Sample records for points hierarchical reinforcement

  1. A Hierarchical Maze Navigation Algorithm with Reinforcement Learning and Mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannucci, T.; van Kampen, E.; Jin, Y; Kollias, S.


    Goal-finding in an unknown maze is a challenging problem for a Reinforcement Learning agent, because the corresponding state space can be large if not intractable, and the agent does not usually have a model of the environment. Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning has been shown in the past to

  2. Carbon fiber reinforced hierarchical orthogrid stiffened cylinder: Fabrication and testing (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Lai, Changlian; Sun, Fangfang; Li, Ming; Ji, Bin; Wei, Weiyi; Liu, Debo; Zhang, Xi; Fan, Hualin


    To get strong, stiff and light cylindrical shell, carbon fiber reinforced hierarchical orthogrid stiffened cylinders are designed and fabricated. The cylinder is stiffened by two-scale orthogrid. The primary orthogrid has thick and high ribs and contains several sub-orthogrid cells whose rib is much thinner and lower. The primary orthogrid stiffens the bending rigidity of the cylinder to resist the global instability while the sub-orthogrid stiffens the bending rigidity of the skin enclosed by the primary orthogrid to resist local buckling. The cylinder is fabricated by filament winding method based on a silicone rubber mandrel with hierarchical grooves. Axial compression tests are performed to reveal the failure modes. With hierarchical stiffeners, the cylinder fails at skin fracture and has high specific strength. The cylinder will fail at end crushing if the end of the cylinder is not thickened. Global instability and local buckling are well restricted by the hierarchical stiffeners.

  3. Hierarchical extreme learning machine based reinforcement learning for goal localization (United States)

    AlDahoul, Nouar; Zaw Htike, Zaw; Akmeliawati, Rini


    The objective of goal localization is to find the location of goals in noisy environments. Simple actions are performed to move the agent towards the goal. The goal detector should be capable of minimizing the error between the predicted locations and the true ones. Few regions need to be processed by the agent to reduce the computational effort and increase the speed of convergence. In this paper, reinforcement learning (RL) method was utilized to find optimal series of actions to localize the goal region. The visual data, a set of images, is high dimensional unstructured data and needs to be represented efficiently to get a robust detector. Different deep Reinforcement models have already been used to localize a goal but most of them take long time to learn the model. This long learning time results from the weights fine tuning stage that is applied iteratively to find an accurate model. Hierarchical Extreme Learning Machine (H-ELM) was used as a fast deep model that doesn’t fine tune the weights. In other words, hidden weights are generated randomly and output weights are calculated analytically. H-ELM algorithm was used in this work to find good features for effective representation. This paper proposes a combination of Hierarchical Extreme learning machine and Reinforcement learning to find an optimal policy directly from visual input. This combination outperforms other methods in terms of accuracy and learning speed. The simulations and results were analysed by using MATLAB.

  4. Intelligent multiagent coordination based on reinforcement hierarchical neuro-fuzzy models. (United States)

    Mendoza, Leonardo Forero; Vellasco, Marley; Figueiredo, Karla


    This paper presents the research and development of two hybrid neuro-fuzzy models for the hierarchical coordination of multiple intelligent agents. The main objective of the models is to have multiple agents interact intelligently with each other in complex systems. We developed two new models of coordination for intelligent multiagent systems, which integrates the Reinforcement Learning Hierarchical Neuro-Fuzzy model with two proposed coordination mechanisms: the MultiAgent Reinforcement Learning Hierarchical Neuro-Fuzzy with a market-driven coordination mechanism (MA-RL-HNFP-MD) and the MultiAgent Reinforcement Learning Hierarchical Neuro-Fuzzy with graph coordination (MA-RL-HNFP-CG). In order to evaluate the proposed models and verify the contribution of the proposed coordination mechanisms, two multiagent benchmark applications were developed: the pursuit game and the robot soccer simulation. The results obtained demonstrated that the proposed coordination mechanisms greatly improve the performance of the multiagent system when compared with other strategies.

  5. The contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the personality-psychopathology hierarchical structure in childhood and adolescence. (United States)

    Slobodskaya, Helena R


    This study examined the contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the hierarchical structure of child personality and common psychopathology in community samples of parent reports of children aged 2-18 (N = 968) and self-reports of adolescents aged 10-18 (N = 1,543) using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences-Short version (ICID-S), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). A joint higher-order factor analysis of the ICID-S and SDQ scales suggested a 4-factor solution; congruence coefficients indicated replicability of the factors across the 2 samples at all levels of the personality-psychopathology hierarchy. The canonical correlation analyses indicated that reinforcement sensitivity and personality-psychopathology dimensions shared much of their variance. The main contribution of reinforcement sensitivity was through opposing effects of reward and punishment sensitivities. The superordinate factors Beta and Internalizing were best predicted by reinforcement sensitivity, followed by the Externalizing and Positive personality factors. These findings provide evidence for consistency of the hierarchical structure of personality and common psychopathology across informants and highlight the role of reinforcement systems in the development of normal and abnormal patterns of behavior and affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Hierarchically organized behavior and its neural foundations: A reinforcement-learning perspective


    Botvinick, Matthew M.; Niv, Yael; Barto, Andrew C.


    Research on human and animal behavior has long emphasized its hierarchical structure — the divisibility of ongoing behavior into discrete tasks, which are comprised of subtask sequences, which in turn are built of simple actions. The hierarchical structure of behavior has also been of enduring interest within neuroscience, where it has been widely considered to reflect prefrontal cortical functions. In this paper, we reexamine behavioral hierarchy and its neural substrates from the point of v...

  7. High performance natural rubber composites with a hierarchical reinforcement structure of carbon nanotube modified natural fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzounis, Lazaros; Debnath, Subhas; Rooj, Sandip; Fischer, Dieter; Mäder, Edith; Das, Amit; Stamm, Manfred; Heinrich, Gert


    A simple and facile method for depositing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto the surface of naturally occurring short jute fibers (JFs) is reported. Hierarchical multi-scale structures were formed with CNT-networks uniformly distributed and fully covering the JFs (JF–CNT), as depicted by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs. The impact of these hybrid fillers on the mechanical properties of a natural rubber (NR) matrix was systematically investigated. Pristine JFs were cut initially to an average length of 2.0 mm and exposed to an alkali treatment (a-JFs) to remove impurities existing in the raw jute. MWCNTs were treated under mild acidic conditions to generate carboxylic acid moieties. Afterward, MWCNTs were dispersed in an aqueous media and short a-JFs were allowed to react with them. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the chemical interaction between CNTs and JFs. The JF–CNT exposed quite hydrophobic behavior as revealed by the water contact angle measurements, improving the wettability of the non-polar NR. Consequently, the composite interfacial adhesion strength was significantly enhanced while a micro-scale “mechanical interlocking” mechanism was observed from the interphase-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. SEM analysis of the composite fracture surfaces demonstrated the interfacial strength of NR/a-JF and NR/JF–CNT composites, at different fiber loadings. It can be presumed that the CNT-coating effectively compatibillized the composite structure acting as a macromolecular coupling agent. A detailed analysis of stress-strain and dynamic mechanical spectra confirmed the high mechanical performance of the hierarchical composites, consisting mainly of materials arising from natural resources. - Highlights: • Natural rubber (NR) composites reinforced with CNT-modified short jute fibers. • MWCNTs deposited to the surface of jute fibers via non-covalent interactions. • Hierarchical reinforcement structure with

  8. Failure mode maps of a hierarchical sandwich structure made of self-reinforced PET (United States)

    Velea, Marian N.; Lache, Simona


    In previous published works, poly-ethylene terephthalate fiber reinforced poly-ethylene terephthalate (SrPET) combined with poly-ethylene terephthalate foam material have been used to develop novel core topologies for sandwich structures. In this study, failure mode maps are created for a hierarchical sandwich structure made of the SrPET material and PET foam, based on analytical estimates, under quasi-static out of plane compression loading conditions. It is shown that four dominant collapse modes may occur: local buckling, general buckling, shear buckling and core shear failure. Each failure mode has an associated weight that varies with the structure load carrying capacity. Based on the developed failure mode maps, the geometric parameters of the structure under study can be chosen such as the structure has the minimum possible weight by ensuring that the failure modes occur simultaneously. The analytical results are compared with experimental tests previously published.

  9. Fixed-point distributions of short-range Ising spin glasses on hierarchical lattices (United States)

    Almeida, Sebastião T. O.; Nobre, Fernando D.


    Fixed-point distributions for the couplings of Ising spin glasses with nearest-neighbor interactions on hierarchical lattices are investigated numerically. Hierarchical lattices within the Migdal-Kadanoff family with fractal dimensions in the range 2.58 ≤D ≤7 , as well as a lattice of the Wheatstone-Bridge family with fractal dimension D ≈3.58 are considered. Three initial distributions for the couplings are analyzed, namely, the Gaussian, bimodal, and uniform ones. In all cases, after a few iterations of the renormalization-group procedure, the associated probability distributions approached universal fixed shapes. For hierarchical lattices of the Migdal-Kadanoff family, the fixed-point distributions were well fitted either by stretched exponentials, or by q -Gaussian distributions; both fittings recover the expected Gaussian limit as D →∞ . In the case of the Wheatstone-Bridge lattice, the best fit was found by means of a stretched-exponential distribution.

  10. Carbon and glass hierarchical fibers: Influence of carbon nanotubes on tensile, flexural and impact properties of short fiber reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmanian, S.; Thean, K.S.; Suraya, A.R.; Shazed, M.A.; Mohd Salleh, M.A.; Yusoff, H.M.


    Highlights: ► Dense CNT were grown on carbon fiber and glass fiber by use of floating catalyst CVD method. ► CNT showed different growing mechanism on carbon and glass fiber. ► Short fiber-CNT-composites showed enhanced mechanical properties. ► CNT coating enhanced fiber–matrix interaction and acted as additional reinforcement. -- Abstract: Dense carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown uniformly on the surface of carbon fibers and glass fibers to create hierarchical fibers by use of floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition. Morphologies of the CNTs were investigated using scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Larger diameter dimension and distinct growing mechanism of nanotubes on glass fiber were revealed. Short carbon and glass fiber reinforced polypropylene composites were fabricated using the hierarchical fibers and compared with composites made using neat fibers. Tensile, flexural and impact properties of the composites were measured, which showed evident enhancement in all mechanical properties compared to neat short fiber composites. SEM micrographs of composite fracture surface demonstrated improved adhesion between CNT-coated fiber and the matrix. The enhanced mechanical properties of short fiber composites was attributed to the synergistic effects of CNTs in improving fiber–matrix interfacial properties as well as the CNTs acting as supplemental reinforcement in short fiber-composites.

  11. Hierarchically Organized Behavior and Its Neural Foundations: A Reinforcement Learning Perspective (United States)

    Botvinick, Matthew M.; Niv, Yael; Barto, Andrew C.


    Research on human and animal behavior has long emphasized its hierarchical structure--the divisibility of ongoing behavior into discrete tasks, which are comprised of subtask sequences, which in turn are built of simple actions. The hierarchical structure of behavior has also been of enduring interest within neuroscience, where it has been widely…

  12. 3D hierarchical computational model of wood as a cellular material with fibril reinforced, heterogeneous multiple layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon


    A 3D hierarchical computational model of deformation and stiffness of wood, which takes into account the structures of wood at several scale levels (cellularity, multilayered nature of cell walls, composite-like structures of the wall layers) is developed. At the mesoscale, the softwood cell...... is presented as a 3D hexagon-shape-tube with multilayered walls. The layers in the softwood cell are considered as considered as composite reinforced by microfibrils (celluloses). The elastic properties of the layers are determined with Halpin–Tsai equations, and introduced into mesoscale finite element...

  13. Compression of 3D Point Clouds Using a Region-Adaptive Hierarchical Transform. (United States)

    De Queiroz, Ricardo; Chou, Philip A


    In free-viewpoint video, there is a recent trend to represent scene objects as solids rather than using multiple depth maps. Point clouds have been used in computer graphics for a long time and with the recent possibility of real time capturing and rendering, point clouds have been favored over meshes in order to save computation. Each point in the cloud is associated with its 3D position and its color. We devise a method to compress the colors in point clouds which is based on a hierarchical transform and arithmetic coding. The transform is a hierarchical sub-band transform that resembles an adaptive variation of a Haar wavelet. The arithmetic encoding of the coefficients assumes Laplace distributions, one per sub-band. The Laplace parameter for each distribution is transmitted to the decoder using a custom method. The geometry of the point cloud is encoded using the well-established octtree scanning. Results show that the proposed solution performs comparably to the current state-of-the-art, in many occasions outperforming it, while being much more computationally efficient. We believe this work represents the state-of-the-art in intra-frame compression of point clouds for real-time 3D video.

  14. Carbon fiber/carbon nanotube reinforced hierarchical composites: Effect of CNT distribution on shearing strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, H. W.; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Yi, H. Y.


    The strength and fracture behavior of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites with carbon nanotube (CNT) secondary reinforcement are investigated experimentally and numerically. Short Beam Shearing tests have been carried out, with SEM observations of the damage evolution in the composites. 3D...... CNT nanoreinforcement into the matrix and/or the sizing of carbon fiber/reinforced composites ensures strong increase of the composite strength. The effect of secondary CNTs reinforcement is strongest when some small addition of CNTs in the polymer matrix is complemented by the fiber sizing with high...... multiscale computational (FE) models of the carbon/polymer composite with varied CNT distributions have been developed and employed to study the effect of the secondary CNT reinforcement, its distribution and content on the strength and fracture behavior of the composites. It is shown that adding secondary...

  15. Hierarchical Threshold Adaptive for Point Cloud Filter Algorithm of Moving Surface Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Xiaoxiao


    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy,efficiency and adaptability of point cloud filtering algorithm,a hierarchical threshold adaptive for point cloud filter algorithm of moving surface fitting was proposed.Firstly,the noisy points are removed by using a statistic histogram method.Secondly,the grid index is established by grid segmentation,and the surface equation is set up through the lowest point among the neighborhood grids.The real height and fit are calculated.The difference between the elevation and the threshold can be determined.Finally,in order to improve the filtering accuracy,hierarchical filtering is used to change the grid size and automatically set the neighborhood size and threshold until the filtering result reaches the accuracy requirement.The test data provided by the International Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Society (ISPRS is used to verify the algorithm.The first and second error and the total error are 7.33%,10.64% and 6.34% respectively.The algorithm is compared with the eight classical filtering algorithms published by ISPRS.The experiment results show that the method has well-adapted and it has high accurate filtering result.

  16. Hierarchical model generation for architecture reconstruction using laser-scanned point clouds (United States)

    Ning, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Xiaopeng


    Architecture reconstruction using terrestrial laser scanner is a prevalent and challenging research topic. We introduce an automatic, hierarchical architecture generation framework to produce full geometry of architecture based on a novel combination of facade structures detection, detailed windows propagation, and hierarchical model consolidation. Our method highlights the generation of geometric models automatically fitting the design information of the architecture from sparse, incomplete, and noisy point clouds. First, the planar regions detected in raw point clouds are interpreted as three-dimensional clusters. Then, the boundary of each region extracted by projecting the points into its corresponding two-dimensional plane is classified to obtain detailed shape structure elements (e.g., windows and doors). Finally, a polyhedron model is generated by calculating the proposed local structure model, consolidated structure model, and detailed window model. Experiments on modeling the scanned real-life buildings demonstrate the advantages of our method, in which the reconstructed models not only correspond to the information of architectural design accurately, but also satisfy the requirements for visualization and analysis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xie


    Full Text Available Despite the success of multi-view stereo (MVS reconstruction from massive oblique images in city scale, only point clouds and triangulated meshes are available from existing MVS pipelines, which are topologically defect laden, free of semantical information and hard to edit and manipulate interactively in further applications. On the other hand, 2D polygons and polygonal models are still the industrial standard. However, extraction of the 2D polygons from MVS point clouds is still a non-trivial task, given the fact that the boundaries of the detected planes are zigzagged and regularities, such as parallel and orthogonal, cannot preserve. Aiming to solve these issues, this paper proposes a hierarchical polygon regularization method for the photogrammetric point clouds from existing MVS pipelines, which comprises of local and global levels. After boundary points extraction, e.g. using alpha shapes, the local level is used to consolidate the original points, by refining the orientation and position of the points using linear priors. The points are then grouped into local segments by forward searching. In the global level, regularities are enforced through a labeling process, which encourage the segments share the same label and the same label represents segments are parallel or orthogonal. This is formulated as Markov Random Field and solved efficiently. Preliminary results are made with point clouds from aerial oblique images and compared with two classical regularization methods, which have revealed that the proposed method are more powerful in abstracting a single building and is promising for further 3D polygonal model reconstruction and GIS applications.

