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Sample records for points higher iq

  1. Cannabis users have higher premorbid IQ than other patients with first onset psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Laura; Russo, Manuela; O'Connor, Jennifer; Wiffen, Benjamin D R; Falcone, Maria Aurora; Sideli, Lucia; Gardner-Sood, Poonam; Stilo, Simona; Trotta, Antonella; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Taylor, Heather; Friedman, Bess; Sallis, Hannah; La Cascia, Caterina; La Barbera, Daniele; David, Anthony S; Reichenberg, Abraham; Murray, Robin M; Di Forti, Marta

    2013-10-01

    A number of studies have reported that patients with psychosis who use cannabis have better cognitive performance than those who do not. This is surprising as cannabis can impair cognition in healthy subjects. An obvious question is whether the better current performance of psychotic patients who have used cannabis is a reflection of their having a higher premorbid IQ than those psychotic patients who haven't used cannabis. In a sample of patients at their first episode of psychosis, we tested the hypothesis that patients who smoked cannabis would have a higher premorbid IQ than patients who did not. 279 participants (119 patients and 160 healthy controls) were assessed in order to obtain current and premorbid IQ measures and detailed information on cannabis use. We examined the association between cannabis use and both premorbid and current IQ in patients and controls. Patients who had ever smoked cannabis had significantly higher current (pIQ (p=.004) compared to patients who had never used cannabis. This difference was not found among controls. These findings suggest that the better cognitive performance of patients with their first episode of psychosis who have used cannabis compared with those who haven't is due to the better premorbid IQ of the former. © 2013.

  2. Education is associated with higher later life IQ scores, but not with faster cognitive processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C; Der, Geoff; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2013-06-01

    Recent reports suggest a causal relationship between education and IQ, which has implications for cognitive development and aging-education may improve cognitive reserve. In two longitudinal cohorts, we tested the association between education and lifetime cognitive change. We then tested whether education is linked to improved scores on processing-speed variables such as reaction time, which are associated with both IQ and longevity. Controlling for childhood IQ score, we found that education was positively associated with IQ at ages 79 (Sample 1) and 70 (Sample 2), and more strongly for participants with lower initial IQ scores. Education, however, showed no significant association with processing speed, measured at ages 83 and 70. Increased education may enhance important later life cognitive capacities, but does not appear to improve more fundamental aspects of cognitive processing. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Improved behavior after adenotonsillectomy in children with higher and lower IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seockhoon; Hodges, Elise K; Ruzicka, Deborah L; Hoban, Timothy F; Garetz, Susan L; Guire, Kenneth E; Felt, Barbara T; Dillon, James E; Chervin, Ronald D; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether high intellectual ability, in comparison to average or lower performance, reflects the consequences of sleep-disordered breathing and limits behavioral benefit observed 6 months after adenotonsillectomy. Children aged 3-12 years (n=147) recruited from otolaryngology practices at two hospitals and assessed with Conners' Parent Rating Scales and an age range-appropriate intellectual measure, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale at baseline and 6 months after clinically-indicated adenotonsillectomy. Subjects were classified as having high (IQ≥110), average (90≤IQIQIQ groups (main effects for time, all pIQ group interactions). The magnitude of behavioral improvement among children with high IQ resembled that observed among the other two groups. Changes in the Conners' domains were not significantly correlated with baseline IQ, age, socioeconomic status, body mass index z-score, or respiratory disturbance index. Behavioral function can improve after adenotonsillectomy even among children with relatively high intellectual ability at baseline. Diagnosis and treatment with expectation of neurobehavioral benefit should be considered among high-performing children as readily as it is more traditionally among their lower-performing peers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. IQ and schizophrenia in a Swedish national sample: their causal relationship and the interaction of IQ with genetic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-03-01

    The authors sought to clarify the relationship between IQ and subsequent risk for schizophrenia. IQ was assessed at ages 18-20 in 1,204,983 Swedish males born between 1951 and 1975. Schizophrenia was assessed by hospital diagnosis through 2010. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate future risk for schizophrenia in individuals as a function of their IQ score, and then stratified models using pairs of relatives were used to adjust for familial cluster. Finally, regression models were used to examine the interaction between IQ and genetic liability on risk for schizophrenia. IQ had a monotonic relationship with schizophrenia risk across the IQ range, with a mean increase in risk of 3.8% per 1-point decrease in IQ; this association was stronger in the lower than the higher IQ range. Co-relative control analyses showed a similar association between IQ and schizophrenia in the general population and in cousin, half-sibling, and full-sibling pairs. A robust interaction was seen between genetic liability to schizophrenia and IQ in predicting schizophrenia risk. Genetic susceptibility for schizophrenia had a much stronger impact on risk of illness for those with low than high intelligence. The IQ-genetic liability interaction arose largely from IQ differences between close relatives. IQ assessed in late adolescence is a robust risk factor for subsequent onset of schizophrenia. This association is not the result of a declining IQ associated with insidious onset. In this large, representative sample, we found no evidence for a link between genius and schizophrenia. Co-relative control analyses showed that the association between lower IQ and schizophrenia is not the result of shared familial risk factors and may be causal. The strongest effect was seen with IQ differences within families. High intelligence substantially attenuates the impact of genetic liability on the risk for schizophrenia.

  5. Right-handers have negligibly higher IQ scores than left-handers: Systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntolka, Eleni; Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between intelligence and handedness remains a matter of debate. The present study is a systematic review of 36 studies (totaling 66,108 individuals), which have measured full IQ scores in different handedness groups. Eighteen of those studies were further included in three sets of meta-analyses (totaling 20,442 individuals), which investigated differences in standardized mean IQ scores in (i) left-handers, (ii) non-right-handers, and (iii) mixed-handers compared to right-handers. The bulk of the studies included in the systematic review reported no differences in IQ scores between left- and right-handers. In the meta-analyses, statistically significant differences in mean IQ scores were detected between right-handers and left-handers, but were marginal in magnitude (d=-0.07); the data sets were found to be homogeneous. Significance was lost when the largest study was excluded. No differences in mean IQ scores were found between right-handers and non-right-handers as well as between right-handers and mixed-handers. No sex differences were found. Overall, the intelligence differences between handedness groups in the general population are negligible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Racial IQ Differences among Transracial Adoptees: Fact or Artifact?

    OpenAIRE

    Drew Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Some academic publications infer from studies of transracial adoptees’ IQs that East Asian adoptees raised in the West by Whites have higher IQs than Western Whites, and that White adoptees raised by Whites have higher IQs than Black adoptees raised by Whites. Those publications suggest that this is because genetic differences give East Asians a higher mean IQ than Whites, and Whites a higher mean IQ than Blacks. This paper proposes a parsimonious alternative explanation: the apparent IQ adva...

  7. Stanford-Binet & WAIS IQ Differences and Their Implications for Adults with Intellectual Disability (aka Mental Retardation)

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Wayne; Miezejeski, Charles; Ryan, Robert; Zigman, Warren; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon; Urv, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) IQs were compared for a group of 74 adults with intellectual disability (ID). In every case, WAIS Full Scale IQ was higher than the Stanford-Binet Composite IQ, with a mean difference of 16.7 points. These differences did not appear to be due to the lower minimum possible score for the Stanford-Binet. Additional comparisons with other measures suggested that the WAIS might systematically underestimate severity of intellectual impairm...

  8. GUT precursors and fixed points in higher-dimensional theories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    context of high-scale gauge coupling unification. More generally, our results also suggest that it is possible to construct self-consistent 'hybrid' models containing widely separated energy scales, and give rise to a Kaluza-Klein realization of non-trivial fixed points in higher-dimensional gauge theories. Keywords. Unification ...

  9. Maternal IQ, child IQ, behavior, and achievement in urban 5-7 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aimin; Schwarz, Donald; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J

    2006-03-01

    In one study of children in 27 families with maternal retardation, those children with higher intelligence quotient (IQ) were more likely to have multiple behavior problems than those with lower IQ. If true, this result would affect clinical practice, but it has not been replicated. Because the setting of the initial observation is similar to the setting of childhood lead poisoning, we attempted a replication using data from the Treatment of Lead-Exposed Children (TLC) study, in which 780 children aged 12-33 mo with blood lead levels 20-44 microg/dL were randomized to either succimer treatment or placebo and then followed up to 5 y. Of 656 mothers of TLC children with IQ measured, 113 demonstrated mental retardation (IQ IQ was or=70, children with IQ >or=85 were rated more favorably on cognitive tests and behavioral questionnaires than children with IQ age 5, the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment at ages 5 and 7, and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children at age 7. Among children of mothers with IQ IQ >or=85 did not show more severe clinical behavioral problems, nor were they more likely to show multiple behavior problems. Children with higher IQ have fewer behavior problems, irrespective of the mother's IQ. In the special setting of mothers with IQ IQ are not at greater risk of behavior problems.

  10. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in Congenital Strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Abbas; Fallahi, Mohammad Reza; Tamannaifard, Shima; Vajebmonfared, Sara; Zonozian, Saideh

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate intelligence quotient (IQ) in patients with congenital strabismus. All patients with congenital strabismus scheduled for surgery were enrolled consecutively over a one year period in a cross-sectional study and were evaluated for verbal, performance and total IQ scores, and compared to the mean normal IQ of 100±15. During the study period, 109 patients with mean age of 18.4±10.5 (range, 4-63) years were included. Educational status in most patients (80%) was less than high-school. Most patients (80%) lived in urban areas and 46 patients (42.2%) had some degrees of unilateral or bilateral amblyopia. Mean verbal IQ was 87.2±19.6 (range, 45-127), performance IQ was 81±15.5 (range, 44-111) and total IQ was 83.5±18.3 (range, 40-120). Total IQ was significantly lower in comparison to the normal population (PIQ levels. Verbal IQ was insignificantly higher in myopes than emmetropes and hyperopes. IQ was better with vertical deviations and was higher in esotropes than exotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05 for all comparisons). Patients with congenital strabismus in this study had lower mean IQ scores than the normal population which may be due to genetic background or acquired causes secondary to strabismus.

  11. National Drug IQ Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Drug IQ Challenge 2017 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2016 National Drug IQ Challenge 2016 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2015 ...

  12. IQ and adolescent self-harm behaviours in the ALSPAC birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Heron, Jon; Kidger, Judi; Lewis, Glyn; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Low IQ is associated with an increased risk of suicide and suicide attempt in adults, but less is known about the relationship between IQ and aspects of suicidal/self-harm behaviours in adolescence. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a population-based prospective UK cohort. Binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the association of IQ measured at age 8 with suicide-related outcomes amongst 4810 adolescents aged 16-17 years. There was some evidence that associations differed in boys and girls (p values for interaction ranged between 0.06 and 0.25). In boys higher IQ was associated with increased risk of suicidal thoughts (adjusted odds ratio per 10 point increase in IQ score=1.14, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.01-1.28) and suicidal plans (1.15, 95% CI 0.93-1.43), although statistical evidence for the latter association was limited. There was also evidence for an association with non-suicidal self-harm (1.24, 95% CI 1.08-1.45) but not suicidal self-harm (1.04, 95% CI 0.86-1.25). In girls higher IQ was associated with increased risk of non-suicidal self-harm (1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.22) but not suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans or suicidal self-harm. Loss to follow up and questionnaire non-response may have led to selection bias. In contrast to previous studies of IQ-suicide associations in adults, we found that higher IQ was associated with an increased risk of non-suicidal self-harm in male and female adolescents and suicidal thoughts in males. Associations of IQ with self-harm differed for self-harm with and without suicidal intent, suggesting that the aetiology of these behaviours may differ. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Overcharging higher-dimensional black holes with point particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelar, Karl Simon; Vega, Ian

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the possibility of overcharging spherically symmetric black holes in spacetime dimensions D >4 by the capture of a charged particle. We generalize Wald's classic result that extremal black holes cannot be overcharged. For nearly extremal black holes, we also generalize Hubeny's scenario by showing that overcharging is possible in a small region of parameter space. We check how D affects the overcharging parameter space and find that this appears to shrink in the large-D limit, which suggests that overcharging becomes increasingly difficult in higher dimensions.

  14. LEARNING POINTS FROM WHISTLEBLOWER CLAIMS AGAINST INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Schmidt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The types of whistleblowing claims made against institutions of higher education are not well understood nor are the various mechanisms used to solicit, investigate, and learn from such claims at the institutional and state levels. This research obtained and analyzed whistleblower claims made against institutions of higher education and explores and facilitates a discussion around the value of learning opportunities that come from whistleblowing claims. Aggregate claims data and detail workpapers for claims made against the 45 publicly funded colleges and universities in the state of Ohio, in the midwestern United States was analyzed to identify patterns and areas of focus which could improve institutional processes and internal controls. Four areas resulted from the analysis: hiring and pay practices, prevention of the theft of institutional assets, prevention of the theft of student funds, and an institutional accreditation issue. All claims that were reported reflected real concerns on topics of strategic importance to institutions and their management practices, although not all were substantiated or corroborated. One quarter of the claims resulted in proven cases for recovery and prosecution. At the state level, completeness of investigation and administrative learning were sometimes not pursued due to the code enforcement nature of the governing bodies whose mandate was limited to the identification and prosecution of crimes, although improvement opportunities clearly existed. The case of Ohio demonstrates that open government and public information request processes can provide sufficient information to allow insight into the nature of the claims and to identify improvement opportunities for both the institution and state level administration.

  15. Are Shunt Revisions Associated with IQ in Congenital Hydrocephalus? A Meta -Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, C Nikki; Ware, Ashley L; Ahmed, Yusra; Kulesz, Paulina A; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M

    2016-12-01

    Although it is generally acknowledged that shunt revisions are associated with reductions in cognitive functions in individuals with congenital hydrocephalus, the literature yields mixed results and is inconclusive. The current study used meta-analytic methods to empirically synthesize studies addressing the association of shunt revisions and IQ in individuals with congenital hydrocephalus. Six studies and three in-house datasets yielded 11 independent samples for meta-analysis. Groups representing lower and higher numbers of shunt revisions were coded to generate effect sizes for differences in IQ scores. Mean effect size across studies was statistically significant, but small (Hedges' g = 0.25, p IQ scores. Results show an association of lower IQ and more shunt revisions of about 3 IQ points, a small effect, but within the error of measurement associated with IQ tests. Although clinical significance of this effect is not clear, results suggest that repeated shunt revisions because of shunt failure is associated with a reduction in cognitive functions.

  16. Glue ear, hearing loss and IQ: an association moderated by the child's home environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Hall

    Full Text Available Glue ear or otitis media with effusion (OME is common in children and may be associated with hearing loss (HL. For most children it has no long lasting effects on cognitive development but it is unclear whether there are subgroups at higher risk of sequelae.To examine the association between a score comprising the number of times a child had OME and HL (OME/HL score in the first four/five years of life and IQ at age 4 and 8. To examine whether any association between OME/HL and IQ is moderated by socioeconomic, child or family factors.Prospective, longitudinal cohort study: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. 1155 children tested using tympanometry on up to nine occasions and hearing for speech (word recognition on up to three occasions between age 8 months and 5 years. An OME/HL score was created and associations with IQ at ages 4 and 8 were examined. Potential moderators included a measure of the child's cognitive stimulation at home (HOME score.For the whole sample at age 4 the group with the highest 10% OME/HL scores had performance IQ 5 points lower [95% CI -9, -1] and verbal IQ 6 points lower [95% CI -10, -3] than the unaffected group. By age 8 the evidence for group differences was weak. There were significant interactions between OME/HL and the HOME score: those with high OME/HL scores and low 18 month HOME scores had lower IQ at age 4 and 8 than those with high OME/HL scores and high HOME scores. Adjusted mean differences ranged from 5 to 8 IQ points at age 4 and 8.The cognitive development of children from homes with lower levels of cognitive stimulation is susceptible to the effects of glue ear and hearing loss.

  17. Glue Ear, Hearing Loss and IQ: An Association Moderated by the Child’s Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda J.; Maw, Richard; Midgley, Elizabeth; Golding, Jean; Steer, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Background Glue ear or otitis media with effusion (OME) is common in children and may be associated with hearing loss (HL). For most children it has no long lasting effects on cognitive development but it is unclear whether there are subgroups at higher risk of sequelae. Objectives To examine the association between a score comprising the number of times a child had OME and HL (OME/HL score) in the first four/five years of life and IQ at age 4 and 8. To examine whether any association between OME/HL and IQ is moderated by socioeconomic, child or family factors. Methods Prospective, longitudinal cohort study: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). 1155 children tested using tympanometry on up to nine occasions and hearing for speech (word recognition) on up to three occasions between age 8 months and 5 years. An OME/HL score was created and associations with IQ at ages 4 and 8 were examined. Potential moderators included a measure of the child’s cognitive stimulation at home (HOME score). Results For the whole sample at age 4 the group with the highest 10% OME/HL scores had performance IQ 5 points lower [95% CI −9, −1] and verbal IQ 6 points lower [95% CI −10, −3] than the unaffected group. By age 8 the evidence for group differences was weak. There were significant interactions between OME/HL and the HOME score: those with high OME/HL scores and low 18 month HOME scores had lower IQ at age 4 and 8 than those with high OME/HL scores and high HOME scores. Adjusted mean differences ranged from 5 to 8 IQ points at age 4 and 8. Conclusions The cognitive development of children from homes with lower levels of cognitive stimulation is susceptible to the effects of glue ear and hearing loss. PMID:24498289

  18. Racial IQ Differences among Transracial Adoptees: Fact or Artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Some academic publications infer from studies of transracial adoptees’ IQs that East Asian adoptees raised in the West by Whites have higher IQs than Western Whites, and that White adoptees raised by Whites have higher IQs than Black adoptees raised by Whites. Those publications suggest that this is because genetic differences give East Asians a higher mean IQ than Whites, and Whites a higher mean IQ than Blacks. This paper proposes a parsimonious alternative explanation: the apparent IQ advantage of East Asian adoptees is an artifact caused by ignoring the Flynn effect and adoption’s beneficial effect on IQ, and most of the IQ disadvantage of Black adoptees disappears when one allows for attrition in the Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study, and acknowledges the results of other studies. Diagnosing these artifacts suggests a nil hypothesis: East Asian, White, and Black adoptees raised in the same environment would have similar IQs, hinting at a minimal role for genes in racial IQ differences.

  19. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Jul 5,2017 Begin the quiz Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Atherosclerosis What Your Cholesterol ...

  20. Does the IQ God Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Linda S.

    1995-01-01

    Responds to "The Bell Curve" by arguing that IQ is merely a statistical fiction, an artificial construct not corresponding to any real entity. Discusses the "seductive statistical trap of factor analysis" as it relates to IQ tests, multiple intelligences, content and bias of IQ tests, lack of validity of IQ tests for individual…

  1. IQ with limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Isolde Woittiez; Michiel Ras; Debbie Oudijk

    2012-01-01

    Original title: IQ met beperkingen Demand for care for people with intellectual disabilities has grown sharply in the Netherlands in recent years. Earlier reports by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP have described the number of persons with intellectual disabilities who apply for care. Partly at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, the analyses in this report have been extended to include data on the IQ of persons with intellectual disabilities who ...

  2. An auto-bias control scheme for IQ-modulator with various modulation formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenqi; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yang'an

    2016-10-01

    We propose and demonstrate an auto-bias control scheme for the IQ-modulator of a flexible optical PSK or QAM or other modulation formats transmitter in this paper. Due to IQ-modulators usually producing higher-order modulation format, these modulation formats involve phase mostly. It is based on that the bias drift will change the operating point and result in varying the output optical phase. This technology has no restrictions on modulation formats, so it has good flexibility. The experimental result show the three biases can be stabilized when the proposed scheme is implemented.

  3. Do attention deficits influence IQ assessment in children and adolescents with ADHD?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt M; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the relationship between IQ and attention deficits in children with ADHD and to estimate the inattention-related mean influence on IQ when children are tested before stimulant drug treatment has been initiated. METHOD: Studies of various methodologies are reviewed....... RESULTS: Correlation studies show mostly weak associations between IQ scores and attention deficits. Meta-analyses report the average short-term stimulant treatment effect on IQ in children with ADHD to be 2 to 7 IQ points. CONCLUSION: The associations between IQ and attention deficits in ADHD...

  4. Testosterone metabolism: a possible biological underpinning of non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdiaková, Jaroslava; Celec, Peter; Laznibatová, Jolana; Minárik, Gabriel; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The extraordinary giftedness is apparently a unique manifestation of a mutual interconnection between genes and environment. One of the possible etiological factors of intellectual giftedness is testosterone which is believed to affect the brain organization and function. The aim of our study was to analyze associations between 2D:4D digit ratio (a proxy of prenatal testosterone) and/or salivary testosterone levels with non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls. Fifty-one girls with an age range of 10 to18 years and IQ scores higher than 130 were tested. Saliva samples were collected to obtain levels of salivary testosterone. 2D:4D digit ratio was measured on both hands as an indicator of prenatal testosterone. IQ parameters were assessed employing standardized set of tests. The CAG repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene was analyzed to assess the sensitivity of androgen receptor. Testing of between-subjects effects proved significant interactions between right and left 2D:4D ratio, genetic variability in androgen receptor, and also salivary testosterone level with non-verbal IQ in gifted girls. Our results point out that the variability in parameters of androgenicity contributes to the variability of nonverbal IQ in gifted girls. However, the exact molecular mechanism of how testosterone acts on the brain and affects this cognitive domain remains still unclear.

  5. IQ with limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isolde Woittiez; Michiel Ras; Debbie Oudijk

    2012-01-01

    Original title: IQ met beperkingen Demand for care for people with intellectual disabilities has grown sharply in the Netherlands in recent years. Earlier reports by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP have described the number of persons with intellectual disabilities who apply

  6. Dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months of age are associated with IQ at 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Lisa G; Golley, Rebecca K; Mittinty, Murthy N; Brazionis, Laima; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Lynch, John W

    2012-07-01

    Diet supplies the nutrients needed for the development of neural tissues that occurs over the first 2 years of life. Our aim was to examine associations between dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 8 years. Participants were enrolled in an observational birth cohort (ALSPAC study, n = 7,097). Dietary data was collected by questionnaire and patterns were extracted at each time using principal component analysis. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at 8 years. Associations between dietary patterns and IQ were examined in regression analyses adjusted for potential confounding and by propensity score matching, with data imputation for missing values. At all ages, higher scores on a Discretionary pattern (characterized by biscuits, chocolate, sweets, soda, crisps) were associated with 1-2 point lower IQ. A Breastfeeding pattern at 6 months and Home-made contemporary patterns at 15 and 24 months (herbs, legumes, cheese, raw fruit and vegetables) were associated with 1-to-2 point higher IQ. A Home-made traditional pattern (meat, cooked vegetables, desserts) at 6 months was positively associated with higher IQ scores, but there was no association with similar patterns at 15 or 24 months. Negative associations were found with patterns characterized by Ready-prepared baby foods at 6 and 15 months and positive associations with a Ready-to-eat foods pattern at 24 months. Propensity score analyses were consistent with regression analyses. This study suggests that dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months may have a small but persistent effect on IQ at 8 years.

  7. Nearly Ternary Quadratic Higher Derivations on Non-Archimedean Ternary Banach Algebras: A Fixed Point Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eshaghi Gordji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the stability and superstability of ternary quadratic higher derivations in non-Archimedean ternary algebras by using a version of fixed point theorem via quadratic functional equation.

  8. Childhood IQ and risk of bipolar disorder in adulthood: prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel J; Anderson, Jana; Zammit, Stanley; Meyer, Thomas D; Pell, Jill P; Mackay, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Intellectual ability may be an endophenotypic marker for bipolar disorder. Within a large birth cohort, we aimed to assess whether childhood IQ (including both verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) subscales) was predictive of lifetime features of bipolar disorder assessed in young adulthood. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a large UK birth cohort, to test for an association between measures of childhood IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features assessed at age 22-23 years using the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32; n =1881 individuals). An ordinary least squares linear regression model was used, with normal childhood IQ (range 90-109) as the referent group. We adjusted analyses for confounding factors, including gender, ethnicity, handedness, maternal social class at recruitment, maternal age, maternal history of depression and maternal education. There was a positive association between IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features at age 22-23 years (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.159 (95% CI 0.120-0.198), P >0.001). Individuals in the lowest decile of manic features had a mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ) which was almost 10 points lower than those in the highest decile of manic features: mean FSIQ 100.71 (95% CI 98.74-102.6) v . 110.14 (95% CI 107.79-112.50), P >0.001. The association between IQ and manic features was present for FSIQ, VIQ and for PIQ but was strongest for VIQ. A higher childhood IQ score, and high VIQ in particular, may represent a marker of risk for the later development of bipolar disorder. This finding has implications for understanding of how liability to bipolar disorder may have been selected through generations. It will also inform future genetic studies at the interface of intelligence, creativity and bipolar disorder and is relevant to the developmental trajectory of bipolar disorder. It may also improve approaches to earlier detection and treatment of bipolar disorder in adolescents

  9. N-point and higher-genus osp(1|2) fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Joergen

    2003-01-01

    We study affine osp(1|2) fusion, the fusion in osp(1|2) conformal field theory, for example. Higher-point and higher-genus fusion is discussed. The fusion multiplicities are characterized as discretized volumes of certain convex polytopes, and are written explicitly as multiple sums measuring those volumes. We extend recent methods developed to treat affine su(2) fusion. They are based on the concept of generalized Berenstein-Zelevinsky triangles and virtual couplings. Higher-point tensor products of finite-dimensional irreducible osp(1|2) representations are also considered. The associated multiplicities are computed and written as multiple sums

  10. Three Point Functions in Higher Spin AdS3 Holography with 1/N Corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Hikida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine three point functions with two scalar operators and a higher spin current in 2d W N minimal model to the next non-trivial order in 1 / N expansion. The minimal model was proposed to be dual to a 3d higher spin gauge theory, and 1 / N corrections should be interpreted as quantum effects in the dual gravity theory. We develop a simple and systematic method to obtain three point functions by decomposing four point functions of scalar operators with Virasoro conformal blocks. Applying the method, we reproduce known results at the leading order in 1 / N and obtain new ones at the next leading order. As confirmation, we check that our results satisfy relations among three point functions conjectured before.

  11. Power-law scaling of extreme dynamics near higher-order exceptional points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Q.; Christodoulides, D. N.; Khajavikhan, M.; Makris, K. G.; El-Ganainy, R.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the extreme dynamics of non-Hermitian systems near higher-order exceptional points in photonic networks constructed using the bosonic algebra method. We show that strong power oscillations for certain initial conditions can occur as a result of the peculiar eigenspace geometry and its dimensionality collapse near these singularities. By using complementary numerical and analytical approaches, we show that, in the parity-time (PT ) phase near exceptional points, the logarithm of the maximum optical power amplification scales linearly with the order of the exceptional point. We focus in our discussion on photonic systems, but we note that our results apply to other physical systems as well.

  12. Higher-order triangular spectral element method with optimized cubature points for seismic wavefield modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Youshan, E-mail: ysliu@mail.iggcas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029 (China); Teng, Jiwen, E-mail: jwteng@mail.iggcas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029 (China); Xu, Tao, E-mail: xutao@mail.iggcas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Beijing, 100101 (China); Badal, José, E-mail: badal@unizar.es [Physics of the Earth, Sciences B, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2017-05-01

    The mass-lumped method avoids the cost of inverting the mass matrix and simultaneously maintains spatial accuracy by adopting additional interior integration points, known as cubature points. To date, such points are only known analytically in tensor domains, such as quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Thus, the diagonal-mass-matrix spectral element method (SEM) in non-tensor domains always relies on numerically computed interpolation points or quadrature points. However, only the cubature points for degrees 1 to 6 are known, which is the reason that we have developed a p-norm-based optimization algorithm to obtain higher-order cubature points. In this way, we obtain and tabulate new cubature points with all positive integration weights for degrees 7 to 9. The dispersion analysis illustrates that the dispersion relation determined from the new optimized cubature points is comparable to that of the mass and stiffness matrices obtained by exact integration. Simultaneously, the Lebesgue constant for the new optimized cubature points indicates its surprisingly good interpolation properties. As a result, such points provide both good interpolation properties and integration accuracy. The Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) numbers are tabulated for the conventional Fekete-based triangular spectral element (TSEM), the TSEM with exact integration, and the optimized cubature-based TSEM (OTSEM). A complementary study demonstrates the spectral convergence of the OTSEM. A numerical example conducted on a half-space model demonstrates that the OTSEM improves the accuracy by approximately one order of magnitude compared to the conventional Fekete-based TSEM. In particular, the accuracy of the 7th-order OTSEM is even higher than that of the 14th-order Fekete-based TSEM. Furthermore, the OTSEM produces a result that can compete in accuracy with the quadrilateral SEM (QSEM). The high accuracy of the OTSEM is also tested with a non-flat topography model. In terms of computational

  13. Higher-order triangular spectral element method with optimized cubature points for seismic wavefield modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Youshan; Teng, Jiwen; Xu, Tao; Badal, José

    2017-01-01

    The mass-lumped method avoids the cost of inverting the mass matrix and simultaneously maintains spatial accuracy by adopting additional interior integration points, known as cubature points. To date, such points are only known analytically in tensor domains, such as quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Thus, the diagonal-mass-matrix spectral element method (SEM) in non-tensor domains always relies on numerically computed interpolation points or quadrature points. However, only the cubature points for degrees 1 to 6 are known, which is the reason that we have developed a p-norm-based optimization algorithm to obtain higher-order cubature points. In this way, we obtain and tabulate new cubature points with all positive integration weights for degrees 7 to 9. The dispersion analysis illustrates that the dispersion relation determined from the new optimized cubature points is comparable to that of the mass and stiffness matrices obtained by exact integration. Simultaneously, the Lebesgue constant for the new optimized cubature points indicates its surprisingly good interpolation properties. As a result, such points provide both good interpolation properties and integration accuracy. The Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) numbers are tabulated for the conventional Fekete-based triangular spectral element (TSEM), the TSEM with exact integration, and the optimized cubature-based TSEM (OTSEM). A complementary study demonstrates the spectral convergence of the OTSEM. A numerical example conducted on a half-space model demonstrates that the OTSEM improves the accuracy by approximately one order of magnitude compared to the conventional Fekete-based TSEM. In particular, the accuracy of the 7th-order OTSEM is even higher than that of the 14th-order Fekete-based TSEM. Furthermore, the OTSEM produces a result that can compete in accuracy with the quadrilateral SEM (QSEM). The high accuracy of the OTSEM is also tested with a non-flat topography model. In terms of computational

  14. Stanford-Binet & WAIS IQ Differences and Their Implications for Adults with Intellectual Disability (aka Mental Retardation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wayne; Miezejeski, Charles; Ryan, Robert; Zigman, Warren; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon; Urv, Tiina

    2010-03-01

    Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) IQs were compared for a group of 74 adults with intellectual disability (ID). In every case, WAIS Full Scale IQ was higher than the Stanford-Binet Composite IQ, with a mean difference of 16.7 points. These differences did not appear to be due to the lower minimum possible score for the Stanford-Binet. Additional comparisons with other measures suggested that the WAIS might systematically underestimate severity of intellectual impairment. Implications of these findings are discussed regarding determination of disability status, estimating prevalence of ID, assessing dementia and aging-related cognitive declines, and diagnosis of ID in forensic cases involving a possible death penalty.

  15. Higher order point and continuum mechanics from phase-space action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamanna, J.; Talukdar, B.; Das, U

    2002-12-02

    It is pointed out that use of phase-space action provides an elegant method to study the canonical structure of problems in mechanics. Higher order Lagrangian systems are Hamiltonized by employing the variational principle in phase space. Studies are envisaged for both particle dynamics and field theory. Hamilton's equations are expressed in terms of appropriate Poisson brackets.

  16. Maternal IQ, Child IQ, behavior and achievement in urban 5–7 year olds

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Aimin; Schwarz, Donald; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J.

    2006-01-01

    In one study of children in 27 families with maternal retardation, those children with higher IQ were more likely to have multiple behavior problems than those with lower IQ. If true, this result would affect clinical practice, but it has not been replicated. Since the setting of the initial observation is similar to the setting of childhood lead poisoning, we attempted a replication using data from the Treatment of Lead-exposed Children (TLC) study, in which 780 children aged 12–33 months wi...

  17. IQ as a moderator of outcome in severity of children’s mental health status after treatment in outpatient clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathiassen Børge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychotherapy is an effective treatment for mental health disorders, but even with the most efficacious treatment, many patients do not experience improvement. Moderator analysis can identify the conditions under which treatment is effective or whether there are factors that can attenuate the effects of treatment. Methods In this study, linear mixed model analysis was used to examine whether the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ, Performance IQ (PIQ and Verbal IQ (VIQ on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Third Edition, moderated outcomes in general functioning and symptom load. A total of 132 patients treated at three outpatient child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS were assessed at three different time points. The Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS and the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA were used to measure the severity of impairments in general functioning and symptom load. IQ was assessed at the start of treatment. Results Moderator analysis revealed that the FSIQ × time interaction predicted changes in CGAS scores (p p  Conclusions FISQ and PIQ moderated change in general functioning and symptom load, respectively. This implies that patients with higher IQ scores had a steeper improvement slope than those with lower scores. The patients with the highest initial symptom loads showed the greatest improvement, this pattern was not found in the improvement of general functioning.

  18. Exotic quantum holonomy and higher-order exceptional points in quantum kicked tops

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Atushi; Kim, Sang Wook; Cheon, Taksu

    2014-01-01

    The correspondence between exotic quantum holonomy that occurs in families of Hermitian cycles, and exceptional points (EPs) for non-Hermitian quantum theory is examined in quantum kicked tops. Under a suitable condition, an explicit expressions of the adiabatic parameter dependencies of quasienergies and stationary states, which exhibit anholonomies, are obtained. It is also shown that the quantum kicked tops with the complexified adiabatic parameter have a higher order EP, which is broken i...

  19. Phishing IQ Tests Measure Fear, Not Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandpara, Vivek; Dingman, Andrew; Jakobsson, Markus; Liu, Debin; Roinestad, Heather

    We argue that phishing IQ tests fail to measure susceptibility to phishing attacks. We conducted a study where 40 subjects were asked to answer a selection of questions from existing phishing IQ tests in which we varied the portion (from 25% to 100%) of the questions that corresponded to phishing emails. We did not find any correlation between the actual number of phishing emails and the number of emails that the subjects indicated were phishing. Therefore, the tests did not measure the ability of the subjects. To further confirm this, we exposed all the subjects to existing phishing education after they had taken the test, after which each subject was asked to take a second phishing test, with the same design as the first one, but with different questions. The number of stimuli that were indicated as being phishing in the second test was, again, independent of the actual number of phishing stimuli in the test. However, a substantially larger portion of stimuli was indicated as being phishing in the second test, suggesting that the only measurable effect of the phishing education (from the point of view of the phishing IQ test) was an increased concern—not an increased ability.

  20. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test: Proxy for Verbal IQ in Genetic Studies of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasileva, Kate E; Sanders, Stephan J; Bal, Vanessa Hus

    2017-04-01

    This study assessed the utility of a brief assessment (the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4th Edition; PPVT4) as a proxy for verbal IQ (VIQ) in large-scale studies of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In a sample of 2,420 proband with ASD, PPVT4:IQ correlations were strong. PPVT4 scores were, on average, 5.46 points higher than VIQ; 79% of children had PPVT4 scores within one standard deviation (+/-15) of their VIQ and 90% were similarly classified as having abilities above or below 70 on both measures. Distributions of PPVT4 and VIQ by de novo mutation status were highly similar. These results strongly support the utility of PPVT4 as a proxy for VIQ in large-scale ASD studies, particularly for genetic investigations.

  1. Exotic quantum holonomy and higher-order exceptional points in quantum kicked tops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Atushi; Kim, Sang Wook; Cheon, Taksu

    2014-04-01

    The correspondence between exotic quantum holonomy, which occurs in families of Hermitian cycles, and exceptional points (EPs) for non-Hermitian quantum theory is examined in quantum kicked tops. Under a suitable condition, an explicit expression of the adiabatic parameter dependencies of quasienergies and stationary states, which exhibit anholonomies, is obtained. It is also shown that the quantum kicked tops with the complexified adiabatic parameter have a higher-order EP, which is broken into lower-order EPs with the application of small perturbations. The stability of exotic holonomy against such bifurcation is demonstrated.

  2. Empowerment of Mustaḥiq Zakat Model Towards Business Independency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Hamzah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zakat has not been utilized intensively for the empowerment of mustaḥiq (zakat beneficiaries in the form of productive economic business. The objective of the research was to analyze the level of mustaḥiqs’ business independency; to analyze dominant factors that influenced mustaḥiqs’ business independency, and to formulate an appropriate strategy to develop the mustaḥiqs’ business independency. The research has been carried out on 254 mustaḥiqs in Bogor Regency (66 mustaḥiqs engaged in vegetable production at Cibungbulang District, 85 mustaḥiqs in skewer business at Tenjolaya District, and 103 mustaḥiqs in shoe business at Taman Sari District. A census sampling, data collection through a questionnaire, an in-depth interview and observation were carried out in 2013. Data were analyzed descriptively and statistically, using structural equation model (SEM. The results of the research showed that: (1 the strategy of mustaḥiq empowerment could be carried out through strengthening the intrinsic motivation, training technical aspects, assisting business capital and assistance. Empowerment can be conducted synergically by the government (arrangement, service, and counseling, private sectors/State Owned Business (BUMN, higher education and community.

  3. Association Between Low IQ Scores and Early Mortality in Men and Women: Evidence From a Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenner, Matthew J; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2015-05-01

    Lower (versus higher) IQ scores have been shown to increase the risk of early mortality, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and previous studies underrepresent individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and women. This study followed one third of all senior-year students (approximately aged 17) attending public high school in Wisconsin, U.S. in 1957 (n  =  10,317) until 2011. Men and women with the lowest IQ test scores (i.e., IQ scores ≤ 85) had increased rates of mortality compared to people with the highest IQ test scores, particularly for cardiovascular disease. Importantly, when educational attainment was held constant, people with lower IQ test scores did not have higher mortality by age 70 than people with higher IQ test scores. Individuals with lower IQ test scores likely experience multiple disadvantages throughout life that contribute to increased risk of early mortality.

  4. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of personality traits and IQ on lifetime earnings of the men and women of the Terman study, a high-IQ U.S. sample. Age-by-age earnings profiles allow a study of when personality traits affect earnings most, and for whom the effects are strongest. I document...... a concave life-cycle pattern in the payoffs to personality traits, with the largest effects between the ages of 40 and 60. An interaction of traits with education reveals that personality matters most for highly educated men. The largest effects are found for Conscientiousness, Extraversion...

  5. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the eects of personality traits and IQ on lifetime earnings of the men and women of the Terman study, a high-IQ U.S. sample. Age-by-age earnings proles allow a study of when personality traits aect earnings most, and for whom the eects are strongest. I document a concave life-cycle pattern in the payos to personality traits, with the largest eects between the ages of 40 and 60. An interaction of traits with education reveals that personality matters most for highly educat...

  6. Nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging using thallium-201 with a novel multifocal collimator SPECT/CT: IQ-SPECT versus conventional protocols in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Wakabayash, Hiroshi; Okuda, Koichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2015-06-01

    A novel multifocal collimator, IQ-SPECT (Siemens) consists of SMARTZOOM, cardio-centric and 3D iterative SPECT reconstruction and makes it possible to perform MPI scans in a short time. The aims are to delineate the normal uptake in thallium-201 ((201)Tl) SPECT in each acquisition method and to compare the distribution between new and conventional protocol, especially in patients with normal imaging. Forty patients (eight women, mean age of 75 years) who underwent myocardial perfusion imaging were included in the study. All patients underwent one-day protocol perfusion scan after an adenosine-stress test and at rest after administering (201)Tl and showed normal results. Acquisition was performed on a Symbia T6 equipped with a conventional dual-headed gamma camera system (Siemens ECAM) and with a multifocal SMARTZOOM collimator. Imaging was performed with a conventional system followed by IQ-SPECT/computed tomography (CT). Reconstruction was performed with or without X-ray CT-derived attenuation correction (AC). Two nuclear physicians blinded to clinical information interpreted all myocardial perfusion images. A semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion was analyzed by a 17-segment model with a 5-point visual scoring. The uptake of each segment was measured and left ventricular functions were analyzed by QPS software. IQ-SPECT provided good or excellent image quality. The quality of IQ-SPECT images without AC was similar to those of conventional LEHR study. Mid-inferior defect score (0.3 ± 0.5) in the conventional LEHR study was increased significantly in IQ-SPECT with AC (0 ± 0). IQ-SPECT with AC improved the mid-inferior decreased perfusion shown in conventional images. The apical tracer count in IQ-SPECT with AC was decreased compared to that in LEHR (0.1 ± 0.3 vs. 0.5 ± 0.7, p IQ-SPECT was significantly higher than that from the LEHR collimator (p = 0.0009). The images of IQ-SPECT acquired in a short time are equivalent to that of conventional LEHR

  7. Shared temporoparietal dysfunction in dyslexia and typical readers with discrepantly high IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Roeland; Gabrieli, John D E; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2016-12-01

    It is currently believed that reading disability (RD) should be defined by reading level without regard to broader aptitude (IQ). There is debate, however, about how to classify individuals who read in the typical range but less well than would be expected by their higher IQ. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 49 children to examine whether those with typical, but discrepantly low reading ability relative to IQ, show dyslexia-like activation patterns during reading. Children who were typical readers with high-IQ discrepancy showed reduced activation in left temporoparietal neocortex relative to two control groups of typical readers without IQ discrepancy. This pattern was consistent and spatially overlapping with results in children with RD compared to typically reading children. The results suggest a shared neurological atypicality in regions associated with phonological processing between children with dyslexia and children with typical reading ability that is substantially below their IQ.

  8. Association of Childhood Infection With IQ and Adult Nonaffective Psychosis in Swedish Men: A Population-Based Longitudinal Cohort and Co-relative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Golam M; Dalman, Christina; Kappelmann, Nils; Stochl, Jan; Dal, Henrik; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Jones, Peter B; Karlsson, Håkan

    2018-04-01

    Associations between childhood infection, IQ, and adult nonaffective psychosis (NAP) are well established. However, examination of sensitive periods for exposure, effect of familial confounding, and whether IQ provides a link between childhood infection and adult NAP may elucidate pathogenesis of psychosis further. To test the association of childhood infection with IQ and adult NAP, to find whether shared familial confounding explains the infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations, and to examine whether IQ mediates and/or moderates the childhood infection-NAP association. Population-based longitudinal cohort study using linkage of Swedish national registers. The risk set included all Swedish men born between 1973 and 1992 and conscripted into the military until the end of 2010 (n = 771 698). We included 647 515 participants in the analysis. Hospitalization with any infection from birth to age 13 years. Hospitalization with an International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of NAP until the end of 2011. At conscription around age 18 years, IQ was assessed for all participants. At the end of follow-up, the mean (SD) age of participants was 30.73 (5.3) years. Exposure to infections, particularly in early childhood, was associated with lower IQ (adjusted mean difference for infection at birth to age 1 year: -1.61; 95% CI, -1.74 to -1.47) and with increased risk of adult NAP (adjusted hazard ratio for infection at birth to age 1 year: 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.33). There was a linear association between lower premorbid IQ and adult NAP, which persisted after excluding prodromal cases (adjusted hazard ratio per 1-point increase in IQ: 0.976; 95% CI, 0.974 to 0.978). The infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations were similar in the general population and in full-sibling pairs discordant for exposure. The association between infection and NAP was both moderated (multiplicative, β = .006; SE = 0.002; P = .02 and additive, β = .008; SE = 0.002; P

  9. Breastfeeding and IQ Growth from Toddlerhood through Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of breastfeeding for cognitive development continue to be hotly debated but are yet to be supported by conclusive empirical evidence. We used here a latent growth curve modeling approach to test the association of breastfeeding with IQ growth trajectories, which allows differentiating the variance in the IQ starting point in early life from variance in IQ gains that occur later in childhood through adolescence. Breastfeeding (yes/ no) was modeled as a direct predictor of three IQ latent growth factors (i.e. intercept, slope and quadratic term) and adjusted for the covariates socioeconomic status, mother's age at birth and gestational stage. Data came from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), a prospective cohort study of twins born between 1996 and 1994 in the United Kingdom, who were assessed 9 times on IQ between age 2 and 16 years (N = 11,582). Having been breastfed was associated with a small yet significant advantage in IQ at age 2 in girls (β = .07, CI 95% from 0.64 to 3.01; N = 3,035) but not in boys (β = .04, CI 95% from -0.14 to 2.41). Having been breastfeeding was neither associated with the other IQ growth factors in girls (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.25 to 0.43; quadratic: β = .01, CI 95% from -0.02 to 0.02) nor in boys (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.30 to 0.47; quadratic: β = -.01, CI 95% from -0.01 to 0.01). Breastfeeding has little benefit for early life intelligence and cognitive growth from toddlerhood through adolescence.

  10. Stalking the IQ Quark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1979-01-01

    An information-processing framework is presented for understanding intelligence. Two levels of processing are discussed: the steps involved in solving a complex intellectual task, and higher-order processes used to decide how to solve the problem. (MH)

  11. All Digital IQ Servo-System for CERN Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Rohlev, A; Garoby, R

    2003-01-01

    A new VME based system has been developed and built at CERN for the servo loops regulating the field in the linac accelerating structure. It makes use of high speed digital In-phase/Quadrature (IQ) detection, digital processing, and digital IQ modulation. The digital processing and IQ modulation is done in a single PLD. The system incorporates continually variable set points, iterative learning, feed forward as well as extensive diagnostics and other features well suited for digital implementations. Built on a single VME card, it will be first used in the energy ramping RF chain of the CERN Heavy Ion Linac (linac 3) and later for upgrading the present proton linac (linac 2). This system serves also as a prototype for the future Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL). The design principle and the experimental results are described.

  12. Callosotomy affects performance IQ: A meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhausen, René; Karud, Celine M R

    2018-02-05

    Morphometric neuroimaging studies on healthy adult individuals regularly report a positive association between intelligence test performance (IQ) and structural properties of the corpus callosum (CC). At the same time, studies examining the effect of callosotomy on epilepsy patients report only negligible changes in IQ as result of the surgery, partially contradicting the findings of the morphometry studies. Objective of the present meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) of 87 cases from 16 reports was to re-investigate the effect of callosotomy on full scale IQ as well as on the verbal and performance subscale under special consideration of two possible moderating factors: pre-surgical IQ levels and the extent of the surgery (complete vs. anterior transsection). The main finding was that callosotomy selectively affects performance IQ, whereby the effect is modulated by the pre-surgical level of performance. Patients with an above-median pre-surgery performance IQ level show a significant average decrease of -5.44 (CI 95% : - 8.33 to - 2.56) IQ points following the surgery, while the below-median group does not reveal a significant change in IQ (mean change: 1.01 IQ points; CI 95% : -1.83 to 3.86). Thus, the present analyses support the notion that callosotomy has a negative effect on the patients' performance IQ, but only in those patients, who at least have an average performance levels before the surgery. This observation also lends support to the findings of previous morphometry studies, indicating that the frequently observed CC-IQ correlation might indeed reflect a functional contribution of callosal interhemispheric connectivity to intelligence-test performance. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Aplikasi Latihan Tes Iq Menggunakan Android

    OpenAIRE

    Sopiah, Nyimas; Ependi, Usman

    2014-01-01

    Prior to formal IQ test, individuals often use the media in a book or website exercise IQ test. Lately the media has been very popular with smartphone. To accommodate the facility smartphone, then the author will make an IQ test Android-based application that can be used as training media. The purpose of the study is to make an application exercise test IQ for the user to test his ability. This application is an application that used as a training tool for users to perform an IQ test. Appli...

  14. Is High IQ Protective Against Cognitive Dysfunction in Narcoleptic Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, So-Mee; Joo, Eun Yeon; Kim, Ji Young; Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Hong, Seung Bong

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate the cognitive functions of narcoleptics and determine whether intelligence protects against cognitive dysfunction and depressive mood in these patients. Sixty-six subjects (33 narcoleptics, 33 controls) were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and an individual standardized intelligence test. The cognitive functions of the narcoleptic patients and the healthy controls were compared, as were those of high-IQ and mid-to-low-IQ narcoleptic patients. Narcoleptics exhibited significantly lower scores in the Corsi Block-Tapping Test forward and backward, and the digit symbol tests, and significantly higher Beck Depression Inventory scores than the controls. However, verbal attention, verbal-visual long-term memory, and executive function task scores did not differ significantly between patients and controls. The mid-to-low-IQ patient group had lower mean digit span backward test, phonemic and semantic fluency Controlled Oral Word Association Test and Korean version of the Boston Naming Test scores, and a higher total score and general depressive symptoms subscales Beck Depression Inventory score than the high-IQ patient group. However, controls exhibited no IQ-related differences in cognitive performance or depressive mood. Patients in the high-IQ group exhibited impaired visual attention and working memory as compared with controls. The findings of the present study show that narcolepsy patients have deficits in visual attention and visual working memory, and tend to feel more general depressive symptoms but not somatic symptoms than their control, nonnarcoleptic counterparts. In addition, it appears that higher intelligence protects against cognitive dysfunction and depressive mood.

  15. Underlying neurological dysfunction in children with language, speech or learning difficulties and a verbal IQ--performance IQ discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulemans, J; Goeleven, A; Zink, I; Loyez, L; Lagae, L; Debruyne, F

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between possible underlying neurological dysfunction and a significant discrepancy between verbal IQ/performance IQ (VIQ-PIQ) in children with language, speech or learning difficulties. In a retrospective study, we analysed data obtained from intelligence testing and neurological evaluation in 49 children with a significant VIQ-PIQ discrepancy (> or = 25 points) who were referred because of language, speech or learning difficulties to the Multidisciplinary University Centre for Logopedics and Audiology (MUCLA) of the University Hospitals of Leuven, Belgium. The group of children broke down into a group of 35 children with PIQ > VIQ and a group of 14 children with VIQ > PIQ. In the first group, neurological data were present for 24 children. The neurological history and clinical neurological examination were normal in all cases. Brain MRI was performed in 15 cases and proved to be normal in all children. Brain activity was assessed with long-term video EEG monitoring in ten children. In two children, the EEG results were abnormal: there was an epileptic focus in one child and a manifest alteration in the EEG typical of Landau-Kleffner syndrome in the other. In the second group of 14 children whose VIQ was higher than the PIQ, neurological data were available for ten children. Neurological history and clinical neurological examination were normal in all cases. Brain MRI was performed in five cases and was normal in all children. EEG monitoring was performed in one child. This revealed benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. In a small number of children (9%) with speech, language and learning difficulties and a discrepancy between VIQ and PIQ, an underlying neurological abnormality is present. We recommend referring children with a significant VIQ-PIQ mismatch to a paediatric neurologist. As an epileptic disorder seems to be the most common underlying neurological pathology in this specific group of children, EEG

  16. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    , as identified in a factor model, significantly affect earnings, but not for young workers. The effects are furthermore heterogeneous by educational attainment. For women, personality traits do not affect family earnings in the same way as own earnings. Personality and IQ also influence earnings indirectly......Talented individuals are seen as drivers of long-term growth, but how do they realize their full potential? In this paper, I show that lifetime earnings of high-IQ men and women are substantially influenced by their personality traits, in addition to intelligence and education. Personality traits...... on detailed background information. This paper complements the literature on investments in education and personality traits by showing that they also have potentially high returns at the high end of the ability distribution....

  17. Prenatal airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and child IQ at age 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica P; Li, Zhigang; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Wang, Shuang; Camann, David; Rauh, Virginia

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and child intelligence. Children of nonsmoking black or Dominican-American women residing in New York City were monitored from in utero to 5 years of age, with determination of prenatal PAH exposure through personal air monitoring for the mothers during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, intelligence was assessed for 249 children by using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate and to test the associations between prenatal PAH exposure and IQ. After adjustment for maternal intelligence, quality of the home caretaking environment, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and other potentially confounding factors, high PAH levels (above the median of 2.26 ng/m(3)) were inversely associated with full-scale IQ (P = .007) and verbal IQ (P = .003) scores. Children in the high-exposure group had full-scale and verbal IQ scores that were 4.31 and 4.67 points lower, respectively, than those of less-exposed children (IQ measures also were significant (full-scale IQ: beta = -3.00; P = .009; verbal IQ: beta = -3.53; P = .002). These results provide evidence that environmental PAHs at levels encountered in New York City air can affect children's IQ adversely.

  18. A preliminary investigation of the IQs of 7-13 year-old children from an area with coal burning-related fluoride poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, X.C.; Wang, R.Y.; Cheng, C.F.; Wei, W.S.; Tang, L.M.; Wang, Q.S.; Tang, D.X.; Liu, G.W.; He, G.D.; Li, S.L.

    2008-04-15

    The Chinese Binet IQ Test was used to investigate the IQs of 7-13 year old children suffering from dental fluorosis, living and attending school in an area with coal burning-related fluoride poisoning. The average IQ of these children was found to be markedly lower than in the control area, and the number of children classified as having low intelligence was significantly higher. For both groups, IQ and serum fluoride show a negative correlation (r = -0.205).

  19. Special Issue: Creating a Tipping Point--Strategic Human Resources in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alvin; Chun, Edna

    2012-01-01

    This monograph examines the emergence of strategic human resource (HR) practices in higher education at a time when the budgetary crisis in public higher education has never been more acute. The wave of financial pressures on public research universities today heralds the advent of an era of unprecedented change. Financial upheaval resulting from…

  20. The next 16 higher spin currents and three-point functions in the large N = 4 holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Changhyun; Kim, Dong-gyu; Kim, Man Hea [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    By using the known operator product expansions (OPEs) between the lowest 16 higher spin currents of spins (1, (3)/(2), (3)/(2), (3)/(2), (3)/(2), 2,2,2,2,2,2, (5)/(2), (5)/(2), (5)/(2), (5)/(2), 3) in an extension of the large N = 4 linear superconformal algebra, one determines the OPEs between the lowest 16 higher spin currents in an extension of the large N = 4 nonlinear superconformal algebra for generic N and k. The Wolf space coset contains the group G = SU(N + 2) and the affine Kac-Moody spin 1 current has the level k. The next 16 higher spin currents of spins (2, (5)/(2), (5)/(2), (5)/(2), (5)/(2), 3,3,3,3,3,3, (7)/(2), (7)/(2), (7)/(2), (7)/(2), 4) arise in the above OPEs. The most general lowest higher spin 2 current in this multiplet can be determined in terms of affine Kac-Moody spin (1)/(2), 1 currents. By careful analysis of the zero mode (higher spin) eigenvalue equations, the three-point functions of bosonic higher spin 2, 3, 4 currents with two scalars are obtained for finite N and k. Furthermore, we also analyze the three-point functions of bosonic higher spin 2, 3, 4 currents in the extension of the large N = 4 linear superconformal algebra. It turns out that the three-point functions of higher spin 2, 3 currents in the two cases are equal to each other at finite N and k. Under the large (N, k) 't Hooft limit, the two descriptions for the three-point functions of higher spin 4 current coincide with each other. The higher spin extension of SO(4) Knizhnik Bershadsky algebra is described. (orig.)

