which private sewerage system is protected and one restitutory, by which public sewerage system is protected. It is possible that a restitutory interdict about private sewerage system existed. By the public sewerage inter...

  17. Human parasites in the Roman World: health consequences of conquering an empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2017-01-01

    The archaeological evidence for parasites in the Roman era is presented in order to demonstrate the species present at that time, and highlight the health consequences for people living under Roman rule. Despite their large multi-seat public latrines with washing facilities, sewer systems, sanitation legislation, fountains and piped drinking water from aqueducts, we see the widespread presence of whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and Entamoeba histolytica that causes dysentery. This would suggest that the public sanitation measures were insufficient to protect the population from parasites spread by fecal contamination. Ectoparasites such as fleas, head lice, body lice, pubic lice and bed bugs were also present, and delousing combs have been found. The evidence fails to demonstrate that the Roman culture of regular bathing in the public baths reduced the prevalence of these parasites. Fish tapeworm was noted to be widely present, and was more common than in Bronze and Iron Age Europe. It is possible that the Roman enthusiasm for fermented, uncooked fish sauce (garum) may have facilitated the spread of this helminth. Roman medical practitioners such as Galen were aware of intestinal worms, explaining their existence and planning treatment using the humoural theory of the period.

  18. First roman pot tested by TOTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    TOTEM, one of the smaller experiments of the LHC, successfully tested its first 'roman pot' detectors on 3 November. A total of eight will be installed in the LHC near the CMS cavern. Marco Oriunno, project engineer of TOTEM (right), with Jean-Michel Lacroix from TS/MME (Mechanical and Materials Engineering) (left), standing behind one of the roman pot detectors. There is a small tribe in the land of CERN. Among its artefacts you may find colourfully painted rocks, a totem made of cardboard boxes, and a few roman pots. Known by the name of TOTEM, or 'TOTal, Elastic and diffractive cross-section Measurement' (not a tribe motto), they are a relatively small collaborative group in comparison to the main LHC experiments, with approximately 50 'tribe members'. Unlike the four larger experiments that will analyse new particles produced as a result of the collisions, TOTEM will investigate the ones that almost missed each other. When two beams of protons travelling in opposite di...

  19. PIXE and XRF Analysis of Roman Denarii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Cecilia; Raddell, Mark; Manukyan, Khachatur; Stech, Edward; Wiescher, Michael

    2017-09-01

    A set of Roman Denarii from the republican to the imperial period (140BC-240AD) has been studied using X-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanning and proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) techniques. XRF and PIXE are commonly used in the study of cultural heritage objects because they are nondestructive. The combination of these two methods is also unique because of the ability to penetrate the sample with a broader spectrum of depths and energies than either could achieve on its own. The coins are from a large span of Roman history and their analysis serves to follow the economic and political change of the era using the relative silver and copper contents in each sample. In addition to analyzing the samples, the study sought to compare these two common analysis techniques and to explore the use of a standard to examine any shortcomings in either of the methods. Data sets were compared and then adjusted to a calibration curve which was created from the analysis of a number of standard solutions. The concentrations of the standard solutions were confirmed using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. Through this we were able to assemble results which will progress the basis of understanding of PIXE and XRF techniques as well as increase the wealth of knowledge of Ancient Roman currency.

  20. Machine scheduling to minimize weighted completion times the use of the α-point

    CERN Document Server

    Gusmeroli, Nicoló

    2018-01-01

    This work reviews the most important results regarding the use of the α-point in Scheduling Theory. It provides a number of different LP-relaxations for scheduling problems and seeks to explain their polyhedral consequences. It also explains the concept of the α-point and how the conversion algorithm works, pointing out the relations to the sum of the weighted completion times. Lastly, the book explores the latest techniques used for many scheduling problems with different constraints, such as release dates, precedences, and parallel machines. This reference book is intended for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students who are interested in scheduling theory. It is also inspiring for researchers wanting to learn about sophisticated techniques and open problems of the field.

  1. A critical moment: the End of the Roman domain in the Hispanic provinces (409-429)

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen María DIMAS BENEDICTO; Enrique GOZALBES CRAVIOTO

    2013-01-01

    In the present work there are analyzed some aspects of the crisis of the End of the Roman Hispanias, at the same time it makes an approach to the vision that this process could have at that time, from the testimony of some writers.

  2. A critical moment: the End of the Roman domain in the Hispanic provinces (409-429

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen María DIMAS BENEDICTO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work there are analyzed some aspects of the crisis of the End of the Roman Hispanias, at the same time it makes an approach to the vision that this process could have at that time, from the testimony of some writers.

  3. Present Perfect. Time and the Uncanny in American Science and Horror Fiction of the 1970s (Finney, Matheson, King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Camilletti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Abstract (E: Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">This essay analyses the relationship between the uncanny and time by focusing on the notion of ‘time-slip’ as reflected in three American novels of the 1970s: Jack Finney’s Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">Time and AgainTimes New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">, Richard Matheson’s Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">Bid Time Return Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">and Stephen King’s Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">The ShiningTimes New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">. Through a comparative analysis of these texts, the essay inquires into the relationship of modernity with time and the past, as well as into modern paradigms of continuity and influence, and the image of the nineteenth century as divulged in popular culture.

    Abstract (F:

     

    Times New Roman,Times New Roman; font-size: small;">Times New Roman,Times

  4. Cypriots in the Roman Army

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2003-01-01

    Contrary to the accepted opinion, only a few hundred, perhaps a thousand Cypriots left their island to serve in a cohors Cypria. A "Cyprian" cohort, which as time went by came to consist mainly of non-Cypriots, saw active service on the Danube during the Dacian wars; later, it was assigned to gar...... garrison duty in the Crimea....

  5. Time Series UAV Image-Based Point Clouds for Landslide Progression Evaluation Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla; Moussa, Adel; Foroutan, Marzieh; El-Sheimy, Naser; Habib, Ayman

    2017-10-18

    Landslides are major and constantly changing threats to urban landscapes and infrastructure. It is essential to detect and capture landslide changes regularly. Traditional methods for monitoring landslides are time-consuming, costly, dangerous, and the quality and quantity of the data is sometimes unable to meet the necessary requirements of geotechnical projects. This motivates the development of more automatic and efficient remote sensing approaches for landslide progression evaluation. Automatic change detection involving low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle image-based point clouds, although proven, is relatively unexplored, and little research has been done in terms of accounting for volumetric changes. In this study, a methodology for automatically deriving change displacement rates, in a horizontal direction based on comparisons between extracted landslide scarps from multiple time periods, has been developed. Compared with the iterative closest projected point (ICPP) registration method, the developed method takes full advantage of automated geometric measuring, leading to fast processing. The proposed approach easily processes a large number of images from different epochs and enables the creation of registered image-based point clouds without the use of extensive ground control point information or further processing such as interpretation and image correlation. The produced results are promising for use in the field of landslide research.

  6. Evolution of adoption from Roman law to modern law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitanović Tanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the evolution of adoption practice from ancient Roman law to modern law. Adoption represents ancient social and legal practice which has during time changed manifestations and the causes it served. Adoption in ancient Rome served the interests of pater familias without biological posterity. Adoption practice benefited the continuance of families and the family cult of adopters, whose family lines, with no natural posterity, were threatened to become extinct. After the stagnation in the feudal epoch, adoption was reaffirmed in the bourgeois law. Civil codes in European countries, whose legal systems were built on the foundations of the ancient Roman legal tradition, originally favoured the interests of individuals with no biological children, who were granted to extend their families by adopting, and hence transfer their assets on the obtained heirs. After the wars in the 20th century, which led to a rapid increase in the number of parentless children, the concept of adoption was radically changed, so that since that time the adoption has primarily served the interests of the adopted children and the care for them in the adoptive families. Adoption becomes a form of a social, legal family protection of children without adequate parental care, and that is the most desirable form to provide for children, for the adoptee completely integrates with the adoptive family and takes the right of the born child, where the family environment provides and encourages the optimal mental and physical development of the child.

  7. Meta-Analysis of Effect Sizes Reported at Multiple Time Points Using General Linear Mixed Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musekiwa, Alfred; Manda, Samuel O. M.; Mwambi, Henry G.; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies combines effect sizes measured at pre-determined time points. The most common approach involves performing separate univariate meta-analyses at individual time points. This simplistic approach ignores dependence between longitudinal effect sizes, which might result in less precise parameter estimates. In this paper, we show how to conduct a meta-analysis of longitudinal effect sizes where we contrast different covariance structures for dependence between effect sizes, both within and between studies. We propose new combinations of covariance structures for the dependence between effect size and utilize a practical example involving meta-analysis of 17 trials comparing postoperative treatments for a type of cancer, where survival is measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post randomization. Although the results from this particular data set show the benefit of accounting for within-study serial correlation between effect sizes, simulations are required to confirm these results. PMID:27798661

  8. A method for untriggered time-dependent searches for multiple flares from neutrino point sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gora, D.; Bernardini, E.; Cruz Silva, A.H.

    2011-04-01

    A method for a time-dependent search for flaring astrophysical sources which can be potentially detected by large neutrino experiments is presented. The method uses a time-clustering algorithm combined with an unbinned likelihood procedure. By including in the likelihood function a signal term which describes the contribution of many small clusters of signal-like events, this method provides an effective way for looking for weak neutrino flares over different time-scales. The method is sensitive to an overall excess of events distributed over several flares which are not individually detectable. For standard cases (one flare) the discovery potential of the method is worse than a standard time-dependent point source analysis with unknown duration of the flare by a factor depending on the signal-to-background level. However, for flares sufficiently shorter than the total observation period, the method is more sensitive than a time-integrated analysis. (orig.)

  9. A method for untriggered time-dependent searches for multiple flares from neutrino point sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gora, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Cracow (Poland); Bernardini, E.; Cruz Silva, A.H. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Cracow (Poland)

    2011-04-15

    A method for a time-dependent search for flaring astrophysical sources which can be potentially detected by large neutrino experiments is presented. The method uses a time-clustering algorithm combined with an unbinned likelihood procedure. By including in the likelihood function a signal term which describes the contribution of many small clusters of signal-like events, this method provides an effective way for looking for weak neutrino flares over different time-scales. The method is sensitive to an overall excess of events distributed over several flares which are not individually detectable. For standard cases (one flare) the discovery potential of the method is worse than a standard time-dependent point source analysis with unknown duration of the flare by a factor depending on the signal-to-background level. However, for flares sufficiently shorter than the total observation period, the method is more sensitive than a time-integrated analysis. (orig.)

  10. Noise and time delay induce critical point in a bistable system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqiang; Nie, Linru; Yu, Lilong; Zhang, Xinyu

    2014-07-01

    We study relaxation time Tc of time-delayed bistable system driven by two cross-correlated Gaussian white noises that one is multiplicative and the other is additive. By means of numerical calculations, the results indicate that: (i) Combination of noise and time delay can induce two critical points about the relaxation time at some certain noise cross-correlation strength λ under the condition that the multiplicative intensity D equals to the additive noise intensity α. (ii) For each fixed D or α, there are two symmetrical critical points which locates in the regions of positive and negative correlations, respectively. Namely, as λ equals to the critical value λc, Tc is independent of the delay time and the result of Tc versus τ is a horizontal line, but as |λ|>|λc| (or |λ|decreases) with the delay time increasing. (iii) In the presence of D = α, the change of λc with D is two symmetrical curves about the axis of λc = 0, and the critical value λc is close to zero for a smaller D, which approaches to +1 or -1 for a greater D.

  11. PolyWaTT: A polynomial water travel time estimator based on Derivative Dynamic Time Warping and Perceptually Important Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claure, Yuri Navarro; Matsubara, Edson Takashi; Padovani, Carlos; Prati, Ronaldo Cristiano

    2018-03-01

    Traditional methods for estimating timing parameters in hydrological science require a rigorous study of the relations of flow resistance, slope, flow regime, watershed size, water velocity, and other local variables. These studies are mostly based on empirical observations, where the timing parameter is estimated using empirically derived formulas. The application of these studies to other locations is not always direct. The locations in which equations are used should have comparable characteristics to the locations from which such equations have been derived. To overcome this barrier, in this work, we developed a data-driven approach to estimate timing parameters such as travel time. Our proposal estimates timing parameters using historical data of the location without the need of adapting or using empirical formulas from other locations. The proposal only uses one variable measured at two different locations on the same river (for instance, two river-level measurements, one upstream and the other downstream on the same river). The recorded data from each location generates two time series. Our method aligns these two time series using derivative dynamic time warping (DDTW) and perceptually important points (PIP). Using data from timing parameters, a polynomial function generalizes the data by inducing a polynomial water travel time estimator, called PolyWaTT. To evaluate the potential of our proposal, we applied PolyWaTT to three different watersheds: a floodplain ecosystem located in the part of Brazil known as Pantanal, the world's largest tropical wetland area; and the Missouri River and the Pearl River, in United States of America. We compared our proposal with empirical formulas and a data-driven state-of-the-art method. The experimental results demonstrate that PolyWaTT showed a lower mean absolute error than all other methods tested in this study, and for longer distances the mean absolute error achieved by PolyWaTT is three times smaller than empirical

  12. Global Stability of Polytopic Linear Time-Varying Dynamic Systems under Time-Varying Point Delays and Impulsive Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Sen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stability properties of a class of dynamic linear systems possessing several linear time-invariant parameterizations (or configurations which conform a linear time-varying polytopic dynamic system with a finite number of time-varying time-differentiable point delays. The parameterizations may be timevarying and with bounded discontinuities and they can be subject to mixed regular plus impulsive controls within a sequence of time instants of zero measure. The polytopic parameterization for the dynamics associated with each delay is specific, so that (q+1 polytopic parameterizations are considered for a system with q delays being also subject to delay-free dynamics. The considered general dynamic system includes, as particular cases, a wide class of switched linear systems whose individual parameterizations are timeinvariant which are governed by a switching rule. However, the dynamic system under consideration is viewed as much more general since it is time-varying with timevarying delays and the bounded discontinuous changes of active parameterizations are generated by impulsive controls in the dynamics and, at the same time, there is not a prescribed set of candidate potential parameterizations.

  13. Heterogeneous dynamics of ionic liquids: A four-point time correlation function approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiannan; Willcox, Jon A. L.; Kim, Hyung J.

    2018-05-01

    Many ionic liquids show behavior similar to that of glassy systems, e.g., large and long-lasted deviations from Gaussian dynamics and clustering of "mobile" and "immobile" groups of ions. Herein a time-dependent four-point density correlation function—typically used to characterize glassy systems—is implemented for the ionic liquids, choline acetate, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Dynamic correlation beyond the first ionic solvation shell on the time scale of nanoseconds is found in the ionic liquids, revealing the cooperative nature of ion motions. The traditional solvent, acetonitrile, on the other hand, shows a much shorter length-scale that decays after a few picoseconds.

  14. The motion of a classical spinning point particle in a Riemann-Cartan space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, R.

    1983-01-01

    A consistent set of equations of motion for classical charged point particles with spin and magnetic dipole moment in a Riemann-Cartan space-time is generated from a generalized Lagrangean formalism. The equations avoid the spurius free helicoidal solutions and at the same time conserve the canonical condition of normalization of the 4-velocity. The 4-velocity and the mechanical moment are paralell in this theory, where the condition of orthogonality between the spin and the 4-velocity is treated as a non-holonomic one. (Author) [pt

  15. Real time estimation of photovoltaic modules characteristics and its application to maximum power point operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrigos, Ausias; Blanes, Jose M.; Carrasco, Jose A. [Area de Tecnologia Electronica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 03202 Elche, Alicante (Spain); Ejea, Juan B. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Avda. Dr Moliner 50, 46100 Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    In this paper, an approximate curve fitting method for photovoltaic modules is presented. The operation is based on solving a simple solar cell electrical model by a microcontroller in real time. Only four voltage and current coordinates are needed to obtain the solar module parameters and set its operation at maximum power in any conditions of illumination and temperature. Despite its simplicity, this method is suitable for low cost real time applications, as control loop reference generator in photovoltaic maximum power point circuits. The theory that supports the estimator together with simulations and experimental results are presented. (author)

  16. Impacts of Satellite Orbit and Clock on Real-Time GPS Point and Relative Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junbo; Wang, Gaojing; Han, Xianquan; Guo, Jiming

    2017-06-12

    Satellite orbit and clock corrections are always treated as known quantities in GPS positioning models. Therefore, any error in the satellite orbit and clock products will probably cause significant consequences for GPS positioning, especially for real-time applications. Currently three types of satellite products have been made available for real-time positioning, including the broadcast ephemeris, the International GNSS Service (IGS) predicted ultra-rapid product, and the real-time product. In this study, these three predicted/real-time satellite orbit and clock products are first evaluated with respect to the post-mission IGS final product, which demonstrates cm to m level orbit accuracies and sub-ns to ns level clock accuracies. Impacts of real-time satellite orbit and clock products on GPS point and relative positioning are then investigated using the P3 and GAMIT software packages, respectively. Numerical results show that the real-time satellite clock corrections affect the point positioning more significantly than the orbit corrections. On the contrary, only the real-time orbit corrections impact the relative positioning. Compared with the positioning solution using the IGS final product with the nominal orbit accuracy of ~2.5 cm, the real-time broadcast ephemeris with ~2 m orbit accuracy provided <2 cm relative positioning error for baselines no longer than 216 km. As for the baselines ranging from 574 to 2982 km, the cm-dm level positioning error was identified for the relative positioning solution using the broadcast ephemeris. The real-time product could result in <5 mm relative positioning accuracy for baselines within 2982 km, slightly better than the predicted ultra-rapid product.

  17. Impacts of Satellite Orbit and Clock on Real-Time GPS Point and Relative Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Shi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite orbit and clock corrections are always treated as known quantities in GPS positioning models. Therefore, any error in the satellite orbit and clock products will probably cause significant consequences for GPS positioning, especially for real-time applications. Currently three types of satellite products have been made available for real-time positioning, including the broadcast ephemeris, the International GNSS Service (IGS predicted ultra-rapid product, and the real-time product. In this study, these three predicted/real-time satellite orbit and clock products are first evaluated with respect to the post-mission IGS final product, which demonstrates cm to m level orbit accuracies and sub-ns to ns level clock accuracies. Impacts of real-time satellite orbit and clock products on GPS point and relative positioning are then investigated using the P3 and GAMIT software packages, respectively. Numerical results show that the real-time satellite clock corrections affect the point positioning more significantly than the orbit corrections. On the contrary, only the real-time orbit corrections impact the relative positioning. Compared with the positioning solution using the IGS final product with the nominal orbit accuracy of ~2.5 cm, the real-time broadcast ephemeris with ~2 m orbit accuracy provided <2 cm relative positioning error for baselines no longer than 216 km. As for the baselines ranging from 574 to 2982 km, the cm–dm level positioning error was identified for the relative positioning solution using the broadcast ephemeris. The real-time product could result in <5 mm relative positioning accuracy for baselines within 2982 km, slightly better than the predicted ultra-rapid product.

  18. Dea Computrix - another deity for the Roman Pantheon? Journeys in the Roman Empire CD-Rom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sam N. Moorhead

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a personal view on the content and production of a CD-Rom on the Roman world produced by The British Museum, Channel 4, Verulamium Museum and Braunarts: Journeys in the Roman Empire. I discuss some of the benefits of and problems with multimedia production and outline feedback from various evaluation projects of the CD-Rom. I also briefly discuss the future of CD-Roms in the face of a rapidly expanding internet with reference to other multimedia projects at The British Museum.

  19. Polar coordinated fuzzy controller based real-time maximum-power point control of photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syafaruddin; Hiyama, Takashi [Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering of Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Karatepe, Engin [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering of Ege University, 35100 Bornova-Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    It is crucial to improve the photovoltaic (PV) system efficiency and to develop the reliability of PV generation control systems. There are two ways to increase the efficiency of PV power generation system. The first is to develop materials offering high conversion efficiency at low cost. The second is to operate PV systems optimally. However, the PV system can be optimally operated only at a specific output voltage and its output power fluctuates under intermittent weather conditions. Moreover, it is very difficult to test the performance of a maximum-power point tracking (MPPT) controller under the same weather condition during the development process and also the field testing is costly and time consuming. This paper presents a novel real-time simulation technique of PV generation system by using dSPACE real-time interface system. The proposed system includes Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and fuzzy logic controller scheme using polar information. This type of fuzzy logic rules is implemented for the first time to operate the PV module at optimum operating point. ANN is utilized to determine the optimum operating voltage for monocrystalline silicon, thin-film cadmium telluride and triple junction amorphous silicon solar cells. The verification of availability and stability of the proposed system through the real-time simulator shows that the proposed system can respond accurately for different scenarios and different solar cell technologies. (author)

  20. Interevent Time Distribution of Renewal Point Process, Case Study: Extreme Rainfall in South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunusi, Nurtiti

    2018-03-01

    The study of time distribution of occurrences of extreme rain phenomena plays a very important role in the analysis and weather forecast in an area. The timing of extreme rainfall is difficult to predict because its occurrence is random. This paper aims to determine the inter event time distribution of extreme rain events and minimum waiting time until the occurrence of next extreme event through a point process approach. The phenomenon of extreme rain events over a given period of time is following a renewal process in which the time for events is a random variable τ. The distribution of random variable τ is assumed to be a Pareto, Log Normal, and Gamma. To estimate model parameters, a moment method is used. Consider Rt as the time of the last extreme rain event at one location is the time difference since the last extreme rainfall event. if there are no extreme rain events up to t 0, there will be an opportunity for extreme rainfall events at (t 0, t 0 + δt 0). Furthermore from the three models reviewed, the minimum waiting time until the next extreme rainfall will be determined. The result shows that Log Nrmal model is better than Pareto and Gamma model for predicting the next extreme rainfall in South Sulawesi while the Pareto model can not be used.

  1. A point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadioglu, Samet Y., E-mail: kadioglu@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Mathematical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34210 Davutpasa-Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Berry, Ray A., E-mail: ray.berry@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 3840, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Martineau, Richard C. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 3840, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • This new method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods. • It is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. • It exhibits the simplicity of implementation of an explicit method. • It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration such as can occur inside nuclear reactor coolant systems. • Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very efficiently; and its implementation is very robust. - Abstract: We introduce a point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems. The method treats the solution variables of interest (that can be located at cell centers, cell edges, or cell nodes) implicitly and the rest of the information related to same or other variables are handled explicitly. The method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods, except it involves a few additional function(s) evaluation steps. Moreover, the method is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. This new approach exhibits the simplicity of implementation of explicit methods and the stability of implicit methods. It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration wherein one would like to perform time integrations with very large time steps. Because the method can be time inaccurate for fast transient problems, particularly with larger time steps, an appropriate solution strategy for a problem that evolves from a fast to a slow transient would be to integrate the fast transient with an explicit or semi-implicit technique and then switch to this point implicit method as soon as the time variation slows sufficiently. We have solved several test problems that result from scalar or systems of flow equations. Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very

  2. A point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadioglu, Samet Y.; Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This new method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods. • It is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. • It exhibits the simplicity of implementation of an explicit method. • It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration such as can occur inside nuclear reactor coolant systems. • Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very efficiently; and its implementation is very robust. - Abstract: We introduce a point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems. The method treats the solution variables of interest (that can be located at cell centers, cell edges, or cell nodes) implicitly and the rest of the information related to same or other variables are handled explicitly. The method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods, except it involves a few additional function(s) evaluation steps. Moreover, the method is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. This new approach exhibits the simplicity of implementation of explicit methods and the stability of implicit methods. It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration wherein one would like to perform time integrations with very large time steps. Because the method can be time inaccurate for fast transient problems, particularly with larger time steps, an appropriate solution strategy for a problem that evolves from a fast to a slow transient would be to integrate the fast transient with an explicit or semi-implicit technique and then switch to this point implicit method as soon as the time variation slows sufficiently. We have solved several test problems that result from scalar or systems of flow equations. Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very

  3. GPU-accelerated Modeling and Element-free Reverse-time Migration with Gauss Points Partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Z.; Jia, X.

    2014-12-01

    Element-free method (EFM) has been applied to seismic modeling and migration. Compared with finite element method (FEM) and finite difference method (FDM), it is much cheaper and more flexible because only the information of the nodes and the boundary of the study area are required in computation. In the EFM, the number of Gauss points should be consistent with the number of model nodes; otherwise the accuracy of the intermediate coefficient matrices would be harmed. Thus when we increase the nodes of velocity model in order to obtain higher resolution, we find that the size of the computer's memory will be a bottleneck. The original EFM can deal with at most 81×81 nodes in the case of 2G memory, as tested by Jia and Hu (2006). In order to solve the problem of storage and computation efficiency, we propose a concept of Gauss points partition (GPP), and utilize the GPUs to improve the computation efficiency. Considering the characteristics of the Gaussian points, the GPP method doesn't influence the propagation of seismic wave in the velocity model. To overcome the time-consuming computation of the stiffness matrix (K) and the mass matrix (M), we also use the GPUs in our computation program. We employ the compressed sparse row (CSR) format to compress the intermediate sparse matrices and try to simplify the operations by solving the linear equations with the CULA Sparse's Conjugate Gradient (CG) solver instead of the linear sparse solver 'PARDISO'. It is observed that our strategy can significantly reduce the computational time of K and Mcompared with the algorithm based on CPU. The model tested is Marmousi model. The length of the model is 7425m and the depth is 2990m. We discretize the model with 595x298 nodes, 300x300 Gauss cells and 3x3 Gauss points in each cell. In contrast to the computational time of the conventional EFM, the GPUs-GPP approach can substantially improve the efficiency. The speedup ratio of time consumption of computing K, M is 120 and the

  4. A point-of-care chemistry test for reduction of turnaround and clinical decision time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eui Jung; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Kim, Seong Chun; Cho, Jin Seong; Lee, Seung Chul; Park, Ju Ok; Cha, Won Chul

    2011-06-01

    Our study compared clinical decision time between patients managed with a point-of-care chemistry test (POCT) and patients managed with the traditional central laboratory test (CLT). This was a randomized controlled multicenter trial in the emergency departments (EDs) of 5 academic teaching hospitals. We randomly assigned patients to POCT or CLT stratified by the Emergency Severity Index. A POCT chemistry analyzer (Piccolo; Abaxis, Inc, Union City, Calif), which is able to test liver panel, renal panel, pancreas enzymes, lipid panel, electrolytes, and blood gases, was set up in each ED. Primary and secondary end point was turnaround time and door-to-clinical-decision time. The total 2323 patients were randomly assigned to the POCT group (n = 1167) or to the CLT group (n = 1156). All of the basic characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. The turnaround time (median, interquartile range [IQR]) of the POCT group was shorter than that of the CLT group (14, 12-19 versus 55, 45-69 minutes; P CLT group (46, 33-61 versus 86, 68-107 minutes; P CLT group (P CLT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dual time point FDG-PET/CT imaging...; Potential tool for diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zytoon, A.A.; Murakami, K.; El-Kholy, M.R.; El-Shorbagy, E.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: This prospective study was designed to assess the utility of the dual time point imaging technique using 2- [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to detect primary breast cancer and to determine whether it is useful for the detection of small and non-invasive cancers, as well as cancers in dense breast tissue. Methods: One hundred and eleven patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent two sequential PET/CT examinations (dual time point imaging) for preoperative staging. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of FDG was measured from both time points. The percentage change in SUVmax (ΔSUVmax%) between time points 1 (SUVmax1) and 2 (SUVmax2) was calculated. The patients were divided into groups: invasive (n = 82), non invasive (n = 29); large (>10 mm; n = 80), small (≤10 mm; n = 31); tumours in dense breasts (n = 61), and tumours in non-dense breasts (n = 50). The tumour:background (T:B) ratios at both time points were measured and the ΔSUVmax%, ΔT:B% values were calculated. All PET study results were correlated with the histopathology results. Results: Of the 111 cancer lesions, 88 (79.3%) showed an increase and 23 (20.7%) showed either no change [10 (9%)] or a decrease [13 (11.7%)] in the SUVmax over time. Of the 111 contralateral normal breasts, nine (8.1%) showed an increase and 102 (91.9%) showed either no change [17 (15.3%)] or a decrease [85 (76.6%)] in the SUVmax over time. The mean ± SD of SUVmax1, SUVmax2, Δ%SUVmax were 4.9 ± 3.6, 6.0 ± 4.5, and 22.6 ± 13.1% for invasive cancers, 4.1 ± 3.8, 4.4 ± 4.8, and -2.4 ± 18.5% for non-invasive cancers, 2.3 ± 1.9, 2.7 ± 2.3, and 12.9 ± 21.1% for small cancers, 5.6 ± 3.7, 6.8 ± 4.8, and 17.3 ± 17.1% for large cancers, 4.9 ± 3.7, 5.8 ± 4.8, and 15.1 ± 17.6% for cancers in dense breast, and 4.5 ± 3.6, 5.4 ± 4.5, and 17.2 ± 19.2% for cancers in non-dense breast. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis

  6. Legal regulation of the obligations in old romanian law, greek and roman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Tutuianu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal history shows that those who are defined obligation Romans definition valid today as a relationship as we submit to a benefit from a third party. Their importance lies in the fact that although rooted in ancient as it spread in all legal systems, across time and still keeping the same legal and economic importance.

  7. The Roman-Irish Bath: Medical/health history as therapeutic assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ronan

    2014-04-01

    The invention of a new form of hot-air bath in Blarney, Ireland in 1856, variously known in its lifetime as the Roman-Irish or Turkish Bath, acted as the starting point for a the production of a globalised therapeutic landscape. Tracking the diffusion of the Roman-Irish bath template from its local invention in Ireland to a global reach across the Victorian world and recognizing its place within a wider hydrotherapeutic history, this paper frames that diffusion as a valuable empirical addition to assemblage theory. The specific empirical history of the spread of the Roman-Irish/Turkish bath idea is drawn from primary archival and secondary historical sources. It is then discussed and, drawing from work on assemblage theory, analyzed against three broad themes: mobile networks, socio-material practices and contested emergence. The emergent relational geographies of the Roman-Irish Bath identify important roles for the diffusion and transformation of specific medical settings, identities and functions. These were linked in turn to competing social-healing pathways wherein bodies were technologically and morally managed, to produce a more inhabited form of therapeutic assemblage. In all cases the differential diffusion of the bath idea, it's shifting and fractured material forms and multiple inhabitations and discourses were contested and mobile and spoke to an assemblage approach which has ripe potential for exploration across a range of medical/health geography settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Cult of the Roman Emperor before and after Christianity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warmind, Morten

    1993-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a complete set of rituals and certain connected ideas, namely the Roman emperor-cult, that had survived the change of religion from Roman religion to Christianity. The rituals endure, even while their mythological basis is perishing. The emperor-cult includes the ritu......This paper is concerned with a complete set of rituals and certain connected ideas, namely the Roman emperor-cult, that had survived the change of religion from Roman religion to Christianity. The rituals endure, even while their mythological basis is perishing. The emperor-cult includes...

  9. Past Negative Time Perspective as a Predictor of Grade Point Average in Occupational Therapy Doctoral Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat J. Precin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Time perspective is a fundamental dimension in psychological time, dividing human experiences into past, present, and future. Time perspective influences individuals’ functioning in all occupations, including education. Previous research has examined the relationship between time perspective and academic outcomes, but the same research has not been done, to date, with occupational therapy doctoral students. This quantitative, cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between time perspective and academic success in occupational therapy doctoral students across the United States. Data from the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI and grade point averages (GPAs were collected from 50 participants via surveymonkey.com. Past Negative time perspective statistically predicted GPA in the negative direction (p = .001 for students in pre-professional OTD programs, but did not predict GPA for post-professional students. Age, gender, and learning environment did not significantly influence the prediction of GPA in either group. The method and results of this study demonstrate that the ZTPI, an instrument used in the field of psychology, may have value in the profession of occupational therapy and occupational therapy doctoral programs.

  10. Roman Lyariev, How to Skin Your Kill

    OpenAIRE

    Gedeeva, Darina; Ubushieva, Bamba; Babaev, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Roman explains how to skin a fox. First, one needs to prepare the ground by trampling it. Skinning should be done with a small sharp knife. A freshly killed fox skins easily. Then one needs to treat the skin with an anti-flea spray. At home the skin should be stretched on a triangular wooden panel called in Russian pravilka and left in a dry room for up to five days. People usually go hunting when foxes are on heat and are busy fighting with each other for females. When the wind is strong, fo...

  11. An ovarian teratoma of late Roman age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentano, Núria; Subirana, Mercè; Isidro, Albert; Escala, Oscar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-12-01

    We report here a very unusual pelvic calcification recovered from the remains of a 30-40-year-old woman found at the late Roman period archeological site of La Fogonussa (Lleida, Catalonia). Although differential diagnoses for calcifications of the pelvis are complicated in archeological contexts, the precise localization, macroscopic features, and the presence of teeth along with part of a small bone led us to identify this case as an ovarian teratoma, based upon gross observations and computerized tomography (CT). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Roman Engineering, Public Works and Importance of Public Objects in Roman Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ponte-Arrebola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The skill and ability of the Romans in civil engineering and public works largely contributed to the establishment and success of their civilization. Many of the constructed works were built for the possibility of public use and enjoyment by its citizens, known as res publicae in usu publico.

  13. Improving Gastric Cancer Outcome Prediction Using Single Time-Point Artificial Neural Network Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsaz-Dezfouli, Hamid; Abu-Bakar, Mohd Rizam; Arasan, Jayanthi; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin

    2017-01-01

    In cancer studies, the prediction of cancer outcome based on a set of prognostic variables has been a long-standing topic of interest. Current statistical methods for survival analysis offer the possibility of modelling cancer survivability but require unrealistic assumptions about the survival time distribution or proportionality of hazard. Therefore, attention must be paid in developing nonlinear models with less restrictive assumptions. Artificial neural network (ANN) models are primarily useful in prediction when nonlinear approaches are required to sift through the plethora of available information. The applications of ANN models for prognostic and diagnostic classification in medicine have attracted a lot of interest. The applications of ANN models in modelling the survival of patients with gastric cancer have been discussed in some studies without completely considering the censored data. This study proposes an ANN model for predicting gastric cancer survivability, considering the censored data. Five separate single time-point ANN models were developed to predict the outcome of patients after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years. The performance of ANN model in predicting the probabilities of death is consistently high for all time points according to the accuracy and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. PMID:28469384

  14. Geophysical investigations of the Olonium Roman site (Northern Como Lake)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlsan, Ermanno; Biella, Giancarlo; Boniolo, Graziano; Caporusso, Donatella; de Franco, Roberto; Lozej, Alfredo; Veronese, Luigi

    1999-03-01

    The study area is located at S. Agata (Gera Lario), a small center at the northern end of Como Lake, near the junction of Valchiavenna and Valtellina Valleys. This site played a strategic role since ancient times, providing the control on the communications routes to both the Como Lake and the Spluga and Septimer alpine passes. Since the end of the last century archaeological findings are reported in literature, also supported, from the early XI century, by archival documents confirming the existence of the `Olonium' settlement, an administrative and fiscal center of primary importance, as well as a parish amongst the most influential in the Como Lake area. Within an area of 45,000 m 2 an electrical survey has been carried out in conjunction with magnetic and GPR investigations. These studies have indicated the presence of a number of sub-areas characterized by significant anomalies defined by the overlapping of the results obtained from two or more geophysical methods. In two of such sub-areas, excavation tests have been conducted, which have brought to light a number of archaeological findings of interest. In one of the two sub-areas, which is characterized by the superimposition of electrical and radar anomalies, a deposit of large pebbles has been found. The origin of this deposit has not been ascertained, whether it is of fluvial origin, related to the deviation of the Adda river in the Pian di Spagna region in Roman times, or it is part of reclamation works, still of Roman times, of paleolacustrine marshes. The overlapping stratigraphy, however, suggests the development of fluvial channels between Roman and Low-Medieval times. In the other sub-area, excavations were carried out on sites defined by electrical and radar anomalies, and confirmed by the results from magnetic survey. The excavations brought to light, below the fluvial deposits, a large medieval edifice, which could be identified as the S. Stefano church abandoned in 1444. The church is built on

  15. Remo cum fratre Quirinus: Metamorphoses of the Roman Foundation Myth from its Beginnings to Horace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Tomažinčič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available From the first reference to Romulus by Alcimus, a historian from the mid-fourth century BC, where the hero appears alone, down to the age of Augustus, the story of the foundation of Rome underwent considerable plot changes. The two most important are, firstly, Romulus' later role not merely as a conditor urbis, but – in keeping with the Hellenistic tradition of ktiseis poleon – mainly as a creator gentis and a model of the new Roman, who can subsequently embody a new ethnic identity; and, secondly, the later dichotomy of the founders. The interpretation of the Roman foundation myth must be therefore closely associated with the symbolism of numbers – one founder as opposed to twin founders – as it is reflected in different socio-political and historical contexts. In addition to shaping society, myth also documents all its changes. In the context of replacing a single founder with twin founders, Romulus and Remus, the first critical change is the introduction of Remus. The twin founders imply a double community, a notion which becomes meaningful in Rome only after the plebeian achievement of political equality between 367 and 342 BC. The second significant change is the death of Remus, involving the notion of a foundation sacrifice, for which the evidence points to the crisis of 296 BC. The foundation story also serves as an explanation model for the events in the Late Roman Republic. Horace's pessimistic Seventh Epode evokes the foundation crime of fratricide to explain the tragic pattern of civil wars. As Romulus' successors, the Romans are also heirs to his crime, to the scelus fraternae necis, from which they cannot escape. Moreover, Romulus as a creator gentis represents a potential source for the Roman change of identity, which was regarded as coincidental with the foundation act. This recurring theme is elaborated first in Ennius' Annals and later in Vergil's Aeneid and Horace's Third ‘Roman Ode’. The central motif is Ennius

  16. Association between time to disease progression end points and overall survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Simron Singh,1 Xufang Wang,2 Calvin HL Law1 1Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Novartis Oncology, Florham Park, NJ, USA Abstract: Overall survival can be difficult to determine for slowly progressing malignancies, such as neuroendocrine tumors. We investigated whether time to disease progression is positively associated with overall survival in patients with such tumors. A literature review identified 22 clinical trials in patients with neuroendocrine tumors that reported survival probabilities for both time to disease progression (progression-free survival and time to progression and overall survival. Associations between median time to disease progression and median overall survival and between treatment effects on time to disease progression and treatment effects on overall survival were analyzed using weighted least-squares regression. Median time to disease progression was significantly associated with median overall survival (coefficient 0.595; P=0.022. In the seven randomized studies identified, the risk reduction for time to disease progression was positively associated with the risk reduction for overall survival (coefficient on −ln[HR] 0.151; 95% confidence interval −0.843, 1.145; P=0.713. The significant association between median time to disease progression and median overall survival supports the assertion that time to disease progression is an alternative end point to overall survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. An apparent albeit not significant trend correlates treatment effects on time to disease progression and treatment effects on overall survival. Informal surveys of physicians’ perceptions are consistent with these concepts, although additional randomized trials are needed. Keywords: neuroendocrine tumors, progression-free survival, disease progression, mortality

  17. A time domain inverse dynamic method for the end point tracking control of a flexible manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo; Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    The inverse dynamic equation of a flexible manipulator was solved in the time domain. By dividing the inverse system equation into the causal part and the anticausal part, we calculated the torque and the trajectories of all state variables for a given end point trajectory. The interpretation of this method in the frequency domain was explained in detail using the two-sided Laplace transform and the convolution integral. The open loop control of the inverse dynamic method shows an excellent result in simulation. For real applications, a practical control strategy is proposed by adding a feedback tracking control loop to the inverse dynamic feedforward control, and its good experimental performance is presented.

  18. Numerical instability of time-discretized one-point kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Kengo; Ikeda, Hideaki; Takeda, Toshikazu

    2000-01-01

    The one-point kinetic equations with numerical errors induced by the explicit, implicit and Crank-Nicolson integration methods are derived. The zero-power transfer functions based on the present equations are demonstrated to investigate the numerical stability of the discretized systems. These demonstrations indicate unconditional stability for the implicit and Crank-Nicolson methods but present the possibility of numerical instability for the explicit method. An upper limit of time mesh spacing for the stability is formulated and several numerical calculations are made to confirm the validity of this formula

  19. EBT time-dependent point model code: description and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.F.; Uckan, N.A.

    1977-07-01

    A D-T time-dependent point model has been developed to assess the energy balance in an EBT reactor plasma. Flexibility is retained in the model to permit more recent data to be incorporated as they become available from the theoretical and experimental studies. This report includes the physics models involved, the program logic, and a description of the variables and routines used. All the files necessary for execution are listed, and the code, including a post-execution plotting routine, is discussed

  20. End points for adjuvant therapy trials: has the time come to accept disease-free survival as a surrogate end point for overall survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sharlene; Sargent, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    The intent of adjuvant therapy is to eradicate micro-metastatic residual disease following curative resection with the goal of preventing or delaying recurrence. The time-honored standard for demonstrating efficacy of new adjuvant therapies is an improvement in overall survival (OS). This typically requires phase III trials of large sample size with lengthy follow-up. With the intent of reducing the cost and time of completing such trials, there is considerable interest in developing alternative or surrogate end points. A surrogate end point may be employed as a substitute to directly assess the effects of an intervention on an already accepted clinical end point such as mortality. When used judiciously, surrogate end points can accelerate the evaluation of new therapies, resulting in the more timely dissemination of effective therapies to patients. The current review provides a perspective on the suitability and validity of disease-free survival (DFS) as an alternative end point for OS. Criteria for establishing surrogacy and the advantages and limitations associated with the use of DFS as a primary end point in adjuvant clinical trials and as the basis for approval of new adjuvant therapies are discussed.

  1. Construction Materials Used in the Historical Roman Era Bath in Myra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Cem; Turker, Fikret

    2014-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of mortars and bricks used in the historical building that was erected at Myra within the boundaries of Antalya Province during the Roman time were investigated. The sample picked points were marked on the air photographs and plans of the buildings and samples were photographed. Then petrographic evaluation was made by stereo microscope on the polished surfaces of construction materials (mortar, brick) taken from such historical buildings in laboratory condition. Also, microstructural analyses (SEM/EDX, XRD), physical analyses (unit volume, water absorption by mass, water absorption by volume, specific mass, compacity, and porosity), chemical analyses (acid loss and sieve analysis, salt analyses, pH, protein, fat, pozzolanic activity, and conductivity analyses), and mechanical experiments (compressive strength, point loading test, and tensile strength at bending) were applied and the obtained results were evaluated. It was observed that good adherence was provided between the binder and the aggregate in mortars. It was also detected that bricks have preserved their originality against environmental, atmospheric, and physicochemical effects and their mechanical properties showed that they were produced by appropriate techniques. PMID:25089290

  2. Construction Materials Used in the Historical Roman Era Bath in Myra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Oguz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of mortars and bricks used in the historical building that was erected at Myra within the boundaries of Antalya Province during the Roman time were investigated. The sample picked points were marked on the air photographs and plans of the buildings and samples were photographed. Then petrographic evaluation was made by stereo microscope on the polished surfaces of construction materials (mortar, brick taken from such historical buildings in laboratory condition. Also, microstructural analyses (SEM/EDX, XRD, physical analyses (unit volume, water absorption by mass, water absorption by volume, specific mass, compacity, and porosity, chemical analyses (acid loss and sieve analysis, salt analyses, pH, protein, fat, pozzolanic activity, and conductivity analyses, and mechanical experiments (compressive strength, point loading test, and tensile strength at bending were applied and the obtained results were evaluated. It was observed that good adherence was provided between the binder and the aggregate in mortars. It was also detected that bricks have preserved their originality against environmental, atmospheric, and physicochemical effects and their mechanical properties showed that they were produced by appropriate techniques.

  3. Construction materials used in the historical Roman era bath in Myra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Cem; Turker, Fikret; Kockal, Niyazi Ugur

    2014-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of mortars and bricks used in the historical building that was erected at Myra within the boundaries of Antalya Province during the Roman time were investigated. The sample picked points were marked on the air photographs and plans of the buildings and samples were photographed. Then petrographic evaluation was made by stereo microscope on the polished surfaces of construction materials (mortar, brick) taken from such historical buildings in laboratory condition. Also, microstructural analyses (SEM/EDX, XRD), physical analyses (unit volume, water absorption by mass, water absorption by volume, specific mass, compacity, and porosity), chemical analyses (acid loss and sieve analysis, salt analyses, pH, protein, fat, pozzolanic activity, and conductivity analyses), and mechanical experiments (compressive strength, point loading test, and tensile strength at bending) were applied and the obtained results were evaluated. It was observed that good adherence was provided between the binder and the aggregate in mortars. It was also detected that bricks have preserved their originality against environmental, atmospheric, and physicochemical effects and their mechanical properties showed that they were produced by appropriate techniques.

  4. 1st Roman Young Researchers Meeting Proceedings

    CERN Document Server

    Cannuccia, E; Pietrobon, D; Stellato, F; Veneziani, M

    2009-01-01

    During the last few decades scientists have been able to test the bases of the physics paradigms, where the quantum mechanics has to match the cosmological scales. Between the extremes of this scenario, biological phenomena and their complexity take place, challenging the laws we observe in the atomic and sub-atomic world. In order to explore the details of this world, new huge experimental facilities are under construction. These projects involve people coming from several countries and give physicists the opportunity to work together with chemists, biologists and other scientists. The Roman Young Researchers Meeting is a conference, organised by Ph. D. students and young postdocs connected to the Roman area. It is aimed primarily at graduate students and post-docs, working in physics. The 1st conference has been held on the 21st of July 2009 at the University of Roma Tor Vergata. It was organised in three sessions, devoted to Astrophysics and Cosmology, Soft and Condensed Matter Physics and Theoretical and ...