  18. Hierarchical Regularization of Polygons for Photogrammetric Point Clouds of Oblique Images (United States)

    Xie, L.; Hu, H.; Zhu, Q.; Wu, B.; Zhang, Y.


    Despite the success of multi-view stereo (MVS) reconstruction from massive oblique images in city scale, only point clouds and triangulated meshes are available from existing MVS pipelines, which are topologically defect laden, free of semantical information and hard to edit and manipulate interactively in further applications. On the other hand, 2D polygons and polygonal models are still the industrial standard. However, extraction of the 2D polygons from MVS point clouds is still a non-trivial task, given the fact that the boundaries of the detected planes are zigzagged and regularities, such as parallel and orthogonal, cannot preserve. Aiming to solve these issues, this paper proposes a hierarchical polygon regularization method for the photogrammetric point clouds from existing MVS pipelines, which comprises of local and global levels. After boundary points extraction, e.g. using alpha shapes, the local level is used to consolidate the original points, by refining the orientation and position of the points using linear priors. The points are then grouped into local segments by forward searching. In the global level, regularities are enforced through a labeling process, which encourage the segments share the same label and the same label represents segments are parallel or orthogonal. This is formulated as Markov Random Field and solved efficiently. Preliminary results are made with point clouds from aerial oblique images and compared with two classical regularization methods, which have revealed that the proposed method are more powerful in abstracting a single building and is promising for further 3D polygonal model reconstruction and GIS applications.

  19. spBayes: An R Package for Univariate and Multivariate Hierarchical Point-referenced Spatial Models. (United States)

    Finley, Andrew O; Banerjee, Sudipto; Carlin, Bradley P


    Scientists and investigators in such diverse fields as geological and environmental sciences, ecology, forestry, disease mapping, and economics often encounter spatially referenced data collected over a fixed set of locations with coordinates (latitude-longitude, Easting-Northing etc.) in a region of study. Such point-referenced or geostatistical data are often best analyzed with Bayesian hierarchical models. Unfortunately, fitting such models involves computationally intensive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods whose efficiency depends upon the specific problem at hand. This requires extensive coding on the part of the user and the situation is not helped by the lack of available software for such algorithms. Here, we introduce a statistical software package, spBayes, built upon the R statistical computing platform that implements a generalized template encompassing a wide variety of Gaussian spatial process models for univariate as well as multivariate point-referenced data. We discuss the algorithms behind our package and illustrate its use with a synthetic and real data example.

  20. spBayes: An R Package for Univariate and Multivariate Hierarchical Point-referenced Spatial Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew O. Finley


    Full Text Available Scientists and investigators in such diverse fields as geological and environmental sciences, ecology, forestry, disease mapping, and economics often encounter spatially referenced data collected over a fixed set of locations with coordinates (latitude–longitude, Easting–Northing etc. in a region of study. Such point-referenced or geostatistical data are often best analyzed with Bayesian hierarchical models. Unfortunately, fitting such models involves computationally intensive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods whose efficiency depends upon the specific problem at hand. This requires extensive coding on the part of the user and the situation is not helped by the lack of available software for such algorithms. Here, we introduce a statistical software package, spBayes, built upon the R statistical computing platform that implements a generalized template encompassing a wide variety of Gaussian spatial process models for univariate as well as multivariate point-referenced data. We discuss the algorithms behind our package and illustrate its use with a synthetic and real data example.

  1. Strong convergence with a modified iterative projection method for hierarchical fixed point problems and variational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Karahan


    Full Text Available Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space H. Let {T_{n}}:C›H be a sequence of nearly nonexpansive mappings such that F:=?_{i=1}^{?}F(T_{i}?Ø. Let V:C›H be a ?-Lipschitzian mapping and F:C›H be a L-Lipschitzian and ?-strongly monotone operator. This paper deals with a modified iterative projection method for approximating a solution of the hierarchical fixed point problem. It is shown that under certain approximate assumptions on the operators and parameters, the modified iterative sequence {x_{n}} converges strongly to x^{*}?F which is also the unique solution of the following variational inequality: ?0, ?x?F. As a special case, this projection method can be used to find the minimum norm solution of above variational inequality; namely, the unique solution x^{*} to the quadratic minimization problem: x^{*}=argmin_{x?F}?x?². The results here improve and extend some recent corresponding results of other authors.

  2. Hierarchical Multiagent Reinforcement Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghavamzadeh, Mohammad; Mahadevan, Sridhar


    ...: how to perform subtasks, which order to do them in, and how to coordinate with other agents. We define cooperative subtasks to be those subtasks in which coordination among agents significantly improves the performance of the overall task...

  3. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication in point contact on the surfaces of particle-reinforced composite (United States)

    Chen, Keying; Zeng, Liangcai; Wu, Zhenpeng; Zheng, Feilong


    Appreciable friction and serious wear are common challenges in the operation of advanced manufacturing equipment, and friction pairs may be susceptible to damage even with oil lubrication when point contact exists. In this study, a type of particle-reinforced composite material is introduced for one of the components of a heavy-load contact pair, and the performance improvement of elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) is analyzed considering the rheological properties of non-Newtonian fluids. The Ree-Eyring EHL model is used considering the surface of the particle-reinforced composite, in which the film thickness includes the particle-induced elastic deformation. The problem of inclusions with different eigenstrains is solved by using Galerkin vectors. The influences of particle properties, size, burial depth, and interparticle distance on point-contact EHL are investigated. Furthermore, using several cases, the structural parameters of the particles in the composites are optimized, and an appropriate parameter range is obtained with the goal of reducing friction. Finally, the results for the EHL traction coefficient demonstrate that appropriate particle properties, size, burial depth, and interparticle distance can effectively reduce the traction coefficient in heavy-load contact.

  4. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes/carbon nanotube/carbon fiber multiscale composite: Influence of a novel hierarchical reinforcement on the interfacial properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.L.; Wang, C.G.; Liu, L.; Cui, H.Z.; Gao, B.


    Highlights: • Formation a novel hierarchical reinforcing carbon fiber through co-grafting carbon nanotube and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes. • These CNTs and POSS grafted on the carbon fiber, significantly increase the interfacial adhesion strength. • The investigation can prove an effective way to increase the interfacial adhesion and improve the mechanical performance of the fiber/resin composites on the desired application. - Abstract: A novel hierarchical reinforcing carbon fiber through co-grafting carbon nanotube (CNTs) and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) was prepared in this paper. The structure and surface characteristics of the grafted carbon fiber were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetry (TG) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The surface energy and the functional groups of the carbon fiber surface were increased obviously after modification. The ILSS results showed that there was a remarkable improvement in the interfacial properties of the new hybrid CF–CNTs–POSS composites. The investigation can prove an effective way to increase the interfacial adhesion and improve the mechanical performance of the fiber/resin composites on the desired application.

  5. A hierarchical model combining distance sampling and time removal to estimate detection probability during avian point counts (United States)

    Amundson, Courtney L.; Royle, J. Andrew; Handel, Colleen M.


    Imperfect detection during animal surveys biases estimates of abundance and can lead to improper conclusions regarding distribution and population trends. Farnsworth et al. (2005) developed a combined distance-sampling and time-removal model for point-transect surveys that addresses both availability (the probability that an animal is available for detection; e.g., that a bird sings) and perceptibility (the probability that an observer detects an animal, given that it is available for detection). We developed a hierarchical extension of the combined model that provides an integrated analysis framework for a collection of survey points at which both distance from the observer and time of initial detection are recorded. Implemented in a Bayesian framework, this extension facilitates evaluating covariates on abundance and detection probability, incorporating excess zero counts (i.e. zero-inflation), accounting for spatial autocorrelation, and estimating population density. Species-specific characteristics, such as behavioral displays and territorial dispersion, may lead to different patterns of availability and perceptibility, which may, in turn, influence the performance of such hierarchical models. Therefore, we first test our proposed model using simulated data under different scenarios of availability and perceptibility. We then illustrate its performance with empirical point-transect data for a songbird that consistently produces loud, frequent, primarily auditory signals, the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla); and for 2 ptarmigan species (Lagopus spp.) that produce more intermittent, subtle, and primarily visual cues. Data were collected by multiple observers along point transects across a broad landscape in southwest Alaska, so we evaluated point-level covariates on perceptibility (observer and habitat), availability (date within season and time of day), and abundance (habitat, elevation, and slope), and included a nested point

  6. Recurrent neural networks with backtrack-points and negative reinforcement applied to cost-based abduction. (United States)

    Abdelbar, Ashraf M; El-Hemaly, Mostafa A; Andrews, Emad A M; Wunsch, Donald C


    Abduction is the process of proceeding from data describing a set of observations or events, to a set of hypotheses which best explains or accounts for the data. Cost-based abduction (CBA) is an AI formalism in which evidence to be explained is treated as a goal to be proven, proofs have costs based on how much needs to be assumed to complete the proof, and the set of assumptions needed to complete the least-cost proof are taken as the best explanation for the given evidence. In this paper, we present two techniques for improving the performance of high order recurrent networks (HORN) applied to cost-based abduction. In the backtrack-points technique, we use heuristics to recognize early that the network trajectory is moving in the wrong direction; we then restore the network state to a previously stored point, and apply heuristic perturbations to nudge the network trajectory in a different direction. In the negative reinforcement technique, we add hyperedges to the network to reduce the attractiveness of local minima. We apply these techniques to a suite of six large CBA instances, systematically generated to be difficult.

  7. Squid pen-inspired chitinous functional materials: Hierarchical chitin fibers by centrifugal jet-spinning and transparent chitin fiber-reinforced composite (United States)

    Jeong, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Joong-Kwon; Lim, Young-Woo; Hwang, Hyun-Bin; Kwon, Hee-Young; Bae, Byeong-Soo; Jin, Jungho


    Here, inspired by the fibrous composite structure of a squid pen, we introduce hierarchical chitin fibers (herein, termed "Chiber") and their transparent composites and demonstrate the potential of these chitinous functional materials as a sustainable separation-membrane and reinforcing filler for composites. We employ a centrifugal jet-spinning process to fabricate Chiber with aligned chitin nanofibrillar architectures, for which we discuss the processing-morphology relationship. A nonwoven fiber-mat made of Chiber exhibits excellent adsorbing performance for a toxic ionic dye (Congo Red), and has a low coefficient of thermal expansion comparable to that of glass fibers. Finally, we demonstrate a squid pen-mimetic transparent composite using Chiber and investigate its optical property.

  8. Three-Point Flexural Properties of Bonded Reinforcement Elements for Pleasure Craft Decks (United States)

    Di Bella, G.; Galtieri, G.; Borsellino, C.


    The aim of this work was both to study the performances of pleasure craft reinforced components, bonded using a structural adhesive, and to compare them with those obtained using over-lamination as joining system, typically employed in the shipbuilding. With such aim, two different lots of components were prepared: in the first lot, the reinforcement structures were laminated directly on the investigated composite components and, in the second one; they were made separately in a mould and, then, bonded to the composite components. This last method allowed to evaluate the introduction of a product/process innovation in a field typically unwilling to innovation, still tied to craft, and non-standardized procedures. The results of bending tests, performed in order to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of the reinforced components, evidenced the goodness of this innovative design choice. Finally, a finite element analysis was performed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Micromechanics of hierarchical materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.


    A short overview of micromechanical models of hierarchical materials (hybrid composites, biomaterials, fractal materials, etc.) is given. Several examples of the modeling of strength and damage in hierarchical materials are summarized, among them, 3D FE model of hybrid composites...... with nanoengineered matrix, fiber bundle model of UD composites with hierarchically clustered fibers and 3D multilevel model of wood considered as a gradient, cellular material with layered composite cell walls. The main areas of research in micromechanics of hierarchical materials are identified, among them......, the investigations of the effects of load redistribution between reinforcing elements at different scale levels, of the possibilities to control different material properties and to ensure synergy of strengthening effects at different scale levels and using the nanoreinforcement effects. The main future directions...

  10. A Marketer’s Point of Views: Strategy of Developing and Reinforcing Brand Loyalty In The 1990’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Hidayat


    Full Text Available The rapid change in competition and technology results in decrease in brand loyalty and business decline. This means that keeping customer loyalty is a very challenging effort today because brand loyalty is very important to acquire, maintain, and develop market share. To keep customer loyal to a certain brand or to keep a brand valuable in front of the customers’ eye, marketer must be able to reduce marketing cost, to maintain trade leverage, to attract new customers, and to provide time to respond to competitive trade.  Strategies that support to gain and retain the loyalty of today’s consumers are understanding the customers, keeping brand image consistent, running promotion that develop loyalty, maintaining high standards of customer service, and soliciting retailer participation. Nevertheless, even for the company who has strong brand, reinforcing brand loyalty is still needed. There are seven factors that will relate to build brand loyalty reinforcement.Key words:  customer or brand loyalty.

  11. Hierarchical species distribution models (United States)

    Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.


    Determining the distribution pattern of a species is important to increase scientific knowledge, inform management decisions, and conserve biodiversity. To infer spatial and temporal patterns, species distribution models have been developed for use with many sampling designs and types of data. Recently, it has been shown that count, presence-absence, and presence-only data can be conceptualized as arising from a point process distribution. Therefore, it is important to understand properties of the point process distribution. We examine how the hierarchical species distribution modeling framework has been used to incorporate a wide array of regression and theory-based components while accounting for the data collection process and making use of auxiliary information. The hierarchical modeling framework allows us to demonstrate how several commonly used species distribution models can be derived from the point process distribution, highlight areas of potential overlap between different models, and suggest areas where further research is needed.

  12. Hierarchical machining materials and their performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Loginov, Pavel; Levashov, Evgeny


    Machining is an important technological process in many areas of industry. The efficiency of machining determines the quality of many industrial products. Machining efficiency and cost depend on the properties, strength, and microstructure of the machining materials. One of the promising ways...... to increase the reliability and wear resistance of machining tools is the development and use of hierarchical machining materials. In the area of machining materials, designed typically as binder/reinforcement composites, hierarchical structures are realized as lower-scale secondary reinforcements (such...... as nanoparticles in the binder, or polycrystalline, aggregate-like reinforcements, also at several scale levels). Such materials can ensure better productivity, efficiency, and lower costs of drilling, cutting, grinding, and other technological processes. This article reviews the main groups of hierarchical...

  13. Linear-scaling density-functional simulations of charged point defects in Al2O3 using hierarchical sparse matrix algebra. (United States)

    Hine, N D M; Haynes, P D; Mostofi, A A; Payne, M C


    We present calculations of formation energies of defects in an ionic solid (Al(2)O(3)) extrapolated to the dilute limit, corresponding to a simulation cell of infinite size. The large-scale calculations required for this extrapolation are enabled by developments in the approach to parallel sparse matrix algebra operations, which are central to linear-scaling density-functional theory calculations. The computational cost of manipulating sparse matrices, whose sizes are determined by the large number of basis functions present, is greatly improved with this new approach. We present details of the sparse algebra scheme implemented in the ONETEP code using hierarchical sparsity patterns, and demonstrate its use in calculations on a wide range of systems, involving thousands of atoms on hundreds to thousands of parallel processes.

  14. Moisture Absorption/Desorption Effects on Flexural Property of Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Polyester Laminates: Three-Point Bending Test and Coupled Hygro-Mechanical Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiang


    Full Text Available Influence of moisture absorption/desorption on the flexural properties of Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP laminates was experimentally investigated under hot/wet aging environments. To characterize mechanical degradation, three-point bending tests were performed following the ASTM test standard (ASTM D790-10A. The flexural properties of dry (0% Mt/M∞, moisture unsaturated (30% Mt/M∞ and 50% Mt/M∞ and moisture saturated (100% Mt/M∞ specimens at both 20 and 40 °C test temperatures were compared. One cycle of moisture absorption-desorption process was considered in this study to investigate the mechanical degradation scale and the permanent damage of GFRP laminates induced by moisture diffusion. Experimental results confirm that the combination of moisture and temperature effects sincerely deteriorates the flexural properties of GFRP laminates, on both strength and stiffness. Furthermore, the reducing percentage of flexural strength is found much larger than that of E-modulus. Unrecoverable losses of E-modulus (15.0% and flexural strength (16.4% for the GFRP laminates experiencing one cycle of moisture absorption/desorption process are evident at the test temperature of 40 °C, but not for the case of 20 °C test temperature. Moreover, a coupled hygro-mechanical Finite Element (FE model was developed to characterize the mechanical behaviors of GFRP laminates at different moisture absorption/desorption stages, and the modeling method was subsequently validated with flexural test results.