  1. IQ as moderator of terminal decline in perceptual and motor speed, spatial, and verbal ability: Testing the cognitive reserve hypothesis in a population-based sample followed from age 70 until death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Skoog, Ingmar; Johansson, Boo

    2017-03-01

    Terminal decline (TD) refers to acceleration in within-person cognitive decline prior to death. The cognitive reserve hypothesis postulates that individuals with higher IQ are able to better tolerate age-related increase in brain pathologies. On average, they will exhibit a later onset of TD, but once they start to decline, their trajectory is steeper relative to those with lower IQ. We tested these predictions using data from initially nondemented individuals (n = 179) in the H70-study repeatedly measured at ages 70, 75, 79, 81, 85, 88, 90, 92, 95, 97, 99, and 100, or until death, on cognitive tests of perceptual-and-motor-speed and spatial and verbal ability. We quantified IQ using the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test administrated at age 70. We fitted random change point TD models to the data, within a Bayesian framework, conditioned on IQ, age of death, education, and sex. In line with predictions, we found that 1 additional standard deviation on the IQ scale was associated with a delay in onset of TD by 1.87 (95% highest density interval [HDI; 0.20, 4.08]) years on speed, 1.96 (95% HDI [0.15, 3.54]) years on verbal ability, but only 0.88 (95% HDI [-0.93, 3.49]) year on spatial ability. Higher IQ was associated with steeper rate of decline within the TD phase on measures of speed and verbal ability, whereas results on spatial ability were nonconclusive. Our findings provide partial support for the cognitive reserve hypothesis and demonstrate that IQ can be a significant moderator of cognitive change trajectories in old age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The impact of family factors on IQ in pediatric medically refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puka, Klajdi; Smith, Mary Lou; Widjaja, Elysa

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate whether family factors were associated with intellectual functioning among children with medically refractory epilepsy, and whether family factors moderate the relationship between patient/epilepsy-related variables and intellectual functioning. Children aged 4 to 18 years with medically refractory epilepsy who were evaluated for surgical candidacy were recruited. The authors assessed the association of intellectual quotient (IQ) with patient, epilepsy, and family factors. Family factors included parental education, household income, and validated parent-report measures of family functioning, family mastery and social support, and family demands. Univariable analyses showed that higher IQ scores were associated with an older age of epilepsy onset (β = .260, p = .009), fewer antiepileptic drugs (β = .248, p = .013), a shorter duration (β = .384, p IQ. Exploratory moderation analyses found the relationship between the extent of epileptogenic foci and IQ to be moderated by family demands (p = .004); specifically, patients with unilobar epileptogenic onset had similar IQ scores irrespective of family demands, whereas patients with multilobar foci had lower IQ scores with increasing family demands. Family factors did not have a large impact on IQ among children with medically refractory epilepsy, although the moderating effect of family demands deserves further study. Epilepsy-related factors in this patient group may weaken the link between child IQ and family factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Integration of Environmental Aspects in Tourism Higher Education: the Hotel Managers’ Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Gunes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Our environment and our society is continually dynamic. Courses such as hotel management, hygiene, food and beverage, front office are essential for the tourism sector. Besides, concern for environmental issues is one of the key components of higher education for tourism. This study presents a critical review of environmental aspects in higher education for tourism in Turkey. Because the demand for vocational schools (two-year colleges is more than that for faculties, there are more vocational schools than four-year faculties in Turkey. Their curriculum was researched and determined to lessons about the environment. In the scope of this study; a questionnaire was conducted on managers of blue flag hotels to learn their opinion about the sector. According to these reviews, the importance of environmental education in higher education was emphasized.

  4. Is deterioration of IQ a feature of first episode psychosis and how can we measure it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jennifer A; Wiffen, Benjamin D R; Reichenberg, Abraham; Aas, Monica; Falcone, M Aurora; Russo, Manuela; Sood, Poonam Gardner; Taylor, Heather; David, Anthony S

    2012-05-01

    Estimates of pre-morbid IQ are widely used to measure the trajectory of cognitive function and decline in people with schizophrenia. This study examined the usefulness of two indices of decline to identify cognitive subtypes in first episode psychosis, and to determine the specificity of non-IQ neuropsychological impairments in this population. Neuropsychological data were collected from 118 first episode psychosis patients and compared to 118 epidemiologically matched controls. The National Adult Reading Test (NART) and the Information subtest of the WAIS-III were compared as indicators of crystallised intelligence or 'pre-morbid IQ'. Measurement of NART minus current full scale IQ (FSIQ) (where 10 points discrepancy is the decline criterion) did not reveal a large group of individuals with 'deteriorating' IQ patterns. Using the Information subtest and the same decline criteria, a 'deteriorating' patient group emerged (36%) but was matched by a larger 'deteriorating' control group (45%). The 'deteriorating' patient group performed at a low IQ level for tasks that loaded highly on performance ability but a relatively high level for tasks measuring verbal skills. Verbal memory discriminated patients from controls better than IQ. Compared to controls, patients showed large selective impairments of verbal episodic memory (effect size, d=1.4) These data suggest that in first episode populations, caution should be exercised in inferring deterioration of IQ from discrepancies between reading-based and other IQ tests. Rather, sub-groups of patients and controls do show greater verbal aptitude in comparison to performance skills. Memory is generally impaired in first episode patients regardless of IQ. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. IQ and the values of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2009-07-01

    The origin of values and preferences is an unresolved theoretical question in behavioural and social sciences. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, derived from the Savanna Principle and a theory of the evolution of general intelligence, suggests that more intelligent individuals may be more likely to acquire and espouse evolutionarily novel values and preferences (such as liberalism and atheism and, for men, sexual exclusivity) than less intelligent individuals, but that general intelligence may have no effect on the acquisition and espousal of evolutionarily familiar values. Macro-level analyses show that nations with higher average intelligence are more liberal (have greater highest marginal individual tax rate and, as a result, lower income inequality), less religious (a smaller proportion of the population believes in God or considers themselves religious) and more monogamous. The average intelligence of a population appears to be the strongest predictor of its level of liberalism, atheism and monogamy.

  6. Conversion of Component-Based Point Definition to VSP Model and Higher Order Meshing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz, Irian

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) has become a powerful conceptual and parametric geometry tool with numerous export capabilities for third-party analysis codes as well as robust surface meshing capabilities for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. However, a capability gap currently exists for reconstructing a fully parametric VSP model of a geometry generated by third-party software. A computer code called GEO2VSP has been developed to close this gap and to allow the integration of VSP into a closed-loop geometry design process with other third-party design tools. Furthermore, the automated CFD surface meshing capability of VSP are demonstrated for component-based point definition geometries in a conceptual analysis and design framework.

  7. Brain function during probabilistic learning in relation to IQ and level of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Wouter; Crone, Eveline A; Güroğlu, Berna

    2012-02-15

    Knowing how to adapt your behavior based on feedback lies at the core of successful learning. We investigated the relation between brain function, grey matter volume, educational level and IQ in a Dutch adolescent sample. In total 45 healthy volunteers between ages 13 and 16 were recruited from schools for pre-vocational and pre-university education. For each individual, IQ was estimated using two subtests from the WISC-III-R (similarities and block design). While in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, participants performed a probabilistic learning task. Behavioral comparisons showed that participants with higher IQ used a more adaptive learning strategy after receiving positive feedback. Analysis of neural activation revealed that higher IQ was associated with increased activation in DLPFC and dACC when receiving positive feedback, specifically for rules with low reward probability (i.e., unexpected positive feedback). Furthermore, VBM analyses revealed that IQ correlated positively with grey matter volume within these regions. These results provide support for IQ-related individual differences in the developmental time courses of neural circuitry supporting feedback-based learning. Current findings are interpreted in terms of a prolonged window of flexibility and opportunity for adolescents with higher IQ scores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Applying the Many-Facet Rasch Model to Evaluate PowerPoint Presentation Performance in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturk, Ramazan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the usefulness of the many-facet Rasch model (MFRM) in evaluating the quality of performance related to PowerPoint presentations in higher education. The Rasch Model utilizes item response theory stating that the probability of a correct response to a test item/task depends largely on a single parameter, the ability of the…

  9. Activities Based on Wiki Platform for Engineering Higher Education: Students' Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Nolasco de Almeida Mello

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The fast evolution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT introduced a new generation of learners that have been adopted mobile devices and Web 2.0 technologies to get information and communicate. The Web 2.0-based tools, such as blogs, wikis, Facebook, Instagram, etc, offer huge possibilities for collaboration. In this way, the main purpose of this research was plan an activity on wiki platform for Reinforced Concrete discipline in Civil Engineering course and answer the questions: (1 How should collaboration be effectively measured on wiki platform? (2 What is the students' point of view about using wiki platform for a collaboration activity? Wikispaces Classroom platform was chosen for the project because it is a free social writing platform, suitable for collaborative learning. Furthermore it works on modern browsers, tablets, and smart phone. A total of 167 students of Civil Engineering course were monitored on Wikispaces® platform. All students’ actions were analyzed and classified as low, medium or high level of collaboration. At the end of the project 111 students answered a questionnaire and 10 students participated of an informal interview where they expressed their opinion about the platform, the activities and the relationship with online peers. A descriptive statistical analysis of the data collected from the platform and the questionnaires answered by the students was performed. The results indicated that wiki platform is an important way to develop innovative activities and tasks for the purpose of to improve skills of engineering students such as: writing communication, organization, collaboration and critical thinking.

  10. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents 1. ... to Results / Skin and Sun – Safety First / Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Summer 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 2 Page ...

  11. Comparability of IQ scores over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Must, O.; te Nijenhuis, J.; Must, A.; van Vianen, A.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the comparability of IQ scores. Three cohorts (1933/36, 1997/98, 2006) of Estonian students (N = 2173) are compared using the Estonian National Intelligence Test. After 72 years the secular rise of the IQ test scores is.79 SD. The mean .16 SD increase in the last 8 years

  12. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in Congenital Strabismus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Abbas; Fallahi, Mohammad Reza; Tamannaifard, Shima; Vajebmonfared, Sara; Zonozian, Saideh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate intelligence quotient (IQ) in patients with congenital strabismus. Methods All patients with congenital strabismus scheduled for surgery were enrolled consecutively over a one year period in a cross-sectional study and were evaluated for verbal, performance and total IQ scores, and compared to the mean normal IQ of 100±15. Results During the study period, 109 patients with mean age of 18.4±10.5 (range, 4-63) years were included. Educational status in most patients (80%) was less than high-school. Most patients (80%) lived in urban areas and 46 patients (42.2%) had some degrees of unilateral or bilateral amblyopia. Mean verbal IQ was 87.2±19.6 (range, 45-127), performance IQ was 81±15.5 (range, 44-111) and total IQ was 83.5±18.3 (range, 40-120). Total IQ was significantly lower in comparison to the normal population (P0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion Patients with congenital strabismus in this study had lower mean IQ scores than the normal population which may be due to genetic background or acquired causes secondary to strabismus. PMID:23943689

  13. IQ Heritability: A Checklist of Methodological Fallacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Howard F.

    1976-01-01

    Presents a brief, quick-reference check list of methodological errors, fallacies, mistakes, and instances of out-and-out trickery that are found in recent well-known studies of IQ, IQ heritability, and race differences, focusing primarily upon the works of psychologist Jensen, Herrnstein, Eysenck, including selected works of William Shockley and…

  14. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  15. Onzin over het IQ van Afrikanen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.

    2010-01-01

    IQ is geen op zichzelf staande eigenschap maar is met allerlei andere variabelen te correleren. Zo blijkt IQ te maken te hebben met cognitieve vaardigheden en opleidingsniveau. Er zijn echter ook andere verbanden te leggen die minder voor de hand liggen en maatschappelijke implicaties hebben.

  16. IQ and mental disorder in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Jensen, Hans Henrik

    2005-01-01

    and related disorders, other psychotic disorders, adjustment, personality, alcohol and substance-use-related disorders were significantly associated with low IQ scores, but this association remained significant for the four non-psychotic disorders only when adjusting for comorbid diagnoses. For most......BACKGROUND: Most research investigating the relationship between IQ and risk of mental disorder has focused on schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the relationship between IQ test scores in early adulthood and various mental disorders. METHOD: For 3289 men from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort...... diagnostic categories, test scores were positively associated with the length of the interval between testing and first admission. ICD mood disorders as well as neuroses and related disorders were not significantly associated with low IQ scores. CONCLUSIONS: Low IQ may be a consequence of mental disease...

  17. Are WISC IQ scores in children with mathematical learning disabilities underestimated? The influence of a specialized intervention on test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Katharina; Spinath, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    Intelligence measures play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). Probably as a result of math-related material in IQ tests, children with MLD often display reduced IQ scores. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of math remediation extend to IQ scores. The present study investigated the impact of a special remediation program compared to a control group receiving private tutoring (PT) on the WISC IQ scores of children with MLD. We included N=45 MLD children (7-12 years) in a study with a pre- and post-test control group design. Children received remediation for two years on average. The analyses revealed significantly greater improvements in the experimental group on the Full-Scale IQ, and the Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, and Working Memory indices, but not Processing Speed, compared to the PT group. Children in the experimental group showed an average WISC IQ gain of more than ten points. Results indicate that the WISC IQ scores of MLD children might be underestimated and that an effective math intervention can improve WISC IQ test performance. Taking limitations into account, we discuss the use of IQ measures more generally for defining MLD in research and practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The evaluation of insufficient cognitive effort in schizophrenia in light of low IQ scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whearty, Kayla M; Allen, Daniel N; Lee, Bern G; Strauss, Gregory P

    2015-09-01

    Low IQ has recently been shown to predict neuropsychological effort test failure in healthy and neurological populations. Although low IQ is common in schizophrenia (SZ), its effect on effort test performance remains unclear in this population. The current study examined the role of IQ in effort test performance in a sample of 60 outpatients with SZ and 30 demographically matched healthy controls (CN). Participants were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, and insufficient effort was calculated using two embedded effort indices: the Reliable Digit Span Effort Index and the Finger Tapping Effort Index. Results indicated that 16.1% of SZ patients and 0% CN failed both effort measures and that 32.1% of SZ and 3.3% of CN failed one measure. In SZ, IQ in the IQs in the low-average or higher range (>80) did not fall below effort cut-offs. Findings suggest that low IQ is a significant predictor of insufficient effort during neuropsychological test performance in schizophrenia, calling into question the validity of neuropsychological effort testing in SZ patients with low IQ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Childhood IQ and adult mental disorders: a test of the cognitive reserve hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Karestan C; Moffitt, Terrie E; Roberts, Andrea L; Martin, Laurie T; Kubzansky, Laura; Harrington, HonaLee; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive reserve has been proposed as important in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, tests of the association between premorbid IQ and adult mental disorders other than schizophrenia have been limited and inconclusive. The authors tested the hypothesis that low childhood IQ is associated with increased risk and severity of adult mental disorders. Participants were members of a representative 1972-1973 birth cohort of 1,037 males and females in Dunedin, New Zealand, who were followed up to age 32 with 96% retention. WISC-R IQ was assessed at ages 7, 9, and 11. Research diagnoses of DSM mental disorders were made at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32. Lower childhood IQ was associated with increased risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorder, adult depression, and adult anxiety. Lower childhood IQ was also associated with greater comorbidity and with persistence of depression; the association with persistence of generalized anxiety disorder was nearly significant. Higher childhood IQ predicted increased risk of adult mania. Lower cognitive reserve, as reflected by childhood IQ, is an antecedent of several common psychiatric disorders and also predicts persistence and comorbidity. Thus, many patients who seek mental health treatment may have lower cognitive ability; this should be considered in prevention and treatment planning.

  20. Roles of Education and IQ in Cognitive Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease-Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Armstrong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The role of cognitive reserve in Parkinson’s disease (PD-mild cognitive impairment (MCI is incompletely understood. Methods: The relationships between PD-MCI, years of education, and estimated premorbid IQ were examined in 119 consecutive non-demented PD patients using logistic regression models. Results: Higher education and IQ were associated with reduced odds of PD-MCI in univariate analysis. In multivariable analysis, a higher IQ was associated with a significantly decreased odds of PD-MCI, but education was not. Conclusion: The association of higher IQ and decreased odds of PD-MCI supports a role for cognitive reserve in PD, but further studies are needed to clarify the interaction of IQ and education and the impact of other contributors such as employment and hobbies.

  1. Image quality (IQ) guided multispectral image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Chen, Genshe; Wang, Zhonghai; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Image compression is necessary for data transportation, which saves both transferring time and storage space. In this paper, we focus on our discussion on lossy compression. There are many standard image formats and corresponding compression algorithms, for examples, JPEG (DCT -- discrete cosine transform), JPEG 2000 (DWT -- discrete wavelet transform), BPG (better portable graphics) and TIFF (LZW -- Lempel-Ziv-Welch). The image quality (IQ) of decompressed image will be measured by numerical metrics such as root mean square error (RMSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and structural Similarity (SSIM) Index. Given an image and a specified IQ, we will investigate how to select a compression method and its parameters to achieve an expected compression. Our scenario consists of 3 steps. The first step is to compress a set of interested images by varying parameters and compute their IQs for each compression method. The second step is to create several regression models per compression method after analyzing the IQ-measurement versus compression-parameter from a number of compressed images. The third step is to compress the given image with the specified IQ using the selected compression method (JPEG, JPEG2000, BPG, or TIFF) according to the regressed models. The IQ may be specified by a compression ratio (e.g., 100), then we will select the compression method of the highest IQ (SSIM, or PSNR). Or the IQ may be specified by a IQ metric (e.g., SSIM = 0.8, or PSNR = 50), then we will select the compression method of the highest compression ratio. Our experiments tested on thermal (long-wave infrared) images (in gray scales) showed very promising results.

  2. Does IQ affect the functional brain network involved in pseudoword reading in students with reading disability? A magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Panagiotis G; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Papanicolaou, Andrew C; Fletcher, Jack M

    2014-01-01

    The study examined whether individual differences in performance and verbal IQ affect the profiles of reading-related regional brain activation in 127 students experiencing reading difficulties and typical readers. Using magnetoencephalography in a pseudoword read-aloud task, we compared brain activation profiles of students experiencing word-level reading difficulties who did (n = 29) or did not (n = 36) meet the IQ-reading achievement discrepancy criterion. Typical readers assigned to a lower-IQ (n = 18) or a higher IQ (n = 44) subgroup served as controls. Minimum norm estimates of regional cortical activity revealed that the degree of hypoactivation in the left superior temporal and supramarginal gyri in both RD subgroups was not affected by IQ. Moreover, IQ did not moderate the positive association between degree of activation in the left fusiform gyrus and phonological decoding ability. We did find, however, that the hypoactivation of the left pars opercularis in RD was restricted to lower-IQ participants. In accordance with previous morphometric and fMRI studies, degree of activity in inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions correlated with IQ across reading ability subgroups. Results are consistent with current views questioning the relevance of IQ-discrepancy criteria in the diagnosis of dyslexia.

  3. Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Muideen O; Ubochi, Vincent N; Okoroikpa, Ifeoma N; Aguocha, Chinyere M; Ebigbo, Peter O

    2009-09-15

    There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intellectual disability using clinicians' judgment based on International Classification of Diseases, tenth Edition(ICD - 10) criteria for mental retardation and caregivers judgment based on 'ratio IQ' scores calculated from estimated mental age in the context of socio-cultural milieu of the children. It proposed a viable option of IQ score assessment among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, using a ratio of culture-specific estimated mental age and chronological age of the child in the absence of standardized alternatives, borne out of great diversity in socio-cultural context of sub-Saharan Africa. Clinicians and care-givers independently assessed the children in relation to their socio-cultural background. Clinicians assessed the IQ scores of the children based on the ICD - 10 diagnostic criteria for mental retardation. 'Ratio IQ' scores were calculated from the ratio of estimated mental age and chronological age of each child. The IQ scores as assessed by the clinicians were then compared with the 'ratio IQ' scores using correlation statistics. A total of forty-four (44) children with intellectual disability were assessed. There was a significant correlation between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and the 'ratio IQ' scores employing zero order correlation without controlling for the chronological age of the children (r = 0.47, df = 42, p = 0.001). First order correlation controlling for the chronological age of the children showed higher correlation score between clinicians

  4. Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguocha Chinyere M

    2009-09-01

    showed higher correlation score between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and 'ratio IQ' scores (r = 0.75, df = 41, p = 0.000. Conclusion Agreement between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and 'ratio IQ' scores was good. 'Ratio IQ' test would provide a viable option of assessing IQ scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability in the absence of culture-appropriate standardized intelligence scales, which is often the case because of great diversity in socio-cultural structures of sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. Higher moments of net kaon multiplicity distributions at RHIC energies for the search of QCD Critical Point at STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Amal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the measurements of the various moments mean (M, standard deviation (σ skewness (S and kurtosis (κ of the net-Kaon multiplicity distribution at midrapidity from Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7 to 200 GeV in the STAR experiment at RHIC in an effort to locate the critical point in the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as also to the correlation length of the system. A non-monotonic behavior of these variable indicate the presence of the critical point. In this work we also present the moments products Sσ, κσ2 of net-Kaon multiplicity distribution as a function of collision centrality and energies. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments of net-Kaons and their products have been compared with it0s Poisson expectation and with simulations from AMPT which does not include the critical point. From the measurement at all seven available beam energies, we find no evidence for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram for √sNN below 200 GeV.

  6. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children With High IQ: Results from a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Maja Z.; Voigt, Robert G.; Colligan, Robert C.; Weaver, Amy L.; Homan, Kendra J.; Barbaresi, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the characteristics of children with ADHD who have high IQ versus normal and low IQ through long-term follow-up of children with ADHD from a population-based birth cohort. Methods Subjects included children with research-identified ADHD (N=379) from a birth cohort (N=5,718). Full scale IQ scores obtained between ages 6 –18 years were used to categorize children into three groups: Low (IQ<80), Normal (80≤IQ<120) and High IQ (IQ≥120). Subjects were retrospectively followed from birth until emigration, death, or high school graduation/dropout. The groups were compared on demographic characteristics, age at which ADHD case criteria were met, co-morbidities, treatment, and school outcomes. Results There were no significant differences among children with high (N=34), normal (N=276) or low IQ (N=21) and ADHD in numerous characteristics, including median age at which ADHD criteria were fulfilled (9.5, 9.7, and 9.8 years); rates of co-morbid learning disorders (85.3%, 78.3%, 76.2%), psychiatric disorders (47.1%, 50.4%, 47.6%), and substance abuse (17.6%, 23.6%, 19.0%); and rates of stimulant treatment (79%, 75%, 90%). In comparison to children with normal or low IQ, those with high IQ had mothers with higher educational levels (e.g., college graduation rates 44.1%, 11.6%, 14.3%), and higher reading achievement (median national percentiles on standardized reading tests 77.0, 42.0, 29.0, p<0.001). Conclusions These findings suggest that ADHD is similar among children with high, normal and low IQ, although high IQ may favorably mediate some outcomes such as reading achievement. Diagnosis and treatment of ADHD are important for all children, regardless of cognitive ability. PMID:21200330

  7. Low IQ scores in schizophrenia : primary or secondary deficit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, M; Withaar, F; van Zomeren, AH; van den Bosch, R

    Background: Schizophrenia is consistently associated with lower IQ compared to the IQ of control groups, or estimated premorbid IQ. It is not likely that the IQ scores deteriorate during the prodromal phase or first psychotic episode; they are already present before the onset of the prodromal phase

  8. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and intelligence quotient (IQ in 5-year-old children: a cohort based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Bliddal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. METHODS: We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R. RESULTS: The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with a reduction in IQ of -0.40 point for each one unit increase in BMI. This association was attenuated after adjustment for social factors and maternal IQ to a value of -0.27 (-0.50 to -0.03. After mutual adjustment for the father's BMI and all other factors except maternal IQ, the association between paternal BMI and child IQ yielded a regression coefficient of -0.26 (-0.59 to 0.07, which was comparable to that seen for maternal BMI (-0.20 (-0.44 to 0.04. CONCLUSION: Although maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely associated with the IQ of her child, the similar association with paternal BMI suggests that it is not a specific pregnancy related adiposity effect.

  9. Premorbid IQ subgroups in first episode non affective psychosis patients: Long-term sex differences in function and neurocognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Setién-Suero, Esther; Neergaard, Karl David; Belzunces, Àuria Albacete; Contreras, Fernando; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2017-12-21

    Low IQ has been associated with schizophrenia, even to the point of being posited as a possible causal factor for psychosis. However, individuals with normal and high IQ also develop psychotic illnesses. The aim of this study was to characterize premorbid IQ subgroups at first episode of psychosis (FEP). The study sample comes from a large epidemiological, 3-year longitudinal, intervention program on psychosis containing individuals living in a catchment area in Spain. Estimated premorbid IQ (epIQ) scores were used to build low (110) epIQ subgroups in samples of FEP patients (N=292) and healthy controls (N=199). The epIQ subgroups were compared in sociodemographic, neuropsychological, clinical and premorbid characteristics. Long-term functional and cognitive outcome, with a focus on sex differences, were also explored. Low-epIQ was more frequently found in FEP patients (28.8%) than in healthy controls (14.6%). Low-epIQ patients were more likely to have worse premorbid adjustment, belong to low socioeconomic status families, have less years of education, and to be single, unemployed, and younger. They presented more severe impairments in processing speed, executive and global cognitive function. Female patients with low-epIQ showed better baseline function and more stable outcome than males. Our results indicate that low premorbid IQ is a morbid manifestation, easily detected in a subgroup of FEP patients that predicts poorer outcome particularly in males. This perspective provides important information for the tailoring of subgroup-specific early intervention programs for psychosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 5-year-old children: a cohort based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise F; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nøhr, Ellen A

    2014-01-01

    An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R). The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with a reduction in IQ of -0.40 point for each one unit increase in BMI. This association was attenuated after adjustment for social factors and maternal IQ to a value of -0.27 (-0.50 to -0.03). After mutual adjustment for the father's BMI and all other factors except maternal IQ, the association between paternal BMI and child IQ yielded a regression coefficient of -0.26 (-0.59 to 0.07), which was comparable to that seen for maternal BMI (-0.20 (-0.44 to 0.04)). Although maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely associated with the IQ of her child, the similar association with paternal BMI suggests that it is not a specific pregnancy related adiposity effect.

  11. Comparability of IQ Scores over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Olev; te Nijenhuis, Jan; Must, Aasa; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the comparability of IQ scores. Three cohorts (1933/36, 1997/98, 2006) of Estonian students (N = 2173) are compared using the Estonian National Intelligence Test. After 72 years the secular rise of the IQ test scores is 0.79 SD. The mean 0.16 SD increase in the last 8 years suggests a rapid increase of the Flynn Effect (FE)…

  12. IQ imbalance tolerable parallel-channel DMT transmission for coherent optical OFDMA access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang-Min; Mun, Kyoung-Hak; Jung, Sun-Young; Han, Sang-Kook

    2016-12-01

    Phase diversity of coherent optical communication provides spectrally efficient higher-order modulation for optical communications. However, in-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalance in coherent optical communication degrades transmission performance by introducing unwanted signal distortions. In a coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) passive optical network (PON), IQ imbalance-induced signal distortions degrade transmission performance by interferences of mirror subcarriers, inter-symbol interference (ISI), and inter-channel interference (ICI). We propose parallel-channel discrete multitone (DMT) transmission to mitigate transceiver IQ imbalance-induced signal distortions in coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmissions. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of parallel-channel DMT transmission compared with that of OFDM transmission in the presence of IQ imbalance.

  13. The impact of marketization on higher education genres - the international student prospectus as a case in point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the existing debate about the marketization of higher education and offers a detailed study of the way the practises of marketization manifest themselves at the level of discourse in higher education. Taking its point of departure in Critical Discourse Analysis...... and using a text-driven procedure for genre analysis, the paper describes and analyses the international student prospectus as an instance of a highly promotional genre which clearly reflects the values and forces of the free market. The paper contains two analyses. The first analysis compares four...... instances of the international student prospectus genre from Finland, Scotland, Australia and Japan and tries to establish genre membership and genre characteristics by considering the overall text structure, and by looking for similarities in content and ‘rhetorical moves'. The second analysis is an in...

  14. Enhanced higher-order interior-point method to minimise active power losses in electric energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rider, M.J.; Castro, C.A.; Garcia, A.V. [State University of Campinas (Brazil). Electric Energy Systems Dept.; Paucar, V.L. [Federal University of Maranhao (Brazil). Electrical Engineering Dept.

    2004-07-01

    A method for computing the minimum active power loss in competitive electric power markets is proposed. The active power loss minimisation problem is formulated as an optimal power flow (OPF) with equality and inequality nonlinear constraints which take into account the power system security. The OPF has been solved using the multiple predictor-corrector interior-point method (MPC) of the family of higher-order interior-point methods, enhanced with a procedure for step-length computation during Newton iterations. The utilisation of the proposed enhanced MPC leads to convergence with a smaller number of iterations and better computational times than some results reported in the literature. An efficient computation of the primal and dual step-sizes is capable of reducing the primal and dual objective function errors, respectively, assuring continuously decreasing errors during the iterations of the interior-point method procedure. The proposed method has been simulated for several IEEF- test systems and two real systems including a 464 bus configuration of the interconnected Peruvian power system, and a 2256 bus scenario of the South-Southeast interconnected Brazilian system. Results of the tests have shown that the convergence is facilitated and the number of iterations may be small. (author)

  15. Dose–Response Relationship of Prenatal Mercury Exposure and IQ: An Integrative Analysis of Epidemiologic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrad, Daniel A.; Bellinger, David C.; Ryan, Louise M.; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to mercury has been associated with adverse childhood neurologic outcomes in epidemiologic studies. Dose–response information for this relationship is useful for estimating benefits of reduced mercury exposure. Objectives We estimated a dose–response relationship between maternal mercury body burden and subsequent childhood decrements in intelligence quotient (IQ), using a Bayesian hierarchical model to integrate data from three epidemiologic studies. Methods Inputs to the model consist of dose–response coefficients from studies conducted in the Faroe Islands, New Zealand, and the Seychelles Islands. IQ coefficients were available from previous work for the latter two studies, and a coefficient for the Faroe Islands study was estimated from three IQ subtests. Other tests of cognition/achievement were included in the hierarchical model to obtain more accurate estimates of study-to-study and end point–to–end point variability. Results We find a central estimate of −0.18 IQ points (95% confidence interval, −0.378 to −0.009) for each parts per million increase of maternal hair mercury, similar to the estimates for both the Faroe Islands and Seychelles studies, and lower in magnitude than the estimate for the New Zealand study. Sensitivity analyses produce similar results, with the IQ coefficient central estimate ranging from −0.13 to −0.25. Conclusions IQ is a useful end point for estimating neurodevelopmental effects, but may not fully represent cognitive deficits associated with mercury exposure, and does not represent deficits related to attention and motor skills. Nevertheless, the integrated IQ coefficient provides a more robust description of the dose–response relationship for prenatal mercury exposure and cognitive functioning than results of any single study. PMID:17450232

  16. Relationship of child IQ to parental IQ and education in children with fetal antiepileptic drug exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Kimford J; Baker, Gus A; Browning, Nancy; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Cohen, Morris J; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2011-06-01

    Clinical trial designs need to control for genetic and environmental influences when examining cognitive outcomes in children for whom clinical considerations preclude randomization. However, the contributions of maternal and paternal IQ and education to pediatric cognitive outcomes are uncertain in disease populations. The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) Study is an ongoing prospective observational multicenter study in the United States and United Kingdom, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used antiepileptic drugs. Here, we examined the relationship of IQ and education in both parents to child IQ at age 3 years. IQ and education for both parents were statistically correlated to child IQ. However, paternal IQ and education were not significant after accounting for maternal IQ effects. Because maternal IQ and education are independently related to child cognitive outcome, both should be assessed in studies investigating the effects of fetal drug exposures or other environmental factors that could affect the child's cognitive outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Wechsler Performance IQ > Verbal IQ Index in a Forensic Sample: A Reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolfe, Alan S.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the Performance IQ(PIQ) > Verbal IQ(VIQ) scales of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale with type of crime, ethnicity, and reading disability in a corrections sample of 70 men. Analyses indicated the significant relationships between PIQ > VIQ and type of crime and reading disability may be independent of ethnicity and each other.…

  18. Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 3 Years for Predicting IQ at 5-6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkaluk, Marie-Laure; Rousseau, Jessica; Calderon, Johanna; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Forhan, Anne; Heude, Barbara; Kaminski, Monique

    2017-04-01

    To assess the predictive value of the 36-month Ages & Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) score for IQ score at age 5 to 6 years in the general population and to identify factors associated with IQ IQ IQ IQ IQ IQ in preschool children regardless of ASQ score. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Differences in Performance of ADHD Children on a Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test according to IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Kweon, Yong Sil; Lee, Soo Jung; Park, E-Jin; Lee, Chul; Lee, Chang-Uk

    2011-09-01

    Continuous performance tests (CPTs) are frequently used in clinical practice to assess the attentiveness of ADHD children. Although most CPTs do not categorize T scores by intelligence, there is great diversity of opinion regarding the interrelation between intelligence and CPT performance. This study aimed to determine if ADHD children with superior IQs would perform better than ADHD children with average IQs. Additionally, we aimed to examine the need for CPTs' to categorize according to IQ. Participants were 326 outpatients, aged 5-15 years, diagnosed with ADHD. All participants completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and a CPT. After excluding those who meet exclusion criteria, we had 266 patients for our analysis. The "Highly Intelligent Group" (HIG), patients with IQs 120 and above, performed superiorly to the "Normally Intelligent Group" (NIG) patients, with IQs between 70 and 120, with regard to omission and commission errors on the visual-auditory CPT, even after controlling for age and gender. The HIG had higher ratios of subjects with T scores IQs; thus, there is a need to standardize the variables based on IQ, as well as on age and gender. Moreover, clinicians need to pay attention to the effect of IQ in interpreting CPT scores; that is, a "normal" score does not rule out a diagnosis of ADHD.

  20. IQ is an independent predictor of glycated haemoglobin level in young and middle-aged adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, T; Miki, T; Itoh, T; Ohnishi, H; Asari, M; Chihiro, S; Yamamoto, A; Aotsuka, K; Kawakami, N; Ichikawa, J; Hirota, Y; Miura, T

    2015-01-01

    Here we examined whether intellectual disability is independently associated with hyperglycaemia. We recruited 233 consecutive young and middle-aged adults with intellectual disability. After exclusion of subjects on medication for metabolic diseases or with severe intellectual disability (IQ IQ into a group with moderate intellectual disability (35 ≤ IQ ≤ 50), a mild intellectual disability group (51 ≤ IQ ≤ 70) and a borderline group (IQ > 70). HbA1c level was higher in subjects with moderate intellectual disability (42 ± 9 mmol/mol; 6.0 ± 0.8%) than those in the borderline group (36 ± 4 mmol/mol; 5.5 ± 0.3%) and mild intellectual disability group (37 ± 5 mmol/mol; 5.5 ± 0.5%) groups. HbA1c level was correlated with age, BMI, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and IQ in simple linear regression analysis. Multiple regression analysis indicated that IQ, age, BMI and diastolic blood pressure were independent explanatory factors of HbA1c level. An unfavourable effect of intellectual disability on lifestyle and untoward effect of hyperglycaemia on cognitive function may underlie the association of low IQ with hyperglycaemia. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  1. High IQ May "Mask" the Diagnosis of ADHD by Compensating for Deficits in Executive Functions in Treatment-Naïve Adults With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milioni, Ana Luiza Vidal; Chaim, Tiffany Moukbel; Cavallet, Mikael; de Oliveira, Nathalya Moleda; Annes, Marco; Dos Santos, Bernardo; Louzã, Mario; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Miguel, Carmen Silvia; Serpa, Mauricio Henriques; Zanetti, Marcus V; Busatto, Geraldo; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate and compare the performance of adults with ADHD with high and standard IQ in executive functions (EF) tasks. We investigated the neuropsychological performance of 51 adults with ADHD, compared with 33 healthy controls (HC) while performing a wide battery of neuropsychological tests that measure executive functioning. Adults with clinical diagnosis of ADHD were divided into two groups according to their IQ level (IQ ≥ 110-ADHD group with more elevated IQ, and IQ IQ). The ADHD group with standard IQ presented a worse executive functioning compared with the HC group in the following measures: Stroop 2 ( p = .000) and 3 ( p = .000), Trail Making Test (TMT) B ( p = .005), Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST)-perseverative errors ( p = .022) and failures to maintain set ( p = .020), Continuous Performance Test (CPT)-omission errors ( p = .005) and commission errors ( p = .000), and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB)-conceptualization ( p = .016). The ADHD group with more elevated IQ presented only impairments in the CPT-commission errors ( p = .019) when compared with the control group. Adults with ADHD and more elevated IQ show less evidence of executive functioning deficits compared with those with ADHD and standard IQ, suggesting that a higher degree of intellectual efficiency may compensate deficits in executive functions, leading to problems in establishing a precise clinical diagnosis.

  2. The relationship of IQ to effort test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Andy C; Victor, Tara L; Boone, Kyle B; Arnold, Ginger

    2008-07-01

    The relationship between IQ and nine effort indicators was examined in a sample of 189 neuropsychology clinic outpatients who were not in litigation or attempting to obtain disability. Participants with the lowest IQ (50-59) failed approximately 60% of the effort tests, while patients with an IQ of 60 to 69 failed 44% of effort indicators, and individuals with borderline IQ (70 to 79) exhibited a 17% failure rate. All patients with IQ test. Cutoffs for the Warrington Recognition Memory Test (Words) and Finger Tapping maintained the highest specificities in low IQ samples.

  3. A Study Of The Relation Between IQ And Personality Types Among Male And Female Students Of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafaee D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologists have been thinking that some personality types may have a higher IQ comparing with the other types, and this could be considered as a general belief. Eysenck, the eminent British psychologist, described the introverted people to have a higher. Intelligence comparing with the extroverted people. Materials and Methods: We maintain two objectives from this study. Firstly if there is a relation between the IQ and personality types or not and secondly the mean IQ of which group is higher and thirdly, what is the relation between sexes. Results: 297 students were selected randomly from Tabriz University and Tabriz Medical Sciences University. Every examination was given both Raven IQ test and Eysenck personality inventory and examination answered the both tests at the same time. Both tests were evaluated by the standard scoring system. The results of both tests were extracted then statistical evaluations ofx and t-test were done. No significant and meaningful relation was found between IQ and personality types pf Eysenck ( introversion- extroversion, neuroticism, emotion stability among male and female students. Also introverted students and extroverted students did not have significant differences in the mean of IQ. Conclusion: Altogether these kinds of findings seem to be interesting, judging about psychological and behavioral characteristic of people needs more studies, and a single IQ or personality test is not sufficient. Therefore reaching an exact conclusion as a scientific fact will be possible by further researches.

  4. Childhood IQ and survival to 79: Follow-up of 94% of the Scottish Mental Survey 1947.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čukić, Iva; Brett, Caroline E; Calvin, Catherine M; Batty, G David; Deary, Ian J

    2017-07-01

    To extend previous literature that suggests higher IQ in youth is associated with living longer. Previous studies have been unable to assess reliably whether the effect differs across sexes and ages of death, and whether the effect is graded across different levels of IQ. We test IQ-survival associations in 94% of the near-entire population born in Scotland in 1936 who took an IQ test at age 11 (n = 70,805) and were traced in a 68-year follow-up. Higher IQ at age 11 years was associated with a lower risk of death (HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.79, 0.81). The decline in risk across categories of IQ scores was graded across the full range with the effect slightly stronger in women (HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.77, 0.80) than in men (HR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.81, 0.84). Higher IQ had a significantly stronger association with death before and including age 65 (HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.74, 0.77) than in those participants who died at an older age (HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.78, 0.80). Higher childhood IQ is associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality in both men and women. This is the only near-entire population study to date that examines the association between childhood IQ and mortality across most of the human life course.

  5. Long Term Planning at IQ Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This is a Danish version. This case about long term planning at the owner-managed manufacturing firm IQ Metal shows how the future management and ownership may be organized to utilize owner assets and minimize roadblocks. Initially, the owner-manager Bo Fischer Larsen explains how he acquired...... in The Owner Strategy Map into the questionnaire available on www.ejerstrategi-kortet.dk. Lastly, the Owner Strategy Map's recommendation of how to organize the future management and ownership of IQ Metal is explained....

  6. The possible societal impact of the decrease in U.S. blood lead levels on adult IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Alan S; Zhou, Xiaobin; Reynolds, Matthew R; Kaufman, Nadeen L; Green, Garo P; Weiss, Lawrence G

    2014-07-01

    The dramatic decrease in U.S. blood lead levels (BLLs) since the 1970s has been documented--however, the anticipated societal impact on intelligence quotient (IQ) has not. The objectives of this study were to determine whether mean IQs of American adults, adjusted for demographics, have increased in concert with society's decreasing BLL. Mean IQs of eight normal adult cohorts (N=800), tested individually in 2007 by trained clinicians, were compared using ANCOVA and correlation analysis. Cohorts ranged in mean societal BLLs from 4 1/2 μg/dL (born 1985-1987) to 19 μg/dL (born 1963-1972). IQs were adjusted for confounders-education, gender, ethnicity, region, urban status. To control for age, we analyzed IQ data for a second adult sample (N=800), tested in 1995-all born when BLLs were high (1951-1975, BLL ≥ 15 μg/dL). When controlling for education, gender, ethnicity, and region, the regression of IQs on BLLs was significant (r=-0.84, pIQ points (95% CI, 1.4-6.2). Also controlling for urban status produced significance (r=-0.88, paging as a confounder. The dramatic societal decreases in BLLs in the U.S. since the 1970s were associated with a 4-5-point increase in the mean IQs of Americans. This effect is consistent with researchers' predictions; however, other variables (e.g., medical advances) may have contributed to the IQ gains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of Childhood Blood Lead Levels With Cognitive Function and Socioeconomic Status at Age 38 Years and With IQ Change and Socioeconomic Mobility Between Childhood and Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Aaron; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Broadbent, Jonathan; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Houts, Renate M; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2017-03-28

    Many children in the United States and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain. To test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with cognitive function and socioeconomic status in adulthood and with changes in IQ and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and midlife. A prospective cohort study based on a population-representative 1972-1973 birth cohort from New Zealand; the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study observed participants to age 38 years (until December 2012). Childhood lead exposure ascertained as blood lead levels measured at age 11 years. High blood lead levels were observed among children from all socioeconomic status levels in this cohort. The IQ (primary outcome) and indexes of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed (secondary outcomes) were assessed at age 38 years using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV; IQ range, 40-160). Socioeconomic status (primary outcome) was assessed at age 38 years using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index-2006 (NZSEI-06; range, 10 [lowest]-90 [highest]). Of 1037 original participants, 1007 were alive at age 38 years, of whom 565 (56%) had been lead tested at age 11 years (54% male; 93% white). Mean (SD) blood lead level at age 11 years was 10.99 (4.63) µg/dL. Among blood-tested participants included at age 38 years, mean WAIS-IV score was 101.16 (14.82) and mean NZSEI-06 score was 49.75 (17.12). After adjusting for maternal IQ, childhood IQ, and childhood socioeconomic status, each 5-µg/dL higher level of blood lead in childhood was associated with a 1.61-point lower score (95% CI, -2.48 to -0.74) in adult IQ, a 2.07-point lower score (95% CI, -3.14 to -1.01) in perceptual reasoning, and a 1.26-point lower score (95% CI, -2.38 to -0.14) in working memory. Associations of childhood blood lead level with deficits in

  8. Association of childhood blood-lead levels with cognitive function and socioeconomic status at age 38 years and with IQ change and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Aaron; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Broadbent, Jonathan; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Houts, Renate M.; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Many children in the US and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain. Objective To test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with cognitive function and socioeconomic status in adulthood and with changes in IQ and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and midlife. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective cohort study based on a population-representative 1972–73 birth cohort from New Zealand, the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, followed to age 38 years (December, 2012). Exposure Childhood lead exposure ascertained as blood-lead levels measured at 11 years. High blood-lead levels were observed among children from all socioeconomic status levels in this cohort. Main Outcomes and Measures The IQ (primary outcome) and indexes of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed (secondary outcomes) were assessed at 38 years using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–IV (WAIS-IV; IQ range 40–160). Socioeconomic status (primary outcome) was assessed at 38 years using the New Zealand Socioeconomic Index-2006, (NZSEI-06; range 10=lowest-90=highest). Results Of 1037 original participants, 1007 were alive at 38 years, of whom 565 (56%) had been lead tested at 11 years (54% male; 93% white). Mean blood-lead level at 11 years was 10.99μg/dL (SD=4.63). Among blood-tested participants included at 38 years, mean WAIS-IV score was 101.16 (SD=14.82) and mean NZSEI-06 score was 49.75 (SD=17.12). After adjusting for maternal IQ, childhood IQ, and childhood socioeconomic status, each 5μg/dL higher level of blood-lead in childhood was associated with a 1.61-point lower score (95%CI:−2.48, −0.74) in adult IQ, a 2.07-point lower score (95%CI: −3.14, −1.01) in Perceptual Reasoning, and a 1.26-point lower score (95%CI: −2.38, −0.14) in Working Memory. Lead

  9. Breastfeeding and Childhood IQ: The Mediating Role of Gray Matter Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.; Belden, Andy C.; Whalen, Diana; Harms, Michael P.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A substantial body of literature has established the positive effect of breastfeeding on child developmental outcomes. There is increasing consensus that breastfed children have higher IQs after accounting for key variables, including maternal education, IQ, and socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional investigations of the effects of breastfeeding on structural brain development suggest that breastfed infants have larger whole brain, cortical, and white matter volumes. To date, few studies have related these measures of brain structure to IQ in breastfed versus nonbreastfed children in a longitudinal sample. Method Data were derived from the Preschool Depression Study (PDS), a prospective longitudinal study in which children and caregivers were assessed annually for 8 waves over 11 years. A subset completed neuroimaging between the ages of 9.5 and 14.11 years. A total of 148 individuals had breastfeeding data at baseline and complete data on all variables of interest, including IQ and structural neuroimaging. General linear models and process mediation models were used. Results Breastfed children had significantly higher IQ scores and larger whole brain, total gray matter, total cortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter volumes compared with the nonbreastfed group in models that covaried for key variables. Subcortical gray matter volume significantly mediated the association between breast-feeding and children's IQ scores. Conclusion The study findings suggest that the effects of breastfeeding on child IQ are mediated through subcortical gray volume. This effect and putative mechanism is of public health significance and further supports the importance of breastfeeding in mental health promotion. PMID:27126850

  10. Breastfeeding and Childhood IQ: The Mediating Role of Gray Matter Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L; Belden, Andy C; Whalen, Diana; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-05-01

    A substantial body of literature has established the positive effect of breastfeeding on child developmental outcomes. There is increasing consensus that breastfed children have higher IQs after accounting for key variables, including maternal education, IQ, and socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional investigations of the effects of breastfeeding on structural brain development suggest that breastfed infants have larger whole brain, cortical, and white matter volumes. To date, few studies have related these measures of brain structure to IQ in breastfed versus nonbreastfed children in a longitudinal sample. Data were derived from the Preschool Depression Study (PDS), a prospective longitudinal study in which children and caregivers were assessed annually for 8 waves over 11 years. A subset completed neuroimaging between the ages of 9.5 and 14.11 years. A total of 148 individuals had breastfeeding data at baseline and complete data on all variables of interest, including IQ and structural neuroimaging. General linear models and process mediation models were used. Breastfed children had significantly higher IQ scores and larger whole brain, total gray matter, total cortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter volumes compared with the nonbreastfed group in models that covaried for key variables. Subcortical gray matter volume significantly mediated the association between breastfeeding and children's IQ scores. The study findings suggest that the effects of breastfeeding on child IQ are mediated through subcortical gray volume. This effect and putative mechanism is of public health significance and further supports the importance of breastfeeding in mental health promotion. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Does IQ Moderate the Relation between Psychopathy and Juvenile Offending?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Ashley S.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence indicates that both psychopathy and intelligence independently predict juvenile offending, relations among IQ, psychopathy, and offending are inconsistent. We investigated whether intelligence moderates the relation between psychopathy and aggressive and income offending concurrently and over time among 1,354 juvenile offenders enrolled in Pathways to Desistance, a prospective study of serious juvenile offenders in Philadelphia and Phoenix. Participants were assessed on intelligence, psychopathy, and self-reported offending both at their initial interview (ages 14–18 years old), and 36 and 84 months later. Results indicate that intelligence moderates the concurrent relation between both aggressive and income offending and total psychopathy, as well as scores on Factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and Factor 2 (social deviance); the 36-month prospective relation between all aspects of psychopathy and income offending; and the 84-month prospective relation between Factor 2 psychopathy and aggressive offending. As expected, higher levels of psychopathy are associated with higher levels of offending, but the highest levels of offending are evinced among youth with relatively higher levels of psychopathy and relatively higher IQ. PMID:23750597

  12. Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... on. Photo: Getty image (StockDisc) Youths with superior IQ are distinguished by how fast the thinking part ...

  13. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Akuntansi Pada IQ Salon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Imam Santoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recording of transactions and financial statements of the manual on IQ Salon raises the risk of error in the financial records are not fast and precise, and cause difficulties with the increasing transaction will occur in the future. The purpose of this research is to design accounting information systems (AIS to prepare financial statements to the income statement and provide convenience in recording daily transactions and the financial statements in order to avoid mistakes. The design used in this study is a Waterfall and programming used is PHP and MySQL as the database. The design uses modeling context diagram, Data Flow Diagrams (DFD, Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD. Accounting information system on IQ Salon built using the programming language PHP and MySQL as the database generates Journal report, Balance Sheet and Income Ledger. The report simplify IQ Salon owners to control and make decisions. It is also easier for employees to serve customers in the event of payment of the services that have been awarded Keywords : DFD; IQ Salon; MySQL; PHP; IAS; Waterfall

  14. IQ Zoo and Teaching Operant Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihm, Elson M.; Gillaspy, J. Arthur, Jr.; Lammers, William J.; Huffman, Stephanie P.

    2010-01-01

    Psychology texts often cite the work of Marian and Keller Breland and their business, Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE), to demonstrate operant conditioning and the "misbehavior of organisms" from an evolutionary perspective. Now available on the Internet at the official IQ Zoo website (http://www3.uca.edu/iqzoo/), the artifacts of ABE's work, in…

  15. Natural IQ: Investigating questions about climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babs McDonald; Jessica Nickelsen; Julia Dobish; Elissa Riley; Michelle Andrews; Emily Melear-Daniels

    2014-01-01

    Scientists report their research in journals, which are special booklets that enable scientists to share information with one another. This journal, Natural IQ, was created so that scientists can share their research with you and with other middle school students. Each article tells you about scientific research conducted by scientists in the Forest Service, U.S....

  16. Childhood IQ and all-cause mortality before and after age 65: prospective observational study linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 and the Midspan studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C L; Taylor, M D; Smith, G Davey; Whalley, L J; Starr, J M; Hole, D J; Wilson, V; Deary, I J

    2005-05-01

    The objective was to investigate how childhood IQ related to all-cause mortality before and after age 65. The Midspan prospective cohort studies, followed-up for mortality for 25 years, were linked to individuals' childhood IQ from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932. The Midspan studies collected data on risk factors for cardiorespiratory disease from a questionnaire and at a screening examination, and were conducted on adults in Scotland in the 1970s. An age 11 IQ from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932, a cognitive ability test conducted on 1921-born children attending schools in Scotland, was found for 938 Midspan participants. The relationship between childhood IQ and mortality risk, adjusting for adulthood socio-economic confounders, was analysed. The effect of adjustment for childhood IQ on the relationship between established risk factors (blood pressure, smoking, height and respiratory function) and mortality was also investigated. For deaths occurring up to age 65, there was a 36% increased risk per standard deviation decrease (15 points) in childhood IQ which was reduced to 29% after adjusting for social class and deprivation category. There was no statistically significant relationship between childhood IQ and deaths occurring after the age of 65. Adjustment for childhood IQ attenuated the risk factor-mortality relationship in deaths occurring up to age 65, but had no effect in deaths occurring after age 65. Childhood IQ was significantly related to deaths occurring up to age 65, but not to deaths occurring after age 65.

  17. Study on improved Ip-iq APF control algorithm and its application in micro grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xifeng; Shi, Hua; Deng, Haiyingv

    2018-01-01

    In order to enhance the tracking velocity and accuracy of harmonic detection by ip-iq algorithm, a novel ip-iq control algorithm based on the Instantaneous reactive power theory is presented, the improved algorithm adds the lead correction link to adjust the zero point of the detection system, the Fuzzy Self-Tuning Adaptive PI control is introduced to dynamically adjust the DC-link Voltage, which meets the requirement of the harmonic compensation of the micro grid. Simulation and experimental results verify the proposed method is feasible and effective in micro grid.

  18. Future Cognitive Ability: US IQ Prediction until 2060 Based on NAEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The US National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) measures cognitive competences in reading and mathematics of US students (last 2012 survey N = 50,000). The long-term development based on results from 1971 to 2012 allows a prediction of future cognitive trends. For predicting US averages also demographic trends have to be considered. The largest groups’ (White) average of 1978/80 was set at M = 100 and SD = 15 and was used as a benchmark. Based on two past NAEP development periods for 17-year-old students, 1978/80 to 2012 (more optimistic) and 1992 to 2012 (more pessimistic), and demographic projections from the US Census Bureau, cognitive trends until 2060 for the entire age cohort and ethnic groups were estimated. Estimated population averages for 2060 are 103 (optimistic) or 102 (pessimistic). The average rise per decade is dec = 0.76 or 0.45 IQ points. White-Black and White-Hispanic gaps are declining by half, Asian-White gaps treble. The catch-up of minorities (their faster ability growth) contributes around 2 IQ to the general rise of 3 IQ; however, their larger demographic increase reduces the general rise at about the similar amount (-1.4 IQ). Because minorities with faster ability growth also rise in their population proportion the interactive term is positive (around 1 IQ). Consequences for economic and societal development are discussed. PMID:26460731

  19. Perceptual speed and IQ are associated through common genetic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma, D.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2001-01-01

    Individual differences in inspection time explain about 20% of IQ test variance. To determine whether the association between inspection time and IQ is mediated by common genes or by a common environmental factor, inspection time and IQ were assessed in an extended twin design. Data from 688

  20. Effects of Reinforcement on the IQ Scores of Preschool Children as a Function of Initial IQ

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Richard H.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of tokens as reinforcers on IQ test performance was investigated in 45 preschool Head Start children. There were 63 children assessed using the Slosson Intelligence Test for Children (SIT), and based upon these scores, were divided into three IQ groups: low, average and high. There were 15 children randomly selected from each group and within each of these groups, subjects were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Control (C) , Pretest experimental (E1), and no pretest ex...