  5. Tokoh Dan Penokohan Dalam Roman Panglipur Wuyung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Budi Utomo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkapkan model tokoh dan penokohan yang men­ jadi ciri umum dalam roman panglipur wuyung. Untuk itu, teori intrinsik yang mengkhususkan pa­da unsur tokoh dan penokohan digunakan untuk menganalisisnya. Dari hasil penelitian dapat di­ketahui bahwa sebagian besar tokoh dan penokohan dalam roman panglipur wuyung memiliki ti­pologi yang sama, yakni menampilkan tokoh berwatak datar (bersifat hitam­putih, tam­ pan/cantik, mengusung tokoh hero, dan lain­lain yang merupakan tokoh ideal dengan penggambaran yang klise. Abstract: This research aims to reveal the common feature of character and characterization models in the panglipur wuyung novelette. Therefore, the intrinsic theory specializing in characters and characterizations is used to analyze it. From the research result, it can be seen that most of the characters and characterizations in the panglipur wuyung novelette have the same typology, which shows flat character (black and white features handsome/beautiful, and carries the hero figures etc. which is an ideal figure of cliche depiction. Key Words: character and characterization, typology, panglipur wuyung novelette

  6. Relating 2-Rainbow Domination To Roman Domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado José D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For a graph G, let R(G and yr2(G denote the Roman domination number of G and the 2-rainbow domination number of G, respectively. It is known that yr2(G ≤ R(G ≤ 3/2yr2(G. Fujita and Furuya [Difference between 2-rainbow domination and Roman domination in graphs, Discrete Appl. Math. 161 (2013 806-812] present some kind of characterization of the graphs G for which R(G − yr2(G = k for some integer k. Unfortunately, their result does not lead to an algorithm that allows to recognize these graphs efficiently. We show that for every fixed non-negative integer k, the recognition of the connected K4-free graphs G with yR(G − yr2(G = k is NP-hard, which implies that there is most likely no good characterization of these graphs. We characterize the graphs G such that yr2(H = yR(H for every induced subgraph H of G, and collect several properties of the graphs G with R(G = 3/2yr2(G.

  7. Branch Point Withdrawal in Elongational Startup Flow by Time-Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, N.; Auhl, D.; Bailly, C.; Lindner, P.; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W.; Wischnewski, A.; Leal, L. G.; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Richter, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation of a blend composed of a dendritic polymer and a linear matrix with comparable viscosity in start-up of an elongational flow at Tg + 50. The two-generation dendritic polymer is diluted to 10% by weight in a matrix of a long well-entangled linear chains. Both components consist of mainly 1,4-cis-polyisoprene but differ in isotopic composition. The resulting scattering contrast is sufficiently high to permit time-resolved measurements of the system structure factor during the start-up phase and to follow the retraction processes involving the inner sections of the branched polymer in the nonlinear deformation response. The outer branches and the linear matrix, on the contrary, are in the linear deformation regime. The linear matrix dominates the rheological signature of the blend and the influence of the branched component can barely be detected. However, the neutron scattering intensity is predominantly that of the (branched) minority component so that its dynamics is clearly evident. In the present paper, we use the neutron scattering data to validate the branch point withdrawal process, which could not be unambiguously discerned from rheological measurements in this blend. The maximal tube stretch that the inner branches experience, before the relaxed outer arm material is incorporated into the tube is determined. The in situ scattering experiments demonstrate for the first time the leveling-off of the strain as the result of branch point withdrawal and chain retraction directly on the molecular level. We conclude that branch point motion in the mixture of architecturally complex polymers occurs earlier than would be expected in a purely branched system, presumably due to the different topological environment that the linear matrix presents to the hierarchically deep-buried tube sections. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  8. Branch Point Withdrawal in Elongational Startup Flow by Time-Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, N.

    2016-05-27

    We present a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation of a blend composed of a dendritic polymer and a linear matrix with comparable viscosity in start-up of an elongational flow at Tg + 50. The two-generation dendritic polymer is diluted to 10% by weight in a matrix of a long well-entangled linear chains. Both components consist of mainly 1,4-cis-polyisoprene but differ in isotopic composition. The resulting scattering contrast is sufficiently high to permit time-resolved measurements of the system structure factor during the start-up phase and to follow the retraction processes involving the inner sections of the branched polymer in the nonlinear deformation response. The outer branches and the linear matrix, on the contrary, are in the linear deformation regime. The linear matrix dominates the rheological signature of the blend and the influence of the branched component can barely be detected. However, the neutron scattering intensity is predominantly that of the (branched) minority component so that its dynamics is clearly evident. In the present paper, we use the neutron scattering data to validate the branch point withdrawal process, which could not be unambiguously discerned from rheological measurements in this blend. The maximal tube stretch that the inner branches experience, before the relaxed outer arm material is incorporated into the tube is determined. The in situ scattering experiments demonstrate for the first time the leveling-off of the strain as the result of branch point withdrawal and chain retraction directly on the molecular level. We conclude that branch point motion in the mixture of architecturally complex polymers occurs earlier than would be expected in a purely branched system, presumably due to the different topological environment that the linear matrix presents to the hierarchically deep-buried tube sections. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  9. Optimizing the diagnostic power with gastric emptying scintigraphy at multiple time points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Byron J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy (GES at intervals over 4 hours after a standardized radio-labeled meal is commonly regarded as the gold standard for diagnosing gastroparesis. The objectives of this study were: 1 to investigate the best time point and the best combination of multiple time points for diagnosing gastroparesis with repeated GES measures, and 2 to contrast and cross-validate Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, a rank based Distribution Free (DF approach, and the Classification And Regression Tree (CART model. Methods A total of 320 patients with GES measures at 1, 2, 3, and 4 hour (h after a standard meal using a standardized method were retrospectively collected. Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve and the rate of false classification through jackknife cross-validation were used for model comparison. Results Due to strong correlation and an abnormality in data distribution, no substantial improvement in diagnostic power was found with the best linear combination by LDA approach even with data transformation. With DF method, the linear combination of 4-h and 3-h increased the Area Under the Curve (AUC and decreased the number of false classifications (0.87; 15.0% over individual time points (0.83, 0.82; 15.6%, 25.3%, for 4-h and 3-h, respectively at a higher sensitivity level (sensitivity = 0.9. The CART model using 4 hourly GES measurements along with patient's age was the most accurate diagnostic tool (AUC = 0.88, false classification = 13.8%. Patients having a 4-h gastric retention value >10% were 5 times more likely to have gastroparesis (179/207 = 86.5% than those with ≤10% (18/113 = 15.9%. Conclusions With a mixed group of patients either referred with suspected gastroparesis or investigated for other reasons, the CART model is more robust than the LDA and DF approaches, capable of accommodating covariate effects and can be generalized for cross institutional applications, but

  10. Josephus' Antiquities 1-11 and Greco-Roman Historiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin

    The dissertation Josephus’ Antiquities 1-11 and Greco-Roman historiography provides an extensive study in five chapters of the various ways in which Josephus presents himself as an historian in the first eleven books of the Antiquities. From this analysis, it emerges that his manner of self......-portrayal is closely comparable with that of a number of Greco-Roman historians....

  11. Using Roman Sites: A Teacher's Guide. Education on Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Iain

    This book is about finding the evidence to help pupils discover the Romans, especially in Britain. The Romans changed the culture and landscape of Britain and left a wide range of evidence to be investigated today. Pupils need to be presented this range of evidence and the interpretations put on them. The evidence presented is both archaeological…

  12. Doctors in ancient Greek and Roman rhetorical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Craig A

    2013-10-01

    This article collects and examines all references to doctors in rhetorical exercises used in ancient Greek and Roman schools in the Roman Empire. While doctors are sometimes portrayed positively as philanthropic, expert practitioners of their divinely sanctioned art, they are more often depicted as facing charges for poisoning their patients.

  13. How to romanize Korean characters in international journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Huh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available For editors and manuscript editors, the romanization of Korean characters is a topic that should be understood thoroughly, because Korean proper nouns have become more widely used worldwide due to phenomena such as Hallyu (the Korean wave. In this report, I describe the 2 major romanization systems used in Korea: the Korean government’s romanization system and the McCune-Reischauer system. I also describe the transliteration guidelines presented in a variety of reference styles, such as the CSE (Council of Science Editors, ACS (American Chemical Society, AMA (American Medical Association, APA (American Psychological Association, IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers styles and the NLM (National Library of Medicine style guide. I found that 2 journals have adopted the Korean government’s romanization system, while 10 use the McCune-Reischauer system. Other journals do not specifically mention a romanization system. Editors should select a romanization system and use it consistently. When presenting a reference that includes romanized text, the journal’s house style should be followed, based on international reference citation styles. Chinese characters in documents published in Korea should be romanized according to the Korean pronunciation.

  14. Water consumption in Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, E; Slaus, M; O'Connell, T C

    2014-08-01

    Patterns of water consumption by past human populations are rarely considered, yet drinking behavior is socially mediated and access to water sources is often socially controlled. Oxygen isotope analysis of archeological human remains is commonly used to identify migrants in the archeological record, but it can also be used to consider water itself, as this technique documents water consumption rather than migration directly. Here, we report an oxygen isotope study of humans and animals from coastal regions of Croatia in the Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval periods. The results show that while faunal values have little diachronic variation, the human data vary through time, and there are wide ranges of values within each period. Our interpretation is that this is not solely a result of mobility, but that human behavior can and did lead to human oxygen isotope ratios that are different from that expected from consumption of local precipitation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Traditional and New Enhancing Human Cybernetic and Nanotechnological Body Modification Technologies: A Comparative Study of Roman Catholic and Transhumanist Ethical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, Michael J.

    Advances in cybernetic and nanotechnological body modifications currently allow for enhancements to human physical and mental function which exceed human species-based norms. This thesis examines body modification and human enhancement from two perspectives---Roman Catholicism and Transhumanism--- in order to contribute to bioethical deliberations regarding enhancement technologies. Roman Catholicism has a longstanding tradition of bioethical discourse, informing the healthcare directives of Roman Catholic institutions. Transhumanism is more recent movement that endorses body modifications and human enhancements as a means of individual betterment and social evolution. The thesis first considers definitions of human enhancement and levels of normalcy in connection to cybernetic and nanotechnological bionic implants, and outlines a series of criteria to assess a technology's potential bioethical acceptability: implantability, permanency, power, and public interaction. The thesis then describes Roman Catholicism's response to non-enhancing decorative body modifications (cosmetic surgeries, common decorative modifications such as tattoos and piercings, and uncommon modifications such as scarifications and brandings) in order to establish a basis for possible Roman Catholic responses to enhancing cybernetic and nanotechnological modifications. This is followed by an analysis from a Roman Catholic perspective of the major social issues brought forward by enhancement technologies: commodification, eugenics, vulnerability, and distributive justice. Turning to Transhumanism, the thesis describes the origins and philosophy of the movement, and then discusses the bioethical principles it advances with regard to human enhancement. The thesis concludes by locating points of convergence between Transhumanism and Roman Catholicism that could be the basis of more widely accepted ethical guidelines regarding modification technologies.

  16. Double point source W-phase inversion: Real-time implementation and automated model selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealy, Jennifer; Hayes, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and accurate characterization of an earthquake source is an extremely important and ever evolving field of research. Within this field, source inversion of the W-phase has recently been shown to be an effective technique, which can be efficiently implemented in real-time. An extension to the W-phase source inversion is presented in which two point sources are derived to better characterize complex earthquakes. A single source inversion followed by a double point source inversion with centroid locations fixed at the single source solution location can be efficiently run as part of earthquake monitoring network operational procedures. In order to determine the most appropriate solution, i.e., whether an earthquake is most appropriately described by a single source or a double source, an Akaike information criterion (AIC) test is performed. Analyses of all earthquakes of magnitude 7.5 and greater occurring since January 2000 were performed with extended analyses of the September 29, 2009 magnitude 8.1 Samoa earthquake and the April 19, 2014 magnitude 7.5 Papua New Guinea earthquake. The AIC test is shown to be able to accurately select the most appropriate model and the selected W-phase inversion is shown to yield reliable solutions that match published analyses of the same events.

  17. Repeated diffusion MRI reveals earliest time point for stratification of radiotherapy response in brain metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Faisal; Johannesen, Helle H; Geertsen, Poul

    2017-01-01

    An imaging biomarker for early prediction of treatment response potentially provides a non-invasive tool for better prognostics and individualized management of the disease. Radiotherapy (RT) response is generally related to changes in gross tumor volume manifesting months later. In this prospect......An imaging biomarker for early prediction of treatment response potentially provides a non-invasive tool for better prognostics and individualized management of the disease. Radiotherapy (RT) response is generally related to changes in gross tumor volume manifesting months later....... In this prospective study we investigated the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), perfusion fraction and pseudo diffusion coefficient derived from diffusion weighted MRI as potential early biomarkers for radiotherapy response of brain metastases. It was a particular aim to assess the optimal time point...

  18. Estimation of main diversification time-points of hantaviruses using phylogenetic analyses of complete genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Guillaume; Tordo, Noël; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2017-04-02

    Because of the great variability of their reservoir hosts, hantaviruses are excellent models to evaluate the dynamics of virus-host co-evolution. Intriguing questions remain about the timescale of the diversification events that influenced this evolution. In this paper we attempted to estimate the first ever timing of hantavirus diversification based on thirty five available complete genomes representing five major groups of hantaviruses and the assumption of co-speciation of hantaviruses with their respective mammal hosts. Phylogenetic analyses were used to estimate the main diversification points during hantavirus evolution in mammals while host diversification was mostly estimated from independent calibrators taken from fossil records. Our results support an earlier developed hypothesis of co-speciation of known hantaviruses with their respective mammal hosts and hence a common ancestor for all hantaviruses carried by placental mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Undergraduate Consent Form Reading in Relation to Conscientiousness, Procrastination, and the Point-of-Time Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Justin D; Hobbs, William B; Giordano, Peter J; Brunson, Olivia M

    2014-07-01

    Informed consent is central to conducting ethical research with human participants. The present study investigated differences in consent form reading in relation to conscientiousness, procrastination, and the point-of-time (PT) effect among undergraduate participants at a U.S. university. As hypothesized, conscientious participants and those who signed up to participate in a research study more days in advance and for earlier sessions (PT effect) read the consent form more thoroughly. However, procrastination was not related to consent form reading. Most importantly, consent form reading in general was poor, with 80% of participants demonstrating that they had not read the consent form. Conscientious participants were more likely to self-report reading the consent form, irrespective of their measured consent form reading. The article closes with suggestions to improve the process of obtaining informed consent with undergraduate participants. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Travel Time Estimation Using Freeway Point Detector Data Based on Evolving Fuzzy Neural Inference System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinjun; Zou, Yajie; Ash, John; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai

    2016-01-01

    Travel time is an important measurement used to evaluate the extent of congestion within road networks. This paper presents a new method to estimate the travel time based on an evolving fuzzy neural inference system. The input variables in the system are traffic flow data (volume, occupancy, and speed) collected from loop detectors located at points both upstream and downstream of a given link, and the output variable is the link travel time. A first order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy rule set is used to complete the inference. For training the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFNN), two learning processes are proposed: (1) a K-means method is employed to partition input samples into different clusters, and a Gaussian fuzzy membership function is designed for each cluster to measure the membership degree of samples to the cluster centers. As the number of input samples increases, the cluster centers are modified and membership functions are also updated; (2) a weighted recursive least squares estimator is used to optimize the parameters of the linear functions in the Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy rules. Testing datasets consisting of actual and simulated data are used to test the proposed method. Three common criteria including mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute relative error (MARE) are utilized to evaluate the estimation performance. Estimation results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the EFNN method through comparison with existing methods including: multiple linear regression (MLR), instantaneous model (IM), linear model (LM), neural network (NN), and cumulative plots (CP).

  1. Dual time point FDG PET imaging in evaluating pulmonary nodules with low FDG avidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiang; Zhao Jinhua; Song Jianhua; Xing Yan; Wang Taisong; Qiao Wenli

    2010-01-01

    A standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5 is frequently used as criteria to evaluate pulmonary lesions. However, false results may occur. Some studies have shown the usefulness of delayed PET for improving accuracy, while others recently have shown fewer promising results. This study was designed to investigate the accuracy of dual time point (DTP) FDG PET imaging in the evaluation of pulmonary lesions with an initial SUV less than 2.5. DTP FDG PET studies were conducted about 1 and 2 hours after FDG injection, and pulmonary lesions with an initial SUV less than 2.5 were identified. Nodules with pathologic results or imaging follow up were included. The differences in SUV and retention index (RI) between benign and malignant pulmonary lesions were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the discriminating validity of SUV and RI. 51 lesions were finally included. A RI greater than 0% was observed in 64% of the benign lesions; 56% had a RI greater than 10%. Among the malignancies, 80.8% had a RI greater than 0%, and 61.5% had a RI greater than 10%. We found no significant differences in SUV and RI between benign and malignant lesions. The area under the ROC curve did not differ from 0.5 whether using SUV or the retention index. Utilizing a SUV increase of 10%, the sensitivity was 61.5%, specificity 44% and accuracy was 52.9%. Dual time point FDG PET may not be of benefit in the evaluation of pulmonary nodules with low FDG avidity. (authors)

  2. Near-real-time regional troposphere models for the GNSS precise point positioning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadas, T; Kaplon, J; Bosy, J; Sierny, J; Wilgan, K

    2013-01-01

    The GNSS precise point positioning (PPP) technique requires high quality product (orbits and clocks) application, since their error directly affects the quality of positioning. For real-time purposes it is possible to utilize ultra-rapid precise orbits and clocks which are disseminated through the Internet. In order to eliminate as many unknown parameters as possible, one may introduce external information on zenith troposphere delay (ZTD). It is desirable that the a priori model is accurate and reliable, especially for real-time application. One of the open problems in GNSS positioning is troposphere delay modelling on the basis of ground meteorological observations. Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics of Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (IGG WUELS) has developed two independent regional troposphere models for the territory of Poland. The first one is estimated in near-real-time regime using GNSS data from a Polish ground-based augmentation system named ASG-EUPOS established by Polish Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography (GUGiK) in 2008. The second one is based on meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure and humidity) gathered from various meteorological networks operating over the area of Poland and surrounding countries. This paper describes the methodology of both model calculation and verification. It also presents results of applying various ZTD models into kinematic PPP in the post-processing mode using Bernese GPS Software. Positioning results were used to assess the quality of the developed models during changing weather conditions. Finally, the impact of model application to simulated real-time PPP on precision, accuracy and convergence time is discussed. (paper)

  3. New radiocarbon data to study the history of roman and medieval Florence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoldus-Huyzendveld, A.; Fedi, M.E.; Cantini, F.; Bruttini, J.; Cartocci, A.; Calabrisotto, C. Scire

    2010-01-01

    Florence is a town worldwide known for its Renaissance masterpieces. It is often forgotten that it was founded during Roman times and remained a small village until the end of the early Middle Ages, practically confined within the ancient Roman boundaries. Since 2003, an extended archaeological research executed by the University of Sienna has studied the most ancient layers in the centre of Florence with the aim to enhance both the archaeological and paleo-environmental reconstruction of this area. One of the peculiarities of these excavations is that the early medieval layers were poor in datable ceramics, thus charcoals were sampled from different stratigraphic layers in order to contribute to the dating. Several data have already been published; here we focus on the excavation site of Palazzo Vecchio, now the seat of the municipality of Florence. This area is located close to the Arno river, along the eastern margin of the slightly elevated height upon which the Roman town was founded; actually, in the layers beneath the surface, the Roman theatre is still preserved. Radiocarbon dating of charcoals was performed in the LABEC laboratory in Florence, at the AMS beam line of the AMS-IBA 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. Comparison of these new data with the former ones and with the archaeological and geological data adds new information especially on natural phenomena like floods and on the human occupation of this area in the past.

  4. Roman contre roman dans l’organisation du manuscrit du Vatican, Regina Latina 1725

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Gingras

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alors que les développements structuralistes et post-structuralistes ont favorisé la “textualisation” de la littérature médiévale, l’auteur suggère que la recontextualisation de la réception du roman médiéval passe par un retour aux manuscrits. Appliquée au manuscrit du Vatican, Regina Latina 1725, cette hypothèse de recherche révèle une technique de contrepoint que permet la juxtaposition de différents romans et dont, en dernier recours, le lecteur est toujours un peu juge.

  5. Stone mortars in Roman Cisalpine: new specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caffini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The mortar, made of stone or marble, represents artifact in Cisalpine widespread elsewhere in the Roman world. the morphologies are substantially grouped into two basic shapes: type 1 presents a hemispherical bowl more or less flattened, Type 2 is characterized by a conical reverse body, more or less flared. In the mortars were subjected to pounding and grinding, using a pestle driven by hand, raw materials of various origin. The fields of application were mainly three: alimentary, officinal and cosmetic. In some cases the generic definition of mortar is applied improperly to marble containers probably only be used for ornamental. It 'also demonstrated the use of artifacts attributable to type 2 as a function of urns. Therefore, in reference to decontextualized pieces, you should use a definition not unique, reflecting the different possible meanings of the artifact.

  6. Young adult females' views regarding online privacy protection at two time points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Kelleher, Erin; Ameenuddin, Nusheen; Rastogi, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    Risks associated with adolescent Internet use include exposure to inappropriate information and privacy violations. Privacy expectations and policies have changed over time. Recent Facebook security setting changes heighten these risks. The purpose of this study was to investigate views and experiences with Internet safety and privacy protection among older adolescent females at two time points, in 2009 and 2012. Two waves of focus groups were conducted, one in 2009 and the other in 2012. During these focus groups, female university students discussed Internet safety risks and strategies and privacy protection. All focus groups were audio recorded and manually transcribed. Qualitative analysis was conducted at the end of each wave and then reviewed and combined in a separate analysis using the constant comparative method. A total of 48 females participated across the two waves. The themes included (1) abundant urban myths, such as the ability for companies to access private information; (2) the importance of filtering one's displayed information; and (3) maintaining age limits on social media access to avoid younger teens' presence on Facebook. The findings present a complex picture of how adolescents view privacy protection and online safety. Older adolescents may be valuable partners in promoting safe and age-appropriate Internet use for younger teens in the changing landscape of privacy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Terahertz time domain interferometry of a SIS tunnel junction and a quantum point contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadi, Chandu [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1995-09-01

    The author has applied the Terahertz Time Domain Interferometric (THz-TDI) technique to probe the ultrafast dynamic response of a Superconducting-Insulating-Superconducting (SIS) tunnel junction and a Quantum Point Contact (QPC). The THz-TDI technique involves monitoring changes in the dc current induced by interfering two picosecond electrical pulses on the junction as a function of time delay between them. Measurements of the response of the Nb/AlOxNb SIS tunnel junction from 75--200 GHz are in full agreement with the linear theory for photon-assisted tunneling. Likewise, measurements of the induced current in a QPC as a function of source-drain voltage, gate voltage, frequency, and magnetic field also show strong evidence for photon-assisted transport. These experiments together demonstrate the general applicability of the THz-TDI technique to the characterization of the dynamic response of any micron or nanometer scale device that exhibits a non-linear I-V characteristic.

  8. Gene expression pattern at different time points following ALA-PDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verwanger, T.; Sanovic, R.; Ruhdorfer, S.; Aberger, F.; Frischauf, A.; Krammer, B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The photo sensitizer protoporphyrin IX, endogenously accumulated from the precursor aminolevulinic acid (ALA), is a successful agent in photodynamic tumor therapy. In spite of encouraging clinical results, the basic mechanisms leading to cell death are not fully understood. We therefore set out to analyze the alteration of the gene expression pattern in the squamous cell carcinoma cell line A-431 at different time points after photodynamic treatment with endogenous protoporphyrin IX by cDNA-array technique. Cells were incubated for 16 hours with 100 μg/ml ALA and irradiated with a fluence of 3.5 J/cm 2 resulting in 50 % survival until 8 hours post treatment. RNA was isolated at 1.5, 3, 5 and 8 hours post treatment as well as of 3 controls (untreated, light only and dark), radioactively labelled by reverse transcription with 33P-dCTP and hybridized onto macroarray PCR filters containing PCR products of 2135 genes, which were selected for relevance in tumors, stress response and signal transduction. Verification of observed expression changes was carried out by real time PCR. We found a strong induction of expression of immediate early genes like c-fos as well as decreased expression of genes involved in proliferation like myc and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). (author)

  9. The laboratory information float, time-based competition, and point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, B A

    1994-01-01

    A new term, the laboratory information float, should be substituted for turnaround-time when evaluating the performance of the clinical laboratory because it includes the time necessary to make test results both available (ready to use) and accessible (easy to use) to clinicians ordering tests. The laboratory information float can be greatly reduced simply by telescoping the analytic phase of laboratory testing into the preanalytic phase. Significant costs are incurred by such a change, some of which can be reduced by developing a mobile clinical laboratory (sometimes referred to as a "lab-on-a-slab" or "rolling thunder") to transport the analytic devices directly to patient care units. The mobile clinical laboratory should be equipped with an integrated personal computer that can communicate continuously with the host laboratory information system and achieve some semblance of continuous flow processing despite test performance in point-of-care venues. Equipping clinicians with palmtop computers will allow the mobile clinician to access test results and order tests on the run. Such devices can be easily configured to operate in a passive mode, accessing relevant information automatically instead of forcing clinicians to query the laboratory information system periodically for the test results necessary to render care to their patients. The laboratory information float of the year 2,000 will surely be measured in minutes through the judicious deployment of relevant technology such as mobile clinical laboratories and palmtop computers.

  10. Terahertz time domain interferometry of a SIS tunnel junction and a quantum point contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadi, C.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1995-09-01

    The author has applied the Terahertz Time Domain Interferometric (THz-TDI) technique to probe the ultrafast dynamic response of a Superconducting-Insulating-Superconducting (SIS) tunnel junction and a Quantum Point Contact (QPC). The THz-TDI technique involves monitoring changes in the dc current induced by interfering two picosecond electrical pulses on the junction as a function of time delay between them. Measurements of the response of the Nb/AlO x /Nb SIS tunnel junction from 75--200 GHz are in full agreement with the linear theory for photon-assisted tunneling. Likewise, measurements of the induced current in a QPC as a function of source-drain voltage, gate voltage, frequency, and magnetic field also show strong evidence for photon-assisted transport. These experiments together demonstrate the general applicability of the THz-TDI technique to the characterization of the dynamic response of any micron or nanometer scale device that exhibits a non-linear I-V characteristic. 133 refs., 49 figs

  11. Time Frame Affects Vantage Point in Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory: Evidence from Response Latencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy J. Karylowski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that, with the passage of time, representations of self in episodic memory become less dependent on their initial (internal vantage point and shift toward an external perspective that is normally characteristic of how other people are represented. The present experiment examined this phenomenon in both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory using latency of self-judgments as a measure of accessibility of the internal vs. the external perspective. Results confirmed that in the case of representations of the self retrieved from recent autobiographical memories, trait-judgments regarding unobservable self-aspects (internal perspective were faster than trait judgments regarding observable self-aspects (external perspective. Yet, in the case of self-representations retrieved from memories of a more distant past, judgments regarding observable self-aspects were faster. Those results occurred for both self-representations retrieved from episodic memory and for representations retrieved from the semantic memory. In addition, regardless of the effect of time, greater accessibility of unobservable (vs. observable self-aspects was associated with the episodic rather than semantic autobiographical memory. Those results were modified by neither declared trait’s self-descriptiveness (yes vs. no responses nor by its desirability (highly desirable vs. moderately desirable traits. Implications for compatibility between how self and others are represented and for the role of self in social perception are discussed.

  12. Time Frame Affects Vantage Point in Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory: Evidence from Response Latencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karylowski, Jerzy J; Mrozinski, Blazej

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests that, with the passage of time, representations of self in episodic memory become less dependent on their initial (internal) vantage point and shift toward an external perspective that is normally characteristic of how other people are represented. The present experiment examined this phenomenon in both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory using latency of self-judgments as a measure of accessibility of the internal vs. the external perspective. Results confirmed that in the case of representations of the self retrieved from recent autobiographical memories, trait-judgments regarding unobservable self-aspects (internal perspective) were faster than trait judgments regarding observable self-aspects (external perspective). Yet, in the case of self-representations retrieved from memories of a more distant past, judgments regarding observable self-aspects were faster. Those results occurred for both self-representations retrieved from episodic memory and for representations retrieved from the semantic memory. In addition, regardless of the effect of time, greater accessibility of unobservable (vs. observable) self-aspects was associated with the episodic rather than semantic autobiographical memory. Those results were modified by neither declared trait's self-descriptiveness ( yes vs. no responses) nor by its desirability (highly desirable vs. moderately desirable traits). Implications for compatibility between how self and others are represented and for the role of self in social perception are discussed.

  13. Decreasing Computational Time for VBBinaryLensing by Point Source Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirrell, Bethany M.; Visgaitis, Tiffany A.; Bozza, Valerio

    2018-01-01

    The gravitational lens of a binary system produces a magnification map that is more intricate than a single object lens. This map cannot be calculated analytically and one must rely on computational methods to resolve. There are generally two methods of computing the microlensed flux of a source. One is based on ray-shooting maps (Kayser, Refsdal, & Stabell 1986), while the other method is based on an application of Green’s theorem. This second method finds the area of an image by calculating a Riemann integral along the image contour. VBBinaryLensing is a C++ contour integration code developed by Valerio Bozza, which utilizes this method. The parameters at which the source object could be treated as a point source, or in other words, when the source is far enough from the caustic, was of interest to substantially decrease the computational time. The maximum and minimum values of the caustic curves produced, were examined to determine the boundaries for which this simplification could be made. The code was then run for a number of different maps, with separation values and accuracies ranging from 10-1 to 10-3, to test the theoretical model and determine a safe buffer for which minimal error could be made for the approximation. The determined buffer was 1.5+5q, with q being the mass ratio. The theoretical model and the calculated points worked for all combinations of the separation values and different accuracies except the map with accuracy and separation equal to 10-3 for y1 max. An alternative approach has to be found in order to accommodate a wider range of parameters.

  14. Travel Time Estimation Using Freeway Point Detector Data Based on Evolving Fuzzy Neural Inference System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjun Tang

    Full Text Available Travel time is an important measurement used to evaluate the extent of congestion within road networks. This paper presents a new method to estimate the travel time based on an evolving fuzzy neural inference system. The input variables in the system are traffic flow data (volume, occupancy, and speed collected from loop detectors located at points both upstream and downstream of a given link, and the output variable is the link travel time. A first order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy rule set is used to complete the inference. For training the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFNN, two learning processes are proposed: (1 a K-means method is employed to partition input samples into different clusters, and a Gaussian fuzzy membership function is designed for each cluster to measure the membership degree of samples to the cluster centers. As the number of input samples increases, the cluster centers are modified and membership functions are also updated; (2 a weighted recursive least squares estimator is used to optimize the parameters of the linear functions in the Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy rules. Testing datasets consisting of actual and simulated data are used to test the proposed method. Three common criteria including mean absolute error (MAE, root mean square error (RMSE, and mean absolute relative error (MARE are utilized to evaluate the estimation performance. Estimation results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the EFNN method through comparison with existing methods including: multiple linear regression (MLR, instantaneous model (IM, linear model (LM, neural network (NN, and cumulative plots (CP.

  15. The signed Roman domatic number of a digraph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmoud Sheikholeslami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Let $D$ be a finite and simple digraph with vertex set $V(D$.A {\\em signed Roman dominating function} on the digraph $D$ isa function  $f:V (D\\longrightarrow \\{-1, 1, 2\\}$ such that$\\sum_{u\\in N^-[v]}f(u\\ge 1$ for every $v\\in V(D$, where $N^-[v]$ consists of $v$ andall inner neighbors of $v$, and every vertex $u\\in V(D$ for which $f(u=-1$ has an innerneighbor $v$ for which $f(v=2$. A set $\\{f_1,f_2,\\ldots,f_d\\}$ of distinct signedRoman dominating functions on $D$ with the property that $\\sum_{i=1}^df_i(v\\le 1$ for each$v\\in V(D$, is called a {\\em signed Roman dominating family} (of functions on $D$. The maximumnumber of functions in a signed Roman dominating family on $D$ is the {\\em signed Roman domaticnumber} of $D$, denoted by $d_{sR}(D$. In this paper we initiate the study of signed Romandomatic number in digraphs and we present some sharp bounds for $d_{sR}(D$. In addition, wedetermine the signed Roman domatic number of some digraphs.  Some of our results are extensionsof well-known properties of the signed Roman domatic number of graphs.

  16. A new integrated dual time-point amyloid PET/MRI data analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchin, Diego; Zucchetta, Pietro; Turco, Paolo; Bui, Franco [University Hospital of Padua, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine - DIMED, Padua (Italy); Barthel, Henryk; Tiepolt, Solveig; Sabri, Osama [Leipzig University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Poggiali, Davide; Cagnin, Annachiara; Gallo, Paolo [University Hospital of Padua, Neurology, Department of Neurosciences (DNS), Padua (Italy); Frigo, Anna Chiara [University Hospital of Padua, Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Public Health Unit, Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, Padua (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    In the initial evaluation of patients with suspected dementia and Alzheimer's disease, there is no consensus on how to perform semiquantification of amyloid in such a way that it: (1) facilitates visual qualitative interpretation, (2) takes the kinetic behaviour of the tracer into consideration particularly with regard to at least partially correcting for blood flow dependence, (3) analyses the amyloid load based on accurate parcellation of cortical and subcortical areas, (4) includes partial volume effect correction (PVEC), (5) includes MRI-derived topographical indexes, (6) enables application to PET/MRI images and PET/CT images with separately acquired MR images, and (7) allows automation. A method with all of these characteristics was retrospectively tested in 86 subjects who underwent amyloid ({sup 18}F-florbetaben) PET/MRI in a clinical setting (using images acquired 90-110 min after injection, 53 were classified visually as amyloid-negative and 33 as amyloid-positive). Early images after tracer administration were acquired between 0 and 10 min after injection, and later images were acquired between 90 and 110 min after injection. PVEC of the PET data was carried out using the geometric transfer matrix method. Parametric images and some regional output parameters, including two innovative ''dual time-point'' indexes, were obtained. Subjects classified visually as amyloid-positive showed a sparse tracer uptake in the primary sensory, motor and visual areas in accordance with the isocortical stage of the topographic distribution of the amyloid plaque (Braak stages V/VI). In patients classified visually as amyloid-negative, the method revealed detectable levels of tracer uptake in the basal portions of the frontal and temporal lobes, areas that are known to be sites of early deposition of amyloid plaques that probably represented early accumulation (Braak stage A) that is typical of normal ageing. There was a strong correlation between

  17. A new integrated dual time-point amyloid PET/MRI data analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchin, Diego; Zucchetta, Pietro; Turco, Paolo; Bui, Franco; Barthel, Henryk; Tiepolt, Solveig; Sabri, Osama; Poggiali, Davide; Cagnin, Annachiara; Gallo, Paolo; Frigo, Anna Chiara

    2017-01-01

    In the initial evaluation of patients with suspected dementia and Alzheimer's disease, there is no consensus on how to perform semiquantification of amyloid in such a way that it: (1) facilitates visual qualitative interpretation, (2) takes the kinetic behaviour of the tracer into consideration particularly with regard to at least partially correcting for blood flow dependence, (3) analyses the amyloid load based on accurate parcellation of cortical and subcortical areas, (4) includes partial volume effect correction (PVEC), (5) includes MRI-derived topographical indexes, (6) enables application to PET/MRI images and PET/CT images with separately acquired MR images, and (7) allows automation. A method with all of these characteristics was retrospectively tested in 86 subjects who underwent amyloid ( 18 F-florbetaben) PET/MRI in a clinical setting (using images acquired 90-110 min after injection, 53 were classified visually as amyloid-negative and 33 as amyloid-positive). Early images after tracer administration were acquired between 0 and 10 min after injection, and later images were acquired between 90 and 110 min after injection. PVEC of the PET data was carried out using the geometric transfer matrix method. Parametric images and some regional output parameters, including two innovative ''dual time-point'' indexes, were obtained. Subjects classified visually as amyloid-positive showed a sparse tracer uptake in the primary sensory, motor and visual areas in accordance with the isocortical stage of the topographic distribution of the amyloid plaque (Braak stages V/VI). In patients classified visually as amyloid-negative, the method revealed detectable levels of tracer uptake in the basal portions of the frontal and temporal lobes, areas that are known to be sites of early deposition of amyloid plaques that probably represented early accumulation (Braak stage A) that is typical of normal ageing. There was a strong correlation between age

  18. Real Time Precise Point Positioning: Preliminary Results for the Brazilian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Haroldo; Monico, João.; Hirokazu Shimabukuro, Milton; Aquino, Marcio

    2010-05-01

    GNSS positioning can be carried out in relative or absolute approach. In the last years, more attention has been driven to the real time precise point positioning (PPP). To achieve centimeter accuracy with this method in real time it is necessary to have available the satellites precise coordinates as well as satellites clocks corrections. The coordinates can be used from the predicted IGU ephemeris, but the satellites clocks must be estimated in a real time. It can be made from a GNSS network as can be seen from EUREF Permanent Network. The infra-structure to realize the PPP in real time is being available in Brazil through the Brazilian Continuous Monitoring Network (RBMC) together with the Sao Paulo State GNSS network which are transmitting GNSS data using NTRIP (Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol) caster. Based on this information it was proposed a PhD thesis in the Univ. Estadual Paulista (UNESP) aiming to investigate and develop the methodology to estimate the satellites clocks and realize PPP in real time. Then, software is being developed to process GNSS data in the real time PPP mode. A preliminary version of the software was called PPP_RT and is able to process GNSS code and phase data using precise ephemeris and satellites clocks. The PPP processing can be accomplished considering the absolute satellite antenna Phase Center Variation (PCV), Ocean Tide Loading (OTL), Earth Body Tide, among others. The first order ionospheric effects can be eliminated or minimized by ion-free combination or parameterized in the receiver-satellite direction using a stochastic process, e.g. random walk or white noise. In the case of ionosphere estimation, a pseudo-observable is introduced in the mathematical model for each satellite and the initial value can be computed from Klobuchar model or from Global Ionospheric Map (GIM). The adjustment is realized in the recursive mode and the DIA (Detection Identification and Adaptation) is used for quality control. In

  19. Divorce by consent in Roman law and contemporary law

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatović Marija; Kitanović Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The subject matter of this paper is divorce by mutual consent in Roman law and contemporary law. In the first part of this article, the authors analyzes the key tenets of consensual divorce in Roman law, with specific reference to the impact of Christian religious teaching on the concepts of marriage and divorce as well as on the Roman rulers' constitutions, which marked the beginning of the process of restricting the right to divorce. In the central part of the paper, the authors examines th...

  20. Improving multi-GNSS ultra-rapid orbit determination for real-time precise point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Chen, Xinghan; Ge, Maorong; Schuh, Harald

    2018-03-01

    Currently, with the rapid development of multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), the real-time positioning and navigation are undergoing dramatic changes with potential for a better performance. To provide more precise and reliable ultra-rapid orbits is critical for multi-GNSS real-time positioning, especially for the three merging constellations Beidou, Galileo and QZSS which are still under construction. In this contribution, we present a five-system precise orbit determination (POD) strategy to fully exploit the GPS + GLONASS + BDS + Galileo + QZSS observations from CDDIS + IGN + BKG archives for the realization of hourly five-constellation ultra-rapid orbit update. After adopting the optimized 2-day POD solution (updated every hour), the predicted orbit accuracy can be obviously improved for all the five satellite systems in comparison to the conventional 1-day POD solution (updated every 3 h). The orbit accuracy for the BDS IGSO satellites can be improved by about 80, 45 and 50% in the radial, cross and along directions, respectively, while the corresponding accuracy improvement for the BDS MEO satellites reaches about 50, 20 and 50% in the three directions, respectively. Furthermore, the multi-GNSS real-time precise point positioning (PPP) ambiguity resolution has been performed by using the improved precise satellite orbits. Numerous results indicate that combined GPS + BDS + GLONASS + Galileo (GCRE) kinematic PPP ambiguity resolution (AR) solutions can achieve the shortest time to first fix (TTFF) and highest positioning accuracy in all coordinate components. With the addition of the BDS, GLONASS and Galileo observations to the GPS-only processing, the GCRE PPP AR solution achieves the shortest average TTFF of 11 min with 7{°} cutoff elevation, while the TTFF of GPS-only, GR, GE and GC PPP AR solution is 28, 15, 20 and 17 min, respectively. As the cutoff elevation increases, the reliability and accuracy of GPS-only PPP AR solutions

  1. Studying the potential of point detectors in time-resolved dose verification of dynamic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beierholm, A.R.; Behrens, C.F.; Andersen, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    Modern megavoltage x-ray radiotherapy with high spatial and temporal dose gradients puts high demands on the entire delivery system, including not just the linear accelerator and the multi-leaf collimator, but also algorithms used for optimization and dose calculations, and detectors used for quality assurance and dose verification. In this context, traceable in-phantom dosimetry using a well-characterized point detector is often an important supplement to 2D-based quality assurance methods based on radiochromic film or detector arrays. In this study, an in-house developed dosimetry system based on fiber-coupled plastic scintillator detectors was evaluated and compared with a Farmer-type ionization chamber and a small-volume ionization chamber. An important feature of scintillator detectors is that the sensitive volume of the detector can easily be scaled, and five scintillator detectors of different scintillator length were thus employed to quantify volume averaging effects by direct measurement. The dosimetric evaluation comprised several complex-shape static fields as well as simplified dynamic deliveries using RapidArc, a volumetric-modulated arc therapy modality often used at the participating clinic. The static field experiments showed that the smallest scintillator detectors were in the best agreement with dose calculations, while needing the smallest volume averaging corrections. Concerning total dose measured during RapidArc, all detectors agreed with dose calculations within 1.1 ± 0.7% when positioned in regions of high homogenous dose. Larger differences were observed for high dose gradient and organ at risk locations, were differences between measured and calculated dose were as large as 8.0 ± 5.5%. The smallest differences were generally seen for the small-volume ionization chamber and the smallest scintillators. The time-resolved RapidArc dose profiles revealed volume-dependent discrepancies between scintillator and ionization chamber response

  2. GPU-accelerated element-free reverse-time migration with Gauss points partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Jia, Xiaofeng; Qiang, Xiaodong

    2018-06-01

    An element-free method (EFM) has been demonstrated successfully in elasticity, heat conduction and fatigue crack growth problems. We present the theory of EFM and its numerical applications in seismic modelling and reverse time migration (RTM). Compared with the finite difference method and the finite element method, the EFM has unique advantages: (1) independence of grids in computation and (2) lower expense and more flexibility (because only the information of the nodes and the boundary of the concerned area is required). However, in EFM, due to improper computation and storage of some large sparse matrices, such as the mass matrix and the stiffness matrix, the method is difficult to apply to seismic modelling and RTM for a large velocity model. To solve the problem of storage and computation efficiency, we propose a concept of Gauss points partition and utilise the graphics processing unit to improve the computational efficiency. We employ the compressed sparse row format to compress the intermediate large sparse matrices and attempt to simplify the operations by solving the linear equations with CULA solver. To improve the computation efficiency further, we introduce the concept of the lumped mass matrix. Numerical experiments indicate that the proposed method is accurate and more efficient than the regular EFM.

  3. SUVmax by dual time point FDG-PET/CT in recurrent breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Malene; Blomberg, Björn; Falch Braas, Kirsten

    ROVER software without partial volume correction. Pearson correlation analysis and Bland-Altman statistics summarized the data. Results The overall mean SUVmax was 8.4 g/mL (SD=3.8) at 1h and 10.9 g/mL (SD=4.7) at 3h. The table displays the Pearson’s r and Bland-Altman statistics. The correlation...... between the two independent observers at 1h and 3h was relatively modest, with r statistics of 0.88 and 0.89, respectively. The intraobserver and intersoftware analyses showed a high correlation, with r statistics of 0.99 to 1.00. Conclusions The interobserver variability was small for both time points......, but slightly greater than the intraobserver and intersoftware variability. This could be explained by a difference in observer selection of FDG avid lesions in patients with multiple lesions. Table Analysis Pearson’s r (95% CI) Bland-Altman plot Mean difference (95% CI) 1h Interobserver 0.88 (0.82 – 0.92) -0...