  15. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lloyd


    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  16. Optimization of Fracture Resistance and Stiffness of Heat-Polymerized High Impact Acrylic Resin with Localized E-Glass FiBER FORCE® Reinforcement at Different Stress Points. (United States)

    Agha, Haitham; Flinton, Robert; Vaidyanathan, Tritala


    Dentures are subject to fracture through flexural stresses during masticatory function. Distribution of stresses under flexural loading varies from compressive to tensile stress along the thickness of the denture cross section. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of reinforcing compressive, tensile, and no stress regions of flexurally loaded rectangular bars of heat-cured denture base acrylic resin reinforced with tough E-Glass FiBER FORCE (GFF) on their fracture resistance under flexural loading. Forty rectangular specimens (65 mm long × 10 mm wide × 2.5 mm thick) were prepared and divided into four groups (n = 10). Group FN had no fiber reinforcement, group FM had fiber in the middle at the no-stress neutral axis, group FC had fiber close to the surface on the compressive stress side, and group FT had the fiber close to the surface on the tensile stress side. The effect of GFF reinforcement on flexural strength (FS), flexural toughness (TG), and flexural modulus of elasticity (MOE) was evaluated. The mean and (SD) of the FS, TG, and MOE varied as follows. FS (MPa): group FN: 91.49 (7.88); group FM: 102.83 (13.5); group FC: 107.68 (11.21); group FT: 141.46 (14.77). TG (mJ/mm 3 ): group FN: 0.171 (0.026); group FM: 0.236 (0.033); group FC: 0.156 (0.032); group FT: 0.347 (0.010). MOE (MPa): group FN: 2682 (761); group FM: 2601 (417); group FC: 4188 (1012); group FT: 4215 (674). Statistical analysis showed that reinforcement on the tensile side of the neutral axis yielded improvement in all properties evaluated. Placement of the GFF close to the tensile stress side surface of the bar increased the resistance to elastic deformation (i.e., higher MOE or stiffness) and the stress level needed for flexural fracture (i.e., higher FS). In addition, more energy was absorbed by reinforced specimens before fracture occurred (i.e., higher toughness). Localized reinforcement targeting tensile stress centers is thus a practical way to improve clinical

  17. Deliberate change without hierarchical influence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana; Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm


    Purpose This paper aims to present that deliberate change is strongly associated with formal structures and top-down influence. Hierarchical configurations have been used to structure processes, overcome resistance and get things done. But is deliberate change also possible without formal...... reveals that deliberate change is indeed achievable in a non-hierarchical collaborative OSS community context. However, it presupposes the presence and active involvement of informal change agents. The paper identifies and specifies four key drivers for change agents’ influence. Originality....../value The findings contribute to organisational analysis by providing a deeper understanding of the importance of leadership in making deliberate change possible in non-hierarchical settings. It points to the importance of “change-by-conviction”, essentially based on voluntary behaviour. This can open the door...

  18. Study on reinforced concrete beams with helical transverse reinforcement (United States)

    Kaarthik Krishna, N.; Sandeep, S.; Mini, K. M.


    In a Reinforced Concrete (R.C) structure, major reinforcement is used for taking up tensile stresses acting on the structure due to applied loading. The present paper reports the behavior of reinforced concrete beams with helical reinforcement (transverse reinforcement) subjected to monotonous loading by 3-point flexure test. The results were compared with identically similar reinforced concrete beams with rectangular stirrups. During the test crack evolution, load carrying capacity and deflection of the beams were monitored, analyzed and compared. Test results indicate that the use of helical reinforcement provides enhanced load carrying capacity and a lower deflection proving to be more ductile, clearly indicating the advantage in carrying horizontal loads. An analysis was also carried out using ANSYS software in order to compare the test results of both the beams.

  19. Hierarchical Traces for Reduced NSM Memory Requirements (United States)

    Dahl, Torbjørn S.

    This paper presents work on using hierarchical long term memory to reduce the memory requirements of nearest sequence memory (NSM) learning, a previously published, instance-based reinforcement learning algorithm. A hierarchical memory representation reduces the memory requirements by allowing traces to share common sub-sequences. We present moderated mechanisms for estimating discounted future rewards and for dealing with hidden state using hierarchical memory. We also present an experimental analysis of how the sub-sequence length affects the memory compression achieved and show that the reduced memory requirements do not effect the speed of learning. Finally, we analyse and discuss the persistence of the sub-sequences independent of specific trace instances.

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Adolescent Reinforcement Survey Schedule-Alcohol Use Version with College Student Drinkers. (United States)

    Hallgren, Kevin A; Greenfield, Brenna L; Ladd, Benjamin O


    Behavioral economic theories of drinking posit that the reinforcing value of engaging in activities with versus without alcohol influences drinking behavior. Measures of the reinforcement value of drugs and alcohol have been used in previous research, but little work has examined the psychometric properties of these measures. The present study aims to evaluate the factor structure, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity of an alcohol-only version of the Adolescent Reinforcement Survey Schedule (ARSS-AUV). A sample of 157 college student drinkers completed the ARSS-AUV at two time points 2-3 days apart. Test-retest reliability, hierarchical factor analysis, and correlations with other drinking measures were examined. Single, unidimensional general factors accounted for a majority of the variance in alcohol and alcohol-free reinforcement items. Residual factors emerged that typically represented alcohol or alcohol-free reinforcement while doing activities with friends, romantic or sexual partners, and family members. Individual ARSS-AUV items had fair-to-good test-retest reliability, while general and residual factors had excellent test-retest reliability. General alcohol reinforcement and alcohol reinforcement from friends and romantic partners were positively correlated with past-year alcohol consumption, heaviest drinking episode, and alcohol-related negative consequences. Alcohol-free reinforcement indices were unrelated to alcohol use or consequences. The ARSS-AUV appears to demonstrate good reliability and mixed concurrent validity among college student drinkers. The instrument may provide useful information about alcohol reinforcement from various activities and people and could provide clinically-relevant information for prevention and treatment programs.

  1. Inequality contrained hierarchical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kato, B.S.


    In multilevel research, the data structure in the population is hierarchical, and the sample data are viewed as a multistage sample from this hierarchical population. For instance in educational research, the population consists of schools and pupils within these schools. In this scenario, pupils

  2. Reinforcement Learning State-of-the-Art

    CERN Document Server

    Wiering, Marco


    Reinforcement learning encompasses both a science of adaptive behavior of rational beings in uncertain environments and a computational methodology for finding optimal behaviors for challenging problems in control, optimization and adaptive behavior of intelligent agents. As a field, reinforcement learning has progressed tremendously in the past decade. The main goal of this book is to present an up-to-date series of survey articles on the main contemporary sub-fields of reinforcement learning. This includes surveys on partially observable environments, hierarchical task decompositions, relational knowledge representation and predictive state representations. Furthermore, topics such as transfer, evolutionary methods and continuous spaces in reinforcement learning are surveyed. In addition, several chapters review reinforcement learning methods in robotics, in games, and in computational neuroscience. In total seventeen different subfields are presented by mostly young experts in those areas, and together the...

  3. Hierarchical quantum communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Chitra; Pathak, Anirban


    A general approach to study the hierarchical quantum information splitting (HQIS) is proposed and the same is used to systematically investigate the possibility of realizing HQIS using different classes of 4-qubit entangled states that are not connected by stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). Explicit examples of HQIS using 4-qubit cluster state and 4-qubit |Ω〉 state are provided. Further, the proposed HQIS scheme is generalized to introduce two new aspects of hierarchical quantum communication. To be precise, schemes of probabilistic hierarchical quantum information splitting and hierarchical quantum secret sharing are obtained by modifying the proposed HQIS scheme. A number of practical situations where hierarchical quantum communication would be of use, are also presented.

  4. Hierarchical Estimation as Basis for Hierarchical Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijbosch, L.W.G.; Heuts, R.M.J.; Moors, J.J.A.


    In inventory management, hierarchical forecasting (HF) is a hot issue : families of items are formed for which total demand is forecasted; total forecast then is broken up to produce forecasts for the individual items.Since HF is a complicated procedure, analytical results are hard to obtain;

  5. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  6. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy


    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... with changing and increasing demands. Two-layer networks consist of one backbone network, which interconnects cluster networks. The clusters consist of nodes and links, which connect the nodes. One node in each cluster is a hub node, and the backbone interconnects the hub nodes of each cluster and thus...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks...

  7. Programming with Hierarchical Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Peter

    This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....

  8. Hierarchical Communication Diagrams


    Marcin Szpyrka; Piotr Matyasik; Jerzy Biernacki; Agnieszka Biernacka; Michał Wypych; Leszek Kotulski


    Formal modelling languages range from strictly textual ones like process algebra scripts to visual modelling languages based on hierarchical graphs like coloured Petri nets. Approaches equipped with visual modelling capabilities make developing process easier and help users to cope with more complex systems. Alvis is a modelling language that combines possibilities of formal models verification with flexibility and simplicity of practical programming languages. The paper deals with hierarchic...

  9. Flexural Behavior of Textile-Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkova Anna


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the flexural behaviour of textile-reinforced concrete (TRC. Two samples of TRC made of high strength reinforcing fabrics made of glass and carbon rovings were produced. Three-point bending test was carried out to examine the flexural performance of the developed samples. The maximum flexural strength and reinforcement efficiency were calculated. Experimental results showed that that all types of applied fabric reinforcement contributed to increases strength as compared to nonreinforced concrete. Furthermore, the deformation behavior of reinforced concrete was analyzed. The advantage is in higher residual load-bearing capacity, which allows maintaining the integrity of the structure.

  10. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  11. Experimental analysis of reinforced concrete beams strengthened in bending with carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. VIEIRA

    Full Text Available The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP has been widely used for the reinforcement of concrete structures due to its practicality and versatility in application, low weight, high tensile strength and corrosion resistance. Some construction companies use CFRP in flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams, but without anchor systems. Therefore, the aim of this study is analyze, through an experimental program, the structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams flexural strengthened by CFRP without anchor fibers, varying steel reinforcement and the amount of carbon fibers reinforcement layers. Thus, two groups of reinforced concrete beams were produced with the same geometric feature but with different steel reinforcement. Each group had five beams: one that is not reinforced with CFRP (reference and other reinforced with two, three, four and five layers of carbon fibers. Beams were designed using a computational routine developed in MAPLE software and subsequently tested in 4-point points flexural test up to collapse. Experimental tests have confirmed the effectiveness of the reinforcement, ratifying that beams collapse at higher loads and lower deformation as the amount of fibers in the reinforcing layers increased. However, the increase in the number of layers did not provide a significant increase in the performance of strengthened beams, indicating that it was not possible to take full advantage of strengthening applied due to the occurrence of premature failure mode in the strengthened beams for pullout of the cover that could have been avoided through the use of a suitable anchoring system for CFRP.

  12. Hierarchical Composites with Nanostructured Reinforcement for Multifunctional Aerospace Structures (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced nano-engineered composites hold great potential for augmenting aerospace composites material performance by reducing spacecraft weight, increasing payload...

  13. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  14. Catalysis with hierarchical zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten


    zeolites that have been reported hitherto. Prototypical examples from some of the different categories of catalytic reactions that have been studied using hierarchical zeolite catalysts are highlighted. This clearly illustrates the different ways that improved performance can be achieved with this family...

  15. The Hierarchical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sofron


    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the hierarchical perspective, one of the methods for representing space that was used before the discovery of the Renaissance linear perspective. The hierarchical perspective has a more or less pronounced scientific character and its study offers us a clear image of the way the representatives of the cultures that developed it used to perceive the sensitive reality. This type of perspective is an original method of representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface, which characterises the art of Ancient Egypt and much of the art of the Middle Ages, being identified in the Eastern European Byzantine art, as well as in the Western European Pre-Romanesque and Romanesque art. At the same time, the hierarchical perspective is also present in naive painting and infantile drawing. Reminiscences of this method can be recognised also in the works of some precursors of the Italian Renaissance. The hierarchical perspective can be viewed as a subjective ranking criterion, according to which the elements are visually represented by taking into account their relevance within the image while perception is ignored. This paper aims to show how the main objective of the artists of those times was not to faithfully represent the objective reality, but rather to emphasize the essence of the world and its perennial aspects. This may represent a possible explanation for the refusal of perspective in the Egyptian, Romanesque and Byzantine painting, characterised by a marked two-dimensionality.

  16. Hierarchical models and functional traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, E.E.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Sierdsema, H.; Bouten, W.; Cramer, W.; Badeck, F.; Krukenberg, B.; Klotz, S.; Kühn, I.; Schweiger, O.; Böhning-Gaese, K.; Schaefer, H.-C.; Kissling, D.; Brandl, R.; Brändle, M.; Fricke, R.; Leuschner, C.; Buschmann, H.; Köckermann, B.; Rose, L.


    Hierarchical models for animal abundance prediction are conceptually elegant. They are generally more parsimonous than non-hierarchical models derived from the same data, give relatively robust predictions and automatically provide consistent output at multiple (spatio-temporal) scales. Another

  17. Bayesian nonparametric hierarchical modeling. (United States)

    Dunson, David B


    In biomedical research, hierarchical models are very widely used to accommodate dependence in multivariate and longitudinal data and for borrowing of information across data from different sources. A primary concern in hierarchical modeling is sensitivity to parametric assumptions, such as linearity and normality of the random effects. Parametric assumptions on latent variable distributions can be challenging to check and are typically unwarranted, given available prior knowledge. This article reviews some recent developments in Bayesian nonparametric methods motivated by complex, multivariate and functional data collected in biomedical studies. The author provides a brief review of flexible parametric approaches relying on finite mixtures and latent class modeling. Dirichlet process mixture models are motivated by the need to generalize these approaches to avoid assuming a fixed finite number of classes. Focusing on an epidemiology application, the author illustrates the practical utility and potential of nonparametric Bayes methods.

  18. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander


    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing...... reinforcement being located on or embedded in matrix material adjacent to the front face of the panel, the backing reinforcement being located in a plane or planes substantially parallel to the plane or planes of the facing reinforcement, and being substantially coextensive therewith, and spaced therefrom...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  20. Hierarchical Fuzzy Sets To Query Possibilistic Databases


    Thomopoulos, Rallou; Buche, Patrice; Haemmerlé, Ollivier


    Within the framework of flexible querying of possibilistic databases, based on the fuzzy set theory, this chapter focuses on the case where the vocabulary used both in the querying language and in the data is hierarchically organized, which occurs in systems that use ontologies. We give an overview of previous works concerning two issues: firstly, flexible querying of imprecise data in the relational model; secondly, the introduction of fuzziness in hierarchies. Concerning the latter point, w...

  1. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason


    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  2. Reinforcement learning and human behavior. (United States)

    Shteingart, Hanan; Loewenstein, Yonatan


    The dominant computational approach to model operant learning and its underlying neural activity is model-free reinforcement learning (RL). However, there is accumulating behavioral and neuronal-related evidence that human (and animal) operant learning is far more multifaceted. Theoretical advances in RL, such as hierarchical and model-based RL extend the explanatory power of RL to account for some of these findings. Nevertheless, some other aspects of human behavior remain inexplicable even in the simplest tasks. Here we review developments and remaining challenges in relating RL models to human operant learning. In particular, we emphasize that learning a model of the world is an essential step before or in parallel to learning the policy in RL and discuss alternative models that directly learn a policy without an explicit world model in terms of state-action pairs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hierarchical quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.


    I define a set of conditions that the most general hierarchical Yukawa mass matrices have to satisfy so that the leading rotations in the diagonalization matrix are a pair of (2,3) and (1,2) rotations. In addition to Fritzsch structures, examples of such hierarchical structures include also matrices with (1,3) elements of the same order or even much larger than the (1,2) elements. Such matrices can be obtained in the framework of a flavor theory. To leading order, the values of the angle in the (2,3) plane (s 23 ) and the angle in the (1,2) plane (s 12 ) do not depend on the order in which they are taken when diagonalizing. We find that any of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parametrizations that consist of at least one (1,2) and one (2,3) rotation may be suitable. In the particular case when the s 13 diagonalization angles are sufficiently small compared to the product s 12 s 23 , two special CKM parametrizations emerge: the R 12 R 23 R 12 parametrization follows with s 23 taken before the s 12 rotation, and vice versa for the R 23 R 12 R 23 parametrization. (author)

  4. Development of hierarchical magnesium composites using hybrid microwave sintering. (United States)

    Habibi, Meisam Kouhi; Joshi, Shailendra P; Gupta, Manoj


    In this work, hierarchical magnesium based composites with a micro-architecture comprising reinforcing constituent that is a composite in itself were fabricated using powder metallurgy route including microwave assisted rapid sintering technique and hot extrusion. Different level-I composite particles comprises sub-micron pure aluminum (Al) matrix containing Al2O3 particles of different length scale (from micrometer to nanometer size). Microstructural characterization of the hierarchical composites revealed reasonably uniform distribution of level-I composite particles and significant grain refinement compared to monolithic Mg. Hierarchical composite configurations exhibited different mechanical performance as a function of Al2O3 length scale. Among the different hierarchical formulations synthesized, the hierarchical configuration with level-I composition comprising Al and nano-Al2O3 (0.05 microm) exhibited the highest improvement in tensile yield strength (0.2% YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), tensile failure strain (FS), compressive yield strength (0.2% CYS) and ultimate compressive strength (UCS) (+96%, +80%, +42%, +80%, and +83%) as compared to monolithic Mg. An attempt has been made in the present study to correlate the effect of different length scales of Al2O3 particulates on the microstructural and mechanical response of magnesium.