  1. Measurement confounding affects the extent to which verbal IQ explains social gradients in mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin; Fiscella, Kevin; Duberstein, Paul; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter

    2014-08-01

    IQ is thought to explain social gradients in mortality. IQ scores are based roughly equally on Verbal IQ (VIQ) and Performance IQ tests. VIQ tests, however, are suspected to confound true verbal ability with socioeconomic status (SES), raising the possibility that associations between SES and IQ scores might be overestimated. We examined, first, whether two of the most common types of VIQ tests exhibited differential item functioning (DIF) favouring persons of higher SES and/or majority race/ethnicity. Second, we assessed what impact, if any, this had on estimates of the extent to which VIQ explains social gradients in mortality. Data from the General Social Survey-National Death Index cohort, a US population representative dataset, was used. Item response theory models queried social-factor DIF on the Thorndike Verbal Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, Revised Similarities test. Cox models examined mortality associations among SES and VIQ scores corrected and uncorrected for DIF. When uncorrected for DIF, VIQ was correlated with income, education, occupational prestige and race, with correlation coefficients ranging between |0.12| and |0.43|. After correcting for DIF, correlations ranged from |0.06| to |0.16|. Uncorrected VIQ scores explained 11-40% of the Relative Index of Inequalities in mortality for social factors, while DIF-corrected scores explained 2-29%. Two of the common forms of VIQ tests appear confound verbal intelligence with SES. Since these tests appear in most IQ batteries, circumspection may be warranted in estimating the amount of social inequalities in mortality attributable to IQ. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Association of maternal and paternal IQ with offspring conduct, emotional and attention problem scores: trans-generational evidence from the 1958 British birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Elise; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Batty, G. David

    2014-01-01

    Context Lower IQ individuals have an increased risk of psychological disorders, mental health problems, and suicide; similarly, children with low IQ scores are more likely to have behavioural, emotional and anxiety disorders. However, very little is known about the impact of parental IQ on the mental health outcomes of their children. Objective To determine whether maternal and paternal IQ score is associated with offspring conduct, emotional and attention scores. Design Cohort. Setting General population. Participants Members of 1958 National Child Development Study and their offspring. Of 2,984 parent-offspring pairs, with non-adopted children aged 4+ years, 2,202 pairs had complete data on all variables of interest and were included in the analyses. Outcome measure Offspring conduct, emotional and attention scores based on Behavioural Problems Index for children aged 4-6 years or the Rutter A scale for children aged 7 and over. Results There was little evidence of any association of parental IQ with conduct or emotional problems in younger (aged 4-6) children. However, among children aged 7+, there was strong evidence from age- and sex-adjusted models to support a decrease in conduct, emotional and attention problems in those whose parents had higher IQ scores. These associations were linear across the full IQ range. Individual adjustments for socioeconomic status and child’s own IQ had limited impact while adjustments for Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores and parental malaise attenuated associations with mother’s IQ but, again, had little impact on associations with father’s IQ. Strong associations were no longer evident in models that simultaneously adjusted for all four potential mediating variables. Conclusions Children whose parents score poorly on IQ tests may have an increased risk of conduct, emotional and attention problems. Home environment, parental malaise, and child’s own IQ may have a role in explaining these

  3. Neo-Liberal Transformation in Turkish Higher Education System: A New Story of a Turning Point: Draft Proposition on the Higher Education Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Gülay

    2014-01-01

    Neo-liberal policies have been affecting in waves all public services in Turkey since 1980s. The most affected institutions in this process were education in general and the higher education institutions in particular. This article consists of two dimensions. In the first dimension, the process, in which the neo-liberal policies started with a…

  4. Humor processing in children: influence of temperament, age and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrticka, Pascal; Black, Jessica M; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-11-01

    Emerging evidence from fMRI studies suggests that humor processing is a specific social cognitive-affective human function that comprises two stages. The first stage (cognitive humor component) involves the detection and resolution of incongruity, and is associated with activity in temporo-occipito-parietal brain areas. The second stage (emotional humor component) comprises positive feelings related to mirth/reward, and is linked with reward-related activity in mesocorticolimbic circuits. In healthy adults, humor processing was shown to be moderated by temperament traits like intro-/extraversion, neuroticism, or social anxiety, representing risk factors for psychopathology. However, comparable data from early developmental stages is crucially lacking. Here, we report for the first time data from 22 children (ages 6 to 13) revealing an influence of temperament on humor processing. Specifically, we assessed the effects of Emotionality, Shyness, and Sociability, which are analogous to neuroticism, behavioral inhibition/fear and extraversion in adults. We found Emotionality to be positively, but Shyness negatively associated with brain activity linked with both cognitive and emotional humor components. In addition, Shyness and Sociability were positively related to activity in the periaqueductal gray region during humor processing. These findings are of potential clinical relevance regarding the early detection of childhood psychopathology. Previous data on humor processing in both adults and children furthermore suggest that intelligence (IQ) supports incongruity detection and resolution, whereas mirth and associated brain activity diminishes with increasing age. Here, we found that increasing age and IQ were linked with stronger activity to humor in brain areas implicated in the cognitive component of humor. Such data suggest that humor processing undergoes developmental changes and is moderated by higher IQ scores, both factors likely improving incongruity detection

  5. Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and IQ in 7-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Maryse F; Chevrier, Jonathan; Harley, Kim G; Kogut, Katherine; Vedar, Michelle; Calderon, Norma; Trujillo, Celina; Johnson, Caroline; Bradman, Asa; Barr, Dana Boyd; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2011-08-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are neurotoxic at high doses. Few studies have examined whether chronic exposure at lower levels could adversely affect children's cognitive development. We examined associations between prenatal and postnatal exposure to OP pesticides and cognitive abilities in school-age children. We conducted a birth cohort study (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas study) among predominantly Latino farmworker families from an agricultural community in California. We assessed exposure to OP pesticides by measuring dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites in urine collected during pregnancy and from children at 6 months and 1, 2, 3.5, and 5 years of age. We administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition, to 329 children 7 years of age. Analyses were adjusted for maternal education and intelligence, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score, and language of cognitive assessment. Urinary DAP concentrations measured during the first and second half of pregnancy had similar relations to cognitive scores, so we used the average of concentrations measured during pregnancy in further analyses. Averaged maternal DAP concentrations were associated with poorer scores for Working Memory, Processing Speed, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, and Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ). Children in the highest quintile of maternal DAP concentrations had an average deficit of 7.0 IQ points compared with those in the lowest quintile. However, children's urinary DAP concentrations were not consistently associated with cognitive scores. Prenatal but not postnatal urinary DAP concentrations were associated with poorer intellectual development in 7-year-old children. Maternal urinary DAP concentrations in the present study were higher but nonetheless within the range of levels measured in the general U.S. population.

  6. Regular breakfast consumption is associated with increased IQ in kindergarten children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Dickerman, Barbra; Compher, Charlene

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies have documented a positive relationship between regular breakfast consumption and cognitive outcomes in youth. However, most of these studies have emphasized specific measures of cognition rather than cognitive performance as a broad construct (e.g., IQ test scores) and been limited to Western samples of school-age children and adolescents. This study aims to extend the literature on breakfast consumption and cognition by examining these constructs in a sample of Chinese kindergarten-age children. Methods This cross-sectional study consisted of a sample of 1,269 children (697 boys and 572 girls) aged 6 from the Chinese city of Jintan. Cognition was assessed with the Chinese version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Revised. Breakfast habits were assessed through parental questionnaire. Analyses of variance and linear regression models were used to analyze the association between breakfast habits and IQ. Socioeconomic and parental psychosocial variables related to intelligence were controlled for. Results Findings showed that children who regularly have breakfast on a near-daily basis had significantly higher full scale, verbal, and performance IQ test scores (all p breakfast. This relationship persisted for VIQ (verbal IQ) and FIQ (full IQ) even after adjusting for gender, current living location, parental education, parental occupation, and primary child caregiver. Conclusion Findings may reflect nutritional as well as social benefits of regular breakfast consumption on cognition, and regular breakfast consumption should be encouraged among young children. PMID:23395328

  7. Regular breakfast consumption is associated with increased IQ in kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Dickerman, Barbra; Compher, Charlene

    2013-04-01

    Studies have documented a positive relationship between regular breakfast consumption and cognitive outcomes in youth. However, most of these studies have emphasized specific measures of cognition rather than cognitive performance as a broad construct (e.g., IQ test scores) and have been limited to Western samples of school-age children and adolescents. This study aims to extend the literature on breakfast consumption and cognition by examining these constructs in a sample of Chinese kindergarten-age children. This cross-sectional study consisted of a sample of 1269 children (697 boys and 572 girls) aged 6 years from the Chinese city of Jintan. Cognition was assessed with the Chinese version of the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence-revised. Breakfast habits were assessed through parental questionnaire. Analyses of variance and linear regression models were used to analyze the association between breakfast habits and IQ. Socioeconomic and parental psychosocial variables related to intelligence were controlled for. Findings showed that children who regularly have breakfast on a near-daily basis had significantly higher full scale, verbal, and performance IQ test scores (all pbreakfast. This relationship persisted for VIQ (verbal IQ) and FIQ (full IQ) even after adjusting for gender, current living location, parental education, parental occupation, and primary child caregiver. Findings may reflect nutritional as well as social benefits of regular breakfast consumption on cognition, and regular breakfast consumption should be encouraged among young children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive and neuropsychological outcomes: more than IQ scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Glen P

    2002-01-01

    Improved survival in preterm infants has broadened interest in cognitive and neuropsychological outcomes. The incidence of major disabilities (moderate/severe mental retardation, neurosensory disorders, epilepsy, cerebral palsy) has remained consistent, but high prevalence/low severity dysfunctions (learning disabilities, ADHD, borderline mental retardation, specific neuropsychological deficits, behavioral disorders) have increased. The follow-up literature contains methodologic problems that make generalizations regarding outcome difficult, and these are discussed. Although mean IQs of former VLBW infants generally are in the low average range and are 3-9 points below normal birth weight peers, these scores mask subtle deficits in: visual-motor and visual-perceptual abilities, complex language functions, academics (reading, mathematics, spelling and writing), and attentional skills. There is an increased incidence of non-verbal learning disabilities, need for special educational assistance, and behavioral disorders in children born prematurely. Males have more problems, and there is a trend for worsening outcome over time, due to emergence of more subtle deficits in response to increased performance demands. In addition to IQ and achievement testing in follow-up, there should be evaluation of executive functions and attention, language, sensorimotor functions, visuospatial processes, memory and learning, and behavioral adjustment. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Working memory: Is it the new IQ?

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy Packiam Alloway; Ross G. Alloway

    2008-01-01

    Working memory, our ability to process and remember information, is linked to a range of cognitive activities from reasoning tasks to verbal comprehension. There is also extensive evidence of the relationship between working memory and learning outcomes. However, some researchers suggest that working memory is simply a proxy for IQ and does not make a unique contribution to learning outcomes. Here we show that children's working memory skills at 5 years of age was the best predictor of r...

  10. The Relationship of Internal Locus of Control, Academic Achievement, and IQ in Emotionally Disturbed Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Samual J., Jr.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Results of a study involving 63 emotionally disturbed boys (10-15 years old) revealed that Ss with a higher degree of internal lows of control (LOC) made greater gains in academic achievement. Ss' chronological ages and IQ cores did not affect their degree of internal LOC. (Author/CL)

  11. The Performance-Verbal IQ Discrepancy in Differentiated Subgroups of Delinquent Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Ira H.; Jurkovic, Gregory J.

    1978-01-01

    The validity of Wechsler's Performance--Verbal IQ sign was examined for psychopathic, neurotic, and subcultural delinquent boys. The psychopathic group scored significantly higher on the performance scale than on the verbal scale, and lower on the comprehension subtest than the other groups. Findings were related to characteristics common to…

  12. Pervasiveness of the IQ rise: a cross-temporal meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Pietschnig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Generational IQ gains in the general population (termed the Flynn effect show an erratic pattern across different nations as well as across different domains of intelligence (fluid vs crystallized. Gains of fluid intelligence in different countries have been subject to extensive research, but less attention was directed towards gains of crystallized intelligence, probably due to evidence from the Anglo-American sphere suggesting only slight gains on this measure. In the present study, development of crystallized intelligence in the German speaking general population is assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate whether IQ gains for crystallized intelligence are in progress in German-speaking countries, two independent meta-analyses were performed. By means of a cited reference search in ISI Web of Science, all studies citing test manuals and review articles of two widely-used salient measures of crystallized intelligence were obtained. Additionally, the electronic database for German academic theses was searched to identify unpublished studies employing these tests. All studies reporting participants mean IQ or raw scores of at least one of the two measures were included in the present analyses, yielding over 500 studies (>1,000 samples; >45,000 individuals. We found a significant positive association between years of test performance and intelligence (1971-2007 amounting to about 3.5 IQ points per decade. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study clearly demonstrates that crystallized IQ gains are substantial and of comparable strength as Flynn effects typically observed for measures of fluid intelligence in Central Europe. Since mean IQ was assessed in a large number of small, non-representative samples, our evidence suggests a remarkable robustness of these gains. Moreover, in both meta-analyses strength of gains was virtually identical. On the whole, results of the present study demonstrate a pervasive and generalizing

  13. Brighter children? The association between seasonality of birth and child IQ in a population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootendorst-van Mil, Nina H; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-02-17

    Season of birth has repeatedly been found to be a risk indicator for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Several explanations for this finding have been put forward but no conclusion has been reached. In the current study, we explored the role of sociodemographic and biological factors in the association between season of birth and child IQ. In a prenatally recruited birth cohort (born in 2002-2006), we examined the association between season of birth and non-verbal IQ at age 6 years among 6034 children. We explored how adjusting for socioeconomic status and maternal IQ, childbirth outcomes, pregnancy vitamin D status, nutritional intake, exposure to infections, and child age relative to peers in class changed the relation between season of birth and child IQ. We found that spring birth was associated with lower non-verbal IQ (estimate: more than 1 point; β-1.24 (95% CI -2.31 to -0.17), p=0.02; seasonal trend β-0.40 (95% CI -0.74 to -0.07), p=0.02) than birth in summer. Adjustment for different covariates led to a substantial reduction (-65.0% change, in a seasonal trend analysis) of this association. In particular, sociodemographic factors and maternal IQ (-10.0% and -22.5% change, respectively) contributed. Season of birth is an indicator of many underlying factors related to child IQ. The observed effects on IQ were small and therefore not of clinical significance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Premorbid IQ Predicts Postconcussive Symptoms in OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with mTBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Willis, Jada J; Heyanka, Daniel; Proctor-Weber, Zoe; England, Heather; Bruhns, Maya

    2018-03-01

    Extant literature has demonstrated that symptoms of postconcussive syndrome (PCS) persist well beyond the expected 3-month post-injury recovery period in a minority of individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Suboptimal performance on validity measures and pre- and post-injury psychosocial stressors - rather than actual mTBI or current cognitive functioning - have been identified as predictors of chronic PCS. Whether premorbid IQ has any influence on chronic PCS has been understudied, in the context of established psychogenic etiologies. The sample included 31 veterans, who underwent mTBI neuropsychological evaluations six or more months post-injury in a VA outpatient neuropsychology clinic. A two-step multiple linear regression was conducted to examine the effects on the outcome variable, PCS (Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory), of the following predictors: cognitive functioning (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status; Attention, Immediate Memory, and Delayed Memory Indices), performance validity, depression (Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist, Civilian Version), quality of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), pain (Brief Pain Inventory), education, and Premorbid IQ (Wechsler Test of Adult Reading). The overall regression model containing all nine predictor variables was statistically significant. Depression (p IQ (p IQ and greater endorsed symptoms of depression were associated with higher PCS scores. In Step 2 of the multiple linear regression, the WTAR explained an additional 6.7% of the variance in PCS after controlling for psychosocial stressors and current cognitive ability. The findings support premorbid IQ as a unique and relevant predictor of chronic PCS, with significance variance accounted for beyond education, cognitive functioning, and psychosocial variables. Given the predictive relationship between premorbid IQ and PCS, adapting postconcussive

  15. Performance Characteristics of the Whole-Body Discovery IQ PET/CT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynés-Llompart, Gabriel; Gámez-Cenzano, Cristina; Romero-Zayas, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Bel, Laura; Vercher-Conejero, José L; Martí-Climent, Josep M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the physical performance of a new PET/CT system, the Discovery IQ with 5-ring detector blocks. Methods: Performance was measured using the National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU2-2012 methodology. Image quality was extended by accounting for different acquisition parameters (lesion-to-background ratios [8:1, 4:1, and 2:1] and acquisition times) and reconstruction algorithms (VUE-point HD [VPHD], VPHD with point-spread-function modeling [VPHD-S], and Q.Clear). Tomographic reconstruction was also assessed using a Jaszczak phantom. Additionally, 30 patient lesions were analyzed to account for differences in lesion volume and SUV quantification between reconstruction algorithms. Results: Spatial resolution ranged from 4.2 mm at 1 cm to 8.5 mm at 20 cm. Sensitivity measured at the center and at 10 cm was 22.8 and 20.4 kps/kBq, respectively. The noise-equivalent counting rate peak was 124 kcps at 9.1 kBq/cm 3 The scatter fraction was 36.2%. The accuracy of correction for count losses and randoms was 3.9%. In the image quality test, contrast recovery for VPHD, VPHD-S, and Q.Clear ranged from 18%, 18%, and 13%, respectively (hot contrast; 10-mm sphere diameter; ratio, 2:1), to 68%, 67%, and 81%, respectively (cold contrast; 37-mm sphere diameter; ratio, 8:1). Background variability ranged from 3.4%, 3.0%, and 2.1%, respectively (ratio, 2:1), to 5.5%, 4.8%, and 3.7%, respectively (ratio, 8:1). On Q.Clear reconstruction, the decrease in the penalty term (β) increased the contrast recovery coefficients and background variability. With the Jaszczak phantom, image quality increased overall when a reconstruction algorithm modeling the point-spread function was used, and use of Q.Clear increased the signal-to-noise ratio. Lesions analyzed using VPHD-S and Q.Clear had an SUV mean of 6.5 ± 3 and 7 ± 3, respectively ( P IQ with 5-ring detector blocks has the highest overall performance, with improved sensitivity and counting rate

  16. Premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer Parnas, Annick; Jansson, Lennart; Handest, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the association between IQ and schizophrenia is still unclear. So far no study addressed this issue in relation to the breadth or scope of the very concept of schizophrenia. We examined the premorbid IQ in a polydiagnostic study with four classifications of schizophrenia: ICD-8/9, ICD......-10, St. Louis and Flexible System-Wide. Only the ICD-10 schizophrenia patients exhibited a significantly lower premorbid IQ. There were suggestive differences between the four examined systems as well as between the ICD-10 paranoid and non-paranoid subtypes. Exploration of crucial diagnostic features...... of schizophrenia in relation to IQ revealed associations between low premorbid IQ and hallucinations as well as negative symptoms. It is concluded that premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia....

  17. Three IQs of AI Systems and their Testing Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Feng; Shi, Yong; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    The rapid development of artificial intelligence has brought the artificial intelligence threat theory as well as the problem about how to evaluate the intelligence level of intelligent products. Both need to find a quantitative method to evaluate the intelligence level of intelligence systems, including human intelligence. Based on the standard intelligence system and the extended Von Neumann architecture, this paper proposes General IQ, Service IQ and Value IQ evaluation methods for intelli...

  18. Effects of sucrose and cornstarch on 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced colon and liver carcinogenesis in F344 rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R.H.; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Poulsen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of sucrose and cornstarch on colon and liver carcinogenesis induced by 0.02% of the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in the feed. Male F344 rats were allocated to four groups. Two groups were fed diets...... high in either cornstarch (68%) or sucrose (34% sucrose/34% cornstarch) and were initiated with IQ. The remaining two groups received the same two diets but did not receive any IQ. In both liver and colon, administration of IQ resulted in a higher level of DNA adducts. In animals not dosed with IQ......, sucrose increased the adduct level in both organs but to a lower level than IQ. However, simultaneous administration of IQ and sucrose did not further increase the adduct level. Both IQ and sucrose increased the expression of the DNA-repair enzyme ERCC1 in the liver. In the colon, the number of large...

  19. Modeling antibiotic and cytotoxic effects of the dimeric isoquinoline IQ-143 on metabolism and its regulation in Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Xenobiotics represent an environmental stress and as such are a source for antibiotics, including the isoquinoline (IQ) compound IQ-143. Here, we demonstrate the utility of complementary analysis of both host and pathogen datasets in assessing bacterial adaptation to IQ-143, a synthetic analog of the novel type N,C-coupled naphthyl-isoquinoline alkaloid ancisheynine. Results Metabolite measurements, gene expression data and functional assays were combined with metabolic modeling to assess the effects of IQ-143 on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and human cell lines, as a potential paradigm for novel antibiotics. Genome annotation and PCR validation identified novel enzymes in the primary metabolism of staphylococci. Gene expression response analysis and metabolic modeling demonstrated the adaptation of enzymes to IQ-143, including those not affected by significant gene expression changes. At lower concentrations, IQ-143 was bacteriostatic, and at higher concentrations bactericidal, while the analysis suggested that the mode of action was a direct interference in nucleotide and energy metabolism. Experiments in human cell lines supported the conclusions from pathway modeling and found that IQ-143 had low cytotoxicity. Conclusions The data suggest that IQ-143 is a promising lead compound for antibiotic therapy against staphylococci. The combination of gene expression and metabolite analyses with in silico modeling of metabolite pathways allowed us to study metabolic adaptations in detail and can be used for the evaluation of metabolic effects of other xenobiotics. PMID:21418624

  20. Association of paternal IQ in early adulthood with offspring mortality and hospital admissions for injuries: a cohort study of 503 492 Swedish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-07-01

    Higher intelligence (IQ) has been related to a lower risk of mortality and hospital admissions for injuries, but little is known about the effect of parental IQ on offspring outcomes. We explored associations of paternal IQ with mortality and hospitalisations for injuries from all external causes in offspring. A cohort of 503 492 Swedish children under 5 years of age with information on paternal IQ was obtained by record linkage of national registers. HR with 95% CIs were estimated using Cox regression. There was some evidence that paternal IQ was inversely associated with total and external-cause mortality in offspring, although the effects were modest and disappeared when controlling for parents' socioeconomic position (SEP). The only robust gradient was found between paternal IQ and hospital admissions for injuries (HRper 1-SD increase in IQ 0.93, 95% CI 0.92 to 0.94; pIQ may have an increased risk of injury by external causes. Messages on family safety and injury prevention might be tailored according to parental cognitive abilities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Evaluating the relationship between cannabis use and IQ in youth and young adults at clinical high risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchy, Lisa; Seidman, Larry J; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Stone, William; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Bearden, Carrie E; Mathalon, Daniel H; Addington, Jean

    2015-12-30

    Among people with psychosis, those with a history of cannabis use show better cognitive performance than those who are cannabis naïve. It is unknown whether this pattern is present in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis. We evaluated relationships between IQ and cannabis use while controlling for use of other substances known to impact cognition in 678 CHR and 263 healthy control (HC) participants. IQ was estimated using the Vocabulary and Block Design subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Drug and alcohol use severity and frequency were assessed with the Alcohol and Drug Use Scale, and we inquired participants' age at first use. CHR were further separated into early and late age at onset of cannabis use sub-groups, and low-, moderate- and high-frequency sub-groups. No significant differences in IQ emerged between CHR or HC cannabis users vs. non-users, or between use frequency groups. CHR late-onset users showed significantly higher IQ than CHR early-onset users. Age at onset of cannabis use was significantly and positively correlated with IQ in CHR only. Results suggest that age at onset of cannabis may be a more important factor for IQ than use current use or use frequency in CHR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. IQ AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ACROSS REGIONS OF THE UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Noah

    2016-05-01

    Cross-regional correlations between average IQ and socioeconomic development have been documented in many different countries. This paper presents new IQ estimates for the twelve regions of the UK. These are weakly correlated (r=0.24) with the regional IQs assembled by Lynn (1979). Assuming the two sets of estimates are accurate and comparable, this finding suggests that the relative IQs of different UK regions have changed since the 1950s, most likely due to differentials in the magnitude of the Flynn effect, the selectivity of external migration, the selectivity of internal migration or the strength of the relationship between IQ and fertility. The paper provides evidence for the validity of the regional IQs by showing that IQ estimates for UK nations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) derived from the same data are strongly correlated with national PISA scores (r=0.99). It finds that regional IQ is positively related to income, longevity and technological accomplishment; and is negatively related to poverty, deprivation and unemployment. A general factor of socioeconomic development is correlated with regional IQ at r=0.72.

  3. Permainan Tes IQ untuk Tunarungu Menggunakan Algoritma Binet Simon

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Nisva Elvira

    2016-01-01

    IQ tests for this time use formal way with several sheets of paper, answering questions and waiting for the results some time later. With the IQ test we can see the development of a child's IQ in order to remain in the position of normal or above average. For deaf children with special needs who have difficulty learning, IQ tests would be useful to measure the level of intelligence, see what makes the disorder delays the development of the concept and to their growth and development capabilit...

  4. How to Improve Interest, IQ, and Motivation of Vocational Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumual, H.; Ombuh, D. M.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of interest, motivation and IQ of students on the learning result. The survey method with quantitative approach was used in this study. The data were then analysed using path paradigm. Data were collected by questionnaire technique, special tests for IQ and documentation for learning outcomes. The results showed that the interest, IQ and the motivation influence significantly and positively on learning result as well as interest to learning motivation. However, no significant influence of IQ on Learning Motivation was detected in this research.

  5. The stability of IQ in people with low intellectual ability: an analysis of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Whitaker, Simon

    2008-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the stability of low IQ (IQ 80) was performed on IQ tests that have been\\ud commonly used—tests that were derived by D. Wechsler (1949, 1955, 1974, 1981, 1991, 1997)\\ud and those based on the Binet scales (L. M. Terman, 1960; L. M. Terman & Merrill, 1972). Weighted-\\ud mean stability coefficients of .77 and .78 were found for Verbal IQ (V IQ) and Performance IQ\\ud (P IQ) on the Wechsler tests and .82 for Full-Scale IQ (FS IQ) on both Wechsler and Binet tests,\\ud for a mean ...

  6. Pioneering studies of IQ by G.H. Thomson and J.F. Duff--an example of established knowledge subsequently 'hidden in plain sight'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-11-01

    Perhaps the earliest authoritative measurement of a social class gradient in IQ, with a stratification of occupations among the parents of children with different IQs, is seen in two fascinating papers published in 1923 and 1929 in the British Journal of Psychology. The authors were GH Thomson and JF Duff (both of whom were later knighted) and the papers' main findings were confirmed by later researchers. Results of an intelligence test administered to 13419 children aged 11-12 were analyzed according to parent's occupation. The average children's IQ at extremes of social class among their parents included clergymen-121, teachers-116 and bankers and managers-112 at the upper end; while at the lower end there were 'cripples and invalids'-94, cattlemen-93, hawkers and chimneysweeps-91, and the 'insane, criminal'-88. More than 100 specific categories of parental occupations were then combined into 13 social classes, with their children's average IQ as follows: Professional-112; Managers-110; Higher Commercial-109; Army, Navy, Police, Postmen-106; Shopkeeping-105; Engineers [ie. apprenticed craftsmen, such as mining engineers]-103; Foremen-103; Building trades-102; Metal workers, shipbuilders-101; Miscellaneous industrial workers-101; Miners and quarrymen-98; Agriculture-98; Labourers-96. A follow-up study compared an 'intelligent' group (IQ 136 plus) with a matched IQ 95-105 'control' group. IQ testing at age 11-12 was predictive of teacher's reports of higher levels of intelligence and health at age 16; and better performance in official examinations. The occupations of fathers, grandfathers and uncles were consistent with occupation being indicative of 'an inherited quality' (i.e. IQ) and there was regression from parents to grandparents and uncles among the 'intelligent' but not among controls. Other findings included a wider variance in intelligence among boys than girls, and descriptions of the predictive value of IQ in estimating future education, examinations

  7. Learning through Team Centric Exercise & Key Point Pedagogy - An effective Learning Model for Slow Learners in Higher Education Training

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal; Pradeep M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Information collected by the human mind will be correlated with the aware concepts and skills to satisfy the desired purpose. Knowledge guides to assume, use, adopt and control both physical and societal changes. Application of knowledge encourages critical or experimental understanding to constitute wisdom. The potentiality and usage of knowledge depend upon the utilization of information. Higher education institutions have to ensure transmission and dissemination of information ...

  8. Investigating the relation between striatal volume and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Penny A; Ganjavi, Hooman; Collins, D Louis; Evans, Alan C; Karama, Sherif

    2014-03-01

    The volume of the input region of the basal ganglia, the striatum, is reduced with aging and in a number of conditions associated with cognitive impairment. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relation between the volume of striatum and general cognitive ability in a sample of 303 healthy children that were sampled to be representative of the population of the United States. Correlations between the WASI-IQ and the left striatum, composed of the caudate nucleus and putamen, were significant. When these data were analyzed separately for male and female children, positive correlations were significant for the left striatum in male children only. This brain structure-behavior relation further promotes the increasingly accepted view that the striatum is intimately involved in higher order cognitive functions. Our results also suggest that the importance of these brain regions in cognitive ability might differ for male and female children.

  9. Prenatal exposure to perfluroalkyl substances and children's IQ: The Taiwan maternal and infant cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Rogan, Walter J; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Pau-Chung; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Wang, Shu-Li

    2015-10-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of fluorinated organic substances that are widely used in consumer products and are often detectable in human tissues. Human studies on prenatal exposure to PFASs and neurodevelopment in children are few and inconsistent. In the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study, we collected serum samples from pregnant women during the third trimester and measured concentrations of 9 PFASs using a high performance liquid chromatography system. A subsample of their children was assessed with full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) at both age 5 (n=120) and 8 years (n=120). We used multivariate linear regression models to examine prenatal PFAS exposure in relation to IQ scores at each age period. Prenatal perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) concentrations were inversely associated with children's PIQ scores at age 5 years, with an adjusted coefficient (β) of -1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: (-3.0, -0.2). When children reached 8 years, most of the prenatal PFASs showed inverse association with children's FSIQ, VIQ and PIQ scores. Among them, prenatal perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) reached significance. Children with higher prenatal PFNA levels had lower VIQ with an adjusted β of -2.1 (95% CI: -3.9, -0.2). We found two prenatal PFAS exposure, both long-chain PFASs, in association with decreased IQ test scores in children. Our findings suggest more studies on long-chain PFASs and children's neurodevelopment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Prefrontal cortex cytoarchitecture in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease: a relationship with IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veluw, Susanne J; Sawyer, Eva K; Clover, Linda; Cousijn, Helena; De Jager, Celeste; Esiri, Margaret M; Chance, Steven A

    2012-10-01

    We have previously shown that the minicolumnar spacing of neurons in the cerebral cortex relates to cognitive ability, and that minicolumn thinning occurs in old age. The present study examines further the relationship between cognitive ability and cortical fine structure(minicolumn organization and neuropathology) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI)and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Premortem neuropsychological scores were related to postmortem microanatomy in 58 adults (20 normal controls, 18 MCI, and 20 confirmed AD patients). We found a correspondence between minicolumn thinning in the dlPFC and IQ decline in dementia.In mild impairment, IQ remained stable, as did dlPFC minicolumn width and dlPFC plaque load. IQ only declined as dlPFC minicolumn thinning occurred and dlPFC plaque load increased in more severe dementia. By contrast, plaque load increased and minicolumns became steadily thinner in the PHG, where minicolumn width correlated with declining mini-mental state examination score across both MCI and severe dementia. By including a further 14 younger control subjects, we found that in normal healthy aging, minicolumn width decreased in the dlPFC, whereas PHG minicolumn width did not change.AD patients in our dataset with higher IQ were older at time of death and had less pathology, which supports a neural basis for the cognitive reserve hypothesis.

  11. Dynamic test of radio altimeter based on IQ modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongfei; Tian, Yu; Li, Miao

    2010-08-01

    This paper based on the analysis and research of radio altimeter and its basic principles, it introduces a design for I/Q modulator's radio altimeter testing system. Further, data got from the test had been analyzed. Combined with the testing data of the altimeter, a construction of the I/Q modulator's radio altimeter testing system is built.

  12. Development of an IQ test for New Zealand adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattie, John; Fletcher, Richard

    2008-04-01

    In 2003 and 2004 a television network in New Zealand showed a syndicated program called Test the Nation: The New Zealand IQ Test. This paper demonstrates how the IQ test was devised using item response theory, and evaluates the properties of the test using data from the TV program participants.

  13. STATUS/IQ: A Semi-Intelligent Information Retrieval System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Jayne

    1990-01-01

    Provides background on the problems of traditional text retrieval systems and describes STATUS/IQ, an advanced text retrieval system that incorporates a natural language front-end and an advanced relevance ranking facility. The principles, capabilities, and benefits of the system are discussed, and an example of a STATUS/IQ session is presented…

  14. Sucrose and IQ induced mutations in rat colon by independent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Hald, M. T.; Autrup, H.

    2004-01-01

    Sucrose-rich diets have repeatedly been observed to have co-carcinogenic actions in colon and liver of rats and to increase the number of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) induced aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. To investigate a possible interaction between sucrose and IQ...... on the genotoxicity in rat liver and colon, we gave Big Blue rats(TM) a diet containing sucrose (0%, 3.45% or 13.4% w/w) and/or IQ (70 ppm) for a period of 3 weeks. Sucrose and IQ increased the mutation frequency in the colon. The effect of combined treatments with IQ and sucrose on the mutation frequencies...... was additive indicating that sucrose and IQ act independently. This was supported by the mutation spectra where sucrose expands the background mutations in the colon, whereas IQ, in other studies, more specifically has induced G:C --> T:A transversions. In the liver IQ increased the mutation frequency, whereas...

  15. The moderating effect of estimated pre-morbid IQ on the relationship between neuropsychological status and subjective well-being after brain tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownsworth, Tamara; Dwan, Toni; Chambers, Suzanne; Walker, David G; Shum, David H K

    2014-03-01

    People with brain tumour experience complex and distressing symptoms. Neuropsychological impairment is proposed to have a negative impact on subjective well-being; however, research is yet to examine the influence of estimated premorbid IQ on this relationship. This preliminary study investigated the moderating effect of estimated premorbid IQ on the relationship between global neuropsychological status (GNF) and depression and quality of life. 73 adults (51% male) aged 21-65 years with primary brain tumour (52% benign) were administered a test battery assessing estimated premorbid IQ, GNF, depression (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales) and quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, FACT). A series of two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for education found a significant interaction between estimated premorbid IQ (low average to average vs high average) and GNF (low vs high) on levels of depression (p IQ and low GNF reported better well-being than those with low-average to average estimated premorbid IQ and low GNF. Higher GNF was related to greater functional well-being (p IQ. The finding that higher premorbid cognitive ability buffers the effect of neuropsychological impairment on emotional well-being after brain tumour advances understanding of the role of cognitive reserve in adjustment to neurological disorders. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Information processing speed as a predictor of IQ in children with and without specific language impairment in grades 3 and 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisook; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Miller, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated (1) whether nonlinguistic processing speed predicts nonverbal IQ in TD children and children with SLI and (2) if the proposed relationship is different at two time points. The participants consisted of a subset of a longitudinal dataset, 55 typically developing children and 55 children with SLI. Children completed four nonverbal speed tasks and four subtests of the WISC-III. The WISC-III subtests requiring timed and untimed responses were examined separately. Linear mixed model analyses indicated that in both groups, processing speed predicted nonverbal IQ subtests that reward speedy responses, but not IQ subtests that do not. The relationships between processing speed and IQ with speed bonuses did not differ at grades 3 and 8, and these relationships also were not significantly different in children with SLI and their TD peers. The results suggest that the presence of processing speed limitations in many children with SLI raises questions about the utility of timed nonverbal IQ measures as tools for diagnosis of SLI. Future studies should investigate other cognitive assessments that could be used as inclusionary criteria for SLI. The reader will be able to (1) describe the relationship between processing speed and nonverbal IQ in children with TD and SLI and (2) discuss problems using an IQ criterion to diagnose children as having SLI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    of a school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included. Subjects A total of 254 school lunches. Results A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars...

  18. Relationship of Child IQ to Parental IQ and Education in Children with Fetal Antiepileptic Drug Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Cohen, Morris J.; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trial designs need to control for genetic and environmental influences when examining cognitive outcomes in children for whom clinical considerations preclude randomization. However, the contributions of maternal and paternal IQ and education to pediatric cognitive outcomes are uncertain in disease populations. The NEAD Study is an ongoing prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy to determine if differential long-term ...

  19. IQ and level of alcohol consumption—findings from a national survey of Swedish conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund, Sara; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Allebeck, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Studies of the association between IQ and alcohol consumption have shown conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between IQ test results and alcohol consumption, measured as both total alcohol intake and pattern of alcohol use. The study population consists of 49,321 Swedish males born 1949 to 1951 who were conscripted for Swedish military service 1969 to 1970. IQ test results were available from tests performed at conscription. Questionnaires performed at conscription provided data on total alcohol intake (consumed grams of alcohol/wk) and pattern of drinking. Multinomial and binomial logistic regressions were performed on the cross-sectional data to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Adjustments were made for socioeconomic position as a child, psychiatric symptoms and emotional stability, and father's alcohol habits. We found an increased OR of 1.20 (1.17 to 1.23) for every step decrease on the stanine scale to be a high consumer versus a light consumer of alcohol. For binge drinking, an increased OR of 1.09 (95% CI = 1.08 to 1.11) was estimated for every step decrease on the stanine scale. Adjustment for confounders attenuated the associations. Also, IQ in adolescence was found to be inversely associated with moderate/high alcohol consumption measured in middle age. We found that lower results on IQ tests are associated with higher consumption of alcohol measured in terms of both total alcohol intake and binge drinking in Swedish adolescent men. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. IQ and Level of Alcohol Consumption—Findings from a National Survey of Swedish Conscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund, Sara; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Allebeck, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies of the association between IQ and alcohol consumption have shown conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between IQ test results and alcohol consumption, measured as both total alcohol intake and pattern of alcohol use. Methods The study population consists of 49,321 Swedish males born 1949 to 1951 who were conscripted for Swedish military service 1969 to 1970. IQ test results were available from tests performed at conscription. Questionnaires performed at conscription provided data on total alcohol intake (consumed grams of alcohol/wk) and pattern of drinking. Multinomial and binomial logistic regressions were performed on the cross-sectional data to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Adjustments were made for socioeconomic position as a child, psychiatric symptoms and emotional stability, and father's alcohol habits. Results We found an increased OR of 1.20 (1.17 to 1.23) for every step decrease on the stanine scale to be a high consumer versus a light consumer of alcohol. For binge drinking, an increased OR of 1.09 (95% CI = 1.08 to 1.11) was estimated for every step decrease on the stanine scale. Adjustment for confounders attenuated the associations. Also, IQ in adolescence was found to be inversely associated with moderate/high alcohol consumption measured in middle age. Conclusions We found that lower results on IQ tests are associated with higher consumption of alcohol measured in terms of both total alcohol intake and binge drinking in Swedish adolescent men. PMID:25702705

  1. Socioeconomic disparities and sexual dimorphism in neurotoxic effects of ambient fine particles on youth IQ: A longitudinal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Wang

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence indicates that early-life exposure to particulate air pollutants pose threats to children's cognitive development, but studies about the neurotoxic effects associated with exposures during adolescence remain unclear. We examined whether exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2.5 at residential locations affects intelligence quotient (IQ during pre-/early- adolescence (ages 9-11 and emerging adulthood (ages 18-20 in a demographically-diverse population (N = 1,360 residing in Southern California. Increased ambient PM2.5 levels were associated with decreased IQ scores. This association was more evident for Performance IQ (PIQ, but less for Verbal IQ, assessed by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. For each inter-quartile (7.73 μg/m3 increase in one-year PM2.5 preceding each assessment, the average PIQ score decreased by 3.08 points (95% confidence interval = [-6.04, -0.12] accounting for within-family/within-individual correlations, demographic characteristics, family socioeconomic status (SES, parents' cognitive abilities, neighborhood characteristics, and other spatial confounders. The adverse effect was 150% greater in low SES families and 89% stronger in males, compared to their counterparts. Better understanding of the social disparities and sexual dimorphism in the adverse PM2.5-IQ effects may help elucidate the underlying mechanisms and shed light on prevention strategies.

  2. Socioeconomic disparities and sexual dimorphism in neurotoxic effects of ambient fine particles on youth IQ: A longitudinal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younan, Diana; Franklin, Meredith; Lurmann, Fred; Wu, Jun; Baker, Laura A.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan

    2017-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that early-life exposure to particulate air pollutants pose threats to children’s cognitive development, but studies about the neurotoxic effects associated with exposures during adolescence remain unclear. We examined whether exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) at residential locations affects intelligence quotient (IQ) during pre-/early- adolescence (ages 9–11) and emerging adulthood (ages 18–20) in a demographically-diverse population (N = 1,360) residing in Southern California. Increased ambient PM2.5 levels were associated with decreased IQ scores. This association was more evident for Performance IQ (PIQ), but less for Verbal IQ, assessed by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. For each inter-quartile (7.73 μg/m3) increase in one-year PM2.5 preceding each assessment, the average PIQ score decreased by 3.08 points (95% confidence interval = [-6.04, -0.12]) accounting for within-family/within-individual correlations, demographic characteristics, family socioeconomic status (SES), parents’ cognitive abilities, neighborhood characteristics, and other spatial confounders. The adverse effect was 150% greater in low SES families and 89% stronger in males, compared to their counterparts. Better understanding of the social disparities and sexual dimorphism in the adverse PM2.5–IQ effects may help elucidate the underlying mechanisms and shed light on prevention strategies. PMID:29206872

  3. Age-related change in Wechsler IQ norms after adjustment for the Flynn effect: estimates from three computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbayani, Kristina A; Hiscock, Merrill

    2013-01-01

    A previous study found that the Flynn effect accounts for 85% of the normative difference between 20- and 70-year-olds on subtests of the Wechsler intelligence tests. Adjusting scores for the Flynn effect substantially reduces normative age-group differences, but the appropriate amount of adjustment is uncertain. The present study replicates previous findings and employs two other methods of adjusting for the Flynn effect. Averaged across models, results indicate that the Flynn effect accounts for 76% of normative age-group differences on Wechsler IQ subtests. Flynn-effect adjustment reduces the normative age-related decline in IQ from 4.3 to 1.1 IQ points per decade.

  4. Influence of maternal and paternal IQ on offspring health and health behaviours: evidence for some trans-generational effects using the 1958 British birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Elise; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Individuals scoring poorly on tests of intelligence (IQ) have been reported as having increased risk of morbidity, premature mortality, and risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, poor diet, alcohol and cigarette consumption. Very little is known about the impact of parental IQ on the health and health behaviours of their offspring. Methods We explored associations of maternal and paternal IQ scores with offspring television viewing, injuries, hospitalisations, long standing illness, height and BMI at ages 4 to 18 using data from the National Child Development Study (1958 birth cohort). Results Data were available for 1,446 mother-offspring and 822 father-offspring pairs. After adjusting for potential confounding/mediating factors, the children of higher IQ parents were less likely to watch TV (odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for watching 3+ vs. IQ: 0.75 (0.64, 0.88) or 0.78 (0.64, 0.95) respectively) and less likely to have one or more injuries requiring hospitalisation (0.77 (0.66, 0.90) or 0.72 (0.56, 0.91) respectively for maternal or paternal IQ). Conclusions Children whose parents have low IQ scores may have poorer selected health and health behaviours. Health education might usefully be targeted at these families. PMID:22541368

  5. Judicial Reliance on Parental IQ in Appellate-Level Child Welfare Cases Involving Parents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callow, Ella; Tahir, Munazza; Feldman, Maurice

    2017-05-01

    Parents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are over-represented in child welfare cases. Although IQ per se is an invalid indicator of parenting abilities, this study examined the prevalence of judicial consideration of parental IQ test evidence in US appellate cases. The present authors conducted Boolean searches of Westlaw Corporation's case database since 1999. The present authors used a six-question checklist to survey the 42 most recent American appellate cases involving termination of parental rights (TPR) decisions that included evidence of parental intellectual and developmental disabilities based on IQ. In 86% of cases, parental low IQ was presented as a barrier to parenting competence. Higher courts uphold TPR decision in 81% of cases involving parents with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Parental IQ scores are routinely relied upon to judge parenting capacity in custody cases where parents have intellectual and developmental disabilities. The present authors recommend more comprehensive assessments examining a broader range of contextual variable that may impact on parenting abilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of low-level prenatal lead exposure on child IQ at 4 and 8 years in a UK birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M; Kordas, Katarzyna; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M

    2017-09-01

    The association between childhood exposure to lead (Pb) and deficits in cognitive function is well established. The association with prenatal exposure, however, is not well understood, even though the potential adverse effects are equally important. To evaluate the association between low prenatal exposure to lead and IQ in children, to determine whether there were sex differences in the associations, and to evaluate the moderation effect of prenatal Pb exposure on child IQ. Whole blood samples from pregnant women enrolled in ALSPAC (n=4285) and from offspring at age 30 months (n=235) were analysed for Pb. Associations between prenatal blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) and child IQ at age 4 and 8 years (WPPSI and WISC-III, respectively) were examined in adjusted regression models. There was no association of prenatal lead exposure with child IQ at 4 or 8 years old in adjusted regression models, and no moderation of the association between child B-Pb and IQ. However, there was a positive association for IQ at age 8 years in girls with a predicted increase in IQ (points) per 1μg/dl of: verbal 0.71, performance 0.57, total 0.73. In boys, the coefficients tended to be negative (-0.15, -0.42 and -0.29 points, respectively). Prenatal lead exposure was not associated with adverse effects on child IQ at age 4 or 8 years in this study. There was, however, some evidence to suggest that boys are more susceptible than girls to prenatal exposure to lead. Further investigation in other cohorts is required. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Higher precision in pointing movements of the preferred vs. non-preferred hand is associated with an earlier occurrence of anticipatory postural adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bruttini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a common experience to exhibit a greater dexterity when performing a pointing movement with the preferred limb vs. the non-preferred one. Here we provide evidence that the higher precision in pointing movements of the preferred vs. non-preferred hand is associated with an earlier occurrence of the Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs.In this aim, we compared the APAs which stabilize the left or the right arm when performing a pen-pointing movement (prime mover Flexor Carpi Radialis. Moreover, we analysed the elbow and wrist kinematics as well as the precision of the pointing movement. The mean kinematics of wrist movement and its latency, with respect to prime mover recruitment, were similar in the two sides, while APAs in Triceps Brachii, Biceps Brachii and Anterior Deltoid were more anticipated when movements were performed with the preferred than with the non-preferred hand (60-70 vs. 20-30 ms. APAs amplitudes were comparable in the muscles of the two sides. Earlier APAs in the preferred limb were associated with a better fixation of the elbow, which showed a lower excursion, and with a less scattered pointing error (preferred: 10.1 ± 0.8 mm; non-preferred: 16.3 ± 1.7.Present results suggest that, by securing the more proximal joints dynamics, an appropriate timing of the intra-limb APAs is necessary for refining the voluntary movement precision, which is known to be scarce on the non-preferred side.

  8. Health impact from lead: IQ decrement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of lead, once it is in the body, are the same no matter how it enters. Exposure to lead is especially dangerous for unborn children, with high levels associated with premature birth and low birth weight. Young children are at risk because they swallow lead when they put toys or other objects soiled with lead-containing dirt in their mouths. A greater proportion of the lead ingested by children enters their bodies than enters the bodies of adults. For infants and young children, lead exposure has been shown in some studies to decrease intelligence (IQ) scores, slow growth, and cause hearing problems. These effects can last as children get older and can be permanent. Realistic risk assessment for lead-induced neurobehavioral deficit in environmentally exposed children must stem from consistent results from independent studies, as well as the documentation of dose-response relationships. At present, studies investigating such effects have not been definitive. However, taken as a whole, there is growing support for the absence of a threshold for adverse effects in exposed children. Summary of selected recent studies and the obtained data are analyzed

  9. Adolescent IQ and Survival in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Robert M.; Palloni, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This study attempts to explain the ubiquitous positive correlation between cognitive ability (IQ) and survival. Methods. A sample of 10,317 Wisconsin high school graduates of 1957 was followed until 2009, from ages 18 to 68 years. Mortality was analyzed using a Weibull survival model that includes gender, social background, Henmon–Nelson IQ, and rank in high school class. Results. Rank in high school class, a cumulative measure of responsible performance during high school, entirely mediates the relationship between adolescent IQ and survival. Its effect on survival is 3 times greater than that of IQ, and it accounts for about 10% of the female advantage in survival. Discussion. Cognitive functioning may improve survival by promoting responsible and timely patterns of behavior that are firmly in place by late adolescence. Prior research suggests that conscientiousness, one of the “Big Five” personality characteristics, plays a key role in this relationship. PMID:21743056

  10. Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Borsboom, D.; Dolan, C.V.

    2010-01-01

    Kanazawa (2008), Templer (2008), and Templer and Arikawa (2006) claimed to have found empirical support for evolutionary theories of race differences in intelligence by correlating estimates of national IQ with indicators of reproductive strategies, temperature, and geographic distance from Africa.

  11. Early Childhood IQ Trajectories in Individuals Later Developing Schizophrenia and Affective Psychoses in the New England Family Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Buka, Stephen L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Smoller, Jordan W; Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J

    2015-07-01

    Individuals who develop schizophrenia in adulthood exhibit, on average, deficits in childhood cognition relative to healthy controls. However, it remains unclear when in childhood such deficits emerge and whether they are stable across childhood or change (increase or decrease) across development. Importantly, whether the trajectory of childhood cognition differs among youth who later develop affective psychoses (AP) vs schizophrenia as adults remains unresolved. Subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project were administered the Stanford-Binet IQ test at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. A total of 9809 (54.7%) participants in the New England Study sites were tested at both ages, including 37 who later developed schizophrenia spectrum psychoses (SSP) and 39 who later developed AP. Logistic regression models examined the association of level of and change in childhood IQ and later SSP or AP. Lower overall childhood IQ was associated with higher risk of SSP. Additionally, there was a small mean increase in IQ in the SSP group relative to a mean decrease in the control group from age 4 to 7 such that positive change in IQ was significantly associated with a higher risk of SSP. Neither overall level nor change in IQ was associated with risk of AP. The results are consistent with neurocognitive impairment throughout early childhood specifically for children who later develop schizophrenia, affirming the theory of atypical neurodevelopment in premorbid schizophrenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Average County-Level IQ Predicts County-Level Disadvantage and Several County-Level Mortality Risk Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Research utilizing individual-level data has reported a link between intelligence (IQ) scores and health problems, including early mortality risk. A growing body of evidence has found similar associations at higher levels of aggregation such as the state- and national-level. At the same time, individual-level research has suggested the…

  13. Individual Differences, Aging, and IQ in Two-Choice Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2009-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in three two-choice tasks: numerosity discrimination, recognition memory, and lexical decision. The experimental data, accuracy, correct and error response times, and response time distributions, were well explained by Ratcliff’s (1978) diffusion model. The components of processing identified by the model were compared across levels of IQ (ranging from 83 to 146) and age (college students, 60-74, and 75-90 year olds). Declines in perfor...

  14. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgreen Eriksen, H-L; Mortensen, E L; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, U S

    2012-09-01

    To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Prospective follow-up study. Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy, the child's age at testing, gender, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for maternal binge drinking, age, BMI, parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. The WPPSI-R. No differences in test performance were observed between children whose mothers reported consuming between one and four or between five and eight drinks per week at some point during pregnancy, compared with children of mothers who abstained. For women who reported consuming nine or more drinks per week no differences were observed for mean differences; however, the risks of low full-scale IQ (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.2-18.2) and low verbal IQ (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.4-24.9) scores, but not low performance IQ score, were increased. Maternal consumption of low to moderate quantities of alcohol during pregnancy was not associated with the mean IQ score of preschool children. Despite these findings, acceptable levels of alcohol use during pregnancy have not yet been established, and conservative advice for women continues to be to avoid alcohol use during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  15. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, EL; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, US

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children’s intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003–2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy, the child’s age at testing, gender, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for maternal binge drinking, age, BMI, parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Main outcome measures The WPPSI-R. Results No differences in test performance were observed between children whose mothers reported consuming between one and four or between five and eight drinks per week at some point during pregnancy, compared with children of mothers who abstained. For women who reported consuming nine or more drinks per week no differences were observed for mean differences; however, the risks of low full-scale IQ (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.2–18.2) and low verbal IQ (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.4–24.9) scores, but not low performance IQ score, were increased. Conclusions Maternal consumption of low to moderate quantities of alcohol during pregnancy was not associated with the mean IQ score of preschool children. Despite these findings, acceptable levels of alcohol use during pregnancy have not yet been established, and conservative advice for women continues to be to avoid alcohol use during pregnancy. PMID:22712749

  16. Ejection fraction in myocardial perfusion imaging assessed with a dynamic phantom: comparison between IQ-SPECT and LEHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippeläinen, Eero; Mäkelä, Teemu; Kaasalainen, Touko; Kaleva, Erna

    2017-12-01

    Developments in single photon emission tomography instrumentation and reconstruction methods present a potential for decreasing acquisition times. One of such recent options for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is IQ-SPECT. This study was motivated by the inconsistency in the reported ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular (LV) volume results between IQ-SPECT and more conventional low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimation protocols. IQ-SPECT and LEHR quantitative results were compared while the equivalent number of iterations (EI) was varied. The end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic volumes (ESV) and the derived EF values were investigated. A dynamic heart phantom was used to produce repeatable ESVs, EDVs and EFs. Phantom performance was verified by comparing the set EF values to those measured from a gated multi-slice X-ray computed tomography (CT) scan (EF True ). The phantom with an EF setting of 45, 55, 65 and 70% was imaged with both IQ-SPECT and LEHR protocols. The data were reconstructed with different EI, and two commonly used clinical myocardium delineation software were used to evaluate the LV volumes. The CT verification showed that the phantom EF settings were repeatable and accurate with the EF True being within 1% point from the manufacture's nominal value. Depending on EI both MPI protocols can be made to produce correct EF estimates, but IQ-SPECT protocol produced on average 41 and 42% smaller EDV and ESV when compared to the phantom's volumes, while LEHR protocol underestimated volumes by 24 and 21%, respectively. The volume results were largely similar between the delineation methods used. The reconstruction parameters can greatly affect the volume estimates obtained from perfusion studies. IQ-SPECT produces systematically smaller LV volumes than the conventional LEHR MPI protocol. The volume estimates are also software dependent.

  17. Suicide attempt predicted by academic performance and childhood IQ: a cohort study of 26 000 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörberg Wallin, A; Zeebari, Z; Lager, A; Gunnell, D; Allebeck, P; Falkstedt, D

    2018-04-01

    Academic performance in youth, measured by grade point average (GPA), predicts suicide attempt, but the mechanisms are not known. It has been suggested that general intelligence might underlie the association. We followed 26 315 Swedish girls and boys in population-representative cohorts, up to maximum 46 years of age, for the first suicide attempt in hospital records. Associations between GPA at age 16, IQ measured in school at age 13 and suicide attempt were investigated in Cox regressions and mediation analyses. There was a clear graded association between lower GPA and subsequent suicide attempt. With control for potential confounders, those in the lowest GPA quartile had a near five-fold risk (HR 4.9, 95% CI 3.7-6.7) compared to those in the highest quartile. In a mediation analysis, the association between GPA and suicide attempt was robust, while the association between IQ and suicide attempt was fully mediated by GPA. Poor academic performance in compulsory school, at age 16, was a robust predictor of suicide attempt past young adulthood and seemed to account for the association between lower childhood IQ and suicide attempt. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Executive functioning in high-IQ adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, K M; Faraone, S V; Maglione, K; Doyle, A E; Fried, R; Seidman, L J; Biederman, J

    2010-11-01

    To examine the association between psychological tests of executive functioning and functional outcomes among high-IQ adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Subjects were high-IQ adults with (n=64) and without ADHD (n=53). Subjects were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests assessing executive functioning. High-IQ adults with ADHD performed less well than those without ADHD on several psychological tests of executive functioning, including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Color and Word Test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and an auditory continuous performance test (CPT). Test performance in the high-IQ adult ADHD group, however, was average. In the entire sample, performance on several tests of executive functioning including the ROCF and the CVLT were significant predictors of real-world functioning. High-IQ adults with ADHD perform less well on tests of executive functioning relative to high-IQ control participants. Performance on several tests of executive functioning was a significant predictor of functioning.