  4. Climate, hydrology, land use, and environmental degradation in the lower Rhone Valley during the Roman period

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Leeuw, Sander E.; The Archaeomedes Research Team

    2005-02-01

    This paper's aims are three: firstly, to demonstrate the importance of a long-term perspective on socio-environmental dynamics; secondly, to show the relevance of archaeological data in constructing such a long-term history of such dynamics; thirdly, to illustrate with a case study how one may identify the component processes of environmental change from archaeological materials. Taking the Roman occupation of the middle and lower Rhone Valley as a point of departure, the paper identifies some of the processes of regional environmental change. Firstly, it demonstrates the existence of a regional phase of climate degradation during the 2nd century AD. It is in all probability of anthropogenic origin. This degradation seems to have been caused by widespread deforestation in preparation for intensive cultivation of cereals, wine and olives for export to other parts of the Roman Empire. Next, it isolates the principal interactions occurring between relief, soils, and water on the one hand, and the societal dynamics on the other. The location of each settlement is considered representative of an environmental choice, made by its founders at the time the settlement is initiated. These environmental choices, in turn, reflect the perception of the landscape and its resources by the settlers. The principal indicators at our disposal for this study are the relief, soil, and hydrological maps. They are used as a basis for the calculation of the altitude, slope, orientation, annual solar radiation, exposure to the prevailing winds, and fertility of the soil of all sites and their environment. Subsequently, preferences are calculated statistically based on the 1000-odd settlements concerned. The third part of the paper concerns the evolution of the sites. It turns out that the earlier ones are the most successful, in part because they occupied the best locations, but also because they structured the landscape and the territory to their advantage, determined the road network

  5. Analyzing survival curves at a fixed point in time for paired and clustered right-censored data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pei-Fang; Chi, Yunchan; Lee, Chun-Yi; Shyr, Yu; Liao, Yi-De

    2018-01-01

    In clinical trials, information about certain time points may be of interest in making decisions about treatment effectiveness. Rather than comparing entire survival curves, researchers can focus on the comparison at fixed time points that may have a clinical utility for patients. For two independent samples of right-censored data, Klein et al. (2007) compared survival probabilities at a fixed time point by studying a number of tests based on some transformations of the Kaplan-Meier estimators of the survival function. However, to compare the survival probabilities at a fixed time point for paired right-censored data or clustered right-censored data, their approach would need to be modified. In this paper, we extend the statistics to accommodate the possible within-paired correlation and within-clustered correlation, respectively. We use simulation studies to present comparative results. Finally, we illustrate the implementation of these methods using two real data sets. PMID:29456280

  6. Contextualizing the sacred in the Hellenistic and Roman Near East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The study of religion and religious identities in the Hellenistic and Roman Near East has been a focus within archaeology and ancient history for centuries. Yet the transition between the Hellenistic and Roman period remains difficult to grasp from the archaeological and epigraphic evidence....... This volume brings together contributions by leading scholars working on religious identity and religion in the Hellenistic and Roman periods in the Roman Near East. For this volume they have been asked to address a variety of questions concerning religion, religious development, and religious identities from...... literary tradition, but when seen through the lens of contextualization, the material and textual evidence brings forward new narratives about the great variations in worship, myths, and identities, as well as the different religious systems of the region and of the people inhabiting it. The contributions...

  7. Kerttu Wagner. Die historischen romane von Jaan Kross / Wolfgang Drechsler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Drechsler, Wolfgang, 1963-

    2001-01-01

    Arvustus: Wagner, Kerttu. Die historischen Romane von Jaan Kross : am Beispiel einer Untersuchung der deutschen und englischen Übersetzungen von "Professor Martensi ärasõit" (1984). Frankfurt am Main [etc.] : P. Lang, 2001.

  8. Divorce by consent in Roman law and contemporary law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is divorce by mutual consent in Roman law and contemporary law. In the first part of this article, the authors analyzes the key tenets of consensual divorce in Roman law, with specific reference to the impact of Christian religious teaching on the concepts of marriage and divorce as well as on the Roman rulers' constitutions, which marked the beginning of the process of restricting the right to divorce. In the central part of the paper, the authors examines the regulation on the consensual divorce in some contemporary legal systems. In addition, the authors provides a substantial analysis of the normative framework on the termination of marriage in the positive Serbian legislation. In the final part of the paper, the authors provides a comparative analysis and underscores the observed similarities and differenced in the regulation of the institute of consensual divorce in Roman law and in the contemporary legislation.

  9. Relationship Between Dual Time Point FDG PET and Immunohistochemical Parameters in Preoperative Colorectal Cancer: Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen; Lee, Won Ae; Park, Seok Gun; Park, Dong Kook; Namgung, Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The clinical availability of 2 deoxy 2 [18F] fluoro D glucose (FDG) dual time point positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (DTPP) has been investigated in diverse oncologic fields. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the relationship between various immunohistopathologic markers reflecting disease progression of colorectal cancer and parameters extracted from FDG DTPP in colorectal cancer patients. Forty seven patients with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer were analyzed in this preliminary study. FDG DTPP consisted of an early scan 1 h after FDG injection and a delayed scan 1.5 h after the early scan. Based on an analysis of FDG DTPP, we estimated the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of tumors on the early and delayed scans (SUV earlya nd SUV delayed, respectively). The retention index (RI) was calculated as follows: (SUV delayed- SUV early) x 100/ SUV early. The clinicopathological findings (size and T and N stages) and immunohistochemical factors [glucose transporter 1 (GLUT 1), hexokinase 2 (HK 2), p53, P504S, and β catenin] were analyzed by visual analysis. The RIs calculated from the SUVs ranged from -1.8 to 73.4 (31.8±15.5). The RIs were significantly higher in patients with high T stages (T3 and T4) than with low T stages (T1 and T2; P earlya nd SUV delayeda nd clinicopathologic parameters in this study. The RIs obtained from preoperative colorectal cancers had a significant relationship to tumor size, T staging, GLUT 1, and p53, in contrast to SUV earlyo r SUV delayed. Compared with previous reports, our results showed that RI can better predict GLUT 1 expression than HK 2 and other immunohistochemical markers. This study demonstrated that the RI might have the potential to be applied as a prognostic marked in preoperative colorectal cancer

  10. Suicidal behaviour in the ancient Greek and Roman world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykouras, L; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Tsiamis, C; Ploumpidis, D

    2013-12-01

    We attempt to present and analyze suicidal behaviour in the ancient Greek and Roman world. Drawing information from ancient Greek and Latin sources (History, Philosophy, Medicine, Literature, Visual Arts) we aim to point out psychological and social aspects of suicidal behaviour in antiquity. The shocking exposition of suicides reveals the zeitgeist of each era and illustrates the prevailing concepts. Social and legal reactions appear ambivalent, as they can oscillate from acceptance and interpretation of the act to punishment. In the history of these attitudes, we can observe continuities and breaches, reserving a special place in cases of mental disease. The delayed emergence of a generally accepted term for the voluntary exit from life (the term suicidium established during the 17th century), is connected to reactions triggered by the act of suicide than to the frequency and the extent of the phenomenon. The social environment of the person, who voluntary ends his life usually dictates the behaviour and historical evidence confirms the phenomenon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Trade and Transport in Late Roman Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Christopher

    Despite the relative notoriety and miraculous level of preservation of the Dead Cities of Syria, fundamental questions of economic and subsistence viability remain unanswered. In the 1950s Georges Tchalenko theorized that these sites relied on intensive olive monoculture to mass export olive oil to urban centers. Later excavations discovered widespread cultivation of grains, fruit, and beans which directly contradicted Tchalenko's assertion of sole reliance on oleoculture. However, innumerable olive presses in and around the Dead Cities still speak to a strong tradition of olive production. This thesis tests the logistical viability of olive oil transportation from the Dead Cities to the distant urban centers of Antioch and Apamea. Utilization of Raster GIS and remote sensing data allows for the reconstruction of the physical and social landscapes of Late Roman Syria. Least Cost Analysis techniques produce a quantitative and testable model with which to simulate and evaluate the viability of long distance olive oil trade. This model not only provides a clearer understanding of the nature of long distance trade relationships in Syria, but also provides a model for investigating ancient economic systems elsewhere in the world. Furthermore, this project allows for the generation of new information regarding sites that are currently inaccessible to researchers.

  12. Guidelines for time-to-event end-point definitions in trials for pancreatic cancer. Results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End-points in CANcer trials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnetain, Franck; Bonsing, Bert; Conroy, Thierry; Dousseau, Adelaide; Glimelius, Bengt; Haustermans, Karin; Lacaine, François; Van Laethem, Jean Luc; Aparicio, Thomas; Aust, Daniela; Bassi, Claudio; Berger, Virginie; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Chibaudel, Benoist; Dahan, Laeticia; De Gramont, Aimery; Delpero, Jean Robert; Dervenis, Christos; Ducreux, Michel; Gal, Jocelyn; Gerber, Erich; Ghaneh, Paula; Hammel, Pascal; Hendlisz, Alain; Jooste, Valérie; Labianca, Roberto; Latouche, Aurelien; Lutz, Manfred; Macarulla, Teresa; Malka, David; Mauer, Muriel; Mitry, Emmanuel; Neoptolemos, John; Pessaux, Patrick; Sauvanet, Alain; Tabernero, Josep; Taieb, Julien; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Gourgou-Bourgade, Sophie; Bellera, Carine; Mathoulin-Pélissier, Simone; Collette, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    Using potential surrogate end-points for overall survival (OS) such as Disease-Free- (DFS) or Progression-Free Survival (PFS) is increasingly common in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, end-points are too often imprecisely defined which largely contributes to a lack of homogeneity across trials, hampering comparison between them. The aim of the DATECAN (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End-points in CANcer trials)-Pancreas project is to provide guidelines for standardised definition of time-to-event end-points in RCTs for pancreatic cancer. Time-to-event end-points currently used were identified from a literature review of pancreatic RCT trials (2006-2009). Academic research groups were contacted for participation in order to select clinicians and methodologists to participate in the pilot and scoring groups (>30 experts). A consensus was built after 2 rounds of the modified Delphi formal consensus approach with the Rand scoring methodology (range: 1-9). For pancreatic cancer, 14 time to event end-points and 25 distinct event types applied to two settings (detectable disease and/or no detectable disease) were considered relevant and included in the questionnaire sent to 52 selected experts. Thirty experts answered both scoring rounds. A total of 204 events distributed over the 14 end-points were scored. After the first round, consensus was reached for 25 items; after the second consensus was reached for 156 items; and after the face-to-face meeting for 203 items. The formal consensus approach reached the elaboration of guidelines for standardised definitions of time-to-event end-points allowing cross-comparison of RCTs in pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2016-05-01

    To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced occlusions. The authors have

  14. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenyang; Cheung, Yam; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. Methods: The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. Results: On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced

  15. A robust real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenyang [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Cheung, Yam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Sawant, Amit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas, 75390 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To develop a robust and real-time surface reconstruction method on point clouds captured from a 3D surface photogrammetry system. Methods: The authors have developed a robust and fast surface reconstruction method on point clouds acquired by the photogrammetry system, without explicitly solving the partial differential equation required by a typical variational approach. Taking advantage of the overcomplete nature of the acquired point clouds, their method solves and propagates a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud manifold to the surface manifold, assuming both manifolds share similar local geometry. With relatively consistent point cloud acquisitions, the authors propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, assuming that the point correspondences built by the iterative closest point (ICP) is reasonably accurate and have residual errors following a Gaussian distribution. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions during the acquisition, the authors further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to model the potentially large and sparse error built by ICP with a Laplacian prior. The authors evaluated the proposed method on both clinical point clouds acquired under consistent acquisition conditions and on point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The authors quantitatively evaluated the reconstruction performance with respect to root-mean-squared-error, by comparing its reconstruction results against that from the variational method. Results: On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models have achieved sub-millimeter reconstruction accuracy and reduced the reconstruction time by two orders of magnitude to a subsecond reconstruction time. On point clouds with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent and robust performance despite the introduced

  16. New definitions of pointing stability - ac and dc effects. [constant and time-dependent pointing error effects on image sensor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Robert L.; Sirlin, Samuel W.; San Martin, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    For most imaging sensors, a constant (dc) pointing error is unimportant (unless large), but time-dependent (ac) errors degrade performance by either distorting or smearing the image. When properly quantified, the separation of the root-mean-square effects of random line-of-sight motions into dc and ac components can be used to obtain the minimum necessary line-of-sight stability specifications. The relation between stability requirements and sensor resolution is discussed, with a view to improving communication between the data analyst and the control systems engineer.

  17. Stochastic modelling for biodosimetry: Predicting the chromosomal response to radiation at different time points after exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deperas-Standylo, Joanna; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Ritter, Sylvia

    2014-07-01

    Cytogenetic data accumulated from the experiments with peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to densely ionizing radiation clearly demonstrate that for particles with linear energy transfer (LET) >100 keV/ μm the derived relative biological effectiveness (RBE) will strongly depend on the time point chosen for the analysis. A reasonable prediction of radiation-induced chromosome damage and its distribution among cells can be achieved by exploiting Monte Carlo methodology along with the information about the radius of the penetrating ion-track and the LET of the ion beam. In order to examine the relationship between the track structure and the distribution of aberrations induced in human lymphocytes and to clarify the correlation between delays in the cell cycle progression and the aberration burden visible at the first post-irradiation mitosis, we have analyzed chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes exposed to Fe-ions with LET values of 335 keV/ μm and formulated a Monte Carlo model which reflects time-delay in mitosis of aberrant cells. Within the model the frequency distributions of aberrations among cells follow the pattern of local energy distribution and are well approximated by a time-dependent compound Poisson statistics. The cell-division cycle of undamaged and aberrant cells and chromosome aberrations are modelled as a renewal process represented by a random sum of (independent and identically distributed) random elements S N = ∑ N i=0 X i . Here N stands for the number of particle traversals of cell nucleus, each leading to a statistically independent formation of X i aberrations. The parameter N is itself a random variable and reflects the cell cycle delay of heavily damaged cells. The probability distribution of S N follows a general law for which the moment generating function satisfies the relation Φ S N = Φ N ( Φ X i ). Formulation of the Monte Carlo model which allows to predict expected fluxes of aberrant and non-aberrant cells has been based

  18. An elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio is associated with adverse outcomes following single time-point paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose: a time-course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Darren G; Kitto, Laura; Zafar, Sara; Reid, Thomas W D J; Martin, Kirsty G; Davidson, Janice S; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    The innate immune system is profoundly dysregulated in paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver injury. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a simple bedside index with prognostic value in a number of inflammatory conditions. To evaluate the prognostic accuracy of the NLR in patients with significant liver injury following single time-point and staggered paracetamol overdoses. Time-course analysis of 100 single time-point and 50 staggered paracetamol overdoses admitted to a tertiary liver centre. Timed laboratory samples were correlated with time elapsed after overdose or admission, respectively, and the NLR was calculated. A total of 49/100 single time-point patients developed hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Median NLRs were higher at both 72 (P=0.0047) and 96 h after overdose (P=0.0041) in single time-point patients who died or were transplanted. Maximum NLR values by 96 h were associated with increasing HE grade (P=0.0005). An NLR of more than 16.7 during the first 96 h following overdose was independently associated with the development of HE [odds ratio 5.65 (95% confidence interval 1.67-19.13), P=0.005]. Maximum NLR values by 96 h were strongly associated with the requirement for intracranial pressure monitoring (Pparacetamol overdoses. Future studies should assess the value of incorporating the NLR into existing prognostic and triage indices of single time-point paracetamol overdose.

  19. Roman Travertine: proposed as a candidate for "Global Heritage Stone Resource" designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavori, Piero

    2017-04-01

    Roman Travertine is one of the most long-standing and famous stones, used since the times of the Roman Empire. Together with Carrara and Botticino marbles, it is probably the most worldwide well-known and diffused Italian dimension stone. Travertine derives its name from the former town, known as Tibur in ancient Roman times; the ancient name for the stone was Lapis Tiburtinus, meaning Tibur Stone, which was gradually corrupted to Travertino (travertine). The Roman Travertine is geographically located circa 25 km to the east of Rome, Central Italy, in the hilly area of Guidonia-Montecelio and Tivoli. Its deposit, formed during late Pleistocene time over an active strike-slip fault nearby the Colli Albani quiescent volcano, is about 20 km2 wide and 60 m thick on average; the thickness is over 85 m toward its western N-S-elongated side, where thermal springs and large sinkholes occur in an aligned pattern. The first quarries date back to pre-Roman times; nowadays three main productive sub-zones can be recognized within the extractive basin: "Valle Pilella", "Barco" and "Le Fosse", where more than fifty quarries are in operation, together with a relevant number of processing plants and artisanal laboratories. Lithological and stratigraphical features allow the distinction of an extensive number of commercial varieties, being the most renowned the Classic, the Bianco, the Noce, the Paglierino, the Navona. Used since more than 2.500 years, the Roman Travertine has deeply characterized the architecture of Rome and its history, with the realization of villas, palaces, artistic and monumental buildings, and masterpieces with unmistakable features, such as the Anfiteatro Flavio (the Colosseum), the Theatre of Marcellus, the St. Peter's Basilica and Colonnade, the Tritone Fountain, the Adriana Villa, the Trevi Fountain, and many others. From Renaissance times on, the travertine has been extensively used to build an innumerable amount of churches, common buildings and houses

  20. Real-time UAV trajectory generation using feature points matching between video image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Younggi; Song, Jeongheon; Han, Dongyeob

    2017-09-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), equipped with navigation systems and video capability, are currently being deployed for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance mission. In this paper, we present a systematic approach for the generation of UAV trajectory using a video image matching system based on SURF (Speeded up Robust Feature) and Preemptive RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus). Video image matching to find matching points is one of the most important steps for the accurate generation of UAV trajectory (sequence of poses in 3D space). We used the SURF algorithm to find the matching points between video image sequences, and removed mismatching by using the Preemptive RANSAC which divides all matching points to outliers and inliers. The inliers are only used to determine the epipolar geometry for estimating the relative pose (rotation and translation) between image sequences. Experimental results from simulated video image sequences showed that our approach has a good potential to be applied to the automatic geo-localization of the UAVs system

  1. Estimating envelope thermal characteristics from single point in time thermal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshatshati, Salahaldin Faraj

    Energy efficiency programs implemented nationally in the U.S. by utilities have rendered savings which have cost on average 0.03/kWh. This cost is still well below generation costs. However, as the lowest cost energy efficiency measures are adopted, this the cost effectiveness of further investment declines. Thus there is a need to more effectively find the most opportunities for savings regionally and nationally, so that the greatest cost effectiveness in implementing energy efficiency can be achieved. Integral to this process. are at scale energy audits. However, on-site building energy audits process are expensive, in the range of US1.29/m2-$5.37/m2 and there are an insufficient number of professionals to perform the audits. Energy audits that can be conducted at-scale and at low cost are needed. Research is presented that addresses at community-wide scales characterization of building envelope thermal characteristics via drive-by and fly-over GPS linked thermal imaging. A central question drives this research: Can single point-in-time thermal images be used to infer U-values and thermal capacitances of walls and roofs? Previous efforts to use thermal images to estimate U-values have been limited to rare steady exterior weather conditions. The approaches posed here are based upon the development two models first is a dynamic model of a building envelope component with unknown U-value and thermal capacitance. The weather conditions prior to the thermal image are used as inputs to the model. The model is solved to determine the exterior surface temperature, ultimately predicted the temperature at the thermal measurement time. The model U-value and thermal capacitance are tuned in order to force the error between the predicted surface temperature and the measured surface temperature from thermal imaging to be near zero. This model is developed simply to show that such a model cannot be relied upon to accurately estimate the U-value. The second is a data

  2. Time-dependent Taylor–Aris dispersion of an initial point concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Søren; Hovad, Emil; Bruus, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    -specific theoretical results, and furthermore predict new phenomena. In particular, for the transient phase before the well-described steady Taylor–Aris limit is reached, we find anomalous diffusion with a dependence of the temporal scaling exponent on the initial release point, generalizing this finding in specific...... cases. During this transient we furthermore identify maxima in the values of the dispersion coefficient which exceed the Taylor–Aris value by amounts that depend on channel geometry, initial point release position, velocity profile and Péclet number. We show that these effects are caused by a difference...

  3. Combinations of Epoch Durations and Cut-Points to Estimate Sedentary Time and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröberg, Andreas; Berg, Christina; Larsson, Christel; Boldemann, Cecilia; Raustorp, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate how combinations of different epoch durations and cut-points affect the estimations of sedentary time and physical activity in adolescents. Accelerometer data from 101 adolescents were derived and 30 combinations were used to estimate sedentary time, light, moderate, vigorous, and combined…

  4. Sewerage system (cloaca in Roman law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aličić Samir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sewerage system (cloaca, which implies any cavity through which waste water flows, has in Roman law a special legal protection due to its importance for public health preservation and safety of citizens. In Praetorian Edict, two interdicts are envisaged; one prohibitory, by which private sewerage system is protected and one restitutory, by which public sewerage system is protected. It is possible that a restitutory interdict about private sewerage system existed. By the public sewerage interdict, a person who blocks or damages public sewerage is ordered to restore everything to previous state. By the private sewerage interdict, anyone is forbidden to obstruct a person who wants to repair sewerage that leads from his building through neighboring buildings. By lawyers' interpretations, the application of this interdict is expanded to all realty, as well as a situation of building a new sewerage system. Moreover, it is envisaged by Praetorian edict that against a person who builds or repairs sewerage neither interdict uti possidetis can be filed. Similarly, by lawyers' interpretations, application of operis novi nuntiatio is prevented against a person who repairs or cleans sewerage system if interruption of work could cause danger. Law developed in the direction that enabled unobstructed maintenance and building of sewerage system through neighboring realty, especially if danger of effusion existed. The only limitations were comprised in the obligation of compensation of damages to third parties, and in certain obligations of public law character: obligation to obtain consent of magistrate when building a new sewerage and duty to pay sewerage tax (cloacarium.

  5. Carbonation kinetics in roman-like lime mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Moral, S.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic parameterisation of lime mortar carbonation is a useful technique for understanding ancient building methods and the long-lived physical-chemical stability of roman monuments. Portlandite (Ca(OH2 binders harden in the air on contact with atmospheric CO2, producing CaCO3. Water evaporation and the presence of silicate aggregates have a three-fold effect: prompting the development of a pore system that permits CO2, self-diffusion, reducing shrinkage and cracking during drying and (possibly giving rise to subsequent pozzolanic reactions. The present survey involved air-hardening a series of roman-like lime mortars which differed in terms of: (i type of aggregate, volcanic tephra and arkose; (ii aggregate/binder ratio, 1:2 as used in the catacombs and 1:4 as found in standard roman construction and (iii temperature, the 17 ºC prevailing in underground environments and the 30 ºC typical of warm Mediterranean areas. The analyses that provided the most useful information were performed in a classic X-ray diffractometer adapted to accommodate an author-designed chamber in which temperature control was achieved by an internal refrigerant and a PID-governed electrical heater Additional data were obtained with DTA and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. The tests conducted on the Roman-like lime mortars manufactured for the experiment showed that the hardening temperature is a critical factor in the initial phases of carbonation. Calcite precipitation rates and total mineral precipitation increased with temperature, but fell very quickly as calcite precipitated. In theoretical calculations assuming an open reactor with continuous CO2, input, total calcitisation time was found to be 156 m in. at 30 ºC and 175 min. at 17 ºC, whilst in the mortars actually hardened in the experimental part of the study, calcitisation gradually blocked the flow or CO2, gas into the

  6. O amor cortês pelo avesso: François Villon e o debate sobre o Roman de la rose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Padilha Pacheco da Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste artigo, pretende-se discutir a paródia do amor cortês pelos lamentos burlescos do Testament de François Villon, com base nos preceitos e modelos que orientavam a invenção das letras na época. Complementares ao lamento do próprio testador pelo amor louco da sua juventude, os Regrets de la belle heaulmière utilizam como modelo poético o sermão da Velha do Roman de la rose. A imitação de uma das passagens desse poema mais duramente censuradas por Christine de Pisan evidencia que esses lamentos só podem ser compreendidos à luz do debate sobre o Roman de la rose, realizado no início do séc. XV na França. Dessa perspectiva, a paródia deve ser considerada não como uma recusa da tradição cortês no final da Idade Média, como pela crítica contemporânea, mas como um gênero particular da poesia burlesca visando a ridicularização do amor louco. Palavras-chave: François Villon; paródia; amor cortês; debate sobre o Roman de la rose; lamentos burlescos. Abstract: This paper intends to discuss the parody of courtly love performed by the burlesque regrets of François Villon’s Testament, using the poetic precepts and models based on which the writing was invented at the time. Complementary to the regret of the testator himself for the mad love of his youth, the Regrets de la belle heaulmière use as a poetic model the Old Woman’s sermon of the Romance of the rose. The imitation of one of the passages of this poem most harshly criticized by Christine de Pisan shows that those regrets can only be understood in the light of the debate of the Romance of the rose at the beginning of the XVth century in France. From this point of view, his parody must be considered not as a rejection of the courtly tradition in the late Middle Ages, as it is by contemporary criticism, but as a particular genre of burlesque poetry aiming to mock mad love. Keywords: François Villon; parody; courtly love; debate on the Roman de la rose

  7. DETERMINATION OF THE DELAY DEPARTURE TIME OF THE BUS FROM STOPPING POINT INTO THE CAR FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gorbachov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for estimation of the bus departure delax from the bus stopping point after passenger loading is presented. The model allows to take into account the traffic density on a particular road section of the transport network, as well as the bus parameters.

  8. Real-time multi-GNSS single-frequency precise point positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, P.F.; Tiberius, C.C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a popular Global Positioning System (GPS) processing strategy, thanks to its high precision without requiring additional GPS infrastructure. Single-Frequency PPP (SF-PPP) takes this one step further by no longer relying on expensive dual-frequency GPS receivers,

  9. Preparation and Low Temperature Short-term Storage for Times New Roman',serif">Synthetic Seeds of Caladium bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehpara MAQSOOD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient somatic embryo encapsulation and in vitro plant regeneration technique were established with Caladium bicolor, an important ornamental plant.Tuber derived embryogenic callus (95.50% was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium amended with 0.5 mg L-1 α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA + 0.5 mg L-1 6-Benzyladenine (BA. The embryogenic callus later differentiated into somatic embryos in the same plant growth regulators (PGRs added medium (NAA and BA. The induced embryos matured and developed into plantlets in NAA and BA added media; maximum plantlets development was observed at 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA supplemented medium. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating embryos in gel containing 3.0% sucrose + 3.0% sodium alginate and 100 mM of calcium chloride.The highest synthetic seed germination (97.6% was observed on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA. The synthetic seeds were kept at low temperatures for storage; the encapsulated beads were viable and demonstrated good germination even after 12 weeks of storage at 4 °C. The plantlet recovery frequency was however declined with time. The synthetic seed derived plantlets were morphologically similar to the mother plant.

  10. Dwellers of the Sky: Serpent in the Greco-Roman Zodiac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Wael Sayed Soliman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ancient Egyptians were close observers of the heavenly bodies behavior from prehistoric times, which evidenced by the numerous astronomical tools and scenes they left. Throughout the Egyptian history, images of night sky decorated coffins, tombs, temples and some other different kinds of monuments. These images served as a theoretical and visual tribute to the solar cycle and bore strong renewing associations. This article investigates the function of the serpent within a various collection of ancient Egyptian zodiacs dating back to the Greco-Roman Period, which was readily incorporated into the existing tradition of astronomical iconography. In order to explain the adoption of the serpent, this article examines its role in the astronomical images. There are no actual evidences for serpent iconography found in ancient astronomical scenes before the Greco-Roman Period, I ample to prove that knowledge of those creatures existed from the earliest time, and pervade the Egyptian symbolism. The details of the serpent picture have sketched and valid for the Greco-Roman Egypt, starting from the Third Century B.C.

  11. X-Ray Fluorescence and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of Roman silver denarii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardini, L. [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); El Hassan, A. [National Institute for Laser- Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University Giza (Egypt); Ferretti, M. [Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali, Area della Ricerca del CNR di Montelibretti Roma (Italy); Foresta, A.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G. [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Nebbia, E. [Universita degli Studi di Torino (Italy); Catalli, F. [Monetiere di Firenze, Museo Archeologico Nazionale Firenze (Italy); Harith, M.A. [National Institute for Laser- Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University Giza (Egypt); Diaz Pace, D. [Institute of Physics ' Arroyo Seco' , Faculty of Science, Tandil (Argentina); Anabitarte Garcia, F. [Photonics Engineering Group, University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Scuotto, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Archeologiche, Via Galvani 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Palleschi, V., E-mail: vincenzo.palleschi@cnr.it [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Archeologiche, Via Galvani 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper we present the results of a study performed on a large collection of silver Roman republican denarii, encompassing about two centuries of history. The joint use of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy allowed for an accurate determination of the coins' elemental composition; the measurements, performed mostly in situ at the 'Monetiere' in Florence, revealed a striking connection between the 'quality' of the silver alloy and some crucial contemporary events. This finding was used to classify a group of denarii whose dating was otherwise impossible. The comparison with other contemporary denarii disproves a recent theory on the origin of the so called 'serrated' denarii (denarii showing notched chisel marks on the edge of the coin). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied a large collection of Roman republican silver denarii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XRF and LIBS allowed to determine the precious metal content of the coins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A correlation of the 'quality' of the alloy with some contemporary events was found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study allowed to controvert a recent theory on the so called 'serrated' denarii.

  12. The recovery of a time-dependent point source in a linear transport equation: application to surface water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdi, Adel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to localize the position of a point source and recover the history of its time-dependent intensity function that is both unknown and constitutes the right-hand side of a 1D linear transport equation. Assuming that the source intensity function vanishes before reaching the final control time, we prove that recording the state with respect to the time at two observation points framing the source region leads to the identification of the source position and the recovery of its intensity function in a unique manner. Note that at least one of the two observation points should be strategic. We establish an identification method that determines quasi-explicitly the source position and transforms the task of recovering its intensity function into solving directly a well-conditioned linear system. Some numerical experiments done on a variant of the water pollution BOD model are presented

  13. Point Measurements of Fermi Velocities by a Time-of-Flight Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, David S.; Henningsen, J. O.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1972-01-01

    The present paper describes in detail a new method of obtaining information about the Fermi velocity of electrons in metals, point by point, along certain contours on the Fermi surface. It is based on transmission of microwaves through thin metal slabs in the presence of a static magnetic field...... applied parallel to the surface. The electrons carry the signal across the slab and arrive at the second surface with a phase delay which is measured relative to a reference signal; the velocities are derived by analyzing the magnetic field dependence of the phase delay. For silver we have in this way...... obtained one component of the velocity along half the circumference of the centrally symmetric orbit for B→∥[100]. The results are in agreement with current models for the Fermi surface. For B→∥[011], the electrons involved are not moving in a symmetry plane of the Fermi surface. In such cases one cannot...

  14. Real-time estimation of FLE for point-based registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Andrew D.; Peters, Terry M.

    2009-02-01

    In image-guide surgery, optimizing the accuracy in localizing the surgical tools within the virtual reality environment or 3D image is vitally important, significant effort has been spent reducing the measurement errors at the point of interest or target. This target registration error (TRE) is often defined by a root-mean-square statistic which reduces the vector data to a single term that can be minimized. However, lost in the data reduction is the directionality of the error which, can be modelled using a 3D covariance matrix. Recently, we developed a set of expressions that modeled the TRE statistics for point-based registrations as a function of the fiducial marker geometry, target location and the fiducial localizer error (FLE). Unfortunately, these expressions are only as good as the definition of the FLE. In order to close the gap, we have subsequently developed a closed form expression that estimates the FLE as a function of the estimated fiducial registration error (FRE, the error between the measured fiducials and the best fit locations of those fiducials). The FRE covariance matrix is estimated using a sliding window technique and used as input into the closed form expression to estimate the FLE. The estimated FLE can then used to estimate the TRE which, can be given to the surgeon to permit the procedure to be designed such that the errors associated with the point-based registrations are minimized.

  15. The imaginary-time path integral and non-time-reversal-invariant saddle points of the Euclidean action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, I.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss new bounce-like (but non-time-reversal-invariant) solutions to Euclidean equations of motion, which we dub boomerons. In the Euclidean path integral approach to quantum theories, boomerons make an imaginary contribution to the vacuum energy. The fake vacuum instability can be removed by cancelling boomeron contributions against contributions from time reversed boomerons (anti-boomerons). The cancellation rests on a sign choice whose significance is not completely understood in the path integral method. (orig.)

  16. A Guide to Post-Classical Works of Art, Literature, and Music Based on Myths of the Greeks and Romans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ron

    The approximately 650 works listed in this guide have as their focus the myths of the Greeks and Romans. Titles were chosen as being (1) interesting treatments of the subject matter, (2) representative of a variety of types, styles, and time periods, and (3) available in some way. Entries are listed in one of four categories--art, literature,…

  17. Ancient earthquakes in the Roman city of Baelo Claudia (Cadiz, South of Spain): Fifteen years of archaeosimology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.G.; Giner-Robles, J.L.; Reicherter, K.; Rodriguez-Pascua, J.L.; Gruetzner, C.; Garcia-Jimenez, I.; Carrasco Garcia, P.; Bardaji, T.; Santos, G.; Roquero, E.; Roez, J.; Perucha, M.A.; Perez-Lopez, R.; Fernandez Macarro, B.; Martinez-Grana, A.; Goy, J.L.; Zazo, C.

    2016-07-01

    This work illustrates the state of the art on archaeoseismology of the ancient Roman city of Baelo Claudia (Tarifa, Cádiz) after nearly fifteen years of research. This ancient Roman site was affected by two earthquakes in the years AD 40–60 and AD 260–290 which promoted important urban and architectural changes and eventually the destruction and further abandonment of the city in AD 365–390. Earthquake Archaeoseismological Effects (EAEs) are catalogued, described and mapped in the entire monumental sector of the city mainly witnessing the last earthquake which occurred in AD 260–290. Mapping of oriented EAEs illustrate damage distribution all over the lower sector of the city, as well as the occurrence of suspect coseismic landslide and tsunami events. The structural analysis of oriented EAEs throughout the entire mapped sector suggests that the intervening ground motion was preferentially oriented in a SW to NE direction. The geoarchaeological analysis and some relevant archaeological anomalies, strongly suggest the occurrence of coeval tsunami events during both ancient earthquakes, pointing to the occurrence of an offshore seismic source SSW of the city. Several N-S normal faults have been identified around the Bolonia Bay area and some of them continue offshore SSW of Baelo Claudia. These faults with clear Quaternary activity can be considered as the more probable seismic sources for the events affecting the ancient Roman site and they are consistent with the mapped damage orientation displayed by the structural analysis of EAEs within the old Roman city. (Author)

  18. Roman bronze artefacts from Thamusida (Morocco): Chemical and phase analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gliozzo, E., E-mail: gliozzo@unisi.i [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Siena, via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Kockelmann, W., E-mail: winfried.kockelmann@stfc.ac.u [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bartoli, L., E-mail: bartoli@ifac.cnr.i [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Tykot, R.H., E-mail: rtykot@usf.ed [Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Twenty-six objects (1st to the 3rd century AD) found at the archaeological site of Thamusida (Morocco), which is a military settlement between the 1st and the 3rd century AD, have been investigated by means of portable X-ray fluorescence and time of flight-neutron diffraction. The combination of element-sensitive X-ray fluorescence and structure-sensitive neutron diffraction yields, in a totally non-destructive way, the necessary information to discriminate the copper alloy from corrosion and alteration layers. Results allowed dividing the repertory into five groups: (a) unalloyed copper, (b) binary alloys made of Cu and Sn, frequently leaded; (c) unleaded binary alloys made of Cu and Zn; (d) ternary alloys made of Cu, Sn and Zn, both leaded and unleaded; (e) quaternary alloys made of Cu, Sn, Zn and As. The choice of alloy is heterogeneous, mainly depending on availability and costs of raw and/or scrap materials and on technological constraints. Interestingly, the reconstruction obtained for Thamusida could either anticipate the important change in the Roman use of copper alloys generally referred as 'zinc decline', or more likely, indicate that brass never conspicuously entered the local metal-working activities of this military site.

  19. a Procedural Solution to Model Roman Masonry Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, V.; Saleri, R.; Stefani, C.; Nony, N.; De Luca, L.

    2013-07-01

    The paper will describe a new approach based on the development of a procedural modelling methodology for archaeological data representation. This is a custom-designed solution based on the recognition of the rules belonging to the construction methods used in roman times. We have conceived a tool for 3D reconstruction of masonry structures starting from photogrammetric surveying. Our protocol considers different steps. Firstly we have focused on the classification of opus based on the basic interconnections that can lead to a descriptive system used for their unequivocal identification and design. Secondly, we have chosen an automatic, accurate, flexible and open-source photogrammetric pipeline named Pastis Apero Micmac - PAM, developed by IGN (Paris). We have employed it to generate ortho-images from non-oriented images, using a user-friendly interface implemented by CNRS Marseille (France). Thirdly, the masonry elements are created in parametric and interactive way, and finally they are adapted to the photogrammetric data. The presented application, currently under construction, is developed with an open source programming language called Processing, useful for visual, animated or static, 2D or 3D, interactive creations. Using this computer language, a Java environment has been developed. Therefore, even if the procedural modelling reveals an accuracy level inferior to the one obtained by manual modelling (brick by brick), this method can be useful when taking into account the static evaluation on buildings (requiring quantitative aspects) and metric measures for restoration purposes.

  20. A PROCEDURAL SOLUTION TO MODEL ROMAN MASONRY STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cappellini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper will describe a new approach based on the development of a procedural modelling methodology for archaeological data representation. This is a custom-designed solution based on the recognition of the rules belonging to the construction methods used in roman times. We have conceived a tool for 3D reconstruction of masonry structures starting from photogrammetric surveying. Our protocol considers different steps. Firstly we have focused on the classification of opus based on the basic interconnections that can lead to a descriptive system used for their unequivocal identification and design. Secondly, we have chosen an automatic, accurate, flexible and open-source photogrammetric pipeline named Pastis Apero Micmac – PAM, developed by IGN (Paris. We have employed it to generate ortho-images from non-oriented images, using a user-friendly interface implemented by CNRS Marseille (France. Thirdly, the masonry elements are created in parametric and interactive way, and finally they are adapted to the photogrammetric data. The presented application, currently under construction, is developed with an open source programming language called Processing, useful for visual, animated or static, 2D or 3D, interactive creations. Using this computer language, a Java environment has been developed. Therefore, even if the procedural modelling reveals an accuracy level inferior to the one obtained by manual modelling (brick by brick, this method can be useful when taking into account the static evaluation on buildings (requiring quantitative aspects and metric measures for restoration purposes.

  1. Astronomy in towns? An archaeoastronomical approach to the Roman urbanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Antón, A.; Belmonte, J. A.; González-García, A. C.

    2017-03-01

    Although the final definition of Archaeoastronomy is still under debate, what is clear is that this discipline offers a different approach to the knowledge of ancient cultures than traditional archaeology has done so far. Archaeoastronomy considers the sky as an inseparabe part of the environment and thus an element of the transformed landscape with highly symbolic content. In the case of the Roman culture, the great colonizing activity involved continuous spatial transformations and the skyscape should be considered as a piece of the created urbanized spaces. For this reason, a number of fieldwork campaigns were conducted in several Roman cities across different regions of the ancient Roman Empire in order to study the configuration of those landscapes and the possible integration of the sky during the buiding processes. At the present, our group has the largest sample of orientations of Roman settlements so far, and here it is shown the preliminary results of an statistical analysis which may offer new answers to the various still open questions in Roman urbanism, often faced from conservative views.

  2. Tourist Valorization of Cultural Route “The Trail of the Roman Emperors“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Božić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural routes appear as a new concept that turned to be very beneficial in terms of the revitalization and presentation of cultural heritage in its broader sense - from archaeological sites to landscapes. These trails provide a unique purview into the spirit of modern countries and their inextricable connection to contemporary time. On the territory of present day Serbia 17 Roman emperors were born, which is one fifth and largest number of Roman emperors born anywhere in the world, outside of Rome. That was a good basis for developing idea of forming cultural route and starting the project „The Trail of the Roman Emperors“ in Serbia. It can be one of the most important topics in the field of cultural tourism in Serbia, and the main goal of this paper is to give a proposal for its valorization and promotion for the tourism purposes. This will be achieved through the evaluation of all elements of tourist valorization on the basis of which general tourist assessment will be formed, while the purpose of SWOT analysis was to detect existing strengths and weaknesses, and provide real opportunities and risks for this cultural route

  3. Roman concept of mental capacity to make end-of-life decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Danuta

    2007-01-01

    When assessing decisional competence of patients, psychiatrists have to balance the patients' right to personal autonomy, their condition and wishes against principles of medical ethics and professional discretion. This article explores the age-old legal and ethical dilemmas posed by refusal of vital medical treatment by patients and their mental capacity to make end-of-life decisions against the background of philosophical, legal and medical approaches to these issues in the time of the Younger Pliny (c62-c113 CE). Classical Roman discourse regarding mental competency and "voluntary death" formed an important theme of the vast corpus of Greco-Roman writings, which was moulded not only by legal permissibility of suicide but also by philosophical (in modern terms, moral or ethical) considerations. Indeed, the legal and ethical issues of evaluating the acceptability of end of life decisions discussed in the Letters are as pertinent today as they were 2000 years ago. We may gain valuable insights about our own methodologies and frames of reference in this area of the law and psychiatry by examining Classical Roman approaches to evaluating acceptability of death-choices as described in Pliny's Letters and the writings of some of his peers.

  4. Time Series Discord Detection in Medical Data using a Parallel Relational Database [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodbridge, Diane; Wilson, Andrew T.; Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Goldstein, Richard H.

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology have made continuous real-time health monitoring available in both hospital and non-hospital settings. Since data collected from high frequency medical sensors includes a huge amount of data, storing and processing continuous medical data is an emerging big data area. Especially detecting anomaly in real time is important for patients’ emergency detection and prevention. A time series discord indicates a subsequence that has the maximum difference to the rest of the time series subsequences, meaning that it has abnormal or unusual data trends. In this study, we implemented two versions of time series discord detection algorithms on a high performance parallel database management system (DBMS) and applied them to 240 Hz waveform data collected from 9,723 patients. The initial brute force version of the discord detection algorithm takes each possible subsequence and calculates a distance to the nearest non-self match to find the biggest discords in time series. For the heuristic version of the algorithm, a combination of an array and a trie structure was applied to order time series data for enhancing time efficiency. The study results showed efficient data loading, decoding and discord searches in a large amount of data, benefiting from the time series discord detection algorithm and the architectural characteristics of the parallel DBMS including data compression, data pipe-lining, and task scheduling.

  5. Tumours and cancers in Graeco-Roman times | Retief | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Hippocratic literature tumours were mainly classified as karkin6mata, phumata, and oidemata. Phumata included a large variety of tumours, inflammatory and neoplastic in origin, and mostly benign (in modern terms), while oidemata were soft, painless tumours and even included generalised oedema (dropsy). Although ...

  6. Tumours and cancers in Graeco-Roman times | Retief | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Hippocratic literature tumours were mainly classified as karkinômata, phumata and oidêmata. Phumata included a large variety of tumours, inflammatory and neoplastic in origin, and mostly benign (in modern terms), whilst oidêmata were soft, painless tumours and even included generalised oedema (dropsy). Although ...

  7. A comparison of the real-time and the imaginary-time formalisms of finite temperature field theory for 2,3, and 4-point Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurenche, P.; Becherrawy, T.

    1991-07-01

    The predictions of the real-time and the imaginary-time formalisms of Finite Temperature Field Theory is compared. Retarded and advanced amplitudes are constructed in the real-time formalism which are linear combinations of the usual time-ordered thermo-field dynamics amplitudes. These amplitudes can be easily compared to the various analytically continued amplitudes of the imaginary-time formalism. Explicit calculation of the 2,3 and 4-point Green's functions in φ 3 field theory is done in the one and two-loop approximations, and the compatibility of the two formalisms is shown. (author) 17 refs., 12 figs

  8. Developing a Tool Point Control Scheme for a Hydraulic Crane Using Interactive Real-time Dynamic Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Melters; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Ballebye, Morten

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of an interactive real-time dynamic simulation model of a hydraulic crane. The user input to the model is given continuously via joystick and output is presented continuously in a 3D animation. Using this simulation model, a tool point control scheme...... is developed for the specific crane, considering the saturation phenomena of the system and practical implementation....

  9. The Strengths and the Weakness Points of Mitch Albom's the TIME Keeper

    OpenAIRE

    Widodo, Bobby Chandra Vinanti

    2015-01-01

    Tugas akhir ini membahas tentang novel karya Mitch Albom yang berjudul The Time Keeper. The Time Keeper adalah sebuah novel yang bercerita tentang Dor, manusia pertama yang menghitung waktu di bumi. Ia dihukum di gua karena mencoba mengukur anugrah terbesar dari Tuhan, yaitu Waktu. Lalu kembali ke dunia, dengan membawa jam pasir ajaib dan sebuah misi yaitu menebus kesalahannya dengan mengajarkan makna Waktu pada dua manusia bumi. Dalam tugas akhir ini penulis memberikan ulasan mengenai keleb...

  10. Time dynamics in the point process modeling of seismicity of Aswan area (Egypt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela Amin; ElGabry, Mohamed; El-hady, Sherif; Abou Elenean, Kamal M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Time dynamics of shallow Aswan seismic events are time-clusterized. ► Super-Poissonian behavior characterizes shallow and deep events. ► Shallow seismicity shows a cycle at about 402 days. - Abstract: The seismicity observed in the Aswan area (Egypt) between 1986 and 2003 was deeply investigated by means of time-fractal methods. The time dynamics of the aftershock-depleted seismicity, investigated by means of the Allan Factor, reveals that the time-clustering behavior for events occurred at shallow depths (down to 12.5 km from the ground) as well as for events occurred at larger depths (from 15 km down to 27.5 km) does not depend on the ordering of the interevent times but mainly on the shape of the probability density functions of the interevent intervals. Moreover, deep seismicity is more compatible with a Poissonian dynamics than shallow seismicity that is definitely more super-Poissonian. Additionally, the set of shallow events shows a periodicity at about 402 days, which could be consistent with the cyclic loading/unloading operations of the Lake Naser Dam. Such findings contribute to better characterize the seismicity of the Aswan area, which is one of the most interesting water reservoirs in the world, featured by reservoir-induced earthquakes.