  5. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius


    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  6. Hierarchical materials: Background and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Hierarchical design draws inspiration from analysis of biological materials and has opened new possibilities for enhancing performance and enabling new functionalities and extraordinary properties. With the development of nanotechnology, the necessary technological requirements for the manufactur...... for the manufacturing of hierarchical materials are advancing at a fast pace, opening new challenges and opportunities. This article presents an overview of possible applications of and perspectives on hierarchical materials.......Hierarchical design draws inspiration from analysis of biological materials and has opened new possibilities for enhancing performance and enabling new functionalities and extraordinary properties. With the development of nanotechnology, the necessary technological requirements...

  7. A hierarchical artificial retina architecture (United States)

    Parker, Alice C.; Azar, Adi N.


    Connectivity in the human retina is complex. Over one hundred million photoreceptors transduce light into electrical signals. These electrical signals are sent to the ganglion cells through amacrine and bipolar cells. Lateral connections involving horizontal and amacrine cells span throughout the outer plexiform layer and inner plexiform layer respectively. Horizontal cells are important for photoreceptor regulation by depolarizing them after an illumination occurs. Horizontal cells themselves form an electrical network that communicates by gap junctions, and these cells exhibit plasticity (change in behavior and structure) with respect to glycine receptors. The bipolar and amacrine cells transfer electrical signals from photoreceptors to the ganglion cells. Furthermore, amacrine cells are responsible for further processing the retinal image. Finally, the ganglion cells receive electrical signals from the bipolar and amacrine cells and will spike at a faster rate if there is a change in the overall intensity for a group of photoreceptors, sending a signal to the brain. Dramatic progress is being made with respect to retinal prostheses, raising hope for an entire synthetic retina in the future. We propose a bio-inspired 3D hierarchical pyramidal architecture for a synthetic retina that mimics the overall structure of the human retina. We chose to use a 3D architecture to facilitate connectivity among retinal cells, maintaining a hierarchical structure similar to that of the biological retina. The first layer of the architecture contains electronic circuits that model photoreceptors and horizontal cells. The second layer contains amacrine and bipolar electronic cells, and the third layer contains ganglion cells. Layer I has the highest number of cells, and layer III has the lowest number of cells, resulting in a pyramidal architecture. In our proposed architecture we intend to use photodetectors to transduce light into electrical signals. We propose to employ

  8. Bounded Target Cascading in Hierarchical Design Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Zhang


    Full Text Available For large scale systems, as a hierarchical multilevel decomposed design optimization method, analytical target cascading coordinates the inconsistency between the assigned targets and response in each level by a weighted-sum formulation. To avoid the problems associated with the weighting coefficients, single objective functions in the hierarchical design optimization are formulated by a bounded target cascading method in this paper. In the BTC method, a single objective optimization problem is formulated in the system level, and two kinds of coordination constraints are added: one is bound constraint for the design points based on the response from each subsystem level and the other is linear equality constraint for the common variables based on their sensitivities with respect to each subsystem. In each subsystem level, the deviation with target for design point is minimized in the objective function, and the common variables are constrained by target bounds. Therefore, in the BTC method, the targets are coordinated based on the optimization iteration information in the hierarchical design problem and the performance of the subsystems, and BTC method will converge to the global optimum efficiently. Finally, comparisons of the results from BTC method and the weighted-sum analytical target cascading method are presented and discussed.

  9. Quantum Ising model on hierarchical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhifang; Tao Ruibao.


    A quantum Ising chain with both the exchange couplings and the transverse fields arranged in a hierarchical way is considered. Exact analytical results for the critical line and energy gap are obtained. It is shown that when R 1 not= R 2 , where R 1 and R 2 are the hierarchical parameters for the exchange couplings and the transverse fields, respectively, the system undergoes a phase transition in a different universality class from the pure quantum Ising chain with R 1 =R 2 =1. On the other hand, when R 1 =R 2 =R, there exists a critical value R c dependent on the furcating number of the hierarchy. In case of R > R c , the system is shown to exhibit as Ising-like critical point with the critical behaviour the same as in the pure case, while for R c the system belongs to another universality class. (author). 19 refs, 2 figs

  10. Trees and Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Arndt


    The "raison d'etre" of hierarchical dustering theory stems from one basic phe­ nomenon: This is the notorious non-transitivity of similarity relations. In spite of the fact that very often two objects may be quite similar to a third without being that similar to each other, one still wants to dassify objects according to their similarity. This should be achieved by grouping them into a hierarchy of non-overlapping dusters such that any two objects in ~ne duster appear to be more related to each other than they are to objects outside this duster. In everyday life, as well as in essentially every field of scientific investigation, there is an urge to reduce complexity by recognizing and establishing reasonable das­ sification schemes. Unfortunately, this is counterbalanced by the experience of seemingly unavoidable deadlocks caused by the existence of sequences of objects, each comparatively similar to the next, but the last rather different from the first.

  11. Transmutations across hierarchical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.


    The development of large-scale ecological models depends implicitly on a concept known as hierarchy theory which views biological systems in a series of hierarchical levels (i.e., organism, population, trophic level, ecosystem). The theory states that an explanation of a biological phenomenon is provided when it is shown to be the consequence of the activities of the system's components, which are themselves systems in the next lower level of the hierarchy. Thus, the behavior of a population is explained by the behavior of the organisms in the population. The initial step in any modeling project is, therefore, to identify the system components and the interactions between them. A series of examples of transmutations in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are presented to show how and why changes occur. The types of changes are summarized and possible implications of transmutation for hierarchy theory, for the modeler, and for the ecological theoretician are discussed

  12. Fiber reinforced engineering plastics (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Rodney E. Jacobson; Karl D. Sears; John H. Underwood


    Although natural fiber reinforced commodity thermoplastics have a wide range of nonstructural applications in the automotive and decking industries, there have been few reports of cellulosic fiber-reinforced engineering thermoplastics. The commonly held belief has been that the only thermoplastics amenable to natural-fibre reinforcement are limited to low-melting (...

  13. Management of Reinforcement Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Møller, Per

    Reinforcement corrosion is the most important cause for deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, both with regard to costs and consequences. Thermodynamically consistent descriptions of corrosion mechanisms are expected to allow the development of innovative concepts for the management...... of reinforcement corrosion....

  14. Detecting Hierarchical Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard


    . On synthetic and real data we demonstrate that our model can detect hierarchical structure leading to better link-prediction than competing models. Our model can be used to detect if a network exhibits hierarchical structure, thereby leading to a better comprehension and statistical account the network....

  15. Static Correctness of Hierarchical Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff


    A system of hierarchical, fully recursive types in a truly imperative language allows program fragments written for small types to be reused for all larger types. To exploit this property to enable type-safe hierarchical procedures, it is necessary to impose a static requirement on procedure calls...

  16. Nearly Cyclic Pursuit and its Hierarchical variant for Multi-agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Leth, John-Josef; Ngo, Trung Dung


    The rendezvous problem for multiple agents under nearly cyclic pursuit and hierarchical nearly cyclic pursuit is discussed in this paper. The control law designed under nearly cyclic pursuit strategy enables the agents to converge at a point dictated by a beacon. A hierarchical version of the nea......The rendezvous problem for multiple agents under nearly cyclic pursuit and hierarchical nearly cyclic pursuit is discussed in this paper. The control law designed under nearly cyclic pursuit strategy enables the agents to converge at a point dictated by a beacon. A hierarchical version...

  17. Hierarchical multifunctional nanocomposites (United States)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.


    properties of the fibers can also be improved by the growth of nanotubes on the fibers. The combination of the two will produce super-performing materials, not currently available. Since the improvement of fiber starts with carbon nanotube grown on micron-size fibers (and matrix with a nanomaterial) to give the macro-composite, this process is a bottom-up "hierarchical" advanced manufacturing process, and since the resulting nanocomposites will have "multifunctionality" with improve properties in various functional areas such as chemical and fire resistance, damping, stiffness, strength, fracture toughness, EMI shielding, and electrical and thermal conductivity, the resulting nanocomposites are in fact "multifunctional hierarchical nanocomposites." In this paper, the current state of knowledge in processing, performance, and characterization of these materials are addressed.

  18. Tank War Using Online Reinforcement Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftgaard Andersen, Kresten; Zeng, Yifeng; Dahl Christensen, Dennis


    Real-Time Strategy(RTS) games provide a challenging platform to implement online reinforcement learning(RL) techniques in a real application. Computer as one player monitors opponents'(human or other computers) strategies and then updates its own policy using RL methods. In this paper, we propose...... a multi-layer framework for implementing the online RL in a RTS game. The framework significantly reduces the RL computational complexity by decomposing the state space in a hierarchical manner. We implement the RTS game - Tank General, and perform a thorough test on the proposed framework. The results...

  19. Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis. (United States)

    Lu, Di; Ding, Chuntao; Xu, Jinliang; Wang, Shangguang


    The Internet of Things (IoT) generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification) is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem. That means that the impact of intra-class distance is overwhelmed. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm called Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis (HDA). It minimizes the sum of intra-class distance first, and then maximizes the sum of inter-class distance. This proposed method balances the bias from the inter-class and that from the intra-class to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on several benchmark face datasets. The results reveal that HDA obtains better performance than other dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  20. Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lu


    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem. That means that the impact of intra-class distance is overwhelmed. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm called Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis (HDA. It minimizes the sum of intra-class distance first, and then maximizes the sum of inter-class distance. This proposed method balances the bias from the inter-class and that from the intra-class to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on several benchmark face datasets. The results reveal that HDA obtains better performance than other dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  1. A strategy for prediction of the elastic properties of epoxy-cellulose nanocrystal-reinforced fiber networks (United States)

    Johnathan E. Goodsell; Robert J. Moon; Alionso Huizar; R. Byron Pipes


    The reinforcement potential of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) additions on an idealized 2-dirmensional (2-D) fiber network structure consisting of micron sized fiber elements was investigated. The reinforcement mechanism considered in this study was through the stiffening of the micron sized fiber elements via a CNC-epoxy coating. A hierarchical analytical modeling...

  2. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari


    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  3. The substitutability of reinforcers


    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E.


    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportio...

  4. Hierarchical architecture of active knits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Julianna; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann


    Nature eloquently utilizes hierarchical structures to form the world around us. Applying the hierarchical architecture paradigm to smart materials can provide a basis for a new genre of actuators which produce complex actuation motions. One promising example of cellular architecture—active knits—provides complex three-dimensional distributed actuation motions with expanded operational performance through a hierarchically organized structure. The hierarchical structure arranges a single fiber of active material, such as shape memory alloys (SMAs), into a cellular network of interlacing adjacent loops according to a knitting grid. This paper defines a four-level hierarchical classification of knit structures: the basic knit loop, knit patterns, grid patterns, and restructured grids. Each level of the hierarchy provides increased architectural complexity, resulting in expanded kinematic actuation motions of active knits. The range of kinematic actuation motions are displayed through experimental examples of different SMA active knits. The results from this paper illustrate and classify the ways in which each level of the hierarchical knit architecture leverages the performance of the base smart material to generate unique actuation motions, providing necessary insight to best exploit this new actuation paradigm. (paper)

  5. Set-point changes in hierarchically-arranged thermogenic systems (United States)

    Horowitz, J. M.


    Rats acclimated to either 23 or 5 C were concurrently exposed to cold and hypergravic fields to test the proposal that mammals have parallel controllers for thermoregulation. The two groups of rats were used to evaluate the different relative contributions of shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis to the increased oxygen consumption of the cold-exposed rats in hypergravic fields. The lower magnitude of the cold-induced oxygen consumption observed when cold-exposed rats are moved from 1 G to hypergravic fields is probably due to an inactivation of shivering rather than nonshivering thermogenesis. The observation that shivering, but not nonshivering thermogenesis, appears to be impaired by hypergravic fields is consistent with the representation of central thermoregulation by multiple controllers.

  6. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter


    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  7. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    and surrounds an internal volume of the body, a distance member that is connected to the facing inside the body and extends from the facing and into the internal volume of the body, and at least one reinforcing member that operates in tension for reinforcing the facing against inward deflections...

  8. The effect of concrete strength and reinforcement on toughness of reinforced concrete beams


    Carneiro, Joaquim A. O.; Jalali, Said; Teixeira, Vasco M. P.; Tomás, M.


    The objective pursued with this work includes the evaluating of the strength and the total energy absorption capacity (toughness) of reinforced concrete beams using different amounts of steel-bar reinforcement. The experimental campaign deals with the evaluation of the threshold load prior collapse, ultimate load and deformation, as well as the beam total energy absorption capacity, using a three point bending test. The beam half span displacement was measured using a displacement transducer,...

  9. Broadband acoustic energy confinement in hierarchical sonic crystals composed of rotated square inclusions (United States)

    Shakouri, Amir; Xu, Feifei; Fan, Zheng


    The propagation of acoustic waves in hierarchical sonic crystals is studied computationally and experimentally. These sonic crystals are composed of a hierarchical order of square inclusions rotated 45° with respect to the square lattice structure. It is shown that these hierarchical sonic crystals are capable of confining acoustic energy over a broad frequency range and at multiple lattice points inside the sonic crystal based on Bragg's scattering effect. Fused deposition modeling additive manufacturing is applied to prepare a finite-sized sample of the hierarchical sonic crystal. Acoustic measurements are conducted on the hierarchical sonic crystal sample in a direct and closely plane-wave field inside an anechoic room. The experimental measurements are in good agreement with the band structure calculated using the finite element method. Potential applications of the hierarchical sonic crystals for acoustic energy harvesting and noise measurements are discussed.

  10. Resolution of Singularities Introduced by Hierarchical Structure in Deep Neural Networks. (United States)

    Nitta, Tohru


    We present a theoretical analysis of singular points of artificial deep neural networks, resulting in providing deep neural network models having no critical points introduced by a hierarchical structure. It is considered that such deep neural network models have good nature for gradient-based optimization. First, we show that there exist a large number of critical points introduced by a hierarchical structure in deep neural networks as straight lines, depending on the number of hidden layers and the number of hidden neurons. Second, we derive a sufficient condition for deep neural networks having no critical points introduced by a hierarchical structure, which can be applied to general deep neural networks. It is also shown that the existence of critical points introduced by a hierarchical structure is determined by the rank and the regularity of weight matrices for a specific class of deep neural networks. Finally, two kinds of implementation methods of the sufficient conditions to have no critical points are provided. One is a learning algorithm that can avoid critical points introduced by the hierarchical structure during learning (called avoidant learning algorithm). The other is a neural network that does not have some critical points introduced by the hierarchical structure as an inherent property (called avoidant neural network).

  11. Mechanical characterization of sisal reinforced cement mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fujiyama


    Full Text Available This work aims at evaluating the mechanical behavior of sisal fiber reinforced cement mortar. The composite material was produced from a mixture of sand, cement, and water. Sisal fibers were added to the mixture in different lengths. Mechanical characterization of both the composite and the plain mortar was carried out using three point bend, compression, and impact tests. Specimens containing notches of different root radii were loaded in three point bending in an effort to determine the effect of the fibers on the fracture toughness of the material. The results obtained indicate that, while fiber reinforcement leads to a decrease in compressive strength, J-integral calculations at maximum load for the different notch root radii have indicated, particularly for the case of long fibers, a significant superiority of the reinforced material in comparison with the plain cement mortar, in consistence with the impact test data.

  12. Hierarchical Systems in Open Clusters (United States)

    de La Fuente Marcos, R.; Aarseth, S. J.; Kiseleva, L. G.; Eggleton, P. P.

    In this paper we study the formation, evolution, and disruption of hierarchical systems in open clusters. With this purpose, N-body simulations of star clusters containing an initial population of binaries have been carried out using Aarseth's NBODY4 and NBODY5 codes. Stable triples may form from strong interactions of two binaries in which the widest pair is disrupted. The most frequent type of hierarchical systems found in the cluster models are triples in which the outer star is single, but in some cases the outer body is also a binary, giving a hierarchical quadruple. The formation of hierarchical systems of even higher multiplicity is also possible. Many triple systems are non-coplanar and the presence of even a very distant and small outer companion may affect the orbital parameters of the inner binary, including a possible mechanism of significant shrinkage if the binary experiences a weak tidal dissipation. The main features of these systems are analyzed in order to derive general properties which can be checked by observations. The inner binaries have periods in the range 1-1000 days, although rich clusters may have even smaller periods following common envelope evolution. For triple systems, the outer body usually has a mass less than 1/3 of the binary, but is sometimes a collapsed object with even smaller mass. The formation of exotic objects, such as blue stragglers and white dwarfs binaries, inside hierarchical triple systems is particularly interesting. An efficient mechanism for generating such objects is the previous formation of a hierarchical system in which the inner binary may develop a very short period during a common envelope phase, which finally results in a stellar collision.