  19. Associations between childhood intelligence (IQ), adult morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Alixe H M; Starr, John M; Whalley, Lawrence J

    2010-02-01

    Intelligence is a life-long trait that exerts powerful influences on educational success, occupational status, use of health services, life style and recreational choices. Until recently, the influence of cognitive performance on time to death was thought largely to be based on failing cognition in the time immediately before death or because lower mental ability was associated with low socioeconomic status and socioeconomic disadvantage. Children who were systematically IQ tested early in the twentieth century have now completed most of their life expectancy and permit evaluation of a possible link between childhood IQ and survival. This link is discussed as it affects people with intellectual disability and as a possible contributor to the acquisition of a healthy life style or use of health services. Studies on the topic are affected by many methodological pitfalls. Recently, as cohorts IQ tested as adolescents have completed middle age, new relevant data have become available. These suggest that earlier attempts to tease out the confounding effects of socioeconomic status on the relationship between childhood IQ and mortality did not take account of the full effects of childhood adversity on IQ and disease risk. When statistical models that include childhood adversity are tested, these attenuate and sometimes remove the contribution of IQ to morbidity and premature death. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Familial covariation of facial emotion recognition and IQ in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andric, Sanja; Maric, Nadja P; Mihaljevic, Marina; Mirjanic, Tijana; van Os, Jim

    2016-12-30

    Alterations in general intellectual ability and social cognition in schizophrenia are core features of the disorder, evident at the illness' onset and persistent throughout its course. However, previous studies examining cognitive alterations in siblings discordant for schizophrenia yielded inconsistent results. Present study aimed to investigate the nature of the association between facial emotion recognition and general IQ by applying genetically sensitive cross-trait cross-sibling design. Participants (total n=158; patients, unaffected siblings, controls) were assessed using the Benton Facial Recognition Test, the Degraded Facial Affect Recognition Task (DFAR) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. Patients had lower IQ and altered facial emotion recognition in comparison to other groups. Healthy siblings and controls did not significantly differ in IQ and DFAR performance, but siblings exhibited intermediate angry facial expression recognition. Cross-trait within-subject analyses showed significant associations between overall DFAR performance and IQ in all participants. Within-trait cross-sibling analyses found significant associations between patients' and siblings' IQ and overall DFAR performance, suggesting their familial clustering. Finally, cross-trait cross-sibling analyses revealed familial covariation of facial emotion recognition and IQ in siblings discordant for schizophrenia, further indicating their familial etiology. Both traits are important phenotypes for genetic studies and potential early clinical markers of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clever sillies: why high IQ people tend to be deficient in common sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2009-12-01

    In previous editorials I have written about the absent-minded and socially-inept 'nutty professor' stereotype in science, and the phenomenon of 'psychological neoteny' whereby intelligent modern people (including scientists) decline to grow-up and instead remain in a state of perpetual novelty-seeking adolescence. These can be seen as specific examples of the general phenomenon of 'clever sillies' whereby intelligent people with high levels of technical ability are seen (by the majority of the rest of the population) as having foolish ideas and behaviours outside the realm of their professional expertise. In short, it has often been observed that high IQ types are lacking in 'common sense'--and especially when it comes to dealing with other human beings. General intelligence is not just a cognitive ability; it is also a cognitive disposition. So, the greater cognitive abilities of higher IQ tend also to be accompanied by a distinctive high IQ personality type including the trait of 'Openness to experience', 'enlightened' or progressive left-wing political values, and atheism. Drawing on the ideas of Kanazawa, my suggested explanation for this association between intelligence and personality is that an increasing relative level of IQ brings with it a tendency differentially to over-use general intelligence in problem-solving, and to over-ride those instinctive and spontaneous forms of evolved behaviour which could be termed common sense. Preferential use of abstract analysis is often useful when dealing with the many evolutionary novelties to be found in modernizing societies; but is not usually useful for dealing with social and psychological problems for which humans have evolved 'domain-specific' adaptive behaviours. And since evolved common sense usually produces the right answers in the social domain; this implies that, when it comes to solving social problems, the most intelligent people are more likely than those of average intelligence to have novel but

  2. In-utero exposure to bereavement and offspring IQ: a Danish national cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasveer Virk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intelligence is a life-long trait that has strong influences on lifestyle, adult morbidity and life expectancy. Hence, lower cognitive abilities are therefore of public health interest. Our primary aim was to examine if prenatal bereavement measured as exposure to death of a close family member is associated with the intelligence quotient (IQ scores at 18-years of age of adult Danish males completing a military cognitive screening examination. METHODS: We extracted records for the Danish military screening test and found kinship links with biological parents, siblings, and maternal grandparents using the Danish Civil Registration System (N = 167,900. The prenatal exposure period was defined as 12 months before conception until birth of the child. We categorized children as exposed in utero to severe stress (bereavement during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband, parent or sibling during the prenatal period; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. Mean score estimates were adjusted for maternal and paternal age at birth, residence, income, maternal education, gestational age at birth and birth weight. RESULTS: When exposure was due to death of a father the offsprings' mean IQ scores were lower among men completing the military recruitment exam compared to their unexposed counterparts, adjusted difference of 6.5 standard IQ points (p-value = 0.01. We did not observe a clinically significant association between exposure to prenatal maternal bereavement caused by death of a sibling, maternal uncle/aunt or maternal grandparent even after stratifying deaths only due to traumatic events. CONCLUSION: We found maternal bereavement to be adversely associated with IQ in male offspring, which could be related to prenatal stress exposure though more likely is due to changes in family conditions after death of the father. This finding supports other literature on maternal adversity during fetal

  3. Nilai Intelligence Quotient (Iq) Dan Nilai Ujian Modul Mahasiswa Angkatan 2013 Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sam Ratulangi

    OpenAIRE

    Reteng, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    : Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an assessment of someone's cognitive ability. The paradigm places IQ as the only predictor of success in education. Nowadays, most of universities in Indonesia place IQ score as one of the entrance requirement. However, this presumption remains controversy. Some studies show that IQ score correlates with academic achievement, while some other studies show a contrary result. This study was carried out to correlate test score with IQ score of students. This is a ...

  4. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabinsky, Marianne S; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K; Tetens, Inge

    2012-11-01

    School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality of school lunches for children aged 7-13 years. A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7-13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated against calculated nutrient contents of school lunches both provided by the school and brought from home. At eight public schools from all over Denmark, data were collected on 191 individual lunches brought from home (which is most common in Denmark) and thirty-one lunches provided as part of a school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included. A total of 254 school lunches. A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home.

  5. Hydraulic laboratory testing of Sontek-IQ Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Janice M.; Kimball, Scott

    2015-11-10

    The SonTek-IQ Plus (IQ Plus) is a bottom-mounted Doppler instrument used for the measurement of water depth and velocity. Evaluation testing of the IQ Plus was performed to assess the accuracy of water depth, discharge, and velocity measurements. The IQ Plus met the manufacturer’s specifications and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) standard for depth accuracy measurement when the unit was installed, according to the manufacturer’s instructions, at 0 degrees pitch and roll. However, because of the limited depth testing conducted, the depth measurement is not recommended as a primary stage measurement. The IQ Plus was tested in a large indoor tilting flume in a 5-foot (ft) wide, approximately 2.3-ft deep section with mean velocities of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 ft per second. Four IQ Plus instruments using firmware 1.52 tested for water-discharge accuracy using SonTek’s “theoretical” discharge method had a negative bias of -2.4 to -11.6 percent when compared with discharge measured with a SonTek FlowTracker and the midsection discharge method. The IQ Pluses with firmware 1.52 did not meet the manufacturer’s specification of +/-1 percent for measuring velocity. Three IQ Pluses using firmware 1.60 and SonTek’s “theoretical” method had a difference of -1.6 to -7.9 percent when compared with discharge measured with a SonTek FlowTracker and the midsection method. Mean-velocity measurements with firmware 1.60 met the manufacturer’s specification and Price Type AA meter accuracy requirements when compared with FlowTracker measurements. Because of the instrument’s velocity accuracy, the SonTek-IQ Plus with firmware 1.60 is considered acceptable for use as an index velocity instrument for the USGS. The discharge computed by the SonTek-IQ Plus during the tests had a substantial negative bias and will not be as accurate as a discharge computed with the index velocity method. The USGS does not recommend the use of undocumented computation methods, such as Son

  6. Prebiotics and age, but not probiotics affect the transformation of 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) by fecal microbiota - An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Adriana; Czyżowska, Agata; Huben, Krzysztof; Sójka, Michał; Kuberski, Sławomir; Otlewska, Anna; Śliżewska, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are carcinogens which are formed in meat cooked using high-temperature methods. The human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining health in humans of different ages, and especially in the elderly. However, the GI microbiota, whose metabolism and composition changes with age, may also be responsible for the activation of mutagenic substances reaching the colon with diet. Probiotics and prebiotics are promising in terms of reducing the destructive effects of HAAs. The aim of the study was to determine if fecal microbiota derived from the feces of 27 volunteers: infants (up to 18 months), adults (aged 23-39 years), the sub-elderly (aged 64-65 years), and the elderly (aged 76-87 years), and the presence of probiotics or prebiotics, affected the transformation of IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) to 7-OH-IQ (2-amino-3,6-dihydro-3-methyl-7H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline-7-one). The compounds were identified using LC-MS(n), NMR, and FTIR. Their genotoxicity was compared in the comet assay. Individual strains capable of IQ transformation were also identified. 7-OH-IQ was detected in six persons (two children and four elderly individuals). The degree of IQ conversion ranged from 26% (4-month-old girl) to 94% (81-year-old woman) of the initial quantity. Four Enterococcus isolates: two Enterococcus faecium and two Enterococcus faecalis strains, as well as one Clostridium difficile strain (LOCK 1030, from the culture collection) converted IQ to 7-OH-IQ. The genotoxicity of samples containing 7-OH-IQ was even three times higher (P IQ and was correlated with the degree of IQ conversion and 7-OH-IQ concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Parenting Practices at 24 to 47 Months and IQ at Age 8: Effect-Measure Modification by Infant Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shiau Yun; Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Gregory, Tess; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Lynch, John W.; Smithers, Lisa G.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ) may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044). Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into ‘easy’ and ‘difficult’. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR) = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45)] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32) when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53) but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53) when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament. PMID:27027637

  8. Low childhood IQ and early adult mortality: the role of explanatory factors in the 1958 British Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus; Batty, G David; Deary, Ian J; Gale, Catharine R; Kivimäki, Mika

    2009-09-01

    To examine whether the association between childhood IQ and later mortality risk was explained by early developmental advantages or mediated by adult sociodemographic factors and health behaviors. Participants were 10 620 men and women from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study whose IQ was assessed at the age of 11 years and who were followed up to age 46. Childhood covariates included birth weight, childhood height at 11 years of age, problem behaviors, father's occupational class, parents' interest in child's education, family size, and family difficulties. Adult risk factors were assessed at ages 23, 33, and 42 years, and they included education, occupational class, marital status, smoking, BMI, alcohol use, and psychosomatic symptoms. Between ages 23 and 46 years, 192 participants died. Higher childhood IQ was related to lower mortality risk (standardized odds ratio [OR]: 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-0.93]) with no gender differences (OR: 0.81 [95% CI: 0.67-0.98] [men] and 0.79 [95% CI: 0.63-0.98] [women]). Adjusting for parents' interest in child's education attenuated the IQ-mortality association by 15% to 20%, and adult education and psychosomatic symptoms both attenuated the association by 25%. Other covariates were less influential. In a cohort of British men and women, the most important explanatory factors for the lower mortality rate among individuals with high IQ were parental interest in child's education, high adult educational level, and low prevalence of psychosomatic symptoms. However, common sociodemographic risk factors and health behaviors may not be sufficient to explain the association between IQ and early mortality completely.

  9. MRI-based intelligence quotient (IQ) estimation with sparse learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liye; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Suk, Heung-Il; Tang, Xiaoying; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel framework for IQ estimation using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. In particular, we devise a new feature selection method based on an extended dirty model for jointly considering both element-wise sparsity and group-wise sparsity. Meanwhile, due to the absence of large dataset with consistent scanning protocols for the IQ estimation, we integrate multiple datasets scanned from different sites with different scanning parameters and protocols. In this way, there is large variability in these different datasets. To address this issue, we design a two-step procedure for 1) first identifying the possible scanning site for each testing subject and 2) then estimating the testing subject's IQ by using a specific estimator designed for that scanning site. We perform two experiments to test the performance of our method by using the MRI data collected from 164 typically developing children between 6 and 15 years old. In the first experiment, we use a multi-kernel Support Vector Regression (SVR) for estimating IQ values, and obtain an average correlation coefficient of 0.718 and also an average root mean square error of 8.695 between the true IQs and the estimated ones. In the second experiment, we use a single-kernel SVR for IQ estimation, and achieve an average correlation coefficient of 0.684 and an average root mean square error of 9.166. All these results show the effectiveness of using imaging data for IQ prediction, which is rarely done in the field according to our knowledge.

  10. Solvability of a (p, n-p-type multi-point boundary-value problem for higher-order differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Liu

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the differential equation $$ (-1^{n-p} x^{(n}(t=f(t,x(t,x'(t,dots,x^{(n-1}(t, $$ subject to the multi-point boundary conditions $$displaylines{ x^{(i}(0=0 quad hbox{for }i=0,1,dots,p-1,cr x^{(i}(1=0 quad hbox{for }i=p+1,dots,n-1,cr sum_{i=1}^malpha_ix^{(p}(xi_i=0, }$$ where $1le ple n-1$. We establish sufficient conditions for the existence of at least one solution at resonance and another at non-resonance. The emphasis in this paper is that $f$ depends on all higher-order derivatives. Examples are given to illustrate the main results of this article.

  11. Using linked educational attainment data to reduce bias due to missing outcome data in estimates of the association between the duration of breastfeeding and IQ at 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Rosie P; Tilling, Kate; Boyd, Andy; Davies, Amy; Macleod, John

    2015-06-01

    Most epidemiological studies have missing information, leading to reduced power and potential bias. Estimates of exposure-outcome associations will generally be biased if the outcome variable is missing not at random (MNAR). Linkage to administrative data containing a proxy for the missing study outcome allows assessment of whether this outcome is MNAR and the evaluation of bias. We examined this in relation to the association between infant breastfeeding and IQ at 15 years, where a proxy for IQ was available through linkage to school attainment data. Subjects were those who enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in 1990-91 (n = 13 795), of whom 5023 had IQ measured at age 15. For those with missing IQ, 7030 (79%) had information on educational attainment at age 16 obtained through linkage to the National Pupil Database. The association between duration of breastfeeding and IQ was estimated using a complete case analysis, multiple imputation and inverse probability-of-missingness weighting; these estimates were then compared with those derived from analyses informed by the linkage. IQ at 15 was MNAR-individuals with higher attainment were less likely to have missing IQ data, even after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. All the approaches underestimated the association between breastfeeding and IQ compared with analyses informed by linkage. Linkage to administrative data containing a proxy for the outcome variable allows the MNAR assumption to be tested and more efficient analyses to be performed. Under certain circumstances, this may produce unbiased results. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  12. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure: effects on child IQ and learning problems at age 7 1/2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streissguth, A P; Barr, H M; Sampson, P D

    1990-10-01

    This longitudinal, prospective, population-based study examined the long-term effects of moderate prenatal alcohol exposure on 482 school aged children. Maternal reports of alcohol use obtained during pregnancy were significantly related to child IQ, achievement test scores, and classroom behaviors in second grade children, even after statistical adjustment for appropriate covariates. Consumption of two drinks per day or more on the average was related to a 7-point decrement in IQ in 7-year-old children even after statistically adjusting for appropriate covariates. Low paternal education and more children in the household were identified as environmental factors exacerbating the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on child IQ. Learning problems were associated with the alcohol "BINGE" pattern of five or more drinks on at least one occasion. This study shows that alcohol use patterns within the social drinking range can have long lasting effects on IQ and learning problems in young school aged children. These patterns should not be interpreted as biologic thresholds. It should also be noted that these are group effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, not necessarily predictable in the individual child, and that for the most part these children were functioning within the normal range of intelligence.

  13. One Century of Global IQ Gains: A Formal Meta-Analysis of the Flynn Effect (1909-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschnig, Jakob; Voracek, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The Flynn effect (rising intelligence test performance in the general population over time and generations) varies enigmatically across countries and intelligence domains; its substantive meaning and causes remain elusive. This first formal meta-analysis on the topic revealed worldwide IQ gains across more than one century (1909-2013), based on 271 independent samples, totaling almost 4 million participants, from 31 countries. Key findings include that IQ gains vary according to domain (estimated 0.41, 0.30, 0.28, and 0.21 IQ points annually for fluid, spatial, full-scale, and crystallized IQ test performance, respectively), are stronger for adults than children, and have decreased in more recent decades. Altogether, these findings narrow down proposed theories and candidate factors presumably accounting for the Flynn effect. Factors associated with life history speed seem mainly responsible for the Flynn effect's general trajectory, whereas favorable social multiplier effects and effects related to economic prosperity appear to be responsible for observed differences of the Flynn effect across intelligence domains. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Individual differences, aging, and IQ in two-choice tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2010-05-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in three two-choice tasks: numerosity discrimination, recognition memory, and lexical decision. The experimental data, accuracy, correct and error response times, and response time distributions, were well explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model. The components of processing identified by the model were compared across levels of IQ (ranging from 83 to 146) and age (college students, 60-74, and 75-90 year olds). Declines in performance with age were not significantly different for low compared to high IQ subjects. IQ but not age had large effects on the quality of the evidence that was obtained from a stimulus or memory, that is, the evidence upon which decisions were based. Applying the model to individual subjects, the components of processing identified by the model for individuals correlated across tasks. In addition, the model's predictions and the data were examined for the "worst performance rule", the finding that age and IQ have larger effects on slower responses than faster responses. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. IQ-motif peptides as novel anti-microbial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Denise T F; Lundy, Fionnuala T; Timson, David J

    2013-04-01

    The IQ-motif is an amphipathic, often positively charged, α-helical, calmodulin binding sequence found in a number of eukaryote signalling, transport and cytoskeletal proteins. They share common biophysical characteristics with established, cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides, such as the human cathelicidin LL-37. Therefore, we tested eight peptides encoding the sequences of IQ-motifs derived from the human cytoskeletal scaffolding proteins IQGAP2 and IQGAP3. Some of these peptides were able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) comparable to LL-37. In addition some IQ-motifs had activity against the fungus Candida albicans. This antimicrobial activity is combined with low haemolytic activity (comparable to, or lower than, that of LL-37). Those IQ-motifs with anti-microbial activity tended to be able to bind to lipopolysaccharide. Some of these were also able to permeabilise the cell membranes of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. These results demonstrate that IQ-motifs are viable lead sequences for the identification and optimisation of novel anti-microbial peptides. Thus, further investigation of the anti-microbial properties of this diverse group of sequences is merited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Network Analysis of Cerebellum with Respect to Crystallized IQ and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios C. Pezoulas

    2017-04-01

    results reveal that both male and female networks have small-world properties with differences in females (especially in higher IQ females indicative of higher neural efficiency in cerebellum. There is a trend toward the same direction in men, but without significant differences. Finally, three lobules showed maximum correlation with the median response time in low-IQ individuals, implying that there is an increased effort dedicated locally by this population in cognitive tasks.

  17. Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Network Analysis of Cerebellum with Respect to Crystallized IQ and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezoulas, Vasileios C; Zervakis, Michalis; Michelogiannis, Sifis; Klados, Manousos A

    2017-01-01

    both male and female networks have small-world properties with differences in females (especially in higher IQ females) indicative of higher neural efficiency in cerebellum. There is a trend toward the same direction in men, but without significant differences. Finally, three lobules showed maximum correlation with the median response time in low-IQ individuals, implying that there is an increased effort dedicated locally by this population in cognitive tasks.

  18. Baseband I/Q regeneration Method for Direct Conversion Receiver to nullify effect of I/Q mismatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct Conversion Receiver is the choice of the today’s designer for low power compact wireless receiver. DCR is attractive due to low power, small size and highly monolithic integratable structure, but distortions affect its performance.  I/Q mismatch is the one of the major distortion which is responsible for performance degradation.  In this paper, a novel method for Direct Conversion Receiver is suggested, which makes it insensitive to the I/Q mismatch. Here the classical homodyne architecture is modified to nullify effect of I/Q mismatch. The proposed method can be implemented in the Digital Signal Processing (DSP back-end section also.  This feature makes it acceptable in the already designed/functioning classical homodyne architecture based receiver.

  19. The use of IQ assessment in astronaut screening and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S L; Faulk, D; Santy, P A

    1996-12-01

    The screening and evaluation of astronaut candidates usually includes measures of cognitive and intellectual capacity. Questions of ceiling effects and discriminability when evaluating individuals assumed to be of above average intelligence should be considered. The current study examines ceiling effects and discriminability on IQ assessment between pilots vs. mission specialists and men vs. women in the selection of astronaut candidates. IQ scores on 104 male and female Shuttle astronaut candidates as measured by the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB) were analyzed via factor analyses and tests of differences between genders, selection status, and job types. Total group, gender, and job type specificity and sensitivity and overall percent correctly classified were assessed on selected vs. unselected classification. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses failed to replicate the proposed factor configuration prompting reconfigured domain scores. Analyses of differences between gender, selection, and job categories found different results when using reconfigured IQ scores compared to the original formulation. The 10 subscales performed better than overall domain scores in sensitivity, specificity, and as significant predictors of individuals selected. Both versions of Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ scores performed similarly regarding sensitivity and specificity. The reconfigured scores were better predictors of selection. Evidence for sensitivity, specificity, and classification prediction was better for subscales than overall domain scores. Some consideration to using reconfigured domain scores should be given to increase instrument utility.

  20. The Prediction, from Infancy, of Adult IQ and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Joseph F.; Holland, Cynthia R.; Wheeler, Karyn

    2007-01-01

    Young adults, originally tested as infants for their ability to process information as measured by selective attention to novelty (an operational definition of visual recognition memory), were revisited. A current estimate of IQ was obtained as well as a measure of academic achievement. Information processing ability at 6-12 months was predictive…

  1. The Importance of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Measuring IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghans, Lex; Meijers, Huub; ter Weel, Bas

    2013-01-01

    This research provides an economic model of the way people behave during an IQ test. We distinguish a technology that describes how time investment improves performance from preferences that determine how much time people invest in each question. We disentangle these two elements empirically using data from a laboratory experiment. The main…

  2. A Genetic Analysis of Brain Volumes and IQ in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Marieke; Peper, Jiska S.; van den Berg, Stephanie M.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Kahn, Rene S.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    In a population-based sample of 112 nine-year old twin pairs, we investigated the association among total brain volume, gray matter and white matter volume, intelligence as assessed by the Raven IQ test, verbal comprehension, perceptual organization and perceptual speed as assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III. Phenotypic…

  3. Normal IQ is possible in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Yasemen; Nguyen-Driver, Mina; Steiner, Robert D; Merkens, Louise; Merkens, Mark; Roullet, Jean-Baptiste; Elias, Ellen; Sarphare, Geeta; Porter, Forbes D; Li, Chumei; Tierney, Elaine; Nowaczyk, Małgorzata J; Freeman, Kurt A

    2017-08-01

    Children with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are typically reported to have moderate to severe intellectual disability. This study aims to determine whether normal cognitive function is possible in this population and to describe clinical, biochemical and molecular characteristics of children with SLOS and normal intelligent quotient (IQ). The study included children with SLOS who underwent cognitive testing in four centers. All children with at least one IQ composite score above 80 were included in the study. Six girls, three boys with SLOS were found to have normal or low-normal IQ in a cohort of 145 children with SLOS. Major/multiple organ anomalies and low serum cholesterol levels were uncommon. No correlation with IQ and genotype was evident and no specific developmental profile were observed. Thus, normal or low-normal cognitive function is possible in SLOS. Further studies are needed to elucidate factors contributing to normal or low-normal cognitive function in children with SLOS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. IQ Test Controversy: Past, Present, and Future Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, David W.

    The controversies surrounding the use of intelligence quotient (IQ) tests with children are summarized. This article discusses what intelligence is and how intelligence is measured. It also examines factors which can affect measurement, including examiner training or bias, examinee age, misinterpretation of test scores, and poor tests. The…

  5. Effects of Aging and IQ on Item and Associative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in 4 memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time (RT) distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model at the level of individual…

  6. The Correlation of IQ and Emotional Intelligence with Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabanchi, Zargham; Rastegar, Rabe'e

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of both IQ and emotional intelligence on reading comprehension in Iran. Forty-five EFL college students from Payame Noor University of Gonbad and Azad University of Gorgan participated in this study. Three independent tests were administrated, including Bar-On's emotional intelligence inventory…

  7. Defining Learning Disability: Does IQ Have Anything Significant to Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    A debate exists in the research community about replacing the traditional IQ/achievement discrepancy method for learning disability identification with a "response-to-intervention model". This new assessment paradigm uses a student's level of improvement with small-group or individual programming to determine a possible need for…

  8. A genetic analysis of brain volumes and IQ in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Marieke; Peper, Jiska S.; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Kahn, Rene S.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    In a population-based sample of 112 nine-year old twin pairs, we investigated the association among total brain volume, gray matter and white matter volume, intelligence as assessed by the Raven IQ test, verbal comprehension, perceptual organization and perceptual speed as assessed by the Wechsler

  9. Widely Linear Blind Adaptive Equalization for Transmitter IQ-Imbalance/Skew Compensation in Multicarrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    Simple analytical widely linear complex-valued models for IQ-imbalance and IQ-skew effects in multicarrier transmitters are presented. To compensate for such effects, a 4×4 MIMO widely linear adaptive equalizer is proposed and experimentally validated.......Simple analytical widely linear complex-valued models for IQ-imbalance and IQ-skew effects in multicarrier transmitters are presented. To compensate for such effects, a 4×4 MIMO widely linear adaptive equalizer is proposed and experimentally validated....

  10. Do dietary trajectories between infancy and toddlerhood influence IQ in childhood and adolescence? Results from a prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa G Smithers

    Full Text Available We examined whether trajectories of dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months of age are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ in childhood and adolescence.Participants were children enrolled in a prospective UK birth cohort (n = 7,652 who had IQ measured at age 8 and/or 15 years. Dietary patterns were previously extracted from questionnaires when children were aged 6, 15 and 24 months using principal component analysis. Dietary trajectories were generated by combining scores on similar dietary patterns across each age, using multilevel mixed models. Associations between dietary trajectories and IQ were examined in generalized linear models with adjustment for potential confounders.Four dietary pattern trajectories were constructed from 6 to 24 months of age and were named according to foods that made the strongest contribution to trajectory scores; Healthy (characterised by breastfeeding at 6 months, raw fruit and vegetables, cheese and herbs at 15 and 24 months; Discretionary (biscuits, chocolate, crisps at all ages, Traditional (meat, cooked vegetables and puddings at all ages and, Ready-to-eat (use of ready-prepared baby foods at 6 and 15 months, biscuits, bread and breakfast cereals at 24 months. In fully-adjusted models, a 1 SD change in the Healthy trajectory was weakly associated with higher IQ at age 8 (1.07 (95%CI 0.17, 1.97 but not 15 years (0.49 (-0.28, 1.26. Associations between the Discretionary and Traditional trajectories with IQ at 8 and 15 years were as follows; Discretionary; 8 years -0.35(-1.03, 0.33, 15 years -0.73(-1.33, -0.14 Traditional; 8 years -0.19(-0.71, 0.3315 years -0.41(-0.77, -0.04. The Ready-to-eat trajectory had no association with IQ at either age (8 years 0.32(-4.31, 4.95, 15 years 1.11(-3.10, 5.33.The Discretionary and Traditional dietary pattern trajectories from 6 to 24 months of age, over the period when food patterns begin to emerge, are weakly associated with IQ in adolescence.

  11. Maternal prenatal blood mercury is not adversely associated with offspring IQ at 8 years provided the mother eats fish: A British prebirth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Jean; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Gregory, Steven M; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Emond, Alan; Taylor, Caroline M

    2017-10-01

    Conflicting evidence concerning possible harm from mercury (Hg) in regard to offspring cognition if the woman eats fish has prompted this study to examine evidence from a British pre-birth cohort to investigate the relationship between the two. Pregnant women (median prenatal blood mercury 1.86μg/L) resident in the study area with delivery between April 1991 and December 1992 were followed up and verbal, performance and total intelligence quotient (IQ) of 2062 offspring were measured at age 8. Analysis treated IQ as (a) continuous and (b) the lowest 25% of the distribution. Multiple and logistic regression analyses took account of social and demographic variables. Stratification considered children of fish eaters separately. Before adjustment, mean full-scale IQ increased with increasing Hg (change with 1SD of Hg=+2.02; 95%CI+1.40,+2.64 IQ points; P mercury and offspring IQ appears to be benign provided the mother consumes fish. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  12. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Factor-Litvak

    Full Text Available Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age.In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ.Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = -2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.33, -1.05 and b = -2.69 (95% CI = -4.22, -1.16 per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4 and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1 points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning.Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children's intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance.

  13. The Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study: A Follow-Up of IQ Test Performance at Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Richard A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Intelligence quotient (IQ) test performance is reported for 93 families restudied 10 years after the Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study in 1975. Results for 426 subjects support the original finding: being reared in the IQ test culture and prevailing school culture benefits all children's IQ scores and academic achievement. (SLD)

  14. IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 promotes the malignant phenotype of invasive ductal breast carcinoma via canonical Wnt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huan-Yu; Han, Yang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Lian-He; Zheng, Xiao-Ying; Du, Jiang; Wu, Guang-Ping; Wang, En-Hua

    2017-06-01

    IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 is a scaffolding protein with multidomain which plays a role in modulating dishevelled (Dvl) nuclear translocation in canonical Wnt pathway. However, the biological function and mechanism of IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) remain unknown. In this study, we found that IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 expression was elevated in invasive ductal carcinoma, which was positively correlated with tumor grade, lymphatic metastasis, and poor prognosis. Coexpression of IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 and Dvl in the nucleus and cytoplasm of invasive ductal carcinoma was significantly correlated but not in the membrane. Postoperative survival in the patients with their coexpression in the nucleus and cytoplasm was obviously lower than that without coexpression. The positive expression rates of c-myc and cyclin D1 were significantly higher in the patients with nuclear coexpression of Dvl and IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 than that with cytoplasmic coexpression, correlating with poor prognosis. IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 significantly enhanced cell proliferation and invasion in invasive ductal carcinoma cell lines by interacting with Dvl in cytoplasm to promote Dvl nuclear translocation so as to upregulate the expression of c-myc and cyclin D1. Collectively, our data suggest that IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 may promote the malignant phenotype of invasive ductal carcinoma via canonical Wnt signaling, and it could be used as a potential prognostic biomarker for breast cancer patients.

  15. 77 FR 41464 - IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... its own investment objective, policies and restrictions. \\1\\ See Application for IndexIQ Advisors LLC... accordance with the investment objective, policies and limitations of the Fund. The Investment Advisory... Manager to select and monitor the Sub-Advisers best suited to achieve a Fund's investment objectives...

  16. Violent offending and IQ level as predictors of suicide in schizophrenia: national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Roger T; Långström, Niklas; Runeson, Bo; Lichtenstein, Paul; Fazel, Seena

    2011-08-01

    Currently there is a lack of strong epidemiological evidence for violent offending and intelligence quotient (IQ) level as predictors of suicide risk among people with schizophrenia. We interlinked several Swedish routinely collected national registers, including the Hospital Discharge, Crime, Conscript, Migration and Cause of Death Registers, to identify 13,804 patients admitted at least twice with a schizophrenia diagnosis during 1973-2004. All deaths by specific cause were ascertained and suicides identified, and rate ratios were estimated using Poisson regression models with adjustment for age and period effects. There were 871 suicides: 6.3% of the cohort. Almost 80% of these cases were aged 20-39 years, and 80% occurred within 10 years of second discharge, with almost a quarter taking place within a year. The following risk factors were identified: younger age, 15-19 versus 40 years and older (rate ratio 3.18, 95% confidence interval 1.82-5.56), male sex (rate ratio 1.37, 1.18-1.59) and history of violent offending (rate ratio 1.45, 1.21-1.73). Intelligence quotient data were unavailable for women, but in men, lower IQ appeared protective compared to those of average or higher levels of intelligence (rate ratio 0.71, 0.58-0.86). Further stratified analyses to identify effect modification indicated that the elevated risk associated with past violent offending was restricted to males, and specifically to those with a lower IQ. Further research is needed to identify additional risk and protective factors for suicide that may be unique to people diagnosed with schizophrenia, and also other modifiers of the increased risk linked with violent offending. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. What are the causal effects of breastfeeding on IQ, obesity and blood pressure? Evidence from comparing high-income with middle-income cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Marie-Jo A; Lawlor, Debbie A; Matijasevich, Alicia; Horta, Bernardo; Anselmi, Luciana; Araújo, Cora L; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Victora, Cesar G; Smith, George Davey

    2011-01-01

    Background A novel approach is explored for improving causal inference in observational studies by comparing cohorts from high-income with low- or middle-income countries (LMIC), where confounding structures differ. This is applied to assessing causal effects of breastfeeding on child blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI) and intelligence quotient (IQ). Methods Standardized approaches for assessing the confounding structure of breastfeeding by socio-economic position were applied to the British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N ≃ 5000) and Brazilian Pelotas 1993 cohorts (N ≃ 1000). This was used to improve causal inference regarding associations of breastfeeding with child BP, BMI and IQ. Analyses were extended to include results from a meta-analysis of five LMICs (N ≃ 10 000) and compared with a randomized trial of breastfeeding promotion. Findings Although higher socio-economic position was strongly associated with breastfeeding in ALSPAC, there was little such patterning in Pelotas. In ALSPAC, breastfeeding was associated with lower BP, lower BMI and higher IQ, adjusted for confounders, but in the directions expected if due to socioeconomic patterning. In contrast, in Pelotas, breastfeeding was not strongly associated with BP or BMI but was associated with higher IQ. Differences in associations observed between ALSPAC and the LMIC meta-analysis were in line with those observed between ALSPAC and Pelotas, but with robust evidence of heterogeneity detected between ALSPAC and the LMIC meta-analysis associations. Trial data supported the conclusions inferred by the cross-cohort comparisons, which provided evidence for causal effects on IQ but not for BP or BMI. Conclusion While reported associations of breastfeeding with child BP and BMI are likely to reflect residual confounding, breastfeeding may have causal effects on IQ. Comparing associations between populations with differing confounding structures can be used

  18. IQ in late adolescence/early adulthood, risk factors in middle age and later all-cause mortality in men: the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G D; Shipley, M J; Mortensen, L H

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of potential mediating factors in explaining the IQ-mortality relation. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel with IQ test results at entry into the service in late adolescence/early adulthood in the 1960/1970s...... (mean age at entry 20.4 years) participated in a telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-6. They were then followed up for mortality experience for 15 years. MAIN RESULTS: In age-adjusted analyses, higher IQ scores were associated with reduced rates of total...... mortality (hazard ratio (HR)(per SD increase in IQ) 0.71; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.81). This relation did not appear to be heavily confounded by early socioeconomic position or ethnicity. The impact of adjusting for some potentially mediating risk indices measured in middle age on the IQ-mortality relation (marital...

  19. Age-related IQ decline is reduced markedly after adjustment for the Flynn effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Mercedes D; Hiscock, Merrill

    2010-10-01

    Twenty-year-olds outperform 70-year-olds by as much as 2.3 standard deviations (35 IQ points) on subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). We show that most of the difference can be attributed to an intergenerational rise in IQ known as the Flynn effect. Normative data from different versions of the WAIS enabled us to estimate the degree to which the Flynn effect, rather than age-related decline, contributes to differences between 20- and 70-year-olds. The Flynn effect accounted for 38-67% of the apparent age-related decline on 6 of the 11 subtests. On the other 5 subtests, all of which are categorized as verbal, the Flynn effect was larger than the age-group difference. For these verbal subtests, the Flynn effect masked a modest increase in ability as individuals grow older. Overall, the Flynn effect accounted for at least 85% of the disparity between 20- and 70-year-olds.

  20. IQ subgroups in relation to neurocognitive profiles, psychopathology and brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Høj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Rostrup, Egill

    . Promorbid IQ was estimated using the Danish Adult Reading Test and current IQ using 4 subtests from Wechsler's Adult Intelligence Scale III. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups based on a combination of both IQ trajectory from premorbid levels (stable vs. deteriorating) and IQ at illness onset (high vs....... low) using the healthy controls as reference. The IQ subgroups were compared using psychopathology ratings (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale), neuropsychological assessments (Brief Assessment of Cognition in schizophrenia and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and a combined 3T......Background and Aim: Approximately half of patients with schizophrenia experience a deterioration in IQ before or around illness onset and recent studies have found apositive association between IQ and brain volume in first episode schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the combined...

  1. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. 10 year course of IQ in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of patients suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSDs) exhibit a general intellectual impairment at illness onset, but the subsequent intellectual course remains unclear. Relationships between accumulated time in psychosis and long-term intellectual functioning...... are largely uninvestigated, but may identify subgroups with different intellectual trajectories. Eighty-nine first-episode psychosis patients were investigated on IQ at baseline and at 10-years follow-up. Total time in psychosis was defined as two separate variables; Duration of psychosis before start...... of treatment (i.e. duration of untreated psychosis: DUP), and duration of psychosis after start of treatment (DAT). The sample was divided in three equal groups based on DUP and DAT, respectively. To investigate if diagnosis could separate IQ-trajectories beyond that of psychotic duration, two diagnostic...

  3. IQ quadrature demodulation algorithm used in heterodyne detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhui; Qu, Yang; Tang, Yajun Pang Tiantian

    2015-09-01

    In order to obtain better detection results of heterodyne, we used phase IQ quadrature demodulation algorithm to process the data which detected by laser heterodyne. Based on laser heterodyne interferometer, processing the data in the interferometer phase IQ quadrature demodulation algorithm from the signal to noise ratio, sampling rate, sampling rate, filter order and cutoff frequency, verify the effects of these system parameters to the phase precision, and choose the best parameters to obtain a better phase precision through experiment as: the signal to noise ratio is 25 dB, the IF signal frequency is 98.3 MHz, 98.5 MHz, 99.1 MHz, 99.5 MHz and 100 MHz, the sampling rate is 512-2048, the cutoff frequency and order of the filter are 0.11 and 40, respectively.

  4. In Italy, North-South Differences in IQ Predict Differences in Income, Education, Infant Mortality, Stature, and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Regional differences in IQ are presented for 12 regions of Italy showing that IQs are highest in the north and lowest in the south. Regional IQs obtained in 2006 are highly correlated with average incomes at r = 0.937, and with stature, infant mortality, literacy and education. The lower IQ in southern Italy may be attributable to genetic…

  5. A novel transmitter IQ imbalance and phase noise suppression method utilizing pilots in PDM CO-OFDM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoyuan; Ma, Xiurong; Li, Pengru

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we develop a novel pilot structure to suppress transmitter in-phase and quadrature (Tx IQ) imbalance, phase noise and channel distortion for polarization division multiplexed (PDM) coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) systems. Compared with the conventional approach, our method not only significantly improves the system tolerance of IQ imbalance as well as phase noise, but also provides higher transmission speed. Numerical simulations of PDM CO-OFDM system is used to validate the theoretical analysis under the simulation conditions: the amplitude mismatch 3 dB, the phase mismatch 15°, the transmission bit rate 100 Gb/s and 560 km standard signal-mode fiber transmission. Moreover, the proposed method is 63% less complex than the compared method.

  6. IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Whiting; Patrick O' Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

  7. Social Communication Competence and Functional Adaptation in a General Population of Children: Preliminary Evidence for Sex-by-Verbal IQ Differential Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuse, David H.; Mandy, William D.; Steer, Colin; Miller, Laura L.; Lawrence, Kate; Amond, Alan; Golding, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Results from a Social and Communication Disorders Checklist finds that the scores were continuously distributed in the general population and that boys had mean scores 30 percent higher than girls. Above-average verbal IQ appears to protect female subjects from social communication impairments but not in male subjects. Participants to the study…

  8. Prevalence of Principles of Piaget's Theory Among 4-7-year-old Children and their Correlation with IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Sugandha; Goswami, Mousumi; Vashist, Binny

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive development is a major area of human development and was extensively studied by Jean Piaget. He proposed that the development of intellectual abilities occurs in a series of relatively distinct stages and that a child's way of thinking and viewing the world is different at different stages. To assess Piaget's principles of the intuitive stage of preoperational period among 4-7-year-old children relative to their Intelligence quotient (IQ). Various characteristics as described by Jean Piaget specific for the age group of 4-7 years along with those of the previous (preconceptual stage of preoperational period) and successive periods (concrete operations) were analysed using various experiments in 300 children. These characteristics included the concepts of perceptual and cognitive egocentrism, centration and reversibility. IQ of the children was measured using Seguin form board test. Inferential statistics were performed using Chi-square test and Kruskal Wallis test. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. The prevalence of perceptual and cognitive egocentrism was 10.7% and 31.7% based on the experiments and 33% based on the interview question. Centration was present in 96.3% of the children. About 99% children lacked the concept of reversibility according to the clay experiment while 97.7% possessed this concept according to the interview question. The mean IQ score of children who possessed perceptual egocentrism, cognitive egocentrism and egocentrism in dental setting was significantly higher than those who lacked these characteristics. Perceptual egocentrism had almost disappeared and prevalence of cognitive egocentrism decreased with increase in age. Centration and lack of reversibility were appreciated in most of the children. There was a gradual reduction in the prevalence of these characters with increasing age. Mean IQ score of children who possessed perceptual egocentrism, cognitive egocentrism and egocentrism in dental setting was

  9. A Population-based Longitudinal Study of Childhood Neurodevelopmental Disorders, IQ and Subsequent Risk of Psychotic Experiences in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Golam M.; Stochl, Jan; Zammit, Stanley; Lewis, Glyn; Jones, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia has a neurodevelopmental component to its origin, and may share overlapping pathogenic mechanisms with childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (ND). Yet longitudinal studies of psychotic outcomes among individuals with ND are limited. We report a population-based prospective study of six common childhood ND, subsequent neurocognitive performance and the risk of psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Methods PEs were assessed by semi-structured interviews at age 13 years. IQ and working memory were measured between ages 9 and 11 years. The presence of six neurodevelopmental disorders (autism spectrum, dyslexia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia, dysorthographia, dyscalculia) was determined from parent-completed questionnaire at age 9 years. Linear regression calculated mean difference in cognitive scores between those with and without ND. The association between ND and PEs was expressed as odds ratio (OR); effects of cognitive deficits were examined. Potential confounders included age, gender, father’s social class, ethnicity and maternal education. Results Out of 8,220 children, 487 (5.9%) were reported to have ND at age 9 years. Children with, compared with those without ND performed worse on all cognitive measures; adjusted mean difference in total IQ 6.84 (95% CI 5.00- 8.69). The association between total IQ and ND was linear (p<0.0001). The risk of PEs was higher in those with, compared with those without ND; adjusted OR for definite PEs 1.76 (95% CI 1.11- 2.79). IQ (but not working memory) deficit partly explained this association. Conclusion Higher risk of PEs in early adolescence among individuals with childhood ND is consistent with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. PMID:25066026

  10. Virtual tutorials in adult ODL: A WizIQ case study of Wawasan Open University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phalachandra Bhandigadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wawasan Open University (WOU was established in 2007 with the sole aim of providing affordable and accessible higher education opportunities to working adults in the fields of business, technology, education and liberal studies. As part of its Open Distance Learning (ODL delivery, WOU provides tutorial support for students every semester through 5 sessions of 2 hours each. These tutorials are considered to be crucial in the learning process as they provide an opportunity for students to get their doubts clarified by a subject matter expert (tutor in a synchronous environment. In the initial years, the University used face-to-face and video conferencing modes for conducting tutorials. However, both these modes have their own limitations. As a possible alternative, WOU has since ventured into Virtual Learning Environments (VLE in the form of WizIQ to remedy some of these limitations. This paper discusses in detail the processes which took place in migrating to WizIQ tutorials and provides some best practices for implementation.http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.6.1.101

  11. Error compensation of IQ modulator using two-dimensional DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Takashi; Maesaka, Hirokazu; Matsubara, Shinichi; Otake, Yuji

    2016-06-01

    It is important to precisely set and keep the phase and amplitude of an rf signal in the accelerating cavity of modern accelerators, such as an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) linac. In these accelerators an acceleration rf signal is generated or detected by an In-phase and Quadrature (IQ) modulator, or a demodulator. If there are any deviations of the phase and the amplitude from the ideal values, crosstalk between the phase and the amplitude of the output signal of the IQ modulator or the demodulator arises. This causes instability of the feedback controls that simultaneously stabilize both the rf phase and the amplitude. To compensate for such deviations, we developed a novel compensation method using a two-dimensional Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Because the observed deviations of the phase and amplitude of an IQ modulator involve sinusoidal and polynomial behaviors on the phase angle and the amplitude of the rf vector, respectively, the DFT calculation with these basis functions makes a good approximation with a small number of compensation coefficients. Also, we can suppress high-frequency noise components arising when we measure the deviation data. These characteristics have advantages compared to a Look Up Table (LUT) compensation method. The LUT method usually demands many compensation elements, such as about 300, that are not easy to treat. We applied the DFT compensation method to the output rf signal of a C-band IQ modulator at SACLA, which is an XFEL facility in Japan. The amplitude deviation of the IQ modulator after the DFT compensation was reduced from 15.0% at the peak to less than 0.2% at the peak for an amplitude control range of from 0.1 V to 0.9 V (1.0 V full scale) and for a phase control range from 0 degree to 360 degrees. The number of compensation coefficients is 60, which is smaller than that of the LUT method, and is easy to treat and maintain.

  12. SU-F-T-116: Predicting IQ and the Risk of Hearing Loss Following Proton Versus Photon Radiotherapy for Pediatric Brain Tumor Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, D; Sharpe, M; Laperriere, N; Hodgson, D [UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Ng, A [UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Tsang, D [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The increased sparing of normal tissues in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) compared to photon intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in brain tumor treatments should translate into improved neurocognitive outcomes. Models were used to estimate the intelligence quotient (IQ) and the risk of hearing loss 5 years post radiotherapy and to compare outcomes of proton against photon in pediatric brain tumors. Methods: Patients who had received radical IMRT were randomly selected from our retrospective database: 10 cases each of craniopharyngioma, ependymoma and medulloblastoma, and 20 cases of glioma. The existing planning CT and contours were used to generate IMPT plans. The RBE-corrected dose to brain structures and cochleas were calculated for both IMPT and IMRT. A model was applied to estimate IQ using a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. The reported incidence of hearing loss as a function of cochlear dose was used to estimate the rate of occurrence. Results: The average brain dose was less in all IMPT plans compared to IMRT: ranging from a 6.7% reduction (P=0.003) in the case of medulloblastoma to 38% (P=0.007) for craniopharyngioma. This dose reduction translated into a gain in IQ of 1.9 points on average for protons vs photons for the whole cohort at 5 years post-treatment (P=0.011). In terms of specific diseases, the gains in IQ ranged from 0.8 points for medulloblastoma, to 2.7 points for craniopharyngioma. Hearing loss probability was evaluated on a per-ear-basis and was found to be systematically less for proton versus photon: overall 2.9% versus 7.2% (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A novel method was developed to predict neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric brain tumor patients on a case-by-case basis. A modest gain in IQ was systematically observed for proton in all patients. Given the uncertainties within the model used and our reinterpretation, these gains may be underestimated.

  13. SU-F-T-116: Predicting IQ and the Risk of Hearing Loss Following Proton Versus Photon Radiotherapy for Pediatric Brain Tumor Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, D; Sharpe, M; Laperriere, N; Hodgson, D; Ng, A; Tsang, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The increased sparing of normal tissues in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) compared to photon intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in brain tumor treatments should translate into improved neurocognitive outcomes. Models were used to estimate the intelligence quotient (IQ) and the risk of hearing loss 5 years post radiotherapy and to compare outcomes of proton against photon in pediatric brain tumors. Methods: Patients who had received radical IMRT were randomly selected from our retrospective database: 10 cases each of craniopharyngioma, ependymoma and medulloblastoma, and 20 cases of glioma. The existing planning CT and contours were used to generate IMPT plans. The RBE-corrected dose to brain structures and cochleas were calculated for both IMPT and IMRT. A model was applied to estimate IQ using a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. The reported incidence of hearing loss as a function of cochlear dose was used to estimate the rate of occurrence. Results: The average brain dose was less in all IMPT plans compared to IMRT: ranging from a 6.7% reduction (P=0.003) in the case of medulloblastoma to 38% (P=0.007) for craniopharyngioma. This dose reduction translated into a gain in IQ of 1.9 points on average for protons vs photons for the whole cohort at 5 years post-treatment (P=0.011). In terms of specific diseases, the gains in IQ ranged from 0.8 points for medulloblastoma, to 2.7 points for craniopharyngioma. Hearing loss probability was evaluated on a per-ear-basis and was found to be systematically less for proton versus photon: overall 2.9% versus 7.2% (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A novel method was developed to predict neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric brain tumor patients on a case-by-case basis. A modest gain in IQ was systematically observed for proton in all patients. Given the uncertainties within the model used and our reinterpretation, these gains may be underestimated.

  14. Neuropsychological study of IQ scores in offspring of parents with bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditya; Camilleri, Nigel; Grunze, Heinz; Barron, Evelyn; Le Couteur, James; Close, Andrew; Rushton, Steven; Kelly, Thomas; Ferrier, Ian Nicol; Le Couteur, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Studies comparing IQ in Offspring of Bipolar Parents (OBP) with Offspring of Healthy Controls (OHC) have reported conflicting findings. They have included OBP with mental health/neurodevelopmental disorders and/or pharmacological treatment which could affect results. This UK study aimed to assess IQ in OBP with no mental health/neurodevelopmental disorder and assess the relationship of sociodemographic variables with IQ. IQ data using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) from 24 OBP and 34 OHC from the North East of England was analysed using mixed-effects modelling. All participants had IQ in the average range. OBP differed statistically significantly from OHC on Full Scale IQ (p = .001), Performance IQ (PIQ) (p = .003) and Verbal IQ (VIQ) (p = .001) but not on the PIQ-VIQ split. OBP and OHC groups did not differ on socio-economic status (SES) and gender. SES made a statistically significant contribution to the variance of IQ scores (p = .001). Using a robust statistical model of analysis, the OBP with no current/past history of mental health/neurodevelopmental disorders had lower IQ scores compared to OHC. This finding should be borne in mind when assessing and recommending interventions for OBP.

  15. Universal Signatures of Quantum Critical Points from Finite-Size Torus Spectra: A Window into the Operator Content of Higher-Dimensional Conformal Field Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Michael; Whitsitt, Seth; Henry, Louis-Paul; Sachdev, Subir; Läuchli, Andreas M

    2016-11-18

    The low-energy spectra of many body systems on a torus, of finite size L, are well understood in magnetically ordered and gapped topological phases. However, the spectra at quantum critical points separating such phases are largely unexplored for (2+1)D systems. Using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we accurately calculate and analyze the low-energy torus spectrum at an Ising critical point which provides a universal fingerprint of the underlying quantum field theory, with the energy levels given by universal numbers times 1/L. We highlight the implications of a neighboring topological phase on the spectrum by studying the Ising* transition (i.e. the transition between a Z_{2} topological phase and a trivial paramagnet), in the example of the toric code in a longitudinal field, and advocate a phenomenological picture that provides qualitative insight into the operator content of the critical field theory.

  16. A Point Mutation in Suppressor of Cytokine Signalling 2 (Socs2 Increases the Susceptibility to Inflammation of the Mammary Gland while Associated with Higher Body Weight and Size and Higher Milk Production in a Sheep Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Rupp

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is an infectious disease mainly caused by bacteria invading the mammary gland. Genetic control of susceptibility to mastitis has been widely evidenced in dairy ruminants, but the genetic basis and underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. We describe the discovery, fine mapping and functional characterization of a genetic variant associated with elevated milk leukocytes count, or SCC, as a proxy for mastitis. After implementing genome-wide association studies, we identified a major QTL associated with SCC on ovine chromosome 3. Fine mapping of the region, using full sequencing with 12X coverage in three animals, provided one strong candidate SNP that mapped to the coding sequence of a highly conserved gene, suppressor of cytokine signalling 2 (Socs2. The frequency of the SNP associated with increased SCC was 21.7% and the Socs2 genotype explained 12% of the variance of the trait. The point mutation induces the p.R96C substitution in the SH2 functional domain of SOCS2 i.e. the binding site of the protein to various ligands, as well-established for the growth hormone receptor GHR. Using surface plasmon resonance we showed that the p.R96C point mutation completely abrogates SOCS2 binding affinity for the phosphopeptide of GHR. Additionally, the size, weight and milk production in p.R96C homozygote sheep, were significantly increased by 24%, 18%, and 4.4%, respectively, when compared to wild type sheep, supporting the view that the point mutation causes a loss of SOCS2 functional activity. Altogether these results provide strong evidence for a causal mutation controlling SCC in sheep and highlight the major role of SOCS2 as a tradeoff between the host's inflammatory response to mammary infections, and body growth and milk production, which are all mediated by the JAK/STAT signaling pathway.

  17. Does IQ predict total and cardiovascular disease mortality as strongly as other risk factors? Comparison of effect estimates using the Vietnam Experience Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, G D; Shipley, M J; Gale, C R; Mortensen, L H; Deary, I J

    2008-12-01

    To compare the strength of the relation of two measurements of IQ and 11 established risk factors with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Cohort study of 4166 US male former army personnel with data on IQ test scores (in early adulthood and middle age), a range of established risk factors and 15-year mortality surveillance. When CVD mortality (n = 61) was the outcome of interest, the relative index of inequality (RII: hazard ratio; 95% CI) for the most disadvantaged relative to the advantaged (in descending order of magnitude of the first six based on age-adjusted analyses) was: 6.58 (2.54 to 17.1) for family income; 5.55 (2.16 to 14.2) for total cholesterol; 5.12 (2.01 to 13.0) for body mass index; 4.70 (1.89 to 11.7) for IQ in middle age; 4.29 (1.70 to 10.8) for blood glucose and 4.08 (1.63 to 10.2) for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (the RII for IQ in early adulthood was ranked tenth: 2.88; 1.19 to 6.97). In analyses featuring all deaths (n = 233), the RII for risk factors most strongly related to this outcome was 7.46 (4.54 to 12.3) for family income; 4.41 (2.77 to 7.03) for IQ in middle age; 4.02 (2.37 to 6.83) for smoking; 3.81 (2.35 to 6.17) for educational attainment; 3.40 (2.14 to 5.41) for pulse rate and 3.26 (2.06 to 5.15) for IQ in early adulthood. Multivariable adjustment led to marked attenuation of these relations, particularly those for IQ. Lower scores on measures of IQ at two time points were associated with CVD and, particularly, total mortality, at a level of magnitude greater than several other established risk factors.