  11. Exact analytical solution of time-independent neutron transport equation, and its applications to systems with a point source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikata, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An exact solution for the one-speed neutron transport equation is obtained. • This solution as well as its derivation are believed to be new. • Neutron flux for a purely absorbing material with a point neutron source off the origin is obtained. • Spherically as well as cylindrically piecewise constant cross sections are studied. • Neutron flux expressions for a point neutron source off the origin are believed to be new. - Abstract: An exact analytical solution of the time-independent monoenergetic neutron transport equation is obtained in this paper. The solution is applied to systems with a point source. Systematic analysis of the solution of the time-independent neutron transport equation, and its applications represent the primary goal of this paper. To the best of the author’s knowledge, certain key results on the scalar neutron flux as well as their derivations are new. As an application of these results, a scalar neutron flux for a purely absorbing medium with a spherically piecewise constant cross section and an isotropic point neutron source off the origin as well as that for a cylindrically piecewise constant cross section with a point neutron source off the origin are obtained. Both of these results are believed to be new

  12. A Directed Network of Greek and Roman Mythology

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yeon-Mu; Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2005-01-01

    We study the Greek and Roman mythology using the network theory. We construct a directed network by using a dictionary of Greek and Roman mythology in which the nodes represent the entries listed in the dictionary and we make directional links from an entry to other entries that appear in its explanatory part. We find that this network is clearly not a random network but a directed scale-free network. Also measuring the various quantities which characterize the mythology network, we analyze t...

  13. Tests of a Roman Pot Prototype for the TOTEM Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Deile, M.; Alagoz, E.; Anelli, G.M.; Antchev, G.A.; Ayache, M.; Caspers, F.; Dimovasili, E.; Dinapoli, R.; Drouhin, F.D.; Eggert, K.; Escourrou, L.; Fochler, O.; Gill, K.; Grabit, R.; Haug, F.

    2005-01-01

    The TOTEM collaboration has developed and tested the first prototype of its Roman Pots to be operated in the LHC. TOTEM Roman Pots contain stacks of 10 silicon detectors with strips oriented in two orthogonal directions. To measure proton scattering angles of a few microradians, the detectors will approach the beam centre to a distance of 10 sigma + 0.5 mm (= 1.3 mm). Dead space near the detector edge is minimised by using two novel "edgeless" detector technologies. The silicon detectors are ...

  14. Comparative investigation of mortars from Roman Colosseum and cistern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, D.A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 725 Davis Hall 94720-1710, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)]. E-mail: denise@ecv.ufsc.br; Wenk, H.R. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, 497 McCone 94720-4767, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Monteiro, P.J.M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 725 Davis Hall 94720-1710, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Mortar from the Roman Colosseum and a Roman cistern from Albano Laziale were characterized with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)). The different techniques provided consistent results that the mortar of the Colosseum is mainly calcareous lime, while the mortar of the cistern is pozzolanic siliceous material. The study highlights the capabilities of the different methods for the analysis of cement. For routine analysis XRD is adequate but for characterization of poorly crystalline phases FT-IR and TGA have definite advantages.

  15. Comparative investigation of mortars from Roman Colosseum and cistern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.A.; Wenk, H.R.; Monteiro, P.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Mortar from the Roman Colosseum and a Roman cistern from Albano Laziale were characterized with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)). The different techniques provided consistent results that the mortar of the Colosseum is mainly calcareous lime, while the mortar of the cistern is pozzolanic siliceous material. The study highlights the capabilities of the different methods for the analysis of cement. For routine analysis XRD is adequate but for characterization of poorly crystalline phases FT-IR and TGA have definite advantages

  16. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks). These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  17. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Levy-Gigi

    Full Text Available Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks. These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  18. Summary statistics for end-point conditioned continuous-time Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    Continuous-time Markov chains are a widely used modelling tool. Applications include DNA sequence evolution, ion channel gating behavior and mathematical finance. We consider the problem of calculating properties of summary statistics (e.g. mean time spent in a state, mean number of jumps between...... two states and the distribution of the total number of jumps) for discretely observed continuous time Markov chains. Three alternative methods for calculating properties of summary statistics are described and the pros and cons of the methods are discussed. The methods are based on (i) an eigenvalue...... decomposition of the rate matrix, (ii) the uniformization method, and (iii) integrals of matrix exponentials. In particular we develop a framework that allows for analyses of rather general summary statistics using the uniformization method....

  19. Free-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory: Application to quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Yamashita, K.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The two-state Deutsch-Jozsa algortihm used to demonstrate the utility of free-time and fixed-end point multi-target optimal control theory. Research highlights: → Free-time and fixed-end point multi-target optimal control theory (FRFP-MTOCT) was constructed. → The features of our theory include optimization of the external time-dependent perturbations with high transition probabilities, that of the temporal duration, the monotonic convergence, and the ability to optimize multiple-laser pulses simultaneously. → The advantage of the theory and a comparison with conventional fixed-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FIFP-MTOCT) are presented by comparing data calculated using the present theory with those published previously [K. Mishima, K. Yamashita, Chem. Phys. 361 (2009) 106]. → The qubit system of our interest consists of two polar NaCl molecules coupled by dipole-dipole interaction. → The calculation examples show that our theory is useful for minor adjustment of the external fields. - Abstract: An extension of free-time and fixed end-point optimal control theory (FRFP-OCT) to monotonically convergent free-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FRFP-MTOCT) is presented. The features of our theory include optimization of the external time-dependent perturbations with high transition probabilities, that of the temporal duration, the monotonic convergence, and the ability to optimize multiple-laser pulses simultaneously. The advantage of the theory and a comparison with conventional fixed-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FIFP-MTOCT) are presented by comparing data calculated using the present theory with those published previously [K. Mishima, K. Yamashita, Chem. Phys. 361, (2009), 106]. The qubit system of our interest consists of two polar NaCl molecules coupled by dipole-dipole interaction. The calculation examples show that our theory is useful for minor

  20. Multi-technique investigation of Roman decorated plasters from Villa dei Quintili (Rome, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crupi, Vincenza; Galli, Giuliana; La Russa, Mauro Francesco; Longo, Francesca; Maisano, Giacomo; Majolino, Domenico; Malagodi, Marco; Pezzino, Antonino; Ricca, Michela; Rossi, Barbara; Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-technique non-invasive approach using portable instrumentation is proposed. • Due to the use of different techniques, pigments of same color were distinguished. • The experimental results shed light on the used painting methodologies. • The experimental results provided useful information for restoration processes. • This work is the first study of coloring matter used in Villa dei Quintili. - Abstract: In the present study, we investigated by the joint use of portable instrumentations, namely a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyser and a portable Raman spectrometer, the painted surface of plasters withdrawn from different areas of an important Roman monumental complex, known as Villa dei Quintili (Rome, Italy), dated back to the first half of the 2nd century a.C. XRF and Raman measurements contributed to the identification of the pigments through the elemental and molecular composition, respectively. In particular, the multi-technique non-invasive approach proved to be crucial for distinguishing two different reddish pigments. In order to confirm and integrate XRF and Raman results, two micro-destructive laboratory methods, namely optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS), were also employed on the same samples. All the experimental results shed light on the material characterizing the painted surface layer and the painting methodologies, providing in principle useful information for proper restoration processes. It is worth underlining that this experimental investigation takes part of a recent multidisciplinary study performed on this impressive archaeological site, aimed to characterize for the first time the monumental complex from an archaeometric point of view

  1. Multi-technique investigation of Roman decorated plasters from Villa dei Quintili (Rome, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crupi, Vincenza, E-mail: vcrupi@unime.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Galli, Giuliana [Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Roma, Villa dei Quintili, via Appia Nuova 1092, 00197 Roma (Italy); La Russa, Mauro Francesco [Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Università degli Studi della Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Cs) (Italy); Longo, Francesca; Maisano, Giacomo; Majolino, Domenico [Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Malagodi, Marco [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Pavia, Via Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Pezzino, Antonino [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali—Sezione di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); Ricca, Michela [Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Università degli Studi della Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Cs) (Italy); Rossi, Barbara [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14 km 163.5, Area Science 70 Park, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Ruffolo, Silvestro Antonio [Dipartimento di Biologia, Ecologia e Scienze della Terra (DiBEST), Università degli Studi della Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Cs) (Italy); and others

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A multi-technique non-invasive approach using portable instrumentation is proposed. • Due to the use of different techniques, pigments of same color were distinguished. • The experimental results shed light on the used painting methodologies. • The experimental results provided useful information for restoration processes. • This work is the first study of coloring matter used in Villa dei Quintili. - Abstract: In the present study, we investigated by the joint use of portable instrumentations, namely a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyser and a portable Raman spectrometer, the painted surface of plasters withdrawn from different areas of an important Roman monumental complex, known as Villa dei Quintili (Rome, Italy), dated back to the first half of the 2nd century a.C. XRF and Raman measurements contributed to the identification of the pigments through the elemental and molecular composition, respectively. In particular, the multi-technique non-invasive approach proved to be crucial for distinguishing two different reddish pigments. In order to confirm and integrate XRF and Raman results, two micro-destructive laboratory methods, namely optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS), were also employed on the same samples. All the experimental results shed light on the material characterizing the painted surface layer and the painting methodologies, providing in principle useful information for proper restoration processes. It is worth underlining that this experimental investigation takes part of a recent multidisciplinary study performed on this impressive archaeological site, aimed to characterize for the first time the monumental complex from an archaeometric point of view.

  2. Numerical Time Integration Methods for a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Kramer, Morten

    2012-01-01

    on a discretization of the convolution integral. The calculation of the convolution integral is performed at each time step regardless of the chosen numerical scheme. In the second model the convolution integral is replaced by a system of linear ordinary differential equations. The formulation of the state...

  3. Adaptive error detection for HDR/PDR brachytherapy: Guidance for decision making during real-time in vivo point dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kertzscher Schwencke, Gustavo Adolfo Vladimir; Andersen, Claus E.; Tanderup, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This study presents an adaptive error detection algorithm (AEDA) for real-timein vivo point dosimetry during high dose rate (HDR) or pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy (BT) where the error identification, in contrast to existing approaches, does not depend on an a priori reconstruction ......, and the AEDA’s capacity to distinguish between true and false error scenarios. The study further shows that the AEDA can offer guidance in decision making in the event of potential errors detected with real-time in vivo point dosimetry....... of the dosimeter position reconstruction. Given its nearly exclusive dependence on stable dosimeter positioning, the AEDA allows for a substantially simplified and time efficient real-time in vivo BT dosimetry implementation. Methods:In the event of a measured potential treatment error, the AEDA proposes the most...

  4. Study of time dependence and spectral composition of the signal in circuit of ac electric point motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Buryak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to establish the dependence of changes in the time domain and spectral components of the current in the circuit of the AC electric point motor on its technical condition, to identify the common features for the same type of damage. It is necessary using the analysis of the received signals to carry out the remote diagnosis and determination of faults and defects of electric point motors. In addition it suggested to accelerate the process of the failure, malfunction and damage search. Authors propose the automated approach to the service of remote floor automation equipment, which is located in the envelope of trains. Reduction of the threat to life and health of staff by reducing the residence time in the zone of train movement. Reduce the impact of human factors on the result of service. Methodology. The paper studies the structure, parameters and characteristics, the operation and maintenance characteristics of the AC electric point motors. Determination of the main types of possible faults in the process depending on the operating conditions. Presentation of the electric motor as an object of diagnosis. Findings. The time dependences of the current in the circuit of electric point motor for its various states was obtained. The connection between the technical condition of electric point motor and the performance of current curve in time and spectral domains was established. The revealed deviations from the reference signal were justified. According to the obtained results it was made the conclusion. Originality. A method for diagnosing the state of the AC electric point motor by the time dependence and the spectral composition of the current in its circuit was proposed. The connection diagram to the motor windings based on non-infringement of electric parameters of connection circuit in the actual operating conditions was applied. Practical value. The obtained results suggest the possibility and feasibility of

  5. Convergence Time and Positioning Accuracy Comparison between BDS and GPS Precise Point Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BDS/GPS data from MGEX were processed by TriP 2.0 software developed at Wuhan University. Both static and kinematic float PPP are tested by adopting precise satellite orbits and clocks provided by Research Center of GNSS, Wuhan University. The results show that the convergence time of BDS static PPP is about 80min while kinematic PPP is about 100min. For 3h observations, static positioning accuracy of 5 cm and kinematic positioning accuracy of 8 cm in horizontal, about 12 cm in vertical can be achieved. Similar to GPS PPP, precision in east component is worse than north. At present, BDS PPP needs longer convergence time than GPS PPP to reach an absolute positioning accuracy of cm~dm due to the lack of global tracking stations and the limited accuracy of orbit and clock products.

  6. Determining the Points of Change in Time Series of Polarimetric SAR Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Knut; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Skriver, Henning

    2016-01-01

    We present the likelihood ratio test statistic for the homogeneity of several complex variance–covariance matrices that may be used in order to assess whether at least one change has taken place in a time series of SAR data. Furthermore, we give a factorization of this test statistic into a produ....... The pixelwise analyses are applied on homogeneous subareas covered with different vegetation types using the distribution of the observed p-values....

  7. Space and time in the context of equilibrium-point theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Anatol G

    2011-05-01

    Advances to the equilibrium-point (EP) theory and solutions to several classical problems of action and perception are suggested and discussed. Among them are (1) the posture-movement problem of how movements away from a stable posture can be made without evoking resistance of posture-stabilizing mechanisms resulting from intrinsic muscle and reflex properties; (2) the problem of kinesthesia or why our sense of limb position is fairly accurate despite ambiguous positional information delivered by proprioceptive and cutaneous signals; (3) the redundancy problems in the control of multiple muscles and degrees of freedom. Central to the EP hypothesis is the notion that there are specific neural structures that represent spatial frames of reference (FRs) selected by the brain in a task-specific way from a set of available FRs. The brain is also able to translate or/and rotate the selected FRs by modifying their major attributes-the origin, metrics, and orientation-and thus substantially influence, in a feed-forward manner, action and perception. The brain does not directly solve redundancy problems: it only limits the amount of redundancy by predetermining where, in spatial coordinates, a task-specific action should emerge and allows all motor elements, including the environment, to interact to deliver a unique action, thus solving the redundancy problem (natural selection of action). The EP theory predicts the existence of specific neurons associated with the control of different attributes of FRs and explains the role of mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus and place cells in the hippocampus. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 287-304 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.108 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Point-splitting in a curved space-time background. 1 -gravitational contribution to the axial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggatt, P.A.J.; Macfarlane, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A prescription is given for point-splitting in a curved space-time background which is a natural generalization of that familiar in quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills theory. It is applied (to establish its validity) to the verification of the gravitational anomaly in the divergence of a fermion axial current. Notable features of the prescription are that it defines a point-split current which can be differentiated straightforwardly, and that it involves a natural way of averaging (four dimensionally) over the directions of point splitting. The method can extend directly from the spin-1/2 fermion case treated to other cases, e.g. to spin -3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fermions. (author)

  9. Studying the potential of point detectors in time-resolved dose verification of dynamic radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Behrens, C. F.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2015-01-01

    based on fiber-coupled plastic scintillator detectors was evaluated and compared with a Farmer-type ionization chamber and a small-volume ionization chamber. An important feature of scintillator detectors is that the sensitive volume of the detector can easily be scaled, and five scintillator detectors......-volume ionization chamber and the smallest scintillators. The time-resolved RapidArc dose profiles revealed volume-dependent discrepancies between scintillator and ionization chamber response, which confirmed that correction factors for ionization chambers in high temporal and spatial dose gradients are dominated...

  10. [Multiple time scales analysis of spatial differentiation characteristics of non-point source nitrogen loss within watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-bing; Chen, Xing-wei; Chen, Ying

    2015-07-01

    Identification of the critical source areas of non-point source pollution is an important means to control the non-point source pollution within the watershed. In order to further reveal the impact of multiple time scales on the spatial differentiation characteristics of non-point source nitrogen loss, a SWAT model of Shanmei Reservoir watershed was developed. Based on the simulation of total nitrogen (TN) loss intensity of all 38 subbasins, spatial distribution characteristics of nitrogen loss and critical source areas were analyzed at three time scales of yearly average, monthly average and rainstorms flood process, respectively. Furthermore, multiple linear correlation analysis was conducted to analyze the contribution of natural environment and anthropogenic disturbance on nitrogen loss. The results showed that there were significant spatial differences of TN loss in Shanmei Reservoir watershed at different time scales, and the spatial differentiation degree of nitrogen loss was in the order of monthly average > yearly average > rainstorms flood process. TN loss load mainly came from upland Taoxi subbasin, which was identified as the critical source area. At different time scales, land use types (such as farmland and forest) were always the dominant factor affecting the spatial distribution of nitrogen loss, while the effect of precipitation and runoff on the nitrogen loss was only taken in no fertilization month and several processes of storm flood at no fertilization date. This was mainly due to the significant spatial variation of land use and fertilization, as well as the low spatial variability of precipitation and runoff.

  11. Solving point reactor kinetic equations by time step-size adaptable numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Chaqing

    2007-01-01

    Based on the analysis of effects of time step-size on numerical solutions, this paper showed the necessity of step-size adaptation. Based on the relationship between error and step-size, two-step adaptation methods for solving initial value problems (IVPs) were introduced. They are Two-Step Method and Embedded Runge-Kutta Method. PRKEs were solved by implicit Euler method with step-sizes optimized by using Two-Step Method. It was observed that the control error has important influence on the step-size and the accuracy of solutions. With suitable control errors, the solutions of PRKEs computed by the above mentioned method are accurate reasonably. The accuracy and usage of MATLAB built-in ODE solvers ode23 and ode45, both of which adopt Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method, were also studied and discussed. (authors)

  12. The two chromosomes of Vibrio cholerae are initiated at different time points in the cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tue; Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Skovgaard, Ole

    2007-01-01

    for analysing flow cytometry data and marker frequency analysis, we show that the small chromosome II is replicated late in the C period of the cell cycle, where most of chromosome I has been replicated. Owing to the delay in initiation of chromosome II, the two chromosomes terminate replication...... at approximately the same time and the average number of replication origins per cell is higher for chromosome I than for chromosome II. Analysis of cell-cycle parameters shows that chromosome replication and segregation is exceptionally fast in V. cholerae. The divided genome and delayed replication of chromosome...... II may reduce the metabolic burden and complexity of chromosome replication by postponing DNA synthesis to the last part of the cell cycle and reducing the need for overlapping replication cycles during rapid proliferation...

  13. Roman sophisticated surface modification methods to manufacture silver counterfeited coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingo, G. M.; Riccucci, C.; Faraldi, F.; Pascucci, M.; Messina, E.; Fierro, G.; Di Carlo, G.

    2017-11-01

    By means of the combined use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) the surface and subsurface chemical and metallurgical features of silver counterfeited Roman Republican coins are investigated to decipher some aspects of the manufacturing methods and to evaluate the technological ability of the Roman metallurgists to produce thin silver coatings. The results demonstrate that over 2000 ago important advances in the technology of thin layer deposition on metal substrates were attained by Romans. The ancient metallurgists produced counterfeited coins by combining sophisticated micro-plating methods and tailored surface chemical modification based on the mercury-silvering process. The results reveal that Romans were able systematically to chemically and metallurgically manipulate alloys at a micro scale to produce adherent precious metal layers with a uniform thickness up to few micrometers. The results converge to reveal that the production of forgeries was aimed firstly to save expensive metals as much as possible allowing profitable large-scale production at a lower cost. The driving forces could have been a lack of precious metals, an unexpected need to circulate coins for trade and/or a combinations of social, political and economic factors that requested a change in money supply. Finally, some information on corrosion products have been achieved useful to select materials and methods for the conservation of these important witnesses of technology and economy.

  14. Urban Life and Local Politics in Roman Bithynia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    Most studies of Roman local administration focus on the formal structures of power, as defined by imperial laws, urban institutions and magistracies. This book explores the interplay of formal power with informal factors such as social prejudice, parochialism and personal rivalries in the cities...

  15. Diet, social differentiation and cultural change in Roman Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Christina; Schroeder, Hannes; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses stable isotope analyses (d 13 C and d 15 N) of human bone collagen to reconstruct the diet of three Romano-British (first to early fifth century AD) populations from Gloucestershire in South West England. Gloucestershire was an important part of Roman Britain with two major admini...... sensitive, if settlement-specific, indicator of social differentiation and culture change....

  16. Les traductions néerlandaises des romans francophones camerounais

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    28 mars 2016 ... deuxième s'intitule Der alte Mann und die Medaille. Le paratexte des textes publiés par la collection de Derde Spreker est avant tout didactique et en souligne la valeur documentaire: il importe que le lecteur place correctement le roman dans le contexte sociopolitique d'origine. Ainsi le titre original.

  17. Roman Catholic Church and media in information age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyyak Maksym Tarasovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Roman Catholic Church in the modern information age extensively exploits opportunities of traditional and new media. It has always been trying to be a dynamic and successive participant in the global information space. However, the media has become not only the most important attribute of the information society but also one of the most valuable instruments of religious authority.

  18. Diffractive dijet search with Roman pots at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melese, P.L.

    1996-08-01

    We present the results of a search for diffractive dijets produced in p anti p collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV from data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab using a Roman pot trigger. The dijet events exhibit additional diffractive characteristics such as rapidity gaps and boosted center-of-mass systems

  19. Roman impact on the landscape near castellum Fectio, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, Valerie; Brinkkemper, Otto; Bull, Ian; Engels, Stefan; Hakbijl, Tom; Schepers, Mans; van Dinter, Marieke; van Reenen, Guido; van Geel, Bas

    2014-01-01

    Castellum Fectio was one of the largest fortifications along the Limes, the northern border of the Roman Empire. The castellum, situated 5 km southeast of Utrecht, the Netherlands, was occupied from around the start of our Era to ca. A.D. 260. It was situated along a river bend of the Rhine that was

  20. Acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters in use today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian; Angelakis, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    In the Mediteranan area a large number of open, ancient Greek and Roman theatres are still today facing a busy schedule of performances including both classical and contemporary works of dance, drama, concerts, and opera. During the EU funded ``Erato'' project and a subsequent master thesis project...

  1. Roman impact on the landscape near castellum Fectio, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, V.; Brinkkemper, O.; Bull, I.D.; Engels, S.; Hakbijl, T.; Schepers, M.; Dinter, M.; van Reenen, G.; van Geel, B.

    2014-01-01

    Castellum Fectio was one of the largest fortifications along the Limes, the northern border of the Roman Empire. The castellum, situated 5 km southeast of Utrecht, the Netherlands, was occupied from around the start of our Era to ca. a.d. 260. It was situated along a river bend of the Rhine that was

  2. Ulpian's Appeal to Nature : Roman Law as Universal Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, René

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I argue that against the political and perhaps even religiously motivated background of the Constitutio Antoniniana, in order to further enhance the appeal of Roman law, Ulpian seeks to connect law and nature by using Stoic terminology. However, his usage of this terminology is

  3. Edith Wharton's "Roman Fever": A Rune of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Dale M.

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that "Roman Fever" responds to a reactionary political climate, demonstrating an anti-reactionary thrust to Edith Wharton's fiction. Argues that Wharton deserves credit for articulating the destructive character of a cultural misogyny that led quickly to what she saw in 1933 as "a world whizzing ... crazily to the…

  4. THE MAP OF ROMAN DACIA IN THE RECENT STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabo Csaba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents the evolution of the cartographic representation of Roman Dacia in the recent studies of archaeology and ancient history, focusing especially on the lacunas and main problems of foreign (non – Romanian maps, appeared in the last decade in the international scholarship.

  5. The ecclesiastical situation of the first generation Roman Christians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. du Toit

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Forming pan of a trilogy about the first generation Roman Christians, this anicle concentrates on the ecclesiastical aspect. From some scattered and relatively small groups, the numbers of Roman Christians increased markedly in the second half of the first century. According to Romans 16, Jewish Christians played a significant role in the initial period, although Gentile Christians were in the majority. Friction between these groups may have been a problem, but was not Paul's main concern. The Gentile Christians were mainly from a foreign background. Thus the first Christian community had a strongly cosmopolitan character. The plurality of house-churches was mainly due to practical factors, but social differentiation might have played a role. Meetings most probably took place in the ordinary rented apanments of insulae. Romans 16 renders a vivid picture of the leadership activities of Christian women and of Paul's enlightened position in this regard.

  6. Den historiske roman for børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyggebjerg, Anna Karlskov

    Bogen indeholder en redegørelse for den historiske roman som børnelitterær genre. Genren diskuteres i et teoretisk, historisk og analytisk perspektiv. Bogen afsluttes med en række principielle didaktiske overvejelser. Bogen er henvendt til alle, der beskæftiger sig professionelt med børnelitteratur...

  7. The Roman Hannibal: Remembering the Enemy in Silius Italicus' Punica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stocks, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a new reading of Hannibal in Silius Italicus' Punica and provides fresh insight into how the Romans remembered their past. Silius Italicus' Punica, the longest surviving epic in Latin literature, has seen a resurgence of interest among scholars in recent years. A celebration of

  8. Experience of Dual Time Point Brain F-18 FDG PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Infections Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Weung; Kim, Chang Guhn; Park, Soon Ah; Jung, Sang Ah [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Dual time point FDG PET imaging (DTPI) has been considered helpful for discrimination of benign and malignant disease, and staging lymph node status in patients with pulmonary malignancy. However, DTPI for benign disease has been rarely reported, and it may show a better description of metabolic status and extent of benign infection disease than early imaging only. The authors report on the use F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging with additional delayed imaging on a 52-year-old man with sparganosis and a 70-year-old man with tuberculous meningitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on dual time point PET/CT imaging in patients with cerebral sparganosis and tuberculous meningitis.

  9. Effects of point massage of liver and stomach channel combined with pith and trotter soup on postpartum lactation start time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiong; Hu, Yin; Zhang, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Delay in lactation initiation causes maternal anxiety and subsequent adverse impact on maternal exclusive breast feeding. It is important to explore a safe and convenient way to promote lactation initiation. The feasibility of point massage of liver and stomach channel combined with pith and trotter soup on prevention of delayed lactation initiation was investigated in the present study. 320 women were enrolled and randomly divided into four groups, control group (80 women), point massage group (80 women), pith and trotter soup group (80 women), and massage + soup group (80 women) to compare the lactation initiation time. We found that women in point massage group, pith and trotter soup group and massage + soup group had earlier initiation of lactation compared with control group. Women in massage + soup group had the earliest initiation time of lactation. There were significant differences between massage + soup group and pith and trotter soup group. But, there were no significant differences between massage + soup group and massage group. We conclude that point massage of the liver and stomach channel is easy to operate and has the preventive effect on delayed lactation initiation. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Initiation of lactation is a critical period in postpartum milk secretion. Delays in lactation initiation lead to maternal anxiety and have an adverse impact on maternal exclusive breastfeeding. Sucking frequently by babies and mammary massage might be effective but insufficient for delayed lactation initiation. What the results of this study add: We found in the present study that lactation initiation is significantly earlier in women receiving routine nursing combined with point massage of liver and stomach channel, or pith trotters soup, or massage of liver and stomach channel with pith and trotters soup than in a control group receiving routine nursing. These three methods are all effective, while the most

  10. “Apostolic” and “Imperial” discourse in the development of the Roman Primacy in the 4th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov Georgii

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the evolution of the Roman primacy in the 4th century. The Christianization of the Empire accelerated the process of regional consolidation of the episcopate, but did not lead to the emergence of specific «imperial ecclesiology». At the same time in the 4th century, traditional apostolic ecclesiology has maintained its position both in the West and the East. We can distinguish two different types of the apostolic ecclesiology: locally-historical (the doctrine of St. Irenaeus and Tertullian and universally-hierarchical (the concept of St. Cyprian of Carthage. The first can be fi nd in the works of pope Julius, St. Athanasius and in the letter of the council of Constantinople (382, the second — in the texts of St. Basil the Great and Palladius of Ratiara. At the same time on the council of Serdica (343 Western bishops supported the new “Roman” ecclesiological model. They proclaimed the Roman See as the Chair of Peter the only center of catholic communion and invested it with special legal prerogatives. In fact, this model was the result of ecclesiological synthesis of two early conceptions of apostolicity: the idea of apostolic origins of the Roman Church was connected with the idea of the primacy of Peter as the basis of the Church’s unity. In the future, this conception was adopted by the bishop of Rome. Pope Damasus I (366–384, developing the doctrine of the Roman See as sedes apostolica, actually put principle of Roman primacy above the principle of synodal consensus. Eastern bishops did not support this interpretation of the church order, defending the autonomy of the Eastern Churches. They proclaimed Constantinople New Rome, in fact, denying the uniqueness of the status of the Church of Rome.

  11. Parity-Time Symmetry and the Toy Models of Gain-Loss Dynamics near the Real Kato's Exceptional Points

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2016), s. 52 ISSN 2073-8994 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : parity-time symmetry * Schrodinger equation * physical Hilbert space * inner-product metric operator * real exceptional points * solvable models * quantum Big Bang * quantum Inflation period Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.457, year: 2016

  12. Roman Toi kaks suurt armastust : muusika ja Eesti / Elle Puusaag ; foto: V. Sarapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusaag, Elle, 1945-2017

    2007-01-01

    Toronto Eesti Maja kristallsaalis toimunud pidulikust õhtust 5. detsembril: maestro Roman Toi mälestusteraamatu esitlusest. Rets. rmt.: Toi, Roman. Kaunimad laulud pühendan sull' : Roman Toi mälestused/toimetaja Tiina Sarv. Toronto : Viljandi : T. Sarv, 2007

  13. Real-time resolution of point mutations that cause phenovariance in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhan, Xiaowei; Bu, Chun-Hui; Lyon, Stephen; Pratt, David; Hildebrand, Sara; Choi, Jin Huk; Zhang, Zhao; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Kuan-wen; Turer, Emre; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Duanwu; Yue, Tao; Wang, Ying; Shi, Hexin; Wang, Jianhui; Sun, Lei; SoRelle, Jeff; McAlpine, William; Hutchins, Noelle; Zhan, Xiaoming; Fina, Maggy; Gobert, Rochelle; Quan, Jiexia; Kreutzer, McKensie; Arnett, Stephanie; Hawkins, Kimberly; Leach, Ashley; Tate, Christopher; Daniel, Chad; Reyna, Carlos; Prince, Lauren; Davis, Sheila; Purrington, Joel; Bearden, Rick; Weatherly, Jennifer; White, Danielle; Russell, Jamie; Sun, Qihua; Tang, Miao; Li, Xiaohong; Scott, Lindsay; Moresco, Eva Marie Y.; McInerney, Gerald M.; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B.; Xie, Yang; Beutler, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    With the wide availability of massively parallel sequencing technologies, genetic mapping has become the rate limiting step in mammalian forward genetics. Here we introduce a method for real-time identification of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mutations that cause phenotypes in mice. All mutations are identified by whole exome G1 progenitor sequencing and their zygosity is established in G2/G3 mice before phenotypic assessment. Quantitative and qualitative traits, including lethal effects, in single or multiple combined pedigrees are then analyzed with Linkage Analyzer, a software program that detects significant linkage between individual mutations and aberrant phenotypic scores and presents processed data as Manhattan plots. As multiple alleles of genes are acquired through mutagenesis, pooled “superpedigrees” are created to analyze the effects. Our method is distinguished from conventional forward genetic methods because it permits (1) unbiased declaration of mappable phenotypes, including those that are incompletely penetrant (2), automated identification of causative mutations concurrent with phenotypic screening, without the need to outcross mutant mice to another strain and backcross them, and (3) exclusion of genes not involved in phenotypes of interest. We validated our approach and Linkage Analyzer for the identification of 47 mutations in 45 previously known genes causative for adaptive immune phenotypes; our analysis also implicated 474 genes not previously associated with immune function. The method described here permits forward genetic analysis in mice, limited only by the rates of mutant production and screening. PMID:25605905

  14. Fecal short-chain fatty acids at different time points after ceftriaxone administration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Holota

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs are major products of the microbial fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon. Recent studies suggest that these products of microbial metabolism in the gut act as signaling molecules, influence host energy homeostasis and play major immunological roles. In the present study, defined the long-term effects of ceftriaxone administration on the fecal SCFAs concentration in Wistar rats. Ceftriaxone (300 mg/kg, i.m. was administered daily for 14 days. Rats were euthanized in 1, 15 and 56 days after ceftriaxone withdrawal. Caecal weight and fecal concentration of SCFAs by gas chromatography were measured. Ceftriaxone administration induced time-dependent rats’ caecal enlargement through accumulation of undigestable substances. In 1 day after ceftriaxone withdrawal, the concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric acids and total SCFAs were decreased 2.9-, 13.8-, 8.5-, 4.8-fold (P < 0.05, respectively. Concentration of valeric, isovaleric and caproic acids was below the detectable level. That was accompanied by decreased 4.3-fold anaerobic index and increased the relative amount of acetic acid (P < 0.05. In 56 days, concentration of SCFAs was still below control value but higher than in 1 day (except propionic acid. Anaerobic index was lower 1.3-fold (P < 0.05 vs. control. Conclusion: antibiotic therapy induced long-term disturbance in colonic microbiota metabolic activity.

  15. Stable long-time semiclassical description of zero-point energy in high-dimensional molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garashchuk, Sophya; Rassolov, Vitaly A

    2008-07-14

    Semiclassical implementation of the quantum trajectory formalism [J. Chem. Phys. 120, 1181 (2004)] is further developed to give a stable long-time description of zero-point energy in anharmonic systems of high dimensionality. The method is based on a numerically cheap linearized quantum force approach; stabilizing terms compensating for the linearization errors are added into the time-evolution equations for the classical and nonclassical components of the momentum operator. The wave function normalization and energy are rigorously conserved. Numerical tests are performed for model systems of up to 40 degrees of freedom.

  16. How Feasible is Multiple Time Point Web-Based Data Collection with Individuals Experiencing Street Homelessness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Moss, Shadiya L

    2017-02-01

    Three barriers investigators often encounter when conducting longitudinal work with homeless or other marginalized populations are difficulty tracking participants, high rates of no-shows for follow-up interviews, and high rates of loss to follow-up. Recent research has shown that homeless populations have substantial access to information technologies, including mobile devices and computers. These technologies have the potential both to make longitudinal data collection with homeless populations easier and to minimize some of these methodological challenges. This pilot study's purpose was to test whether individuals who were homeless and sleeping on the streets-the "street homeless"-would answer questions remotely through a web-based data collection system at regular "follow-up" intervals. We attempted to simulate longitudinal data collection in a condensed time period. Participants (N = 21) completed an in-person baseline interview. Each participant was given a remotely reloadable gift card. Subsequently, weekly for 8 weeks, participants were sent an email with a link to a SurveyMonkey questionnaire. Participants were given 48 h to complete each questionnaire. Data were collected about life on the streets, service use, community inclusion, substance use, and high-risk sexual behaviors. Ten dollars was remotely loaded onto each participant's gift card when they completed the questionnaire within the completion window. A substantial number of participants (67% of the total sample and 86% of the adjusted sample) completed at least seven out of the eight follow-up questionnaires. Most questionnaires were completed at public libraries, but several were completed at other types of locations (social service agencies, places of employment, relative/friend/acquaintance's domiciles, or via mobile phone). Although some of the questions were quite sensitive, very few participants skipped any questions. The only variables associated with questionnaire completion were

  17. Measures and time points relevant for post-surgical follow-up in patients with inflammatory arthritis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tägil Magnus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatic diseases commonly affect joints and other structures in the hand. Surgery is a traditional way to treat hand problems in inflammatory rheumatic diseases with the purposes of pain relief, restore function and prevent progression. There are numerous measures to choose from, and a combination of outcome measures is recommended. This study evaluated if instruments commonly used in rheumatologic clinical practice are suitable to measure outcome of hand surgery and to identify time points relevant for follow-up. Methods Thirty-one patients (median age 56 years, median disease duration 15 years with inflammatory rheumatic disease and need for post-surgical occupational therapy intervention formed this pilot study group. Hand function was assessed regarding grip strength (Grippit, pain (VAS, range of motion (ROM (Signals of Functional Impairment (SOFI and grip ability (Grip Ability Test (GAT. Activities of daily life (ADL were assessed by means of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome (DASH and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM. The instruments were evaluated by responsiveness and feasibility; follow-up points were 0, 3, 6 and 12 months. Results All instruments showed significant change at one or more follow-up points. Satisfaction with activities (COPM showed the best responsiveness (SMR>0.8, while ROM measured with SOFI had low responsiveness at most follow-up time points. The responsiveness of the instruments was stable between 6 and 12 month follow-up which imply that 6 month is an appropriate time for evaluating short-term effect of hand surgery in rheumatic diseases. Conclusion We suggest a core set of instruments measuring pain, grip strength, grip ability, perceived symptoms and self-defined daily activities. This study has shown that VAS pain, the Grippit instrument, GAT, DASH symptom scale and COPM are suitable outcome instruments for hand surgery, while SOFI may be a more insensitive

  18. [Preliminary data of life and health insurance in the Roman Law (The collegium funeraticium and the collegium tenuiorum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, Agnes

    2007-12-30

    With the explosion of insurance contracts in the last two hundred years both in Europe and around the rest of the world, there is a temptation to think that the financing and insuring on projects on limited or non-recourse terms is a relatively novel concept. This is, however, far from being true. Indeed, there is an early evidence of project financing techniques and insurance contracts being actively used during the ancient times. The first examples come from the Roman law but there are similar legal institutions even in the ancient Greek legal system. - The essay analyses the legal history of assurances on lives and health in the Roman law, especially the question of the collegium tenuiorum and the collegium funeraticium. In the centre of the studies are the analyses of their legal personality, the changes in the regulation concerning their foundation, the purpose and the internal organisation. The treatment of the main topics begins with fragments from the material of the Corpus Iuris Civilis by Justinian. After that the views of the most important authors and the contemporary investigations in the Roman law found the statements of the paper. As a result of these analyses we can see the process of development in the ancient legal systems, especially in the Roman law. And although these results have no immediate influence on the present legal regulation, it can demonstrate original tendencies in the field of insurances. This way we can prove that the Roman law is a still existing basis for the development in contractual law.

  19. Non-invasive chemical and phase analysis of Roman bronze artefacts from Thamusida (Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gliozzo, Elisabetta, E-mail: gliozzo@unisi.i [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Siena, via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Arletti, Rossella, E-mail: rarletti@unimore.i [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Largo S. Eufemia 19, 41100 Modena (Italy); Cartechini, Laura, E-mail: laura@thch.unipg.i [Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari del CNR (CNR-ISTM), c/o Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Imberti, Silvia, E-mail: Silvia.Imberti@stfc.ac.u [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Kockelmann, Winfried A., E-mail: Winfried.Kockelmann@stfc.ac.u [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Memmi, Isabella, E-mail: memmi@unisi.i [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Siena, via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Rinaldi, Romano, E-mail: rrinaldi@unipg.i [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Tykot, Robert H., E-mail: rtykot@cas.usf.ed [Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    A repertory of Roman military bronze equipment (1st- 3rd century AD) found at the archaeological site of Thamusida (Rabat, Morocco) was analysed by non-destructive X-ray fluorescence and time of flight neutron diffraction (TOF-ND). Most objects are made of leaded alloys, where copper is combined with tin and/or zinc and, in six cases, to arsenic as well. A mixed technology was employed, making a limited use of 'pure' semi-finished materials if compared with the large utilization of recycled materials (brass and bronze).

  20. Static and dynamic traversable wormhole geometries satisfying the Ford-Roman constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhfittig, Peter K.F.

    2002-01-01

    It was shown by Ford and Roman in 1996 that quantum field theory severely constrains wormhole geometries on a macroscopic scale. The first part of this paper discusses a wide class of wormhole solutions that meet these constraints. The type of shape function used is essentially generic. The constraints are then discussed in conjunction with various redshift functions. Violations of the weak energy condition and traversability criteria are also considered. The second part of the paper analyzes analogous time-dependent (dynamic) wormholes with the aid of differential forms. It is shown that a violation of the weak energy condition is not likely to be avoidable even temporarily

  1. Influence of call broadcast timing within point counts and survey duration on detection probability of marsh breeding birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Tozer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol recommends point counts consisting of a 5-min passive observation period, meant to be free of broadcast bias, followed by call broadcasts to entice elusive species to reveal their presence. Prior to this protocol, some monitoring programs used point counts with broadcasts during the first 5 min of 10-min counts, and have since used 15-min counts with an initial 5-min passive period (P1 followed by 5 min of broadcasts (B and a second 5-min passive period (P2 to ensure consistency across years and programs. Influence of timing of broadcasts within point counts and point count duration, however, have rarely been assessed. Using data from 23,973 broadcast-assisted 15-min point counts conducted throughout the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region between 2008 and 2016 by Bird Studies Canada's Marsh Monitoring Program and Central Michigan University's Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program, we estimated detection probabilities of individuals for 14 marsh breeding bird species during P1B compared to BP2, P1 compared to P2, and P1B compared to P1BP2. For six broadcast species and American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus, we found no significant difference in detection during P1B compared to BP2, and no significant difference in four of the same seven species during P1 compared to P2. We observed small but significant differences in detection for 7 of 14 species during P1B compared to P1BP2. We conclude that differences in timing of broadcasts causes no bias based on counts from entire 10-minute surveys, although P1B should be favored over BP2 because the same amount of effort in P1B avoids broadcast bias in all broadcast species, and 10-min surveys are superior to 15-min surveys because modest gains in detection of some species does not warrant the additional effort. We recommend point counts consisting of 5 min of passive observation followed by broadcasts, consistent with the standardized

  2. Identification and impacts of earthquakes on the Roman Town of Patras- Archaeological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamati, Alexandra-Venetia; Stiros, Stathis

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we examine the interactions between earthquakes and inhabitation history of the town of Patras (NW Peloponnese, Greece), flourishing during the Roman period. Instrumental seismicity data and the seismic history of the last two centuries indicate that the wider area is among the most seismically active parts of Europe. But surprisingly, for older periods no historical evidence of ancient earthquakes exists. If this absence of evidence of ancient earthquakes is indicative of a real absence of earthquakes, this may be important for different disciplines. For Seismology, it may perhaps indicate clusters of seismicity separated by intervals of quiescence, each at least several thousand years long. It may also indicate that the inhabitation history of Patras town was not interrupted by major natural catastrophic events, and some destruction observed in ancient remains can be assigned to anthropogenic effects. In order to contribute in the solution of this problem, we made a systematic Archaeoseismological investigation of Patras and examined for the first time several hundreds of reports of archaeological excavations that have been made during period of reconstruction of the city (1972-2004). Among these, about 100 reports provide evidence of destruction layers, some of which satisfy the criteria for identification of earthquakes from archaeological data. A further correlation of this evidence in space and time was made, and permitted to identify with certainty a few major seismic events which marked the history of Roman Patras (1st-6th century AD). In spite of their catastrophic effects, these earthquakes have not led to the abandonment of the ancient town (inhabitation hiatus), but have certainly left their marks in the urban and perhaps social and economic history of this Roman town. Some certain uniformity in the frequency of earthquakes in Patras was also inferred.

  3. Remotely-sensed, nocturnal, dew point correlates with malaria transmission in Southern Province, Zambia: a time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, David; Stoyanov, Cristina; Lewold, Clemens; Månsson, Fredrik; Miller, John; Kamanga, Aniset; Shiff, Clive J

    2014-06-13

    Plasmodium falciparum transmission has decreased significantly in Zambia in the last decade. The malaria transmission is influenced by environmental variables. Incorporation of environmental variables in models of malaria transmission likely improves model fit and predicts probable trends in malaria disease. This work is based on the hypothesis that remotely-sensed environmental factors, including nocturnal dew point, are associated with malaria transmission and sustain foci of transmission during the low transmission season in the Southern Province of Zambia. Thirty-eight rural health centres in Southern Province, Zambia were divided into three zones based on transmission patterns. Correlations between weekly malaria cases and remotely-sensed nocturnal dew point, nocturnal land surface temperature as well as vegetation indices and rainfall were evaluated in time-series analyses from 2012 week 19 to 2013 week 36. Zonal as well as clinic-based, multivariate, autoregressive, integrated, moving average (ARIMAX) models implementing environmental variables were developed to model transmission in 2011 week 19 to 2012 week 18 and forecast transmission in 2013 week 37 to week 41. During the dry, low transmission season significantly higher vegetation indices, nocturnal land surface temperature and nocturnal dew point were associated with the areas of higher transmission. Environmental variables improved ARIMAX models. Dew point and normalized differentiated vegetation index were significant predictors and improved all zonal transmission models. In the high-transmission zone, this was also seen for land surface temperature. Clinic models were improved by adding dew point and land surface temperature as well as normalized differentiated vegetation index. The mean average error of prediction for ARIMAX models ranged from 0.7 to 33.5%. Forecasts of malaria incidence were valid for three out of five rural health centres; however, with poor results at the zonal level. In this

  4. Transparent 3D Visualization of Archaeological Remains in Roman Site in Ankara-Turkey with Ground Penetrating Radar Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, S.