  13. Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Szepesvari, Csaba


    Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms'

  14. Mesoscale Characterization of Fracture Properties of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Using a Lattice–Particle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Montero-Chacón


    Full Text Available This work presents a lattice–particle model for the analysis of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC. In this approach, fibers are explicitly modeled and connected to the concrete matrix lattice via interface elements. The interface behavior was calibrated by means of pullout tests and a range for the bond properties is proposed. The model was validated with analytical and experimental results under uniaxial tension and compression, demonstrating the ability of the model to correctly describe the effect of fiber volume fraction and distribution on fracture properties of SFRC. The lattice–particle model was integrated into a hierarchical homogenization-based scheme in which macroscopic material parameters are obtained from mesoscale simulations. Moreover, a representative volume element (RVE analysis was carried out and the results shows that such an RVE does exist in the post-peak regime and until localization takes place. Finally, the multiscale upscaling strategy was successfully validated with three-point bending tests.

  15. Mesoscale Characterization of Fracture Properties of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Using a Lattice–Particle Model (United States)

    Montero-Chacón, Francisco; Cifuentes, Héctor; Medina, Fernando


    This work presents a lattice–particle model for the analysis of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC). In this approach, fibers are explicitly modeled and connected to the concrete matrix lattice via interface elements. The interface behavior was calibrated by means of pullout tests and a range for the bond properties is proposed. The model was validated with analytical and experimental results under uniaxial tension and compression, demonstrating the ability of the model to correctly describe the effect of fiber volume fraction and distribution on fracture properties of SFRC. The lattice–particle model was integrated into a hierarchical homogenization-based scheme in which macroscopic material parameters are obtained from mesoscale simulations. Moreover, a representative volume element (RVE) analysis was carried out and the results shows that such an RVE does exist in the post-peak regime and until localization takes place. Finally, the multiscale upscaling strategy was successfully validated with three-point bending tests. PMID:28772568

  16. Parallel hierarchical global illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Quinn O. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Solving the global illumination problem is equivalent to determining the intensity of every wavelength of light in all directions at every point in a given scene. The complexity of the problem has led researchers to use approximation methods for solving the problem on serial computers. Rather than using an approximation method, such as backward ray tracing or radiosity, the authors have chosen to solve the Rendering Equation by direct simulation of light transport from the light sources. This paper presents an algorithm that solves the Rendering Equation to any desired accuracy, and can be run in parallel on distributed memory or shared memory computer systems with excellent scaling properties. It appears superior in both speed and physical correctness to recent published methods involving bidirectional ray tracing or hybrid treatments of diffuse and specular surfaces. Like progressive radiosity methods, it dynamically refines the geometry decomposition where required, but does so without the excessive storage requirements for ray histories. The algorithm, called Photon, produces a scene which converges to the global illumination solution. This amounts to a huge task for a 1997-vintage serial computer, but using the power of a parallel supercomputer significantly reduces the time required to generate a solution. Currently, Photon can be run on most parallel environments from a shared memory multiprocessor to a parallel supercomputer, as well as on clusters of heterogeneous workstations.

  17. Modular networks with hierarchical organization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several networks occurring in real life have modular structures that are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper, we have proposed a model for such networks, using a stochastic generation method. Using this model we show that, the scaling relation between the clustering and degree of the nodes is not a necessary ...

  18. Tensile properties of structural fibre reinforced concrete (United States)

    Tipka, M.; Vašková, J.


    The paper deals with the comparison of several loading tests, which are using for determination of tensile strength of cementitious composites. The paper describes several test methods, their advantages, disadvantages and possible outputs. In the experimental program several recipes of concrete and fibre reinforced concrete were tested in splitting test, 3-point and 4-point bending tests and in 2 variants of axial tension test. Tension strength ratios and conversion factors between loading tests were determined for each recipe, based on test results.

  19. A hierarchical instrumental decision theory of nicotine dependence. (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; Troisi, Joseph R


    It is important to characterize the learning processes governing tobacco-seeking in order to understand how best to treat this behavior. Most drug learning theories have adopted a Pavlovian framework wherein the conditioned response is the main motivational process. We favor instead a hierarchical instrumental decision account, wherein expectations about the instrumental contingency between voluntary tobacco-seeking and the receipt of nicotine reward determines the probability of executing this behavior. To support this view, we review titration and nicotine discrimination research showing that internal signals for deprivation/satiation modulate expectations about the current incentive value of smoking, thereby modulating the propensity of this behavior. We also review research on cue-reactivity which has shown that external smoking cues modulate expectations about the probability of the tobacco-seeking response being effective, thereby modulating the propensity of this behavior. Economic decision theory is then considered to elucidate how expectations about the value and probability of response-nicotine contingency are integrated to form an overall utility estimate for that option for comparison with qualitatively different, nonsubstitute reinforcers, to determine response selection. As an applied test for this hierarchical instrumental decision framework, we consider how well it accounts for individual liability to smoking uptake and perseveration, pharmacotherapy, cue-extinction therapies, and plain packaging. We conclude that the hierarchical instrumental account is successful in reconciling this broad range of phenomenon precisely because it accepts that multiple diverse sources of internal and external information must be integrated to shape the decision to smoke.

  20. Alternate approach slab reinforcement. (United States)


    The upper mat of reinforcing steel, in exposed concrete bridge approach slabs, is prone to corrosion damage. Chlorides applied to the highways : for winter maintenance can penetrate this concrete layer. Eventually chlorides reach the steel and begin ...

  1. Modeling reinforced concrete durability. (United States)


    This project developed a next-generation modeling approach for projecting the extent of : reinforced concrete corrosion-related damage, customized for new and existing Florida Department of : Transportation bridges and suitable for adapting to broade...

  2. Choice and reinforcement delay


    Gentry, G. David; Marr, M. Jackson


    Previous studies of choice between two delayed reinforcers have indicated that the relative immediacy of the reinforcer is a major determinant of the relative frequency of responding. Parallel studies of choice between two interresponse times have found exceptions to this generality. The present study looked at the choice by pigeons between two delays, one of which was always four times longer than the other, but whose absolute durations were varied across conditions. The results indicated th...

  3. Punching Shear in Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Slabs Without Traditional Reinforcement (United States)

    Tan, K. H.; Venkateshwaran, A.


    The punching shear capacity of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) slabs without traditional steel bar reinforcement was investigated by conducting central point-load tests on twelve square slabs. The test parameters covered fibres with different multi-hook ends, concrete compressive strength, reinforcing index and slab thickness. The statistical performance of two existing models for the prediction of punching shear capacity of SFRC slabs without traditional reinforcement was examined. The load carrying capacity of these slabs were also assessed using the yield line theory. It is noted that the slabs failed primarily in flexure and the yield line theory predicted the load carrying capacities of the slabs most accurately. The reason for a flexural failure in SFRC slabs without steel bars is attributed to the lesser energy required in the propagation of an existing flexural cracks than in the creation of a new circumferential cracks around the column face.

  4. Image Information Mining Utilizing Hierarchical Segmentation (United States)

    Tilton, James C.; Marchisio, Giovanni; Koperski, Krzysztof; Datcu, Mihai


    The Hierarchical Segmentation (HSEG) algorithm is an approach for producing high quality, hierarchically related image segmentations. The VisiMine image information mining system utilizes clustering and segmentation algorithms for reducing visual information in multispectral images to a manageable size. The project discussed herein seeks to enhance the VisiMine system through incorporating hierarchical segmentations from HSEG into the VisiMine system.

  5. Tangible Reinforcement Plus Social Reinforcement versus Social Reinforcement Alone in Acquisition of Toothbrushing Skills. (United States)

    Wolber, Greg; And Others


    Use of a tangible reinforcer plus social reinforcement was found to be more effective in training a 33-year-old male with profound mental retardation to brush his teeth than social reinforcement alone. Determination of true positive reinforcers and training staff members to carry out such treatment programs are also discussed. (Author/VW)

  6. Performance of wulung bamboo reinforced concrete beams (United States)

    Budi, Agus Setiya; Rahmadi, A. P.


    The aim of this paper is to study the flexural strength of concrete beam with Wulung Bamboo that has been in the notch as reinforcement. The notch is expected to increase the bonding effect and minimize the slip effects. This study used experimental laboratory method. Bamboo strip are processed and shaped with the notches of the v shape with the distance between the notches are 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 mm. The specimen size used in the form of a concrete beam is 110x150x1700 mm. Static loading is done with third point loading system (ASTM C78). The experimental results showed the performance of bamboo strips notch reinforced concrete beams increased compared to bamboo reinforcement without notch and the maximum load will increase as the number of notches increases.

  7. Simulating distributed reinforcement effects in concrete analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchertas, A.H.


    The effect of the bond slip is brought into the TEMP-STRESS finite element code by relaxing the equal strain condition between concrete and reinforcement. This is done for the elements adjacent to the element which is cracked. A parabolic differential strain variation is assumed along the reinforcement from the crack, which is taken to be at the centroid of the cracked element, to the point where perfect bonding exists. This strain relationship is used to increase the strain of the reinforcement in the as yet uncracked elements located adjacent to a crack. By the same token the corresponding concrete strain is decreased. This estimate is made assuming preservation of strain energy in the element. The effectiveness of the model is shown by examples. Comparison of analytical results is made with structural test data. The influence of the bonding model on cracking is portrayed pictorially. 5 refs., 6 figs

  8. Automatic Hierarchical Color Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang


    Full Text Available Organizing images into semantic categories can be extremely useful for content-based image retrieval and image annotation. Grouping images into semantic classes is a difficult problem, however. Image classification attempts to solve this hard problem by using low-level image features. In this paper, we propose a method for hierarchical classification of images via supervised learning. This scheme relies on using a good low-level feature and subsequently performing feature-space reconfiguration using singular value decomposition to reduce noise and dimensionality. We use the training data to obtain a hierarchical classification tree that can be used to categorize new images. Our experimental results suggest that this scheme not only performs better than standard nearest-neighbor techniques, but also has both storage and computational advantages.

  9. Hierarchical matrices algorithms and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang


    This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists ...

  10. Effective implementation of hierarchical clustering (United States)

    Verma, Mudita; Vijayarajan, V.; Sivashanmugam, G.; Bessie Amali, D. Geraldine


    Hierarchical clustering is generally used for cluster analysis in which we build up a hierarchy of clusters. In order to find that which cluster should be split a large amount of observations are being carried out. Here the data set of US based personalities has been considered for clustering. After implementation of hierarchical clustering on the data set we group it in three different clusters one is of politician, sports person and musicians. Training set is the main parameter which decides the category which has to be assigned to the observations that are being collected. The category of these observations must be known. Recognition comes from the formulation of classification. Supervised learning has the main instance in the form of classification. While on the other hand Clustering is an instance of unsupervised procedure. Clustering consists of grouping of data that have similar properties which are either their own or are inherited from some other sources.

  11. Repair of reinforced concrete beams using carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karzad Abdul Saboor


    Full Text Available This research paper is part of an ongoing research on the behaviour of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams retrofitted with Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (EB-CFRP. A total of 5 large-scale rectangular beams, previously damaged due to shear loading, were repaired and strengthened with EB-CFRP and tested in this study. The major cracks of the damaged beams were injected with epoxy and the beams were wrapped with 2 layers of EB-CFRP discrete strips with 100mm width and 150mm center to center spacing. The beams were instrumented and tested to failure under three points loading in simply supported configuration. The measured test parameters were the beams deflection, maximum load, and the strain in the FRP strips. The failure mode was also observed. The results showed that applying EB-FRP strips increased the shear strength significantly relative to the original shear capacity of the beam. The results demonstrate that the application of EB-FRP strips used in this study is an effective repair method that can be used to repair and strengthen damaged beams.

  12. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Sano, Tomoko


    This book addresses a broad spectrum of areas in both hybrid materials and hierarchical composites, including recent development of processing technologies, structural designs, modern computer simulation techniques, and the relationships between the processing-structure-property-performance. Each topic is introduced at length with numerous  and detailed examples and over 150 illustrations.   In addition, the authors present a method of categorizing these materials, so that representative examples of all material classes are discussed.

  13. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, S.U.


    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  14. Hierarchical biodiversity and environment impact assessment of South-to-North Water Diversion Project of China


    Youhua Chen


    In this brief review, the potential environmental and biodiversity impact of South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD) project in China on regional environments was assessed. I used the hierarchical environmental impact assessment to classify the possible impacts into three orders caused by the construction of SNWD and then presented the current research advances on each order of the impacts. Further impact assessments should be reinforced during the construction period of SNDW project for the su...

  15. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.


    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  16. Hierarchical ordering of reticular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Mileyko

    Full Text Available The structure of hierarchical networks in biological and physical systems has long been characterized using the Horton-Strahler ordering scheme. The scheme assigns an integer order to each edge in the network based on the topology of branching such that the order increases from distal parts of the network (e.g., mountain streams or capillaries to the "root" of the network (e.g., the river outlet or the aorta. However, Horton-Strahler ordering cannot be applied to networks with loops because they they create a contradiction in the edge ordering in terms of which edge precedes another in the hierarchy. Here, we present a generalization of the Horton-Strahler order to weighted planar reticular networks, where weights are assumed to correlate with the importance of network edges, e.g., weights estimated from edge widths may correlate to flow capacity. Our method assigns hierarchical levels not only to edges of the network, but also to its loops, and classifies the edges into reticular edges, which are responsible for loop formation, and tree edges. In addition, we perform a detailed and rigorous theoretical analysis of the sensitivity of the hierarchical levels to weight perturbations. In doing so, we show that the ordering of the reticular edges is more robust to noise in weight estimation than is the ordering of the tree edges. We discuss applications of this generalized Horton-Strahler ordering to the study of leaf venation and other biological networks.

  17. Modeling abundance using hierarchical distance sampling (United States)

    Royle, Andy; Kery, Marc


    In this chapter, we provide an introduction to classical distance sampling ideas for point and line transect data, and for continuous and binned distance data. We introduce the conditional and the full likelihood, and we discuss Bayesian analysis of these models in BUGS using the idea of data augmentation, which we discussed in Chapter 7. We then extend the basic ideas to the problem of hierarchical distance sampling (HDS), where we have multiple point or transect sample units in space (or possibly in time). The benefit of HDS in practice is that it allows us to directly model spatial variation in population size among these sample units. This is a preeminent concern of most field studies that use distance sampling methods, but it is not a problem that has received much attention in the literature. We show how to analyze HDS models in both the unmarked package and in the BUGS language for point and line transects, and for continuous and binned distance data. We provide a case study of HDS applied to a survey of the island scrub-jay on Santa Cruz Island, California.

  18. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes


    The use of glass as a load carrying material in structural elements is rarely seen even though glass is a popular material for many architects. This is owed to the unreliable and low tensile strength, which is due to surface flaws and high brittleness of the material. These properties lead...... to breakage without any warning or ductility, which can be catastrophic if no precautions are taken. One aspect of this issue is treated here by looking at the possibility of mechanically reinforcing glass beams in order to obtain ductile failure for such a structural component. A mechanically reinforced...... presented. The experiments show that it is possible to obtain a very ductile structural behavior using the right amount of reinforcement. A Finite Element Model including - in a simple manner - the effects of cracking of glass is presented. Based on a comparison between experimental and model results...

  19. Reinforced concrete tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariscotti, M.A.J.; Morixe, M.; Tarela, P.A.; Thieberger, P.


    In this paper we describe the technique of reinforced concrete tomography, its historical background, recent technological developments and main applications. Gamma radiation sensitive plates are imprinted with radiation going through the concrete sample under study, and then processed to reveal the presence of reinforcement and defects in the material density. The three dimensional reconstruction, or tomography, of the reinforcement out of a single gammagraphy is an original development alternative to conventional methods. Re-bar diameters and positions may be determined with an accuracy of ± 1 mm 0.5-1 cm, respectively. The non-destructive character of this technique makes it particularly attractive in cases of inhabited buildings and diagnoses of balconies. (author) [es

  20. "Notice of Violation of IEEE Publication Principles" Multiobjective Reinforcement Learning: A Comprehensive Overview. (United States)

    Liu, Chunming; Xu, Xin; Hu, Dewen


    Reinforcement learning is a powerful mechanism for enabling agents to learn in an unknown environment, and most reinforcement learning algorithms aim to maximize some numerical value, which represents only one long-term objective. However, multiple long-term objectives are exhibited in many real-world decision and control problems; therefore, recently, there has been growing interest in solving multiobjective reinforcement learning (MORL) problems with multiple conflicting objectives. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive overview of MORL. In this paper, the basic architecture, research topics, and naive solutions of MORL are introduced at first. Then, several representative MORL approaches and some important directions of recent research are reviewed. The relationships between MORL and other related research are also discussed, which include multiobjective optimization, hierarchical reinforcement learning, and multi-agent reinforcement learning. Finally, research challenges and open problems of MORL techniques are highlighted.