  18. Association of COMT and PRODH gene variants with intelligence quotient (IQ) and executive functions in 22q11.2DS subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Miri; Zarchi, Omer; Michaelovsky, Elena; Frisch, Amos; Patya, Miriam; Green, Tamar; Gothelf, Doron; Weizman, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) carries the highest genetic risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. We investigated the association of genetic variants in two schizophrenia candidate genes with executive function (EF) and IQ in 22q11.2DS individuals. Ninety two individuals with 22q11.2 deletion were studied for the genetic association between COMT and PRODH variants and EF and IQ. Subjects were divided into children (under 12 years old), adolescents (between 12 and 18 years old) and adults (older than 18 years), and genotyped for the COMT Val158Met (rs4680) and PRODH Arg185Trp (rs4819756) polymorphisms. The participants underwent psychiatric evaluation and EF assessment. Our main finding is a significant influence of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on both IQ and EF performance. Specifically, 22q11.2DS subjects with Met allele displayed higher IQ scores in all age groups compared to Val carriers, reaching significance in both adolescents and adults. The Met allele carriers performed better than Val carriers in EF tasks, being statistically significant in the adult group. PRODH Arg185Trp variant did not affect IQ or EF in our 22q11.2DS cohort. In conclusion, functional COMT variant, but not PRODH, affects IQ and EF in 22q11.2DS subjects during neurodevelopment with a maximal effect at adulthood. Future studies should monitor the cognitive performance of the same individuals from childhood to old age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A population-based longitudinal study of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, IQ and subsequent risk of psychotic experiences in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, G M; Stochl, J; Zammit, S; Lewis, G; Jones, P B

    2014-11-01

    Schizophrenia has a neurodevelopmental component to its origin, and may share overlapping pathogenic mechanisms with childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs). Nevertheless, longitudinal studies of psychotic outcomes among individuals with NDs are limited. We report a population-based prospective study of six common childhood NDs, subsequent neurocognitive performance and the risk of psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. PEs were assessed by semi-structured interviews at age 13 years. IQ and working memory were measured between ages 9 and 11 years. The presence of six NDs (autism spectrum, dyslexia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia, dysorthographia, dyscalculia) was determined from parent-completed questionnaires at age 9 years. Linear regression calculated the mean difference in cognitive scores between children with and without NDs. Associations between NDs and PEs were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs); effects of cognitive deficits were examined. Potential confounders included age, gender, father's social class, ethnicity and maternal education. Out of 8220 children, 487 (5.9%) were reported to have NDs at age 9 years. Children with, compared with those without, NDs performed worse on all cognitive measures; the adjusted mean difference in total IQ was 6.84 (95% CI 5.00-8.69). The association between total IQ and NDs was linear (p memory) deficit partly explained this association. Higher risk of PEs in early adolescence among individuals with childhood ND is consistent with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia.

  20. Entrapment by magnetic microcapsules of the protein pyrolysates IQ, PhIP and Glu-P-1, and alteration of IQ metabolite exposure within the rat gastrointestinal tract by risk-modulating components of the human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, I; Ohgaki, H; Ellul, A; Turesky, R J

    1992-12-01

    The entrapment of heterocyclic aromatic amine gastrointestinal (GI) carcinogens (HAAs), by retrievable semipermeable magnetic polyethylenimine (PEI) microcapsules was investigated in vitro and in vivo as an approach for human biomonitoring. Previous studies showed that PEI microcapsules successfully entrapped benzo[a]pyrene (B[]P) and its metabolites in the GI tract of rodents. In this study, we have shown that 14C-labelled 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1-methylphenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3'2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) are adsorbed to PEI microcapsules in vitro and can be desorbed by treatment with ammoniac methanol. Binding of HAAs to PEI microcapsules containing copper phthalocyanine (TCPTS), a moiety which reversibly binds chemicals with aromatic planar structures, was 2- to 4-fold higher than with unmodified PEI microcapsules. PEI microcapsules also acted as a nucleophile and trapped the proximate carcinogenic metabolite of IQ, 2-hydroxy-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5f]quinoline (N-hydroxy-IQ). The entrapment of 14C-labelled IQ and PhIP by microcapsules was investigated in vivo in male F344 rats fed a conventional chow diet or a human diet with varying amounts of fat and beef intake typically consumed in the UK. Animals were adapted to human diets which were either high (H) or low (L) in fat (F), beef protein (B) and dietary fibre non-starch polysaccharide (NSP). Microcapsule entrapment of IQ and metabolites was 0.5-2.0% of the dose and 4-fold higher in rats consuming a HF/HB/LNSP than those consuming a LF/LB/HNSP diet, these being respectively putatative high- and low-risk-associated diets. In the HF/HB/LNSP diet group, a higher amount of IQ metabolites were detected in the microcapsules; a lower proportion of covalently bound metabolites could be removed by acid hydrolysis. Urinary excretion was 2-fold greater and analysis of the urinary metabolites showed there to be lower sulfotransferase activity

  1. New Adaptive Method for IQ Imbalance Compensation of Quadrature Modulators in Predistortion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Zareian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperfections in quadrature modulators (QMs, such as inphase and quadrature (IQ imbalance, can severely impact the performance of power amplifier (PA linearization systems, in particular in adaptive digital predistorters (PDs. In this paper, we first analyze the effect of IQ imbalance on the performance of a memory orthogonal polynomials predistorter (MOP PD, and then we propose a new adaptive algorithm to estimate and compensate the unknown IQ imbalance in QM. Unlike previous compensation techniques, the proposed method was capable of online IQ imbalance compensation with faster convergence, and no special calibration or training signals were needed. The effectiveness of the proposed IQ imbalance compensator was validated by simulations. The results clearly show the performance of the MOP PD to be enhanced significantly by adding the proposed IQ imbalance compensator.

  2. Differential brain development with low and high IQ in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Patrick; Schnack, Hugo G; van Belle, Janna; Weusten, Juliette; van Dijk, Sarai; Langen, Marieke; Brouwer, Rachel M; van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and intelligence (IQ) are both heritable phenotypes. Overlapping genetic effects have been suggested to influence both, with neuroimaging work suggesting similar overlap in terms of morphometric properties of the brain. Together, this evidence suggests that the brain changes characteristic of ADHD may vary as a function of IQ. This study investigated this hypothesis in a sample of 108 children with ADHD and 106 typically developing controls, who participated in a cross-sectional anatomical MRI study. A subgroup of 64 children also participated in a diffusion tensor imaging scan. Brain volumes, local cortical thickness and average cerebral white matter microstructure were analyzed in relation to diagnostic group and IQ. Dimensional analyses investigated possible group differences in the relationship between anatomical measures and IQ. Second, the groups were split into above and below median IQ subgroups to investigate possible differences in the trajectories of cortical development. Dimensionally, cerebral gray matter volume and cerebral white matter microstructure were positively associated with IQ for controls, but not for ADHD. In the analyses of the below and above median IQ subgroups, we found no differences from controls in cerebral gray matter volume in ADHD with below-median IQ, but a delay of cortical development in a number of regions, including prefrontal areas. Conversely, in ADHD with above-median IQ, there were significant reductions from controls in cerebral gray matter volume, but no local differences in the trajectories of cortical development.In conclusion, the basic relationship between IQ and neuroanatomy appears to be altered in ADHD. Our results suggest that there may be multiple brain phenotypes associated with ADHD, where ADHD combined with above median IQ is characterized by small, more global reductions in brain volume that are stable over development, whereas ADHD with below median IQ is

  3. Differential Brain Development with Low and High IQ in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Patrick; Schnack, Hugo G.; van Belle, Janna; Weusten, Juliette; van Dijk, Sarai; Langen, Marieke; Brouwer, Rachel M.; van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and intelligence (IQ) are both heritable phenotypes. Overlapping genetic effects have been suggested to influence both, with neuroimaging work suggesting similar overlap in terms of morphometric properties of the brain. Together, this evidence suggests that the brain changes characteristic of ADHD may vary as a function of IQ. This study investigated this hypothesis in a sample of 108 children with ADHD and 106 typically developing controls, who participated in a cross-sectional anatomical MRI study. A subgroup of 64 children also participated in a diffusion tensor imaging scan. Brain volumes, local cortical thickness and average cerebral white matter microstructure were analyzed in relation to diagnostic group and IQ. Dimensional analyses investigated possible group differences in the relationship between anatomical measures and IQ. Second, the groups were split into above and below median IQ subgroups to investigate possible differences in the trajectories of cortical development. Dimensionally, cerebral gray matter volume and cerebral white matter microstructure were positively associated with IQ for controls, but not for ADHD. In the analyses of the below and above median IQ subgroups, we found no differences from controls in cerebral gray matter volume in ADHD with below-median IQ, but a delay of cortical development in a number of regions, including prefrontal areas. Conversely, in ADHD with above-median IQ, there were significant reductions from controls in cerebral gray matter volume, but no local differences in the trajectories of cortical development. In conclusion, the basic relationship between IQ and neuroanatomy appears to be altered in ADHD. Our results suggest that there may be multiple brain phenotypes associated with ADHD, where ADHD combined with above median IQ is characterized by small, more global reductions in brain volume that are stable over development, whereas ADHD with below median IQ is

  4. Learning Through Team Centric Exercise & Key Point Pedagogy- An Effective Learning Model for Slow Learners in Social Work Higher Education Training

    OpenAIRE

    M. D., Pradeep; Aithal, Sreeramana

    2015-01-01

    Information collected by the human mind will be correlated with the aware concepts and skills to satisfy the desired purpose. Knowledge guides to assume, use, adopt and control both physical and societal changes. Application of knowledge encourages critical or experimental understanding to constitute wisdom. The potentiality and usage of knowledge depend on upon the utilization of information. Higher education institutions have to ensure transmission and dissemination of information among stu...

  5. Higher-order superclustering in the Ostriker explosion scenario I. Three-point correlation functions of clusters in the constant and power-law models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Yipeng.

    1989-08-01

    We study the three-point correlation functions ρ(r, u, v) of clusters in the two types of explosion models by numerical simulations. The clusters are identified as the ''knots'' where three shells intersect. The shells are assumed to have the constant radii (the constant models) or have the power law radius distributions (the power law models). In both kinds of models, we find that ρ can be approximately expressed by the scaling form: ρ = Q(ξ 1 ξ 2 + ξ 2 ξ 3 + ξ 3 ξ 1 ), and Q is about 1, which are consistent with the observations. More detailed studies of r-, u- and v-dependences of Q show that Q remains constant in the constant models. In the power-law models, Q is independent of the shape parameters u and v, while it has some moderate r-dependences (variations with r about a factor of 1 or 2). (author). 27 refs, 9 figs

  6. Associations of existing diabetes, gestational diabetes, and glycosuria with offspring IQ and educational attainment: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Abigail; Nelson, Scott M; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2012-01-01

    Results from studies examining associations of maternal diabetes in pregnancy with offspring cognitive outcomes have been inconclusive. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK prospective pregnancy cohort. Outcomes were School Entry Assessment (SEA) scores (age 4, N = 6, 032) and WISC-III IQ (age 8, N = 5, 282-5,307) and General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) results (age 16, N = 7, 615). Existing diabetes, gestational diabetes, and, to a lesser extent, glycosuria were associated with lower offspring SEA scores (age 4), IQ (age 8), and GCSE results (age 16) even when adjusting for offspring sex, maternal age, prepregnancy BMI, smoking in pregnancy, parity, caesarean section, maternal education, and occupational social class. Offspring of mothers with existing diabetes had a threefold risk of achieving no GCSEs graded A*-C, whilst offspring of women with gestational diabetes had, on average, a five point lower IQ compared to offspring of women with no diabetes or glycosuria. Maternal diabetes in pregnancy is consistently associated with lower offspring cognition and educational attainment though confidence intervals were wide. The weaker associations with glycosuria suggest a dose-dependent adverse association with IQ.

  7. IQ Scores of Children with Moderate Asthma: A Comparison with Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Javad; Abbaskhanian, Ali; Jalili, Masume

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence quotient is an indicator of one's efficacy and many factors including chronic diseases may impact upon it. This study aims to compare the IQ of children diagnosed with moderate asthma to the IQ of healthy children. This comparative study was conducted between June 2011 and January 2012 in an Academic Referral Clinic. In this study, 114 patients aged 6 to 13 years who were diagnosed with moderate asthma were compared with 90 age and sex matched healthy patients from their families. Wechsler intelligence scale for children was used by split half method to calculate the overall IQ, verbal IQ and practical IQ. The t-test and Chi square test were used to analyze quantitative variables and qualitative variables, respectively. In this study, 204 children, 114 (56%) in the case group and 90 children (44%) in the control group participated in comparing their IQs. One hundred and fifteen (56%) were males and 89 (44%) were females. The overall IQs of asthmatic patients and healthy patients were 109 and 108, respectively; the difference was not significant (p=0.905). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the IQ scores between males and females. Although asthma is a chronic disease and causes many respiratory problems, it has no negative impact on IQ.

  8. IQ Score of Children with Persistent or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Comparison with Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Javad; Abbaskhanian, Ali; Jalili, Masumeh; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of allergies is different around the world. Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disease in children. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an indicator of efficacy and many factors including chronic diseases may affect it. This study compares the IQs of children diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis with healthy children. This was a comparative study that was conducted from June 2011-May 2013 in an academic referral clinic. In this study, 90 patients aged 6- to 14-yearsold who were diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis and were compared to 90 age and gender match healthy patients from their respective families. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children was used to divide and calculate overall IQ, verbal IQ, and practical IQ. The t-test and chi square were used to analyze quantitative variables and qualitative variables, respectively. In this study, out of total 180 children, 90 (50%) in the case group and 90 children (50%), the control group participated for IQ comparison. One hundred (57%) were male and 80 (43%) were female. The overall IQ for allergic rhinitis patients and healthy patients was 109.2 and 107.5, respectively. This difference was not considered significant. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the IQ scores of males and females. Although allergic rhinitis is a chronic disease and effects quality of life, there were no identifiable negative effects on IQ.

  9. Meta-Analysis of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Anholt, Gideon; Raveh-Gottfried, Sagi; Hamo, Naama; Abramowitz, Jonathan S

    2018-03-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with a moderate degree of underperformance on cognitive tests, including deficient processing speed. However, despite little research focusing on Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in OCD, it has long been speculated that the disorder is associated with elevated intellectual capacity. The present meta-analytic study was, therefore, conducted to quantitatively summarize the literature on IQ in OCD systematically. We identified 98 studies containing IQ data among individuals with OCD and non-psychiatric comparison groups, and computed 108 effect sizes for Verbal IQ (VIQ, n = 55), Performance IQ (PIQ, n = 13), and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ, n = 40). Across studies, small effect sizes were found for FSIQ and VIQ, and a moderate effect size for PIQ, exemplifying reduced IQ in OCD. However, mean IQ scores across OCD samples were in the normative range. Moderator analyses revealed no significant moderating effect across clinical and demographic indices. We conclude that, although lower than controls, OCD is associated with normative FSIQ and VIQ, and relatively lowered PIQ. These results are discussed in light of neuropsychological research in OCD, and particularly the putative impact of reduced processing speed in this population. Recommendations for utilization of IQ tests in OCD, and directions for future studies are offered.

  10. Reductions in Corpus Callosum Volume Partially Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevie C. Biffen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Disproportionate volume reductions in the basal ganglia, corpus callosum (CC and hippocampus have been reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE. However, few studies have investigated these reductions in high prevalence communities, such as the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and only one study made use of manual tracing, the gold standard of volumetric analysis. The present study examined the effects of PAE on subcortical neuroanatomy using manual tracing and the relation of volumetric reductions in these regions to IQ and performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C, a list learning task sensitive to PAE. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired, using a sequence optimized for morphometric neuroanatomical analysis, on a Siemens 3T Allegra MRI scanner from 71 right-handed, 9- to 11-year-old children [9 fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS, 19 partial FAS (PFAS, 24 non-syndromal heavily exposed (HE and 19 non-exposed controls]. Frequency of maternal drinking was ascertained prospectively during pregnancy using timeline follow-back interviews. PAE was examined in relation to volumes of the CC and left and right caudate nuclei, nucleus accumbens and hippocampi. All structures were manually traced using Multitracer. Higher levels of PAE were associated with reductions in CC volume after adjustment for TIV. Although the effect of PAE on CC was confounded with smoking and lead exposure, additional analyses showed that it was not accounted for by these exposures. Amongst dysmorphic children, smaller CC was associated with poorer IQ and CVLT-C scores and statistically mediated the effect of PAE on IQ. In addition, higher levels of PAE were associated with bilateral volume reductions in caudate nuclei and hippocampi, effects that remained significant after control for TIV, child sex and age, socioeconomic status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and childhood lead exposure. These data confirm

  11. Honesty-humility in contemporary students: manipulations of self-image by inflated IQ estimations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajonius, P J

    2014-08-01

    The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Big Five model, including a sixth factor, Honesty-Humility, and its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance, and Modesty). The four facets of Honesty-Humility and three indicators of intelligence (one performance-based cognitive ability test, one self-estimated academic potential, and one self-report of previous IQ test results) were assessed in students entering higher education (N = 187). A significant negative correlation was observed between Honesty-Humility and self-reported intelligence (r = -.37), most evident in the Modesty facet. These results may be interpreted as tendencies of exaggeration, using a theoretical frame of psychological image-management, concluding that the Honesty-Humility trait captures students' self-ambitions, particularly within the context of an individualistic, competitive culture such as Sweden.

  12. IQ and ability across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Sallie

    2011-07-01

    The experience of cognitive decline can be a potent source of anxiety and concern for many people. While an IQ consistent with estimated optimal levels or previously recorded scores may indicate no significant change in cognitive function, the patient may be accurately reporting a normal age-related deterioration in actual ability. The aim of this article is to chart the age-related changes in intellectual abilities evident on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The norms from the WAIS-IV manual were examined to plot the age-related changes in Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and composite scores across the adult life span, while holding actual ability level constant across the age groups. Here we present a graphical representation of the normal cognitive developments and declines in FSIQ, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed across the adult life span. This graphical representation provides a rational basis for the identification of atypical profiles/complaints of cognitive deterioration that may require further specialist neuropsychological evaluation. These graphs can be used to provide reassurance for healthy adults with concerns of cognitive decline and as an educative tool for their referring agencies.

  13. Does IQ influence associations between ADHD symptoms and other cognitive functions in young preschoolers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer-Baumgartner, Nina; Zeiner, Pål; Egeland, Jens; Gustavson, Kristin; Skogan, Annette Holth; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Aase, Heidi

    2014-05-01

    Working memory, inhibition, and expressive language are often impaired in ADHD and many children with ADHD have lower IQ-scores than typically developing children. The aim of this study was to test whether IQ-score influences associations between ADHD symptoms and verbal and nonverbal working memory, inhibition, and expressive language, respectively, in a nonclinical sample of preschool children. In all, 1181 children recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were clinically assessed at the age of 36 to 46 months. IQ-score and working memory were assessed with subtasks from the Stanford Binet test battery, expressive language was reported by preschool teachers (Child Development Inventory), response inhibition was assessed with a subtask from the NEPSY test, and ADHD symptoms were assessed by parent interview (Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment). The results showed an interaction between ADHD symptoms and IQ-score on teacher-reported expressive language. In children with below median IQ-score, a larger number of ADHD symptoms were more likely to be accompanied by reports of lower expressive language skills, while the level of ADHD symptoms exerted a smaller effect on reported language skills in children with above median IQ-score. The associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were not influenced by IQ-score. Level of IQ-score affected the relation between ADHD symptoms and teacher-reported expressive language, whereas associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were significant and of similar sizes regardless of IQ-score. Thus, in preschoolers, working memory and response inhibition should be considered during an ADHD assessment regardless of IQ-score, while language skills of young children are especially important to consider when IQ-scores are average or low.

  14. Does IQ influence Associations between ADHD Symptoms and other Cognitive Functions in young Preschoolers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Working memory, inhibition, and expressive language are often impaired in ADHD and many children with ADHD have lower IQ-scores than typically developing children. The aim of this study was to test whether IQ-score influences associations between ADHD symptoms and verbal and nonverbal working memory, inhibition, and expressive language, respectively, in a nonclinical sample of preschool children. Methods In all, 1181 children recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were clinically assessed at the age of 36 to 46 months. IQ-score and working memory were assessed with subtasks from the Stanford Binet test battery, expressive language was reported by preschool teachers (Child Development Inventory), response inhibition was assessed with a subtask from the NEPSY test, and ADHD symptoms were assessed by parent interview (Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment). Results The results showed an interaction between ADHD symptoms and IQ-score on teacher-reported expressive language. In children with below median IQ-score, a larger number of ADHD symptoms were more likely to be accompanied by reports of lower expressive language skills, while the level of ADHD symptoms exerted a smaller effect on reported language skills in children with above median IQ-score. The associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were not influenced by IQ-score. Conclusions Level of IQ-score affected the relation between ADHD symptoms and teacher-reported expressive language, whereas associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were significant and of similar sizes regardless of IQ-score. Thus, in preschoolers, working memory and response inhibition should be considered during an ADHD assessment regardless of IQ-score, while language skills of young children are especially important to consider when IQ-scores are average or low. PMID:24884579

  15. Characterization of Novel Calmodulin Binding Domains within IQ Motifs of IQGAP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Deok-Jin; Ban, Byungkwan; Lee, Jin-A

    2011-01-01

    IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1), which is a well-known calmodulin (CaM) binding protein, is involved in a wide range of cellular processes including cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, adhesion, and migration. Interaction of IQGAP1 with CaM is important for its cellular functions. Although each IQ domain of IQGAP1 for CaM binding has been characterized in a Ca2+-dependent or -independent manner, it was not clear which IQ motifs are physiologically relevant for CaM binding in the cells. In this study, we performed immunoprecipitation using 3xFLAGhCaM in mammalian cell lines to characterize the domains of IQGAP1 that are key for CaM binding under physiological conditions. Interestingly, using this method, we identified two novel domains, IQ(2.7-3) and IQ(3.5-4.4), within IQGAP1 that were involved in Ca2+-independent or -dependent CaM binding, respectively. Mutant analysis clearly showed that the hydrophobic regions within IQ(2.7-3) were mainly involved in apoCaM binding, while the basic amino acids and hydrophobic region of IQ(3.5-4.4) were required for Ca2+/CaM binding. Finally, we showed that IQ(2.7-3) was the main apoCaM binding domain and both IQ(2.7-3) and IQ(3.5-4.4) were required for Ca2+/CaM binding within IQ(1- 2-3-4). Thus, we identified and characterized novel direct CaM binding motifs essential for IQGAP1. This finding indicates that IQGAP1 plays a dynamic role via direct interactions with CaM in a Ca2+-dependent or -independent manner. PMID:22080369

  16. Mean high dose L-thyroxine treatment is efficient and safe to achieve a normal IQ in young adult patients with congenital hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksander, Paulina; Brückner-Spieler, Michaela; Stöhr, Anne-Marie; Lankes, Erwin; Kühnen, Peter; Schnabel, Dirk; Ernert, Andrea; Stäblein, Walter; Craig, Maria E; Blankenstein, Oliver; Grüters, Annette; Krude, Heiko

    2018-01-09

    The optimal levothyroxine (LT4) dose required to treat congenital hypothyroidism (CH) remains unclear, with a debate if higher starting doses (>10µg/kg) are necessary and safe for normal Intelligence Quotient (IQ). To examine the psychomotor, metabolic and quality of life outcome in patients with CH treated with a mean high initial LT4 dose. A cross- sectional cohort study of CH patients identified in the Berlin newborn screening programme from 1979-2003. Total of 76 CH patients (mean age 18 years, mean initial LT4 dose 13.5µg/kg) and 40 siblings completed the study. Psychomotor (Wechsler Intelligence Test, CNS Vital Signs), quality of life (QoL, SF 36 Health Survey), anthropometric (BMI, height) and metabolic (Intima Media Thickness, laboratory parameters) outcomes were compared to healthy siblings. Mean values and percentage of episodes of elevated T4, T3 and suppressed TSH before age two years were analysed. A meta- analysis of treatment CH studies was performed. There were no significant differences in IQ, QoL or other outcome measures compared with controls. The majority of T4 levels were high before age two years and during subsequent testing, but mean T3 and TSH levels remained normal. The meta-analysis showed a significant IQ difference in severe versus mild CH cases only if treatment started with a LT4 dose IQ in adolescence. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society

  17. Birth Weight and Adult IQ, but Not Anxious-Depressive Psychopathology, Are Associated with Cortical Surface Area: A Study in Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Nuria; Alemany, Silvia; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Nenadic, Igor; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that low birth weight (BW) induces reduced brain cortical surface area (SA) which would persist until at least early adulthood. Moreover, low BW has been linked to psychiatric disorders such as depression and psychological distress, and to altered neurocognitive profiles. We present novel findings obtained by analysing high-resolution structural MRI scans of 48 twins; specifically, we aimed: i) to test the BW-SA association in a middle-aged adult sample; and ii) to assess whether either depression/anxiety disorders or intellectual quotient (IQ) influence the BW-SA link, using a monozygotic (MZ) twin design to separate environmental and genetic effects. Both lower BW and decreased IQ were associated with smaller total and regional cortical SA in adulthood. Within a twin pair, lower BW was related to smaller total cortical and regional SA. In contrast, MZ twin differences in SA were not related to differences in either IQ or depression/anxiety disorders. The present study supports findings indicating that i) BW has a long-lasting effect on cortical SA, where some familial and environmental influences alter both foetal growth and brain morphology; ii) uniquely environmental factors affecting BW also alter SA; iii) higher IQ correlates with larger SA; and iv) these effects are not modified by internalizing psychopathology.

  18. Birth Weight and Adult IQ, but Not Anxious-Depressive Psychopathology, Are Associated with Cortical Surface Area: A Study in Twins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Córdova-Palomera

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that low birth weight (BW induces reduced brain cortical surface area (SA which would persist until at least early adulthood. Moreover, low BW has been linked to psychiatric disorders such as depression and psychological distress, and to altered neurocognitive profiles.We present novel findings obtained by analysing high-resolution structural MRI scans of 48 twins; specifically, we aimed: i to test the BW-SA association in a middle-aged adult sample; and ii to assess whether either depression/anxiety disorders or intellectual quotient (IQ influence the BW-SA link, using a monozygotic (MZ twin design to separate environmental and genetic effects.Both lower BW and decreased IQ were associated with smaller total and regional cortical SA in adulthood. Within a twin pair, lower BW was related to smaller total cortical and regional SA. In contrast, MZ twin differences in SA were not related to differences in either IQ or depression/anxiety disorders.The present study supports findings indicating that i BW has a long-lasting effect on cortical SA, where some familial and environmental influences alter both foetal growth and brain morphology; ii uniquely environmental factors affecting BW also alter SA; iii higher IQ correlates with larger SA; and iv these effects are not modified by internalizing psychopathology.

  19. Social communication competence and functional adaptation in a general population of children: preliminary evidence for sex-by-verbal IQ differential risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuse, David H; Mandy, William; Steer, Colin; Miller, Laura L; Goodman, Robert; Lawrence, Kate; Emond, Alan; Golding, Jean

    2009-02-01

    The proportion of schoolchildren with mild social communicative deficits far exceeds the number diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). We aimed to ascertain both the population distribution of such deficits and their association with functional adaptation and cognitive ability in middle childhood. The parent-report Social and Communication Disorders Checklist was administered to participants (n = 8,094) in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We correlated impairment severity with independent clinical diagnoses of ASD, cognitive abilities, and teacher-rated maladaptive behavior. Social and Communication Disorders Checklist scores were continuously distributed in the general population; boys had mean scores 30% higher than girls. Social communicative deficits were associated with functional impairment at school, especially in domains of hyperactivity and conduct disorders. A sex-by-verbal IQ interaction effect occurred: verbal IQ was protective against social communication impairments across the range of abilities in female subjects only. In male subjects, this protective effect did not exist for those with above-average verbal IQ. Social communicative deficits are of prognostic significance, in terms of behavioral adjustment at school, for boys and girls. Their high general population prevalence emphasizes the importance of measuring such traits among clinically referred children who do not meet diagnostic ASD criteria. Above-average verbal IQ seems to confer protection against social communication impairments in female subjects but not in male subjects.

  20. Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies: Age- and IQ-Adjusted Norms for the Boston Naming Test, the MAE Token Test, and the Judgment of Line Orientation Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Brett A; Bieliauskas, Linas A; Smith, Glenn E; Langellotti, Christopher; Ivnik, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Although many extant normative data sets for standardized neuropsychometric instruments feature adjustments for subject variables, there are reasons to believe that improvements in interpretive accuracy that result from such adjustments are less than optimal. In particular, several theoretical considerations suggest that years of formal education may be less closely related to test performances than is general intellectual functioning. In this first of four reanalyses of results from the Mayo Clinic's Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) databases, age-adjusted scores on the Boston Naming Test, the MAE Token Test, and the Judgment of Line Orientation Test were indeed found to be more strongly associated with Mayo Age-adjusted WAIS-R Full Scale IQ scores (rs=.608, .473, and .502, respectively) than with education (rs=.310, .306, and .236, respectively) for healthy older examinees (56-99 years). Consistent with the remarks of Dodrill (19971999), these correlations generally decreased at higher levels of intelligence. The magnitude and pattern of such declines varied across the three tests, however, suggesting that IQ-test score associations must be empirically determined rather than assumed to be linear. Tables of Age- and IQ-Adjusted percentile equivalents of MOANS Age-adjusted BNT, Token Test, and JLO scaled scores are presented for eleven age ranges and seven IQ ranges. The article concludes with a discussion of factors that may underlie observed relations among age, intelligence, and neuropsychometric test performances.

  1. Psychological and physical health at age 70 in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936: links with early life IQ, SES, and current cognitive function and neighborhood environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Corley, Janie; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    Researchers in many fields are interested in the robust observation that higher socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with better mental and physical health. Prominent explanations for the association involve effects of stress due to relative material and social adversity in lower socioeconomic environments, but early-life intelligence may also contribute directly to both later-life socioeconomic status and health. Here, we evaluated the effects of early-life IQ on mental and physical health outcomes at age 70, in the context of effects of SES. The Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936 took part in the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947, providing a measure of IQ at age 11. They have been extensively surveyed at age 70. Body mass index, constraints on daily life activities, hospital anxiety and depression, number of diseases, level of physical activity, weekly units of alcohol consumption, and pack-years of smoking. SES had apparently direct effects on most outcomes, but age 11 IQ was also involved in several, either directly or because it contributed to SES. Several interactions helped to integrate these associations. High age-11 IQ tended to buffer effects of adverse environments on physical and mental problems in old age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Relationship Between WPPSI and Stanford-Binet IQs and Subsequent WISC IQs in Headstart Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Bruce K.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Children were tested on the WPPSI and Stanford-Binet and after three years they were tested on the WISC. Results indicate that the WISC scores were significantly higher than the two other tests. The results of the various subtests of the three tests are compared and discussed. (SE)

  3. The Association between County-Level IQ and County-Level Crime Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Wright, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    An impressive body of research has revealed that individual-level IQ scores are negatively associated with criminal and delinquent involvement. Recently, this line of research has been extended to show that state-level IQ scores are associated with state-level crime rates. The current study uses this literature as a springboard to examine the…

  4. Memory Span, IQ and Memory Aids Effects on Learning of Logico-Conceptual Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Soo

    1979-01-01

    A set of immediate memory-span tests, concept- and rule-learning tasks, and an IQ test were administered to adolescents. A color-form memory factor and IQ substantially predicted rule-learning proficiency. Effects of memory aids appeared to induce conceptual rules and serve as a base for rehearsing information. (Author/RD)

  5. IQs Predict Differences in the Technological Development of Nations from 1000 BC through 2000 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard

    2012-01-01

    National IQs and measures of technological development given by Comin, Easterly and Gong (2010) are presented for 133 nations for the year 1000 BC, for 134 nations for 0 AD, for 120 nations for 1500 AD and for 133 nations for 2000 AD. It is shown that national IQs are significantly correlated with national differences in technological development…

  6. Intelligence Is in the Eye of the Beholder: Investigating Repeated IQ Measurements in Forensic Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Petra; Jeandarme, Inge; Uzieblo, Kasia; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: A stable assessment of cognition is of paramount importance for forensic psychiatric patients (FPP). The purpose of this study was to compare repeated measures of IQ scores in FPPs with and without intellectual disability. Methods: Repeated measurements of IQ scores in FPPs (n = 176) were collected. Differences between tests were…

  7. Older and Wiser? Birth Order and IQ of Young Men. NBER Working Paper No. 13237

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children's outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and…

  8. Public and Catholic School Responses to IQ Testing in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ann Marie; Stoskopf, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Between 1910 and 1930, IQ tests were introduced to and institutionalized in American schools. IQ testing represents an important component of the first wave of test-driven educational reform in American history, but surprisingly, there is relatively little research focusing on public educators' perception of these tests at the time,…

  9. Are We Getting Smarter? Rising IQ in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The "Flynn effect" is a surprising finding, identified by James R. Flynn, that IQ test scores have significantly increased from one generation to the next over the past century. Flynn now brings us an exciting new book which aims to make sense of this rise in IQ scores and considers what this tells us about our intelligence, our minds…

  10. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  11. IQs Are Very Strong but Imperfect Indicators of Psychometric "g": Results from Joint Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ryan L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Kranzler, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The most global score yielded by intelligence tests, IQs, are supported by substantial validity evidence and have historically been central to the identification of intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, and giftedness. This study examined the extent to which IQs measure the ability they target, psychometric "g." Data from…

  12. A Systematic Literature Review of the Average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of several reviews of the literature, Lynn [Lynn, R., (2006). Race differences in intelligence: An evolutionary analysis. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.] and Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T., (2006). IQ and global inequality. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.] concluded that the average IQ of the…

  13. The Nature and Nurture of High IQ: An Extended Sensitive Period for Intellectual Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brant, A.M.; Munakata, Y.; Boomsma, D.I.; DeFries, J.C.; Haworth, C.M.A.; Keller, M.C.; Martin, N.G.; McGue, M.; Petrill, S.A.; Plomin, R.; Wadsworth, S.J.; Wright, M.J.; Hewitt, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    IQ predicts many measures of life success, as well as trajectories of brain development. Prolonged cortical thickening observed in individuals with high IQ might reflect an extended period of synaptogenesis and high environmental sensitivity or plasticity. We tested this hypothesis by examining the

  14. Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples around 3000 years B.C.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Borsboom, D.; Dolan, C.V.

    2010-01-01

    In this rejoinder, we respond to comments by Lynn, Rushton, and Templer on our previous paper in which we criticized the use of national IQs in studies of evolutionary theories of race differences in intelligence. We reiterate that because of the Flynn Effect and psychometric issues, national IQs

  15. Photonic generation of high order uniform QAM signals based on IQ modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    A pre-distortion algorithm of generating driving signals was proposed for high-order QAM modulation based on IQ modulator. IQ modulator working in the nonlinear area and driving by non-uniform signals was employed. The pre-distorted driving signal requires lower signal-to-noise ratio than the common uniform driving signal in QAM modulation.

  16. A possible correlation between performance IQ, visuomotor adaptation ability and mu suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Muhammad Nabeel; Navid, Muhammad Samran; Khan, Mushtaq; Kitajo, Keiichi

    2015-04-07

    Psychometric, anatomical and functional brain studies suggest that individuals differ in the way that they perceive and analyze information and strategically control and execute movements. Inter-individual differences are also observed in neural correlates of specific and general cognitive ability. As a result, some individuals perceive and adapt to environmental conditions and perform motor activities better than others. The aim of this study was to identify a common factor that predicts adaptation of a reaching movement to a visual perturbation and suppression of movement-related brain activity (mu rhythms). Twenty-eight participants participated in two different experiments designed to evaluate visuomotor adaptation and mu suppression ability. Performance intelligence quotient (IQ) was assessed using the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Performance IQ predicted adaptation index of visuomotor performance (r=0.43, p=0.02) and suppression of mu rhythms (r=-0.59; pIQ were faster at adapting to a visuomotor perturbation and better at suppressing mu activity than participants with low performance IQ. We found a possible link between performance IQ and mu suppression, and performance IQ and the initial rate of adaptation. Individuals with high performance IQ were better in suppressing mu rhythms and were quicker at associating motor command and required movement than individuals with low performance IQ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Why do IQ Scores Predict Job Performance? An Alternative, Sociological Explanation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K. Byington (Eliza); W.A. Felps (William)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT During the past century, IQ testing has become a pervasive tool for allocating scarce resources in the United States and beyond. IQ-reflective tests are used in primary and secondary schools to sort students into groups, and by universities and employers to select between

  18. To which extent social withdrawal at the age of 1 year is associated with IQ at 5-6 years old? Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Doukhan, Sarah; Forhan, Anne; Heude, Barbara; Peyre, Hugo

    2017-11-01

    The present study aims to determine to which extent social withdrawal at 1 year is associated with the child's IQ at the end of the preschool period. Children (N = 1045) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed for social withdrawal behaviours at 1 year by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB) scale. Midwives also examined infants' language and motor development at 1 year. At the age 5-6 years, IQ scores were based on the WPPSI-III. Linear regression models were used to determine the association between IQ and ADBB, adjusted for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and for language and motor skills scores at 1 year. After adjusting for environmental factors, children with social withdrawal at 1 years (ADBB ≥5; N = 195) had significantly lower IQ scores at 5-6 years (-2.81 IQ points; p value 0.007) compared to children without social withdrawal (ADBB IQ at 5-6 years was found. Being socially withdrawn at 1 year is associated with lower IQ scores at 5-6 years. The potential influence of these developmental aspects on each other (withdrawal behaviour and language/motor skills) may occur early in development. Our results improve our understanding of the outcomes of early social withdrawal behaviour and call for early detection of delay in acquisition of language/motor skills among socially withdrawn young children.

  19. IQ-SPECT for thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging: effect of normal databases on quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Takahiro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Okuda, Koichi; Yoneyama, Hiroto; Matsuo, Shinro; Shibutani, Takayuki; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Kinuya, Seigo

    2017-07-01

    Although IQ-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides rapid acquisition and attenuation-corrected images, the unique technology may create characteristic distribution different from the conventional imaging. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of IQ-SPECT using Japanese normal databases (NDBs) with that of the conventional SPECT for thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). A total of 36 patients underwent 1-day 201 Tl adenosine stress-rest MPI. Images were acquired with IQ-SPECT at approximately one-quarter of the standard time of conventional SPECT. Projection data acquired with the IQ-SPECT system were reconstructed via an ordered subset conjugate gradient minimizer method with or without scatter and attenuation correction (SCAC). Projection data obtained using the conventional SPECT were reconstructed via a filtered back projection method without SCAC. The summed stress score (SSS) was calculated using NDBs created by the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine working group, and scores were compared between IQ-SPECT and conventional SPECT using the acquisition condition-matched NDBs. The diagnostic performance of the methods for the detection of coronary artery disease was also compared. SSSs were 6.6 ± 8.2 for the conventional SPECT, 6.6 ± 9.4 for IQ-SPECT without SCAC, and 6.5 ± 9.7 for IQ-SPECT with SCAC (p = n.s. for each comparison). The SSS showed a strong positive correlation between conventional SPECT and IQ-SPECT (r = 0.921 and p IQ-SPECT with and without SCAC was also good (r = 0.907 and p IQ-SPECT without SCAC; and 88.5, 86.8, and 87.3%, respectively, for IQ-SPECT with SCAC, respectively. The area under the curve obtained via receiver operating characteristic analysis were 0.77, 0.80, and 0.86 for conventional SPECT, IQ-SPECT without SCAC, and IQ-SPECT with SCAC, respectively (p = n.s. for each comparison). When appropriate NDBs were used, the diagnostic performance of 201 Tl IQ

  20. The relationship between IQ and performance on the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Christine; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd

    2014-06-01

    The associations between IQ and individual tests of neurocognitive function are well studied. However, there is a lack of information as to how IQ relates to performance on neuropsychological test batteries as a whole and in the same individuals. In this study, 250 healthy participants aged 20-69 years were tested with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). In correlation analyses, IQ was significantly related to all MCCB scores, except the Social Cognition domain. Hierarchical regression analyses including gender, age, and education confirmed this association. For overall cognitive function, 50% of the variance was explained by IQ and demographic characteristics. For the domains Speed of Processing, Working Memory, Visual and Verbal Learning, IQ explained a larger proportion of the variance than the demographic factors did. The implication is that these domains may provide information of a person's intelligence level.

  1. The relationship between IQ and performance on the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Mohn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The associations between IQ and individual tests of neurocognitive function are well studied. However, there is a lack of information as to how IQ relates to performance on neuropsychological test batteries as a whole and in the same individuals. In this study, 250 healthy participants aged 20-69 years were tested with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB. In correlation analyses, IQ was significantly related to all MCCB scores, except the Social Cognition domain. Hierarchical regression analyses including gender, age, and education confirmed this association. For overall cognitive function, 50% of the variance was explained by IQ and demographic characteristics. For the domains Speed of Processing, Working Memory, Visual and Verbal Learning, IQ explained a larger proportion of the variance than the demographic factors did. The implication is that these domains may provide information of a person’s intelligence level.

  2. Confiabilidad de la Prueba de Habilidad Intelectual DAP:IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Honores Mendoza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of the scores of Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents and Adults, DAP: IQ is examined with a sample of 155 children aged 6 to 11 years. Alpha coefficients were obtained from 0.63 to 0.74, the average alpha for the total sample was 0.68; It also was the difference in alpha coefficients confirmed that the low reliability of all our data with regard to the normative study. The agreement interscorer was 0.91. The results were not consistent with those reported by the authors of the test. We suggest a cautious use of this instrument for the assessment of groups with similar characteristics.

  3. A population-based longitudinal study of suicide risk in male schizophrenia patients: Proximity to hospital discharge and the moderating effect of premorbid IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Mark; Kapra, Ori; Werbeloff, Nomi; Goldberg, Shira; Fenchel, Daphna; Reichenberg, Abraham; Yoffe, Rinat; Ginat, Keren; Fruchter, Eyal; Davidson, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death in schizophrenia. Identifying factors which increase the risk of suicide among schizophrenia patients might help focus prevention efforts. This study examined risk of suicide in male schizophrenia patients using population-based data, examining the timing of suicide in relation to the last hospital discharge, and the effect of premorbid IQ on risk of suicide. Data on 930,000 male adolescents from the Israeli military draft board were linked with data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry and vital statistics from the Israeli Ministry of Health. The relationship between premorbid IQ and risk for suicide was examined among 2881 males hospitalized with schizophrenia and compared to a control group of 566,726 males from the same cohort, who were not hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder, using survival analysis methods. Over a mean follow-up period of 9.9 years (SD=5.8, range: 0-22 years), 77/3806 males with schizophrenia died by suicide (a suicide rate of 204.4 per 100,000 person-years). Approximately 48% of the suicides occurred within a year of discharge from the last hospital admission for schizophrenia. Risk of suicide was higher in male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ (HR=4.45, 95% CI=1.37-14.43) compared to those with normal premorbid IQ. These data indicate that male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ are at particularly high risk of suicide, and the time of peak risk is during the first year after the last hospitalization discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prenatal Internal Locus of Control Is Positively Associated with Offspring IQ, Mediated through Parenting Behavior, Prenatal Lifestyle and Social Circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Golding

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Locus of control (LOC is a measure that identifies the likelihood as to whether an individual considers what happens to him is largely a matter of luck or fate (known as externally oriented or whether it is something that the individual can influence (internality. Here we have used data collected as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC to determine the associations between the mothers’ LOC orientation before the birth of the child and her child’s cognition measured at age 8. Using results from 6801 children we show that maternal internal LOC is associated with increased ability in offspring IQ, as measured using the WISC, with children of internally oriented mothers having an advantage of approximately 7 IQ points at age 8. As a sensitivity analysis we used the IQ test results of a sample of 986 preschool children tested using the WPSSI at age 4. A similar advantage was found among the offspring of the internally oriented mothers. We investigated mechanistic explanations for these results firstly by determining the extent to which three separate sets of factors known to be influenced by the LOC orientation might explain these findings. We showed that (a perinatal life-style exposures, (b parenting attitudes and strategies and (c socio-economic circumstances, largely explain the mechanism through which the internality of the mother influences the cognition of the child. Similar effects were found using the smaller sample tested at age 4. The results indicate that efforts made to foster internality in adolescents and young adults prior to parenthood may result in improvements in the cognitive development of the next generation. Intervention studies are urgently needed.

  5. Is low IQ related to risk of death by homicide? Testing an hypothesis using data from a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, George David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Gale, Catharine R

    2008-01-01

    Lower IQ test scores are related to an increased risk of violent assault. We tested the relation between IQ and death by homicide. In a prospective cohort study of 14,537 men (21 homicides), the association between lower IQ and an increased risk of homicide was lost after multiple adjustment....

  6. Temporal Stability of ADHD in the High-IQ Population: Results from the MGH Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Maglione, Katherine; Doyle, Alysa; Fried, Ronna; Seidman, Larry; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the relationship between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity (ADHD) disorder and high-IQ children and whether ADHD has a high predictive value among youths with high-IQ. Results further supported the hypothesis for the predictive validity of ADHD in high-IQ youths.

  7. Empirical Implications of Matching Children with Specific Language Impairment to Children with Typical Development on Nonverbal IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, F. Sayako; Gallinat, Erica L.; Grela, Bernard G.; Lehto, Alexa; Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2017-01-01

    This study determined the effect of matching children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their peers with typical development (TD) for nonverbal IQ on the IQ test scores of the resultant groups. Studies published between January 2000 and May 2012 reporting standard nonverbal IQ scores for SLI and age-matched TD controls were categorized…

  8. A comparison of IQ and memory cluster solutions in moderate and severe pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Terranova, Jennifer; Turner, Alisa; Mayfield, Joan; Allen, Daniel N

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have examined heterogeneous neuropsychological outcomes in childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) using cluster analysis. These studies have identified homogeneous subgroups based on tests of IQ, memory, and other cognitive abilities that show some degree of association with specific cognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes, and have demonstrated that the clusters derived for children with TBI are different from those observed in normal populations. However, the extent to which these subgroups are stable across abilities has not been examined, and this has significant implications for the generalizability and clinical utility of TBI clusters. The current study addressed this by comparing IQ and memory profiles of 137 children who sustained moderate-to-severe TBI. Cluster analysis of IQ and memory scores indicated that a four-cluster solution was optimal for the IQ scores and a five-cluster solution was optimal for the memory scores. Three clusters on each battery differed primarily by level of performance, while the others had pattern variations. Cross-plotting the clusters across respective IQ and memory test scores indicated that clusters defined by level were generally stable, while clusters defined by pattern differed. Notably, children with slower processing speed exhibited low-average to below-average performance on memory indexes. These results provide some support for the stability of previously identified memory and IQ clusters and provide information about the relationship between IQ and memory in children with TBI.

  9. The City Intelligence Quotient (City IQ Evaluation System: Conception and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After a systematic review of 38 current intelligent city evaluation systems (ICESs from around the world, this research analyzes the secondary and tertiary indicators of these 38 ICESs from the perspectives of scale structuring, approaches and indicator selection, and determines their common base. From this base, the fundamentals of the City Intelligence Quotient (City IQ Evaluation System are developed and five dimensions are selected after a clustering analysis. The basic version, City IQ Evaluation System 1.0, involves 275 experts from 14 high-end research institutions, which include the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Science and Engineering (Germany, the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, the Planning Management Center of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China, and the Development Research Center of the State Council of China. City IQ Evaluation System 2.0 is further developed, with improvements in its universality, openness, and dynamic adjustment capability. After employing deviation evaluation methods in the IQ assessment, City IQ Evaluation System 3.0 was conceived. The research team has conducted a repeated assessment of 41 intelligent cities around the world using City IQ Evaluation System 3.0. The results have proved that the City IQ Evaluation System, developed on the basis of intelligent life, features more rational indicators selected from data sources that can offer better universality, openness, and dynamics, and is more sensitive and precise.

  10. Nonsignificance of sleep relative to IQ and neuropsychological scores in predicting academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L; Bixler, Edward O; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2008-06-01

    The goal of the study was to determine the relative importance of sleep, IQ, neuropsychological, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) scores in predicting academic achievement. Objective overnight polysomnograph sleep scores, parent ratings of sleep problems, IQ, neuropsychological test scores, and parent ratings of ADHD were used to predict academic achievement in a general population sample of 412 elementary schoolchildren, 6 to 12 years of age with IQs of 71 to 147. Using stepwise linear regression analysis, IQ was the best single predictor of reading and math achievement test scores. The most powerful combined predictors of achievement were IQ and some of the neuropsychological test scores. Subjective parent-reported sleep problems and objective polysomnograph scores (apnea-hypopnea index, mean oxygen saturation and lowest saturation percentage during sleep, snoring frequency and severity, sleep latency, minutes to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, arousal index, number of awakenings, sleep efficiency, and percentage of stage 1, 2, 3, 4, and REM sleep) did not contribute significantly more to the prediction of achievement. Children with and without sleep problems did not differ from each other in achievement. IQ, neuropsychological test scores, and ADHD ratings were all significantly related to achievement, but correlations between achievement and objective and subjective sleep scores were all nonsignificant. There may be individual children for whom sleep problems affect achievement, but for a large group of community children, sleep was not significantly related to academic functioning. In contrast, IQ and neuropsychological test scores were powerful predictors of achievement.

  11. IQ in childhood and atherosclerosis in middle-age: 40 Year follow-up of the Newcastle Thousand Families Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Beverly A; Batty, G David; Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J; Parker, Louise; Pearce, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a known precursor to coronary heart disease (CHD) and other relevant health outcomes such as stroke and cognitive impairment. In addition, higher childhood intelligence has been associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease events in later life, although the mechanisms of effect are unclear. We therefore examined the association between childhood intelligence and atherosclerosis using carotid IMT as a marker of the atherosclerotic process. Participants were 412 members of the Newcastle Thousand Families Study, a prospective cohort study of all 1142 births in the city of Newcastle in May and June 1947, who took an IQ test and English and arithmetic tests at age 11 years. Study members participated in a medical examination and lifestyle assessment at age 49-51 years during which IMT was measured using ultrasound techniques. Individuals with higher childhood IQ score had a lower mean IMT in middle-age. A standard deviation higher score in childhood overall IQ was associated with a 0.053 mm (95% CI -0.102, -0.004) lower IMT in men and a 0.039 mm (95% CI -0.080, -0.002) lower IMT in women. Similar levels of association were found for the English and arithmetic tests. After adjustment for a range of covariates including education, the size of effect was undiminished in men but increased in women. In the present study, higher childhood IQ scores were associated with a lower degree of atherosclerosis by middle-age. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Contribution of brain size to IQ and educational underperformance in extremely preterm adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Anderson, Peter J; Roberts, Gehan; Burnett, Alice C; Lee, Katherine J; Thompson, Deanne K; Molloy, Carly; Wilson-Ching, Michelle; Connelly, Alan; Seal, Marc L; Wood, Stephen J; Doyle, Lex W

    2013-01-01

    Extremely preterm (EP) survivors have smaller brains, lower IQ, and worse educational achievement than their term-born peers. The contribution of smaller brain size to the IQ and educational disadvantages of EP is unknown. This study aimed (i) to compare brain volumes from multiple brain tissues and structures between EP-born (IQ and basic educational skills and whether this differed by group, and (iii) to explore how much total brain tissue volume explains the underperformance of EP adolescents compared with controls. Longitudinal cohort study of 148 EP and 132 term controls born in Victoria, Australia in 1991-92. At age 18, magnetic resonance imaging-determined brain volumes of multiple tissues and structures were calculated. IQ and educational skills were measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) and the Wide Range Achievement Test(WRAT-4), respectively. Brain volumes were smaller in EP adolescents compared with controls (mean difference [95% confidence interval] of -5.9% [-8.0, -3.7%] for total brain tissue volume). The largest relative differences were noted in the thalamus and hippocampus. The EP group had lower IQs(-11.9 [-15.4, -8.5]), spelling(-8.0 [-11.5, -4.6]), math computation(-10.3 [-13.7, -6.9]) and word reading(-5.6 [-8.8, -2.4]) scores than controls; all p-valuesIQ and educational skills, a relationship that was similar for both the EP and controls. Total brain tissue volume explained between 20-40% of the IQ and educational outcome differences between EP and controls. EP adolescents had smaller brain volumes, lower IQs and poorer educational performance than controls. Brain volumes of multiple tissues and structures are related to IQ and educational outcomes. Smaller total brain tissue volume is an important contributor to the cognitive and educational underperformance of adolescents born EP.

  13. A longitudinal twin study of the direction of effects between ADHD symptoms and IQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sophie Rommel

    Full Text Available While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven's scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven's scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ.

  14. A longitudinal twin study of the direction of effects between ADHD symptoms and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Anna Sophie; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Greven, Corina U; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary) and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices) IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven's scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven's scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ.

  15. Lead exposure, IQ, and behavior in urban 5- to 7-year-olds: does lead affect behavior only by lowering IQ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aimin; Cai, Bo; Dietrich, Kim N; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J

    2007-03-01

    Lead exposure in childhood lowers IQ scores, but its effect on children's behavior is less clear. Because IQ, per se, affects behavior, measuring the direct effect of lead requires measuring and then adjusting for IQ. In addition, either peak blood lead concentration, usually at 2 years old, or the lower blood lead level measured at school age may be the most relevant. Few studies have all of this information. The purpose of this work was to differentiate the direct effect of lead on behavior and the indirect effect through IQ and to examine the strength of the association for peak and concurrent blood lead concentration. Data come from a clinical trial of the chelating drug succimer to prevent cognitive impairment in 780 urban 12- to 33-month-olds with blood lead concentrations of 20 to 44 microg/dL. The children were followed from ages 2 to 7 years. The trial data were analyzed as a prospective observational study. Blood lead concentration at 2 years old was not associated with Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised scores at 5 years of age or Behavioral Assessment Systems for Children scores at 7 years of age. Blood lead level at 7 years of age had direct effects on the Behavioral Assessment Systems for Children behavioral symptoms index, externalizing, and school problems at age 7. Concurrent blood lead concentration was associated with externalizing and school problems scales at 7 years of age, and the effect was not entirely mediated through the effect of lead on IQ.

  16. Widely Linear Equalization for IQ Imbalance and Skew Compensation in Optical Coherent Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an alternative approach to design linear equalization algorithms for optical coherent receivers is introduced. Using widely linear complex analysis, a general analytical model it is shown, where In-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalances and IQ skew at the coherent receiver front......, it is shown that, by applying the widely linear complex analysis, one can derive a complex-valued adaptive equalizer structure which is able to compensate for linear IQ-mixing effects at the receiver front-end. By extensive numerical simulations, the performance versus complexity of the proposed equalizer...