    2009-04-01

    Transparent 3D Visualization of Archaeological Remains in Roman Site in Ankara-Turkey with Ground Penetrating Radar Method Selma KADIOGLU Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geophysical Engineering, 06100 Tandogan/ANKARA-TURKEY kadioglu@eng.ankara.edu.tr Anatolia has always been more the point of transit, a bridge between West and East. Anatolia has been a home for ideas moving from all directions. So it is that in the Roman and post-Roman periods the role of Anatolia in general and of Ancyra (the Roman name of Ankara) in particular was of the greatest importance. Now, the visible archaeological remains of Roman period in Ankara are Roman Bath, Gymnasium, the Temple of Augustus of Rome, Street, Theatre, City Defence-Wall. The Caesar Augustus, the first Roman Emperor, conquered Asia Minor in 25 BC. Then a marble temple was built in Ancyra, the administrative capital of province, today the capital of Turkish Republic, Ankara. This monument was consecrated to the Empreror and to the Goddess Rome. This temple is supposed to have built over an earlier temple dedicated to Kybele and Men between 25 -20 BC. After the death of the Augustus in 14AD, a copy of the text of "Res Gestae Divi Augusti" was inscribed on the interior of the pronaos in Latin, whereas a Greek translation is also present on an exterior wall of the cella. In the 5th century, it was converted in to a church by the Byzantines. The aim of this study is to determine old buried archaeological remains in the Augustus temple, Roman Bath and in the governorship agora in Ulus district. These remains were imaged with transparent three dimensional (3D) visualization of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) data. Parallel two dimensional (2D) GPR profile data were acquired in the study areas, and then a 3D data volume were built using parallel 2D GPR data. A simplified amplitude-colour range and appropriate opacity function were constructed and transparent 3D image were obtained to activate buried

  5. Numerical study and ex vivo assessment of HIFU treatment time reduction through optimization of focal point trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisey, A.; Yon, S.; Pechoux, T.; Letort, V.; Lafitte, P.

    2017-03-01

    Treatment time reduction is a key issue to expand the use of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery, especially for benign pathologies. This study aims at quantitatively assessing the potential reduction of the treatment time arising from moving the focal point during long pulses. In this context, the optimization of the focal point trajectory is crucial to achieve a uniform thermal dose repartition and avoid boiling. At first, a numerical optimization algorithm was used to generate efficient trajectories. Thermal conduction was simulated in 3D with a finite difference code and damages to the tissue were modeled using the thermal dose formula. Given an initial trajectory, the thermal dose field was first computed, then, making use of Pontryagin's maximum principle, the trajectory was iteratively refined. Several initial trajectories were tested. Then, an ex vivo study was conducted in order to validate the efficicency of the resulting optimized strategies. Single pulses were performed at 3MHz on fresh veal liver samples with an Echopulse and the size of each unitary lesion was assessed by cutting each sample along three orthogonal planes and measuring the dimension of the whitened area based on photographs. We propose a promising approach to significantly shorten HIFU treatment time: the numerical optimization algorithm was shown to provide a reliable insight on trajectories that can improve treatment strategies. The model must now be improved in order to take in vivo conditions into account and extensively validated.

  6. Economic Order Quality Model for Determining the Sales Prices of Fresh Goods at Various Points in Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the safe consumption of goods such as food products, medicine, and vaccines is related to their freshness, consumers frequently understand less than suppliers about the freshness of goods when they purchase them. Because of this lack of information, apart from sales prices, consumers refer only to the manufacturing and expiration dates when deciding whether to purchase and how many of these goods to buy. If dealers could determine the sales price at each point in time and customers’ intention to buy goods of varying freshness, then dealers could set an optimal inventory cycle and allocate a weekly sales price for each point in time, thereby maximizing the profit per unit time. Therefore, in this study, an economic order quality model was established to enable discussion of the optimal control of sales prices. The technique for identifying the optimal solution for the model was determined, the characteristics of the optimal solution were demonstrated, and the implications of the solution’s sensitivity analysis were explained.

  7. Geospatial exposure to point-of-sale tobacco: real-time craving and smoking-cessation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Thomas R; Cantrell, Jennifer; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Ganz, Ollie; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the factors that drive the association between point-of-sale marketing and behavior, because methods that directly link individual-level use outcomes to real-world point-of-sale exposure are only now beginning to be developed. Daily outcomes during smoking cessation were examined as a function of both real-time geospatial exposure to point-of-sale tobacco (POST) and subjective craving to smoke. Continuous individual geospatial location data collected over the first month of a smoking-cessation attempt in 2010-2012 (N=475) were overlaid on a POST outlet geodatabase (N=1060). Participants' mobility data were used to quantify the number of times they came into contact with a POST outlet. Participants recorded real-time craving levels and smoking status via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) on cellular telephones. The final data set spanned a total of 12,871 days of EMA and geospatial tracking. Lapsing was significantly more likely on days with any POST contact (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.18, 1.20), and increasingly likely as the number of daily POST contacts increased (OR=1.07, 95% CI=1.06, 1.08). Overall, daily POST exposure was significantly associated with lapsing when craving was low (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.20, 1.23); high levels of craving were more directly associated with lapse outcomes. These data shed light on the way mobility patterns drive a dynamic interaction between individuals and the POST environment, demonstrating that quantification of individuals' exposure to POST marketing can be used to identify previously unrecognized patterns of association among individual mobility, the built environment, and behavioral outcomes. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  8. The value of dual time point 18F-FDG PET imaging for the differentiation between malignant and benign lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, X.-L.; Zhang, Y.-X.; Wu, Z.-J.; Jia, Q.; Wei, H.; Gao, Z.-R.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess the clinical value of dual time point 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET) imaging for the differentiation between malignant and benign lesions. Materials and methods: Ninety-six patients (28 patients with primary lung cancer, 18 patients with digestive system carcinoma, 13 patients with other malignant tumours, and 37 patients with benign lesions) underwent FDG-PET/CT at two time points: examination 1 at 45-55 min and examination 2 at 160 ± 24 (150-180) min after the intravenous injection of 233 ± 52 (185-370) MBq 18 F-FDG. Reconstructed images were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the lesions were calculated for both time points. An increase was considered to have occurred if the SUVs at examination 2 had increased by >10% as compared with those at the examination 1. Results: The lesions in 24 of 28 (86%) patients with primary lung cancer had an SUVmax ≥2.5 at examination 1. Of these, SUVmax values increased in 23 patients, but had not changed in one patient, at examination 2. The lesions in the other four patients with primary lung tumour had SUVmax values between 1.5 and 2.5 at examination 1, which were considered as suspected positive, increased SUVmax values were observed in three of these patients at examination 2. The malignant lesions in 17 of 18 patients with digestive system carcinoma showed SUVmax values ≥2.5 and only one patient had an SUVmax value 18 F-FDG PET imaging is an important noninvasive method for the differentiation of malignant and nonmalignant lesions

  9. Real-time digital simulation of power electronics systems with Neutral Point Piloted multilevel inverter using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotozafy, Mamianja [Groupe de Recherches en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); CONVERTEAM SAS, Parc d' activites Techn' hom, 24 avenue du Marechal Juin, BP 40437, 90008 Belfort Cedex (France); Poure, Philippe [Laboratoire d' Instrumentation Electronique de Nancy (LIEN), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Saadate, Shahrokh [Groupe de Recherches en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Bordas, Cedric; Leclere, Loic [CONVERTEAM SAS, Parc d' activites Techn' hom, 24 avenue du Marechal Juin, BP 40437, 90008 Belfort Cedex (France)

    2011-02-15

    Most of actual real time simulation platforms have practically about ten microseconds as minimum calculation time step, mainly due to computation limits such as processing speed, architecture adequacy and modeling complexities. Therefore, simulation of fast switching converters' instantaneous models requires smaller computing time step. The approach presented in this paper proposes an answer to such limited modeling accuracies and computational bandwidth of the currently available digital simulators.As an example, the authors present a low cost, flexible and high performance FPGA-based real-time digital simulator for a complete complex power system with Neutral Point Piloted (NPP) three-level inverter. The proposed real-time simulator can model accurately and efficiently the complete power system, reducing costs, physical space and avoiding any damage to the actual equipment in the case of any dysfunction of the digital controller prototype. The converter model is computed at a small fixed time step as low as 100 ns. Such a computation time step allows high precision account of the gating signals and thus avoids averaging methods and event compensations. Moreover, a novel high performance model of the NPP three-level inverter has also been proposed for FPGA implementation. The proposed FPGA-based simulator models the environment of the NPP converter: the dc link, the RLE load and the digital controller and gating signals. FPGA-based real time simulation results are presented and compared with offline results obtained using PLECS software. They validate the efficiency and accuracy of the modeling for the proposed high performance FPGA-based real-time simulation approach. This paper also introduces new potential FPGA-based applications such as low cost real time simulator for power systems by developing a library of flexible and portable models for power converters, electrical machines and drives. (author)

  10. Risk factors for hyperglycemia in pregnancy in the DALI study differ by period of pregnancy and OGTT time point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendoza, Lilian C; Harreiter, Jürgen; Simmons, David

    2018-01-01

    maternal and current pregnancy characteristics. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS Clinical characteristics independently associated with GDM/overt diabetes were: at ≤19+6 weeks, previous abnormal glucose tolerance (OR 3.11; CI95 1.41-6.85), previous GDM (OR 2.22; CI95 1......; at 35-37 weeks, maternal height (OR 0.41; CI95 0.20-0.87 for upper tertile). Clinical characteristics independently associated with GDM/overt diabetes differed by OGTT time point (e.g. at ≤19+6 weeks, neck circumference was associated with abnormal fasting but not postchallenge glucose). CONCLUSION...

  11. Validation and Assessment of Multi-GNSS Real-Time Precise Point Positioning in Simulated Kinematic Mode Using IGS Real-Time Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Precise Point Positioning (PPP is a popular technology for precise applications based on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS. Multi-GNSS combined PPP has become a hot topic in recent years with the development of multiple GNSSs. Meanwhile, with the operation of the real-time service (RTS of the International GNSS Service (IGS agency that provides satellite orbit and clock corrections to broadcast ephemeris, it is possible to obtain the real-time precise products of satellite orbits and clocks and to conduct real-time PPP. In this contribution, the real-time multi-GNSS orbit and clock corrections of the CLK93 product are applied for real-time multi-GNSS PPP processing, and its orbit and clock qualities are investigated, first with a seven-day experiment by comparing them with the final multi-GNSS precise product ‘GBM’ from GFZ. Then, an experiment involving real-time PPP processing for three stations in the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX network with a testing period of two weeks is conducted in order to evaluate the convergence performance of real-time PPP in a simulated kinematic mode. The experimental result shows that real-time PPP can achieve a convergence performance of less than 15 min for an accuracy level of 20 cm. Finally, the real-time data streams from 12 globally distributed IGS/MGEX stations for one month are used to assess and validate the positioning accuracy of real-time multi-GNSS PPP. The results show that the simulated kinematic positioning accuracy achieved by real-time PPP on different stations is about 3.0 to 4.0 cm for the horizontal direction and 5.0 to 7.0 cm for the three-dimensional (3D direction.

  12. Mössbauer and XRD studies of Roman amphorae buried in the sea for two millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F. E.; Wagner, U.; Häusler, W.; Costa, B. F. O.; Blot, J.-Y.; Silva, A. J. M.; Bombico, S.

    2016-12-01

    During the years 2004-2007 many Roman amphora sherds were found in the sea near Cortiçais, off the southern coast of the Peniche peninsula on the Atlantic coast of Portugal. The amphorae are of the Haltern 70 type and stem from a shipwreck that has been dated to the time of the emperor Augustus, between about 15 BC and 15 AD. They were produced in the Roman Province of Baetica in the south of Spain and used to transport wine and other staple foods by sea to other Roman settlements. We have studied several fragments of these amphorae by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction in order to look for changes in the ceramic material caused by two millennia of exposure to sea water. For comparison Mössbauer data on a Haltern 70 type amphora handle excavated on land at the site of Castro do Vieito in the north of Portugal were used. The fragments on which we report here are a body sherd and two handles. The sherds show a visible layer structure. The different layers were studied separately. The Mössbauer spectra of the buff surface layers indicate that up to about 60 % of the iron is present as very fine goethite particles, which are superparamagnetic at RT but exhibit magnetically split spectra at 4.2 K. Their blocking temperature is around or even below 50 K. The goethite is too fine grained to be detected by X-ray diffraction. Re-firing experiments confirm the presence of goethite, which is found to convert to hematite between 300 and 600 ∘C. The results show that the iron in the silicate matrix of the ceramic material converts to goethite under the prolonged influence of the sea water, mainly in the outermost several millimetres and apparently depending on the nature of the ceramic material.

  13. Mössbauer and XRD studies of Roman amphorae buried in the sea for two millennia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, F. E., E-mail: fwagner@tum.de; Wagner, U.; Häusler, W. [Technical University of Munich, Physics Department E15 (Germany); Costa, B. F. O. [University of Coimbra, CFisUC, Physics Department (Portugal); Blot, J.-Y. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, CHAMFCSH (Portugal); Silva, A. J. M. [University of Coimbra, FCT/Centro de Estudos Arqueológicos das Universidades de Coimbra e do Porto (Portugal); Bombico, S. [University of Evora, CIDEHUS (Portugal)

    2016-12-15

    During the years 2004–2007 many Roman amphora sherds were found in the sea near Cortiçais, off the southern coast of the Peniche peninsula on the Atlantic coast of Portugal. The amphorae are of the Haltern 70 type and stem from a shipwreck that has been dated to the time of the emperor Augustus, between about 15 BC and 15 AD. They were produced in the Roman Province of Baetica in the south of Spain and used to transport wine and other staple foods by sea to other Roman settlements. We have studied several fragments of these amphorae by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction in order to look for changes in the ceramic material caused by two millennia of exposure to sea water. For comparison Mössbauer data on a Haltern 70 type amphora handle excavated on land at the site of Castro do Vieito in the north of Portugal were used. The fragments on which we report here are a body sherd and two handles. The sherds show a visible layer structure. The different layers were studied separately. The Mössbauer spectra of the buff surface layers indicate that up to about 60 % of the iron is present as very fine goethite particles, which are superparamagnetic at RT but exhibit magnetically split spectra at 4.2 K. Their blocking temperature is around or even below 50 K. The goethite is too fine grained to be detected by X-ray diffraction. Re-firing experiments confirm the presence of goethite, which is found to convert to hematite between 300 and 600 {sup ∘}C. The results show that the iron in the silicate matrix of the ceramic material converts to goethite under the prolonged influence of the sea water, mainly in the outermost several millimetres and apparently depending on the nature of the ceramic material.

  14. Mössbauer and XRD studies of Roman amphorae buried in the sea for two millennia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F. E.; Wagner, U.; Häusler, W.; Costa, B. F. O.; Blot, J.-Y.; Silva, A. J. M.; Bombico, S.

    2016-01-01

    During the years 2004–2007 many Roman amphora sherds were found in the sea near Cortiçais, off the southern coast of the Peniche peninsula on the Atlantic coast of Portugal. The amphorae are of the Haltern 70 type and stem from a shipwreck that has been dated to the time of the emperor Augustus, between about 15 BC and 15 AD. They were produced in the Roman Province of Baetica in the south of Spain and used to transport wine and other staple foods by sea to other Roman settlements. We have studied several fragments of these amphorae by "5"7Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction in order to look for changes in the ceramic material caused by two millennia of exposure to sea water. For comparison Mössbauer data on a Haltern 70 type amphora handle excavated on land at the site of Castro do Vieito in the north of Portugal were used. The fragments on which we report here are a body sherd and two handles. The sherds show a visible layer structure. The different layers were studied separately. The Mössbauer spectra of the buff surface layers indicate that up to about 60 % of the iron is present as very fine goethite particles, which are superparamagnetic at RT but exhibit magnetically split spectra at 4.2 K. Their blocking temperature is around or even below 50 K. The goethite is too fine grained to be detected by X-ray diffraction. Re-firing experiments confirm the presence of goethite, which is found to convert to hematite between 300 and 600 "∘C. The results show that the iron in the silicate matrix of the ceramic material converts to goethite under the prolonged influence of the sea water, mainly in the outermost several millimetres and apparently depending on the nature of the ceramic material.

  15. Phytochemicals and bioactivity in wild German and Roman chamomiles infusions

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Natural matrices represent a rich source of biologically active compounds and are an example of molecular diversity, with recognized potential in drug discovery. In the present work, the infusions of Matricaria recutita L. (German chamomile) and Chamaemelum nobile L. (Roman chamomile) were submitted to an analysis of phenolic compounds and evaluation of bioactivity. Phenolic compounds were characterized by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode a...

  16. Looking for Colour on Greek and Roman Sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Claridge

    2011-01-01

    Review of: Vinzenz Brinkmann, Oliver Primavesi, Max Hollein, (eds), Circumlitio. The Polychromy of Antique and Medieval Sculpture. Liebighaus Skulpturensammlung, Frankfurt am Main, 2010. New scientific methods now being applied to the analysis of traces of pigments and gilding on ancient Greek and Roman marble statuary, and other marble artefacts, have the potential to revolutionise our understanding of the relationship between form and colour in antiquity. At present the enquiry is still...

  17. Early Roman military fortifications and the origin of Trieste, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Federico; Vinci, Giacomo; Horvat, Jana; De Min, Angelo; Forte, Emanuele; Furlani, Stefano; Lenaz, Davide; Pipan, Michele; Zhao, Wenke; Sgambati, Alessandro; Potleca, Michele; Micheli, Roberto; Fragiacomo, Andrea; Tuniz, Claudio

    2015-03-31

    An interdisciplinary study of the archaeological landscape of the Trieste area (northeastern Italy), mainly based on airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and archaeological surveys, has led to the discovery of an early Roman fortification system, composed of a big central camp (San Rocco) flanked by two minor forts. The most ancient archaeological findings, including a Greco-Italic amphora rim produced in Latium or Campania, provide a relative chronology for the first installation of the structures between the end of the third century B.C. and the first decades of the second century B.C. whereas other materials, such as Lamboglia 2 amphorae and a military footwear hobnail (type D of Alesia), indicate that they maintained a strategic role at least up to the mid first century B.C. According to archaeological data and literary sources, the sites were probably established in connection with the Roman conquest of the Istria peninsula in 178-177 B.C. They were in use, perhaps not continuously, at least until the foundation of Tergeste, the ancestor of Trieste, in the mid first century B.C. The San Rocco site, with its exceptional size and imposing fortifications, is the main known Roman evidence of the Trieste area during this phase and could correspond to the location of the first settlement of Tergeste preceding the colony foundation. This hypothesis would also be supported by literary sources that describe it as a phrourion (Strabo, V, 1, 9, C 215), a term used by ancient writers to designate the fortifications of the Roman army.

  18. Bone tuberculosis in Roman Period Pannonia (western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Hajdu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse a skeleton (adult female, 25-30 years that presented evidence of tuberculous spondylitis. The skeleton, dated from the Roman Period (III-VI centuries, was excavated near the town of Győr, in western Hungary. The skeleton was examined by gross observation supplemented with mycolic acid and proteomic analyses using MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. The biomolecular analyses supported the morphological diagnosis.

  19. Performance evaluation of FSO system using wavelength and time diversity over malaga turbulence channel with pointing errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, K. A.; Prabu, K.

    2018-03-01

    There is an immense demand for high bandwidth and high data rate systems, which is fulfilled by wireless optical communication or free space optics (FSO). Hence FSO gained a pivotal role in research which has a added advantage of both cost-effective and licence free huge bandwidth. Unfortunately the optical signal in free space suffers from irradiance and phase fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors which deteriorates the signal and degrades the performance of communication system over longer distance which is undesirable. In this paper, we have considered polarization shift keying (POLSK) system applied with wavelength and time diversity technique over Malaga(M)distribution to mitigate turbulence induced fading. We derived closed form mathematical expressions for estimating the systems outage probability and average bit error rate (BER). Ultimately from the results we can infer that wavelength and time diversity schemes enhances these systems performance.

  20. The barbarians within. Illyrian colonists in roman Dacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina NEMETI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts at grasping, as encompasing as possible, the process of acculturation undergone by peregrins from the Illyrian territories, a process that continued after their colonization in Dacia. The analysis follows the specific forms of organization of the various gentes arrived from Dalmatia (kastella, vicus, principes, noting the organized character of the colonization of these dalmatians, specialists in gold extraction. They were brought in compact groups and had their own institutions. The onomastic study took into consideration all persons who, through their names, relatives or origin, can be identified as illiri. Four groups of people have been identified, each illustrating a stage in their acculturation reflected in the onomastic system. In the field of religious life, one can note a continuous oscillation between the preservation of ancient values and the borrowing of new religious forms, which eventually lead to the colonized Illyrians assuming a new cultural identity. Learning Latin, acquiring Latin names, and adopting Roman gods indicates in historical terms their Romanization. In the funerary field, they were more conservative. As a funerary phenomenon, incineration with the deposition of calcined remains in ritually burnt pits is attributed to populations colonized in Dacia from the Dalmatian area. As for the inventory of their tombs and their funerary monuments on the other hand, one notes that they took over Roman material culture and used monuments that follow the canons of provincial art.

  1. The regenerative medicine coalition. Interview with Frank-Roman Lauter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauter, Frank-Roman

    2012-11-01

    Frank-Roman Lauter, Secretary General of the recently launched Regenerative Medicine Coalition, explains how the coalition was formed and what they hope to achieve. Frank-Roman Lauter has served as Secretary General of the Regenerative Medicine Coalition since 2012, and as Head of Business Development at Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies since 2007. Frank-Roman Lauter's interest is the organization of academic infrastructures to promote efficient translation of research findings into new therapies. He co-organizes joined strategy development for regenerative medicine clusters from seven European countries (FP7-EU Project) and has initiated cooperation between the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine and the German Federal Ministry for Education & Research, resulting in a joined funding program. Recently, he cofounded the international consortium of Regenerative Medicine translational centers (RMC; www.the-rmc.org ). Trained as a molecular biologist at the Max-Planck Institute in Berlin-Dahlem and at Stanford, he has 16 years of experience as an entrepreneur and life science manager in Germany and the USA.

  2. Dual-time-point FDG-PET/CT Imaging of Temporal Bone Chondroblastoma: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Toriihara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Temporal bone chondroblastoma is an extremely rare benign bone tumor. We encountered two cases showing similar imaging findings on computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and dual-time-point 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET/CT. In both cases, CT images revealed temporal bone defects and sclerotic changes around the tumor. Most parts of the tumor showed low signal intensity on T2- weighted MRI images and non-uniform enhancement on gadolinium contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. No increase in signal intensity was noted in diffusion-weighted images. Dual-time-point PET/CT showed markedly elevated 18F-FDG uptake, which increased from the early to delayed phase. Nevertheless, immunohistochemical analysis of the resected tumor tissue revealed weak expression of glucose transporter-1 and hexokinase II in both tumors. Temporal bone tumors, showing markedly elevated 18F-FDG uptake, which increases from the early to delayed phase on PET/CT images, may be diagnosed as malignant bone tumors. Therefore, the differential diagnosis should include chondroblastoma in combination with its characteristic findings on CT and MRI.

  3. Dual-time-point O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine PET for grading of cerebral gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, Philipp; Herzog, Hans; Rota Kops, Elena; Stoffels, Gabriele; Judov, Natalie; Filss, Christian; Tellmann, Lutz; Galldiks, Norbert; Weiss, Carolin; Sabel, Michael; Coenen, Heinz Hubert; Shah, Nadim Jon; Langen, Karl-Josef

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of dual-time-point imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) using O-(2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ( 18 F-FET) for non-invasive grading of cerebral gliomas compared with a dynamic approach. Thirty-six patients with histologically confirmed cerebral gliomas (21 primary, 15 recurrent; 24 high-grade, 12 low-grade) underwent dynamic PET from 0 to 50 min post-injection (p.i.) of 18 F-FET, and additionally from 70 to 90 min p.i. Mean tumour-to-brain ratios (TBR mean ) of 18 F-FET uptake were determined in early (20-40 min p.i.) and late (70-90 min p.i.) examinations. Time-activity curves (TAC) of the tumours from 0 to 50 min after injection were assigned to different patterns. The diagnostic accuracy of changes of 18 F-FET uptake between early and late examinations for tumour grading was compared to that of curve pattern analysis from 0 to 50 min p.i. of 18 F-FET. The diagnostic accuracy of changes of the TBR mean of 18 F-FET PET uptake between early and late examinations for the identification of HGG was 81 % (sensitivity 83 %; specificity 75 %; cutoff - 8 %; p < 0.001), and 83 % for curve pattern analysis (sensitivity 88 %; specificity 75 %; p < 0.001). Dual-time-point imaging of 18 F-FET uptake in gliomas achieves diagnostic accuracy for tumour grading that is similar to the more time-consuming dynamic data acquisition protocol. (orig.)

  4. Dual-time-point O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine PET for grading of cerebral gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Philipp; Herzog, Hans; Rota Kops, Elena; Stoffels, Gabriele; Judov, Natalie; Filss, Christian; Tellmann, Lutz [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); Galldiks, Norbert [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); University of Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Weiss, Carolin [University of Cologne, Department of Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); Sabel, Michael [Heinrich-Heine University, Department of Neurosurgery, Duesseldorf (Germany); Coenen, Heinz Hubert [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain, Juelich (Germany); Shah, Nadim Jon [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Aachen (Germany); Langen, Karl-Josef [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain, Juelich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of dual-time-point imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) using O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ({sup 18}F-FET) for non-invasive grading of cerebral gliomas compared with a dynamic approach. Thirty-six patients with histologically confirmed cerebral gliomas (21 primary, 15 recurrent; 24 high-grade, 12 low-grade) underwent dynamic PET from 0 to 50 min post-injection (p.i.) of {sup 18}F-FET, and additionally from 70 to 90 min p.i. Mean tumour-to-brain ratios (TBR{sub mean}) of {sup 18}F-FET uptake were determined in early (20-40 min p.i.) and late (70-90 min p.i.) examinations. Time-activity curves (TAC) of the tumours from 0 to 50 min after injection were assigned to different patterns. The diagnostic accuracy of changes of {sup 18}F-FET uptake between early and late examinations for tumour grading was compared to that of curve pattern analysis from 0 to 50 min p.i. of {sup 18}F-FET. The diagnostic accuracy of changes of the TBR{sub mean} of {sup 18}F-FET PET uptake between early and late examinations for the identification of HGG was 81 % (sensitivity 83 %; specificity 75 %; cutoff - 8 %; p < 0.001), and 83 % for curve pattern analysis (sensitivity 88 %; specificity 75 %; p < 0.001). Dual-time-point imaging of {sup 18}F-FET uptake in gliomas achieves diagnostic accuracy for tumour grading that is similar to the more time-consuming dynamic data acquisition protocol. (orig.)

  5. Weather extremes and the Romans - A marine palynological perspective on Italian temperature and precipitation between 200 BC and 500 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Karin; Clotten, Caroline; Chen, Liang

    2015-04-01

    Sediments of a tephra-dated marine sediment core located at the distal part of the Po-river discharge plume (southern Italy) have been studied with a three annual resolution. Based on the variability in the dinoflagellate cyst content detailed reconstructions have been established of variability in precipitation related river discharge rates and local air temperature. Furthermore about the variability in distort water quality has been reconstructed. We show that both precipitation and temperature signals vary in tune with cyclic changes in solar insolation. On top of these cyclic changes, short term extremes in temperature and precipitation can be observed that can be interpreted to reflect periods of local weather extremes. Comparison of our reconstructions with historical information suggest that times of high temperatures and maximal precipitation corresponds to the period of maximal expansion of the Roman Empire. We have strong indications that at this time discharge waters might have contained higher nutrient concentrations compared to previous and later time intervals suggesting anthropogenic influence of the water quality. First pilot-results suggest that the decrease in temperature reconstructed just after the "Roman Optimum" corresponds to an increase in numbers of armored conflicts between the Roman and German cultures. Furthermore we observe a resemblance in timing of short-term intervals with cold weather spells during the early so called "Dark-Age-Period" to correspond to epidemic/pandemic events in Europe.

  6. A Time Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Based on the Customer Order Decoupling Point: A Perspective from the Constant Service Operation Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC. PMID:24715818

  7. A time scheduling model of logistics service supply chain based on the customer order decoupling point: a perspective from the constant service operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC.

  8. Recuperation of the Roman circus in Tarragona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mar

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available It is an ambitious operation in archaeology, architectural and urbanistic restoration suitable for an ensemble that deserves to be considered a World Heritage Site. There will still be a delicate architectural restoration task to be carried out once the current excavations have been completed, so that is a good time to recapitulate and present a summary of the methodology used till today, contribute from LOGGIA to its diffusion, and encourage great success for the future.

  9. TRANSIT TIME THROUGH THE BORDER-CROSSING POINTS: THE CASE STUDY OF THE EU'S ROAD BCP WITH MOLDAVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela POPA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available . This paper provides an overview on the ACROSSEE project (funded by the ERDF under the SEE program, its objectives, general methodology, and the main results. Moreover, the main survey results are presented as they relate to the Romanian road and rail border-crossing points (BCPs with the Eastern neighbourly country, Moldavia. Results include the actual status of the road BCP, surveys on exiting and entering traffic flows, answers to specific questionnaires of the truck and car drivers in relation with origin-destination of the trips, average waiting time in queue and time required for procedures and controls. Discussion on the mathematical modelling is presented and a provisional simulation model is developed, using ARENA software. The early results are used in order to introduce the need for future assessment of the transit time in a road BCP, with the main purpose: the substantiation of the strategic and operational actions for improvements in trade and transport crossings of the EU borders, considering the need for more vigilant and less time-consuming checks at the outside borders of the EU.

  10. Identification of green pigments from fragments of Roman mural paintings of three Roman sites from north of Germania Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani, Rafaela; Simon, Rolf; Goettlicher, Joerg; Heissler, Stefan; Steininger, Ralph; Batchelor, David; Fiederle, Michael; Baumbach, Tilo

    2016-10-01

    Roman mural green pigment painting fragments from three Roman sites in the north of the Roman province Germania Superior: Koblenz Stadtwald Remstecken (KOSR), Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann" (WEIS) and Mendig Lungenkärchen (MELU), dating from second and third centuries AD were analyzed. The experiments were performed nondestructively using synchrotron-based scanning macro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-MA-XRF), synchrotron-based scanning micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μ-XRF), synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Correlation between SR-MA-XRF, SR-μ-XRF elemental map distributions and optical images of scanned areas was mainly found for the elements Ca, Fe and K. With XRF, Fe and K were identified correlated with green pigment, but in samples from two sites, Mendig Lungenkärchen and Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann", also Cu was detected in minor concentration. The results of SR-XRD and Raman spectroscopy were limited to one sample from Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann". In this sample, green earth and calcium carbonate were identified by SR-XRD and, additionally, malachite by Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Parcellation of the Healthy Neonatal Brain into 107 Regions Using Atlas Propagation through Intermediate Time Points in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesa, Manuel; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair G; Anblagan, Devasuda; Telford, Emma J; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I; Bastin, Mark E; Boardman, James P

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39(+5) weeks, range 37(+2)-41(+6)). An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO) was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database), with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33) constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization (SyGN) method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modeling brain growth during development.

  12. Parcellation of the healthy neonatal brain into 107 regions using atlas propagation through intermediate time points in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eBlesa Cabez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39+5 weeks, range 37+2-41+6. An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database, with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33 constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modelling brain growth during development.

  13. Point-and-stare operation and high-speed image acquisition in real-time hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Richard D.; Bannon, David P.; Ciccone, Domenic; Hill, Sam L.

    2010-04-01

    The design and optical performance of a small-footprint, low-power, turnkey, Point-And-Stare hyperspectral analyzer, capable of fully automated field deployment in remote and harsh environments, is described. The unit is packaged for outdoor operation in an IP56 protected air-conditioned enclosure and includes a mechanically ruggedized fully reflective, aberration-corrected hyperspectral VNIR (400-1000 nm) spectrometer with a board-level detector optimized for point and stare operation, an on-board computer capable of full system data-acquisition and control, and a fully functioning internal hyperspectral calibration system for in-situ system spectral calibration and verification. Performance data on the unit under extremes of real-time survey operation and high spatial and high spectral resolution will be discussed. Hyperspectral acquisition including full parameter tracking is achieved by the addition of a fiber-optic based downwelling spectral channel for solar illumination tracking during hyperspectral acquisition and the use of other sensors for spatial and directional tracking to pinpoint view location. The system is mounted on a Pan-And-Tilt device, automatically controlled from the analyzer's on-board computer, making the HyperspecTM particularly adaptable for base security, border protection and remote deployments. A hyperspectral macro library has been developed to control hyperspectral image acquisition, system calibration and scene location control. The software allows the system to be operated in a fully automatic mode or under direct operator control through a GigE interface.

  14. An approach for real-time fast point positioning of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System using augmentation information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Jinhai; Lu, Xiaochun

    2018-07-01

    This study proposes an approach to facilitate real-time fast point positioning of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) based on regional augmentation information. We term this as the precise positioning based on augmentation information (BPP) approach. The coordinates of the reference stations were highly constrained to extract the augmentation information, which contained not only the satellite orbit clock error correlated with the satellite running state, but also included the atmosphere error and unmodeled error, which are correlated with the spatial and temporal states. Based on these mixed augmentation corrections, a precise point positioning (PPP) model could be used for the coordinates estimation of the user stations, and the float ambiguity could be easily fixed for the single-difference between satellites. Thus, this technique provided a quick and high-precision positioning service. Three different datasets with small, medium, and large baselines (0.6 km, 30 km and 136 km) were used to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed BPP method. The validations showed that using the BPP model, 1–2 cm positioning service can be provided in a 100 km wide area after just 2 s of initialization. Thus, as the proposed approach not only capitalized on both PPP and RTK but also provided consistent application, it can be used for area augmentation positioning.

  15. Landscape and vegetation change on the Iberian Peninsula during the Roman Epoch - A reconstruction based on Geo-Bioarchives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Heike

    2010-05-01

    Archaeological investigations expect that first strong landscape changes on the Iberian Peninsula based on Roman Occupation (Schattner 1998, Teichner 2007). Actual sedimentological investigations in flood plains, lagoons and estuaries do not reflect this development. They often show a decrease in sedimentation during this period (Thorndycraft & Benito 2006 a/b). In contrast analyses on sediments from roman dams (Hinderer et al. 2004, Solanas 2005) document massive erosion processes. The aim of this presented project is to reconstruct the effects of the roman land use system on vegetation and landscape development. Therefore different Geo-Bioarchives on several sites of Portugal and Spain - estuaries, palaeoriver channels and roman dams - are actually investigated with a high temporal resolution using palynological and sedimentological methods. First results show, that the anthropogenic impact starts clearly before roman time with an peak in human activity during Iron Age (Schneider et al. 2008). During the roman occupation phase different effects are visible. The inland areas document a massive increase in vegetation change, while the coastal areas were stronger developed before and show only slightly and very local changes in land use and vegetation. References Hinderer, M., Silva C. & J. Ries (2004). Erosion in zentralen Ebrobecken und Sedimentakkumulation in Talsperren. GeoLeipzig 2004, Geowissenschaften sichern Zukunft. - Schriftenreihe der Dt. Geol. Gesell. 34. Schattner, T.G. (1998): Archäologischer Wegweiser durch Portugal.- Kulturgeschichte der antiken Welt 74. Mainz. Schneider, H., Höfer, D., Trog, C., Daut, G., Hilbich C. & R. Mäusbacher (2008): Geoarcheological reconstruction of lagoon development in the Algarve Region (South Portugal). Terra Nostra 2008/2, Abstract Volume 12th IPC: 248. Solanas, O.L.-P. (2005): El Aterramiento del embalse romano de Muel: Implicaciones para la evolución de la erosióy el uso de los recursos hidricos en el valle del

  16. Invited commentary on 'Robert G Edwards and the Roman Catholic Church'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ivan Francis

    2011-06-01

    In this issue of Reproductive BioMedicine Online, Benagiano, Carrara and Filippi have produced a clearly written and comprehensive account of why the Roman Catholic Church has not welcomed the award of the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine to Dr Robert G Edwards for the development of human IVF. I commend the article for its clarity and lucidity but attempt to point out some areas where disagreement even with its nuanced opposition to IVF may be legitimate. I try to make some simple comments that explain why this is so and I suggest some areas to which contemporary theology and philosophy can commit itself. But it is good to see even a nuanced response to the work of Robert G Edwards rather than a blanket condemnation. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A different outlook on time: visual and auditory month names elicit different mental vantage points for a time-space synaesthete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarick, Michelle; Dixon, Mike J; Stewart, Mark T; Maxwell, Emily C; Smilek, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Synaesthesia is a fascinating condition whereby individuals report extraordinary experiences when presented with ordinary stimuli. Here we examined an individual (L) who experiences time units (i.e., months of the year and hours of the day) as occupying specific spatial locations (January is 30 degrees to the left of midline). This form of time-space synaesthesia has been recently investigated by Smilek et al. (2007) who demonstrated that synaesthetic time-space associations are highly consistent, occur regardless of intention, and can direct spatial attention. We extended this work by showing that for the synaesthete L, her time-space vantage point changes depending on whether the time units are seen or heard. For example, when L sees the word JANUARY, she reports experiencing January on her left side, however when she hears the word "January" she experiences the month on her right side. L's subjective reports were validated using a spatial cueing paradigm. The names of months were centrally presented followed by targets on the left or right. L was faster at detecting targets in validly cued locations relative to invalidly cued locations both for visually presented cues (January orients attention to the left) and for aurally presented cues (January orients attention to the right). We replicated this difference in visual and aural cueing effects using hour of the day. Our findings support previous research showing that time-space synaesthesia can bias visual spatial attention, and further suggest that for this synaesthete, time-space associations differ depending on whether they are visually or aurally induced.

  18. Roman Togatus Statue Found in Salamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Carlos JIMÉNEZ GONZÁLEZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We disclose the finding, during a recent archaeological work in the city of Salamanca, of two marble fragments belonging to a statue of a togatus, which we believe could have been part of the decorative and propagandistic program of the forum in the time of the Early Empire. The data that we have about the location and layout of the forum and the various public spaces and buildings that formed it are indeed very limited. The location of this sculpture would confirm and might even provide some more information in this regard. The discovery was made out of archaeological context, because there is no historical stratigraphic sequence in the basement of the site where it appeared, the material and formal characteristics that can be seen in sculpture, along with the space in which it was found, as well as the archaeological context of the area in a broader sense, allow some clarifications on a number of aspects of formal, chronological and interpretive order relating to it.

  19. Interreligious Dialogue: A Roman Catholic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Baum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To promote peace, justice and freedom in a deeply divided world, the Catholic Church at Vatican Council II promulgated the declaration Nostra aetate in 1965,expressing its respect for the world religions and recommending dialogue and cooperation with their followers. This was a startling event, since from its very beginning the Catholic Church, and in fact all the Christian Churches, wanted to convert the entire world to the Christian faith. Nostae aetate also transformed the relationship of the Catholic Church’s to Jews and Judaism. This innovative teaching has raised theological questions that have not yet been fully answered. A certain lack of clarity has allowed some conservative Catholics to pretend the Church has not changed its mind. The present paper examines the new teaching in regard to Judaism and the world religions and record the gradual turn to greater openness on the part of Cardinal Ratzinger/Benedict XVI. That interreligious dialogue is capable of transforming the participants. Since religions also have a dark side, at times legitimating unjust regimes or fostering contempt of outsiders, it will be argued that that interreligious dialogue must also listen to the critical thinkers of the Enlightenment.

  20. The ERATO project and its contribution to our understanding of the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theatres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Nielsen, Martin Lisa

    2006-01-01

    the acoustics of the open air theatres and compare to the smaller, originally roofed theatres, also called odea (from Greek: Odeion, a hall for song and declamation with music). The method has been to make computer models of the spaces, first as the exist today, and adjust the acoustical data for surface...... of the spaces. The acoustical simulations have given a lot of interesting information about the acoustical qualities, mainly in the Roman theatres, but the earlier Greek theatre has also been studied in one case (Syracusa in Italy). It is found that the Roman open-air theatres had very high clarity of sound......, but the sound strength was quite low. In contrast, the odea had reverberation time like a concert hall, relatively low clarity, and high sound strength. Thus, the acoustical properties reflect the original different purposes of the buildings, the theatre intended mainly for plays (speech) and the Odeon mainly...

  1. [Hypothesis on the equilibrium point and variability of amplitude, speed and time of single-joint movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, M; Gottleib, G

    1990-01-01

    Problems of single-joint movement variability are analysed in the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis (the lambda-model). Control of the movements is described with three parameters related to movement amplitude speed, and time. Three strategies emerge from this description. Only one of them is likely to lead to a Fitts' type speed-accuracy trade-off. Experiments were performed to test one of the predictions of the model. Subjects performed identical sets of single-joint fast movements with open or closed eyes and some-what different instructions. Movements performed with closed eyes were characterized with higher peak speeds and unchanged variability in seeming violation of the Fitt's law and in a good correspondence to the model.

  2. Enumerating the Hidden Homeless: Strategies to Estimate the Homeless Gone Missing From a Point-in-Time Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agans Robert P.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To receive federal homeless funds, communities are required to produce statistically reliable, unduplicated counts or estimates of homeless persons in sheltered and unsheltered locations during a one-night period (within the last ten days of January called a point-in-time (PIT count. In Los Angeles, a general population telephone survey was implemented to estimate the number of unsheltered homeless adults who are hidden from view during the PIT count. Two estimation approaches were investigated: i the number of homeless persons identified as living on private property, which employed a conventional household weight for the estimated total (Horvitz-Thompson approach; and ii the number of homeless persons identified as living on a neighbor’s property, which employed an additional adjustment derived from the size of the neighborhood network to estimate the total (multiplicity-based approach. This article compares the results of these two methods and discusses the implications therein.

  3. POD for Real-Time Simulation of Hyperelastic Soft Biological Tissue Using the Point Collocation Method of Finite Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Banihani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The point collocation method of finite spheres (PCMFS is used to model the hyperelastic response of soft biological tissue in real time within the framework of virtual surgery simulation. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD model order reduction (MOR technique was used to achieve reduced-order model of the problem, minimizing computational cost. The PCMFS is a physics-based meshfree numerical technique for real-time simulation of surgical procedures where the approximation functions are applied directly on the strong form of the boundary value problem without the need for integration, increasing computational efficiency. Since computational speed has a significant role in simulation of surgical procedures, the proposed technique was able to model realistic nonlinear behavior of organs in real time. Numerical results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology through a comparison between full and reduced analyses for several nonlinear problems. It is shown that the proposed technique was able to achieve good agreement with the full model; moreover, the computational and data storage costs were significantly reduced.

  4. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission.

  5. Atmospheric plume progression as a function of time and distance from the release point for radioactive isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, Paul W; Bowyer, Ted W; Cameron, Ian M; Hayes, James C; Miley, Harry S

    2015-10-01

    The radionuclide network of the International Monitoring System comprises up to 80 stations around the world that have aerosol and xenon monitoring systems designed to detect releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere from nuclear explosions. A rule of thumb description of plume concentration and duration versus time and distance from the release point is useful when designing and deploying new sample collection systems. This paper uses plume development from atmospheric transport modeling to provide a power-law rule describing atmospheric dilution factors as a function of distance from the release point. Consider the plume center-line concentration seen by a ground-level sampler as a function of time based on a short-duration ground-level release of a nondepositing radioactive tracer. The concentration C (Bq m(-3)) near the ground varies with distance from the source with the relationship C=R×A(D,C) ×e (-λ(-1.552+0.0405×D)) × 5.37×10(-8) × D(-2.35) where R is the release magnitude (Bq), D is the separation distance (km) from the ground level release to the measurement location, λ is the decay constant (h(-1)) for the radionuclide of interest and AD,C is an attenuation factor that depends on the length of the sample collection period. This relationship is based on the median concentration for 10 release locations with different geographic characteristics and 365 days of releases at each location, and it has an R(2) of 0.99 for 32 distances from 100 to 3000 km. In addition, 90 percent of the modeled plumes fall within approximately one order of magnitude of this curve for all distances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhalation of Roman chamomile essential oil attenuates depressive-like behaviors in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yingying; Wang, Ting; Wang, Rong; Ma, Yichuan; Song, Shanshan; Liu, Juan; Hu, Weiwei; Li, Shengtian

    2017-06-01

    The idea of aromatherapy, using essential oils, has been considered as an alternative antidepressant treatment. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Roman chamomile essential oil inhalation for two weeks on depressive-like behaviors in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. We found that inhalation of either Roman chamomile or one of its main components α-pinene, attenuated depressive-like behavior in WKY rats in the forced swim test. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation analysis (iTRAQ), we found that inhalation of α-pinene increased expression of proteins that are involved in oxidative phosphorylation, such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6C-2, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A2, ATPase inhibitor in the hippocampus, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6C-2, ATP synthase subunit e, Acyl carrier protein, and Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 6 in the PFC (prefrontal cortex). In addition, using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction technique, we confirmed an increase of parvalbumin mRNA expression in the hippocampus, which was shown to be upregulated by 2.8-fold in iTRAQ analysis, in α-pinene treated WKY rats. These findings collectively suggest the involvement of mitochondrial functions and parvalbumin-related signaling in the antidepressant effect of α-pinene inhalation.

  7. Subfossil markers of climate change during the Roman Warm Period of the late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jach, Renata; Knutelski, Stanisław; Uchman, Alfred; Hercman, Helena; Dohnalik, Marek

    2018-02-01

    Abundant bog oak trunks occur in alluvial deposits of the Raba River in the village of Targowisko (southern Poland). Several of them contain galleries of the great capricorn beetle ( Cerambyx cerdo L.). A well-preserved subfossil larva and pupa, as well as adults of this species, are concealed in some of the galleries. These galleries co-occur with boring galleries of other insects such as ship-timber beetles (Lymexylidae) and metallic wood borers (Buprestidae). A dry larva of a stag beetle (Lucanidae) and a mite (Acari) have been found in the C. cerdo galleries. Selected samples of the trunks and a sample of the C. cerdo larva were dated, using radiocarbon and dendrochronological methods, to the period from 45 bc to ad 554; one sample was dated to the period from 799 to 700 bc. Accumulation of the channel alluvia containing the bog oak trunks is synchronous with the Roman Warm Period (late antiquity/Early Mediaeval times). The most recent part of this period correlates with massive accumulations of fallen oak trunks noted from various river valleys in the Carpathian region and dated to ad 450-570. The results indicate that C. cerdo was more abundant within the study area during the Roman Warm Period than it is today.