  1. Multistep Hybrid Extragradient Method for Triple Hierarchical Variational Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Rong Kong


    Full Text Available We consider a triple hierarchical variational inequality problem (THVIP, that is, a variational inequality problem defined over the set of solutions of another variational inequality problem which is defined over the intersection of the fixed point set of a strict pseudocontractive mapping and the solution set of the classical variational inequality problem. Moreover, we propose a multistep hybrid extragradient method to compute the approximate solutions of the THVIP and present the convergence analysis of the sequence generated by the proposed method. We also derive a solution method for solving a system of hierarchical variational inequalities (SHVI, that is, a system of variational inequalities defined over the intersection of the fixed point set of a strict pseudocontractive mapping and the solution set of the classical variational inequality problem. Under very mild conditions, it is proven that the sequence generated by the proposed method converges strongly to a unique solution of the SHVI.

  2. Punching strength of reinforced concrete flat slabs without shear reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. P. Sacramento

    Full Text Available Punching strength is a critical point in the design of flat slabs and due to the lack of a theoretical method capable of explaining this phenomenon, empirical formulations presented by codes of practice are still the most used method to check the bearing capacity of slab-column connections. This paper discusses relevant aspects of the development of flat slabs, the factors that influence the punching resistance of slabs without shear reinforcement and makes comparisons between the experimental results organized in a database with 74 slabs carefully selected with theoretical results using the recommendations of ACI 318, EUROCODE 2 and NBR 6118 and also through the Critical Shear Crack Theory, presented by Muttoni (2008 and incorporated the new fib Model Code (2010.

  3. Reinforcement learning or active inference? (United States)

    Friston, Karl J; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J


    This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.

  4. Reinforcement learning or active inference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J Friston


    Full Text Available This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.

  5. Monitoring device for reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Tetsuo; Saito, Koichi; Furukawa, Hideyasu.


    A reactor container made of reinforced concretes is monitored for the temperature at each of portions upon placing concretes under construction of a plant, upon pressure-proof test and during plant operation. That is, optical fibers are uniformly laid spirally throughout the inside of the concretes. Pulses are injected from one end of the optical fibers, and the temperature at a reflection point can be measured by measuring specific rays (Raman scattering rays) among lights reflected after a predetermined period of time. According to the present invention, measurement for an optional position within a range where one fiber cable is laid can be conducted. Accordingly, it is possible to conduct temperature control upon concrete placing and apply temperature compensation for the measurement for stresses of the concretes and the reinforcing steels upon container pressure-proof. Further, during plant operation, if the temperature of the concretes rises due to thermal conduction of the temperature in the container, integrity of the concretes can be ensured by a countermeasures such as air conditioning. (I.S.)

  6. Soil reinforcement with geosynthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessaim Mohammed Mustapha


    Full Text Available The proportionality of existence of land with good bearing to erect any building or building is very small, to remedy this deficiency it is necessary to resort to techniques of reinforcement of the soils which can constitute a very important development. Among these methods of remediation, there is reinforcement by the geosynthetics which constitute an effective solution to these constraints. This process tends to stabilize the soil in question with increased load bearing capacity in civil engineering and geotechnical works such as embankments, slopes, embankments and hydraulic structures, with an inestimable gain in time, economy and durability while preserving the natural and environmental aspect.

  7. Fibre reinforced concrete exposed to elevated temperature (United States)

    Novák, J.; Kohoutková, A.


    Although concrete when subject to fire performs very well, its behaviour and properties change dramatically under high temperature due to damaged microstructure and mesostructure. As fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) represents a complex material composed of various components with different response to high temperature, to determine its behaviour and mechanical properties in fire is a demanding task. The presented paper provides a summary of findings on the fire response of fibre FRC. Namely, the information on steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC), synthetic fibre reinforced concrete and hybrid (steel + synthetic) fibre reinforced concrete have been gathered from various contributions published up to date. The mechanical properties including the melting point and ignition point of fibres affect significantly the properties of concrete composites with addition of fibres. The combination of steel and synthetic fibres represents a promising alternative how to ensure good toughness of a concrete composite before heating and improve its residual mechanical behaviour and spalling resistance as well as the ductility after heating. While synthetic fibres increase concrete spalling resistance, steel fibres in a concrete mix leads to an improvement in both mechanical properties and resistance to heating effects.

  8. P2MP MPLS-Based Hierarchical Service Management System (United States)

    Kumaki, Kenji; Nakagawa, Ikuo; Nagami, Kenichi; Ogishi, Tomohiko; Ano, Shigehiro

    This paper proposes a point-to-multipoint (P2MP) Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) based hierarchical service management system. Traditionally, general management systems deployed in some service providers control MPLS Label Switched Paths (LSPs) (e.g., RSVP-TE and LDP) and services (e.g., L2VPN, L3VPN and IP) separately. In order for dedicated management systems for MPLS LSPs and services to cooperate with each other automatically, a hierarchical service management system has been proposed with the main focus on point-to-point (P2P) TE LSPs in MPLS path management. In the case where P2MP TE LSPs and services are deployed in MPLS networks, the dedicated management systems for P2MP TE LSPs and services must work together automatically. Therefore, this paper proposes a new algorithm that uses a correlation between P2MP TE LSPs and multicast VPN services based on a P2MP MPLS-based hierarchical service management architecture. Also, the capacity and performance of the proposed algorithm are evaluated by simulations, which are actually based on certain real MPLS production networks, and are compared to that of the algorithm for P2P TE LSPs. Results show this system is very scalable within real MPLS production networks. This system, with the automatic correlation, appears to be deployable in real MPLS production networks.

  9. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent


    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  10. Spectral properties of the hierarchical product of graphs. (United States)

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Wash, Kirsti


    The hierarchical product of two graphs represents a natural way to build a larger graph out of two smaller graphs with less regular and therefore more heterogeneous structure than the Cartesian product. Here we study the eigenvalue spectrum of the adjacency matrix of the hierarchical product of two graphs. Introducing a coupling parameter describing the relative contribution of each of the two smaller graphs, we perform an asymptotic analysis for the full spectrum of eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of the hierarchical product. Specifically, we derive the exact limit points for each eigenvalue in the limits of small and large coupling, as well as the leading-order relaxation to these values in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the two smaller graphs. Given its central roll in the structural and dynamical properties of networks, we study in detail the Perron-Frobenius, or largest, eigenvalue. Finally, as an example application we use our theory to predict the epidemic threshold of the susceptible-infected-susceptible model on a hierarchical product of two graphs.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung; Teixeira, Paula S.; Zapata, Luis A.


    We present a high angular resolution map of the 850 μm continuum emission of the Orion Molecular Cloud-3 (OMC 3) obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA); the map is a mosaic of 85 pointings covering an approximate area of 6.'5 × 2.'0 (0.88 × 0.27 pc). We detect 12 spatially resolved continuum sources, each with an H 2 mass between 0.3-5.7 M ☉ and a projected source size between 1400-8200 AU. All the detected sources are on the filamentary main ridge (n H 2 ≥10 6 cm –3 ), and analysis based on the Jeans theorem suggests that they are most likely gravitationally unstable. Comparison of multi-wavelength data sets indicates that of the continuum sources, 6/12 (50%) are associated with molecular outflows, 8/12 (67%) are associated with infrared sources, and 3/12 (25%) are associated with ionized jets. The evolutionary status of these sources ranges from prestellar cores to protostar phase, confirming that OMC-3 is an active region with ongoing embedded star formation. We detect quasi-periodical separations between the OMC-3 sources of ≈17''/0.035 pc. This spatial distribution is part of a large hierarchical structure that also includes fragmentation scales of giant molecular cloud (≈35 pc), large-scale clumps (≈1.3 pc), and small-scale clumps (≈0.3 pc), suggesting that hierarchical fragmentation operates within the Orion A molecular cloud. The fragmentation spacings are roughly consistent with the thermal fragmentation length in large-scale clumps, while for small-scale cores it is smaller than the local fragmentation length. These smaller spacings observed with the SMA can be explained by either a helical magnetic field, cloud rotation, or/and global filament collapse. Finally, possible evidence for sequential fragmentation is suggested in the northern part of the OMC-3 filament.

  12. On the hierarchical lattices approximation of Bravais lattices: Specific heat and correlation length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.


    Certain types of real-space renormalization groups (which essentially approximate Bravais lattices through hierarchical ones) do not preserve standard thermodynamic convexity properties. It is pointed out that this serious defect is not intrinsic to any real-space renormalization. It can be avoided if form-invariance (under uniform translation of the energy scale) of the equation connecting the Bravais lattice (which is intended to study) to the hierarchical one (which approximates it) is demanded. In addition to that expressions for the critical exponentes ν and α corresponding to hierarchical lattices are analysed; these are consistent with Melrose recent analysis of the fractal intrinsic dimensionality. (Author) [pt

  13. Loops in hierarchical channel networks (United States)

    Katifori, Eleni; Magnasco, Marcelo


    Nature provides us with many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture. Although a number of methods have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated and natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and animal vasculature. We calculate various metrics on the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight) and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs.

  14. Hierarchical organisation of causal graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziopa, P.


    This paper deals with the design of a supervision system using a hierarchy of models formed by graphs, in which the variables are the nodes and the causal relations between the variables of the arcs. To obtain a representation of the variables evolutions which contains only the relevant features of their real evolutions, the causal relations are completed with qualitative transfer functions (QTFs) which produce roughly the behaviour of the classical transfer functions. Major improvements have been made in the building of the hierarchical organization. First, the basic variables of the uppermost level and the causal relations between them are chosen. The next graph is built by adding intermediary variables to the upper graph. When the undermost graph has been built, the transfer functions parameters corresponding to its causal relations are identified. The second task consists in the upwelling of the information from the undermost graph to the uppermost one. A fusion procedure of the causal relations has been designed to compute the QFTs relevant for each level. This procedure aims to reduce the number of parameters needed to represent an evolution at a high level of abstraction. These techniques have been applied to the hierarchical modelling of nuclear process. (authors). 8 refs., 12 figs

  15. Stability of glassy hierarchical networks (United States)

    Zamani, M.; Camargo-Forero, L.; Vicsek, T.


    The structure of interactions in most animal and human societies can be best represented by complex hierarchical networks. In order to maintain close-to-optimal function both stability and adaptability are necessary. Here we investigate the stability of hierarchical networks that emerge from the simulations of an organization type with an efficiency function reminiscent of the Hamiltonian of spin glasses. Using this quantitative approach we find a number of expected (from everyday observations) and highly non-trivial results for the obtained locally optimal networks, including, for example: (i) stability increases with growing efficiency and level of hierarchy; (ii) the same perturbation results in a larger change for more efficient states; (iii) networks with a lower level of hierarchy become more efficient after perturbation; (iv) due to the huge number of possible optimal states only a small fraction of them exhibit resilience and, finally, (v) ‘attacks’ targeting the nodes selectively (regarding their position in the hierarchy) can result in paradoxical outcomes.

  16. Hierarchically nested river landform sequences (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Weber, M. D.; Brown, R. A.; Baig, D.


    River corridors exhibit landforms nested within landforms repeatedly down spatial scales. In this study we developed, tested, and implemented a new way to create river classifications by mapping domains of fluvial processes with respect to the hierarchical organization of topographic complexity that drives fluvial dynamism. We tested this approach on flow convergence routing, a morphodynamic mechanism with different states depending on the structure of nondimensional topographic variability. Five nondimensional landform types with unique functionality (nozzle, wide bar, normal channel, constricted pool, and oversized) represent this process at any flow. When this typology is nested at base flow, bankfull, and floodprone scales it creates a system with up to 125 functional types. This shows how a single mechanism produces complex dynamism via nesting. Given the classification, we answered nine specific scientific questions to investigate the abundance, sequencing, and hierarchical nesting of these new landform types using a 35-km gravel/cobble river segment of the Yuba River in California. The nested structure of flow convergence routing landforms found in this study revealed that bankfull landforms are nested within specific floodprone valley landform types, and these types control bankfull morphodynamics during moderate to large floods. As a result, this study calls into question the prevailing theory that the bankfull channel of a gravel/cobble river is controlled by in-channel, bankfull, and/or small flood flows. Such flows are too small to initiate widespread sediment transport in a gravel/cobble river with topographic complexity.

  17. Multilevel hierarchically ordered artificial biomineral. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoguo; Lin, Kaili; Wu, Chengtie; Wang, Yueyue; Zou, Zhaoyong; Chang, Jiang


    Living organisms are known for creating complex organic-inorganic hybrid materials such as bone, teeth, and shells, which possess outstanding functions as compared to their simple mineral forms. This has inspired many attempts to mimic such structures, but has yielded few practical advances. In this study, a multilevel hierarchically ordered artificial biomineral (a composite of hydroxyapatite and gelatine) with favorable nanomechanical properties is reported. A typical optimized HAp/gelatin hybrid material in the perpendicular direction of the HAp c-axis has a modulus of 25.91 + 1.78 GPa and hardness of 0.90 + 0.10 GPa, which well matches that of human cortical bone (modulus 24.3 + 1.4 GPa, hardness 0.69 + 0.05 GPa). The bottom-up crystal constructions (from nano- to micro- to macroscale) of this material are achieved through a hard template approach by the phase transformation from DCP to HAp. The structural biomimetic material shows another way to mimic the complex hierarchical designs of sclerous tissues which have potential value for application in hard tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Discovering hierarchical structure in normal relational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten


    Hierarchical clustering is a widely used tool for structuring and visualizing complex data using similarity. Traditionally, hierarchical clustering is based on local heuristics that do not explicitly provide assessment of the statistical saliency of the extracted hierarchy. We propose a non......-parametric generative model for hierarchical clustering of similarity based on multifurcating Gibbs fragmentation trees. This allows us to infer and display the posterior distribution of hierarchical structures that comply with the data. We demonstrate the utility of our method on synthetic data and data of functional...

  19. Recycling and Utilization of Waste Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yan-chao


    Full Text Available This paper mainly introduced the recovery method, classification and comprehensive utilization process of waste glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP. Among the current methods of utilization, the physical method is most promising. After pre-processing of waste GFRP, the short glass fiber can be used in gypsum block to improve the anti-cracking and operation performance of the material; waste GFRP powder can be used in plastic fiber reinforced manhole covers to increase the mechanical strength, and the products conformed to JC 1009-2006. Based on these studies, we also point out some problems concerning the utilization of waste glass fiber reinforced plastics.

  20. Episodic reinforcement learning control approach for biped walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Duško


    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid dynamic control approach to the realization of humanoid biped robotic walk, focusing on the policy gradient episodic reinforcement learning with fuzzy evaluative feedback. The proposed structure of controller involves two feedback loops: a conventional computed torque controller and an episodic reinforcement learning controller. The reinforcement learning part includes fuzzy information about Zero-Moment- Point errors. Simulation tests using a medium-size 36-DOF humanoid robot MEXONE were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  1. Reinforcement with fluoroplastic additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, R.A.; Stewart, C.W.; Thomas, E.W.; Stahl, W.M.


    The use of high molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as a reinforcing additive to improve the tear strength of elastomers was studied in silicone rubber by the mid-1950s and in fluoroelastomers by the late-1960s. Although the PTFE is added as a powder, the shear developed during compounding into an elastomer fibrillates the power into a continuous network of nodes and fibers. This network structure effectively reinforces elastomers but it also leads to distortion of finished parts and unacceptably high hardness and modulus of vulcanizates. A new high molecular weight TFE/HFP fluoroplastic micropowder has recently been developed (Teflon MP1500, Du Pont) which forms short fibers, ribbons or platelets when compounded with sufficient shear into elastomers. The controlled structure developed during compounding allows high levels of incorporation of the micropowder into elastomers with uniform dispersion and results in significant improvements in tear strength and abrasion resistance, as well as reduced coefficients of friction.

  2. Nanostructured composite reinforced material (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN


    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  3. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.


    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  4. Rigid Polyurethane Foam Reinforced Coconut Coir Fiber Properties


    Mohd Azham Azmi


    This research work studied the properties of composite foam panels. Coconut coir fibers were used as reinforcement in polyurethane (PU) foam in order to increase the properties of foam. This composite foam panels were fabricated by using polyurethane molded method. The polyurethane foam panels reinforced from 5 to 20wt% coconut coir were produced to investigate the physical and mechanical test via density test and three point bending test respectively. It was found that the density test resul...