  17. Association of maternal thyroid function during early pregnancy with offspring IQ and brain morphology in childhood: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Muetzel, Ryan; Medici, Marco; Chaker, Layal; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Steegers, Eric A P; Visser, Theo J; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Peeters, Robin P

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is involved in the regulation of early brain development. Since the fetal thyroid gland is not fully functional until week 18-20 of pregnancy, neuronal migration and other crucial early stages of intrauterine brain development largely depend on the supply of maternal thyroid hormone. Current clinical practice mostly focuses on preventing the negative consequences of low thyroid hormone concentrations, but data from animal studies have shown that both low and high concentrations of thyroid hormone have negative effects on offspring brain development. We aimed to investigate the association of maternal thyroid function with child intelligence quotient (IQ) and brain morphology. In this population-based prospective cohort study, embedded within the Generation R Study (Rotterdam, Netherlands), we investigated the association of maternal thyroid function with child IQ (assessed by non-verbal intelligence tests) and brain morphology (assessed on brain MRI scans). Eligible women were those living in the study area at their delivery date, which had to be between April 1, 2002, and Jan 1, 2006. For this study, women with available serum samples who presented in early pregnancy (IQ (assessed at a median of 6·0 years of age [95% range 5·6-7·9 years]) or brain MRI scans (done at a median of 8·0 years of age [6·2-10·0]) were obtained. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders including concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin and child thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine. Data for child IQ were available for 3839 mother-child pairs, and MRI scans were available from 646 children. Maternal free thyroxine concentrations showed an inverted U-shaped association with child IQ (p=0·0044), child grey matter volume (p=0·0062), and cortex volume (p=0·0011). For both low and high maternal free thyroxine concentrations, this association corresponded to a 1·4-3·8 points reduction in mean child IQ. Maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone was

  18. Pre-morbid IQ in mental disorders: a Danish draft-board study of 7486 psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer-Parnas, A; Lykke Mortensen, E; Sæbye, D

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies indicate that future schizophrenia patients exhibit lower IQ than healthy controls. Recent studies suggest that future patients with other mental illnesses obtain lower pre-morbid IQ. The aims of this study were to compare pre-morbid IQ among five diagnostic...... categories and normal controls, to examine the distribution of pre-morbid IQ, and to investigate the relationship between pre-morbid IQ and risk of mental illness.MethodA total of 7486 individuals hospitalized with psychiatric disease and 20 531 controls. IQ was measured at the draft board and hospital...... normal and uni-modal. CONCLUSIONS: IQ deficits in each diagnostic category may reflect different functional patterns and temporal vicissitudes of the specific pathogenetic processes involved in different mental disorders....

  19. Feasibility of one-eighth time gated myocardial perfusion SPECT functional imaging using IQ-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caobelli, Federico; Thackeray, James T.; Bengel, Frank M. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Hannover (Germany); Soffientini, Alberto; Pizzocaro, Claudio; Guerra, Ugo Paolo [Fondazione Poliambulanza, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    IQ-SPECT, an add-on to general purpose cameras based on multifocal collimation, can reduce myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) acquisition times to one-fourth that of standard procedures (to 12 s/view). In a phantom study, a reduction of the acquisition time to one-eighth of the standard time (to 6 s/view) was demonstrated as feasible. It remains unclear whether such a reduction could be extended to clinical practice. Fifty patients with suspected or diagnosed CAD underwent a 2-day stress-rest {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi MPI protocol. Two consecutive SPECT acquisitions (6 and 12 s/view) were performed. Electrocardiogram-gated images were reconstructed with and without attenuation correction (AC). Polar maps were generated and visually scored by two blinded observers for image quality and perfusion in 17 segments. Global and regional summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS) and summed difference score (SDS) were determined. Left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction were calculated based on automated contour detection. Image quality was scored higher with the 12 s/view acquisition, both with and without AC. Summed scores were statistically comparable between the 6 s/view and the 12 s/view acquisition, both globally and in individual coronary territories (e.g. in images with AC, SSS were 6.6 ± 8.3 and 6.2 ± 8.2 with 6 s and 12 s/view, respectively, p = 0.10; SRS were 3.9 ± 5.6 and 3.5 ± 5.3, respectively, p = 0.19; and SDS were 2.8 ± 5.7 and 2.6 ± 5.7, respectively, p = 0.59). Both acquisitions allowed MPI-based diagnosis of CAD in 25 of the 50 patients (with AC). Calculated end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) were modestly higher with the 6 s/view acquisition than with the 12 s/view acquisition (EDV +4.8 ml at rest and +3.7 ml after stress, p = 0.003; ESV +4.1 ml at rest and +2.6 ml after stress, p = 0.01), whereas the ejection fraction did not differ (-1.2 % at rest, p = 0.20, and -0.9 % after stress, p = 0.27). Image quality and

  20. Bifactor model of WISC-IV: Applicability and measurement invariance in low and normal IQ groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair; Watson, Shaun

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the applicability and measurement invariance of the bifactor model of the 10 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) core subtests in groups of children and adolescents (age range from 6 to 16 years) with low (IQ ≤79; N = 229; % male = 75.9) and normal (IQ ≥80; N = 816; % male = 75.0) IQ scores. Results supported this model in both groups, and there was good support for measurement invariance for this model across these groups. For all participants together, the omega hierarchical and explained common variance (ECV) values were high for the general factor and low to negligible for the specific factors. Together, the findings favor the use of the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores of the WISC-IV, but not the subscale index scores. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The Relationship of WPPSI IQs to Sex and other Background Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, A. S.

    1973-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of SES, urvan vs. rural residence and geographic region to the IQs obtained by children on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI). (Author)

  2. Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Alloway, Ross G

    2010-05-01

    There is growing evidence for the relationship between working memory and academic attainment. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether working memory is simply a proxy for IQ or whether there is a unique contribution to learning outcomes. The findings indicate that children's working memory skills at 5 years of age were the best predictor of literacy and numeracy 6 years later. IQ, in contrast, accounted for a smaller portion of unique variance to these learning outcomes. The results demonstrate that working memory is not a proxy for IQ but rather represents a dissociable cognitive skill with unique links to academic attainment. Critically, we find that working memory at the start of formal education is a more powerful predictor of subsequent academic success than IQ. This result has important implications for education, particularly with respect to intervention. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT (IQ AS A PREDICTOR OF READING COMPREHENSION AND WRITING ACHIEVEMENT OF EFL LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Setya B. Ningrum

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating Intelligent Quotient (IQ as a predictor of reading comprehension and writing achievement as well as to correlate the students‟ reading comprehension with their writing achievement. The participant of the study were 32 senior high school Indonesian students. There are three instruments used in this study, those are IQ test, reading comprehension test, and writing test. Upon obtaining the whole data needed, Pearson Product Moment formula was employed to determine the correlation of IQ with reading comprehension and writing achievement as well as reading comprehension with writing achievement. The result of this study revealed that IQ made significant contribution in predicting reading comprehension (23.42% and writing achievement (16.08%. In addition, the correlation coefficient of reading comprehension and writing achievement shows that they are moderately correlated (r=.587, meaning that reading comprehension contributes as many as 34.45% to writing achievement.

  4. Childhood IQ, smoking, and cognitive change from age 11 to 64 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Fox, Helen C; Deary, Ian J; Starr, John M

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether smoking is a risk factor for relative cognitive decline from age 11 to 64 years. The potentially confounding effects of childhood IQ, occupational status, level of education, presence of heart disease, hypertension, and lung function were examined. Subjects were nondemented and living independently. They were all born in 1936, had been participants in the same Scottish national IQ survey in 1947, and were reexamined at age about 64 years in 2000-2002. Current smokers and nonsmokers had significantly different mental test scores at age 64. This difference remained after adjustment for childhood IQ. Multiple linear regression identified childhood IQ, level of education, occupational code, lung function, and smoking history as significant independent predictors of mental function at age 64. In this sample, smoking makes a small (aging.

  5. Analysis and compensation of I/Q imbalance in amplify-and-forward cooperative systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative systems in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance, which refers to the mismatch between components in I and Q branches, are investigated. First, we analyze the performance of the considered AF cooperative protocol without compensation for I/Q imbalance as the benchmark. Furthermore, a compensation algorithm for I/Q imbalance is proposed, which makes use of the received signals at the destination, from the source and relay nodes, together with their conjugations to detect the transmitted signal. The performance of the AF cooperative system under study is evaluated in terms of average symbol error probability (SEP), which is derived considering transmission over Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation algorithm can efficiently mitigate the effect of I/Q imbalance. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. IQ subgroups in relation to neurocognitive profiles, psychopathology and brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Høj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Rostrup, Egill

    Background and Aim: Approximately half of patients with schizophrenia experience a deterioration in IQ before or around illness onset and recent studies have found apositive association between IQ and brain volume in first episode schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the combined...... impact of estimated IQ trajectory and IQ level at illness onset on psychopathology, neurocognitive profiles and brain volume. Materials and methods: The design is a cross-sectional, case-control study of 60 first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 60 matched healthy controls...... MRI generated measure of grey and white matter volume corrected for skull size. Results: Eleven patients (21.5%) were defined as deteriorated low, 10 patients (20%) as deteriorated high, 11 patients (21.5%) as stable low and 19 patients (37%) as stable high. There was a fairly consistent incremental...

  7. Webinar Presentation: Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and IQ in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and IQ in Children, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Brain Health held on Aug. 12, 2015.

  8. Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Alloway, Ross G.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence for the relationship between working memory and academic attainment. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether working memory is simply a proxy for IQ or whether there is a unique contribution to learning outcomes. The findings indicate that children's working memory skills at 5 years of age were the best predictor of literacy and numeracy 6 years later. IQ in contrast, accounted for a smaller portion of unique variance to these learning outcomes. The r...

  9. A nodal method for solving the time-depending diffusion equation in the IQS approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovsky, I.; Kereszturi, A.

    1991-11-01

    The fast and slow variation of the neutron flux shape needed for the dynamical description of nuclear reactor cores can be described advantageously in the Improved Quasistatic (IQS) model where the flux is factorized by a fast changing space-independent amplitude and a slow changing shape function. The basic equations of a time-dependent nodal approximation using the IQS method is presented.The calculational procedure of the response matrices is also described. (R.P.) 2 refs

  10. Faktor – Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Fungsi kognitif (IQ)Anak Epilepsi Idiopatik

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanti, Rika

    2015-01-01

    Background. Epilepsy is the cause of morbidity in children, which can affect cognitive function Objective. To determine the risk factors that affect cognitive function (IQ) in children with idiopathic epilepsy. Methods. A cross sectional study at Neurology Clinic Department of Child Health Medical Faculty USU, H. Adam Malik Hospital Medan on December 2013 to May 2014. Twenty seven subjects meet the inclusion criteria were conducted IQ tests. Data were analyzed by using Fisher's exact te...

  11. Hubungan Antara Frekuensi Dan Intensitas Sakit Perut Berulang Pada Anak Usia Sekolah Dengan Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Saragih, Elida Irawati

    2016-01-01

    Background. Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common chronic pain syndrome and a public health problem in children. The incidences of RAP on school-age children in developing countries was 10-12%. Chronic pain will affect all aspects of his life, including his intelligence quotient (IQ), emotional, social and school life of the child. Objective. To evaluate the association between frequency and intensity of recurrent abdominal pain in school-age children with intelligence quotient (IQ)...

  12. Joint IQ Skew and Chromatic Dispersion Estimation for Coherent Optical Communication Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medeiros Diniz, Júlio César; Porto da Silva, Edson; Piels, Molly

    2016-01-01

    A low-complexity scanning method for joint estimation of receiver IQ skew and chromatic dispersion is proposed. This method shows less than 1 ps skew error for a 1200-km 32-GBd DP-16QAM optical transmission experiment.......A low-complexity scanning method for joint estimation of receiver IQ skew and chromatic dispersion is proposed. This method shows less than 1 ps skew error for a 1200-km 32-GBd DP-16QAM optical transmission experiment....

  13. Prevalence of Principles of Piaget’s Theory Among 4-7-year-old Children and their Correlation with IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Sugandha; Vashist, Binny

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive development is a major area of human development and was extensively studied by Jean Piaget. He proposed that the development of intellectual abilities occurs in a series of relatively distinct stages and that a child’s way of thinking and viewing the world is different at different stages. Aim To assess Piaget’s principles of the intuitive stage of preoperational period among 4-7-year-old children relative to their Intelligence quotient (IQ). Materials and Methods Various characteristics as described by Jean Piaget specific for the age group of 4-7 years along with those of the previous (preconceptual stage of preoperational period) and successive periods (concrete operations) were analysed using various experiments in 300 children. These characteristics included the concepts of perceptual and cognitive egocentrism, centration and reversibility. IQ of the children was measured using Seguin form board test. Inferential statistics were performed using Chi-square test and Kruskal Wallis test. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results The prevalence of perceptual and cognitive egocentrism was 10.7% and 31.7% based on the experiments and 33% based on the interview question. Centration was present in 96.3% of the children. About 99% children lacked the concept of reversibility according to the clay experiment while 97.7% possessed this concept according to the interview question. The mean IQ score of children who possessed perceptual egocentrism, cognitive egocentrism and egocentrism in dental setting was significantly higher than those who lacked these characteristics. Conclusion Perceptual egocentrism had almost disappeared and prevalence of cognitive egocentrism decreased with increase in age. Centration and lack of reversibility were appreciated in most of the children. There was a gradual reduction in the prevalence of these characters with increasing age. Mean IQ score of children who possessed perceptual egocentrism

  14. Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation and I/Q Imbalance Compensation for OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Omair Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of radio-frequency front-end imperfections, that is, carrier frequency offset and the inphase/quadrature (I/Q imbalance are considered for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM communication systems. A preamble-assisted carrier frequency estimator is proposed along with an I/Q imbalance compensation scheme. The new frequency estimator reveals the relationship between the inphase and the quadrature components of the received preamble and extracts the frequency offset from the phase shift caused by the frequency offset and the cross-talk interference due to the I/Q imbalance. The proposed frequency estimation algorithm is fast, efficient, and robust to I/Q imbalance. An I/Q imbalance estimation/compensation algorithm is also presented by solving a least-square problem formulated using the same preamble as employed for the frequency offset estimation. The computational complexity of the I/Q estimation scheme is further reduced by using part of the short symbols with a little sacrifice in the estimation accuracy. Computer simulation and comparison with some of the existing algorithms are conducted, showing the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. IQ, the Urban Environment, and Their Impact on Future Schizophrenia Risk in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulopoulou, Timothea; Picchioni, Marco; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Petersen, Liselotte

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to an urban environment during early life and low IQ are 2 well-established risk factors for schizophrenia. It is not known, however, how these factors might relate to one another. Data were pooled from the North Jutland regional draft board IQ assessments and the Danish Conscription Registry for men born between 1955 and 1993. Excluding those who were followed up for less than 1 year after the assessment yielded a final cohort of 153170 men of whom 578 later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. We found significant effects of having an urban birth, and also experiencing an increase in urbanicity before the age of 10 years, on adult schizophrenia risk. The effect of urban birth was independent of IQ. However, there was a significant interaction between childhood changes in urbanization in the first 10 years and IQ level on the future adult schizophrenia risk. In short, those subjects who moved to more or less urban areas before their 10th birthday lost the protective effect of IQ. When thinking about adult schizophrenia risk, the critical time window of childhood sensitivity to changes in urbanization seems to be linked to IQ. Given the prediction that by 2050, over 80% of the developed world's population will live in an urban environment, this represents a major future public health issue. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. IQ of four-year-olds who go on to develop dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F; Maassen, Ben; Krikhaar, Evelien; Plakas, Anna; van der Leij, Aryan

    2014-01-01

    Do children who go on to develop dyslexia show normal verbal and nonverbal development before reading onset? According to the aptitude-achievement discrepancy model, dyslexia is defined as a discrepancy between intelligence and reading achievement. One of the underlying assumptions is that the general cognitive development of children who fail to learn to read has been normal. The current study tests this assumption. In addition, we investigated whether possible IQ deficits are uniquely related to later reading or are also related to arithmetic. Four-year-olds (N = 212) with and without familial risk for dyslexia were assessed on 10 IQ subtests. Reading and arithmetic skills were measured 4 years later, at the end of Grade 2. Relative to the controls, the at-risk group without dyslexia had subtle impairments only in the verbal domain, whereas the at-risk group with dyslexia lagged behind across IQ tasks. Nonverbal IQ was associated with both reading and arithmetic, whereas verbal IQ was uniquely related to later reading. The children who went on to develop dyslexia performed relatively poorly in both verbal and nonverbal abilities at age 4, which challenges the discrepancy model. Furthermore, we discuss possible causal and epiphenomenal models explaining the links between early IQ and later reading. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  17. The N-terminal pleckstrin, coiled-coil, and IQ domains of the exchange factor Ras-GRF act cooperatively to facilitate activation by calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchsbaum, R; Telliez, J B; Goonesekera, S; Feig, L A

    1996-09-01

    We have recently shown that the neuronal exchange factor p140 Ras-GRF becomes activated in vivo in response to elevated calcium levels [C. L. Farnsworth, N. W. Freshney, L. B. Rosen, A. Ghosh, M. E. Greenberg, and L. A. Feig, Nature (London) 376:524-527, 1995]. Activation is mediated by calcium-induced calmodulin binding to an IQ domain near the N terminus of Ras-GRF. Here we show that the adjacent N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH), coiled-coil, and IQ domains function cooperatively to allow Ras-GRF activation. Deletion of the N-terminal PH domain redistributes a large percentage of Ras-GRF from the particulate to the cytosolic fraction of cells and renders the protein insensitive to calcium stimulation. A similar cellular distribution and biological activity are observed when only the core catalytic domain is expressed. Although the PH domain is necessary for particulate association of Ras-GRF, it is not sufficient for targeting the core catalytic domain to this cellular location. This requires the PH domain and the adjacent coiled-coil and IQ sequences. Remarkably, this form of Ras-GRF is constitutively activated. The PH and coiled-coil domains must also perform an additional function, since targeting to the particulate fraction of cells is not sufficient to allow Ras-GRF activation by calcium. A Ras-GRF mutant containing the PH domain from Ras-GTPase-activating protein in place of its own N-terminal PH domain localizes to the particulate fraction of cells but does not respond to calcium. Similar phenotypes are seen with mutant Ras-GRFs containing point mutations in either the PH or coiled-coil domain. These findings argue that the N-terminal PH, coiled-coil, and IQ domains of Ras-GRF function together to connect Ras-GRF to multiple components in the particulate fractions of cells that are required for responsiveness of the protein to calcium signaling.

  18. IQ and obesity in adolescence: a population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, S; Werbeloff, N; Fruchter, E; Portuguese, S; Davidson, M; Weiser, M

    2014-12-01

    Low IQ is associated with high BMI in childhood. There are inconsistent findings on the association between low SES and high BMI. Youth with low IQ have been reported to have poorer health behaviors, such as poor nutrition and less physical activity. Low IQ is significantly associated with obesity for both male and female adolescents, though more strongly for female adolescents. Physical activity has a mediating effect on the association between low IQ and obesity among both male and female adolescents, though more strongly for male adolescents. The association between low IQ and obesity is strongest among adolescents from high SES backgrounds. Previous studies have shown an association between low intelligence quotient (IQ), high body mass index and low socioeconomic status (SES). This study examined the cross-sectional association between IQ and obesity, exploring the roles of gender, SES and physical activity in this association. Subjects were 235,663 male and 169,259 female adolescents assessed by the Israeli military draft board. Low IQ was significantly associated with increased odds of obesity among male (odds ratio [OR] = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36-1.52) and female adolescents (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.51-1.73); this association was significantly stronger among female adolescents. Sobel tests indicated that physical activity had a significant mediating effect on this association for male and female adolescents, although more strongly for male adolescents. Dividing the sample according to SES, the association between low IQ and obesity was strongest in the high SES group (male adolescents: OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.10-1.43, female adolescents: OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.38-1.89), even when controlling for physical activity. The findings suggest that low IQ is associated with increased odds of obesity, particularly in female adolescents and in adolescents with high SES. Physical activity has a mediating effect on this

  19. Comparison of allergen responses based on the TRUE Test and IQ Chamber system in Korean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Won Joo; Ko, Joo Yeon; Ro, Young Suck; Kim, Myung Hwa; Kim, Byung Soo; Kim, Hye One; Nam, Jae Hui; Lee, Ga-Young; Park, Mi Youn; Son, Sang Wook; Yang, Jun Mo; Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Ai Young; Lee, Jun Young; Chang, Sung Eun; Choi, Hae Young; Park, Eun Joo

    2017-12-01

    A comparison between responses to allergens based on the TRUE Test ® (TT) and IQ ® Chamber (IQC) in Europeans has been previously reported, however, no such study has been performed in Asians. To compare allergen responses using the TT and IQC (using the Korean standard series) in order to gather more information regarding the positive response rates for each allergen and the clinical value of IQC. Suspected contact dermatitis patients were enrolled and tested with 18 allergens using the TT and IQC. The test was performed in 214 patients. Simultaneous positive results for both tests were recorded in 242 cases (positive concordance rate: 66.7%). IQC yielded more positive results. Allergens with a high positive concordance rate were nickel sulphate (82.1%), thimerosal (78.6%), and p-phenylenediamine (73.3%). IQC mostly showed similar or higher positive rates than TT, with high concordance. We recommend the IQC method as a screening test in patients with suspected contact dermatitis. To compensate for possible false positive results, careful history taking and a different patch test should be performed when appropriate.

  20. IQ as a predictor of clinician-rated mental health problems in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiassen, Børge; Brøndbo, Per Håkan; Waterloo, Knut; Martinussen, Monica; Eriksen, Mads; Hanssen-Bauer, Ketil; Kvernmo, Siv

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies indicate that low IQ is a substantial risk factor for developing mental health problems. Based on these results, we hypothesized that IQ may predict some of the variance in clinician-rated severity of children's mental health problems measured with the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA). The other aims of this study were to examine if there was any difference in the predictive ability of the different IQ scores of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third edition (WISC-III) and to examine if parent-rated measure of child mental health problems could predict the scores on CGAS and HoNOSCA after controlling for IQ, age, and gender. In this study, 132 patients at three outpatient clinics in North Norway were assessed with the parent version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), HoNOSCA, CGAS, and with the WISC-III. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted with HoNOSCA and CGAS as dependent variables. Demographics, WISC-III IQ scores, and SDQ were entered as independent variables. The model with HoNOSCA as the dependent variable predicted 25% of the total variance. The WISC-III full-scale IQ predicted an additional 6% of the variance. The analyses with CGAS as the dependent variable gave no significant results. When a patient has a high HoNOSCA score, an intelligence test in addition to an evaluation of symptoms on mental health should be considered. Future research ought to examine whether HoNOSCA's ability to detect change might be affected by patients IQ. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Improving IQ measurement in intellectual disabilities using true deviation from population norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Stephanie M; Schneider, Andrea; Bickel, Erika; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Prescott, Christina; Hessl, David

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by global cognitive deficits, yet the very IQ tests used to assess ID have limited range and precision in this population, especially for more impaired individuals. We describe the development and validation of a method of raw z-score transformation (based on general population norms) that ameliorates floor effects and improves the precision of IQ measurement in ID using the Stanford Binet 5 (SB5) in fragile X syndrome (FXS; n = 106), the leading inherited cause of ID, and in individuals with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 205). We compared the distributional characteristics and Q-Q plots from the standardized scores with the deviation z-scores. Additionally, we examined the relationship between both scoring methods and multiple criterion measures. We found evidence that substantial and meaningful variation in cognitive ability on standardized IQ tests among individuals with ID is lost when converting raw scores to standardized scaled, index and IQ scores. Use of the deviation z- score method rectifies this problem, and accounts for significant additional variance in criterion validation measures, above and beyond the usual IQ scores. Additionally, individual and group-level cognitive strengths and weaknesses are recovered using deviation scores. Traditional methods for generating IQ scores in lower functioning individuals with ID are inaccurate and inadequate, leading to erroneously flat profiles. However assessment of cognitive abilities is substantially improved by measuring true deviation in performance from standardization sample norms. This work has important implications for standardized test development, clinical assessment, and research for which IQ is an important measure of interest in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and other forms of cognitive impairment.

  2. Differentiation of organics from functional psychiatric patients across various IQ ranges using the Bender-Gestalt and Hutt Scoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellkamp, D T; Hogan, M E

    1985-03-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the Hutt Scoring System (Hutt, 1977) in differentiating organic from functional psychiatric patients, the relationship of IQ to Bender-Gestalt errors as measured by this scoring system, and examined the discriminative power of this scoring system for various IQ ranges. One hundred eighty patients were utilized, 90 of whom had been classified as organics and matched with the remaining 90 subjects on the basis of age, education, and IQ range. In addition, the organic subjects' secondary diagnosis was matched with the primary diagnosis of the nonorganic patients. Results between WAIS IQ and Hutt error scores for organic subjects yielded an r = -.34 (p less than .01); between WAIS IQ and Hutt error scores for the nonorganic subjects, r = -.61 (p less than .001). No significant results were obtained for organics and nonorganics simultaneously within the same IQ cells.

  3. IQ as a moderator of outcome in severity of children's mental health status after treatment in outpatient clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiassen, Børge Idar; Brøndbo, Per Håkan; Waterloo, Knut; Martinussen, Monica; Eriksen, Mads; Hanssen-Bauer, Ketil; Kvernmo, Siv

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Psychotherapy is an effective treatment for mental health disorders, but even with the most efficacious treatment, many patients do not experience improvement. Moderator analysis can identify the conditions under which treatment is effective or whether there are factors that can attenuate the effects of treatment. Methods In this study, linear mixed model analysis was used to examine whether the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ) and Verbal IQ (VIQ) on the Wechsler...

  4. Decreases in Short Term Memory, IQ, and Altered Brain Metabolic Ratios in Urban Apolipoprotein ε4 Children Exposed to Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Zhu, Hongtu; Lu, Zhaohua; Solorio, Edelmira; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    Children's urban air pollution exposures result in systemic and brain inflammation and the early hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk for AD. We assessed whether APOE in healthy children modulates cognition, olfaction, and metabolic brain indices. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test were administered to 50 Mexico City Metropolitan Area children (13.4 ± 4.8 years, 28 APOE ε3 and 22 APOE ε4). N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), choline (Cho)/Cr, myo-inositol (mI)/Cr, and NAA/mI were calculated using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the white matter of the frontal and parietal lobes, hippocampus, and pons. APOE ε4 versus ε3 children had a reduced NAA/Cr ratio in the right frontal white matter and decrements on attention, short-term memory, and below-average scores in Verbal and Full Scale IQ (>10 points). APOE modulated the group effects between WISC-R and left frontal and parietal white matter, and hippocampus metabolites. Soap was the predominantly failed odor in urban children and, in APOE ε4 versus ε3 carriers, strongly correlated with left hippocampus mI/Cr ratio. APOE modulates responses to air pollution in the developing brain. APOE ε4 carriers could have a higher risk of developing early AD if they reside in a polluted environment. APOE, cognition, and olfaction testing and targeted magnetic resonance spectroscopy may contribute to the assessment of urban children and their results could provide new paths toward the unprecedented opportunity for early neuroprotection and AD prevention.

  5. Genotoxicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4, 5-f)quinoline (IQ) and related compounds in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Ulrich; Wild, Dieter; Würgler, Friedrich E.

    2017-01-01

    The potent food mutagen and carcinogen 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4, 5-f]quinoline (IQ) and the structurally related heterocyclic aromatic amines 2-aminoimidazo[4, 5-f]quinoline (demethyl-IQ) and 2-amino-l-methylinudazo(4, 5-f)quinoline (iso-IQ) were assayed for genotoxicity in the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) as well as in the sex-linked recessive lethal (SLRL) test in Drosophila melanogaster. In addition, 3-methyl-2-nitroimidazo[4, 5-f]-quinoline (nitro-IQ), 2-nitroflu...

  6. Multi-hop amplify-and-forward relaying cooperation in the presence of I/Q imbalance

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, multi-hop cooperative networks implementing channel state information (CSI)-assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance are investigated. We propose a compensation algorithm for the I/Q imbalance. The performance of the multi-hop CSI-assisted AF cooperative networks with and without compensation for I/Q imbalance in Nakagami-m fading environment is evaluated in terms of average symbol error probability. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation method can effectively mitigate the impact of I/Q imbalance. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Developmental Trajectories for Children With Dyslexia and Low IQ Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The trajectory methodology enables identification of atypical versus delayed development in datasets gathered using group matching designs. Regarding the cognitive predictors of reading, which here are phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and rapid automatized naming (RAN), the method showed that trajectories for the two groups diverged markedly. Children with dyslexia showed atypical development in phonological awareness, while low IQ poor readers showed developmental delay. Low IQ poor readers showed atypical PSTM and RAN development, but children with dyslexia showed developmental delay. These divergent trajectories may have important ramifications for supporting each type of poor reader, although all poor readers showed weakness in all areas. Regarding auditory processing, the developmental trajectories were very similar for the two poor reader groups. However, children with dyslexia demonstrated developmental delay for auditory discrimination of Duration, while the low IQ children showed atypical development on this measure. The data show that, regardless of IQ, poor readers have developmental trajectories that differ from typically developing children. The trajectories approach enables differences in trajectory classification to be identified across poor reader group, as well as specifying the individual nature of these trajectories. PMID:27110928

  8. A new occlusive patch test system comparable to IQ and Finn chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajun Merchant, Shaziya Z; Vaidya, Ashlesha D; Salvi, Anjali; Joshi, Rajiv S; Mohile, Rashmikant B

    2014-01-01

    A good patch test system should have good adhesion and contact, and minimal leakage; Finn and IQ patch test system have these properties but are expensive. To develop a new cost-effective occlusive patch test system that had good contact with the skin and was non-irritant. The system (designated Chamber X) was fabricated using a semi-permeable tape and a flexible virgin plastic chamber. Chamber X was developed by (i) selecting adhesive tape based on its non irritancy and adhesive potential (ii) testing plastic chamber material for its skin irritancy (iii) testing the assembled system against Finn, IQ and locally available chambers for irritancy, contact, leakage and occlusivity. Chamber X showed better occlusion than IQ, Finn and locally available chambers and was comparable to, (P > 0.05) IQ and Finn in terms of irritancy, contact and leakage. The results demonstrate that the Chamber X offers a cost effective patch test system comparable to IQ and Finn chambers in terms of safety, adhesion, leakage and occlusivity.

  9. Childhood IQ, hearing loss, and maternal thyroid autoimmunity in the Baltimore Collaborative Perinatal Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Ellen E; Pillion, Joseph P; Duggan, Anne; Nelson, Kenrad; Rohde, Charles; Seaberg, Eric C; Talor, Monica V; Yolken, Robert H; Rose, Noel R

    2012-11-01

    Maternal thyroid autoantibodies during pregnancy have been implicated in neurodevelopmental delays, including early childhood cognitive deficits. We evaluated whether maternal autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPOaAbs) during late pregnancy were associated with childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in their offspring and how the children's TPOaAb-associated sensorineural hearing loss (HL) might affect the result. We evaluated banked third-trimester sera corresponding to 1,733 children for whom childhood cognitive test scores and audiology data were available. The mothers and their children participated in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-sponsored Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP) that ran from 1959 to 1974. A modest, statistically significant, effect of TPOaAbs on cognitive performance observed at 4 y of age lessened in both magnitude and P value by the age of 7 y. Children with sensorineural HL (SNHL) had lower IQ scores at both ages. Our data suggest that the reported effect of maternal TPOaAbs on IQ may involve early developmental delays or transient effects rather than permanent deficits. Reports associating TPOaAbs directly with IQ may reflect a portion with unexamined TPOaAb-associated SNHL. Whether the TPOaAb-associated SNHL is in the neurodevelopmental pathway of later cognitive delays or is independently associated with IQ requires investigation in other studies.

  10. Genetic priming of a proinflammatory profile predicts low IQ in octogenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe, K S; Mortensen, E L; Avlund, K; Pilegaard, H; Christiansen, L; Pedersen, A N; Schroll, M; Jørgensen, T; Pedersen, B K; Bruunsgaard, H

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within interleukin (IL)-18, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 gene promoter regions are risk factors for cognitive decline in healthy octogenarians, and to isolate the strongest inflammatory biomarkers of cognitive function in the peripheral blood. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was administered to 112 individuals at ages 80 and 85. An IL-18 haplotype was an independent risk factor of poor Performance IQ. The TNF-308GA genotype was related to individual declines in Verbal IQ, and the IL-10-592 CC genotype was related to better Verbal IQ at the age of 80. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha, sTNFRs, and IL-6 were negatively correlated with IQ at age 85 and less strongly to IQ at age 80 with activation of the TNF system as the strongest biomarker. In conclusion, SNPs related to high proinflammatory or low anti-inflammatory activity are independent risk factors of reduced cognitive function in octogenarians. Only the IL-18 haplotype was associated with inflammation in the peripheral blood and only with regard to circulating TNF-alpha.

  11. High Maternal Blood Mercury Level Is Associated with Low Verbal IQ in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Shin, Jiyoung; Hong, Yun Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung Nyun; Lee, Boeun; Lee, Soo Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Kim, Yangho

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship of IQ in children with maternal blood mercury concentration during late pregnancy. The present study is a component of the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 553 children whose mothers underwent testing for blood mercury during late pregnancy. The children were given the Korean language version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R) at 60 months of age. Multivariate linear regression analysis, with adjustment for covariates, was used to assess the relationship between verbal, performance, and total IQ in children and blood mercury concentration of mothers during late pregnancy. The results of multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that a doubling of blood mercury was associated with the decrease in verbal and total IQ by 2.482 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.749-4.214) and 2.402 (95% CI, 0.526-4.279), respectively, after adjustment. This inverse association remained after further adjustment for blood lead concentration. Fish intake is an effect modifier of child IQ. In conclusion, high maternal blood mercury level is associated with low verbal IQ in children. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  12. Clinical study of AcrySof IQ Toric intraocular lens implantation to corneal correct astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical outcome of implanting AcrySof IQ Toric intraocular lens to correct corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery, and to evaluate the result and rotational stability of AcrySof IQ Toric after cataract surgery. METHODS: A retrospective study of 26 eyes in 21 cataract patients with corneal astigmatism. All patients implanted AcrySof IQ Toric intraocular lens. The preoperative and postoperative uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA, best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, preoperative corneal astigmatism, anticipated residual astigmatism, total astigmatism, postoperative residual astigmatism and Toric lens axis were detected and measured.RESULTS: All patients' visual acuity and best corrected visual acuity improved significantly. The mean refractive cylinder decreased significantly after surgery from(2.05±0.57D to(0.55±0.33D(t=13.574, Pt=1.149, P>0.05. Three months after surgery, there was no significant difference between preoperative(2.01±0.58D and postoperative(-1.89±0.53D corneal astigmatism(t=1.908, P>0.05. The rotation of intraocular lens were CONCLUSION: The AcrySof IQ Toric lens make cataract patients enjoy the better UCVA including good rotational stability in the correct of corneal astigmatism. The AcrySof IQ Toric implantation is an effective option for the correct of preexisting corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery.

  13. The IQ Motif is Crucial for Ca v 1.1 Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Stroffekova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+-dependent modulation via calmodulin, with consensus CaM-binding IQ motif playing a key role, has been documented for most high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. The skeletal muscle Cav1.1 also exhibits Ca2+-/CaM-dependent modulation. Here, whole-cell Ca2+ current, Ca2+ transient, and maximal, immobilization-resistant charge movement (Qmax recordings were obtained from cultured mouse myotubes, to test a role of IQ motif in function of Cav1.1. The effect of introducing mutation (IQ to AA of IQ motif into Cav1.1 was examined. In dysgenic myotubes expressing YFP-Cav1.1AA, neither Ca2+ currents nor evoked Ca2+ transients were detectable. The loss of Ca2+ current and excitation-contraction coupling did not appear to be a consequence of defective trafficking to the sarcolemma. The Qmax in dysgenic myotubes expressing YFP-Cav1.1AA was similar to that of normal myotubes. These findings suggest that the IQ motif of the Cav1.1 may be an unrecognized site of structural and functional coupling between DHPR and RyR.

  14. The IQ motif is crucial for Cav1.1 function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroffekova, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Ca(2+)-dependent modulation via calmodulin, with consensus CaM-binding IQ motif playing a key role, has been documented for most high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels. The skeletal muscle Ca(v)1.1 also exhibits Ca(2+)-/CaM-dependent modulation. Here, whole-cell Ca(2+) current, Ca(2+) transient, and maximal, immobilization-resistant charge movement (Q(max)) recordings were obtained from cultured mouse myotubes, to test a role of IQ motif in function of Ca(v)1.1. The effect of introducing mutation (IQ to AA) of IQ motif into Ca(v)1.1 was examined. In dysgenic myotubes expressing YFP-Ca(v)1.1(AA), neither Ca(2+) currents nor evoked Ca(2+) transients were detectable. The loss of Ca(2+) current and excitation-contraction coupling did not appear to be a consequence of defective trafficking to the sarcolemma. The Q(max) in dysgenic myotubes expressing YFP-Ca(v)1.1(AA) was similar to that of normal myotubes. These findings suggest that the IQ motif of the Ca(v)1.1 may be an unrecognized site of structural and functional coupling between DHPR and RyR.

  15. Performance IQ in children is associated with blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Lee, Bo-Eun; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Kim, Yangho

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether performance IQ in children is associated with maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy. The present study is a component of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 119 children whose mothers underwent testing of blood cadmium during early pregnancy. All children were evaluated using the Korean version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R), at 60 months of age. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between IQ in children and maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy, after adjustment for covariates. Maternal blood cadmium concentration during early pregnancy was inversely associated with performance IQ, after adjustment for covariates such as sex, educational levels of both parents, family income, and maternal BMI. Maternal blood cadmium concentration, however, was not associated with cognitive IQ. Performance IQ in children is associated with maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of Maternal Stress during Pregnancy on IQ and ADHD Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizenko, Natalie; Fortier, Marie-Ève; Gaudreau-Simard, Mathilde; Jolicoeur, Claude; Joober, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy (MSDP) has been linked to a decrease in Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in the general population. The purpose of this study is to first examine the association between MSDP and IQ in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and second, to confirm, in a large sample, the link between MSDP and ADHD behavioral symptomatology. Four hundred ten children diagnosed with ADHD, ages six to 12, were consecutively recruited from the ADHD clinic and day hospital at the Douglas Institute from 1999 to 2013. IQ was assessed using the WISC III and IV. Symptom severity was evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Connor's Global Index for Parents (CGI-P) and Teachers (CGI-T). No significant effect of MSDP on full scale IQ was observed, but MSDP had a significant effect on CBCL and CGI scores. Elevated MSDP was significantly associated with increased CBCL internalizing scores (β=4.2, pIQ but rather on ADHD symptomatology, highlighting the importance of potentially offering psychological and social support to mothers who experience stress during pregnancy.

  17. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  18. Characteristics of single- and dual-photopeak energy window acquisitions with thallium-201 IQ-SPECT/CT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibutani, Takayuki; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Yoneyama, Hiroto; Konishi, Takahiro; Matsuo, Shinro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2017-08-01

    Although dual-energy (DE) acquisition with conventional 201 Tl myocardial perfusion SPECT has several advantages such as improved attenuation of the inferior wall and increased acquisition counts, the characteristics of IQ-SPECT have not been fully evaluated. We evaluate the difference of characteristics between single-energy (SE) and dual-energy (DE) imaging using 201 Tl myocardial IQ-SPECT. Two myocardial phantoms were created simulating normal myocardium and infarction of the inferior wall. Energy windows were set at 70 keV ± 10% for SE, and an additional 167 keV ± 7.5% for DE. SPECT images were reconstructed using the ordered subset conjugates gradient minimizer (OSCGM) method. We visually and quantitatively compared short-axis images of correction for no (NC), for attenuation (AC) or for both AC and scatter (ACSC) images. The average counts of SE and DE projection data were 17.5 and 20.3 counts/pixel, respectively. The DE data increased acquisition counts by approximately 16% compared with the SE data. The average visual score of normal myocardium did not differ significantly between the SE and DE images. However, the DE image of defective myocardium showed a significantly lower score in AC than SE images. The % uptake values of DE image with both NC and AC were significantly higher than those of SE images. The DE images of the inferior defective areas (segments 4 and 10) showed approximately 5-10% higher uptake compared with the SE images. The DE image with NC improved attenuation of the inferior wall. However, DE image with AC showed low defect detectability. Thus, AC should be used with SE rather than DE. Furthermore, while the SE image with ACSC can be used to detect perfusion defects, it must be interpreted carefully including the possibility of artificial inhomogeneity even in the normal myocardium.

  19. A W-Band Heterodyne FMCW Radar Based on TX IQ-Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feger, Reinhard; Wagner, Christoph; Stelzer, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    In this paper a method to realize a heterodyne frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar is presented. The proposed principle relies on the use of an inphase/quadrature (IQ)-modulator as single-sideband-mixer to shift the frequency of the FMCW-output away from dc. Since in any IQ-modulator phase and amplitude imbalances occur, the effect of these imbalances will be investigated by deriving the corresponding signal model. Based on this analysis, a method to compensate the imbalances by a predistortion of the modulation signal will be derived. The presented method does not require special test signals or additional hardware, but relies on a standard FMCW measurement onto a calibration target. A prototype radar system was built and used in test measurements to verify the proposed principle. The measurement results show that a suppression of unwanted signal components caused by IQ-imbalances better than 45 dB is achievable.

  20. [Dosimetry and bone densitometry: examples of LUNAR IQ and HOLOGIC 4500A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, B; Duboeuf, F; Itti, R

    2002-09-01

    Patient dosimetry related to two bone densitometer units from different manufacturers (LUNAR IQ and HOLOGIC 4500A) were evaluated using the parallel beam technique and thermoluminescence from Ca (SO4)/Dy. The radiation dose measured for a phantom of 18 cm in thickness was 0,11 mGy (+/- 0,004) at a maximum current of 3 mA for the LUNAR IQ unit in the high-resolution mode. The radiation dose is 0,28 mGy (+/- 0,011) for the HOLOGIC 4500A unit used at 2,5 mA in the high resolution-mode. These results obtained by thermoluminescence of the Ca (SO4)/Dy are in favor of the LUNAR IQ unit. However, dosimetry must be weighted against image quality.

  1. An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique for wideband wireless transceivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jin; Zhou Liguo; Yao Heng; Yuan Fang; Shi Yin; Fang Zhi

    2014-01-01

    An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique based on the digital baseband for wideband wireless communication transmitters is proposed. The digital baseband transmits the signal used for IQ mismatch calibration. The signal passes through the RF transmitter path, the calibration loop (which is composed of a square power detector and a band-pass filter in the RF transceiver) and the variable gain amplifier of the receiver. The digital baseband samples the signal for IQ mismatch estimation and compensates for it. Compared with the self-calibration technique in the RF chip, the proposed technique saves area and power consumption for the wireless local area network solution. This technique has been successfully used for the 802.11n system and satisfies the requirement of the standard by achieving over 50 dB image suppression. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique for wideband wireless transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Liguo, Zhou; Heng, Yao; Fang, Yuan; Zhi, Fang; Yin, Shi

    2014-08-01

    An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique based on the digital baseband for wideband wireless communication transmitters is proposed. The digital baseband transmits the signal used for IQ mismatch calibration. The signal passes through the RF transmitter path, the calibration loop (which is composed of a square power detector and a band-pass filter in the RF transceiver) and the variable gain amplifier of the receiver. The digital baseband samples the signal for IQ mismatch estimation and compensates for it. Compared with the self-calibration technique in the RF chip, the proposed technique saves area and power consumption for the wireless local area network solution. This technique has been successfully used for the 802.11n system and satisfies the requirement of the standard by achieving over 50 dB image suppression.

  3. IQ, handedness, and pedophilia in adult male patients stratified by referral source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray; Kolla, Nathan J; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated whether the previously observed association of pedophilia with lower IQs is an artifact of heterogeneity in referral source. The subjects were 832 adult male patients referred to a specialty clinic for evaluation of their sexual behavior. The patients' erotic preferences for prepubescent, pubescent, or adult partners were assessed with phallometric testing. Full scale IQ was estimated using six subtests from the WAIS-R. The results showed that the relations between pedophilia and lower IQ, lesser education, and increased rates of non-right-handedness were the same in homogeneous groups referred by lawyers or parole and probation officers as they were in a heterogeneous group referred by a miscellany of other sources. Those results, along with secondary analyses in the study, supported the conclusion that the relation between pedophilia and cognitive function is genuine and not artifactual. The findings were interpreted as evidence for the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental perturbations increase the risk of pedophilia in males.

  4. Receiver IQ mismatch estimation in PDM CO-OFDM system using training symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dandan; Ma, Xiurong; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Haoyuan

    2017-07-01

    Receiver in-phase/quadrature (IQ) mismatch is hard to mitigate at the receiver via using conventional method in polarization division multiplexed (PDM) coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system. In this paper, a novel training symbol structure is proposed to estimate IQ mismatch and channel distortion. Combined this structure with Gram Schmidt orthogonalization procedure (GSOP) algorithm, we can get lower bit error rate (BER). Meanwhile, based on this structure one estimation method is deduced in frequency domain which can achieve the estimation of IQ mismatch and channel distortion independently and improve the system performance obviously. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed two methods have better performance than compared method at 100 Gb/s after 480 km fiber transmission. Besides, the calculation complexity is also analyzed.

  5. A consecutive study on arsenic exposure and intelligence quotient (IQ) of children in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Mst Nasrin; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Fujimura, Miho

    2014-05-01

    In a recent cross-sectional investigation, we reported the intellectual function of adolescents (aged 14 and 15 years) in Bangladesh who had been exposed to arsenic (As). Here, we report a consecutive investigation on the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 408 children who are living in the Sonargoan Thana of Bangladesh (two age groups: 9 and 10 years; 4 and 5 years) were exposed to high levels of As in the groundwater. Urine and water samples were collected to assess As exposure. The IQ of the children was estimated using the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Information on parents' socioeconomic status (SES) was collected as confounding factors. The results indicate that As exposure was responsible for a lower IQ. The concentration of urinary As ([As]u) was associated with reduced intellectual function in a dose-response manner. A stronger association was found between reduced intellectual function (IQ) and [As]u than the level of As in the drinking water [As]w. There was no association between verbal IQ scores and [As]u of children in early childhood (aged 4 and 5 years). Based on these results, we conclude that current levels of As in the urine ([As]u), which we considered to reflect recent exposure to As from all possible sources, including groundwater, food, among others, were negatively associated to the IQ of the children tested, and that this adverse effect of As may also gradually accumulate over time among the poor.

  6. Genetic and environmental sources of covariance between reading tests used in neuropsychological assessment and IQ subtests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Mark; Wright, Margaret J; Geffen, Gina M; Geffen, Laurie B; Luciano, Michelle; Martin, Nicholas G

    2004-07-01

    In this study, we examined genetic and environmental influences on covariation among two reading tests used in neuropsychological assessment (Cambridge Contextual Reading Test [CCRT], [Beardsall, L., and Huppert, F. A. (1994). J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 16:232-242], Schonell Graded Word Reading Test [SGWRT], [Schonell, F. J., and Schonell, P. E. (1960). Diagnostic and attainment testing. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd.]) and among a selection of IQ subtests from the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB), [Jackson, D. N. (1984). Multidimensional aptitude battery, Ontario: Research Psychologists Press.] and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) [Wechsler, D. (1981). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation]. Participants were 225 monozygotic and 275 dizygotic twin pairs aged from 15 years to 18 years (mean, 16 years). For Verbal IQ subtests, phenotypic correlations with the reading tests ranged from 0.44 to 0.65. For Performance IQ subtests, phenotypic correlations with the reading tests ranged from 0.23 to 0.34. Results of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) supported a model with one genetic General factor and three genetic group factors (Verbal, Performance, Reading). Reading performance was influenced by the genetic General factor (accounting for 13% and 20% of the variance for the CCRT and SGWRT, respectively), the genetic Verbal factor (explaining 17% and 19% of variance for the CCRT and SGWRT), and the genetic Reading factor (explaining 21% of the variance for both the CCRT and SGWRT). A common environment factor accounted for 25% and 14% of the CCRT and SGWRT variance, respectively. Genetic influences accounted for more than half of the phenotypic covariance between the reading tests and each of the IQ subtests. The heritabilities of the CCRT and SGWRT were 0.54 and 0.65, respectively. Observable covariance between reading assessments used by neuropsychologists to estimate IQ

  7. The IQ-wall and IQ-station -- harnessing our collective intelligence to realize the potential of ultra-resolution and immersive visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric A. Wernert; William R. Sherman; Chris Eller; David Reagan; Patrick D. Beard; Eric T. Whiting; Patrick O' Leary

    2012-03-01

    We present a pair of open-recipe, affordably-priced, easy-to-integrate, and easy-to-use visualization systems. The IQ-wall is an ultra-resolution tiled display wall that scales up to 24 screens with a single PC. The IQ-station is a semi-immersive display system that utilizes commodity stereoscopic displays, lower cost tracking systems, and touch overlays. These systems have been designed to support a wide range of research, education, creative activities, and information presentations. They were designed to work equally well as stand-alone installations or as part of a larger distributed visualization ecosystem. We detail the hardware and software components of these systems, describe our deployments and experiences in a variety of research lab and university environments, and share our insights for effective support and community development.

  8. Improved Quasi-Static Method: IQS Method Implementation for CFEM Diffusion in Rattlesnake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, Zachary M. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Ragusa, Jean C. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Wang, Yaqi [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2016-02-29

    The improved quasi-static (IQS) method is a transient spatial kinetics method that involves factorizing flux into space- and time-dependent components. These components include the flux’s power and shape. Power is time-dependent, while the shape is both space- and time-dependent. However, the impetus of the method is the assumption that the shape is only weakly dependent on time; therefore, the shape may not require computation at every time step, invoking the quasi-static nature. This paper describes the implementation and testing of IQS as an alternative kinetics solver within Rattlesnake to provide improved time performance with minimal reduction in accuracy.

  9. Automatic IQ Imbalance Compensation Technique for Quadrature Modulator by Single-Tone Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseok; Konishi, Yohei; Takada, Jun-Ichi; Gao, Boxin

    This letter proposes an automatic IQ imbalance compensation technique for quadrature modulators by means of spectrum measurement of RF signal using a spectrum analyzer. The analyzer feeds back only magnitude information of the frequency spectrum of the signal. To realize IQ imbalance compensation, the conventional method of steepest descent is modified; the descent direction is empirically determined and a variable step-size is introduced for accelerating convergence. The experimental results for a four-channel transmitter operating at 11GHz are presented for verification.

  10. Iq Test Program Application for Senior High School Level Using Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0

    OpenAIRE

    Deni Kurniawan; Sahni Damerianta,SKom, MMSI

    2003-01-01

    Scientific writing contains a description of the IQ test programs, which are measuring the level of intelligence, psychological aspects, and the direction of interest in accordance with the ability of a student who was still in high school and sat dibangku second class who later IQ tests would also determine the direction will get students at third grade, using Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0.As for the first time that must be filled in this application is the biodata of students, such as: Number ...

  11. Genetic priming of a proinflammatory profile predicts low IQ in octogenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K. S.; Mortensen, E. L.; Avlund, K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within interleukin (IL)-18, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 gene promoter regions are risk factors for cognitive decline in healthy octogenarians, and to isolate the strongest inflammatory biomarkers...... of cognitive function in the peripheral blood. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was administered to 112 individuals at ages 80 and 85. An IL-18 haplotype was an independent risk factor of poor Performance IQ. The TNF-308GA genotype was related to individual declines in Verbal IQ, and the IL-10-592 CC...

  12. Influence of IQ in interpreting MMSE scores in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontkovsky, Samuel T

    2014-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) were administered to 46 outpatients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). MMSE total raw score was significantly and positively correlated with all WAIS-IV indexes, even when controlling for the effects of participant educational level, with the strongest relationship being with Full Scale IQ. These results suggest that clinicians consider patient intellectual functioning, in particular Full Scale IQ, when diagnosing neurocognitive impairment based on screening with the MMSE in individuals with MS.

  13. Improved Quasi-Static Method: IQS Method Implementation for CFEM Diffusion in Rattlesnake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, Zachary M.; M Univ., College Station, TX; Ragusa, Jean C.; M Univ., College Station, TX; Wang, Yaqi; M Univ., College Station, TX

    2016-01-01

    The improved quasi-static (IQS) method is a transient spatial kinetics method that involves factorizing flux into space- and time-dependent components. These components include the flux's power and shape. Power is time-dependent, while the shape is both space- and time-dependent. However, the impetus of the method is the assumption that the shape is only weakly dependent on time; therefore, the shape may not require computation at every time step, invoking the quasi-static nature. This paper describes the implementation and testing of IQS as an alternative kinetics solver within Rattlesnake to provide improved time performance with minimal reduction in accuracy.

  14. Premorbid IQ and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorder: Verbal and Performance subtests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Schiffman, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The present prospective high-risk study examined associations between childhood scores on five Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) subtests (vocabulary, similarities, block design, object assembly, and mazes) and later development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). The sample...... psychiatric disorders (OPD), and 133 had no diagnosis (ND). The SSD group obtained lower scores than the ND group on all subtests and IQs, but when adjusted for sex and parental social status only significantly lower scores on similarities, object assembly, mazes, and total IQ. Compared with the ND group...

  15. Short-term carcinogenicity testing of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ) in E mu-pim-1 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Mortensen, Alicja; Kristiansen, E.

    1996-01-01

    ]pyridine (PhIP) for 7 months or with 0.03% 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) for 6 months, PhIP and IQ are heterocyclic amines formed during cooking of meat and fish and are mutagenic to bacteria and cultured mammalian cells, PhIP is a potent mouse lymphomagen, while IQ is a liver carcinogen...... and also causes lung tumors and tumors of the forestomach in mice. We found that transgenic E mu-pim-1 mice are highly susceptible to PhIP induced lymphomagenesis but do not respond to the IQ treatment, PhIP feeding of E mu-pim-1 mice not only increased the total number of T-cell lymphomas but also...... decreased the latency time compared to either transgenic or wild-type controls, The effect was most pronounced in the treated female E mu-pim-1 mice, which showed a higher incidence of PhIP induced T-cell lymphomas than transgenic males and a strongly reduced latency period after PhIP treatment compared...

  16. Meta-Analyses of the Relationship of Creative Achievement to both IQ and Divergent Thinking Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hee

    2008-01-01

    There is disagreement among researchers about whether IQ tests or divergent thinking (DT) tests are better predictors of creative achievement. Resolving this dispute is complicated by the fact that some research has shown a relationship between IQ and DT test scores (e.g., Runco & Albert, 1986; Wallach, 1970). The present study conducted…

  17. The Evils of the Use of IQ Tests To Define Learning Disabilities in First- and Second-Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Lee; Siegel, Linda S.