  8. Lifting and transport by sea of great stone columns: evidence of traditional methods used in 18th and 19th century building programs as a clue to reconstructing Roman marble transport processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Barresi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is to investigate the traditional technologies of lifting and sea transport of large stone blocks (time spent for sea transport, ways of charging and stewing large stone pieces, number of people engaged with evidence from 18th and 19th century Italy, as a key to understand ancient Roman practices. I shall use data from reconstruction of the 5th century Christian basilica of St. Paul at Rome, burnt in 1823, where new granite shafts, mainly from Italian quarries, replaced the Roman ones. Other documentary sources help to understand some details related to heavy transport, otherwise unknown for Roman period. It should be obviously dangerous to induce directly that the same technologies used for lifting and transport of columns in 18th or 19th century were in use also in Roman Imperial age, but the study of such processes can help us to put in the right view our reconstruction of ancient reality.

  9. Near Real Time Change-Point detection in Optical and Thermal Infrared Time Series Using Bayesian Inference over the Dry Chaco Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza Bernadas, V.; Grings, F.; Roitberg, E.; Perna, P.; Karszenbaum, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Dry Chaco region (DCF) has the highest absolute deforestation rates of all Argentinian forests. The most recent report indicates a current deforestation rate of 200,000 Ha year-1. In order to better monitor this process, DCF was chosen to implement an early warning program for illegal deforestation. Although the area is intensively studied using medium resolution imagery (Landsat), the products obtained have a yearly pace and therefore unsuited for an early warning program. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of an online Bayesian change-point detection algorithm for MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) datasets. The goal was to to monitor the abrupt changes in vegetation dynamics associated with deforestation events. We tested this model by simulating 16-day EVI and 8-day LST time series with varying amounts of seasonality, noise, length of the time series and by adding abrupt changes with different magnitudes. This model was then tested on real satellite time series available through the Google Earth Engine, over a pilot area in DCF, where deforestation was common in the 2004-2016 period. A comparison with yearly benchmark products based on Landsat images is also presented (REDAF dataset). The results shows the advantages of using an automatic model to detect a changepoint in the time series than using only visual inspection techniques. Simulating time series with varying amounts of seasonality and noise, and by adding abrupt changes at different times and magnitudes, revealed that this model is robust against noise, and is not influenced by changes in amplitude of the seasonal component. Furthermore, the results compared favorably with REDAF dataset (near 65% of agreement). These results show the potential to combine LST and EVI to identify deforestation events. This work is being developed within the frame of the national Forest Law for the protection and sustainable development of Native Forest in Argentina in

  10. Change-point analysis of geophysical time-series: application to landslide displacement rate (Séchilienne rock avalanche, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorese, D.; Grasso, J.-R.; Garambois, S.; Font, M.

    2018-05-01

    The rank-sum multiple change-point method is a robust statistical procedure designed to search for the optimal number and the location of change points in an arbitrary continue or discrete sequence of values. As such, this procedure can be used to analyse time-series data. Twelve years of robust data sets for the Séchilienne (French Alps) rockslide show a continuous increase in average displacement rate from 50 to 280 mm per month, in the 2004-2014 period, followed by a strong decrease back to 50 mm per month in the 2014-2015 period. When possible kinematic phases are tentatively suggested in previous studies, its solely rely on the basis of empirical threshold values. In this paper, we analyse how the use of a statistical algorithm for change-point detection helps to better understand time phases in landslide kinematics. First, we test the efficiency of the statistical algorithm on geophysical benchmark data, these data sets (stream flows and Northern Hemisphere temperatures) being already analysed by independent statistical tools. Second, we apply the method to 12-yr daily time-series of the Séchilienne landslide, for rainfall and displacement data, from 2003 December to 2015 December, in order to quantitatively extract changes in landslide kinematics. We find two strong significant discontinuities in the weekly cumulated rainfall values: an average rainfall rate increase is resolved in 2012 April and a decrease in 2014 August. Four robust changes are highlighted in the displacement time-series (2008 May, 2009 November-December-2010 January, 2012 September and 2014 March), the 2010 one being preceded by a significant but weak rainfall rate increase (in 2009 November). Accordingly, we are able to quantitatively define five kinematic stages for the Séchilienne rock avalanche during this period. The synchronization between the rainfall and displacement rate, only resolved at the end of 2009 and beginning of 2010, corresponds to a remarkable change (fourfold

  11. Breast cancer with low FDG uptake: Characterization by means of dual-time point FDG-PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zytoon, Ashraf Anas; Murakami, Koji; El-Kholy, Mohamed Ramdan; El-Shorbagy, Emad; Ebied, Osama

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malignant breast lesions usually are differentiated by FDG-PET with a semiquantitative FDG standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5. However, the frequency of breast cancer with an SUV of less than or equal to 2.5 is noteworthy, and often present diagnostic challenges. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of dual-time point FDG-PET/CT with FDG standardized uptake value (SUV) calculation in the characterization of such breast tumors. Methods: Forty-nine female patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer were found to have primary breast cancer with minimally increased FDG uptake and met the criteria for inclusion in this study by having borderline levels of increased FDG uptake (SUVmax less than or equal to 2.5) in the initial FDG-PET/CT images. Consequently, they underwent further delayed phase FDG-PET/CT scan for better evaluation of the disease. Results: Of the 49 cancer lesions; the majority were found to have rising or unvarying dual-time changes in SUVmax (75.5%). The median value of SUVmax increases by 25% between the early and delayed scan. The means ± S.D. of the SUVmax1, the SUVmax2, and the ΔSUVmax% were 1.2 ± 0.6%, 1.3 ± 0.9%, and 5.1 ± 22.4%, respectively. The receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis proved that the highest accuracy for characterization of malignant breast lesions was obtained when a ΔSUVmax% cut-off value 0.0% was used as criteria for malignant FDG uptake-change over time with sensitivity 75.5%, and false-positive rate 20.4%. Conclusion: These results suggested that dual-time FDG-PET/CT imaging with standardized uptake value (SUV) estimation can improve the accuracy of the test in the evaluation of breast cancer with low FDG uptake.

  12. developing of antique olympic plays in a roman period at board of different emperors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasianenko O.G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Researched the questions of development the Ancient Olympic Games, after the capture Greece territory by the Roman army. This condition and development in future fully depended on the social and political phenomena in Roman society preferring more aggressive types of «spectacles». The direction of quickly changing emperors was represented on status of the competitions. Positive relation authorities to competitions brought to achievement the second «bloom» of the Olympic Games in the Roman period.

  13. Mobile, real-time, and point-of-care augmented reality is robust, accurate, and feasible: a prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenngott, Hannes Götz; Preukschas, Anas Amin; Wagner, Martin; Nickel, Felix; Müller, Michael; Bellemann, Nadine; Stock, Christian; Fangerau, Markus; Radeleff, Boris; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Lena; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter

    2018-06-01

    Augmented reality (AR) systems are currently being explored by a broad spectrum of industries, mainly for improving point-of-care access to data and images. Especially in surgery and especially for timely decisions in emergency cases, a fast and comprehensive access to images at the patient bedside is mandatory. Currently, imaging data are accessed at a distance from the patient both in time and space, i.e., at a specific workstation. Mobile technology and 3-dimensional (3D) visualization of radiological imaging data promise to overcome these restrictions by making bedside AR feasible. In this project, AR was realized in a surgical setting by fusing a 3D-representation of structures of interest with live camera images on a tablet computer using marker-based registration. The intent of this study was to focus on a thorough evaluation of AR. Feasibility, robustness, and accuracy were thus evaluated consecutively in a phantom model and a porcine model. Additionally feasibility was evaluated in one male volunteer. In the phantom model (n = 10), AR visualization was feasible in 84% of the visualization space with high accuracy (mean reprojection error ± standard deviation (SD): 2.8 ± 2.7 mm; 95th percentile = 6.7 mm). In a porcine model (n = 5), AR visualization was feasible in 79% with high accuracy (mean reprojection error ± SD: 3.5 ± 3.0 mm; 95th percentile = 9.5 mm). Furthermore, AR was successfully used and proved feasible within a male volunteer. Mobile, real-time, and point-of-care AR for clinical purposes proved feasible, robust, and accurate in the phantom, animal, and single-trial human model shown in this study. Consequently, AR following similar implementation proved robust and accurate enough to be evaluated in clinical trials assessing accuracy, robustness in clinical reality, as well as integration into the clinical workflow. If these further studies prove successful, AR might revolutionize data access at patient

  14. Early Imperial Tableware in Roman Asia Minor: a perspective on the diachronic patterns and morphological developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinse Willet

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the study of tablewares has a long history in the Roman East, research has been hindered by the relatively few, and only very recent, interdisciplinary research projects that study and publish their tableware in depth. But in the last decades, advanced provenancing techniques, combined with efforts to study tableware en masse have been employed, resulting in a better understanding of tableware in the east. Distribution patterns for the major wares found in the East during the Late Hellenistic and Early Imperial period (e.g. Eastern Sigillata A, B, C, D; Italian terra sigillata were successfully mapped by Philip Bes by compiling published data into a single database of the ICRATES (Inventory of Crafts and Trade in the Roman East project (Bes and Poblome 2008. Yet many questions remain on the relationship between production and consumption of these wares and on the role more local products played, both of which are not helped by the relative paucity of well-studied closed archaeological contexts. This article addresses some of these issues through study of the tableware data for Asia Minor. As a first step, the data from Sagalassos, a city located in Pisidia (south-west Asia Minor are discussed. The incorporation of Asia Minor into the Roman Republic and later Empire was accompanied by civic turmoil and increased Roman intervention. Sagalassos, for example, started to produce tableware at a time when Roman colonies were being founded in the region of Pisidia. At the same time, the period of the first century BCE to second century CE saw increased urbanisation in the region, while concurrently the 'Greek' culture seems to have continued. At Sagalassos, substantial production facilities for tableware (Sagalassos Red Slip Ware or SRSW are archaeologically attested and the excavations have yielded a vast amount of ceramics. As a production site, with few numbers of SRSW being attested elsewhere at present, the next logical step is to compare

  15. X-ray fluorescence analysis and optical emission spectrometry of an roman mirror from Tomis, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belc, M.; Bogoi, M.; Ionescu, D.; Guita, D.; Caiteanu, S.; Caiteanu, D.

    2000-01-01

    The miscellaneous population of Roman Empire, their diverse cultural tradition, their ability to assimilate the roman civilization spirits, had determined a permanent reassessment superimposed upon the roman contribution. Analysis was undertaken using optical emission spectrometry and non-destructive X-ray fluorescence. X-ray fluorescence analysis is a well-established method and is often used in archaeometry and other work dealing with valuable objects pertaining to the history of art and civilization. Roman mirror analysed has been found not to be made of speculum (a high tin bronze). (authors)

  16. PIXE-PIGE analysis of late roman glass fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Tubio, B. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Escuela de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)]. E-mail: tubio@us.es; Ontalba Salamanca, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Ortega-Feliu, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Amores Carredano, F. [Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueologia, Universidad de Sevilla, C/Dona Maria de Padilla s/n, 41010 Sevilla (Spain); Gonzalez-Acuna, D. [Departamento de Geografia, Historia y Filosofia, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. de Utrera Km 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    A set of Roman glass fragments, excavated at Sevilla and dated in the 5th century A.D., has been analysed by PIXE and PIGE techniques using the external beam set-up of the 3 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator of the CNA at the University of Sevilla. Using a simple quantification method, based on the indirect charge calculation on the sample by monitoring the X-ray induced by the proton beam on the exit window, the composition of the glasses has been determined. From the obtained results, the use of soda as flux has been inferred and colouring manufacture procedures have been identified.

  17. Greek or Roman historical personages in the Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio López Férez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the presence of Greek or Roman historical personages in Don Quixote, offering the passages with the pertinent commentary and notes. Following a chronological order, and indicating in brackets the number of mentions, we have: Lycurgus (1; Tulia, Servius Tulius daughter (1; Lucretia (2; Horatius Cocles (1; Caius Mucius Scevola (1; Artemisia-Mausolus (1; Alexander the Great (13; Hannibal (2; Publius Cornelius Scipio, Africanus (1; Viriatus (1; Sulla-Marius-Catillina (1; Julius Caesar (6; Portia (1; Augustus (2; Nero (2; Traianus-Hadrianus (1.

  18. Analysis of metals with luster: Roman brass and silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajfar, H., E-mail: helena.fajfar@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Rupnik, Z. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Šmit, Ž. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-11-01

    Non-destructive PIXE analysis using in-air proton beam was used for the studies of earliest brass coins issued during the 1st century BC by Greek cities in Asia Minor, Romans and Celts, and for the studies of plated low grade silver coins of the 3rd century AD. The analysis determined the levels of zinc and important trace elements, notably selenium, which confirms spread of selenium-marked copper from the east. For plating, combined tinning and silvering was identified by the mapping technique for the mid 3rd century AD, which evolved into mere plating by 270 AD.

  19. Archaeometrical studies of Greek and Roman silver coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugoi, R.; Constantinescu, B.; Constantin, F.; Catana, D.; Plostinaru, D.

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative analyses of various silver coins from the firs century BC, found on current Romanian territory (Thasian tetradrachmae, Apollonia and Dyrrachium drachmae, Roman republican denarii) were performed using PIXE (3 MeV external proton beam) and XRF (1.1 GBq 241 Am source). The elemental analysis provided evidence of a great variety of monetary alloys and helped Romanian archaeologists to classify the coins, in terms of their provenance, as originals, copies or imitations minted in different areas of the Balkan-Carpathian region. (author)

  20. Looking for Colour on Greek and Roman Sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Claridge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Vinzenz Brinkmann, Oliver Primavesi, Max Hollein, (eds, Circumlitio. The Polychromy of Antique and Medieval Sculpture. Liebighaus Skulpturensammlung, Frankfurt am Main, 2010. New scientific methods now being applied to the analysis of traces of pigments and gilding on ancient Greek and Roman marble statuary, and other marble artefacts, have the potential to revolutionise our understanding of the relationship between form and colour in antiquity. At present the enquiry is still in its infancy, but the papers delivered at a conference held in Frankfurt in 2008, reviewed here, provide a general introduction to the subject and to a wide range of work in progress.

  1. Analysis of metals with luster: Roman brass and silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajfar, H.; Rupnik, Z.; Šmit, Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Non-destructive PIXE analysis using in-air proton beam was used for the studies of earliest brass coins issued during the 1st century BC by Greek cities in Asia Minor, Romans and Celts, and for the studies of plated low grade silver coins of the 3rd century AD. The analysis determined the levels of zinc and important trace elements, notably selenium, which confirms spread of selenium-marked copper from the east. For plating, combined tinning and silvering was identified by the mapping technique for the mid 3rd century AD, which evolved into mere plating by 270 AD.

  2. Hairstyles in the arts of Greek and Roman antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Norbert; Toppe, Francoise; Henz, Beate M

    2005-12-01

    Styling one's hair seems to be an innate desire of humans to emphasize their beauty and power. As reviewed here, hairstyles were influenced by preceding cultures, by religion, by those depicted for gods and emperors on sculptures and coins. In addition, they were determined by aspects of lifestyle such as sports, wealth, and the desire to display inner feelings. The historical changes in fashions can be exemplarily followed by a visitor to an art collection of Graeco-Roman antiquity. The study of hairstyles permits an insight into very basic aspects of the self-conception of individuals and of the respective societies.

  3. THE ROMAN-CATHOLIC DEFINITIONS TO COMMEMORATIVE PARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHAIL ASMUS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The author overviews and analyses selected Roman-Catholic theological texts deal-ing with the meaning of commemorative particles in the Protesis of the Byzantine rite dating back to the XV–XVIII centuries. Peter Arcudius is the key person because it was his theological doctrine that in 1720 brought on the Counsil decision about the trans-substantiation of particles. This work gives further development to the previous study of the particles’ conception in the Orthodox East carried out by the author in 2005 and published in this review (issue 14, 2005.

  4. The ancient Romans knew that lead is a dangerous metal but they tolerated it: Is it happening even today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sič Magdolna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In ancient Rome lead was used frequently. The most exposed to the noxiousness of lead were the miners and the workers that were treating the metal. The Romans noticed the lead caused illness with miners, but they nevertheless thought that small amounts of lead do not jeopardize the life of the rest of the population. Moreover, they used lead even for medical treatments. The ancient Romans were not conscious enough about the level of harmfulness of this metal for everyone's health, even for the wealthiest. New scientific methods proved a high level of environmental lead pollution at the time of the Roman Empire. Today, as the harmfulness of lead is scientifically proved, and is therefore eliminated as an addition to petrol. Moreover, most developed countries strive towards further elimination of lead from the environment. Serbia is only at the beginning of this process. Having in mind that in taking actions for the protection of environment we stay behind many countries, we should not take it only as part of the harmonization process with EU law, but as a common task that is in the interests of all.

  5. The application of LA-ICP-MS in the examination of the thin plating layers found in late Roman coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlachou-Mogire, C. [Numismatic Museum, 12 El. Venizelou Avenue, 106 71 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: vlachou_mogire@yahoo.co.uk; Stern, B.; McDonnell, J.G. [Department of Archaeological Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1RD (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    During the late Roman period the production of complex copper alloy (Cu-Sn-Pb-Ag) coins with a silvered surface, became common practice. Previous analyses of these coins did not solve key technological issues and in particular, the silvering process. Two methods have been suggested for the production of the thin plating layers in late Roman coins the dipping in molten silver chloride and the use of silvering pastes. However, there are questions about their use. More recent research showed that hot-dipping methods, such as the dipping in molten silver chloride, were not really suitable for mass production. Also, the earliest references to the use of silvering pastes dated to 17th century AD. A review of ancient sources and historic literature indicated silver amalgam plating as the possible method for the production of the plating in late Roman coins. Results derived from non-destructive LA-ICP-MS analysis have demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of Hg in the surface layers of these coins. The optimization of the method and the factors influenced the analyses results, are discussed. The examination of the coins by means of EPMA confirmed the ICP-MS results. The introduction of a new technique for the examination of plating layers, helped in the identification of amalgam silvering as the method used in the production of the coins.

  6. Guidelines for time-to-event end-point definitions in trials for pancreatic cancer. Results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End-points in CANcer trials)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnetain, Franck; Bonsing, Bert; Conroy, Thierry; Dousseau, Adelaide; Glimelius, Bengt; Haustermans, Karin; Lacaine, François; van Laethem, Jean Luc; Aparicio, Thomas; Aust, Daniela; Bassi, Claudio; Berger, Virginie; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Chibaudel, Benoist; Dahan, Laeticia; de Gramont, Aimery; Delpero, Jean Robert; Dervenis, Christos; Ducreux, Michel; Gal, Jocelyn; Gerber, Erich; Ghaneh, Paula; Hammel, Pascal; Hendlisz, Alain; Jooste, Valérie; Labianca, Roberto; Latouche, Aurelien; Lutz, Manfred; Macarulla, Teresa; Malka, David; Mauer, Muriel; Mitry, Emmanuel; Neoptolemos, John; Pessaux, Patrick; Sauvanet, Alain; Tabernero, Josep; Taieb, Julien; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Gourgou-Bourgade, Sophie; Bellera, Carine; Mathoulin-Pélissier, Simone; Collette, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Using potential surrogate end-points for overall survival (OS) such as Disease-Free- (DFS) or Progression-Free Survival (PFS) is increasingly common in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, end-points are too often imprecisely defined which largely contributes to a lack of homogeneity across

  7. Transcriptional profiling of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA regulated genes in mineralizing dental pulp cells at early and late time points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry F. Duncan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp tissue can be damaged by a range of irritants, however, if the irritation is removed and/or the tooth is adequately restored, pulp regeneration is possible (Mjör and Tronstad, 1974 [1]. At present, dental restorative materials limit healing by impairing mineralization and repair processes and as a result new biologically-based materials are being developed (Ferracane et al., 2010 [2]. Previous studies have highlighted the benefit of epigenetic modification by histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi application to dental pulp cells (DPCs, which induces changes to chromatin architecture, promoting gene expression and cellular-reparative events (Duncan et al., 2013 [3]; Paino et al., 2014 [4]. In this study a genome-wide transcription profiling in epigenetically-modified mineralizing primary DPC cultures was performed, at relatively early and late time-points, to identify differentially regulated transcripts that may provide novel therapeutic targets for use in restorative dentistry. Here we provide detailed methods and analysis on these microarray data which has been deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE67175.

  8. Pierre Lapie and the Roman road net work in Moesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Gheorghe Fodorean

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Festschrift zum 70. Geburtstag von Anthony R. Birley, Richard Talbert published an article about a map which, as the author affirms, skipped the attention of the historians. In fact, it is a set of nine maps, at a scale of approximately 1:3,400,000, illustrating, according to a modern representation, the Roman world. The geographical space represented starts from the Antonine Wall and Britain in the left side and ends to Hierasycaminos on the border between Egypt and Nubia. The maps are part of a two volume project, commissioned by Agricol Fortia d’Urban (1756-1843. The book, entitled Recueil des Itinéraires Anciens comprenant l’Itinéraire d’Antonin, la Table de Peutinger et un choix des périples grecs, avec dix cartes dressées par M. le Colonel Lapie, was published in 1845 by the Imprimerie Royale, Paris. The maps were created by one of the most famous French cartographer of the XIXth century, Pierre M. Lapie (1799-1850. Our study discusses the information from this maps regading Moesia and the accuracy of the cartographer during the process of mapping the Roman roads from the south-danubian province.

  9. Les je gigognes du roman célinien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Perko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article se penchera sur des aspects narratologiques des trois derniers romans de l’écrivain français Louis-Ferdinand Céline (1894–1961, d’un château l’autre (1957, nord (1960 et rigodon (publication posthume en 1964. Les romans, que la tradition critique solidement établie réunit en trilogie allemande,1 présentent l’aboutissement des recherches poétiques de l’écrivain tant au niveau du style qu’au niveau des techniques narratives. L’analyse qui s’appuiera pour l’essentiel sur le modèle narratologique de Gérard Genette (Genette 1972, 1983 se centrera sur différentes valeurs du je célinien :   –      je comme instance(s narrative(s, –      je comme foyer(s de perception, –      je comme personnage(s romanesque(s.

  10. Tests of a Roman Pot Prototype for the TOTEM Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Deile, M.; Anelli, G.M.; Antchev, G.A.; Ayache, M.; Caspers, F.; Dimovasili, E.; Dinapoli, R.; Drouhin, F.D.; Eggert, K.; Escourrou, L.; Fochler, O.; Gill, K.; Grabit, R.; Haug, F.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kroyer, T.; Luntama, T.; Macina, D.; Mattelon, E.; Mirabito, L.; Niewiadomski, H.; Noschis, E.P.; Oriunno, M.; Park, A.; Perrot, A.L.; Pirotte, O.; Quetsch, J.M.; Regnier, F.; Ruggiero, G.; Saramad, S.; Siegrist, P.; Snoeys, W.; Souissi, T.; Szczygiel, R.; Troska, J.; Vasey, F.; Verdier, A.; Avati, V.; Jarvinen, M.; Kalliokoski, M.; Kalliopuska, J.; Kurvinen, K.; Lauhakangas, R.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Palmieri, V.; Saarikko, H.; Soininen, A.; Osterberg, K.; Berardi, V.; Catanesi, M.G.; Radicioni, E.; Boccone, V.; Bozzo, M.; Buzzo, A.; Cuneo, S.; Ferro, F.; Macri, M.; Minutoli, S.; Morelli, A.; Musico, P.; Negri, M.; Santroni, A.; Sette, G.; Sobol, A.; Da Via, C.; Hasi, J.; Kok, A.; Watts, S.; Kasper, J.; Kundrat, V.; Lokajicek, M.; Smotlacha, J.

    2005-01-01

    The TOTEM collaboration has developed and tested the first prototype of its Roman Pots to be operated in the LHC. TOTEM Roman Pots contain stacks of 10 silicon detectors with strips oriented in two orthogonal directions. To measure proton scattering angles of a few microradians, the detectors will approach the beam centre to a distance of 10 sigma + 0.5 mm (= 1.3 mm). Dead space near the detector edge is minimised by using two novel "edgeless" detector technologies. The silicon detectors are used both for precise track reconstruction and for triggering. The first full-sized prototypes of both detector technologies as well as their read-out electronics have been developed, built and operated. The tests took place first in a fixed-target muon beam at CERN's SPS, and then in the proton beam-line of the SPS accelerator ring. We present the test beam results demonstrating the successful functionality of the system despite slight technical shortcomings to be improved in the near future.

  11. Tests of a Roman Pot prototype for the TOTEM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deile, M.; Alagoz, E.; Anelli, G.; Antchev, G.; Ayache, M.; Caspers, F.; Dimovasili, E.; Dinapoli, R.; Drouhin, F.; Eggert, K.; Escourrou, J.L; Fochler, O.; Gill, K.; Grabit, R.; Haung, F.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kroyer, T.; Luntama, T.; Macina, D.; Mattelon, E.; Niewiadomski, H.; Mirabito, L.; Noschis, E.P.; Oriunno, M.; Park, a.; Perrot, A.-L.; Pirotte, O.; Quetsch, J.M.; Regnier, F.; Ruggiero, G.; Saramad, S.; Siegrist, P.; Snoeys, W.; sSouissi, T.; Szczygiel, R.; Troska, J.; Vasey, F.; Verdier, A.; Da Vià, C.; Hasi, J.; Kok, A.; Watts, S.; Kašpar, J.; Kundrát, V.; Lokajíček, M.V.; Smotlacha, J.; Avati, V.; Järvinen, M.; Kalliokoski, M.; Kalliopuska, J.; Kurvinen, K.; Lauhakangas, R.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Österberg, K.; Palmieri, V.; Saarikko, H.; Soininen, A.; Boccone, V.; Bozzo, M.; Buzzo, A.; Cuneo, S.; Ferro, F.; Macrí, M.; Minutoli, S.; Morelli, A.; Musico, P.; Negri, M.; Santroni, A.; Sette, G.; Sobol, A.; sBerardi, V.; Catanesi, M.G.; Radicioni, E.

    The TOTEM collaboration has developed and tested the first prototype of its Roman Pots to be operated in the LHC. TOTEM Roman Pots contain stacks of 10 silicon detectors with strips oriented in two orthogonal directions. To measure proton scattering angles of a few microradians, the detectors will approach the beam centre to a distance of 10 sigma + 0.5 mm (= 1.3 mm). Dead space near the detector edge is minimised by using two novel "edgeless" detector technologies. The silicon detectors are used both for precise track reconstruction and for triggering. The first full-sized prototypes of both detector technologies as well as their read-out electronics have been developed, built and operated. The tests took place first in a fixed-target muon beam at CERN's SPS, and then in the proton beam-line of the SPS accelerator ring. We present the test beam results demonstrating the successful functionality of the system despite slight technical shortcomings to be improved in the near future.

  12. Multiple Positive Solutions of a Nonlinear Four-Point Singular Boundary Value Problem with a p-Laplacian Operator on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihuang Hong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present sufficient conditions for the existence of at least twin or triple positive solutions of a nonlinear four-point singular boundary value problem with a p-Laplacian dynamic equation on a time scale. Our results are obtained via some new multiple fixed point theorems.

  13. Religion and abortion: Roman Catholicism lost in the pelvic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    The Roman Catholic Church has held the most absolute and extreme position against abortion taken by any religious group. Opposition to abortion by US Catholic bishops has been unflagging since Roe vs. Wade was decided. The current strategy embraced by the bishops is to restrict access to abortion as a prelude to attaining a complete ban on the procedure. The bishops, of course, have a political and constitutional right to champion public policy issues. This ability is limited only by the laws regarding tax-exempt status which make it impossible for the bishops to endorse political candidates. Opponents of the positions of the bishops, in turn, have a right to challenge their positions. The bishops, acting jointly as the United States Catholic Conference (USCC), express their own opinions, not the opinions of the 53 million US Catholics and have been criticized by both conservative and progressive groups in the church. Since women can not become Catholic bishops, or even priests, they are excluded from meetings of the USCC. Catholic lay groups have expressed the view that there is more than one legitimate Catholic position regarding abortion and have even filed briefs in favor of retaining the decision reached in Roe vs. Wade. The bishops, however, are able to draw on a multitude of institutions to further their view and have enhanced the operations of their 28 statewide lobbying offices as the abortion battle has shifted to the states. The Webster decision signaled a return of the bishops to a prominent position in the anti-abortion campaign. Prior to Webster, they kept their distance from the Protestant religious right. With Webster, the bishops felt the time was right to press hard to further restrictions to access to abortion. As they began to apply pressure, a pro-choice backlash developed, with leading Catholic politicians adopting strong pro-choice positions. The bishops reacted by taking such aggressive actions as denouncing certain politicians by name. This

  14. FoCuS-point: software for STED fluorescence correlation and time-gated single photon counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waithe, Dominic; Clausen, Mathias P; Sezgin, Erdinc

    2016-01-01

    to be established quickly and efficiently. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: FoCuS-point is written in python and is available through the github repository: https://github.com/dwaithe/FCS_point_correlator. Furthermore, compiled versions of the code are available as executables which can be run directly in Linux...

  15. Job Demands, Burnout, and Teamwork in Healthcare Professionals Working in a General Hospital that Was Analysed At Two Points in Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Mijakoski

    2018-04-01

    CONCLUSION: Actual longitudinal study revealed significantly higher mean values of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in 2014 that could be explained by significantly increased job demands between analysed points in time.

  16. Antiquity versus modern times in hydraulics - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroia, L; Georgescu, S C; Georgescu, A M

    2010-01-01

    Water supply and water management in Antiquity represent more than Modern World can imagine about how people in that period used to think about, and exploit the resources they had, aiming at developing and improving their society and own lives. This paper points out examples of how they handled different situations, and how they managed to cope with the growing number of population in the urban areas, by adapting or by improving their water supply systems. The paper tries to emphasize the engineering contribution of Rome and the Roman Empire, mainly in the capital but also in the provinces, as for instance the today territory of France, by analysing some aqueducts from the point of view of modern Hydraulic Engineering. A third order polynomial regression is proposed to compute the water flow rate, based on the flow cross-sectional area measured in quinaria. This paper also emphasizes on contradictory things between what we thought we knew about Ancient Roman civilization, and what could really be proven, either by a modern engineering approach, a documentary approach, or by commonsense, where none of the above could be used. It is certain that the world we live in is the heritage of the Greco-Roman culture and therefore, we are due to acknowledge their contribution, especially taking into account the lack of knowledge of that time, and the poor resources they had.

  17. Antiquity versus modern times in hydraulics - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroia, L [Research Department, Sangari Engineering Services SRL, 35-39 Emil Racovita, Complex Azur 1, AP 08, Voluntari, 077191 (Romania); Georgescu, S C [Hydraulics and Hydraulic Machinery Department, University ' Politehnica' of Bucharest 313 Spl. Independentei, S6, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Georgescu, A M, E-mail: liviu.stroia@sangari.r [Hydraulics and Environmental Protection Department, Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, 124 Lacul Tei Bd, S2, Bucharest, 020396 (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    Water supply and water management in Antiquity represent more than Modern World can imagine about how people in that period used to think about, and exploit the resources they had, aiming at developing and improving their society and own lives. This paper points out examples of how they handled different situations, and how they managed to cope with the growing number of population in the urban areas, by adapting or by improving their water supply systems. The paper tries to emphasize the engineering contribution of Rome and the Roman Empire, mainly in the capital but also in the provinces, as for instance the today territory of France, by analysing some aqueducts from the point of view of modern Hydraulic Engineering. A third order polynomial regression is proposed to compute the water flow rate, based on the flow cross-sectional area measured in quinaria. This paper also emphasizes on contradictory things between what we thought we knew about Ancient Roman civilization, and what could really be proven, either by a modern engineering approach, a documentary approach, or by commonsense, where none of the above could be used. It is certain that the world we live in is the heritage of the Greco-Roman culture and therefore, we are due to acknowledge their contribution, especially taking into account the lack of knowledge of that time, and the poor resources they had.

  18. 75 FR 1680 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Roman Art”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Determinations: ``Roman Art'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the... FR 19875], I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Roman Art... that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY...

  19. Wooden combs from the Roman fort at Vechten: the bodily appearance of soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, A.M.J.; Vos, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Excavations in the late 19th century and surveys carried out in the 1970s have produced 12 boxwood combs from the Roman fort at Vechten (NL). They are to be considered waste material that was dumped in the river Rhine which in the Roman period ran just north of the camp. In this article,

  20. Road Sign Romanization in Oman: The Linguistic Landscape Close-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamoussi, Rafik; Roche, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the Arab Gulf States, bilingual road signs are the norm, employing both Arabic and a romanized counterpart for the large expatriate population. The existing romanization is inconsistent, with potentially misleading variant spellings of place names signposting the region. This study provides a linguistic analysis of signs on the arterial…

  1. Analysis of the Design Criteria for Ancient Greek and Roman Catapults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    This paper will give a short overview of use of COMSOL Multiphysics for analyzing ancient Greek and Roman catapults with the main focus on the energy storing torsion springs. Catapults have been known and used in the Greek and Roman world from around 399 BC and a fully standardized design for pow...

  2. Tikuvõileivaduell / Roman Zaštšerinski ; interv. Jaanus Kulli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zaštšerinski, Roman, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu kokk Roman Zaštšerinskiga, kes valmistas koos Imre Kosega ette Vabariigi Presidendi iseseisvuspäeva vastuvõtu menüü. Vt. samas: Roman Zaštšerinski menüü vabariigi presidendi vastuvõtul

  3. Measuring the Contribution of Roman Catholic Secondary Schools to Students' Religious, Personal and Social Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Andrew; Francis, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Roman Catholic schools have been part of the state-funded system of education in England and Wales since the 1850s. Currently, Roman Catholic schools provide places for around 10% of students attending state-maintained primary and secondary schools. The present study employed data collected during the 1990s to compare a range of religious, social,…

  4. Maritime trade contacts of Odisha, east coast of India with the Roman world: An appraisal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Patnaik, S.K.; Pradhan, G.C.

    The present state of Odisha (previously known as Kalinga, Utkal,Odra and Orissa) lies on the east coast of India, and is known forits maritime contacts with the Roman world since the early histori-cal period, if not earlier. Initially, the Romans...

  5. Missing the Mark? A Two Time Point Cohort Study Estimating Intestinal Parasite Prevalence in Informal Settlements in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael Townsend; Searing, Rapha A; Thompson, David M; Bard, David; Carabin, Hélène; Gonzales, Carlos; Zavala, Carmen; Woodson, Kyle; Naifeh, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations list Peru as potentially needing prevention of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). Prevalence of STH varies regionally and remains understudied in the newest informal settlements of the capital city, Lima. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the need for Mass Drug Administration (MDA) of antiparasitic drugs in the newest informal settlements of Lima. The aim of this study was to estimate the season-specific prevalence of STH to determine if these prevalence estimates met the WHO threshold for MDA in 3 informal settlements. Methods : A 2 time point cohort study was conducted among a sample of 140 children aged 1 to 10 years living in 3 purposively sampled informal settlements of Lima, Peru. Children were asked to provide 2 stool samples that were analyzed with the spontaneous sedimentation in tube technique. The season-specific prevalence proportions of MDA-targeted STH were estimated using a hidden (latent) Markov modeling approach to adjust for repeated measurements over the 2 seasons and the imperfect validity of the screening tests. Results : The prevalence of MDA targeted STH was low at 2.2% (95% confidence interval = 0.3% to 6%) and 3.8% (95% confidence interval = 0.7% to 9.3%) among children sampled in the summer and winter months, respectively, when using the most conservative estimate of test sensitivity. These estimates were below the WHO threshold for MDA (20%). Conclusions : Empiric treatment for STH by organizations active in the newest informal settlements is not supported by the data and could contribute to unnecessary medication exposures and poor allocation of resources.

  6. Anisomycin administered in the olfactory bulb and dorsal hippocampus impaired social recognition memory consolidation in different time-points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, R R; Pereira-Caixeta, A R; Moraes, M F D; Pereira, G S

    2014-10-01

    To identify an individual as familiar, rodents form a specific type of memory named social recognition memory. The olfactory bulb (OB) is an important structure for social recognition memory, while the hippocampus recruitment is still controversial. The present study was designed to elucidate the OB and the dorsal hippocampus contribution to the consolidation of social memory. For that purpose, we tested the effect of anisomycin (ANI), which one of the effects is the inhibition of protein synthesis, on the consolidation of social recognition memory. Swiss adult mice with cannulae implanted into the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus or into the OB were exposed to a juvenile during 5 min (training session; TR), and once again 1.5 h or 24 h later to test social short-term memory (S-STM) or social long-term memory (S-LTM), respectively. To study S-LTM consolidation, mice received intra-OB or intra-CA1 infusion of saline or ANI immediately, 3, 6 or 18 h after TR. ANI impaired S-LTM consolidation in the OB, when administered immediately or 6h after TR. In the dorsal hippocampus, ANI was amnesic only if administered 3 h after TR. Furthermore, the infusion of ANI in either OB or CA1, immediately after training, did not affect S-STM. Moreover, ANI administered into the OB did not alter the animal's performance in the buried food-finding task. Altogether, our results suggest the consolidation of S-LTM requires both OB and hippocampus participation, although in different time points. This study may help shedding light on the specific roles of the OB and dorsal hippocampus in social recognition memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship of Estimated SHIV Acquisition Time Points During the Menstrual Cycle and Thinning of Vaginal Epithelial Layers in Pigtail Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersh, Ellen N; Ritter, Jana; Butler, Katherine; Ostergaard, Sharon Dietz; Hanson, Debra; Ellis, Shanon; Zaki, Sherif; McNicholl, Janet M

    2015-12-01

    HIV acquisition in the female genital tract remains incompletely understood. Quantitative data on biological HIV risk factors, the influence of reproductive hormones, and infection risk are lacking. We evaluated vaginal epithelial thickness during the menstrual cycle in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). This model previously revealed increased susceptibility to vaginal infection during and after progesterone-dominated periods in the menstrual cycle. Nucleated and nonnucleated (superficial) epithelial layers were quantitated throughout the menstrual cycle of 16 macaques. We examined the relationship with previously estimated vaginal SHIVSF162P3 acquisition time points in the cycle of 43 different animals repeatedly exposed to low virus doses. In the luteal phase (days 17 to cycle end), the mean vaginal epithelium thinned to 66% of mean follicular thickness (days 1-16; P = 0.007, Mann-Whitney test). Analyzing 4-day segments, the epithelium was thickest on days 9 to 12 and thinned to 31% thereof on days 29 to 32, with reductions of nucleated and nonnucleated layers to 36% and 15% of their previous thickness, respectively. The proportion of animals with estimated SHIV acquisition in each cycle segment correlated with nonnucleated layer thinning (Pearson r = 0.7, P layer thinning (Pearson r = 0.6, P = 0.15). These data provide a detailed picture of dynamic cycle-related changes in the vaginal epithelium of pigtail macaques. Substantial thinning occurred in the superficial, nonnucleated layer, which maintains the vaginal microbiome. The findings support vaginal tissue architecture as susceptibility factor for infection and contribute to our understanding of innate resistance to SHIV infection.

  8. Mission of evangelization of the Roman Catholic Church in the information era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyyak Maksym Tarasovich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Radical changes that are taking place in the media sphere lead to a significant cultural and social development. New technologies not only change the way we communicate, but communication itself so that we can state that we live in times of great cultural transformations. Modern media not only transform the existing system of values but also form new axiological space. Media nowadays has turned into an effective modelling tool of value orientation of society. By the level of impact on the value system, society media can be compared with religion today. Along with the development of the information society, as well as with the development of the Internet, appears a new virtual reality. The Roman Catholic Church after the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965 is characterized by its dynamism and modernity; it has many benefits from that era which is called informational, especially in its evangelistic mission.

  9. The juspuniendi at the roman home and the humanization of the family relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Garcé García y Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The family is one of the legal institutions that has most evolved through the time. Its historical tracking allows not only the comprehension of its transformation as an institute, but much of the general process of humanization of the Law. The family evolution is due to the modification in kinship systems. Gradually, blood links have been incorporated as a basic element and has been developed a legal regulation that aims parity inside the home. Under the growing influence of Christianity, the Roman law was attenuating the disciplinary powers of the paterfamilias, in particular the right to freely arrange the death of the wife and children without the intervention of judges (jus vitae necisque. In this historical context, this paper summarizes the development of private jus puniendi and the ethical and legal progress associated to the transformation of the family.

  10. [The use of opium in Roman society and the dependence of Princeps Marcus Aurelius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancas, Bruno; Borja Santos, Nuno; Patrício, Luís D

    2008-01-01

    Opium was known and frequently used in Roman society. Medical practice recognized its usefulness as an analgesic, soporific, anti-tussic or anti-diarrheic agent, as well as other currently unsupported uses with quasi-magical properties. It was additionally used as an ingredient in antidotes, panaceas and poisons. The authors present a non-exhaustive compilation of opium use according to medical doctors, writers and encyclopaedists of the time. Mythological and literary representations of the opium poppy reflected its diverse roles, being associated with prosperity and fertility, sleep, death and the underworld and with the art of medicine. Despite its free and routine use, there is no solid evidence of addiction, except the putative case of emperor Marcus Aurelius, consistently reported as one of the most likely cases of addiction to opium.

  11. Comparative Comparison of City and Urbanism during Sassanid Period in Iran and the Ancient Roman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Moqimizade

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sassanid replaced migrating nomads and tribes with urbanization system and concentration of population. Sassanid desire to increase the population was due to the fact that population is the core of urban systems and focus-oriented system. Sassanid tried marching to Syria and Asia Minor to gain population. Immigrant Roman population was accommodated in newly established cities. Romans had structured and deep thinking about urban development, such that their territory was made up of urban units which were connected through a system of roads and bridges. Romans innovation in urban development can be summed up in creating military cities. Sassanid urbanization after the Parthians was influenced by Roman urbanization which is most visible in the shape of Sassanid cities. In this study, while examining cities and urbanization in Sassanid reign and Roman Empire, their influence on each other and their similarities and differences in their urbanization methods were also investigated.

  12. The (in)visibility of the gods in the Greco-Roman world and of God in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-26

    Oct 26, 2015 ... Greco-Roman world and in Hellenistic Judaism when reference was made to ..... Roman poet best known for the Metamorphoses, a 15-book continuous ...... W.A. Oldfather, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, viewed 2.

  13. [The Antonine Plague and the decline of the Roman Empire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, S; Fiorino, S

    2009-12-01

    The Antonine Plague, which flared up during the reign of Marcus Aurelius from 165 AD and continued under the rule of his son Commodus, played such a major role that the pathocenosis in the Ancient World was changed. The spread of the epidemic was favoured by the occurrence of two military episodes in which Marcus Aurelius himself took part: the Parthian War in Mesopotamia and the wars against the Marcomanni in northeastern Italy, in Noricum and in Pannonia. Accounts of the clinical features of the epidemic are scant and disjointed, with the main source being Galen, who witnessed the plague. Unfortunately, the great physician provides us with only a brief presentation of the disease, his aim being to supply therapeutic approaches, thus passing over the accurate description of the disease symptoms. Although the reports of some clinical cases treated by Galen lead us to think that the Antonine plague was caused by smallpox, palaeopathological confirmation is lacking. Some archaeological evidence (such as terracotta finds) from Italy might reinforce this opinion. In these finds, some details can be observed, suggesting the artist's purpose to represent the classic smallpox pustules, typical signs of the disease. The extent of the epidemic has been extensively debated: the majority of authors agree that the impact of the plague was severe, influencing military conscription, the agricultural and urban economy, and depleting the coffers of the State. The Antonine plague affected ancient Roman traditions, also leaving a mark on artistic expression; a renewal of spirituality and religiousness was recorded. These events created the conditions for the spread of monotheistic religions, such as Mithraism and Christianity. This period, characterized by health, social and economic crises, paved the way for the entry into the Empire of neighbouring barbarian tribes and the recruitment of barbarian troops into the Roman army; these events particularly favoured the cultural and

  14. Space- and time-resolved diagnostic of line emission from the separatrix region in JET X-point plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, P.; Breton, C.; DeMichelis, C.; Mattioli, M.; Ramette, J.; Saoutic, B.; Denne, B.; Giannella, R.; Gottardi, N.; Magyar, G.

    1989-01-01

    The SPEX GISMO VUV spectrometer installed on JET has appeared to be appropriate to study the impurities radiation during X-point operation. Preliminary results have been obtained with 2 of the 3 spectrometers. They concern mainly the light impurities emission, CIII, O VI in the vicinity of the X-point during the transition from L to H mode. The results are reported for both single X and double X discharges and future prospects are assessed. (author) 4 refs., 6 figs

  15. Mujer y religión en los límites del mundo celta y germano en época romana (ss. I a.C.–III d.C.: un breve apunte = Woman and Religion in the Limits of the Celtic and German World, in Roman Times (1st c. BC–3rd c. AC: a Brief Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pitillas Salañer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se hace una revisión del papel (oscuro y poco conocido de la mujer y su relación con los aspectos religiosos del mundo celta y germano en época romana. La falta de testimonios directos obliga, forzosamente, a efectuar un análisis periférico, dado que las referencias principales se refieren al druidismo y a los druidas, quedando el papel de la mujer reducido, en todo caso, al de mera adivina o simple profetisa.A review of the role (dark and little known of the woman and her relation by the religious aspects of the Celtic and German world in Roman epoch is done in this article. The lack of direct testimonies forces to effect, necessarily, a peripheral analysis, given that the principal references refer to the Druidism and the Druids, staying the role of the woman reduced, in any case, to mere fortune-teller or simple prophetess.