  5. A Case for Hierarchical Routing in in Low-Power Wireless Embedded Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwanicki, K.S.; van Steen, M.R.


    Hierarchical routing has often been mentioned as an appealing point-to-point routing technique for wireless sensor networks (sensornets). While there is a volume of analytical and high-level simulation results demonstrating its merits, there has been little work evaluating it in actual sensornet

  6. Deep Reinforcement Fuzzing


    Böttinger, Konstantin; Godefroid, Patrice; Singh, Rishabh


    Fuzzing is the process of finding security vulnerabilities in input-processing code by repeatedly testing the code with modified inputs. In this paper, we formalize fuzzing as a reinforcement learning problem using the concept of Markov decision processes. This in turn allows us to apply state-of-the-art deep Q-learning algorithms that optimize rewards, which we define from runtime properties of the program under test. By observing the rewards caused by mutating with a specific set of actions...

  7. Reinforced aerodynamic profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to the prevention of deformations in an aerodynamic profile caused by lack of resistance to the bending moment forces that are created when such a profile is loaded in operation. More specifically, the invention relates to a reinforcing element inside an aerodynamic...... profile and a method for the construction thereof. The profile is intended for, but not limited to, useas a wind turbine blade, an aerofoil device or as a wing profile used in the aeronautical industry....

  8. Finite element analysis of bond behavior in a steel reinforced concrete structure strengthened carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pastorek


    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of influence of carbon-fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP on stress distribution in a steel reinforced concrete beam loaded by four-point bending flexural test. Simulation of the delamination is modelled by FEM with a cohesion zone material model. Distribution of cracks with CFRP strengthening is analysed, too. Finally, the fatigue life tests analysis was executed for the steel specimen (W.Nr. 1.0429 – concrete steel, which was used in the reinforced concrete beam. The fatigue test results are used to plot the fatigue life curve.

  9. An interference cancellation strategy for broadcast in hierarchical cell structure

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli


    In this paper, a hierarchical cell structure is considered, where public safety broadcasting is fulfilled in a femtocell located within a macrocell. In the femtocell, also known as local cell, an access point broadcasts to each local node (LN) over an orthogonal frequency sub-band independently. Since the local cell shares the spectrum licensed to the macrocell, a given LN is interfered by transmissions of the macrocell user (MU) in the same sub-band. To improve the broadcast performance in the local cell, a novel scheme is proposed to mitigate the interference from the MU to the LN while achieving diversity gain. For the sake of performance evaluation, ergodic capacity of the proposed scheme is quantified and a corresponding closed-form expression is obtained. By comparing with the traditional scheme that suffers from the MU\\'s interference, numerical results substantiate the advantage of the proposed scheme and provide a useful tool for the broadcast design in hierarchical cell systems.

  10. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  11. Effects of Point-Loss Punishers on Human Signal-Detection Performance (United States)

    Lie, Celia; Alsop, Brent


    Three experiments using human participants varied the distribution of point-gain reinforcers or point-loss punishers in two-alternative signal-detection procedures. Experiment 1 varied the distribution of point-gain reinforcers for correct responses (Group A) and point-loss punishers for errors (Group B) across conditions. Response bias varied…

  12. Adaptive Sampling in Hierarchical Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knap, J; Barton, N R; Hornung, R D; Arsenlis, A; Becker, R; Jefferson, D R


    We propose an adaptive sampling methodology for hierarchical multi-scale simulation. The method utilizes a moving kriging interpolation to significantly reduce the number of evaluations of finer-scale response functions to provide essential constitutive information to a coarser-scale simulation model. The underlying interpolation scheme is unstructured and adaptive to handle the transient nature of a simulation. To handle the dynamic construction and searching of a potentially large set of finer-scale response data, we employ a dynamic metric tree database. We study the performance of our adaptive sampling methodology for a two-level multi-scale model involving a coarse-scale finite element simulation and a finer-scale crystal plasticity based constitutive law.

  13. Core Recursive Hierarchical Image Segmentation (United States)

    Tilton, James


    The Recursive Hierarchical Image Segmentation (RHSEG) software has been repackaged to provide a version of the RHSEG software that is not subject to patent restrictions and that can be released to the general public through NASA GSFC's Open Source release process. Like the Core HSEG Software Package, this Core RHSEG Software Package also includes a visualization program called HSEGViewer along with a utility program HSEGReader. It also includes an additional utility program called HSEGExtract. The unique feature of the Core RHSEG package is that it is a repackaging of the RHSEG technology designed to specifically avoid the inclusion of the certain software technology. Unlike the Core HSEG package, it includes the recursive portions of the technology, but does not include processing window artifact elimination technology.

  14. Hierarchical magnetic assembly of nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hangarter, Carlos M; Rheem, Youngwoo; Yoo, Bongyoung; Yang, Eui-Hyeok; Myung, Nosang V


    Magnetic alignment is reported as a facile technique for assembling nanowires into hierarchical structures. Cross junction and T junction nanowire networks are demonstrated using a sequential alignment technique on unpatterned substrates and predefined lithographically patterned ferromagnetic electrodes. The formation of T junctions prevails as nanowires from the first alignment behave as ferromagnetic electrodes under the external magnetic field of the second alignment. The presence of prefabricated ferromagnetic electrodes dominates dipole interactions of localized nanowires for preferential alignment. Application of a magnetic field from a cylindrical coaxial magnet has also been utilized to form radially aligned nanowires. The magnetic field of the coaxial cylindrical magnet produced a dense, concentric nanowire configuration at the centre of the magnetic field as a consequence of the radial field gradient, and sparse nanowire arrangements in the peripheral field, which were utilized as interconnects with a concentric electrode design

  15. Biased trapping issue on weighted hierarchical networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present trapping issues of weight-dependent walks on weighted hierarchical networks which are based on the classic scale-free hierarchical networks. Assuming that edge's weight is used as local information by a random walker, we introduce a biased walk. The biased walk is that a walker, at each step, ...

  16. Adaptive hierarchical multi-agent organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghijsen, M.; Jansweijer, W.N.H.; Wielinga, B.J.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A.


    In this chapter, we discuss the design of adaptive hierarchical organizations for multi-agent systems (MAS). Hierarchical organizations have a number of advantages such as their ability to handle complex problems and their scalability to large organizations. By introducing adaptivity in the

  17. Effect of location of glass fiber-reinforced composite reinforcement on the flexural properties of a maxillary complete denture in vitro. (United States)

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Yoshida, Kaneyoshi; Shimizu, Hiroshi


    Objective. To evaluate the effect of the location of glass fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) reinforcement on the flexural load at the proportional limit (FL-PL) and the flexural deflection of a maxillary acrylic resin complete denture. Material and methods. Maxillary acrylic resin complete dentures strengthened with and without FRC reinforcement were tested. The polymerized FRC was embedded in the denture base resin in the doughy state and placed (1) under the ridge lap region, (2) in the anterior region, (3) in the middle region or (4) in the anterior and posterior regions. The FL-PL and flexural deflection value at the 100-N loading point of the reinforced maxillary denture specimens were tested. Results. All of the reinforced dentures had a higher FL-PL than the denture without reinforcement but the FL-PL values of all the dentures were not significantly different from each other. The efficiency of the FRC reinforcement compared to the unreinforced denture was 1.54-1.75 times greater. All of the reinforced dentures showed significantly lower deflection compared to the unreinforced denture, but the flexural deflections of all the dentures were not significantly different from each other. Conclusions. The location of the FRC reinforcement did not affect the fracture resistance of the maxillary acrylic resin complete denture. All of the reinforced dentures had higher FL-PL and lower flexural deflection than the denture without reinforcement.

  18. Hierarchical Rhetorical Sentence Categorization for Scientific Papers (United States)

    Rachman, G. H.; Khodra, M. L.; Widyantoro, D. H.


    Important information in scientific papers can be composed of rhetorical sentences that is structured from certain categories. To get this information, text categorization should be conducted. Actually, some works in this task have been completed by employing word frequency, semantic similarity words, hierarchical classification, and the others. Therefore, this paper aims to present the rhetorical sentence categorization from scientific paper by employing TF-IDF and Word2Vec to capture word frequency and semantic similarity words and employing hierarchical classification. Every experiment is tested in two classifiers, namely Naïve Bayes and SVM Linear. This paper shows that hierarchical classifier is better than flat classifier employing either TF-IDF or Word2Vec, although it increases only almost 2% from 27.82% when using flat classifier until 29.61% when using hierarchical classifier. It shows also different learning model for child-category can be built by hierarchical classifier.

  19. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eRen


    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  20. Ionothermal synthesis of hierarchical BiOBr microspheres for water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dieqing [The Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200231 (China); Department of Chemistry and Institute of Environment, Energy and Sustainability, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Wen, Meicheng; Jiang, Bo; Li, Guisheng [The Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200231 (China); Yu, Jimmy C., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Environment, Energy and Sustainability, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China)


    Graphical abstract: Hierarchical BiOBr microspheres were prepared from a bromine-containing ionic liquid. The material was found effective for removing heavy metals, degrading organic pollutants and killing bacteria. Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ionothermal synthesis of BiOBr microspheres with hierarchical structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient mass transfer and excellent light-harvesting ability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suitable for removing heavy metals and treatment of organic dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Remarkable photocatalytic bactericidal property. - Abstract: Bismuth oxybromide (BiOBr) micropsheres with hierarchical morphologies have been fabricated via an ionothermal synthesis route. Ionic liquid acts as a unique soft material capable of promoting nucleation and in situ growth of 3D hierarchical BiOBr mesocrystals without the help of surfactants. The as-prepared BiOBr nanomaterials can effectively remove heavy metal ions and organic dyes from wastewater. They can also kill Micrococcus lylae, a Gram positive bacterium, in water under fluorescent light irradiation. Their high adaptability in water treatment may be ascribed to their hierarchical structure, allowing them high surface to volume ratio, facile species transportation and excellent light-harvesting ability.

  1. Fluorocarbon adsorption in hierarchical porous frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motkuri, RK; Annapureddy, HVR; Vijaykumar, M; Schaef, HT; Martin, PF; McGrail, BP; Dang, LX; Krishna, R; Thallapally, PK


    Metal-organic frameworks comprise an important class of solid-state materials and have potential for many emerging applications such as energy storage, separation, catalysis and bio-medical. Here we report the adsorption behaviour of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives on a set of microporous and hierarchical mesoporous frameworks. The microporous frameworks show a saturation uptake capacity for dichlorodifluoromethane of >4 mmol g(-1) at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/P-o) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous framework shows an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching >14 mmol g(-1) at P/P-o of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption is found to generally correlate with the polarizability and boiling point of the refrigerant, with dichlorodifluoromethane >chlorodifluoromethane >chlorotrifluoromethane >tetrafluoromethane >methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting these sorbents for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Yang


    Full Text Available This paper describes an automated method of constructing a hierarchical road network given a single dataset, without the presence of thematic attributes. The method is based on a pattern graph which maintains nodes and paths as junctions and through-traffic roads. The hierarchy is formed incrementally in a top-down fashion for highways, ramps, and major roads directly connected to ramps; and bottom-up for the rest of major and minor roads. Through reasoning and analysis, ramps are identified as unique characteristics for recognizing and assembling high speed roads. The method makes distinctions on the types of ramps by articulating their connection patterns with highways. Major and minor roads will be identified by both quantitative and qualitative analysis of spatial properties and by discovering neighbourhood patterns revealed in the data. The result of the method would enrich data description and support comprehensive queries on sorted exit or entry points on highways and their related roads. The enrichment on road network data is important to a high successful rate of feature matching for road networks and to geospatial data integration.

  3. Hierarchical structure and biomineralization in cricket teeth (United States)

    Xing, Xue-Qing; Gong, Yu; Cai, Quan; Mo, Guang; Du, Rong; Chen, Zhong-Jun; Wu, Zhong-Hua


    The cricket is a truculent insect with stiff and sharp teeth as a fighting weapon. The structure and possible biomineralization of cricket teeth are always interesting. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and small angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to probe the element distribution, possible crystalline structures and size distribution of scatterers in cricket teeth. A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the nanoscaled structure. The results demonstrate that Zn is the main heavy element in cricket teeth. The surface of a cricket tooth has a crystalline compound like ZnFe2(AsO4)2(OH)2(H2O)4. The interior of the tooth has a crystalline compound like ZnCl2, which is from the biomineralization. The ZnCl2-like biomineral forms nanoscaled microfibrils and their axial direction points towards the top of the tooth cusp. The microfibrils aggregate randomly into intermediate filaments, forming a hierarchical structure. A sketch map of the cricket tooth cusp is proposed and a detailed discussion is given in this paper.

  4. Hierarchical regular small-world networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Goncalves, Bruno; Guclu, Hasan


    Two new networks are introduced that resemble small-world properties. These networks are recursively constructed but retain a fixed, regular degree. They possess a unique one-dimensional lattice backbone overlaid by a hierarchical sequence of long-distance links, mixing real-space and small-world features. Both networks, one 3-regular and the other 4-regular, lead to distinct behaviors, as revealed by renormalization group studies. The 3-regular network is planar, has a diameter growing as √N with system size N, and leads to super-diffusion with an exact, anomalous exponent d w = 1.306..., but possesses only a trivial fixed point T c = 0 for the Ising ferromagnet. In turn, the 4-regular network is non-planar, has a diameter growing as ∼2 √(log 2 N 2 ) , exhibits 'ballistic' diffusion (d w = 1), and a non-trivial ferromagnetic transition, T c > 0. It suggests that the 3-regular network is still quite 'geometric', while the 4-regular network qualifies as a true small world with mean-field properties. As an engineering application we discuss synchronization of processors on these networks. (fast track communication)

  5. Fluorocarbon adsorption in hierarchical porous frameworks (United States)

    Motkuri, Radha Kishan; Annapureddy, Harsha V. R.; Vijaykumar, M.; Schaef, H. Todd; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dang, Liem X.; Krishna, Rajamani; Thallapally, Praveen K.


    Metal-organic frameworks comprise an important class of solid-state materials and have potential for many emerging applications such as energy storage, separation, catalysis and bio-medical. Here we report the adsorption behaviour of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives on a set of microporous and hierarchical mesoporous frameworks. The microporous frameworks show a saturation uptake capacity for dichlorodifluoromethane of >4 mmol g-1 at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/Po) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous framework shows an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching >14 mmol g-1 at P/Po of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption is found to generally correlate with the polarizability and boiling point of the refrigerant, with dichlorodifluoromethane >chlorodifluoromethane >chlorotrifluoromethane >tetrafluoromethane >methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting these sorbents for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling.

  6. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning (United States)

    Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David; Rusu, Andrei A.; Veness, Joel; Bellemare, Marc G.; Graves, Alex; Riedmiller, Martin; Fidjeland, Andreas K.; Ostrovski, Georg; Petersen, Stig; Beattie, Charles; Sadik, Amir; Antonoglou, Ioannis; King, Helen; Kumaran, Dharshan; Wierstra, Daan; Legg, Shane; Hassabis, Demis


    The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations. Remarkably, humans and other animals seem to solve this problem through a harmonious combination of reinforcement learning and hierarchical sensory processing systems, the former evidenced by a wealth of neural data revealing notable parallels between the phasic signals emitted by dopaminergic neurons and temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithms. While reinforcement learning agents have achieved some successes in a variety of domains, their applicability has previously been limited to domains in which useful features can be handcrafted, or to domains with fully observed, low-dimensional state spaces. Here we use recent advances in training deep neural networks to develop a novel artificial agent, termed a deep Q-network, that can learn successful policies directly from high-dimensional sensory inputs using end-to-end reinforcement learning. We tested this agent on the challenging domain of classic Atari 2600 games. We demonstrate that the deep Q-network agent, receiving only the pixels and the game score as inputs, was able to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms and achieve a level comparable to that of a professional human games tester across a set of 49 games, using the same algorithm, network architecture and hyperparameters. This work bridges the divide between high-dimensional sensory inputs and actions, resulting in the first artificial agent that is capable of learning to excel at a diverse array of challenging tasks.

  7. Reinforcement in opinion dynamics (United States)

    Volovik, Daniel

    I consider the evolution and acceptance of a new opinion in a population of unaware agents by using physics-based models of contagion spread. These models rely upon agent-based dynamics, in which an agent changes opinion by interactions with neighbors according to specific interactions. Most of these models have the feature that only a single input is required to change the opinion of an agent --- an agent has no commitment to its current opinion and accepts a new idea at the slightest provocation. These single-input models fail to account for people's confidence in their own beliefs. Thus I study the concept of social reinforcement --- that an agent adopts a new opinion only after multiple reinforcing prompts. Building on single-input models, I introduce two models of opinion spreading that incorporate a social reinforcement mechanism. (a) In the irreversible innovation and in the transient fad spreading models, a development is initially known only to a small portion of the population and subsequently spreads. An individual requires M > 1 interactions with an adopter before adopting the development. The ultimate extent of a transient fad depends critically on the characteristic time the fad keeps the attention of an adopting agent. (b) In the confident voter model, a voter can be in one of two opinion states and can additionally have two levels of commitment to an opinion: confident and vacillating. Upon interacting with an agent of a different opinion, a confident voter becomes less committed, or vacillating, but does not change opinion. However, a vacillating agent changes opinion by interacting with an agent of a different opinion. In two dimensions, the distribution of consensus times is characterized by two distinct times one that scales linearly with N and another that appears to scale as N 3/2. The longer time arises from configurations that fall into long-lived states that consist of multiple single-opinion stripes before consensus is reached.