    2001-01-01

    Considers how IQ tests may not be an effective means of identifying English-as-a-second language (ESL) students with learning disabilities due to inherent cultural biases of the tests. Concludes that the use of IQ tests with ESL or English-dialect students is inappropriate when the student's first or primary language is different from the language…

  18. A shift to glycolysis accompanies the inflammatory changes in PBMCs from individuals with an IQ-discrepant memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Hannah; Hannigan, Caoimhe; O'Sullivan, Michael; Carroll, Liam Barry; Brennan, Sabina; Lawlor, Brian; Robertson, Ian H; Lynch, Marina

    2018-04-15

    Identification of a blood-based biomarker that can detect early cognitive decline presents a significant healthcare challenge. We prepared peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from individuals who had a poorer than predicted performance in their delayed recall performance on the Logical Memory II Subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) relative to their IQ estimated by the National Adult Reading Test (NART); we described these individuals as IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals. Stimulation with Aβ + LPS increased production of TNFα to a greater extent in cells from IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals. This was associated with a shift towards glycolysis and the evidence indicates that 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase (PFKFB)3 plays a role in driving glycolysis. A similar shift towards glycolysis was observed in MDMs prepared from IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals. The important finding here is that we have established an increased sensitivity to Aβ + LPS stimulation in PBMCs from individuals that under-perform on a memory task, relative to their estimated premorbid IQ, which may be an indicator of early cognitive decline. This may be a useful tool in determining the presence of early cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Exchangeability of Brief Intelligence Tests for Children with Intellectual Giftedness: Illuminating Error Variance Components' Influence on IQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Sarah M.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the exchangeability of total scores (i.e., intelligent quotients [IQs]) from three brief intelligence tests. Tests were administered to 36 children with intellectual giftedness, scored live by one set of primary examiners and later scored by a secondary examiner. For each student, six IQs were calculated, and all 216 values…

  20. Does executive function explain the IQ-mortality association? Evidence from the Canadian study on health and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A; Dubin, Joel A; Crossley, Margaret; Holmqvist, Maxine E; D'Arcy, Carl

    2009-02-01

    To assess the robustness of the association between intelligence quotient (IQ) and mortality in older adults and to examine whether or not the association can be explained by more specific cognitive processes, including individual differences in executive functioning. We examined the associations among Full Scale IQ, individual IQ subtest scores, and 10-year mortality among older community-dwelling, adult participants in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, who were verified as disease and cognitive-impairment free at baseline via comprehensive medical and neurological evaluation (n = 516). Survival analysis including Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine mortality risk as a function of Full Scale IQ and its specific subcomponents. An inverse association was found between IQ and mortality, but this did not survive adjustment for demographics and education. The association between IQ and mortality seemed to be predominantly accounted for by performance on one specific IQ subtest that taps executive processes (i.e., Digit Symbol (DS)). Performance on this subtest uniquely and robustly predicted mortality in both unadjusted and adjusted models, such that a 1-standard deviation difference in performance was associated with a 28% change in risk of mortality over the 10-year follow-up interval in adjusted models. The association between IQ and mortality in older adults may be predominantly attributable to individual differences in DS performance.

  1. 78 FR 56978 - In the Matter of Carbiz, Inc., InZon Corporation, IQ Micro, Inc., Irwin Financial Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Carbiz, Inc., InZon Corporation, IQ Micro, Inc., Irwin Financial Corporation, and Princeton Media Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension... information concerning the securities of IQ Micro, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  2. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  3. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. There Is No Difference in IQ between Suicide and Non-Suicide Psychiatric Patients: A Retrospective Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Jin; Yi, Kikyoung; Lee, Joon Deuk; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between IQ and suicide in psychiatric patients. We conducted a nested case-control study using data obtained from psychiatric patients affiliated with a general hospital in Seoul, Korea. In a one-to-two ratio the psychiatric patients who died of suicide (Suicide Group; n=35) were matched to those who didn't (Non-suicide Group; n=70) by age, gender, psychiatric diagnosis and approximate time of first treatment. IQ was measured using the Korean version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. There were no significant differences in any type of IQ between suicide patients and non-suicide patients. Logistic regression showed no evidence of an association between IQ and suicide. These results do not support the existence of an association between IQ and suicide.

  5. Field trial of automatic bias control scheme for optical IQ modulator and demodulator with directly detected 112 Gb/s DQPSK Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwan Seok; Chang, Sun Hyok; Lee, Jong Hyun; Kim, Kwangjoon

    2013-10-21

    When optical transceivers employing in-phase and quadrature (IQ) modulators and demodulator are used in real transmission systems, it is very important to search optimum bias points and to prevent bias drift from their optimal points due to of temperature variation, stress, or device aging. We demonstrate a simple and cost-effective automatic bias control scheme for optical IQ modulator and demodulator based on RF power and peak voltage detection. The principle of control scheme and effects of bias voltage on monitoring parameters are presented. The dynamic performance of the control scheme, effects of optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of signal, and effects of temperature variation are also evaluated. For the evaluation of bias control scheme at real-environment, we implement the automatic bias control scheme in 112 Gb/s dual carrier-differential QPSK (DC-DQPSK) transceiver, and investigate its long-term stability performances in a field transmission experiment over 797-km of installed fiber and ROADM.

  6. IQ Predicts Biological Motion Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M. D.; Troje, Nikolaus F.

    2012-01-01

    Biological motion is easily perceived by neurotypical observers when encoded in point-light displays. Some but not all relevant research shows significant deficits in biological motion perception among those with ASD, especially with respect to emotional displays. We tested adults with and without ASD on the perception of masked biological motion…

  7. Genetic analysis of IQ, processing speed and stimulus-response incongruency effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma, D.; Mulder, E.J.C.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Psychometric IQ (WAIS-III), onset and peak latency of the lateralized readiness potential (LRP), decision time, and accuracy were assessed during an Eriksen Flanker task in a young (149 families) and in an older (122 families) cohort of twins and their siblings. Stimulus-response incongruency

  8. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    -old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI...

  9. Developmental Trajectories for Children with Dyslexia and Low IQ Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppen, Sarah E. A.; Goswami, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The…

  10. IQ Scores Should Not Be Adjusted for the Flynn Effect in Capital Punishment Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Leigh D.; Drogin, Eric Y.; Guilmette, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    "Atkins v. Virginia" (2002) dramatically raised the stakes for mental retardation in capital punishment cases, but neither defined this condition nor imposed uniform standards for its assessment. The basic premise that mean IQ scores shift over time enjoys wide recognition, but its application--including the appropriateness of…

  11. Breastfeeding Is Positively Associated with Child Intelligence Even Net of Parental IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Some previous reviews conclude that breastfeeding is not significantly associated with increased intelligence in children once mother's IQ is statistically controlled. The conclusion may potentially have both theoretical and methodological problems. The National Child Development Study allows the examination of the effect of breastfeeding on…

  12. Psychopathy, IQ, and Violence in European American and African American County Jail Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Zach; Swogger, Marc T.; Kosson, David S.

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of the prediction of criminal violence may be improved by combining psychopathy with other variables that have been found to predict violence. Research has suggested that assessing intelligence (i.e., IQ) as well as psychopathy improves the accuracy of violence prediction. In the present study, the authors tested this hypothesis by…

  13. Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrysz, C; Landy, R; Gage, S H; Munafò, M R; Roiser, J P; Curran, H V

    2016-02-01

    There is much debate about the impact of adolescent cannabis use on intellectual and educational outcomes. We investigated associations between adolescent cannabis use and IQ and educational attainment in a sample of 2235 teenagers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. By the age of 15, 24% reported having tried cannabis at least once. A series of nested linear regressions was employed, adjusted hierarchically by pre-exposure ability and potential confounds (e.g. cigarette and alcohol use, childhood mental-health symptoms and behavioural problems), to test the relationships between cumulative cannabis use and IQ at the age of 15 and educational performance at the age of 16. After full adjustment, those who had used cannabis ⩾ 50 times did not differ from never-users on either IQ or educational performance. Adjusting for group differences in cigarette smoking dramatically attenuated the associations between cannabis use and both outcomes, and further analyses demonstrated robust associations between cigarette use and educational outcomes, even with cannabis users excluded. These findings suggest that adolescent cannabis use is not associated with IQ or educational performance once adjustment is made for potential confounds, in particular adolescent cigarette use. Modest cannabis use in teenagers may have less cognitive impact than epidemiological surveys of older cohorts have previously suggested. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. What Does the DAP:IQ Measure?: Drawing Comparisons between Drawing Performance and Developmental Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehrig, Gwendolyn; Stromswold, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Human figure drawing tasks such as the Draw-a-Person test have long been used to assess intelligence (F. Goodenough, 1926). The authors investigate the skills tapped by drawing and the risk factors associated with poor drawing. Self-portraits of 345 preschool children were scored by raters trained in using the Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability test (DAP:IQ) rubric (C. R. Reynolds & J. A. Hickman, 2004). Analyses of children's fine motor, gross motor, social, cognitive, and language skills revealed that only fine motor skill was an independent predictor of DAP:IQ scores. Being a boy and having a low birth weight were associated with lower DAP:IQ scores. These findings suggest that although the DAP:IQ may not be a valid measure of cognitive ability, it may be a useful screening tool for fine motor disturbances in at-risk children, such as boys who were born at low birth weights. Furthermore, researchers who use human figure drawing tasks to measure intelligence should measure fine motor skill in addition to intelligence.

  15. Longitudinal Patterns of Employment and Postsecondary Education for Adults with Autism and Average-Range IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Henninger, Natalie A.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined correlates of participation in postsecondary education and employment over 12?years for 73 adults with autism spectrum disorders and average-range IQ whose families were part of a larger, longitudinal study. Correlates included demographic (sex, maternal education, paternal education), behavioral (activities of daily living,…

  16. Black-White IQ Discrepancies May Be Related to Differences in Hemisphericity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) and McCarthy Scales subtests were ranked according to relative reliance on left-cerebral-hemisphere function. Results suggest that black-white IQ discrepancies may be partially explained by differences in hemisphericity. (Author/RD)

  17. WISC and WPPSI IQ's and Subtest Patterns Related to First Grade Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, Evelyn Fitch

    The purposes of this study were: (1) to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) as measures of individual intelligence of beginning first graders; (2) to determine the relationship of Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ's of both tests to end-of-year…

  18. Parental Stress and ASD: Relationship with Autism Symptom Severity, IQ, and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, M. Inmaculada; Tárraga-Mínguez, Raúl; Navarro-Peña, J. Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate parental stress in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD group) and compare it with the stress in parents of children with typical development (comparison group); (b) to study the relationship between parental stress, autism severity, and both verbal and performance IQ; and (c) to…

  19. Another Failure to Replicate Lynn's Estimate of the Average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Carlson, Jerry S.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    In his comment on our literature review of data on the performance of sub-Saharan Africans on Raven's Progressive Matrices, Lynn (this issue) criticized our selection of samples of primary and secondary school students. On the basis of the samples he deemed representative, Lynn concluded that the average IQ of sub-Saharan Africans stands at 67…

  20. A History of the Constructs IQ and Race: Putting "The Bell Curve" in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Leslie T.

    "The Bell Curve" by Richard Herrnstein and Charles E. Murray has created a great deal of controversy because of its assertion that the key to explaining inequality and social problems in the United States is stratification by a unitary entity called intelligence, or cognitive ability, as measured by the intelligence quotient (IQ). Their…

  1. Effects of Nutritional Supplementation on IQ and Certain Other Variables Associated with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Caislin

    1983-01-01

    In a double-blind study, 24 Down syndrome children (6 to 17 years old) were given a megadose multivitamin/mineral supplement for four months. A matched group of 23 children received a placebo in identical form. No differences were found on any measures of IQ, vision, and visual-motor integration. (Author/CL)

  2. Functional Connectivity of Child and Adolescent Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Patients: Correlation with IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo-yong; Hong, Jisu; Lee, Seung-Hak; Park, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive neuropsychological disorder that affects both children and adolescents. Child and adolescent ADHD patients exhibit different behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, but not much connectivity research exists to help explain these differences. We analyzed openly accessible resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data on 112 patients (28 child ADHD, 28 adolescent ADHD, 28 child normal control (NC), and 28 adolescent NC). We used group independent component analysis (ICA) and weighted degree values to identify interaction effects of age (child and adolescent) and symptom (ADHD and NC) in brain networks. The frontoparietal network showed significant interaction effects (p = 0.0068). The frontoparietal network is known to be related to hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an important factor in ADHD, and we predicted IQ scores using the results of our connectivity analysis. IQ was predicted using degree centrality values of networks with significant interaction effects of age and symptom. Actual and predicted IQ scores demonstrated significant correlation values, with an error of about 10%. Our study might provide imaging biomarkers for future ADHD and intelligence studies. PMID:27881961

  3. Age Differences within Secular IQ Trends: An Individual Growth Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Tomoe; Ceci, Stephen J.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2005-01-01

    Age differences within the yo-yo trend in IQ, caused when aging norms that produce inflated scores are replaced with new norms, were examined using longitudinal WISC, WISC-R and WISC-III records of students tested for special education services from 10 school districts. Descriptive and individual growth modeling analyses revealed that while the…

  4. Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

  5. IQ and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children Exposed to Interpersonal Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Weems, Carl F.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The literature is mixed as to the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in adult populations. Even less is known about the relationship in children who have been traumatized. Methods: Fifty-nine children and adolescents (mean age = 10.6) with a history of interpersonal…

  6. A systematic literature review of the average IQ of sub-Saharan Africans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Dolan, C.V.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of several reviews of the literature, Lynn [Lynn, R., (2006). Race differences in intelligence: An evolutionary analysis. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.] and Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T., (2006). IQ and global inequality. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit

  7. Differential Epidemiology: IQ, Neuroticism, and Chronic Disease by the 50 U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesta, Bryan J.; Bertsch, Sharon; McDaniel, Michael A.; Mahoney, Christine B.; Poznanski, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Current research shows that geo-political units (e.g., the 50 U.S. states) vary meaningfully on psychological dimensions like intelligence (IQ) and neuroticism (N). A new scientific discipline has also emerged, differential epidemiology, focused on how psychological variables affect health. We integrate these areas by reporting large correlations…

  8. A Wideband 2x13-bit All-Digital I/Q RF-DAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alavi, S.M.; Staszewski, R.B.; De Vreede, L.C.N.; Long, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a wideband 2 13-bit in-phase/quadrature-phase (I/Q) RF digital-to-analog converter-based all-digital modulator realized in 65-nm CMOS. The isolation between I and Q paths is guaranteed employing 25% duty-cycle differential quadrature clocks. With a 1.3-V supply and an on-chip

  9. The Effect of TPR and Audio - Lingual Method in Teaching Vocabulary Viewed from Students’ IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Dewi Ekawati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the effect of Total Physical Response (TPR on elementary school students’ English vocabulary mastery with regards to their Intelligence Quotient (IQ. Whether or not there is an interaction between the teaching method and IQ in teaching vocabulary was also investigated in this study . The research was carried out at an elementary school in Central Java , Indonesia . The population was the fifth year students of two classes. Both the experimental and control groups consisted of 40 students. The data were analyzed using multifactor analysis of variance 2 x 2 (ANOVA. Then, it was analyzed using Tukey test. The study reveals that TPR was an effective method for teaching vocabulary in elementary school, and the effectiveness of the method was influenced by the level of students’ IQ. The results of the study may become a reference for EFL teachers to apply an effective method to teach English vocabulary to elementary school students. Moreover, EFL teachers need to take into account students’ IQ in implementing the teaching method

  10. The association between sleep spindles and IQ in healthy school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Wise, Merrill S; Frenette, Sonia; Knäauper, Bärbel; Boom, Alice; Fontil, Laura; Carrier, Julie

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that sleep is associated with IQ measures in children, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. An association between sleep spindles and IQ has been found in adults, but only two previous studies have explored this topic in children. The goal of this study was to examine whether sleep spindle frequency, amplitude, duration and/or density were associated with performance on the perceptual reasoning, verbal comprehension, working memory, and processing speed subscales of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). We recruited 29 typically developing children 7-11 years of age. We used portable polysomnography to document sleep architecture in the natural home environment and evaluated IQ. We found that lower sleep spindle frequency was associated with better performance on the perceptual reasoning and working memory WISC-IV scales, but that sleep spindle amplitude, duration and density were not associated with performance on the IQ test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognitive deficits and levels of IQ in adolescent onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, A Katrine; Hemmingsen, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    of attention, executive functions, reaction time, and memory in the schizophrenic and psychotic adolescent groups. However, analyses of WISC-III factor profiles suggested that early onset schizophrenia patients may have more global IQ deficits than non-organic, non-affective psychoses when examined recently...

  12. Functional Connectivity of Child and Adolescent Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Patients: Correlation with IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo-Yong; Hong, Jisu; Lee, Seung-Hak; Park, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive neuropsychological disorder that affects both children and adolescents. Child and adolescent ADHD patients exhibit different behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, but not much connectivity research exists to help explain these differences. We analyzed openly accessible resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data on 112 patients (28 child ADHD, 28 adolescent ADHD, 28 child normal control (NC), and 28 adolescent NC). We used group independent component analysis (ICA) and weighted degree values to identify interaction effects of age (child and adolescent) and symptom (ADHD and NC) in brain networks. The frontoparietal network showed significant interaction effects ( p = 0.0068). The frontoparietal network is known to be related to hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an important factor in ADHD, and we predicted IQ scores using the results of our connectivity analysis. IQ was predicted using degree centrality values of networks with significant interaction effects of age and symptom. Actual and predicted IQ scores demonstrated significant correlation values, with an error of about 10%. Our study might provide imaging biomarkers for future ADHD and intelligence studies.

  13. Direct and Indirect Effects of Brain Volume, Socioeconomic Status and Family Stress on Child IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus Jenkins, Jade V; Woolley, Donald P; Hooper, Stephen R; De Bellis, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    1.1. Background A large literature documents the detrimental effects of socioeconomic disparities on intelligence and neuropsychological development. Researchers typically measure environmental factors such as socioeconomic status (SES), using income, parent's occupation and education. However, SES is more complex, and this complexity may influence neuropsychological outcomes. 1.2. Methods This studyused principal components analysis to reduce 14 SES and 28 family stress indicators into their core dimensions (e.g. community and educational capital, financial resources, marital conflict). Core dimensions were used in path analyses to examine their relationships with parent IQ and cerebral volume (white matter, grey matter and total brain volume), to predict child IQ in a sample of typically developing children. 1.3. Results Parent IQ affected child IQ directly and indirectly through community and educational capital, demonstrating how environmental factors interact with familial factors in neuro-development. There were no intervening effects of cerebral white matter, grey matter, or total brain volume. 1.4. Conclusions Findings may suggest that improving community resources can foster the intellectual development of children. PMID:24533427

  14. Association of IQ Changes and Progressive Brain Changes in Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Manabu; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Haijma, Sander V; Schnack, Hugo G; Cahn, Wiepke; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Kahn, René S

    2015-08-01

    Although schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in intelligence and the loss of brain volume, the relationship between changes in IQ and brain measures is not clear. To investigate the association between IQ and brain measures in patients with schizophrenia across time. Case-control longitudinal study at the Department of Psychiatry at the University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands, comparing patients with schizophrenia and healthy control participants between September 22, 2004, and April 17, 2008. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and IQ scores were obtained at baseline and the 3-year follow-up. Participants included 84 patients with schizophrenia (mean illness duration, 4.35 years) and 116 age-matched healthy control participants. Associations between changes in IQ and the total brain, cerebral gray matter, cerebral white matter, lateral ventricular, third ventricles, cortical, and subcortical volumes; cortical thickness; and cortical surface area. Cerebral gray matter volume (P = .006) and cortical volume (P = .03) and thickness (P = .02) decreased more in patients with schizophrenia across time compared with control participants. Patients showed additional loss in cortical volume and thickness of the right supramarginal, posterior superior temporal, left supramarginal, left postcentral, and occipital regions (P values were between IQ increased similarly in patients with schizophrenia and control participants, changes in IQ were negatively correlated with changes in lateral ventricular volume (P = .05) and positively correlated with changes in cortical volume (P = .007) and thickness (P = .004) only in patients with schizophrenia. Positive correlations between changes in IQ and cortical volume and thickness were found globally and in widespread regions across frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices (P values were between <.001 and .03 after clusterwise correction). These findings were independent of symptom

  15. A cross-sectional study to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district, India with different fluoride levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibu Thomas Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Besides dental and skeletal fluorosis, excessive fluoride intake can also affect the central nervous system without first causing the physical deformities associated with skeletal fluorosis. With the existence of widespread endemic fluorosis in India, the possible adverse effect of elevated fluoride in drinking water on the Intelligence Quotient (IQ level of children is a potentially serious public health problem. Aims and Objectives: This study assessed the Intelligence Quotient (IQ of school going children aged 10-12 years in villages of Mysore district with different fluoride levels. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 405 school children aged 10-12 years were selected from three villages in Mysore district with normal fluoride (1.20 mg F/l, low fluoride (0.40 mg F/l and high fluoride (2.20 mg F/l in their water supplies. A pre designed questionnaire was used to collect the required data for the survey which included socio demographic details, oral hygiene practices, diet history, body mass index and dental fluorosis. Intelligence Quotient was assessed using Raven′s colored Progressive Matrices Test. Results: In bivariate analysis, significant relationships were found between water fluoride levels and Intelligence Quotient of school children (P < 0.05. In the high fluoride village, the proportion of children with IQ below 90, i.e. below average IQ was larger compared to normal and low fluoride village. Age, gender, parent education level and family income had no significant association with IQ. Conclusion: School children residing in area with higher than normal water fluoride level demonstrated more impaired development of intelligence when compared to school children residing in areas with normal and low water fluoride levels. Thus, children′s intelligence can be affected by high water fluoride levels.

  16. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  17. IQ in Childhood and the Metabolic Syndrome in Middle Age: Extended Follow-Up of the 1946 British Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Marcus; Black, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Batty, David G.

    2009-01-01

    IQ in early adulthood has been inversely associated with risk of the metabolic syndrome in midlife. We tested this association in the British 1946 birth cohort, which assessed IQ at age eight years and ascertained the metabolic syndrome at age 53 years based on modified (non-fasting blood) ATPIII criteria. Childhood IQ was inversely associated…

  18. Neurobiological mechanisms for nonverbal IQ tests: implications for instruction of nonverbal children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vyshedskiy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the neurological correlates of IQ test questions are characterized qualitatively in terms of ‘control of attention’ and ‘working memory.’ In this report we attempt to characterize each IQ test question quantitatively by two factors: a the number of disparate objects that have to be imagined in concert in order to solve the problem and, b the amount of recruited posterior cortex territory. With such a classification, an IQ test can be understood on a neuronal level and a subject’s IQ score could be interpreted in terms of specific neurological mechanisms available to the subject. Here we present the results of an analysis of the three most popular nonverbal IQ tests: Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI-4, Standard Raven's Progressive Matrices, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-V. Our analysis shows that approximately half of all questions (52±0.02% are limited to mental computations involving only a single object; these easier questions are found towards the beginning of each test. More difficult questions located towards the end of each test rely on mental synthesis of several disparate objects and the number of objects involved in computations gradually increases with question difficulty. These more challenging questions require the organization of wider posterior cortex networks by the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC. This conclusion is in line with neuroimaging studies showing that activation level of the lateral PFC and the posterior cortex positively correlates with task difficulty. This analysis has direct implications for brain pathophysiology and, specifically, for therapeutic interventions for children with language impairment, most notably for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and other developmental disorders.

  19. The Effects of Aging and IQ on Item and Associative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in four memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff’s (1978) diffusion model, at the level of individual participants. The values of the components of processing identified by the model for the recognition tasks, as well as accuracy for cued and free recall, were compared across levels of IQ ranging from 85 to 140 and age (college-age, 60-74 year olds, and 75-90 year olds). IQ had large effects on the quality of the evidence from memory on which decisions were based in the recognition tasks and accuracy in the recall tasks, except for the oldest participants for whom some of the measures were near floor values. Drift rates in the recognition tasks, accuracy in the recall tasks, and IQ all correlated strongly with each other. However, there was a small decline in drift rates for item recognition and a large decline for associative recognition and accuracy in cued recall (about 70 percent). In contrast, there were large age effects on boundary separation and nondecision time (which correlated across tasks), but little effect of IQ. The implications of these results for single- and dual- process models of item recognition are discussed and it is concluded that models that deal with both RTs and accuracy are subject to many more constraints than models that deal with only one of these measures. Overall, the results of the study show a complicated but interpretable pattern of interactions that present important targets for response time and memory models. PMID:21707207

  20. Toward standardized quantitative image quality (IQ) assessment in computed tomography (CT): A comprehensive framework for automated and comparative IQ analysis based on ICRU Report 87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahn, Gregor; Skornitzke, Stephan; Schlemmer, Hans-Peter; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stiller, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Based on the guidelines from "Report 87: Radiation Dose and Image-quality Assessment in Computed Tomography" of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), a software framework for automated quantitative image quality analysis was developed and its usability for a variety of scientific questions demonstrated. The extendable framework currently implements the calculation of the recommended Fourier image quality (IQ) metrics modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise-power spectrum (NPS), and additional IQ quantities such as noise magnitude, CT number accuracy, uniformity across the field-of-view, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of simulated lesions for a commercially available cone-beam phantom. Sample image data were acquired with different scan and reconstruction settings on CT systems from different manufacturers. Spatial resolution is analyzed in terms of edge-spread function, line-spread-function, and MTF. 3D NPS is calculated according to ICRU Report 87, and condensed to 2D and radially averaged 1D representations. Noise magnitude, CT numbers, and uniformity of these quantities are assessed on large samples of ROIs. Low-contrast resolution (CNR, SNR) is quantitatively evaluated as a function of lesion contrast and diameter. Simultaneous automated processing of several image datasets allows for straightforward comparative assessment. The presented framework enables systematic, reproducible, automated and time-efficient quantitative IQ analysis. Consistent application of the ICRU guidelines facilitates standardization of quantitative assessment not only for routine quality assurance, but for a number of research questions, e.g. the comparison of different scanner models or acquisition protocols, and the evaluation of new technology or reconstruction methods. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. National IQ Means Transformed from Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) Scores, and their Underlying Gene Frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Volkmar

    2009-01-01

    Any general statement as to whether the secular trend of a society is eugenic or dysgenic depends upon a reliable calibration of the measurement of general intelligence. Richard Lynn set the mean IQ of the United Kingdom at 100 with a standard deviation of 15, and he calculated the mean IQs of other countries in relation to this “Greenwich IQ”. But because the UK test scores are declining, the present paper recalibrates the mean IQ 100 to the average of seven countries having a historical mea...

  2. Cumulative, human capital, and psychological risk in the context of early intervention: links with IQ at ages 3, 5, and 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanov, Pamela; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-12-01

    This article examines the effects of risks for a sample of low birth weight children (2,001 to 2,500 g and family income-to-needs at 250% of the poverty threshold or less; n = 228) using data from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP, an experiment testing the efficacy of early intervention). Cognitive test scores (IQ) are assessed at 3, 5, and 8 years of age. Links with risks at each age point are examined using three different models-cumulative, human capital, and psychological risks. Similar decrements in IQ scores are found at all ages for the cumulative and human capital models but not for the psychological risk model. Treatment effects are found at 3 years of age (when the intervention ended) for all levels of risk and for all models. Sustained effects of the treatment were found at 5 and 8 years of age for children with moderate levels of human capital risk but were not found for any levels of psychological risk. Implications for early childhood intervention programs are discussed.

  3. How to gain eleven IQ points in ten minutes: thinking aloud improves Raven's Matrices performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mark C; Charness, Neil

    2010-03-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of age on reactivity to concurrent think-aloud (TA) verbal reports. An initial study with 30 younger and 31 older adults revealed that thinking aloud improves older adult performance on a short form of the Raven's Matrices (Bors & Stokes, 1998, Educational and Psychological Measurement, 58, p. 382) but did not affect other tasks. In the replication experiment, 30 older adults (mean age = 73.0) performed the Raven's Matrices and three other tasks to replicate and extend the findings of the initial study. Once again older adults performed significantly better only on the Raven's Matrices while thinking aloud. Performance gains on this task were substantial (d = 0.73 and 0.92 in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively), corresponding to a fluid intelligence increase of nearly one standard deviation.

  4. Higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Wolter, Andrä

    2009-01-01

    During the last five years higher education research in Germany seems to be in a significant upturn. This is a side effect partly of the obvious boom of empirical educational research in general and partly of the reform movement that has affected the German higher education system since middle of the 1990s. The demand for data in the field of higher education will increase considerably in future. The available data infrastructure for higher education research in Germany consists of two comple...

  5. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  6. New insights into the genetic mechanism of IQ in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Zhaokun Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD is a complex condition with a number of underlying subtypes with different symptoms and presumably different genetic causes. One important difference between these sub-phenotypes is cognition. Some forms of ASD such as Asperger’s keep cognitive development intact while the majority does not. In this study we explored genetic factors that might account for this difference. Using a case-control study based on IQ status in 1657 ASD probands, we analyzed both common and rare variants provided by the Autism Genome Project consortium via dbGAP, identified a set of genes, among them SYT1L and KIAA0319L, that are strongly associated with IQ within a population of ASD patients.

  7. "Passageless" administration of the Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension Test: associations with IQ and reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Rebecca E; Chaudhry, Maheen F; Schatz, Kelly C; Strazzullo, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). The Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension test items can be answered correctly without reading the associated passage. The current study determined how IQ, verbal comprehension, and reading skills were associated with scores on a passageless administration of the NDRT. Results indicated that IQ, verbal comprehension, and broad reading skills were significantly associated with greater NDRT passageless scores. Results raise questions about the validity of the reading comprehension component of the NDRT and suggest that the test may have differential validity based on individual differences in vocabulary, general fund of knowledge, and broad reading skills.

  8. Compensation for HPA nonlinearity and I/Q imbalance in MIMO beamforming systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity and in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance on the performance of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit beamforming (TB) systems. Specifically, we propose a compensation method for HPA nonlinearity and I/Q imbalance together in MIMO TB systems. The performance of the MIMO TB system under study is evaluated in terms of the average symbol error probability (SEP) and system capacity, considering transmission over uncorrelated frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show the effects of several system parameters, such as the HPA parameters, image-leakage ratio, numbers of transmit and receive antennas, length of pilot symbols, and modulation order of phase-shift keying (PSK), on performance. © 2010 IEEE.

  9. Design of a digital PAD based on I/Q demodulation principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Zheqiao; Cui Yanyan; Hou Mi; Pei Guoxi

    2005-01-01

    Conventional analog I/Q demodulator suffers from phase and amplitude imbalance and DC offset, which cause big error into the measurement. A digital PAD is designed. Based on I/Q demodulation principle, using digital algorithms, such as digital filter and Hilbert transform, the conventional measurement error can basically be removed. Measuremental results show that the digital PAD has a maximum phase error of ±0.5 degree and a resolution of 0.2 degree. Its temperature coefficient is -0.1 degree/degree C. Its dynamic ranges for phase-measurement and amplitude-measurement are -1825 dBm and -2020 dBm, respectively. The digital PAD can meet the need of the BEPC II phasing system. (authors)

  10. Microwave vector signal transmission over an optical fiber based on IQ modulation and coherent detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Shao, Tong; Wen, Aijun; Yao, Jianping

    2014-03-15

    A novel approach to transmitting two vector signals using a single optical carrier based on IQ modulation and coherent detection is proposed and demonstrated. In the proposed system, two quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals are IQ modulated on an optical carrier with one polarization state using a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-MZM). The optical carrier with an orthogonal polarization state is not modulated but transmitted with the modulated optical wave. At the receiver, the two orthogonally polarized light waves are separated and sent to a coherent detector, where the two QPSK signals are separated and demodulated. An experiment is performed. The transmission of two QPSK signals at 2 GHz with a data rate of 1 Gbps is implemented over a 25 km single-mode fiber. The performance of the transmission in terms of error vector magnitude is evaluated.

  11. The Effects of Aging and IQ on Item and Associative Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in four memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff’s (1978) diffusion model, at the level of individual participants. The values of the components of processing identified by the model for the recognition tasks, as well as accuracy for cued and free reca...

  12. Impact of I/Q imbalance on the performance of two-way CSI-assisted AF relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate half-duplex two-way dual-hop channel state information (CSI)-assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance. A compensation approach for the I/Q imbalance is proposed, which employs the received signals together with their conjugations to detect the desired signal. We also derive the average symbol error probability of the considered half-duplex two-way dual-hop CSI-assisted AF relaying networks with and without compensation for I/Q imbalance in Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation method mitigates the impact of I/Q imbalance to a certain extent. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Accounting for estimated IQ in neuropsychological test performance with regression-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, S Marc; Winicki, Jessica M; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Gordon, Barry; Schretlen, David J

    2009-11-01

    Regression-based normative techniques account for variability in test performance associated with multiple predictor variables and generate expected scores based on algebraic equations. Using this approach, we show that estimated IQ, based on oral word reading, accounts for 1-9% of the variability beyond that explained by individual differences in age, sex, race, and years of education for most cognitive measures. These results confirm that adding estimated "premorbid" IQ to demographic predictors in multiple regression models can incrementally improve the accuracy with which regression-based norms (RBNs) benchmark expected neuropsychological test performance in healthy adults. It remains to be seen whether the incremental variance in test performance explained by estimated "premorbid" IQ translates to improved diagnostic accuracy in patient samples. We describe these methods, and illustrate the step-by-step application of RBNs with two cases. We also discuss the rationale, assumptions, and caveats of this approach. More broadly, we note that adjusting test scores for age and other characteristics might actually decrease the accuracy with which test performance predicts absolute criteria, such as the ability to drive or live independently.

  14. The Relation between Nonverbal IQ and Postoperative CI Outcomes in Cochlear Implant Users: Preliminary Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study assessed the correlation between performance intelligence and the postoperative cochlear implant (CI outcome in Korean-speaking children. In addition, the relationship between the performance intelligence subscales and the post-CI speech outcome was evaluated. Materials and Methods. Thirteen pediatric CI users (five males, eight females; median age at implantation 6.2 (range 1.3–14.2 years; median age at intelligence test 9.3 (range 5–16 years who were tested using the Korean Educational Development Institute-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children were studied. The correlations between the intelligence scores and 1-2 years postoperative Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP scores and between subscales of performance and 1-2 years postoperative CAP scores were analyzed. Results. There was no correlation between the categories of verbal intelligence quotient (IQ and performance IQ for “mentally retarded” and “average,” respectively (Spearman’s rho = 0.42, P=0.15. There was a strong correlation between performance IQ and the postoperative CAP scale (Spearman’s rho = 0.8977, P=0.0008. “Picture arrangement” and “picture completion,” reflecting social cognition, were strongly correlated with the postoperative CAP scales. Conclusion. Performance intelligence, especially social cognition, was strongly related to the postoperative CI outcome of cochlear implant users. Therefore, auditory rehabilitation, including social rehabilitation, should maximize the postoperative CI outcomes.

  15. Age, gender and IQ effects on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Colin; Burke, Teresa

    2007-03-01

    The aims of the present study were (a) to examine the effects of age, gender and IQ on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT), (b) to identify the best scores to use in interpreting test performance and (c) to compare the results with available normative data. Participants were 117 normal volunteers, 60 males and 57 females, with an age range of 16-69 years and a mean age of 39.84 years (SD = 16.26). Participants completed copy, 30-second immediate recall and delayed recall trials of the ROCFT. Data consisted of raw scores from the three trials and percent-retained scores for the memory trials. Significant effects of age, gender and IQ were found on the copy trial and on the raw scores for the memory trials. Expressing the memory scores as a proportion of the copy score reduced these effects, but did not eliminate them. Only a 'pure' measure of delayed retention was found to be independent of age, gender and IQ. Results are discussed in relation to the adequacy of available norms, and the ideal scores to use for the ROCFT are identified. Caution is urged in interpreting scores on the ROCFT due to the danger of misclassification if currently available norms are used.

  16. Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L; Seligman, Martin E P

    2005-12-01

    In a longitudinal study of 140 eighth-grade students, self-discipline measured by self-report, parent report, teacher report, and monetary choice questionnaires in the fall predicted final grades, school attendance, standardized achievement-test scores, and selection into a competitive high school program the following spring. In a replication with 164 eighth graders, a behavioral delay-of-gratification task, a questionnaire on study habits, and a group-administered IQ test were added. Self-discipline measured in the fall accounted for more than twice as much variance as IQ in final grades, high school selection, school attendance, hours spent doing homework, hours spent watching television (inversely), and the time of day students began their homework. The effect of self-discipline on final grades held even when controlling for first-marking-period grades, achievement-test scores, and measured IQ. These findings suggest a major reason for students falling short of their intellectual potential: their failure to exercise self-discipline.

  17. Role of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) on anxiety and behavior in children with hearing and speech impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Raghavendra M; Pashine, Aditi; Jose, Nijo A; Mantha, Somasundar

    2018-01-01

    To assess and compare the role of IQ on anxiety and behavior of children with and without hearing and speech impairment. A total of 120 children of age group 7-14 years were included in the study, of which control group comprised of 60 normal healthy children and 60 hearing and speech impaired children formed the study group. The study was done in two consecutive sessions. First appointment for Culture Fair Intelligence Test and second appointment for RMS pictorial anxiety score (RMS-PS) and Frankl behavior rating which were assessed during oral prophylaxis. IQ of children with hearing and speech impairment was lower as compared to normal healthy children. There was a positive correlation between IQ and anxiety in children with hearing and speech impairment while no correlation was found with behavior. Children with hearing and speech impairment are less anxious and more cooperative compared to normal healthy child in the dental setting and are, therefore, easier to manage. © 2018 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Genetic Correlation between Height and IQ: Shared Genes or Assortative Mating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthew C.; Garver-Apgar, Christine E.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Corley, Robin P.; Stallings, Michael C.; Hewitt, John K.; Zietsch, Brendan P.

    2013-01-01

    Traits that are attractive to the opposite sex are often positively correlated when scaled such that scores increase with attractiveness, and this correlation typically has a genetic component. Such traits can be genetically correlated due to genes that affect both traits (“pleiotropy”) and/or because assortative mating causes statistical correlations to develop between selected alleles across the traits (“gametic phase disequilibrium”). In this study, we modeled the covariation between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, their siblings, and their parents (total N = 7,905) to elucidate the nature of the correlation between two potentially sexually selected traits in humans: height and IQ. Unlike previous designs used to investigate the nature of the height–IQ correlation, the present design accounts for the effects of assortative mating and provides much less biased estimates of additive genetic, non-additive genetic, and shared environmental influences. Both traits were highly heritable, although there was greater evidence for non-additive genetic effects in males. After accounting for assortative mating, the correlation between height and IQ was found to be almost entirely genetic in nature. Model fits indicate that both pleiotropy and assortative mating contribute significantly and about equally to this genetic correlation. PMID:23593038

  19. Novel Rx IQ mismatch compensation considering laser phase noise for CO-OFDM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiurong; Ding, Zhaocai; Li, Kun; Wang, Xiao

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a novel compensation scheme for receiver (Rx) in-phase/quadrature (IQ) mismatch is proposed in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system in the presence of laser phase noise. In this scheme, laser phase noise and channel distortion were combined as a new channel transfer factor, the IQ mismatch factor and initial channel transfer factor can be estimated independently based on the relationship of IQ mismatch factors. And the channel transfer factor can be updated on a symbol-by-symbol basis which retrieves an estimation of the phase noise value by extracting and averaging the phase drift of all OFDM sub-channels. Numerical results indicate that when the phase and amplitude mismatch are 10° and 2 dB respectively, a 1.6 dB optical signal-to noise ratio is improved at laser linewidth of 60 kHz. Furthermore, the complexity of the proposed method is analyzed in terms of the number of required complex multiplications per bit.

  20. Effects of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and environmental tobacco smoke on child IQ in a Chinese cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, F; Li, T Y; Lin, C; Tang, D

    2012-04-01

    This study of a birth cohort in the city of Tongliang in Chongqing, China, evaluated the relationship between two prenatal exposures (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH) and environmental tobacco smoke(ETS)) and child intelligence quotient (IQ) as measured by the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence at age 5 years. A coal-fired power plant was the major source of ambient PAH in this city. We tested the hypothesis that, after adjusting for potential confounders, prenatal exposure to these pollutants would be associated with lower IQ scores at 5 years of age. Nonsmoking mothers and children were enrolled before delivery. PAH exposure was measured by DNA adducts in umbilical cord white blood cells using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence. Estimated exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was based on personal interview. At age 5 years, scores for verbal, performance, and full scale IQ were obtained. Multiple regression was used to test the main effects of adducts and environmental tobacco smoke on IQ and to explore the interactions between these exposures on IQ. after adjusting for potential confounders, neither DNA adducts nor exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had significant main effects on IQ. However, significant interactions between adducts and environmental tobacco smoke were observed on full scale (p=0.025) and verbal (p=0.029) IQ scores, indicating that the adverse effects of prenatal PAH exposure became greater as exposure to environmental tobacco smoke increased. The interaction on performance IQ score was not significant (p=0.135). These results suggest that exposure of pregnant women to emissions of PAHs from the coal-burning plant, in combination with prenatal exposure to envrionmental tobacco smoke, may have adversely affected cognitive function of children at age 5. The polluting coal-fired plant has since been closed by the government, with likely important benefits to child health and development. Copyright

  1. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Among 3 to 7-Year-Old Strabismic and Nonstrabismic Children in an Iranian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3–7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively. These mean scores in normal children were 91.89±47.53, 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P0.05). In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  2. Considerations from the IQ Induction Working Group in Response to Drug-Drug Interaction Guidance from Regulatory Agencies: Focus on Downregulation, CYP2C Induction, and CYP2B6 Positive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariparsad, Niresh; Ramsden, Diane; Palamanda, Jairam; Dekeyser, Joshua G; Fahmi, Odette A; Kenny, Jane R; Einolf, Heidi; Mohutsky, Michael; Pardon, Magalie; Siu, Y Amy; Chen, Liangfu; Sinz, Michael; Jones, Barry; Walsky, Robert; Dallas, Shannon; Balani, Suresh K; Zhang, George; Buckley, David; Tweedie, Donald

    2017-10-01

    The European Medicines Agency (EMA), the Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have issued guidelines for the conduct of drug-drug interaction studies. To examine the applicability of these regulatory recommendations specifically for induction, a group of scientists, under the auspices of the Drug Metabolism Leadership Group of the Innovation and Quality (IQ) Consortium, formed the Induction Working Group (IWG). A team of 19 scientists, from 16 of the 39 pharmaceutical companies that are members of the IQ Consortium and two Contract Research Organizations reviewed the recommendations, focusing initially on the current EMA guidelines. Questions were collated from IQ member companies as to which aspects of the guidelines require further evaluation. The EMA was then approached to provide insights into their recommendations on the following: 1) evaluation of downregulation, 2) in vitro assessment of CYP2C induction, 3) the use of CITCO as the positive control for CYP2B6 induction by CAR, 4) data interpretation (a 2-fold increase in mRNA as evidence of induction), and 5) the duration of incubation of hepatocytes with test article. The IWG conducted an anonymous survey among IQ member companies to query current practices, focusing specifically on the aforementioned key points. Responses were received from 19 companies. All data and information were blinded before being shared with the IWG. The results of the survey are presented, together with consensus recommendations on downregulation, CYP2C induction, and CYP2B6 positive control. Results and recommendations related to data interpretation and induction time course will be reported in subsequent articles. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. Combined effects of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and material hardship on child IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevetsky, Julia; Tang, Deliang; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Roen, Emily L; Wang, Ya; Rauh, Virginia; Wang, Shuang; Miller, Rachel L; Herbstman, Julie; Perera, Frederica P

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are common carcinogenic and neurotoxic urban air pollutants. Toxic exposures, including air pollution, are disproportionately high in communities of color and frequently co-occur with chronic economic deprivation. We examined whether the association between child IQ and prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons differed between groups of children whose mothers reported high vs. low material hardship during their pregnancy and through child age 5. We tested statistical interactions between hardships and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as measured by DNA adducts in cord blood, to determine whether material hardship exacerbated the association between adducts and IQ scores. Prospective cohort. Participants were recruited from 1998 to 2006 and followed from gestation through age 7 years. Urban community (New York City) A community-based sample of 276 minority urban youth EXPOSURE MEASURE: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in cord blood as an individual biomarker of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Maternal material hardship self-reported prenatally and at multiple timepoints through early childhood. Child IQ at 7 years assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Significant inverse effects of high cord PAH-DNA adducts on full scale IQ, perceptual reasoning and working memory scores were observed in the groups whose mothers reported a high level of material hardship during pregnancy or recurring high hardship into the child's early years, and not in those without reported high hardship. Significant interactions were observed between high cord adducts and prenatal hardship on working memory scores (β = -8.07, 95% CI (-14.48, -1.66)) and between high cord adducts and recurrent material hardship (β = -9.82, 95% CI (-16.22, -3.42)). The findings add to other evidence that socioeconomic disadvantage can increase the adverse effects of toxic physical "stressors" like air pollutants

  4. Impact of IQ on the diagnostic yield of chromosomal microarray in a community sample of adults with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, Chelsea; Merico, Daniele; Costain, Gregory; Waserman, Jack; Boyd, Kerry; Noor, Abdul; Speevak, Marsha; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J; Wei, John; Lionel, Anath C; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Bassett, Anne S

    2017-11-30

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with IQ deficits. Rare copy number variations (CNVs) have been established to play an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Several of the large rare CNVs associated with schizophrenia have been shown to negatively affect IQ in population-based controls where no major neuropsychiatric disorder is reported. The aim of this study was to examine the diagnostic yield of microarray testing and the functional impact of genome-wide rare CNVs in a community ascertained cohort of adults with schizophrenia and low (IQ. We recruited 546 adults of European ancestry with schizophrenia from six community psychiatric clinics in Canada. Each individual was assigned to the low or average IQ group based on standardized tests and/or educational attainment. We used rigorous methods to detect genome-wide rare CNVs from high-resolution microarray data. We compared the burden of rare CNVs classified as pathogenic or as a variant of unknown significance (VUS) between each of the IQ groups and the genome-wide burden and functional impact of rare CNVs after excluding individuals with a pathogenic CNV. There were 39/546 (7.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.2-9.7%) schizophrenia participants with at least one pathogenic CNV detected, significantly more of whom were from the low IQ group (odds ratio [OR] = 5.01 [2.28-11.03], p = 0.0001). Secondary analyses revealed that individuals with schizophrenia and average IQ had the lowest yield of pathogenic CNVs (n = 9/325; 2.8%), followed by those with borderline intellectual functioning (n = 9/130; 6.9%), non-verbal learning disability (n = 6/29; 20.7%), and co-morbid intellectual disability (n = 15/62; 24.2%). There was no significant difference in the burden of rare CNVs classified as a VUS between any of the IQ subgroups. There was a significantly (p=0.002) increased burden of rare genic duplications in individuals with schizophrenia and low IQ

  5. The interplay of childhood behavior problems and IQ in the development of later schizophrenia and affective psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Seidman, Larry J; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Smoller, Jordan W; Goldstein, Jill M; Buka, Stephen L

    2017-06-01

    Schizophrenia and affective psychoses are both associated with impaired social functioning, but the extent to which childhood behavioral impairments are present prior to onset of illness is less well studied. Moreover, the concurrent relationship of childhood behavior problems and premorbid IQ with subsequent psychotic disorder has not been established. We investigated whether childhood behavior problems are associated with increased risk for adult schizophrenia or affective psychosis, independently and in combination with IQ. The study included individuals with schizophrenia (N=47), affective psychoses (N=45) and non-psychotic controls (N=1496) from the New England Family Study. Behavior problems were prospectively assessed from standardized clinician observations at ages 4 and 7. IQ was assessed with the Stanford-Binet at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. We found externalizing problems at age 4 and externalizing and internalizing problems at age 7 were associated with later schizophrenia, and both internalizing and externalizing problems at ages 4 and 7 were associated with later development of affective psychoses. Lower IQ at ages 4 and 7 was associated with schizophrenia, while lower IQ was associated with affective psychoses at age 7 only. Examined simultaneously, both lower IQ and behavior problems remained associated with risk of schizophrenia, while only behavior problems remained associated with affective psychoses. Behavior problems appear to be a general marker of risk of adult psychotic disorder, while lower childhood IQ is more specific to risk of schizophrenia. Future research should clarify the premorbid evolution of behavior and cognitive problems into adult psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Measuring premorbid IQ in traumatic brain injury: an examination of the validity of the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robin E A; Melo, Brenda; Christensen, Bruce; Ngo, Le-Anh; Monette, Georges; Bradbury, Cheryl

    2008-02-01

    Estimation of premorbid IQ in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is clinically and scientifically valuable because it permits the quantification of the cognitive impact of injury. This is achieved by comparing performances on tests of current ability to estimates of premorbid IQ, thereby enabling current capacity to be interpreted in light of preinjury ability. However, the validity of premorbid IQ tests that are commonly used for TBI has been questioned. In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of a recently developed test, the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), which has yet to be examined for TBI. The cognitive performance of a group of 24 patients recovering from TBI (with a mean Glasgow Coma Scale score in the severely impaired range) was measured at 2 and 5 months postinjury. On both occasions, patients were administered three tests that have been used to measure premorbid IQ (the WTAR and the Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition, WAIS-III) and three tests of current ability (Symbol Digit Modalities Test-Oral and Similarities and Block Design subtests of the WAIS-III). We found that performance significantly improved on tests of current cognitive ability, confirming recovery. In contrast, stable performance was observed on the WTAR from Assessment 1 (M = 34.25/50) to Assessment 2 (M = 34.21/50; r = .970, p IQ. Thus, converging evidence--high stability during recovery from TBI and similar IQ estimates to those of a demographic equation suggests that the WTAR is a valid measure of premorbid IQ for TBI. Where word pronunciation tests are indicated (i.e., in patients for whom English is spoken and read fluently), these results endorse the use of the WTAR for patients with TBI.

  7. Mr Lars Leijonborg, Minister for Higher Education and Research of Sweden visiting the cavern ATLAS, the control room of ATLAS and the machine LHC at Point 1 with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Dr. Jos Engelen, Chief Scientific Officer of CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    Mr Lars Leijonborg, Minister for Higher Education and Research of Sweden visiting the cavern ATLAS, the control room of ATLAS and the machine LHC at Point 1 with Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Dr. Jos Engelen, Chief Scientific Officer of CERN.

  8. Kontribusi Iq (Intelligent Quotient) Dan Eq (Emotional Quotient) Terhadap Prestasi Atlet Pelatda Pencak Silat Pada Pon Ke-xviii Tahun 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Anggraeni, Yuli

    2013-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara IQ (IntelligentQuotient) dan EQ (Emotional Quotient) pada atlet Pelatda Pencak Silat pada PON ke-XVIII.Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian Kuantitatif. Penelitian dilaksanakan dalam duatahap, tahap yang pertama dilaksanakan untuk mengetahui skor IQ (Intelligence Quotient) danEQ (Emotional Quotient) melalui tes IQ (Intelligence Quotient) dan EQ (Emotional Quotient)oleh Jasa Psikologi Indonesia. Tahap kedua melalui pertandingan yang ...

  9. MetaPro-IQ: a universal metaproteomic approach to studying human and mouse gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Ning, Zhibin; Mayne, Janice; Moore, Jasmine I; Li, Jennifer; Butcher, James; Deeke, Shelley Ann; Chen, Rui; Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Wen, Ming; Mack, David; Stintzi, Alain; Figeys, Daniel

    2016-06-24

    The gut microbiota has been shown to be closely associated with human health and disease. While next-generation sequencing can be readily used to profile the microbiota taxonomy and metabolic potential, metaproteomics is better suited for deciphering microbial biological activities. However, the application of gut metaproteomics has largely been limited due to the low efficiency of protein identification. Thus, a high-performance and easy-to-implement gut metaproteomic approach is required. In this study, we developed a high-performance and universal workflow for gut metaproteome identification and quantification (named MetaPro-IQ) by using the close-to-complete human or mouse gut microbial gene catalog as database and an iterative database search strategy. An average of 38 and 33 % of the acquired tandem mass spectrometry (MS) spectra was confidently identified for the studied mouse stool and human mucosal-luminal interface samples, respectively. In total, we accurately quantified 30,749 protein groups for the mouse metaproteome and 19,011 protein groups for the human metaproteome. Moreover, the MetaPro-IQ approach enabled comparable identifications with the matched metagenome database search strategy that is widely used but needs prior metagenomic sequencing. The response of gut microbiota to high-fat diet in mice was then assessed, which showed distinct metaproteome patterns for high-fat-fed mice and identified 849 proteins as significant responders to high-fat feeding in comparison to low-fat feeding. We present MetaPro-IQ, a metaproteomic approach for highly efficient intestinal microbial protein identification and quantification, which functions as a universal workflow for metaproteomic studies, and will thus facilitate the application of metaproteomics for better understanding the functions of gut microbiota in health and disease.

  10. Upgrade of the COMPASS tokamak microwave reflectometry system with I/Q modulation and detection.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajac, Jaromír; Bogár, Ondrej; Varavin, Mykyta; Žáček, František; Hron, Martin; Pánek, Radomír; Nanobashvili, S.; Silva, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 123, November (2017), s. 911-914 ISSN 0920-3796. [SOFT 2016: Symposium on Fusion Technology /29./. Prague, 05.09.2016-09.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35260S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Microwave reflectometry * Heterodyne detection * I/Q modulator * COMPASS tokamak Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379617303101

  11. IQ in late adolescence/early adulthood, risk factors in middle age, and later cancer mortality in men: the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Gale, Catharine R

    2009-01-01

    (i) examine the relation, if any, of pre-morbid IQ scores at 20 years of age with the risk of later cancer mortality; and (ii) explore the role, if any, of potential mediating factors (e.g. smoking, obesity), assessed in middle age, in explaining the IQ-cancer relation.......(i) examine the relation, if any, of pre-morbid IQ scores at 20 years of age with the risk of later cancer mortality; and (ii) explore the role, if any, of potential mediating factors (e.g. smoking, obesity), assessed in middle age, in explaining the IQ-cancer relation....

  12. Detection and alignment of dual-polarization optical quadrature amplitude transmitter IQ and XY skews using reconfigurable interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yang; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Lofland, Rob; O'Neil, Jason; Anderson, Jon

    2016-03-21

    Dual-polarization quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-QAM) is one of the feasible paths towards 100-Gb/s, 400-Gb/s and 1-Tb/s optical fiber communications systems. For DP-QAM transmitter, the time mismatch between the in-phase and quadrature (IQ) or x-polarized and y-polarized (XY) tributary channels is known as the IQ or XY skew. Large uncompensated IQ or XY skew can significantly degrade the optical fiber communications system performance. Sometimes, time-interleaved return-to-zero (RZ) DP signal is preferred with lower nonlinear polarization scattering induced penalty. In this work, detection and alignment of DP-QAM transmitter IQ and XY skews using reconfigurable interference is experimentally demonstrated. For IQ skew detection, a total dynamic range of 26.4 dB is achieved with ~1-dB power change for 0.5-ps skew from well alignment. For XY skew detection, it shows 23.2-dB dynamic range, and ~1.5-dB power change is achieved for 1-ps XY skew. Fast detection algorithm for arbitrary skew is also proposed and experimentally verified. The scheme is compatible with different modulation formats, flexible data sequences, and variable waveforms.

  13. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-06-25

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (Pintelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation.

  14. Impact of the DSM-V Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Criteria for Diagnosing Children With High IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongseiratch, Therdpong; Worachotekamjorn, Juthamas

    2016-10-01

    This study compared the number of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) cases defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV versus DSM-V criterion in children who have learning or behavioral problems with high IQ. The medical records of children ≤15 years of age who presented with learning or behavioral problems and underwent a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)-III IQ test at the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic unit between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Information on DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria for ADHD were derived from computer-based medical records. Twenty-eight children who had learning or behavioral problems were identified to have a full-scale IQ ≥120. Sixteen of these high-IQ children met the DSM-IV criteria diagnosis for ADHD. Applying the extension of the age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years in DSM-V led to an increase of three cases, all of which were the inattentive type ADHD. Including the pervasive developmental disorder criterion led to an increase of one case. The total number of ADHD cases also increased from 16 to 20 in this group. The data supported the hypothesis that applying the extension of the age-of-onset ADHD criterion and enabling the diagnosis of children with pervasive developmental disorders will increase the number of ADHD diagnoses among children with high IQ. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Toxicokinetics of the food-toxin IQ in human placental perfusion is not affected by ABCG2 or xenobiotic metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immonen, E; Kummu, M; Petsalo, A

    2010-01-01

    Metabolizing enzymes and transporters affect toxicokinetics of foreign compounds (e.g. drugs and carcinogens) in human placenta. The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is a food-borne carcinogen being metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, especially...... by CYP1A1/2. IQ is also a substrate for ABCG2 transporter. Placental transfer of (14)C-IQ was evaluated in 4-6 h ex vivo human placental perfusions in Finland and Denmark. In Finland placentas were perfused with (14)C-IQ alone (0.5 muM, n = 6) or in combination with GF120918 (inhibitor of ABCG2, 1 muM, n...... = 6) or Ko143 (specific inhibitor of ABCG2, 2 muM, n = 4) to study the role of ABCG2 inhibition in transfer while in Denmark perfusions were performed with (14)C-IQ alone. Critical parameters (leak from fetal to maternal circulation, pH values, blood gases, glucose consumption, the production of h...