  16. a 3d Based Approach to the Architectural Study of the Roman Bath at the Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates (kourion, Cyprus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faka, M.; Christodoulou, S.; Abate, D.; Ioannou, C.; Hermon, S.

    2017-08-01

    Roman baths represented a popular social practice of everyday life, cited in numerous literary sources and testified by ample archaeological remains all over the Roman Empire. Although regional studies have contributed extensively to our knowledge about how baths functioned and what was their social role in various regions of the Mediterranean, their study in Cyprus is yet to be developed. Moreover, despite the increasing availability of devices and techniques for 3D documentation, various characteristics, especially in relation to the heating and water supply system of the baths, were omitted and were not properly and accurately documented. The pilot case study outlined in this paper presents the 3D documentation of the Roman bath, excavated in the 1950s, within the area of the Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates at Kourion (Limassol district). The creation of an accurate 3D model of the documented area through image and range based techniques combined with topographic data, allows the detailed analysis of architectural elements and their decorative features. At the same time, it enables accurate measurements of the site, which are used as input for the archaeological interpretation and virtual reconstruction of the original shape of the bath. In addition, this project aims to answer a number of archaeological research questions related to Roman baths such as their architectural features, function mode, and technological elements related to heating techniques.

  17. A 3D BASED APPROACH TO THE ARCHITECTURAL STUDY OF THE ROMAN BATH AT THE SANCTUARY OF APOLLO HYLATES (KOURION, CYPRUS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Roman baths represented a popular social practice of everyday life, cited in numerous literary sources and testified by ample archaeological remains all over the Roman Empire. Although regional studies have contributed extensively to our knowledge about how baths functioned and what was their social role in various regions of the Mediterranean, their study in Cyprus is yet to be developed. Moreover, despite the increasing availability of devices and techniques for 3D documentation, various characteristics, especially in relation to the heating and water supply system of the baths, were omitted and were not properly and accurately documented. The pilot case study outlined in this paper presents the 3D documentation of the Roman bath, excavated in the 1950s, within the area of the Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates at Kourion (Limassol district. The creation of an accurate 3D model of the documented area through image and range based techniques combined with topographic data, allows the detailed analysis of architectural elements and their decorative features. At the same time, it enables accurate measurements of the site, which are used as input for the archaeological interpretation and virtual reconstruction of the original shape of the bath. In addition, this project aims to answer a number of archaeological research questions related to Roman baths such as their architectural features, function mode, and technological elements related to heating techniques.

  18. Change Points in the Population Trends of Aerial-Insectivorous Birds in North America: Synchronized in Time across Species and Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Smith

    Full Text Available North American populations of aerial insectivorous birds are in steep decline. Aerial insectivores (AI are a group of bird species that feed almost exclusively on insects in flight, and include swallows, swifts, nightjars, and flycatchers. The causes of the declines are not well understood. Indeed, it is not clear when the declines began, or whether the declines are shared across all species in the group (e.g., caused by changes in flying insect populations or specific to each species (e.g., caused by changes in species' breeding habitat. A recent study suggested that population trends of aerial insectivores changed for the worse in the 1980s. If there was such a change point in trends of the group, understanding its timing and geographic pattern could help identify potential causes of the decline. We used a hierarchical Bayesian, penalized regression spline, change point model to estimate group-level change points in the trends of 22 species of AI, across 153 geographic strata of North America. We found evidence for group-level change points in 85% of the strata. Change points for flycatchers (FC were distinct from those for swallows, swifts and nightjars (SSN across North America, except in the Northeast, where all AI shared the same group-level change points. During the 1980s, there was a negative change point across most of North America, in the trends of SSN. For FC, the group-level change points were more geographically variable, and in many regions there were two: a positive change point followed by a negative change point. This group-level synchrony in AI population trends is likely evidence of a response to a common environmental factor(s with similar effects on many species across broad spatial extents. The timing and geographic patterns of the change points that we identify here should provide a spring-board for research into the causes behind aerial insectivore declines.

  19. Public statues as a strategy of remembrance in Roman Messene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickenson, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-01

    once taken place; and the survival of old historic monuments transformed civic centres into museum-like spaces for backward looking introspection. This article challenges this vision and argue that public monuments played a dynamic role in defining relations of power both vis-à-vis Rome and within....... The case study, Messene, is studied using archaeological, epigraphic and literary evidence. Messene is ideally suited for thinking about the range of ways in which monumental space could be used to shape political realities in Greece under the Empire.......Under the Roman Empire the poleis of Greece were setting up honorific statuary monuments with increasing frequency. Statues of emperors and members of the imperial family, of local politicians and benefactors are attested in all areas of public space from agoras to bathhouses, from gymnasia...

  20. Des hommes de Laurent Mauvignier : un roman de filiation ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manet van Montfrans

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Des hommes de Laurent Mauvignier est centré sur deux cousins, qui après avoir fait leur service militaire en Algérie, entre 1960 et 1962, sont rentrés dans leur village, marqués à vie par leurs expériences de la guerre. Un incident amène l’un d’eux, narrateur dans la majeure partie du récit, à reconstruire la vie de l’autre, sombré dans la déchéance, et à se remémorer peu à peu leur passé commun. On pourrait considérer ce texte comme « un roman de filiation » même s´il résiste, par le dispositif narratif mis en place par Mauvignier, à cette catégorie générique.

  1. A directed network of Greek and Roman mythology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeon-Mu; Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2007-08-01

    We construct a directed network using a dictionary of Greek and Roman mythology in which the nodes represent the entries listed in the dictionary and we make directional links from an entry to other entries that appear in its explanatory part. We find that this network is clearly not a random network but a directed scale-free network in which the distributions of out-degree and in-degree follow a power-law with exponents γout≈3.0 and γin≈2.5, respectively. Also we measure several quantities which describe the topological properties of the network and compare it to that of other real networks.

  2. Sexual and intimacy health of Roman Catholic priests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Patrick J

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the sexual experiences and sexual health of Roman Catholic priests. The qualitative research design looked at priests' responses to the question, "Please share one or more sexual experiences in your lifetime." The qualitative responses were analyzed and categorized into seven groupings: (a) Childhood and adolescent homosexual experiences; (b) Childhood and adolescent heterosexual experiences; (c) Both homosexual and heterosexual childhood and adolescent experiences; (d) Adult sexual experiences before ordination to the priesthood; (e) Adult sexual experiences since ordination to the priesthood; (f) Masturbation; and (g) Other sexual experiences. The data were analyzed by frequency of responses and percentages within each of the seven categories. The results indicate the need for early intervention and education during seminary, ongoing education after ordination, and psychotherapy support for priests.

  3. LACTATE PROFILE DURING GRECO-ROMAN WRESTLING MATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Uljevic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and compare lactate profile of two groups of Greco-Roman wrestlers with different competences and training experience. Study was conducted on 10 wrestles that were members of Croatian national team and 10 wrestlers that were members of Wrestling club Split. Lactate samples were collected at four intervals during control fights that were held according to international wrestling rules of World wrestling federation FILA. Values of lactate increased as competition progressed, and they were highest at the end of the match for both groups of wrestlers. According to this study there were no significant differences in lactate between two groups at the end of the match, while significant differences were noted during the match. The information about lactate profile presented in this study can be used by coaches and wrestlers to develop condition programs

  4. State officials and illicit asset-grabbing: The Roman approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apsitis A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects author’s findings regarding the regulation found in Roman legal sources, which is directed against corruptive activities of persons in public state positions, in particular in relation to unlawful seizure of assets belonging to citizens. Legal mechanisms are examined in relation to cases of force (vis-Latin and fear (metus-Latin application. The Code of Justinian (Codex Iustinianus and The Digest (Digesta contained regulation in relation to interpretation and application of The Julian Law on Extortion (Lex Iulia repetundarum, 59 B.C. in cases of all types of extortion and bribery with the involvement of public office administering persons, including judges and arbitrators, are examined.

  5. Variation in type and frequency of diagnostic imaging during trauma care across multiple time points by patient insurance type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Nathaniel; Repáraz, Laura; Fry, William R.; Smith, R. Stephen; Luis, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that uninsured patients receive fewer radiographic studies during trauma care, but less is known as to whether differences in care are present among other insurance groups or across different time points during hospitalization. Our objective was to examine the number of radiographic studies administered to a cohort of trauma patients over the entire hospital stay as well as during the first 24-hours of care. Patient data were obtained from an American College of Surgeons (ACS) verified Level I Trauma Center between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012. We used negative binomial regression to construct relative risk (RR) ratios for type and frequency of radiographic imaging received among persons with Medicare, Medicaid, no insurance, or government insurance plans in reference to those with commercial indemnity plans. The analysis was adjusted for patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, injury severity score, injury mechanism, comorbidities, complications, hospital length of stay, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. A total of 3621 records from surviving patients age > =18 years were assessed. After adjustment for potential confounders, the expected number of radiographic studies decreased by 15 % among Medicare recipients (RR 0.85, 95 % CI 0.78–0.93), 11 % among Medicaid recipients (0.89, 0.81–0.99), 10 % among the uninsured (0.90, 0.85–0.96) and 19 % among government insurance groups (0.81, 0.72–0.90), compared with the reference group. This disparity was observed during the first 24-hours of care among patients with Medicare (0.78, 0.71–0.86) and government insurance plans (0.83, 0.74–0.94). Overall, there were no differences in the number of radiographic studies among the uninsured or among Medicaid patients during the first 24-hours of care compared with the reference group, but differences were observed among the uninsured in a sub-analysis of severely injured patients (ISS > 15). Both uninsured and insured patients treated at a

  6. Peripheral tuberculous lymphadenitis masquerading as metastatic gastric carcinoma on F 18 FDG dual time point PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Kon; Shin, Jeong Eun; Lee, Jai Hyuen [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A 59 year old woman was hospitalized with weight loss, anorexia, and low grade fever for 2 weeks. she had under gone a total gastrectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy 10 years prior due to advanced gastric cancer to evaluate recurrence, fluorine 19 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) dual time point positron emission tomography/computed tomography (DTPP) was conducted with a gemini GXL 6 PET/CT system (Philips, Hamburg, Germany). FDG DTPP was performed twice, with an early scan 60 min after FDG injection and a delayed scan 150min after FDG injection. The early scan showed that multiple hypermetabolic lesions were located along left supraclavicular, mediastinal (1R, 2R, 3, 4R and 7) and left paraaortic (retroperitoneal) nodal stations. The delayed scan showed that all the above mentioned lesions revealed a more increased maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) than was detected in the early scan. both scans did not show intrapulmonary lesion. For example, the left supraclavicular lymph node, 2R and retroperitoneal lymph node were observed with early and delayed SUV maxes of 4.5/7.6/3.6 and 6.7/7.7/3.6 and 6.7/10.7/4.4, respectively. Tom confirm diagnosis and establish a treatment plan, a mediastinoscopic biopsy of one of the mediastinal lymph nodes (4R) was subsequently performed and tuberculosis was ultimately diagnosed. Then, the patient started an antituberculosis treatment instead of antichemotherapy. A follow up FDG PET/CT performed 12 months later showed disappeared FDG uptake and significant decreased change of multiple peripheral tuberculous lymphadenitis. Whole body FDG PET/CT has widespread use in diagnosing and staging variable malignancies, and plays an important role in detection of gastric cancer recurrence. However, FDG is not cancer specific and some inflammatory diseases have shown higher FDG uptake on PET imaging. Infection, inflammation, and granulomatosis are also known to cause false positive FDG PET scans because activated inflammatory cells show

  7. Effects of Point Count Duration, Time-of-Day, and Aural Stimuli on Detectability of Migratory and Resident Bird Species in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Lynch

    1995-01-01

    Effects of count duration, time-of-day, and aural stimuli were studied in a series of unlimited-radius point counts conducted during winter in Quintana Roo, Mexico. The rate at which new species were detected was approximately three times higher during the first 5 minutes of each 15- minute count than in the final 5 minutes. The number of individuals and species...

  8. ROMAN MARKS TO EUROPEAN LAW OF THE CONTRACTS GOOD – FAITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIA MOCANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Beyond its political destinations, Europe is a civilization that each of its constituent parts has contributed its genius, over time. Or Rome, its original matrix, has sent her fundamental right. To what extent can it be another tool for reflection, for mutual understanding, sometimes of harmony, here's what seems to be necessarily raised, albeit briefly, by this favored means of communication and exchange, that it has always been the contract. Since then the issue is explained by the need to have a contractual law in the middle of this community adapted to the needs of this new burning community, in Europe of the beginning of the third millennium. In fact, market opening has led to considerable development of trade between the EU-counties and this is exactly cross-border flow through contracts. In this context we aimed to determine the role that it has one of the most important and current principles of law, that of good - faith in European contract law building.It is known that good - faith is experiencing a very special embodiment in the contract, where it assumes many functions. She is the subject of many studies and analysis and is likely to grow rapidly in national and supranational rights.Although contract law has evolved considerably, the theme is present and justified, under conditions which the Roman foundations remain. European contractual universe and its possible developments do not exclude but require an approach in terms of Roman law. Methodologically, the paper is structured as follows: good - faith in contracts, the birth and evolution of the concept (ancient Rome, Middle Ages, modern and contemporary and contemporary applications - abuse of right, information requirements, hardship principle.

  9. A simple method for regional cerebral blood flow measurement by one-point arterial blood sampling and 123I-IMP microsphere model (part 2). A study of time correction of one-point blood sample count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yasuhiko; Makino, Kenichi; Gotoh, Satoshi

    1999-01-01

    In our previous paper regarding determination of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using the 123 I-IMP microsphere model, we reported that the accuracy of determination of the integrated value of the input function from one-point arterial blood sampling can be increased by performing correction using the 5 min: 29 min ratio for the whole-brain count. However, failure to carry out the arterial blood collection at exactly 5 minutes after 123 I-IMP injection causes errors with this method, and there is thus a time limitation. We have now revised out method so that the one-point arterial blood sampling can be performed at any time during the interval between 5 minutes and 20 minutes after 123 I-IMP injection, with addition of a correction step for the sampling time. This revised method permits more accurate estimation of the integral of the input functions. This method was then applied to 174 experimental subjects: one-point blood samples collected at random times between 5 and 20 minutes, and the estimated values for the continuous arterial octanol extraction count (COC) were determined. The mean error rate between the COC and the actual measured continuous arterial octanol extraction count (OC) was 3.6%, and the standard deviation was 12.7%. Accordingly, in 70% of the cases, the rCBF was able to be estimated within an error rate of 13%, while estimation was possible in 95% of the cases within an error rate of 25%. This improved method is a simple technique for determination of the rCBF by 123 I-IMP microsphere model and one-point arterial blood sampling which no longer shows a time limitation and does not require any octanol extraction step. (author)

  10. Identification of a time-varying point source in a system of two coupled linear diffusion-advection- reaction equations: application to surface water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdi, Adel

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the identification of a point source (localization of its position and recovering the history of its time-varying intensity function) that constitutes the right-hand side of the first equation in a system of two coupled 1D linear transport equations. Assuming that the source intensity function vanishes before reaching the final control time, we prove the identifiability of the sought point source from recording the state relative to the second coupled transport equation at two observation points framing the source region. Note that at least one of the two observation points should be strategic. We establish an identification method that uses these records to identify the source position as the root of a continuous and strictly monotonic function. Whereas the source intensity function is recovered using a recursive formula without any need of an iterative process. Some numerical experiments on a variant of the surface water pollution BOD–OD coupled model are presented

  11. Twin Positive Solutions of a Nonlinear m-Point Boundary Value Problem for Third-Order p-Laplacian Dynamic Equations on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several existence theorems of twin positive solutions are established for a nonlinear m-point boundary value problem of third-order p-Laplacian dynamic equations on time scales by using a fixed point theorem. We present two theorems and four corollaries which generalize the results of related literature. As an application, an example to demonstrate our results is given. The obtained conditions are different from some known results.

  12. A Gazetteer of Sub-Roman Britain (AD 400-600: the British Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Snyder

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available "The darkest of the Dark Ages" might be an apt description of the fifth and sixth centuries in Britain, a time commonly referred to as the sub-Roman period. Not dark in the sense that this era lacked character or achievement: there are certainly enough real (St Patrick and legendary (Arthur and Merlin associations to attract modern interests. Anyone who has investigated the history of the period behind these figures, however, soon discovers the exasperating dearth of contemporary written records. Further study only leads to historical agnosticism, and indeed it may be that we will never be able to write a narrative hitory of sub-Roman Britain. The slack has fortunately been taken up by archaeologists. The material culture of the fifth and sixth centuries, though itself not extensive, is in many ways more accessible than the problematic written sources. At first, archaeology was used merely to supplement historical models which relied chiefly on the testimony of writers like Gildas, Bede and Nennius (see Collingwood and Myres 1936; Frere 1967; Alcock 1971. For a thorough survey of this archaeological tradition see Snyder 1994. After a profusion of source criticism began to shake these foundations (see Dumville 1977 and Snyder forthcoming many archaeologists felt free to ignore the written record entirely and treat sub-Roman Britain as a prehistoric subject. For an example of this see Arnold 1984 and for a critique of this school of thought see Alcock 1988. The pendulum now seems to be swinging back toward the middle, with the most recent archaeological surveys of the period, such as those by Higham 1992 and Dark 1994a, attempting a balance between speculative archaeological models and careful use of the written sources. These latest surveys are notable contributions and will undoubtedly influence the direction of future archaeological speculation. Yet there is something noticeably missing from this body of scholarship. Kenneth Dark 1994b, 67 puts

  13. TH-AB-202-08: A Robust Real-Time Surface Reconstruction Method On Point Clouds Captured From a 3D Surface Photogrammetry System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W; Sawant, A; Ruan, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Surface photogrammetry (e.g. VisionRT, C-Rad) provides a noninvasive way to obtain high-frequency measurement for patient motion monitoring in radiotherapy. This work aims to develop a real-time surface reconstruction method on the acquired point clouds, whose acquisitions are subject to noise and missing measurements. In contrast to existing surface reconstruction methods that are usually computationally expensive, the proposed method reconstructs continuous surfaces with comparable accuracy in real-time. Methods: The key idea in our method is to solve and propagate a sparse linear relationship from the point cloud (measurement) manifold to the surface (reconstruction) manifold, taking advantage of the similarity in local geometric topology in both manifolds. With consistent point cloud acquisition, we propose a sparse regression (SR) model to directly approximate the target point cloud as a sparse linear combination from the training set, building the point correspondences by the iterative closest point (ICP) method. To accommodate changing noise levels and/or presence of inconsistent occlusions, we further propose a modified sparse regression (MSR) model to account for the large and sparse error built by ICP, with a Laplacian prior. We evaluated our method on both clinical acquired point clouds under consistent conditions and simulated point clouds with inconsistent occlusions. The reconstruction accuracy was evaluated w.r.t. root-mean-squared-error, by comparing the reconstructed surfaces against those from the variational reconstruction method. Results: On clinical point clouds, both the SR and MSR models achieved sub-millimeter accuracy, with mean reconstruction time reduced from 82.23 seconds to 0.52 seconds and 0.94 seconds, respectively. On simulated point cloud with inconsistent occlusions, the MSR model has demonstrated its advantage in achieving consistent performance despite the introduced occlusions. Conclusion: We have developed a real-time

  14. Job Demands, Burnout, and Teamwork in Healthcare Professionals Working in a General Hospital that Was Analysed At Two Points in Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzhinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Stoleski, Sasho; Minov, Jordan; Atanasovska, Aneta; Bihorac, Elida

    2018-04-15

    The purpose of the paper was to assess job demands, burnout, and teamwork in healthcare professionals (HPs) working in a general hospital that was analysed at two points in time with a time lag of three years. Time 1 respondents (N = 325) were HPs who participated during the first wave of data collection (2011). Time 2 respondents (N = 197) were HPs from the same hospital who responded at Time 2 (2014). Job demands, burnout, and teamwork were measured with Hospital Experience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, respectively. Significantly higher scores of emotional exhaustion (21.03 vs. 15.37, t = 5.1, p job demands were found at Time 2. Teamwork levels were similar at both points in time (Time 1 = 3.84 vs. Time 2 = 3.84, t = 0.043, p = 0.97). Actual longitudinal study revealed significantly higher mean values of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in 2014 that could be explained by significantly increased job demands between analysed points in time.

  15. Effects of Varying Epoch Lengths, Wear Time Algorithms, and Activity Cut-Points on Estimates of Child Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity from Accelerometer Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Jorge A; Haydel, K Farish; Davila, Tania; Desai, Manisha; Bryson, Susan; Haskell, William L; Matheson, Donna; Robinson, Thomas N

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of accelerometer epoch lengths, wear time (WT) algorithms, and activity cut-points on estimates of WT, sedentary behavior (SB), and physical activity (PA). 268 7-11 year-olds with BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex wore accelerometers on their right hips for 4-7 days. Data were processed and analyzed at epoch lengths of 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 30-, and 60-seconds. For each epoch length, WT minutes/day was determined using three common WT algorithms, and minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) PA were determined using five common activity cut-points. ANOVA tested differences in WT, SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA when using the different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and activity cut-points. WT minutes/day varied significantly by epoch length when using the NHANES WT algorithm (p algorithms. Minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA varied significantly by epoch length for all sets of activity cut-points tested with all three WT algorithms (all p algorithms (all p algorithms and activity cut-point definitions to match different epoch lengths may introduce significant errors. Estimates of SB and PA from studies that process and analyze data using different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and/or activity cut-points are not comparable, potentially leading to very different results, interpretations, and conclusions, misleading research and public policy.

  16. Corrosion phenomena in electron, proton and synchrotron X-ray microprobe analysis of Roman glass from Qumran, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, K.; Aerts, A.; Vincze, L.; Adams, F.; Yang, C.; Utui, R.; Malmqvist, K.; Jones, K. W.; Radtke, M.; Garbe, S.; Lechtenberg, F.; Knöchel, A.; Wouters, H.

    1996-04-01

    A series of 89 glass fragments of Roman glass are studied using electron, proton and synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission from microscopic areas on the sample surface. The glass originates from Qumran, Jordan and was buried for 1900 years. The weathering layers that result from the extended contact with ground water have been studied, next to the trace composition of the original glass of these pieces. The latter information indicates that at Qumran, large quantities of glass objects were being used in Ancient times. Cross-sectional profiles of the glass show a complex migration behaviour of various groups of major and trace elements.

  17. Numismatic iconography over two evidences of sigillata hispanica from the roman town of Los Bañales (Uncastillo, Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Andreu Pintado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The following paper presents two new evidences of hispanic sigillata from the roman city of Los Bañales (Uncastillo, Zaragoza, in the center of the Vascones area, that show decorations done with Marcus Aurelius’ coins. Both evidences are analyzed in the context of this habit in the spanish productions of pottery in Tricio firstable in Flavian times and then, briefly, during II century AD. The reflection goes, also, on a interpretative study of the phaenomenon testified in the hispanic sigillata in the first years of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus’ reign offering a plausible explanation of its reasons.

  18. Job Demands, Burnout, and Teamwork in Healthcare Professionals Working in a General Hospital that Was Analysed At Two Points in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzhinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Stoleski, Sasho; Minov, Jordan; Atanasovska, Aneta; Bihorac, Elida

    2018-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of the paper was to assess job demands, burnout, and teamwork in healthcare professionals (HPs) working in a general hospital that was analysed at two points in time with a time lag of three years. METHODS: Time 1 respondents (N = 325) were HPs who participated during the first wave of data collection (2011). Time 2 respondents (N = 197) were HPs from the same hospital who responded at Time 2 (2014). Job demands, burnout, and teamwork were measured with Hospital Experience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, respectively. RESULTS: Significantly higher scores of emotional exhaustion (21.03 vs. 15.37, t = 5.1, p Teamwork levels were similar at both points in time (Time 1 = 3.84 vs. Time 2 = 3.84, t = 0.043, p = 0.97). CONCLUSION: Actual longitudinal study revealed significantly higher mean values of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in 2014 that could be explained by significantly increased job demands between analysed points in time. PMID:29731948

  19. The pen behind the sword: power, literacy and the Roman army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wilkes

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The creation and cohesion of the Roman empire owed much to the spread of literacy through the provinces and the use of texts as an instrument of government. An important manifestation of this is the role of the written word in the Roman army, exemplified by the diplomas that granted Roman citizenship and other privileges to auxiliary soldiers on completion of their military service. Margaret Roxan, one of the Institute's honorary research fellows, has studied these diplomas for many years, and her achievement was honoured at an international conference in London in May 2002.

  20. Green Grape Detection and Picking-Point Calculation in a Night-Time Natural Environment Using a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD Vision Sensor with Artificial Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Xiong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Night-time fruit-picking technology is important to picking robots. This paper proposes a method of night-time detection and picking-point positioning for green grape-picking robots to solve the difficult problem of green grape detection and picking in night-time conditions with artificial lighting systems. Taking a representative green grape named Centennial Seedless as the research object, daytime and night-time grape images were captured by a custom-designed visual system. Detection was conducted employing the following steps: (1 The RGB (red, green and blue. Color model was determined for night-time green grape detection through analysis of color features of grape images under daytime natural light and night-time artificial lighting. The R component of the RGB color model was rotated and the image resolution was compressed; (2 The improved Chan–Vese (C–V level set model and morphological processing method were used to remove the background of the image, leaving out the grape fruit; (3 Based on the character of grape vertical suspension, combining the principle of the minimum circumscribed rectangle of fruit and the Hough straight line detection method, straight-line fitting for the fruit stem was conducted and the picking point was calculated using the stem with an angle of fitting line and vertical line less than 15°. The visual detection experiment results showed that the accuracy of grape fruit detection was 91.67% and the average running time of the proposed algorithm was 0.46 s. The picking-point calculation experiment results showed that the highest accuracy for the picking-point calculation was 92.5%, while the lowest was 80%. The results demonstrate that the proposed method of night-time green grape detection and picking-point calculation can provide technical support to the grape-picking robots.

  1. Actualité du roman archéologique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Dufour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Salammbô a beau se passer au IIIe siècle avant Jésus-Christ, Flaubert a beau y voir une ressource pour fuir le monde moderne, le roman antique n’en pense pas moins l’Histoire contemporaine, au moins par intermittence. On essaie de le montrer à propos d’un court fragment rescapé du chapitre explicatif, la description des assemblées des Syssites. Loin de démarquer simplement telle ou telle source (comme l’analyse aristotélicienne de la constitution carthaginoise dans La Politique, le paragraphe décrivant le banquet des Riches pendant que les Barbares entourent la ville évoque en surimpression la fête impériale sur fond de peur sociale. Des images relais (Les Romains de la décadence de Thomas Couture, Les Châtiments de Victor Hugo incitent le premier public à une lecture allégorique. Le chronotope de l’assemblée dénonce l’illusion d’un pouvoir et figure le devenir historique. Flaubert s’approprie ainsi de façon originale le genre du roman archéologique tel que l’abbé Barthélemy l’inventa ou tel que Henryk Sienkiewick le prolongera. S’y vérifie sa définition de l’histoire comme réflexion du présent sur le passé.Some scholars like Anne Green have shown that Flaubert in his historical novel, Salammbô, frequently alludes to contemporary history in spite of the obvious difference between the Carthaginian civilization and the modern world. In this essay I will try to grasp the shift in referenciality through a small description (a meeting between the wealthy, inspired by Aristotle’s Politics: Hugolian images of decadence from Les Châtiments appear superimposed on it, so that the archeological novel turns into an allegorical satire on the Second Empire.

  2. Graeco-Roman Astro-Architecture: The Temples of Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, Vance R.

    2014-01-01

    Roman architect Marcus Vetruvius Pollio (ca. 75-15 BC) wrote, “[O]ne who professes himself as an architect should be…acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens…. From astronomy we find the east, west, south, and north, as well as the theory of the heavens, the Equinox, Solstice and courses of the Stars.” (De Architectura Libri Decem I:i:3,10). In order to investigate the role of astronomy in temple orientation, the author conducted a preliminary GIS DEM/Satellite Imaging survey of 11 temples at Pompeii, Italy (N 40d 45', E 14d 29'). The GIS survey measured the true azimuth and horizon altitude of each temple’s major axis and was field checked by a Ground Truth survey with theodolite and GPS, 5-18 April 2013. The resulting 3D vector data was analyzed with Program STONEHENGE (Hawkins 1983, 328) to identify the local skyline declinations aligned with the temple major axes. Analysis suggests that the major axes of the temples of Apollo, Jupiter and Venus are equally as likely to have been oriented to Pompeii’s urban grid, itself oriented NW-SE on Mt. Vesuvius’ slope and hydraulic gradient to optimize urban sewer/street drainage (cf. Hodge 1992). However, the remaining nine temples appear to be oriented to astronomical targets on the local horizon associated with Graeco-Roman calendrics and mythology. TEMPLE/ DATE/ MAJOR AXIS ASTRO-TARGET (Skyline Declination in degrees) Public Lares/AD 50/ Cross-Quarter 7 Nov/3 Feb Sun Set, Last Gleam (-16.5) Vespsian/ AD 69-79/ Cross-Quarter 7 Nov/3 Feb Sun Set, LG (-16.2) Fortuna Augusta/ AD 1/ Winter Solstice Sun Set, LG (-22.9) Aesculapius/ 100 BC/ Perseus Rise (β Persei-Algol = +33.0) & Midsummer Moon Major Stand Still Set, LG (-28.1) Isis/ 100 BC/ Midwinter Moon Major Stand Still Rise, Tangent (+28.5) & Equinox Sun Set, Tangent (-0.3) Jupiter/ 150 BC/ Θ Scorpionis-Sargas Rise (-38.0) Apollo/ 550 (rebuilt 70 BC)/ α Columbae-Phact Rise (-37.1) Venus/ 150 BC (rebuilt 70 BC)/ α Columbae-Phact Rise (-37

  3. The impact of scheduling on service reliability : Trip-time determination and holding points in long-headway services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.; Boterman, J.W.; Van Nes, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents research on optimizing service reliability of longheadway services in urban public transport. Setting the driving time, and thus the departure time at stops, is an important decision when optimizing reliability in urban public transport. The choice of the percentile out of

  4. Is it time to include point-of-care ultrasound in general surgery training? A review to stimulate discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenkopf, Maximilian; Tait, Noel

    2013-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound scanning or POCUS is a focused ultrasound (US) scan, performed by non-imaging clinicians during physical examination, an invasive procedure or surgery. As this technology becomes cheaper, smaller and easier to use, its scope for use by surgeons grows, a trend that may generate a gap between use and training. Opportunities for enhanced general surgery skill sets may be reduced unless consideration is given to inclusion of POCUS in general surgery training. To stimulate discussion regarding inclusion of POCUS in the general surgery curriculum; to resource this discussion with an overview of current trends and issues around POCUS; and to discuss concerns and controversies that may arise if POCUS was adopted into general surgery training. A literature search was performed using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google and Google Scholar, using the terms 'ultrasound', 'point-of-care-ultrasound', 'bedside ultrasound', 'portable ultrasound' and 'hand-held ultrasound'. Literature, references and non-literature resources found were reviewed for relevance to US education in general surgery. Increasingly, medical students are graduating with basic POCUS skills. Specialty-specific uses of POCUS are proliferating. Training and assessment resources are not keeping up, in accessibility or standardization. A learned surgical college led training and accreditation process would require aligned education in anatomy and US technology and collaboration with the specialist imaging community to ensure appropriate standards are clarified and met. Research is also required into how general surgery trainees can best achieve and maintain POCUS competence. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Application of the nonlinear time series prediction method of genetic algorithm for forecasting surface wind of point station in the South China Sea with scatterometer observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jian; Dong Gang; Sun Yimei; Zhang Zhaoyang; Wu Yuqin

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports the development of nonlinear time series prediction method of genetic algorithm (GA) with singular spectrum analysis (SSA) for forecasting the surface wind of a point station in the South China Sea (SCS) with scatterometer observations. Before the nonlinear technique GA is used for forecasting the time series of surface wind, the SSA is applied to reduce the noise. The surface wind speed and surface wind components from scatterometer observations at three locations in the SCS have been used to develop and test the technique. The predictions have been compared with persistence forecasts in terms of root mean square error. The predicted surface wind with GA and SSA made up to four days (longer for some point station) in advance have been found to be significantly superior to those made by persistence model. This method can serve as a cost-effective alternate prediction technique for forecasting surface wind of a point station in the SCS basin. (paper)

  6. WILLIAM GURNEE SINNIGEN - 20TH CENTURY CLASSICIST AND ROMAN HISTORIAN: BIOGRAPHY & BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Gray Marsh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available William Gurnee Sinnigen was a Classicist and Roman historian, active in the mid-to-late 20th century. Trained at the University of Michigan by noted Roman administrative historian Arthur E. R. Boak, Sinnigen continued his mentor’s work in administrative history, producing several articles on different aspects of Roman and Byzantine administrative topics.  Sinnigen was also responsible for the revision and update of Boak’s acclaimed textbook on Roman history, as well as Charles Alexander Robinson’s textbook on Ancient history.  This article will provide a brief biography of Professor Sinnigen, along with a bibliography of his published works and reviews by other scholars of his work.

  7. Observance of the Law in Romans 14–15 and Dialogue with Trypho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-10

    Feb 10, 2012 ... Nevertheless, in the localised context of the early Roman churches, it seems ..... Rules appeal to social values, such as justice or freedom. The problem .... specifically the wholesale rejection of Law-observant Christ- following ...

  8. Tänavuse Roman Tavasti nimelise stipendiumi... / Kadri Mälk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälk, Kadri, 1958-

    2008-01-01

    2007. aasta Roman Tavasti nimelise stipendiumi pälvis Eesti Kunstiakadeemia ehtekunsti eriala üliõpilane Linda al-Assi, kes on sündinud Alzheerias, kasvanud Pärnus. Linda al-Assi ehteseeriast teemal "Andestus"

  9. Eesti Maanteemuuseumis lavastub Roman Baskini käe all "Augustikuu teemaja"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veski, Rivo

    2009-01-01

    Roman Baskini lavastatud komöödia "Augustikuu teemaja" Maanteemuuseumis. Autor John Patrick, mängivad mitmed harrastusteatrite näitlejad, teiste hulgas MTÜ Vilde Teatri liikmed. Peaosas Marko Matvere

  10. Usefulness of Time-Point Serum Cortisol and ACTH Measurements for the Adjustment of Glucocorticoid Replacement in Adrenal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Elise; Joubert, Michael; Trzepla, Géraldine; Parienti, Jean Jacques; Freret, Thomas; Vanthygem, Marie Christine; Desailloud, Rachel; Lefebvre, Hervé; Coquerel, Antoine; Reznik, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Adjustment of daily hydrocortisone dose on clinical criteria lacks sensitivity for fine tuning. Long term hydrocortisone (HC) over-replacement may lead to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI). Biochemical criteria may help detecting over- or under-replacement but have been poorly evaluated. Multicenter, institutional, pharmacokinetic study on ACTH and cortisol plasma profiles during HC replacement in 27 AI patients compared to 29 matched controls. All AI patients were administered HC thrice daily at doses of 6, 10 and 14 mg/m2/d. Blood samples were drawn hourly from 0800h to 1900h. The main outcome measures were: i) plasma peak cortisol and cortisol area under the curve (AUC) in AI patients compared to controls, ii) correlations between cortisol AUC vs single-point cortisol or ACTH decrease from baseline (ΔACTH) and iii) the predictive value of the two latters for obtaining AI patients' cortisol AUC in the control range. Cortisol peaks were observed 1h after each HC intake and a dose response was demonstrated for cortisol peak and cortisol AUC. The comparison of AI patients' cortisol AUC to controls showed that 81.5% AI patients receiving 6mg/m2/d were adequately replaced, whereas most patients receiving higher doses were over-replaced. The correlation coefficient between 1000h/1400h cortisol concentrations and 0800-1900h cortisol AUC were 0.93/0.88 respectively, whereas the 0800-1200h ΔACTH fairly correlated with 0800-1900h cortisol AUC (R = 0.57). ROC curve analysis indicated that the 1000h and 1400h cortisol concentrations best predicted over-replacement. Patients receiving a 6mg/m2 hydrocortisone daily dose exhibited the most physiological daytime cortisol profile. Single point plasma cortisol correlated with daytime cortisol AUC in AI patients. Although hydrocortisone dose should be currently determined on clinical grounds, our data suggest that single point plasma cortisol may be an adjunct for further hydrocortisone

  11. Integrated methodology for the evaluation of the vulnerability of archaeological sites: the Roman Theater of Verona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cescatti, Elvis; Lorenzoni, Filippo; Caldon, Mauro; Modena, Claudio; Da Porto, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge-based methodologies for assessing the structural safety and vulnerability of historical buildings are based on the application of an operational approach that is divided into several phases including historical research, the execution of non-destructive or moderately destructive investigations, monitoring and structural analysis. Monitoring is a useful tool to be used throughout the whole process of knowledge not only in the preliminary diagnosis, but also for the control of the quality and effectiveness of the interventions, in the context of appropriate conservation programs e protection of the object being studied. From this point of view, monitoring becomes essential for: (i) the evaluation of the real structural behavior and the identification of vulnerabilities, prior to the execution of any intervention; (ii) minimization and optimization of interventions, firstly by providing indications regarding those that are not necessary and / or invasive. This methodology has been recently applied and valid from the authors to an archaeological site of particular relevance: the Roman Theater of Verona. The deepening of the knowledge phase (historical analysis, survey, study of the subsoil, properties of materials), combined with the installation of a permanent monitoring system and the structural modeling, allowed to obtain a reliable assessment of the site's vulnerabilities with the aim of guaranteeing in an effective and careful protection and enhancement.

  12. The Dynamics of Smoking-Related Disturbed Methylation: A Two Time-Point Study of Methylation Change in Smokers, Non-Smokers and Former Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The evidence for epigenome-wide associations between smoking and DNA methylation continues to grow through cross-sectional studies. However, few large­ scale investigations have explored the associations using observations for individuals at multiple time-points. ...

  13. MDCT evaluation of aortic root and aortic valve prior to TAVI. What is the optimal imaging time point in the cardiac cycle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurencak, Tomas; Turek, Jakub; Nijssen, Estelle C. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P. Debyelaan 25, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Kietselaer, Bastiaan L.J.H. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P. Debyelaan 25, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mihl, Casper; Kok, Madeleine; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Das, Marco [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P. Debyelaan 25, P.O. Box 5800, AZ, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases, Maastricht (Netherlands); Ommen, Vincent G.V.A. van [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Garsse, Leen A.F.M. van [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    To determine the optimal imaging time point for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) therapy planning by comprehensive evaluation of the aortic root. Multidetector-row CT (MDCT) examination with retrospective ECG gating was retrospectively performed in 64 consecutive patients referred for pre-TAVI assessment. Eighteen different parameters of the aortic root were evaluated at 11 different time points in the cardiac cycle. Time points at which maximal (or minimal) sizes were determined, and dimension differences to other time points were evaluated. Theoretical prosthesis sizing based on different measurements was compared. Largest dimensions were found between 10 and 20 % of the cardiac cycle for annular short diameter (10 %); mean diameter (10 %); effective diameter and circumference-derived diameter (20 %); distance from the annulus to right coronary artery ostium (10 %); aortic root at the left coronary artery level (20 %); aortic root at the widest portion of coronary sinuses (20 %); and right leaflet length (20 %). Prosthesis size selection differed depending on the chosen measurements in 25-75 % of cases. Significant changes in anatomical structures of the aortic root during the cardiac cycle are crucial for TAVI planning. Imaging in systole is mandatory to obtain maximal dimensions. (orig.)

  14. Lab-in-a-tube: Real-time molecular point-of-care diagnostics for influenza A and B using the cobas(R) Liat(R) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchers, W.J.G.; Kuijpers, J; Sickler, J.J.; Rahamat-Langendoen, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis of influenza A and B is important for direct treatment decisions in patient care and for the reduction of in-hospital transmissions. The new real-time PCR based molecular point-of-care (POC) assay, the cobas(R) Influenza A/B test on the cobas(R) Liat(R) System (cobas(R) Liat(R)

  15. How Well Does High School Grade Point Average Predict College Performance by Student Urbanicity and Timing of College Entry? REL 2017-250

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodara, Michelle; Lewis, Karyn

    2017-01-01

    This report is a companion to a study that found that high school grade point average was a stronger predictor of performance in college-level English and math than were standardized exam scores among first-time students at the University of Alaska who enrolled directly in college-level courses. This report examines how well high school grade…

  16. The Roman Catholic parish in Poland as the local community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariański Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Roman Catholic Church a parish is the smallest legal unit and it is the milieu for religious, social, and cultural activities for a group of people joined together in a geographical area. The purpose of this article is a sociological study examining the Catholic parish in Poland as a local community. Today a parish along with its community is exposed to social change and to myriad forces characteristic of the postmodern culture. In Poland two opposite forces characterize the life of a parish community: on the one side, secularization and individualization, and on the other side, socialization and evangelization. The subjective dimension of a local community, which is related to identification of people with a local parish, along with social bonds with the parish as a local community, are discussed in the first two sections of the article. In subsequent sections some issues related to common activities, membership in movements, religious communities, and Catholic associations within the parish will be presented. While the agency of people in the parish community is theoretically acknowledged, it is still not fully implemented. The discussion is based on the data obtained from major public opinion institutes in Poland.

  17. [The Vatican and the Roman physicians: debates on corpuscular theories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Maria Pia

    2003-01-01

    The essay aims at addressing the debates on corpuscular theories in Rome within the context of the political and religious tensions of the late 17th century. Documents in the archives of the "Congregazione per la Dottrina della Fede" allow us to outline the changing attitudes of the Church of Rome towards atomistic philosophy and to highlight the factional clashes within Roman institutions on the issue. These dynamics gave way to the Congresso Medico Romano of G. Brasavola and G.M. Lancisi, an academy which soon became the promoting agent of an eclectic corpuscular medicine. The Holy Office put the success of the "moderns" into question in 1690, after Alexander VIII had come to the throne. The attach was part of a general repression of atomism (also in Naples and Florence) but also of quietism and freethinking. Despite the crisis, the "moderns" were able to bind their corpuscularism to a strictly defined epistemological model. In the frame of the contemporary biomedical sciences, questions on the ultimate nature of atoms could be abandoned without dismissing the corpuscular theory and practice of medicine.

  18. Urbanism and the division of labour in the Roman Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J W; Ortman, S G; Lobo, J

    2017-11-01

    One of the hallmarks of human agglomeration is an increase in the division of labour, but the exact nature of this relationship has been debated among anthropologists, sociologists, economists, and historians and archaeologists. Over the last decade, researchers investigating contemporary urban systems have suggested a novel explanation for the links between the numbers of inhabitants in settlements and many of their most important characteristics, which is grounded in a view of settlements as social networks embedded in built environments. One of the remarkable aspects of this approach is that it is not based on the specific conditions of the modern world (such as capitalism or industrialization), which raises the issue of whether the relationships observed in contemporary urban systems can also be detected in pre-modern urban or even non-urban systems. Here, we present a general model for the relationship between the population and functional diversity of settlements, where the latter is viewed as an indicator of the division of labour. We then explore the applicability of this model to pre-modern contexts, focusing on cities in the Roman Empire, using estimates of their numbers of inhabitants, numbers of documented professional associations, and numbers of recorded inscriptions to develop an index of functional diversity. Our results are consistent with theoretical expectations, adding further support to the view that urban systems in both contemporary and pre-modern contexts reflect a common set of generative processes. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Reflections on the Cultural Encounter between the Jews and the Greeks and Romans in Jewish Coin Iconography of the Hellenistic-Roman Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to the written and archaeological sources, the numismatic material from the Persian, Hellenistic, and particularly the Roman Imperial periods in Palestine constitutes an almost uninterrupted material source from which detailed knowledge can be drawn concerning the political, cultural and......—by extension—even social processes. In this article examples reflecting the results of the cultural encounter between the Jewish and the Greco-Roman world are discussed, which are well illustrated by the differences in the iconography of the Jewish coinages of the first century BCE and first century CE...

  20. Point Climat no. 13 'Will there still be a market price for CERs and ERUs in two years time?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellassen, Valentin; Stephan, Nicolas; Leguet, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: Medium-term (i.e. pre-2015) demand for credits from the EU ETS and secondary sources of demand appears to be limited to 1.6 billion tCO 2 e. The supply of Kyoto credits is relatively predictable, and will cover demand between now and 2013-2014 according to our base-case scenario. Our view is that the demand-supply equilibrium will lead to a de-correlation between the price of Kyoto credits and the EUA price, and may lead to a price for Kyoto credits that is very low, or almost nil. Unless CER and ERU demand-side policies are modified, we do not foresee any rebound in CER and ERU prices beyond the current year

  1. Transition times between the extremum points of the current–voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode with hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishakov, K. S., E-mail: ksgrishakov@yahoo.com; Elesin, V. F. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    A numerical solution to the problem of transient processes in a resonant tunneling diode featuring a current–voltage characteristic with hysteresis is found for the first time in the context of a coherent model (based on the coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equations) taking into account the Fermi distribution of electrons. The transitions from the high-current to the low-current state and vice versa, which result from the existence of hysteresis and are of great practical importance for ultrafast switches based on resonant tunneling diodes, are studied in detail. It is shown that the transition times for such processes initiated by the application of a small voltage can significantly exceed the characteristic time ℏ/Γ (where G is the width of the resonance level). It is established for the first time that the transition time can be reduced and made as short as the characteristic time ℏ/Γ by applying a sufficiently high voltage. For the parameters of the resonant-tunnelingdiode structure considered in this study, the required voltage is about 0.01 V.