  16. The relationship of age, gender, and IQ with the brainstem and thalamus in healthy children and adolescents: a magnetic resonance imaging volumetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuhuan; Chen, Yian Ann; De Bellis, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    In healthy children, there is a paucity of information on the growth of the brainstem and thalamus measured anatomically magnetic resonance imaging. The relations of age, gender, and age by gender with brainstem and thalamus volumes were analyzed from magnetic resonance brain images of 122 healthy children and adolescents (62 males, 60 females; ages 4 to 17). Results showed that age is a significant predictor of brainstem and thalamus volumes. The volume of the brainstem increases with age, while thalamus volume declines with age. The volume of the right thalamus is significantly larger than that of the left in both genders, with greater rightward asymmetry and greater thalamus to grey matter ratio in females. Males have larger brainstems, but these differences are not significant when covarying for cerebral volume. Larger thalami were associated with higher Verbal IQ. These normative pediatric data are of value to researchers who study these regions in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  17. THE HISTORY IN AND FOR THE CLASSROOM: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHERS OF ‘K-12 EDUCATION’ AND PROFESSORS OF ‘HIGHER EDUCATION’ HAVING PDE-PR AS STARTING POINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pagliarini Junior

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the understanding of the prerogatives associated with the relationship between teaching and research has challenged professionals from different areas of knowledge, and the results of this interaction have begun to include teachers from both K-12 and higher education around the development of educational teaching projects. The article presents activities accomplished at Unespar, Campo Mourão - PR, in/for the ‘Programa de Desenvolvimento da Educação’ – PDE (Program of Educational Development from Paraná – a continuing education course for teachers from Paraná K-12 educational system. Hence, the study directs an epistemological debate based on the relations of exchange of experiences with the teachers encompassed, namely, advising professors and, in the role of students, various K-12 teachers. One believes that this approach may trigger improvements to the applied methodologies, to the theoretical basis of accomplished teaching activities and to the conception of these professionals regarding the meanings of historical knowledge to be experienced at the Paraná state public school educational system.

  18. IQ, educational attainment, memory and plasma lipids: associations with apolipoprotein E genotype in 5995 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amy E; Guthrie, Philip A I; Smith, George Davey; Golding, Jean; Sattar, Naveed; Hingorani, Aroon D; Deanfield, John E; Day, Ian N M

    2011-07-15

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype (ε2/ε3/ε4: rs429358 ε4 allele; rs7412 ε2 allele) is strongly associated with both lipid levels and Alzheimer's disease. Although there is also evidence of milder cognitive impairment in later life in carriers of the APOE ε4 allele, there have been few studies investigating the impact of APOE genotype on cognitive function in children. We determined APOE genotype in 5995 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and investigated associations between APOE genotype and plasma lipids (at age 9), IQ (at age 8), memory (at ages 8 and 10), and performance in school attainment tests (at ages 7, 11, and 14). Observed genotype group counts were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (χ(2)p value = .84). There were strong relationships between APOE genotype and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, which follow the same patterns as in adults. There was no strong evidence to suggest that APOE genotype was associated with IQ (all p values ≥ .46), memory function (p ≥ .35), or school attainment test results (p ≥ .28). Although APOE genotype does have strong associations with lipid levels in childhood, there does not seem to be meaningful effects on cognitive performance, suggesting that any detrimental effects of the ε4 allele on cognitive function are not important until later life. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hall v. Florida: Capital Punishment, IQ, and Persons With Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Brian K; Delalot, Dominque; Werner, Tonia L

    2015-06-01

    The United States Supreme Court has ruled on the question of persons with intellectual disability and capital punishment in several notable cases, including Penry v. Lynaugh (1989) and Atkins v. Virginia (2002). In 2014, the U.S. Supreme Court revisited the subject in Hall v. Florida. Although Florida Statute § 921.137 prohibits imposing a sentence of death on a defendant convicted of a capital felony if it is determined that the defendant is intellectually disabled, the Florida Supreme Court strictly interpreted the law so that, because Mr. Hall's IQ was not below the cutoff of 70, further evidence could not be presented to show that he had an intellectual disability. In Hall v. Florida, the Court analyzed the relevance of the standard error of measurement of IQ testing, whether there is a consensus among the states regarding capital punishment, and whether there is a consensus among professional associations regarding these questions. The Court also adopted the term "intellectual disability" as opposed to "mental retardation," following changes in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, and the U.S. Code and Code of Federal Regulations. We examine the Court's decision and offer commentary regarding the overall effect of this landmark case. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  20. Added value of Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the ultrasound assessment of breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianculescu, Victor; Ciolovan, Laura Maria; Dunant, Ariane; Vielh, Philippe; Mazouni, Chafika; Delaloge, Suzette; Dromain, Clarisse; Blidaru, Alexandru; Balleyguier, Corinne

    2014-05-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the discrimination of benign and malignant breast lesions. Conventional B-mode and elasticity imaging were used to evaluate 110 breast lesions. Elastographic assessment of breast tissue abnormalities was done using a shear wave based technique, Virtual Touch IQ (VTIQ), implemented on a Siemens Acuson S3000 ultrasound machine. Tissue mechanical properties were interpreted as two-dimensional qualitative and quantitative colour maps displaying relative shear wave velocity. Wave speed measurements in m/s were possible at operator defined regions of interest. The pathologic diagnosis was established on samples obtained by ultrasound guided core biopsy or fine needle aspiration. BIRADS based B-mode evaluation of the 48 benign and 62 malignant lesions achieved 92% sensitivity and 62.5% specificity. Subsequently performed VTIQ elastography relying on visual interpretation of the colour overlay displaying relative shear wave velocities managed similar standalone diagnostic performance with 92% sensitivity and 64.6% specificity. Lesion and surrounding tissue shear wave speed values were calculated and a significant difference was found between the benign and malignant populations (Mann-Whitney U test, pBIRADS 4a masses, we reached overall levels of 92% sensitivity and 72.9% specificity. VTIQ qualitative and quantitative elastography has the potential to further characterise B-mode detected breast lesions, increasing specificity and reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Community violence exposure correlates with smaller gray matter volume and lower IQ in urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Oisin; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Laube, Corinna; Kühn, Simone; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2018-02-15

    Adolescents' exposure to community violence is a significant public health issue in urban settings and has been associated with poorer cognitive performance and increased risk for psychiatric illnesses, including PTSD. However, no study to date has investigated the neural correlates of community violence exposure in adolescents. Sixty-five healthy adolescents (age = 14-18 years; 36 females, 29 males) from moderate- to high-crime neighborhoods in Los Angeles reported their violence exposure, parents' education level, and free/reduced school lunch status (socio-economic status, SES), and underwent structural neuroimaging and intelligence testing. Violence exposure negatively correlated with measures of SES, IQ, and gray matter volume. Above and beyond the effect of SES, violence exposure negatively correlated with IQ and with gray matter volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex, regions involved in high-level cognitive functions and autonomic modulation, and previously shown to be reduced in PTSD and combat-exposed military populations. The current results provide first evidence that frontal brain regions involved in cognition and affect appear to be selectively affected by exposure to community violence, even in healthy nondelinquent adolescents who are not the direct victims or perpetrators of violence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Does education mediate the relationship between IQ and age of first birth? A behavioural genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Michelle; Rowe, David C; Rodgers, Joseph L

    2002-04-01

    This study presents a multivariate behavioural genetic analysis of the relationship between education, intelligence and age of first birth. Analyses investigated the mediational role of education in explaining the relationship between intelligence and age of first birth at both the phenotypic and behavioural genetic level. The data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a nationally representative survey that included genetically informative full- and half-sibling pairs (n = 1423 pairs). Respondents were aged 14 to 22 when contacted in 1979. Heritability estimates were 0.32, 0.50 and 0.06 for IQ, education and age of first birth, respectively. Shared environment estimates were 0.35, 0.23 and 0.20 respectively. Common genetic and shared environmental factors were substantial in explaining the relationship between intelligence and education, and also education and age of first birth. Education partially mediated the relationship between intelligence and age of first birth only in the phenotypic analyses. After considering the genetic and shared environmental factors that influence all three variables, evidence for mediation was less convincing. This pattern of results suggests that the apparent mediational role of education at the phenotypic level is in fact the result of underlying genetic and shared environmental influences that affect education, IQ and age of first birth in common.

  3. Early adolescent outcomes of joint developmental trajectories of problem behavior and IQ in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Papachristou, Efstathios; Midouhas, Emily; Joshi, Heather; Ploubidis, George B; Lewis, Glyn

    2018-04-16

    General cognitive ability (IQ) and problem behavior (externalizing and internalizing problems) are variable and inter-related in children. However, it is unknown how they co-develop in the general child population and how their patterns of co-development may be related to later outcomes. We carried out this study to explore this. Using data from 16,844 Millennium Cohort Study children, we fitted three-parallel-process growth mixture models to identify joint developmental trajectories of internalizing, externalizing and IQ scores at ages 3-11 years. We then examined their associations with age 11 outcomes. We identified a typically developing group (83%) and three atypical groups, all with worse behavior and ability: children with improving behavior and low (but improving in males) ability (6%); children with persistently high levels of problems and low ability (5%); and children with worsening behavior and low ability (6%). Compared to typically developing children, the latter two groups were more likely to show poor decision-making, be bullies or bully victims, engage in antisocial behaviors, skip and dislike school, be unhappy and have low self-esteem. By contrast, children (especially males) in the improver group had outcomes that were similar to, or even better than, those of their typically developing peers. These findings encourage the development of interventions to target children with both cognitive and behavioral difficulties.

  4. Digital Compensation in IQ Modulator Using Optimization—A State-Space Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim AGKC

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In DSP-based IQ modulators generating CPFSK signals, shortcomings in the implementation of the analog reconstruction filters result in the loss of the constant envelope property of the output CPFSK signal. These ripples cause undesirable spreading of the transmitted signal spectrum into adjacent channels when the signal passes through nonlinear elements in the transmission path and the consequent failure of the transmitted signal in meeting transmission standards requirements. Therefore, digital techniques compensating for these shortcomings play an important role in enhancing the performance of the IQ modulation system. Recently, several methods have been proposed in the literature to digitally compensate for the imperfections in the transfer characteristics of the analog reconstruction filters. Although these methods have been shown to be effective in removing the output envelope ripples, they result in filters of high orders and are therefore computationally demanding to implement on the DSP. Furthermore, previous techniques suffer from numerical instabilities as a result of matrix inversion in the process of calculating the solution vector. In this paper, we present two new techniques for designing the digital compensation filters by means of optimization to address the limitations of previous solutions. Design of control systems by optimization is now a standard technique. Simulation examples show that these techniques are effective and lead to substantial improvement of the output envelope ripples.

  5. The relationship between executive functions and IQ in Korean children and the comparison with Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyunjoo; Jinyu, An

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between perceived/performance-based executive function and IQ. Additionally, the relationship between perceived executive function and intelligence was investigated cross-culturally between South Korea and China. Korean children (60; M = 34, F = 26, Mean age = 10.35) were included in study 1, and Korean children (43, M = 23, F = 20, Mean age = 10.05) and Chinese children (56; M = 29, F = 27, Mean age = 10.40) were included in study 2. The Korean-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV, the Stroop test, the CTT-2, and the executive function questionnaire were used for Korean subjects, and the Raven's matrix test and the executive function questionnaire were used for Korean and Chinese subjects. Multiple regression showed that CTT-2(RT), emotional control difficulty, and Color Word within a 45' Stroop test trial were significant predictors of total IQ. The cross-cultural analysis showed a statistically significant difference between the two countries in the emotional control aspect of perceived executive function. There were no interactions between country and intelligence. In conclusion, intelligence was related to overall executive function. Korean children and Chinese children showed cultural differences in processing emotion. These results are expected to contribute to developing therapeutic strategies for executive function in children and to exchanging these strategies between Korea and China.

  6. The effects of low to moderate alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.

    2012-01-01

    the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy......Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...

  7. IQ and scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): controlling for effort and education among geriatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Kriscinda A; Maoz, Omry; Hook, Julie N; Steiner, Amy R; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2007-09-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition (PPVT-III) were administered to 76 Extended Care Center inpatients of a Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 56 of whom did not carry a diagnosis associated with brain impairment, and 20 of whom had a diagnosis associated with degenerative or cerebrovascular conditions. MMSE and PPVT-III scores, the latter of which estimates verbal IQ, were significantly correlated in both groups, even when controlling for the effects of education. This correlation was attenuated, but remained significant, in the face of varying levels of patient effort. The findings of this study support earlier findings, which also suggest that interpretation of "impaired" performance on the MMSE for those with IQ scores below 90 should be interpreted with caution. Average MMSE scores for Wechsler IQ classifications are provided.

  8. Direct and Indirect Effects of IQ, Parental Help, Effort, and Mathematics Self-Concept on Mathematics Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Abu-Hilal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the structural relationships among cognitive constructs (intelligence and achievement and affective constructs (perceived parental help, effort and self-concept. It was proposed that the relationships are not invariant across gender. The sample consisted of 219 boys and 133 girls from elementary and preparatory public schools in Al Ain in the United Arab Emirates. Intelligence (IQ was measured by the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence (TONI and parental help was measured by 4-Likert-type items. Effort was measured by 4-Likert-type items. Self-concept (SC was measured by 8-Likert-type items taken from the SDQ I (Abu-Hilal, 2000. Mathematic Achievement was the scores of students in mathematics from school records. The structural model assumed that IQ would have an effect on parental help, effort, SC and achievement. Parental help would have an effect on effort, SC and achievement. Also, effort would have an effect on SC and achievement. Finally, SC would have an effect on achievement. The structural model was tested for invariance across gender. The measurement model proved to be invariant across gender and so was the structural model. The non-constrained model indicated that the structural relationships among the variables do vary according to gender. For example, boys benefited from parental help by exerting more effort while girls did not. Boys with high IQ exerted more effort than boys with low IQ; but girls with high IQ exerted the same amount of effort as girls with low IQ. The model explained 45% and 39% of the variance in math scores for boys and girls, respectively.

  9. Propuesta de plan estratégico de negocio para la empresa sistemas IQ, S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez Arias, Verny

    2015-01-01

    Tesis de maestría -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Posgrado en Administración y Dirección de Empresas. Maestría Profesional en Administración y Dirección de Empresas con énfasis en Gerencia, 2015 El objetivo general de este proyecto es elaborar una propuesta de plan estratégico de negocio para la empresa SISTEMAS IQ, S.A., a partir de un análisis situacional interno y externo, que ayude a que la empresa sea más eficiente y sostenible en el tiempo. SISTEMAS IQ, S.A., es una empresa integra...

  10. Sistema integrado de qualidade - IQS: aplicação e analise em processos de fabricação

    OpenAIRE

    Tontini, Gerson

    1991-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Centro Tecnologico O Brasil devido a sua recente abertura ao mercado externo, necessita urgentemente da difusão de conceitos e técnicas que ajudem a indústria nacional na melhoria de sua qualidade e produtividade. Este trabalho testa um novo conceito de controle de qualidade/processo, o Sistema Integrado de Qualidade (IQS), apresentando as ferramentas necessárias a sua implantação e utilização. O IQS é um sistema abrangente, ...

  11. Does IQ predict total and cardiovascular disease mortality as strongly as other risk factors? Comparison of effect estimates using the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G D; Shipley, M J; Gale, C R

    2008-01-01

    To compare the strength of the relation of two measurements of IQ and 11 established risk factors with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.......To compare the strength of the relation of two measurements of IQ and 11 established risk factors with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality....

  12. Behaviour Problems in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in a Resource-Poor Setting in India--Part 1: Association with Age, Sex, Severity of Intellectual Disabilities and IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Ram; Kishore, M. Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Background: Behaviour problems are most common in people with intellectual disabilities. Nature of behaviour problems can vary depending upon the age, sex and intellectual level (IQ). Objectives: This study examined the distribution of behaviour problems across intellectual disability categories and their association with IQ age and sex in…

  13. Effect of Racial-Ethnic Grouping, Age, and IQ Range on the Validity of the Satz-Mogel Short Form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Russell L.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Cross-validated the effectiveness of the Satz-Mogel short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale controlling for the influence of age, racial-ethnic group, and IQ range. Results suggest that age and racial-ethnic group do not affect the short-form validity but that IQ range does. (Author)

  14. The Average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans Assessed by the Progressive Matrices: A Reply to Wicherts, Dolan, Carlson & van der Maas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Wicherts, Dolan, Carlson & van der Maas (WDCM) (2010) contend that the average IQ in sub-Saharan Africa is about 76 in relation to a British mean of 100 and sd of 15. This result is achieved by including many studies of unrepresentative elite samples. Studies of acceptably representative samples indicate a sub-Saharan Africa IQ of…

  15. Relationship between the Short-Term Visual Memory and IQ in the Right-and Left-Handed Subjects Trained in Different Educational Programs: I-General Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Yavuz; Yetkin, Yalçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between mean intelligence quotient (IQ), hand preferences and visual memory (VM) were investigated on (N = 612) males and females students trained in different educational programs in viewpoint of laterality. IQ was assessed by cattle's culture Fair intelligence test-A (CCFIT-A). The laterality of the one side of the body was…

  16. Intellectual Functioning in In-Patients with Substance Use Disorders: Preliminary Results from a Clinical Mediation Study of Factors Contributing to IQ Variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braatveit, Kirsten J; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Hove, Oddbjørn

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the direct effect of different childhood difficulties on adult intelligence coefficient (IQ) and their possible indirect effect through the mediating pathways of education and severity substance use. Ninety in-patients aged 19-64. The participants had abstained from substance use for at least 6 weeks and had different substance use profiles. Substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric illnesses were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition criteria. IQ was measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th edition. Childhood difficulties, severity of substance use and level of education were assessed through a self-report questionnaire. Mean full scale IQ for the studied population was 87.3. Learning and attention deficit/hyperactivity difficulties in childhood were directly related to adult IQ. Education had a mediating effect between childhood learning difficulties/conduct problems and the verbal comprehension index. There was no significant difference in IQ due to the specific substance used or severity of substance use. IQ variance in in-treatment individuals with SUD was related to childhood functioning alone or through the mediator of education. Substance-related factors did not contribute to IQ variance. The results fit a normal theory of IQ development with commonly known risk factors and no disturbing effect of substance use. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Genetic and environmental contributions to the association between anthropometric measures and iq: a study of Minnesota twins at age 11 and 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Iacono, William G; Krueger, Robert; McGue, Matthew

    2012-05-01

    Associations of height and head circumference with IQ are well documented, but much less is known about the association of IQ with other anthropometric measures or the mechanisms behind these associations. We therefore analyzed the associations between IQ and several anthropometric measures using a twin-study design. Twins born in Minnesota were assessed at either age 11 (756 complete pairs) or 17 (626 complete pairs) and analyzed using genetic modeling. Head circumference and height showed the most consistent positive associations with IQ, whereas more detailed anthropometric measures were not significantly better predictors of IQ. These associations were mainly due to common genetic factors. Our results suggest that the same genetic factors have an effect on physical and cognitive development. Head circumference and height capture information on children's physical development, which is partly associated also with cognitive development.

  18. Differentiating between difficult-to-remediate and readily remediated poor readers: more evidence against the IQ-achievement discrepancy definition of reading disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellutino, F R; Scanlon, D M; Lyon, G R

    2000-01-01

    In this article we discuss research bearing on the traditional use of the IQ-achievement discrepancy to define specific reading disability. We initially review the evidence presented by Rutter and Yule (1975) in support of this practice, and then discuss results from subsequent studies that have questioned the reliability of their findings. We also discuss results from more recent studies demonstrating that the IQ-achievement discrepancy does not reliably distinguish poor from normal readers, whereas language-based measures do reliably distinguish these groups. We highlight results from a study we recently completed, in which it was found that IQ scores did not differentiate between poor readers who were found to be readily remediated and poor readers who were difficult to remediate. In view of the convergent evidence against the use of IQ scores to define specific reading disability, we suggest that the IQ-achievement discrepancy definition of this disorder be discarded.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Joint Protection in Collagen-Induced Arthritis after Treatment with IQ-1S, a Selective c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Hammaker, Deepa; Kochetkova, Irina; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Lyakhov, Sergey A; Firestein, Gary S; Quinn, Mark T

    2015-06-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) participate in many physiologic and pathologic processes, including inflammatory diseases. We recently synthesized the sodium salt of IQ-1S (11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one oxime) and demonstrated that it is a high-affinity JNK inhibitor and inhibits murine delayed-type hypersensitivity. Here we show that IQ-1S is highly specific for JNK and that its neutral form is the most abundant species at physiologic pH. Molecular docking of the IQ-1S syn isomer into the JNK1 binding site gave the best pose, which corresponded to the position of cocrystallized JNK inhibitor SP600125 (1,9-pyrazoloanthrone). Evaluation of the therapeutic potential of IQ-1S showed that it inhibited matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 3 gene expression induced by interleukin-1β in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes and significantly attenuated development of murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Treatment with IQ-1S either before or after induction of CIA resulted in decreased clinical scores, and joint sections from IQ-1S-treated CIA mice exhibited only mild signs of inflammation and minimal cartilage loss compared with those from control mice. Collagen II-specific antibody responses were also reduced by IQ-1S treatment. By contrast, the inactive ketone derivative 11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one had no effect on CIA clinical scores or collagen II-specific antibody titers. IQ-1S treatment also suppressed proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in joints and lymph node cells. Finally, treatment with IQ-1S increased the number of Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells in lymph nodes. Thus, IQ-1S can reduce inflammation and cartilage loss associated with CIA and can serve as a small-molecule modulator for mechanistic studies of JNK function in rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  20. GUT precursors and fixed points in higher-dimensional theories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Υ gauge bosons associated with the enlarged GUT gauge symmetry, and may also include additional matter particles (such as colored Higgs triplets). There are two basic methods by which GUT symmetries can be broken be- low the scale of unification. The first method is intrinsically field-theoretic: one imagines that a ...

  1. To work or not to work: motivation (not low IQ) determines symptom validity test findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, Michael D; Prentkowski, Erica; Rao, Aparna

    2011-06-01

    Social Security Disability Determinations Service (DDS) claimants are seeking compensation for an inability to work (Chafetz, 2010). These usually low-functioning claimants fail Symptom Validity Tests (SVTs) at high rates (Chafetz, 2008), typically over 40%. In contrast, claimants for the Rehabilitation Service in Louisiana (LRS) are seeking to work. Individuals referred by the Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) are seeking reunification with their children. All three groups consisted of equivalently low-IQ claimants when considering only those who passed SVTs. Only the DDS group failed SVTs at high rates, whereas LRS claimants failed at minimal rates and DCFS claimants did not fail. Thus, intrinsic motivation explains effort in this particular study of low-functioning claimants: those seeking to work or to look good to reunify with their children pass SVTs at high rates.

  2. Influence of memory, attention, IQ and age on auditory temporal processing tests: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina Ferraz Borges; Zachi, Elaine Cristina; Roque, Daniela Tsubota; Ventura, Dora Selma Fix; Schochat, Eliane

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the existence of correlations between the performance of children in auditory temporal tests (Frequency Pattern and Gaps in Noise--GIN) and IQ, attention, memory and age measurements. Fifteen typically developing individuals between the ages of 7 to 12 years and normal hearing participated in the study. Auditory temporal processing tests (GIN and Frequency Pattern), as well as a Memory test (Digit Span), Attention tests (auditory and visual modality) and intelligence tests (RAVEN test of Progressive Matrices) were applied. Significant and positive correlation between the Frequency Pattern test and age variable were found, which was considered good (pAuditory temporal skills seem to be influenced by different factors: while the performance in temporal ordering skill seems to be influenced by maturational processes, the performance in temporal resolution was not influenced by any of the aspects investigated.

  3. Cognitive deficits and levels of IQ in adolescent onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pagsberg, A Katrine; Hemmingsen, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    of intelligence, executive functions, memory, attention and processing speed was global or specific. First-episode psychotic adolescents (N = 39) between the ages 11 and 17 years were included, 18 of whom were diagnosed with schizophrenia, and 21 with other non-organic, non-affective psychoses, using ICD-10...... the profile and severity of cognitive impairments in first-episode early onset psychotic patients who received the schizophrenia diagnosis to those diagnosed with other non-organic, non-affective psychotic disorders. The secondary purpose was to examine whether the profile of cognitive deficits, in terms...... of attention, executive functions, reaction time, and memory in the schizophrenic and psychotic adolescent groups. However, analyses of WISC-III factor profiles suggested that early onset schizophrenia patients may have more global IQ deficits than non-organic, non-affective psychoses when examined recently...

  4. IQCJ-SCHIP1, a novel fusion transcript encoding a calmodulin-binding IQ motif protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasnicka-Crawford, Dorota A.; Carson, Andrew R.; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2006-01-01

    The existence of transcripts that span two adjacent, independent genes is considered rare in the human genome. This study characterizes a novel human fusion gene named IQCJ-SCHIP1. IQCJ-SCHIP1 is the longest isoform of a complex transcriptional unit that bridges two separate genes that encode distinct proteins, IQCJ, a novel IQ motif containing protein and SCHIP1, a schwannomin interacting protein that has been previously shown to interact with the Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) protein. IQCJ-SCHIP1 is located on the chromosome 3q25 and comprises a 1692-bp transcript encompassing 11 exons spanning 828 kb of the genomic DNA. We show that IQCJ-SCHIP1 mRNA is highly expressed in the brain. Protein encoded by the IQCJ-SCHIP1 gene was localized to cytoplasm and actin-rich regions and in differentiated PC12 cells was also seen in neurite extensions

  5. Uncoupling of reading and IQ over time: empirical evidence for a definition of dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Emilio; Shaywitz, Bennett A; Holahan, John M; Marchione, Karen; Shaywitz, Sally E

    2010-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is defined as an unexpected difficulty in reading in individuals who otherwise possess the intelligence and motivation considered necessary for fluent reading, and who also have had reasonable reading instruction. Identifying factors associated with normative and impaired reading development has implications for diagnosis, intervention, and prevention. We show that in typical readers, reading and IQ development are dynamically linked over time. Such mutual interrelationships are not perceptible in dyslexic readers, which suggests that reading and cognition develop more independently in these individuals. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first empirical demonstration of a coupling between cognition and reading in typical readers and a developmental uncoupling between cognition and reading in dyslexic readers. This uncoupling was the core concept of the initial description of dyslexia and remains the focus of the current definitional model of this learning disability.

  6. Specific Language and Reading Skills in School-Aged Children and Adolescents Are Associated with Prematurity after Controlling for IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2011-01-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the…

  7. National IQs: A Review of Their Educational, Cognitive, Economic, Political, Demographic, Sociological, Epidemiological, Geographic and Climatic Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard; Vanhanen, Tatu

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of 244 correlates of national IQs that have been published from 2002 through 2012 and include educational attainment, cognitive output, educational input, per capita income, economic growth, other economic variables, crime, political institutions, health, fertility, sociological variables, and geographic and…

  8. Intelligence, IQ, Tests, and Assessments: What Do Parents Need to Know? What Should They Tell Their Kids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Dona; Foster, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Embarking on the standardized testing process often leads parents of gifted children to other questions about intelligence, tests, and assessment practices. What is intelligence? Do IQ tests measure it? Are there better ways of deciding who needs gifted programming? What can parents request by way of results and their interpretation? Should…

  9. The Score Reliability of Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability Test (DAP: IQ) for Rural Malawi Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasu, Denis S.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, the reliability of scores for the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults (DAP: IQ; Reynolds & Hickman, 2004) was examined through several analyses with a sample of 147 children from rural Malawi, Africa using a Chichewa translation of instructions. Cronbach alpha coefficients for…

  10. Prevalence of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders in Average-IQ Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo Marín, Jorge; Rodríguez-Franco, Montserrat Alviani; Mahtani Chugani, Vinita; Magán Maganto, María; Díez Villoria, Emiliano; Canal Bedia, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    Since their separation as independent diagnostics, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) have been conceptualized as mutually exclusive disorders. Similarities between both disorders can lead to misdiagnosis, especially when it comes to average-IQ adults who were not identified during childhood. The aim of this…

  11. A comparison of children with epilepsy to an age- and IQ-matched control group on the Children's Memory Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Kristine A; Burns, Thomas G; O'Leary, Stephanie D

    2006-06-01

    Past research has found that children with epilepsy exhibit decreased memory skills. In addition, some studies have found that children with epilepsy obtain significantly lower IQ scores than controls. In an effort to examine whether children with epilepsy have specific memory weaknesses versus global cognitive difficulties, the present study compared the performance of 62 children (age range = 6-16 years). Thirty-one children with epilepsy were compared to 31 age- and IQ-matched controls on the Children's Memory Scale (CMS) to determine whether differences in memory skills persist when IQ is matched. An independent t-test comparing index and scaled scores was performed. The results indicated that with the exception of the Word Pairs subtest (p < .01), children with epilepsy did not differ significantly on the CMS subtests when IQ was matched. This suggests that list-learning paradigms may be particularly sensitive to memory impairments in children with epilepsy and/or that children with epilepsy have more global cognitive impairments.

  12. Comparison of the Relationship between Words Retained and Intelligence for Three Instructional Strategies among Students with Below-Average IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Boice, Christina H.

    2009-01-01

    The current study replicated MacQuarrie, Tucker, Burns, and Hartman (2002) with a sample of 20 students who had been identified with a disability and had an IQ score that was between 1 and 3 standard deviations below the normative mean. Each student was taught 27 words from the Esperanto International Language with the following conditions: (a)…

  13. Aetiology for the Covariation between Combined Type ADHD and Reading Difficulties in a Family Study: The Role of IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Celeste H. M.; Wood, Alexis C.; Paloyelis, Yannis; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Franke, Barbara; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Rommelse, Nanda; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    Background: Twin studies using both clinical and population-based samples suggest that the frequent co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading ability/disability (RD) is largely driven by shared genetic influences. While both disorders are associated with lower IQ, recent twin data suggest that the shared genetic…

  14. Adaptive Behavior Ratings Correlate with Symptomatology and IQ among Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Harms, Madeline B.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    Caregiver report on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS) for 40 high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 30 typically developing (TD) individuals matched for age, IQ, and sex ratio revealed global adaptive behavior deficits in ASD, with social skills impairments particularly prominent. Within the ASD…

  15. Comorbidity/Overlapping between ADHD and PTSD in Relation to IQ among Children of Traumatized/Non-Traumatized Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Atia; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study explores the comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and PTSD in relation to IQ among refugee children of traumatized parents (TP) and non-traumatized parents (NTP). Method: The study compares 80 refugee children, 40 with TP with 40 with NTP. ADHD and PTSD are assessed using DICA. Children's cognitive functions are measured by…

  16. Comprehension of metaphor and irony in schizophrenia during remission: the role of theory of mind and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Shuliang; Su, Yanjie; Chan, Raymond C K; Liu, Jianxin

    2008-01-15

    The study reported herein explored the comprehension of metaphor and irony in schizophrenia during remission, and examined the role of IQ and a theory of mind. Performance of 29 Schizophrenic patients in remission and 22 healthy controls was compared on metaphor and irony comprehension tasks and first- and second-order theory of mind tasks. Participants' IQs were measured using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, and the symptoms of individuals with schizophrenia were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The results showed that patients with schizophrenia were impaired in their comprehension of metaphor and irony as compared with healthy controls. A theory of mind deficit was found in patients with remitted schizophrenia. The comprehension of metaphor was significantly correlated with second-order false belief understanding and the comprehension of irony was not significantly related to theory of mind. IQ and verbal IQ did not explain the deficit of metaphor and irony comprehension. These findings were not explained by Happé's [Happé, F.G.E., 1993. Communication competence and theory of mind in autism: a test of relevance theory. Cognition 48, 101-119] theory and the shared semantic understanding requirement was discussed.

  17. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Academic Performance: Controlling for the Effects of IQ, Personality, and Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Mercedes; Prieto, Maria Dolores; Almeida, Leandro S.; Ferrandiz, Carmen; Bermejo, Rosario; Lopez-Pina, Jose Antonio; Hernandez, Daniel; Sainz, Marta; Fernandez, Mari-Carmen

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and academic performance, controlling for the effects of IQ, personality, and self-concept dimensions. A sample of 290 preadolescents (11-12 years old) took part in the study. The instruments used were (a) Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Adolescents Short Form…

  18. Aging IQ Intervention with Older Korean Americans: A Comparison of Internet-Based and In-Class Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yuri; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Marti, C. Nathan; Kim, Miyong T.

    2015-01-01

    Using the translated contents of the National Institute on Aging (NIA)'s Aging IQ, an educational intervention was delivered to older Korean Americans. The educational program was delivered via two different modalities, Internet-based education (n = 12) and in-class education (n = 11), and the overall feasibility and efficacy were evaluated by the…

  19. IQ at Age 12 Following a History of Institutional Care: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almas, Alisa N.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Young children removed from institutions and placed into foster care or adoptive homes have been shown to experience significant gains in IQ relative to children who remain in institutions. Less is known about the long-term impact of severe early deprivation on development in late childhood. Data are presented from a follow-up of children at 12…

  20. Added value of Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the ultrasound assessment of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianculescu, Victor; Ciolovan, Laura Maria; Dunant, Ariane; Vielh, Philippe; Mazouni, Chafika; Delaloge, Suzette; Dromain, Clarisse; Blidaru, Alexandru; Balleyguier, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the diagnostic performance of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the discrimination of benign and malignant breast lesions. Materials and methods: Conventional B-mode and elasticity imaging were used to evaluate 110 breast lesions. Elastographic assessment of breast tissue abnormalities was done using a shear wave based technique, Virtual Touch IQ (VTIQ), implemented on a Siemens Acuson S3000 ultrasound machine. Tissue mechanical properties were interpreted as two-dimensional qualitative and quantitative colour maps displaying relative shear wave velocity. Wave speed measurements in m/s were possible at operator defined regions of interest. The pathologic diagnosis was established on samples obtained by ultrasound guided core biopsy or fine needle aspiration. Results: BIRADS based B-mode evaluation of the 48 benign and 62 malignant lesions achieved 92% sensitivity and 62.5% specificity. Subsequently performed VTIQ elastography relying on visual interpretation of the colour overlay displaying relative shear wave velocities managed similar standalone diagnostic performance with 92% sensitivity and 64.6% specificity. Lesion and surrounding tissue shear wave speed values were calculated and a significant difference was found between the benign and malignant populations (Mann–Whitney U test, p < 0.0001). By selecting a lesion cut-off value of 3.31 m/s we achieved 80.4% sensitivity and 73% specificity. Applying this threshold only to BIRADS 4a masses, we reached overall levels of 92% sensitivity and 72.9% specificity. Conclusion: VTIQ qualitative and quantitative elastography has the potential to further characterise B-mode detected breast lesions, increasing specificity and reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies

  1. Added value of Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the ultrasound assessment of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianculescu, Victor; Ciolovan, Laura Maria [Radiology Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Dunant, Ariane [Department of Statistics, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Vielh, Philippe [Department of Biopathology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Mazouni, Chafika [Department of Surgery, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Delaloge, Suzette [Department of Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Dromain, Clarisse [Radiology Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Blidaru, Alexandru [Department of Surgery, Bucharest Institute of Oncology, Bucharest (Romania); Balleyguier, Corinne, E-mail: corinne.balleyguier@gustaveroussy.fr [Radiology Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); UMR 8081, IR4M, Paris-Sud University, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To determine the diagnostic performance of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the discrimination of benign and malignant breast lesions. Materials and methods: Conventional B-mode and elasticity imaging were used to evaluate 110 breast lesions. Elastographic assessment of breast tissue abnormalities was done using a shear wave based technique, Virtual Touch IQ (VTIQ), implemented on a Siemens Acuson S3000 ultrasound machine. Tissue mechanical properties were interpreted as two-dimensional qualitative and quantitative colour maps displaying relative shear wave velocity. Wave speed measurements in m/s were possible at operator defined regions of interest. The pathologic diagnosis was established on samples obtained by ultrasound guided core biopsy or fine needle aspiration. Results: BIRADS based B-mode evaluation of the 48 benign and 62 malignant lesions achieved 92% sensitivity and 62.5% specificity. Subsequently performed VTIQ elastography relying on visual interpretation of the colour overlay displaying relative shear wave velocities managed similar standalone diagnostic performance with 92% sensitivity and 64.6% specificity. Lesion and surrounding tissue shear wave speed values were calculated and a significant difference was found between the benign and malignant populations (Mann–Whitney U test, p < 0.0001). By selecting a lesion cut-off value of 3.31 m/s we achieved 80.4% sensitivity and 73% specificity. Applying this threshold only to BIRADS 4a masses, we reached overall levels of 92% sensitivity and 72.9% specificity. Conclusion: VTIQ qualitative and quantitative elastography has the potential to further characterise B-mode detected breast lesions, increasing specificity and reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies.

  2. Measuring social capital through multivariate analyses for the IQ-SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Borges, Carolina Marques; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elisangela; Lucas, Simone Dutra; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigênia

    2015-01-20

    Social capital can be viewed as a societal process that works toward the common good as well as toward the good of the collective based on trust, reciprocity, and solidarity. Our study aimed to present two multivariate statistical analyses to examine the formation of latent classes of social capital using the IQ-SC and to identify the most important factors in building an indicator of individual social capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 among working adolescents supported by a Brazilian NGO. The sample consisted of 363 individuals, and data were collected using the World Bank Questionnaire for measuring social capital. First, the participants were grouped by a segmentation analysis using the Two Step Cluster method based on the Euclidian distance and the centroid criteria as the criteria for aggregate answers. Using specific weights for each item, discriminant analysis was used to validate the cluster analysis in an attempt to maximize the variance among the groups with respect to the variance within the clusters. "Community participation" and "trust in one's neighbors" contributed significantly to the development of the model with two distinct discriminant functions (p < 0.001). The majority of cases (95.0%) and non-cases (93.1%) were correctly classified by discriminant analysis. The two multivariate analyses (segmentation analysis and canonical discriminant analysis), used together, can be considered good choices for measuring social capital. Our results indicate that it is possible to form three social capital groups (low, medium and high) using the IQ-SC.

  3. Creativity Lost: The Importance of Testing Higher-Level Executive Functions in School-Age Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Dean C.; Lansing, Amy; Houston, Wes S.; Wetter, Spencer; Han, S. Duke; Jacobson, Mark; Holdnack, James; Kramer, Joel

    2007-01-01

    In school settings, students are typically evaluated using group achievement tests, IQ scales, and college entrance exams that focus more on rote-verbal skills (e.g., vocabulary, mathematical facts) than on higher level executive functions (e.g., abstract thinking, problem solving). However, recent neuropsychological findings suggest that…

  4. Relationship between IQ, cultural intelligence and self-monitoring in the students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Esmaeili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Intelligence quotient (IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring are among important and influential parameters in learning-teaching process of students. Thus, the current study examined the relationship between these parameters in the students of Birjand University of Medical Science. Materials and Methods: The present study was a descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional type. The study population included all the students at Birjand University of Medical Sciences, selected through stratified randomized sampling method. In order to study IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring parameters R & B Cattell scale (Scale III, Erli’s Cultural Intelligence Inventory, and Snyder’s Self-monitoring Test were applied, respectively. The obtained data was fed into SPSS (V:21 software using Pearson correlation test, ANOVA, and t-test at the significant level of P≤0.05. Results: From a total of 171 subjects participating in the study, 53.2% were female. The average age of the participants was 21.3±2.7 years. The average IQ, cultural intelligence, and self-monitoring scores were 106±10.44, 85.73±17.31, and 12.35±3.20, respectively. There was a significant correlation between cultural intelligence and self-monitoring (P<0.000; r=0/37. However, there were no significant associations between cultural intelligence and IQ scores as well as between self-monitoring and IQ scores. Conclusion: Regarding the unfavorable cultural intelligence’ skills and abilities ;and their acquirable nature, it is suggested that University consider a significant position for educational and cultural programs in order to enhance cultural intelligence.

  5. Institutional care and iron deficiency increase ADHD symptomology and lower IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jenalee R; Georgieff, Michael K; Gunnar, Megan R

    2015-05-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar, Stellern, Schaefer, Carlson & Gunnar, 2012; Kreppner, O'Connor & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring micronutrient deficiencies that disrupt brain development (Fuglestad, Rao & Georgieff, 2008b). In this study, IA children were compared to children raised in their biological families to examine differences in ADHD symptomology and IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption and to assess the contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation to these cognitive outcomes. ADHD symptoms (parent- and experimenter-reported) and IQ were evaluated in 88 IA (M = 62.1 months, SD = 2.4) and 35 non-adopted children (M = 61.4 months, SD = 1.6). IA children were assessed 29-64 months post-adoption (M = 41.9 months, SD = 10.2). ID was assessed during the initial post-adoption medical visit in 69 children, and children were classified into four groups by iron status, ranging from normal to ID anemia (most severe). IA children had greater ADHD symptomology, p adopted children. Within the IA group, children with more severe ID at adoption had greater ADHD symptomology, r(69) = 0.40, p = .001, and lower IQ, r(68) = -0.28, p adoption to age 5 for children with greater ID severity at adoption and longer duration of institutional care but no improvement in ADHD symptoms. These results signify continuing effects of early deprivation and ID on ADHD symptoms and IQ years after adoption. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUFDAS3DD1c. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. INTERNATIONALIZATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Crisan-Mitra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization of higher education is one of the key trends of development. There are several approaches on how to achieve competitiveness and performance in higher education and international academic mobility; students’ exchange programs, partnerships are some of the aspects that can play a significant role in this process. This paper wants to point out the student’s perception regarding two main directions: one about the master students’ expectation regarding how an internationalized master should be organized and should function, and second the degree of satisfaction of the beneficiaries of internationalized master programs from Babe-Bolyai University. This article is based on an empirical qualitative research that was implemented to students of an internationalized master from the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. This research can be considered a useful example for those preoccupied to increase the quality of higher education and conclusions drawn have relevance both theoretically and especially practically.

  7. Intrauterine exposure to alcohol and tobacco use and childhood IQ: findings from a parental-offspring comparison within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alati, Rosa; Macleod, John; Hickman, Matthew; Sayal, Kapil; MAY, Margaret; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2008-12-01

    This study aims to test the hypothesis that moderate maternal alcohol and tobacco use in pregnancy is associated with intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in childhood through intrauterine mechanisms. We conducted parental-offspring comparisons between the associations of tobacco and alcohol consumption with child's IQ in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Analyses were conducted on 4332 participants with complete data on maternal and paternal use of alcohol and tobacco at 18 wk gestation, child's IQ and a range of confounders. IQ was measured at child age 8 with the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). We used multivariable linear and logistic regression to estimate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals in IQ scores across the exposure categories and computed f statistics to compare maternal and paternal associations. In fully adjusted models, there was no strong statistical evidence that maternal alcohol and tobacco consumption during pregnancy were associated with childhood IQ with any greater magnitude than paternal alcohol and tobacco consumption (also assessed during their partners' pregnancy). Our findings suggest that the relationship between maternal moderate alcohol and tobacco use in early pregnancy and childhood IQ may not be explained by intrauterine mechanisms.

  8. Address Points - Allegheny County Address Points 201601

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This dataset contains Address Points in Allegheny County. The Address Points were created by GDR for the Allegheny County CAD project, October 2008. Data is updated...

  9. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  10. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne S; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality...... of school lunches for children aged 7-13 years. DESIGN: A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7-13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated...... against calculated nutrient contents of school lunches both provided by the school and brought from home. SETTING: At eight public schools from all over Denmark, data were collected on 191 individual lunches brought from home (which is most common in Denmark) and thirty-one lunches provided as part...

  11. Joint Digital Self-interference Cancellation in Full-duplex Radios under IQ Imbalance and Transmitter Non-linearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Meijing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available RF imperfections can significantly degrade the performance of full-duplex wireless communication system by introducing non-idealities and random effects, which make it difficult to cancel the self-interference completely. In this paper, we first address the adverse benefits of both the transmitter non-linearity and the IQ imbalance. Then on the basis of these, a joint digital self-interference cancellation scheme is proposed, in which not only the effect of IQ imbalance and power amplifier non-linearity individually, but also the comprehensive function of them are taken into account. Furthermore, the simulation is implemented in the MATLAB platform using standard WiFi 802.11ac PHYs. The results show that the proposed canceller can eliminate more compared with other cancellation schemes, and the overall self-interference attenuation can attain 108dB, which makes the residual self-interference closer to the noise floor.

  12. 100-Gb/s InP DP-IQ modulator for small-form-factor pluggable coherent transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Nobuhiro; Ogiso, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Eiichi

    2016-02-01

    We developed a compact InP-based DP-IQ modulator for small-form-factor pluggable coherent transceivers. The modulator achieves 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK modulation with a driving voltage of 6 Vppd. In addition, it provides 86-Gb/s DP-16 QAM signal generation and 240-km transmission with negligible degradation of BER performance. The halfwavelength voltage of our recent device is 1.9 V, and a high median extinction ratio of over 32 dB was achieved for more than 1,400 child MZ modulators. We have also proposed an athermal InP-based twin IQ modulator that enables us to use a modulator in a TEC-free operation. It contributes to lowering the power consumption of transceivers. Under a constant driving condition, there is little change in 56-Gb/s x 2 QPSK modulation characteristics in the range of 20 to 80°C.

  13. An I/Q mixer with an integrated differential quadrature all-pass filter for on-chip quadrature LO signal generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Najam Muhammad; Wang Zhigong; Li Zhiqun

    2015-01-01

    A down-conversion in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) mixer employing a folded-type topology, integrated with a passive differential quadrature all-pass filter (D-QAF), in order to realize the final down-conversion stage of a 60 GHz receiver architecture is presented in this work. Instead of employing conventional quadrature generation techniques such as a polyphase filter or a frequency divider for the local oscillator (LO) of the mixer, a passive D-QAF structure is employed. Fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS process, the mixer exhibits a voltage gain of 7–8 dB in an intermediate frequency (IF) band ranging from 10 MHz–1.75 GHz. A fixed LO frequency of 12 GHz is used to down-convert a radio frequency (RF) band of 10.25–13.75 GHz. The mixer displays a third order input referred intercept point (IIP 3 ) ranging from −8.75 to −7.37 dBm for a fixed IF frequency of 10 MHz and a minimum single-sideband noise figure (SSB-NF) of 11.3 dB. The mixer draws a current of 6 mA from a 1.2 V supply voltage dissipating a power of 7.2 mW. (paper)

  14. Can music lessons increase the performance of preschool children in IQ tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Hossein; Mirbaha, Hilda; Pournaseh, Mehrangiz; Sagan, Olivia

    2014-02-01

    The impact of music on human cognition has a distinguished history as a research topic in psychology. The focus of the present study was on investigating the effects of music instruction on the cognitive development of preschool children. From a sample of 154 preschool children of Tehran kindergartens, 60 children aged between 5 and 6 were randomly assigned to two groups, one receiving music lessons and the other (matched for sex, age and mother's educational level) not taking part in any music classes. Children were tested before the start of the course of music lessons and at its end with 4 subtests of the Tehran-Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (TSB). The experimental group participated in twelve 75-min weekly music lessons. Statistical analysis showed significant IQ increase in participants receiving music lessons, specifically on the TSB verbal reasoning and short-term memory subtests. The numerical and visual/abstract reasoning abilities did not differ for the two groups after lessons. These data support studies that found similar skills enhancements in preschool children, despite vast differences in the setting in which the instruction occurred. These findings appear to be consistent with some neuroimaging and neurological observations which are discussed in the paper.

  15. Association of iodine status with IQ level and academic achievement of rural primary school children in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Bhowal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine being an integral component of the thyroid hormones is crucial for physical and mental development. Iodine status & intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion, as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. Aims &Objectives: To investigate the body Iodine status of rural primary school children and its association with their intelligence level (IQ & academic achievement. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in three Government schools in the district of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India among  300 children (150 boys & 150 girls aged 6 to 8 years  studying in class II to IV. Urinary iodine was estimated by the 'Wet Digestion Method (Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. IQ level was evaluated using Ravens Progressive Matrices test. Academic achievement was evaluated on the marks obtained in the term end examinations.  Result: 12.34%, 15.6% & 24.3% of the children were in the severe, moderate & mild range of iodine deficiency in terms of urinary iodine excretion. It was found that 85.67% & 14.33% of the children were consumed iodated salt ≥15 ppm &< 15 ppm of iodine level. 0.67%, 5% & 27.34 % of them achieved A, B & C of IQ grades, respectively.62.34 % of the students achieved first three academic grades. Body Iodine status of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.01 with IQ grades and academic achievement. Academic achievement of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.05 with their intelligence level. Conclusions: Poor body Iodine status of the rural primary school children may be one of the causes for their poor intelligence level and academic achievement.

  16. Prenatal Caffeine Exposure and Child IQ at Age 5.5 Years: The EDEN Mother-Child Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galéra, Cédric; Bernard, Jonathan Y; van der Waerden, Judith; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Lioret, Sandrine; Forhan, Anne; De Agostini, Maria; Melchior, Maria; Heude, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Evidence from animal studies suggests maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy has detrimental effects on subsequent brain development in offspring. However, human data in this area are limited. The aim of this study was to assess whether caffeine intake by women during pregnancy is associated with impaired cognitive development in offspring at age 5.5 years. Multivariate modeling was conducted using data of 1083 mother-child pairs from a population-based birth cohort in France followed from pregnancy to age 5.5 years of the children. Measures included an estimate of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy, children's IQ at age 5.5, and individual and family characteristics. Prenatal caffeine exposure was common in the sample (91%) with 12% displaying an intake ≥200 mg/day (high). Multivariable modeling showed a significant negative relationship between caffeine intake and children's IQ at 5.5 years (-.94 [95% confidence interval = -1.70, -.17] full IQ unit per 100 mg daily caffeine intake). In particular, children of mothers consuming ≥200 mg/day were more likely to have borderline or lower IQ compared with children of mothers consuming <100 mg/day (13.5% vs. 7.3%; odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval = 1.13, 4.69). We found an association between caffeine intake during pregnancy and impaired cognitive development in offspring, a result in line with animal data. More epidemiologic and biologically grounded research is needed to determine whether this association is causal. This finding suggests that conservative guidelines regarding the maximum caffeine intake recommended in pregnancy (i.e., 200 mg/day) should be maintained. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline)- induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal tumour development in rats fed two different carbohydrate diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, A.M.; Meyer, Otto A.; Kristiansen, E.

    2001-01-01

    In most aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumour studies, chemical carcinogens not normally found in food have been used as initiators. In the present study the food-related compound, IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), has been used. A diet high in refined carbohydrates has been...... on the development of IQ-induced ACF over time and (2) possible correlation between early and late ACF and/or colorectal tumour development. The study showed that a feeding regimen with continuous doses of 0.03% IQ in the diet for 14 weeks, followed by 32 weeks without IQ was able to induce tumours in the rat colon...

  18. Do we still need IQ-scores? Misleading interpretations of neurocognitive outcome in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegenschimmel, Barbara; Leiss, Ulrike; Veigl, Michaela; Rosenmayr, Verena; Formann, Anton; Slavc, Irene; Pletschko, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Over the past decades, many studies used global outcome measures like the IQ when reporting cognitive outcome of pediatric brain tumor patients, assuming that intelligence is a singular and homogeneous construct. In contrast, especially in clinical neuropsychology, the assessment and interpretation of distinct neurocognitive domains emerged as standard. By definition, the full scale IQ (FIQ) is a score attempting to measure intelligence. It is established by calculating the average performance of a number of subtests. Therefore, FIQ depends on the subtests that are used and the influence neurocognitive functions have on these performances. Consequently, the present study investigated the impact of neuropsychological domains on the singular "g-factor" concept and analysed the consequences for interpretation of clinical outcome. The sample consisted of 37 pediatric patients with medulloblastoma, assessed 0-3 years after diagnosis with the Wechsler Intelligence Scales. Information processing speed and visuomotor function were measured by the Trailmaking Test, Form A. Our findings indicate that FIQ was considerably impacted by processing speed and visuomotor coordination, which leaded to an underestimation of the general cognitive performance of many patients. One year after diagnosis, when patients showed the largest norm-deviation, this effect seemed to be at its peak. As already recommended in international guidelines, a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery is necessary to fully understand cognitive outcome. If IQ-tests are used, a detailed subtest analysis with respect to the impact of processing speed seems essential. Otherwise patients may be at risk for wrong decision making, especially in educational guidance.

  19. Clinical evaluation of the Nucleus® 6 cochlear implant system: Performance improvements with SmartSound iQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, Stefan J; Warren, Chris D; Knight, Michelle R; Goorevich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This paper provides a detailed description of the Nucleus 6 system, and clinically evaluates user performance compared to the previous Nucleus 5 system in cochlear implant recipients. Additionally, it clinically evaluates a range of Nucleus 6 and Nucleus 5 programs to determine the performance benefits provided by new input processing technologies available in SmartSound iQ. Design Speech understanding tests were used to clinically validate the default Nucleus 6 program, by comparing performance outcomes against up to five custom Nucleus 5 or Nucleus 6 programs in a range of listening environments. Clinical comparisons between programs were conducted across the following listening environments; quiet, speech weighted noise (co-located and spatially separated noise), and 4-talker babble (co-located and spatially separated noise). Study sample Twenty-one adult cochlear implant recipients participated. Results Significant speech understanding benefits were found with the default Nucleus 6 program compared to the participants’ preferred program using their Nucleus 5 processor and compared to a range of custom Nucleus 6 programs. All participants successfully accepted and upgraded to the new default Nucleus 6 SmartSound iQ program. Conclusion This study demonstrates the acceptance and clinical benefits of the Nucleus 6 cochlear implant system and SmartSound iQ. PMID:25005776

  20. Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies: Age- and IQ-Adjusted Norms for the Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Brett A; Bieliauskas, Linas A; Smith, Glenn E; Ivnik, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Normative data sets for standardized neuropsychometric instruments often include adjustments for subject variables. There are reasons to believe, however, that improvements in interpretive accuracy that result from such adjustments are less than optimal. In particular, "years of formal education" may be less closely related to test performances than is general intellectual functioning. In this third of four reanalyses of results from the Mayo Clinic's Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) databases, age-adjusted index and scaled scores for the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised were found to be more strongly associated with Mayo age-adjusted WAIS-R Full Scale IQ scores (rs=.271 to .631) than with education (rs=.089 to .310) for healthy older examinees between 56 and 99 years of age. These associations were strongest for Attention/Concentration and General Memory Index scores and, in general, for individuals with average intelligence (cf. Dodrill, 19971999). Tables of age- and IQ-adjusted percentile equivalents of Mayo age-adjusted WMS-R index scores and MOANS age-adjusted WMS-R subtest scaled scores are presented for eleven age ranges and seven IQ ranges.