  2. Frequency of Sports Trauma in Elite National Level Greco-Roman Wrestling Competitions

    OpenAIRE

    Akbarnejad, Ali; Sayyah, Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Background Trauma is an inescapable part of sports competitions. It occurs more frequently in contact sports such as wrestling. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of injury in Greco-Roman style wrestling competitions at national level. Patients and Methods This descriptive epidemiological research included 50 Greco-Roman style wrestlers who participated in national level competitions between the years 2003 and 2008. A questionnaire was completed by each partic...

  3. Transfiguring the Dead: The Iconography, Commemorative Use, and Materiality of Mummy Shrouds from Roman Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, Lissette Marie

    2014-01-01

    The mummy shrouds, often overlooked or dissected into dichotomous parts because of their Hellenistic and Egyptian hybrid pictorial nature, provide unparalleled insight into religious and social facets of life and death in Roman Egypt. Moving beyond the aesthetic properties of these objects and focusing on the symbolic and material functions of the iconography on the shrouds enables a fuller understanding of individual and collective social aspirations of the inhabitants of Roman Egypt. When v...

  4. The Roman Road System in the Golan: Highways, Paths and Tracks in Quotidian Life

    OpenAIRE

    Pažout Adam

    2017-01-01

    Roman Imperial Roads (highways) built, maintained and organized by the Roman army and provincial authorities were studied in the Golan Heights since Schumacher’s surveys in the 1880s. However, most of these were obliterated by building and agricultural activity since the beginning of the 20th century. Local ancient road system, linking individual communities and their agricultural land was never studied, since it barely leaves a trace in archaeological record. This paper presents reconstructi...

  5. Mas Gusó: a Roman military Settlement in the suburbium of Emporiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Casas Genover

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the site of Mas Gusó (province of Girona has been interpreted as a Roman uilla, this is actually a public building. Its existence have to be contextualized within the frame of the structures established by the Roman authority for territorial control closely linked to the creation of a new road network and a tax collection system. We also analyse its survival until the 3rd century AD, which are closely related to the nearby city of Emporiae.

  6. Creating a provincial landscape: roman imperialism and rural change in Lusitania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C Edmondson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: This paper suggests some general approaches and raises some problems in studying the impact of Rome on the rural landscape in Lusitania. It concentrates on three crucial ways in which the landscape was transformed under Roman rule: (a changes in the pattern of rural settlement; (b changes in the nature of land use and agrarian exploitation; and (c changes in the ways in which the inhabitants of Lusitania perceived and thought about their world. It argues that a synthesis is needed of archaeological evidence from across the province, so that the impact of Rome on rural settlemet patterns may be compared in differing environmental regions. Further intensive field survey should also help to resolve some current problems in reconstructing the pattern of Iron Age and Roman rural settlement. Increased collection and analysis of pollen samples, carbonised wood, seeds, agricultural implements and animal bones is needed to assess more precisely the extent to which the Romans caused major changes in the nature of land use and agrarian exploitation. When accounting for change, it is essential to consider a wide variety of factors and to remember that rural change continued to occur throughout the Roman period. Finally, it was in forcing the inhabitants of Lusitania to perceive their world in radically new ways that the Romans made a lasting impact on the provincial landscape. First, the Romans created broad ethnic identities for their opponents, ignoring the complex, highly fragmented ethnic and regional geography of the area. Then by dividing the region into clearly defined civitates, they forced the inhabitants of Lusitania to envisage the landscape in a very different manner than before. Finally, a series of rituals emphasising Roman power (the census, the holding of judicial assizes, and the activities of the provincial council regularly reinforced these radically new mental maps of the new Roman provincial landscape.

  7. Imperial Policy and the Integration of Gaul into the Roman Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF EMPIRE From as early as the second century BC Gaul had a taste for the material outputs of the Roman economy. Wine in particular...Rome tolerated the establishment of local Gallic production. This meant the growth in Gaul’s wine consumption benefited Gallic producers and not...exporter of sought after wines . Wine production was not the only industry that benefited from the Roman conquest. Complementing Gallic viticulture

  8. A Critical Assessment of Ministerial Formation in Roman Catholic Seminaries in Nigeria in the Light of the Pastores Dabo Vobis: A Case Study of Claretian Institute, Owerri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Enyinnaya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the last few decades, spiritual formation has been receiving attention in theological education literature. An increasing number of theological educators have observed how easily this important objective of ministerial formation gets crowded out by the academic and ministry emphases. Others have called attention to the problem of fragmentation pointing to the need for integration in the work theological institutions do. Thus, it has become common to hear institutions boast of how integrated their programmes are and how much emphasis they place on spiritual formation. It is, however, not that common to see studies dedicated to finding out how these claims are actually realized in practice. The purpose of this paper is to assess to what extent Roman Catholic Seminaries in Nigeria comply with the emphasis in the Pastores Dabo Vobis (PDV on spiritual formation. The PDV is the dominant Roman Catholic document on ministerial formation since Vatican II. The PDV has been influential in highlighting the importance of spiritual formation in theological education globally. The paper gives a brief overview of the PDV’s portrayal of ministerial formation and then examines one Roman Catholic Seminary in Nigeria (the Claretian Institute, Nekede, Owerri  to see to what extent spiritual formation is carried out amongst other objectives. The paper concludes with salient lessons other theological institutions can learn from Claretian Institute’s effort at provision of holistic and relevant theological preparation for ministers.

  9. Impact of dual-time-point F-18 FDG PET/CT in the assessment of pleural effusion in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhawaldeh, Khaled; Biersack, Hans-J; Henke, Anna; Ezziddin, Samer

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the utility of dual-time-point F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) in differentiating benign from malignant pleural disease, in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. A total of 61 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and pleural effusion were included in this retrospective study. All patients had whole-body FDG PET/CT imaging at 60 ± 10 minutes post-FDG injection, whereas 31 patients had second-time delayed imaging repeated at 90 ± 10 minutes for the chest. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUV(max)) and the average percent change in SUV(max) (%SUV) between time point 1 and time point 2 were calculated. Malignancy was defined using the following criteria: (1) visual assessment using 3-points grading scale; (2) SUV(max) ≥2.4; (3) %SUV ≥ +9; and (4) SUV(max) ≥2.4 and/or %SUV ≥ +9. Analysis of variance test and receiver operating characteristic analysis were used in statistical analysis. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Follow-up revealed 29 patient with malignant pleural disease and 31 patients with benign pleural effusion. The average SUV(max) in malignant effusions was 6.5 ± 4 versus 2.2 ± 0.9 in benign effusions (P < 0.0001). The average %SUV in malignant effusions was +13 ± 10 versus -8 ± 11 in benign effusions (P < 0.0004). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the 5 criteria were as follows: (1) 86%, 72%, and 79%; (2) 93%, 72%, and 82%; (3) 67%, 94%, and 81%; (4) 100%, 94%, and 97%. Dual-time-point F-18 FDG PET can improve the diagnostic accuracy in differentiating benign from malignant pleural disease, with high sensitivity and good specificity.

  10. Computing travel time when the exact address is unknown: a comparison of point and polygon ZIP code approximation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Ethan M; Shi, Xun

    2009-04-29

    Travel time is an important metric of geographic access to health care. We compared strategies of estimating travel times when only subject ZIP code data were available. Using simulated data from New Hampshire and Arizona, we estimated travel times to nearest cancer centers by using: 1) geometric centroid of ZIP code polygons as origins, 2) population centroids as origin, 3) service area rings around each cancer center, assigning subjects to rings by assuming they are evenly distributed within their ZIP code, 4) service area rings around each center, assuming the subjects follow the population distribution within the ZIP code. We used travel times based on street addresses as true values to validate estimates. Population-based methods have smaller errors than geometry-based methods. Within categories (geometry or population), centroid and service area methods have similar errors. Errors are smaller in urban areas than in rural areas. Population-based methods are superior to the geometry-based methods, with the population centroid method appearing to be the best choice for estimating travel time. Estimates in rural areas are less reliable.

  11. The Danube and the Sava in Strabo’s Geography and in Roman Inscriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Šašel Kos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Danube, once considered the most important river of Europe, is referred to by Strabo in several passages. Of the greatest interest is the information recorded in his Book 7, which is largely dedicated to the Balkan peninsula and to the adjacent regions. The Danube as an important boundary river is mentioned at the very beginning of the book, which defines the geographical extent of the area. The importance of the Danube as one of the largest rivers was already perceived by Herodotus, who describes the Ister as the most important of all rivers known to him and locates its source somewhere in the west. Its sources are a day’s walk away from Lake Constance and were discovered by Tiberius only in 15 B.C. – another fact recorded by Strabo. A similar evaluation of the Danube’s importance was made c. 150 years later by the historian Appian, who provides a surprising amount of geographical data. He broaches the subject in his very introduction, stating that the Roman Empire is largely circumscribed by two European rivers, the Rhine and the Ister: the Rhine flows into the northern ocean, and the Ister into the Black Sea. But there are peoples who are under Roman control even beyond these rivers: some groups of Celts beyond the Rhine, and some groups of the Getae named ‘Dacians’ beyond the Ister (Fig. 1.  Strabo generally refers to the river by its Thracian name, Ister, fully established among the Greeks. In Book 7, however, he explains that it has two names and that the upper section is usually called Danuvius.Danuvius/Danubius is probably a Celtic name, which referred to the river down to the cataracts at the so-called Železna vrata (‘Iron Gates’ under Singidunum (Belgrade. It was only towards the end of the 1st century B.C., when their conquering campaigns finally reached these parts, that the Romans realised it was a single river. The Scythian name for the Danube was Matoas. In Roman times, the Danube was worshipped and

  12. Points of Transition: Understanding the Constructed Identities of L2 Learners/Users across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adawu, Anthony; Martin-Beltran, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Using sociocultural and poststructuralist theoretical lenses, this study examines the narrative construction of language-learner identity across time and space. We applied cross-narrative methodologies to analyze language-learning autobiographies and interview data from three English users who had recently transitioned to a U.S. context for…

  13. Point-of-care ultrasonography as a training milestone for internal medicine residents: the time is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabath, Bruce F; Singh, Gurkeerat

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care (POC) ultrasonography is considered fundamental in emergency medicine training and recently has become a milestone in critical care fellowship programs as well. Currently, there is no such standard requirement for internal medicine residency programs in the United States. We present a new case and briefly review another case at our institution - a community hospital - in which internal medicine house staff trained in ultrasonography were able to uncover unexpected and critical diagnoses that significantly changed patient care and outcomes. We also review the growing evidence of the application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of a myriad of conditions encountered in general internal medicine as well as the mounting data on the ability of internal medicine residents to apply this technology accurately at the bedside. We advocate that the literature has sufficiently established the role of POC ultrasonography in general internal medicine that there should no longer be any delay in giving this an official place in the development of internal medicine trainees. This may be particularly useful in the community hospital setting where 24-h echocardiography or other sonography may not be readily available.

  14. Guidelines for time-to-event end point definitions in breast cancer trials: results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer trials)†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgou-Bourgade, S; Cameron, D; Poortmans, P; Asselain, B; Azria, D; Cardoso, F; A'Hern, R; Bliss, J; Bogaerts, J; Bonnefoi, H; Brain, E; Cardoso, M J; Chibaudel, B; Coleman, R; Cufer, T; Dal Lago, L; Dalenc, F; De Azambuja, E; Debled, M; Delaloge, S; Filleron, T; Gligorov, J; Gutowski, M; Jacot, W; Kirkove, C; MacGrogan, G; Michiels, S; Negreiros, I; Offersen, B V; Penault Llorca, F; Pruneri, G; Roche, H; Russell, N S; Schmitt, F; Servent, V; Thürlimann, B; Untch, M; van der Hage, J A; van Tienhoven, G; Wildiers, H; Yarnold, J; Bonnetain, F; Mathoulin-Pélissier, S; Bellera, C; Dabakuyo-Yonli, T S

    2015-05-01

    Using surrogate end points for overall survival, such as disease-free survival, is increasingly common in randomized controlled trials. However, the definitions of several of these time-to-event (TTE) end points are imprecisely which limits interpretation and cross-trial comparisons. The estimation of treatment effects may be directly affected by the definitions of end points. The DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer trials) aims to provide recommendations for definitions of TTE end points. We report guidelines for randomized cancer clinical trials (RCTs) in breast cancer. A literature review was carried out to identify TTE end points (primary or secondary) reported in publications of randomized trials or guidelines. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts proposed recommendations for the definitions of these end points based on a validated consensus method that formalize the degree of agreement among experts. Recommended guidelines for the definitions of TTE end points commonly used in RCTs for breast cancer are provided for non-metastatic and metastatic settings. The use of standardized definitions should facilitate comparisons of trial results and improve the quality of trial design and reporting. These guidelines could be of particular interest to those involved in the design, conducting, reporting, or assessment of RCT. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Guidelines for time-to-event end point definitions in sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) trials: results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer trials)†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellera, C A; Penel, N; Ouali, M; Bonvalot, S; Casali, P G; Nielsen, O S; Delannes, M; Litière, S; Bonnetain, F; Dabakuyo, T S; Benjamin, R S; Blay, J-Y; Bui, B N; Collin, F; Delaney, T F; Duffaud, F; Filleron, T; Fiore, M; Gelderblom, H; George, S; Grimer, R; Grosclaude, P; Gronchi, A; Haas, R; Hohenberger, P; Issels, R; Italiano, A; Jooste, V; Krarup-Hansen, A; Le Péchoux, C; Mussi, C; Oberlin, O; Patel, S; Piperno-Neumann, S; Raut, C; Ray-Coquard, I; Rutkowski, P; Schuetze, S; Sleijfer, S; Stoeckle, E; Van Glabbeke, M; Woll, P; Gourgou-Bourgade, S; Mathoulin-Pélissier, S

    2015-05-01

    The use of potential surrogate end points for overall survival, such as disease-free survival (DFS) or time-to-treatment failure (TTF) is increasingly common in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in cancer. However, the definition of time-to-event (TTE) end points is rarely precise and lacks uniformity across trials. End point definition can impact trial results by affecting estimation of treatment effect and statistical power. The DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End points in CANcer trials) aims to provide recommendations for definitions of TTE end points. We report guidelines for RCT in sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). We first carried out a literature review to identify TTE end points (primary or secondary) reported in publications of RCT. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts proposed recommendations for the definitions of these end points. Recommendations were developed through a validated consensus method formalizing the degree of agreement among experts. Recommended guidelines for the definition of TTE end points commonly used in RCT for sarcomas and GIST are provided for adjuvant and metastatic settings, including DFS, TTF, time to progression and others. Use of standardized definitions should facilitate comparison of trials' results, and improve the quality of trial design and reporting. These guidelines could be of particular interest to research scientists involved in the design, conduct, reporting or assessment of RCT such as investigators, statisticians, reviewers, editors or regulatory authorities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Glycemic Excursions in Type 1 Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Semiparametric Statistical Approach to Identify Sensitive Time Points during Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resmi Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the gestational glycemic profile and identify specific times during pregnancy that variability in glucose levels, measured by change in velocity and acceleration/deceleration of blood glucose fluctuations, is associated with delivery of a large-for-gestational-age (LGA baby, in women with type 1 diabetes. Methods. Retrospective analysis of capillary blood glucose levels measured multiple times daily throughout gestation in women with type 1 diabetes was performed using semiparametric mixed models. Results. Velocity and acceleration/deceleration in glucose levels varied across gestation regardless of delivery outcome. Compared to women delivering LGA babies, those delivering babies appropriate for gestational age exhibited significantly smaller rates of change and less variation in glucose levels between 180 days of gestation and birth. Conclusions. Use of innovative statistical methods enabled detection of gestational intervals in which blood glucose fluctuation parameters might influence the likelihood of delivering LGA baby in mothers with type 1 diabetes. Understanding dynamics and being able to visualize gestational changes in blood glucose are a potentially useful tool to assist care providers in determining the optimal timing to initiate continuous glucose monitoring.

  17. Magnetic field pitch angle and perpendicular velocity measurements from multi-point time-delay estimation of poloidal correlation reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisiazhniuk, D.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Conway, G. D.; Happel, T.; Lebschy, A.; Manz, P.; Nikolaeva, V.; Stroth, U.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-02-01

    In fusion machines, turbulent eddies are expected to be aligned with the direction of the magnetic field lines and to propagate in the perpendicular direction. Time delay measurements of density fluctuations can be used to calculate the magnetic field pitch angle α and perpendicular velocity {{v}\\bot} profiles. The method is applied to poloidal correlation reflectometry installed at ASDEX Upgrade and TEXTOR, which measure density fluctuations from poloidally and toroidally separated antennas. Validation of the method is achieved by comparing the perpendicular velocity (composed of the E× B drift and the phase velocity of turbulence {{v}\\bot}={{v}E× B}+{{v}\\text{ph}} ) with Doppler reflectometry measurements and with neoclassical {{v}E× B} calculations. An important condition for the application of the method is the presence of turbulence with a sufficiently long decorrelation time. It is shown that at the shear layer the decorrelation time is reduced, limiting the application of the method. The magnetic field pitch angle measured by this method shows the expected dependence on the magnetic field, plasma current and radial position. The profile of the pitch angle reproduces the expected shape and values. However, comparison with the equilibrium reconstruction code cliste suggests an additional inclination of turbulent eddies at the pedestal position (2-3°). This additional angle decreases towards the core and at the edge.

  18. Do you see what I hear? Vantage point preference and visual dominance in a time-space synaesthete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarick, Michelle; Stewart, Mark T; Smilek, Daniel; Dixon, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Time-space synaesthetes "see" time units organized in a spatial form. While the structure might be invariant for most synaesthetes, the perspective by which some view their calendar is somewhat flexible. One well-studied synaesthete L adopts different viewpoints for months seen vs. heard. Interestingly, L claims to prefer her auditory perspective, even though the month names are represented visually upside down. To verify this, we used a spatial-cueing task that included audiovisual month cues. These cues were either congruent with L's preferred "auditory" viewpoint (auditory-only and auditory + month inverted) or incongruent (upright visual-only and auditory + month upright). Our prediction was that L would show enhanced cueing effects (larger response time difference between valid and invalid targets) following the audiovisual congruent cues since both elicit the "preferred" auditory perspective. Also, when faced with conflicting cues, we predicted L would choose the preferred auditory perspective over the visual perspective. As we expected, L did show enhanced cueing effects following the audiovisual congruent cues that corresponded with her preferred auditory perspective, but that the visual perspective dominated when L was faced with both viewpoints simultaneously. The results are discussed with relation to the reification hypothesis of sequence space synaesthesia (Eagleman, 2009).

  19. [Marcus Aurelius Antonius (121-180AD), philosopher and Roman emperor, and Galen's plague].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sanz, Agustín

    2012-11-01

    The study of the aetiologies of diseases in Ancient Times is usually a speculative intellectual exercise. When some authors attribute a specific aetiology to an old disease, there is a great risk of committing a methodological error, known as presentism by the modern historiography. The authority of the investigator, more than the weight of the scientific truth, is usually the reason why the diagnosis has remained over the years. The great epidemic of the years 164-165AD and afterwards, could have been smallpox (haemorrhagic form). Claude Galen, the famous doctor, described the symptoms in several books of his great Opera Omnia. For this reason, it is currently known among the scholars as Galen's plague. The epidemic was described for the first time in Seleucia (Mesopotamia). Until now, the actual geographic origin is unknown. We propose here that the beginning might be the kingdom of the old Han dynasty (now the Chinese Popular Republic). The epidemic swept the Roman Empire, from the east to the west, and from the southern to the northern borders. An immediate consequence of the infection was a high morbidity and mortality. In this sense, Galen's epidemic was one of the many factors that caused the fall and destruction of the Roman Empire. On the other hand, there is a general agreement among historians, biographers and researchers that the philosopher emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (121-180AD was affected by the infection in the epidemic wave of 164-165AD. The death of Marcus Aurelius occurred on March 17 in the year 180AD, in Vindobonne, or perhaps Sirminium (near to Vienna). Many authors propose that the cause of the emperor's death was the same epidemic. We consider that it is not possible to demonstrate any of those speculative diagnoses. Finally, the epidemic of 189-190AD, that we have named of Commodus, was probably a different disease to the Galen's plague. There were several kinds of animals affected (anthropozoonoses). In this sense, this infection

  20. A Field Evaluation of the Time-of-Detection Method to Estimate Population Size and Density for Aural Avian Point Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew W. Alldredge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The time-of-detection method for aural avian point counts is a new method of estimating abundance, allowing for uncertain probability of detection. The method has been specifically designed to allow for variation in singing rates of birds. It involves dividing the time interval of the point count into several subintervals and recording the detection history of the subintervals when each bird sings. The method can be viewed as generating data equivalent to closed capture-recapture information. The method is different from the distance and multiple-observer methods in that it is not required that all the birds sing during the point count. As this method is new and there is some concern as to how well individual birds can be followed, we carried out a field test of the method using simulated known populations of singing birds, using a laptop computer to send signals to audio stations distributed around a point. The system mimics actual aural avian point counts, but also allows us to know the size and spatial distribution of the populations we are sampling. Fifty 8-min point counts (broken into four 2-min intervals using eight species of birds were simulated. Singing rate of an individual bird of a species was simulated following a Markovian process (singing bouts followed by periods of silence, which we felt was more realistic than a truly random process. The main emphasis of our paper is to compare results from species singing at (high and low homogenous rates per interval with those singing at (high and low heterogeneous rates. Population size was estimated accurately for the species simulated, with a high homogeneous probability of singing. Populations of simulated species with lower but homogeneous singing probabilities were somewhat underestimated. Populations of species simulated with heterogeneous singing probabilities were substantially underestimated. Underestimation was caused by both the very low detection probabilities of all distant

  1. Roman whetstone production in northern Gaul (Belgium and northern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Thiébaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the latest research on the production of Roman whetstones in northern Gaul. To date, little has been written about this specialised industry. However, three workshops producing whetstones were discovered recently in the north of Gaul in Buizingen (Province of Flemish Brabant, Belgium, Nereth (Province of Liège, Belgium and Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne (Department of Ardennes, France. Production debris and rough-outs recovered at these sites allowed us to reconstruct the operational sequence of manufacture, from the choice of raw material to the finished product. Technological studies enabled us to determine the production stages and highlight the similarities and differences between the three study areas. Analyses of the materials reveal the use of fine-grained sedimentary and low-grade metamorphic rocks outcropping near the workshops. All these rocks are linked to the Caledonian inliers of Brabant-London, Stavelot-Venn, and Rocroi. The large amount of waste found at Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne, far more than that recovered at Buizingen and Nereth, is indicative of the economic importance of this whetstone workshop. This importance is reflected in the fact that whetstones from Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne are distributed over a large area throughout Belgium, France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie and Champagne-Ardenne regions, Germany, and the Netherlands. This paper presents the waste and rough-outs from the three production sites. It also defines rock types and their origins and offers insights into whetstone manufacturing processes and techniques.

  2. Classifying and Visualising Roman Pottery using Computer-scanned Typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Christmas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available For many archaeological assemblages and type-series, accurate drawings of standardised pottery vessels have been recorded in consistent styles. This provides the opportunity to extract individual pot drawings and derive from them data that can be used for analysis and visualisation. Starting from PDF scans of the original pages of pot drawings, we have automated much of the process for locating, defining the boundaries, extracting and orientating each individual pot drawing. From these processed images, basic features such as width and height, the volume of the interior, the edges, and the shape of the cross-section outline are extracted and are then used to construct more complex features such as a measure of a pot's 'circularity'. Capturing these traits opens up new possibilities for (a classifying vessel form in a way that is sensitive to the physical characteristics of pots relative to other vessels in an assemblage, and (b visualising the results of quantifying assemblages using standard typologies. A frequently encountered problem when trying to compare pottery from different archaeological sites is that the pottery is classified into forms and labels using different standards. With a set of data from early Roman urban centres and related sites that has been labelled both with forms (e.g. 'platter' and 'bowl' and shape identifiers (based on the Camulodunum type-series, we use the extracted features from images to look both at how the pottery forms cluster for a given set of features, and at how the features may be used to compare finds from different sites.

  3. Time dependence of the field energy densities surrounding sources: Application to scalar mesons near point sources and to electromagnetic fields near molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persico, F.; Power, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The time dependence of the dressing-undressing process, i.e., the acquiring or losing by a source of a boson field intensity and hence of a field energy density in its neighborhood, is considered by examining some simple soluble models. First, the loss of the virtual field is followed in time when a point source is suddenly decoupled from a neutral scalar meson field. Second, an initially bare point source acquires a virtual meson cloud as the coupling is switched on. The third example is that of an initially bare molecule interacting with the vacuum of the electromagnetic field to acquire a virtual photon cloud. In all three cases the dressing-undressing is shown to take place within an expanding sphere of radius r = ct centered at the source. At each point in space the energy density tends, for large times, to that of the ground state of the total system. Differences in the time dependence of the dressing between the massive scalar field and the massless electromagnetic field are discussed. The results are also briefly discussed in the light of Feinberg's ideas on the nature of half-dressed states in quantum field theory

  4. Hydration status of Greco-Roman wrestlers in an authentic precompetition situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ööpik, Vahur; Timpmann, Saima; Burk, Andres; Hannus, Innar

    2013-06-01

    We assessed the urinary indexes of hydration status of Greco-Roman wrestlers in an authentic precompetition situation at the time of official weigh-in (OWI). A total of 51 of 89 wrestlers competing in the Estonian Championship in 2009 donated a urine sample. Questionnaire responses revealed that 27 wrestlers (body mass losers (BMLs)) reduced body mass before the competition, whereas 24 wrestlers (those who do not lose body mass (n-BMLs)) did not. In 42 wrestlers, values of urine specific gravity ≥1.020 and urine osmolality ≥700 mOsmol·kg(-1) revealed a hypohydrated status. The prevalence of hypohydration in the BMLs (96%) was higher than in the n-BMLs (67%) (χ(2) = 7.68; p 1.030) was 5.3 times greater (χ(2) = 8.32; p OWI. The prevalence of hypohydration and serious hypohydration is especially high among wrestlers who are accustomed to reducing body mass before competition. These results suggest that an effective rehydration strategy is needed for Olympic-style wrestlers, and that changes in wrestling rules should be considered to reduce the prevalence of harmful body mass management behaviours.

  5. The unsteady flow of a nanofluid in the stagnation point region of a time-dependent rotating sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvandi Amir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the unsteady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of nanofluid over a time-dependent rotating sphere where the free stream velocity varies continuously with time. The boundary layer equations were normalized via similarity variables and solved numerically. Best accuracy of the results has been obtained for regular fluid with previous studies. The nanofluid is treated as a two-component mixture (base fluid+nanoparticles that incorporates the effects of Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis simultaneously as the two most important mechanisms of slip velocity in laminar flows. Our outcomes indicated that as A and λ increase, surface shear stresses, heat transfer and concentration rates, climb up. Also, Increasing the thermophoresis Nt is found to decrease in the both values of heat transfer and concentration rates. This decrease supresses for higher thermophoresis number. In addition, it was observed that unlike the heat transfer rate, a rise in Brownian motion Nb, leads to an increase in concentration rate.

  6. Best single time point correlations with AUC for cyclosporine and tacrolimus in HIV-infected kidney and liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, Lynda A; Tan-Tam, Clara C; Barin, Burc; Browne, Matt; Wolfe, Alan R; Stock, Peter G; Roland, Michelle; Benet, Leslie Z

    2014-03-27

    Interactions between antiretrovirals (ARVs) and transplant immunosuppressant agents (IS) among HIV-infected transplant recipients may lead to lack of efficacy or toxicity. In transplant recipients not infected with HIV, tacrolimus (TAC) trough levels (C0) or cyclosporine (CsA) drawn at C0 or 2 hours after dosing (C2) correlate with drug exposure (area under the curve [AUC]/dose) and outcomes. Because of ARV-IS interactions in HIV-infected individuals, and the high rate of rejection in these subjects, this study investigated the correlations between IS concentrations and exposure to determine the best method to monitor immunosuppressant levels. This study prospectively studied 50 HIV-infected transplant recipients undergoing kidney or liver transplantation evaluating the pharmacokinetics of the IS in 150 studies over time after transplantation (weeks 2 to 4, 12, 28, 52, and 104). IS levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and AUC calculated using WinNonlin 9.0. Correlation analyses were run on SAS 9.2. CsA concentration at C4 correlated better with AUC than C0 or C2, and over time TAC concentration correlated better at C0 or C2. It is suggested that C0 is acceptable for TAC monitoring, but poor predictability will occur at C0 with CsA. The low correlation of C0 with CsA AUC could be responsible for the higher rejection rates on CsA that has been reported in these subjects.

  7. Remote Sensing of a Roman Pottery Workshop. Report on a Geophysical Survey Carried out in Crikvenica (Ancient Ad Turres, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welc Fabian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a geophysical survey conducted in Crikvenica, a town located at the north-eastern Adriatic Sea coast in Croatia. The main aim was to identify extent of a Roman pottery workshop discovered to the north of the present town, at the site known as “Igralište”. The performed magnetic and GPR surveys within the area of the modern playground in Crikvenica revealed a large number of anomalies that may be connected with anthropogenic activity during different periods, both in modern and ancient times. The first group consists of anomalies generated by remnants of the modern underground infrastructure. Magnetic and ground-penetrating radar maps revealed anomalies in the north-western part of the modern playground that can be very likely interpreted as remains of a large ceramic kiln dated back to the Roman Period, similar to the kiln discovered during the excavations located further to the north. Finally, the survey performed within the Crikvenica football stadium clearly indicates that the integration of different Ground Penetrating Radar and magnetic methods allows for a detailed and effective identification of buried archaeological structures in large areas.

  8. A seesaw in Mediterranean precipitation during the Roman Period linked to millennial-scale changes in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermody, B. J.; de Boer, H. J.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Weber, S. L.; Wassen, M. J.; Dekker, S. C.

    2012-03-01

    We present a reconstruction of the change in climatic humidity around the Mediterranean between 3000-1000 yr BP. Using a range of proxy archives and model simulations we demonstrate that climate during this period was typified by a millennial-scale seesaw in climatic humidity between Spain and Israel on one side and the Central Mediterranean and Turkey on the other, similar to precipitation anomalies associated with the East Atlantic/West Russia pattern in current climate. We find that changes in the position and intensity of the jet stream indicated by our analysis correlate with millennial changes in North Atlantic sea surface temperature. A model simulation indicates the proxies of climatic humidity used in our analysis were unlikely to be influenced by climatic aridification caused by deforestation during the Roman Period. That finding is supported by an analysis of the distribution of archaeological sites in the Eastern Mediterranean which exhibits no evidence that human habitation distribution changed since ancient times as a result of climatic aridification. Therefore we conclude that changes in climatic humidity over the Mediterranean during the Roman Period were primarily caused by a modification of the jet stream linked to sea surface temperature change in the North Atlantic. Based on our findings, we propose that ocean-atmosphere coupling may have contributed to regulating Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation intensity during the period of analysis.

  9. Quantifying [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the arterial wall: the effects of dual time-point imaging and partial volume effect correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, Bjoern A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense (Denmark); Bashyam, Arjun; Ramachandran, Abhinay; Gholami, Saeid; Houshmand, Sina; Salavati, Ali; Werner, Tom; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zaidi, Habib [Geneva University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    The human arterial wall is smaller than the spatial resolution of current positron emission tomographs. Therefore, partial volume effects should be considered when quantifying arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. We evaluated the impact of a novel method for partial volume effect (PVE) correction with contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) assistance on quantification of arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at different imaging time-points. Ten subjects were assessed by CECT imaging and dual time-point PET/CT imaging at approximately 60 and 180 min after {sup 18}F-FDG administration. For both time-points, uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG was determined in the aortic wall by calculating the blood pool-corrected maximum standardized uptake value (cSUV{sub MAX}) and cSUV{sub MEAN}. The PVE-corrected SUV{sub MEAN} (pvcSUV{sub MEAN}) was also calculated using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and CECT images. Finally, corresponding target-to-background ratios (TBR) were calculated. At 60 min, pvcSUV{sub MEAN} was on average 3.1 times greater than cSUV{sub MAX} (P <.0001) and 8.5 times greater than cSUV{sub MEAN} (P <.0001). At 180 min, pvcSUV{sub MEAN} was on average 2.6 times greater than cSUV{sub MAX} (P <.0001) and 6.6 times greater than cSUV{sub MEAN} (P <.0001). This study demonstrated that CECT-assisted PVE correction significantly influences quantification of arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Therefore, partial volume effects should be considered when quantifying arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake with PET. (orig.)

  10. Real-time computing of the environmental consequences of an atmospheric accidental release of radioactive material: user's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeri, G.; Caracciolo, R.; Dickerson, M.

    1985-07-01

    All calculations of the consequences of an atmospheric release must start with atmospheric dispersion calculations. Time factors make external and inhalation dose estimates of immediate concern closely followed by ground contamination of land, pastures and onch agricultural crops. In general, the difficulties in modeling the source term and atmospheric transport and diffusion account for most of the error in calculating the dose to man. Thus, sophisticated treatment of the dose part of the calculating is not usually justified, though the relative distribution of dose in individual organs may be needed for correct decision marking. This paper emphasizes the atmospheric transport and diffusion part of the dose estimate and relates how this calculation can be used to estimate dose. 12 refs

  11. Applicability of a Single Time Point Strategy for the Prediction of Area Under the Concentration Curve of Linezolid in Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R; Syed, Muzeeb

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Linezolid, a oxazolidinone, was the first in class to be approved for the treatment of bacterial infections arising from both susceptible and resistant strains of Gram-positive bacteria. Since overt exposure of linezolid may precipitate serious toxicity issues......, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may be required in certain situations, especially in patients who are prescribed other co-medications. Methods: Using appropriate oral pharmacokinetic data (single dose and steady state) for linezolid, both maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) versus area under the plasma...... concentration–time curve (AUC) and minimum plasma drug concentration (Cmin) versus AUC relationship was established by linear regression models. The predictions of the AUC values were performed using published mean/median Cmax or Cmin data and appropriate regression lines. The quotient of observed and predicted...

  12. Time-lapse analysis of methane quantity in Mary Lee group of coal seams using filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Coal seam degasification and its success are important for controlling methane, and thus for the health and safety of coal miners. During the course of degasification, properties of coal seams change. Thus, the changes in coal reservoir conditions and in-place gas content as well as methane emission potential into mines should be evaluated by examining time-dependent changes and the presence of major heterogeneities and geological discontinuities in the field. In this work, time-lapsed reservoir and fluid storage properties of the New Castle coal seam, Mary Lee/Blue Creek seam, and Jagger seam of Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, were determined from gas and water production history matching and production forecasting of vertical degasification wellbores. These properties were combined with isotherm and other important data to compute gas-in-place (GIP) and its change with time at borehole locations. Time-lapsed training images (TIs) of GIP and GIP difference corresponding to each coal and date were generated by using these point-wise data and Voronoi decomposition on the TI grid, which included faults as discontinuities for expansion of Voronoi regions. Filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulations, which were preferred in this study due to anisotropies and discontinuities in the area, were used to predict time-lapsed GIP distributions within the study area. Performed simulations were used for mapping spatial time-lapsed methane quantities as well as their uncertainties within the study area.

  13. Multiple Time-Point 68Ga-PSMA I&T PET/CT for Characterization of Primary Prostate Cancer: Value of Early Dynamic and Delayed Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Sebastian; Mamach, Martin; Wilke, Florian; von Klot, Christoph A; Henkenberens, Christoph; Thackeray, James T; Sohns, Jan M; Geworski, Lilli; Ross, Tobias L; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Christiansen, Hans; Bengel, Frank M; Derlin, Thorsten

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to gain mechanistic insights into prostate cancer biology using dynamic imaging and to evaluate the usefulness of multiple time-point Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) I&T PET/CT for the assessment of primary prostate cancer before prostatectomy. Twenty patients with prostate cancer underwent Ga-PSMA I&T PET/CT before prostatectomy. The PET protocol consisted of early dynamic pelvic imaging, followed by static scans at 60 and 180 minutes postinjection (p.i.). SUVs, time-activity curves, quantitative analysis based on a 2-tissue compartment model, Patlak analysis, histopathology, and Gleason grading were compared between prostate cancer and benign prostate gland. Primary tumors were identified on both early dynamic and delayed imaging in 95% of patients. Tracer uptake was significantly higher in prostate cancer compared with benign prostate tissue at any time point (P ≤ 0.0003) and increased over time. Consequently, the tumor-to-nontumor ratio within the prostate gland improved over time (2.8 at 10 minutes vs 17.1 at 180 minutes p.i.). Tracer uptake at both 60 and 180 minutes p.i. was significantly higher in patients with higher Gleason scores (P dynamic and static delayed Ga-PSMA ligand PET images. The tumor-to-nontumor ratio in the prostate gland improves over time, supporting a role of delayed imaging for optimal visualization of prostate cancer.

  14. The problem of the prediction of the time from the point of view of the mechanics and the physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerknes, V.

    2000-01-01

    Of being true, like each man that thinks scientifically that the later atmospheric states are developed of the previous, according to physical laws believes, then it can understand each other that the necessary and enough conditions for a rational solution of the problem of predict in meteorology they are these requirements: it is necessary to know with enough precision the state of the atmosphere in a given instant. It is necessary to know with enough precision the laws that govern the evolution of an atmospheric state toward another. The knowledge of the state of the atmosphere in appropriate instants, fixed by general agreement, is the task of the observational meteorology. For the purposes of a rational forecast of the time, the resolution of this task has not been sufficiently complete. There are two particularly sensitive lagoons. In the first place, the stations that contribute to maintain the service meteorological newspaper are located in earth. In the seas that four recruits of the terrestrial surface cover, and that therefore they exercise a rolling influence, observations are not still made in benefit of the service meteorological newspaper. Also, the observations that are processed for the regular services of meteorology only come from the surface of the soil, and it lacks all fact of the state of the superior layers of air. The technical means that will allow us to fill both lagoons are already in our power. With the help of the radiotelegraphy they will be included, in the environment of the stations, the steam ships with fixed routes, which can send meteorological telegrams daily. And with the big progresses of the aeronautical meteorology in the last years, it will be possible to carry out observations of the superior layers, from stations in surface and, on the sea, from stations steering wheels. It is necessary to wait, because that the time this to arrive in that will be able to prepare, either daily or in certain days, of a complete diagnose of

  15. Textural features and SUV-based variables assessed by dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT in locally advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vicente, Ana María; Molina, David; Pérez-Beteta, Julián; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Martínez-González, Alicia; Bueno, Gloria; Tello-Galán, María Jesús; Soriano-Castrejón, Ángel

    2017-12-01

    To study the influence of dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT in textural features and SUV-based variables and their relation among them. Fifty-six patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) were prospectively included. All of them underwent a standard 18F-FDG PET/CT (PET-1) and a delayed acquisition (PET-2). After segmentation, SUV variables (SUVmax, SUVmean, and SUVpeak), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were obtained. Eighteen three-dimensional (3D) textural measures were computed including: run-length matrices (RLM) features, co-occurrence matrices (CM) features, and energies. Differences between all PET-derived variables obtained in PET-1 and PET-2 were studied. Significant differences were found between the SUV-based parameters and MTV obtained in the dual time point PET/CT, with higher values of SUV-based variables and lower MTV in the PET-2 with respect to the PET-1. In relation with the textural parameters obtained in dual time point acquisition, significant differences were found for the short run emphasis, low gray-level run emphasis, short run high gray-level emphasis, run percentage, long run emphasis, gray-level non-uniformity, homogeneity, and dissimilarity. Textural variables showed relations with MTV and TLG. Significant differences of textural features were found in dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT. Thus, a dynamic behavior of metabolic characteristics should be expected, with higher heterogeneity in delayed PET acquisition compared with the standard PET. A greater heterogeneity was found in bigger tumors.

  16. Hypovitamininosis D in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Importance of Vitamin D Supplementation and Measurement Over Different Points of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Ashraf; Kandil, Shaimaa; Boujettif, Khadijah; Fayea, Najwa

    2018-03-01

    This observational retrospective cross-sectional and case-controlled study measures levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-VD) in pediatric cancer survivors at different intervals and assesses the effect of 2 supplementation regimens over a period of 12 months. Sixty-eight patients were included in this quasi-experimental study, of which 32 were boys and 36 were girls. A control group of 30 healthy children were included. It was found that initial 25-OH-VD levels were insufficient (vitamin D during the 12 months in comparison with patients supplemented with 1000 IU/day. Our findings indicate that pediatric cancer survivors who require frequent monitoring of their 25-OH-VD levels yielded better results when supplemented with higher doses of vitamin D over longer periods of time. A course of oral vitamin D supplementation regimen of 50,000 IU/month gave effective results with excellent compliance and no reports of any adverse or harmful effects.

  17. Pb enamel biomarker: Deposition of pre- and postnatal Pb isotope injection in reconstructed time points along rat enamel transect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderknecht, A.L.; Kleinman, M.T.; Ericson, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) as well as other heavy metals in the environment is still a matter of public health concern. The development of the enamel biomarker for heavy metal exposure assessment is designed to improve studies of dose-effect relationships to developmental anomalies, particularly embryonic dysfunctions, and to provide a time-specific recount of past exposures. The work presented in this paper demonstrates maternal transfer across the placental barrier of the enriched isotope 206 Pb tracer to the enamel of the rat pup. Likewise, injections of 204 Pb-enriched tracer in the neonate rat resulted in deposition of the tracer in the enamel histology as measured by secondary ion microprobe spectrometry. Through enamel, we were able to observe biological removal and assimilation of prenatal and postnatal tracers, respectively. This research demonstrates that enamel can be used as a biomarker of exposure to Pb and may illustrate the toxicokinetics of incorporating Pb into fetal and neonatal steady-state system processes. The biomarker technique, when completely developed, may be applied to cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological research

  18. Multiple memory systems, multiple time points: how science can inform treatment to control the expression of unwanted emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Renée M; Lau-Zhu, Alex; Henson, Richard N; Holmes, Emily A

    2018-03-19

    Memories that have strong emotions associated with them are particularly resilient to forgetting. This is not necessarily problematic, however some aspects of memory can be. In particular, the involuntary expression of those memories, e.g. intrusive memories after trauma, are core to certain psychological disorders. Since the beginning of this century, research using animal models shows that it is possible to change the underlying memory, for example by interfering with its consolidation or reconsolidation. While the idea of targeting maladaptive memories is promising for the treatment of stress and anxiety disorders, a direct application of the procedures used in non-human animals to humans in clinical settings is not straightforward. In translational research, more attention needs to be paid to specifying what aspect of memory (i) can be modified and (ii) should be modified. This requires a clear conceptualization of what aspect of memory is being targeted, and how different memory expressions may map onto clinical symptoms. Furthermore, memory processes are dynamic, so procedural details concerning timing are crucial when implementing a treatment and when assessing its effectiveness. To target emotional memory in its full complexity, including its malleability, science cannot rely on a single method, species or paradigm. Rather, a constructive dialogue is needed between multiple levels of research, all the way 'from mice to mental health'.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Of mice and mental health: facilitating dialogue between basic and clinical neuroscientists'. © 2018 The Authors.

  19. Extended Fitts' model of pointing time in eye-gaze input system - Incorporating effects of target shape and movement direction into modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Atsuo; Fukunaga, Daichi

    2018-04-01

    This study attempted to investigate the effects of the target shape and the movement direction on the pointing time using an eye-gaze input system and extend Fitts' model so that these factors are incorporated into the model and the predictive power of Fitts' model is enhanced. The target shape, the target size, the movement distance, and the direction of target presentation were set as within-subject experimental variables. The target shape included: a circle, and rectangles with an aspect ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4. The movement direction included eight directions: upper, lower, left, right, upper left, upper right, lower left, and lower right. On the basis of the data for identifying the effects of the target shape and the movement direction on the pointing time, an attempt was made to develop a generalized and extended Fitts' model that took into account the movement direction and the target shape. As a result, the generalized and extended model was found to fit better to the experimental data, and be more effective for predicting the pointing time for a variety of human-computer interaction (HCI) task using an eye-gaze input system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Property Analysis of the Real-Time Uncalibrated Phase Delay Product Generated by Regional Reference Stations and Its Influence on Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The real-time estimation of the wide-lane and narrow-lane Uncalibrated Phase Delay (UPD of satellites is realized by real-time data received from regional reference station networks; The properties of the real-time UPD product and its influence on real-time precise point positioning ambiguity resolution (RTPPP-AR are experimentally analyzed according to real-time data obtained from the regional Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS network located in Tianjin, Shanghai, Hong Kong, etc. The results show that the real-time wide-lane and narrow-lane UPD products differ significantly from each other in time-domain characteristics; the wide-lane UPDs have daily stability, with a change rate of less than 0.1 cycle/day, while the narrow-lane UPDs have short-term stability, with significant change in one day. The UPD products generated by different regional networks have obvious spatial characteristics, thus significantly influencing RTPPP-AR: the adoption of real-time UPD products employing the sparse stations in the regional network for estimation is favorable for improving the regional RTPPP-AR up to 99%; the real-time UPD products of different regional networks slightly influence PPP-AR positioning accuracy. After ambiguities are successfully fixed, the real-time dynamic RTPPP-AR positioning accuracy is better than 3 cm in the plane and 8 cm in the upward direction.