  8. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning. (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding


    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  9. Development and modification of a response class via positive and negative reinforcement: a translational approach. (United States)

    Mendres, Amber E; Borrero, John C


    When responses function to produce the same reinforcer, a response class exists. Researchers have examined response classes in applied settings; however, the challenges associated with conducting applied research on response class development have recently necessitated the development of an analogue response class model. To date, little research has examined response classes that are strengthened by negative reinforcement. The current investigation was designed to develop a laboratory model of a response class through positive reinforcement (i.e., points exchangeable for money) and through negative reinforcement (i.e., the avoidance of scheduled point losses) with 11 college students as participants and clicks as the operant. Results of both the positive and negative reinforcement evaluations showed that participants usually selected the least effortful response that produced points or the avoidance of point losses, respectively. The applied implications of the findings are discussed, along with the relevance of the present model to the study of punishment and resurgence.

  10. Flexural strength of self compacting fiber reinforced concrete beams using polypropylene fiber: An experimental study (United States)

    Lisantono, Ade; Praja, Baskoro Abdi; Hermawan, Billy Nouwen


    One of the methods to increase the tensile strength of concrete is adding a fiber material into the concrete. While to reduce a noise in a construction project, a self compacting concrete was a good choices in the project. This paper presents an experimental study of flexural behavior and strength of self compacting fiber reinforced concrete (RC) beams using polypropylene fiber. The micro monofilament polypropylene fibers with the proportion 0.9 kg/m3 of concrete weight were used in this study. Four beam specimens were cast and tested in this study. Two beams were cast of self compacting reinforced concrete without fiber, and two beams were cast of self compacting fiber reinforced concrete using polypropylene. The beams specimen had the section of (180×260) mm and the length was 2000 mm. The beams had simple supported with the span of 1800 mm. The longitudinal reinforcements were using diameter of 10 mm. Two reinforcements of Ø10 mm were put for compressive reinforcement and three reinforcements of Ø10 mm were put for tensile reinforcement. The shear reinforcement was using diameter of 8 mm. The shear reinforcements with spacing of 100 mm were put in the one fourth near to the support and the spacing of 150 mm were put in the middle span. Two points loading were used in the testing. The result shows that the load-carrying capacity of the self compacting reinforced concrete beam using polypropylene was a little bit higher than the self compacting reinforced concrete beam without polypropylene. The increment of load-carrying capacity of self compacting polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete was not so significant because the increment was only 2.80 % compare to self compacting non fiber reinforced concrete. And from the load-carrying capacity-deflection relationship curves show that both the self compacting polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete beam and the self compacting non fiber reinforced concrete beam were ductile beams.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Teixeira, Paula S. [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180, Wien (Austria); Zapata, Luis A., E-mail: [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia, Michoacan 58090 (Mexico)


    We present a high angular resolution map of the 850 {mu}m continuum emission of the Orion Molecular Cloud-3 (OMC 3) obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA); the map is a mosaic of 85 pointings covering an approximate area of 6.'5 Multiplication-Sign 2.'0 (0.88 Multiplication-Sign 0.27 pc). We detect 12 spatially resolved continuum sources, each with an H{sub 2} mass between 0.3-5.7 M {sub Sun} and a projected source size between 1400-8200 AU. All the detected sources are on the filamentary main ridge (n{sub H{sub 2}}{>=}10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}), and analysis based on the Jeans theorem suggests that they are most likely gravitationally unstable. Comparison of multi-wavelength data sets indicates that of the continuum sources, 6/12 (50%) are associated with molecular outflows, 8/12 (67%) are associated with infrared sources, and 3/12 (25%) are associated with ionized jets. The evolutionary status of these sources ranges from prestellar cores to protostar phase, confirming that OMC-3 is an active region with ongoing embedded star formation. We detect quasi-periodical separations between the OMC-3 sources of Almost-Equal-To 17''/0.035 pc. This spatial distribution is part of a large hierarchical structure that also includes fragmentation scales of giant molecular cloud ( Almost-Equal-To 35 pc), large-scale clumps ( Almost-Equal-To 1.3 pc), and small-scale clumps ( Almost-Equal-To 0.3 pc), suggesting that hierarchical fragmentation operates within the Orion A molecular cloud. The fragmentation spacings are roughly consistent with the thermal fragmentation length in large-scale clumps, while for small-scale cores it is smaller than the local fragmentation length. These smaller spacings observed with the SMA can be explained by either a helical magnetic field, cloud rotation, or/and global filament collapse. Finally, possible evidence for sequential fragmentation is suggested in the northern part of the OMC-3 filament.

  12. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri


    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  13. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  14. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Hierarchicality of trade flow networks reveals complexity of products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiteng Shi

    Full Text Available With globalization, countries are more connected than before by trading flows, which amounts to at least 36 trillion dollars today. Interestingly, around 30-60 percents of exports consist of intermediate products in global. Therefore, the trade flow network of particular product with high added values can be regarded as value chains. The problem is weather we can discriminate between these products from their unique flow network structure? This paper applies the flow analysis method developed in ecology to 638 trading flow networks of different products. We claim that the allometric scaling exponent η can be used to characterize the degree of hierarchicality of a flow network, i.e., whether the trading products flow on long hierarchical chains. Then, it is pointed out that the flow networks of products with higher added values and complexity like machinary, transport equipment etc. have larger exponents, meaning that their trade flow networks are more hierarchical. As a result, without the extra data like global input-output table, we can identify the product categories with higher complexity, and the relative importance of a country in the global value chain by the trading network solely.

  16. Hierarchicality of trade flow networks reveals complexity of products. (United States)

    Shi, Peiteng; Zhang, Jiang; Yang, Bo; Luo, Jingfei


    With globalization, countries are more connected than before by trading flows, which amounts to at least 36 trillion dollars today. Interestingly, around 30-60 percents of exports consist of intermediate products in global. Therefore, the trade flow network of particular product with high added values can be regarded as value chains. The problem is weather we can discriminate between these products from their unique flow network structure? This paper applies the flow analysis method developed in ecology to 638 trading flow networks of different products. We claim that the allometric scaling exponent η can be used to characterize the degree of hierarchicality of a flow network, i.e., whether the trading products flow on long hierarchical chains. Then, it is pointed out that the flow networks of products with higher added values and complexity like machinary, transport equipment etc. have larger exponents, meaning that their trade flow networks are more hierarchical. As a result, without the extra data like global input-output table, we can identify the product categories with higher complexity, and the relative importance of a country in the global value chain by the trading network solely.

  17. Hierarchicality of Trade Flow Networks Reveals Complexity of Products (United States)

    Shi, Peiteng; Zhang, Jiang; Yang, Bo; Luo, Jingfei


    With globalization, countries are more connected than before by trading flows, which amounts to at least trillion dollars today. Interestingly, around percents of exports consist of intermediate products in global. Therefore, the trade flow network of particular product with high added values can be regarded as value chains. The problem is weather we can discriminate between these products from their unique flow network structure? This paper applies the flow analysis method developed in ecology to 638 trading flow networks of different products. We claim that the allometric scaling exponent can be used to characterize the degree of hierarchicality of a flow network, i.e., whether the trading products flow on long hierarchical chains. Then, it is pointed out that the flow networks of products with higher added values and complexity like machinary, transport equipment etc. have larger exponents, meaning that their trade flow networks are more hierarchical. As a result, without the extra data like global input-output table, we can identify the product categories with higher complexity, and the relative importance of a country in the global value chain by the trading network solely. PMID:24905753

  18. Hierarchical ordering with partial pairwise hierarchical relationships on the macaque brain data sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosang Lim

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organizations of information processing in the brain networks have been known to exist and widely studied. To find proper hierarchical structures in the macaque brain, the traditional methods need the entire pairwise hierarchical relationships between cortical areas. In this paper, we present a new method that discovers hierarchical structures of macaque brain networks by using partial information of pairwise hierarchical relationships. Our method uses a graph-based manifold learning to exploit inherent relationship, and computes pseudo distances of hierarchical levels for every pair of cortical areas. Then, we compute hierarchy levels of all cortical areas by minimizing the sum of squared hierarchical distance errors with the hierarchical information of few cortical areas. We evaluate our method on the macaque brain data sets whose true hierarchical levels are known as the FV91 model. The experimental results show that hierarchy levels computed by our method are similar to the FV91 model, and its errors are much smaller than the errors of hierarchical clustering approaches.

  19. Behavior of Reworked Steel Reinforcement Bars in Reinforced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steel reinforcement bars are a key component in reinforced concrete and are mainly employed to carry tensile stresses since concrete on its own is weak in tension. Sometimes these bars are wrongly bent, straightened and re bent, resulting in the altering of their original characteristics. Some of such steel has been used ...

  20. Hierarchical decision making for flood risk reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi


    River flood events often cause large economic damages and casualties requiring stakeholders to manage flood risk. In flood prone areas, flood risk management can be achieved through a series hierarchically integrated protection structures, which together form a hierarchical flood protection system...... and compare the benefit of large upstream protection structures and local downstream protection structures in regard to epistemic uncertainty parameters. Results suggest that epistemic uncertainty influences the outcome of the decision model and that, depending on the magnitude of epistemic uncertainty...... the hierarchical level on which risk reducing measures are most beneficial might change....

  1. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas


    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe......, termed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models. Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models extend the modeling flexibility of Naïve Bayes models by introducing latent variables to relax some of the independence statements in these models. We propose a simple algorithm for learning Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models...

  2. Hierarchical modeling and analysis for spatial data

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sudipto; Gelfand, Alan E


    Among the many uses of hierarchical modeling, their application to the statistical analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal data from areas such as epidemiology And environmental science has proven particularly fruitful. Yet to date, the few books that address the subject have been either too narrowly focused on specific aspects of spatial analysis, or written at a level often inaccessible to those lacking a strong background in mathematical statistics.Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis for Spatial Data is the first accessible, self-contained treatment of hierarchical methods, modeling, and dat

  3. Hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong


    The present invention is a structure, method of making and method of use for a novel macroscopic hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped, nano-porous carbon membrane (HNDCMs) with asymmetric and hierarchical pore architecture that can be produced on a large-scale approach. The unique HNDCM holds great promise as components in separation and advanced carbon devices because they could offer unconventional fluidic transport phenomena on the nanoscale. Overall, the invention set forth herein covers a hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes and methods of making and using such a membranes.

  4. Corrosion of reinforcement bars in steel ibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe

    Steel fibres have been known as an alternative to traditional reinforcement bars for special applications of structural concrete for decades and the use of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) has gradually increased in recent years. Steel fibres lead to reduced crack widths in concrete formed......, among other reasons, due to shrinkage and/or mechanical loading. Steel fibres are nowadays also used in combination with traditional reinforcement for structural concrete, where the role of the fibres is to minimize the crack widths whereas the traditional reinforcement bars are used for structural...... purpose. Although such, so-called, combined reinforcement systems, are gaining impact within the construction industry, they are only marginally covered by existing guidelines for structural design and the literature concerning their mechanical and, in particular their durability aspects, is sparse...


    Rupprecht, Laura E.; Smith, Tracy T.; Schassburger, Rachel L.; Buffalari, Deanne M.; Sved, Alan F.; Donny, Eric C.


    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and nicotine, the primary psychoactive constituent in tobacco, drives sustained use. The behavioral actions of nicotine are complex and extend well beyond the actions of the drug as a primary reinforcer. Stimuli that are consistently paired with nicotine can, through associative learning, take on reinforcing properties as conditioned stimuli. These conditioned stimuli can then impact the rate and probability of behavior and even function as conditioning reinforcers that maintain behavior in the absence of nicotine. Nicotine can also act as a conditioned stimulus, predicting the delivery of other reinforcers, which may allow nicotine to acquire value as a conditioned reinforcer. These associative effects, establishing non-nicotine stimuli as conditioned stimuli with discriminative stimulus and conditioned reinforcing properties as well as establishing nicotine as a conditioned stimulus, are predicted by basic conditioning principles. However, nicotine can also act non-associatively. Nicotine directly enhances the reinforcing efficacy of other reinforcing stimuli in the environment, an effect that does not require a temporal or predictive relationship between nicotine and either the stimulus or the behavior. Hence, the reinforcing actions of nicotine stem both from the primary reinforcing actions of the drug (and the subsequent associative learning effects) as well as the reinforcement enhancement action of nicotine which is non-associative in nature. Gaining a better understanding of how nicotine impacts behavior will allow for maximally effective tobacco control efforts aimed at reducing the harm associated with tobacco use by reducing and/or treating its addictiveness. PMID:25638333

  6. Significance of stainless steel wire reinforcement on the mechanical properties of GFRP composites


    K. Pazhanivel; G.B. Bhaskar; A.Elayaperumal


    Investigations on flexural and tensile properties of GFRP laminates influenced by stainless steel wire reinforcement were carried out as a novel approach. Plain GFRP laminates and GFRP laminates reinforced with stainless steel wires at different depth with various pitch distances were fabricated by hand layup method. The composite specimens reinforced with steel wires were exposed to low frequency high amplitude cyclic load by using a cam arrangement. Three point bend test was carried out on ...

  7. Hierarchical cluster analysis of ignitable liquids based on the total ion spectrum. (United States)

    Waddell, Erin E; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L; Williams, Mary R; Sigman, Michael E


    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data of ignitable liquids in the Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection (ILRC) database were processed to obtain 445 total ion spectra (TIS), that is, average mass spectra across the chromatographic profile. Hierarchical cluster analysis, an unsupervised learning technique, was applied to find features useful for classification of ignitable liquids. A combination of the correlation distance and average linkage was utilized for grouping ignitable liquids with similar chemical composition. This study evaluated whether hierarchical cluster analysis of the TIS would cluster together ignitable liquids of the same ASTM class assignment, as designated in the ILRC database. The ignitable liquids clustered based on their chemical composition, and the ignitable liquids within each cluster were predominantly from one ASTM E1618-11 class. These results reinforce use of the TIS as a tool to aid in forensic fire debris analysis. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  9. Tangible Reinforcers: Bonuses or Bribes? (United States)

    O'Leary, K. Daniel; And Others


    Objections to the use of tangible reinforcers, such as prizes, candy, cigarettes, and money, are discussed. Treatment programs using tangible reinforcers are recommended as powerful modifers of behavior to be implemented only after less powerful means of modification have been tried. (Author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Poliakov


    Full Text Available The technique of hierarchic construction of magnetic levitated train motion is offered. Its advantages and expediency of three-leveled system regulator were grounded. The global algorithm of its work is constructed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Horia


    Full Text Available In this paper I will present different types of representation, of hierarchical information inside a relational database. I also will compare them to find the best organization for specific scenarios.



    Demian Horia


    In this paper I will present different types of representation, of hierarchical information inside a relational database. I also will compare them to find the best organization for specific scenarios.

  13. Packaging glass with hierarchically nanostructured surface

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau


    An optical device includes an active region and packaging glass located on top of the active region. A top surface of the packaging glass includes hierarchical nanostructures comprised of honeycombed nanowalls (HNWs) and nanorod (NR) structures extending from the HNWs.

  14. Hierarchical DSE for multi-ASIP platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micconi, Laura; Corvino, Rosilde; Gangadharan, Deepak


    This work proposes a hierarchical Design Space Exploration (DSE) for the design of multi-processor platforms targeted to specific applications with strict timing and area constraints. In particular, it considers platforms integrating multiple Application Specific Instruction Set Processors (ASIPs...

  15. Modular networks with hierarchical organization: The dynamical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    constraint optimization as shown by us previously. Keywords. Modular network; hierarchical organization; stability; robustness. PACS Nos 89.75.Hc; 05.45.-a; 89.75.Fb. 1. Introduction. Structural patterns in complex networks occurring in biological, ...

  16. Zeolitic materials with hierarchical porous structures. (United States)

    Lopez-Orozco, Sofia; Inayat, Amer; Schwab, Andreas; Selvam, Thangaraj; Schwieger, Wilhelm


    During the past several years, different kinds of hierarchical structured zeolitic materials have been synthesized due to their highly attractive properties, such as superior mass/heat transfer characteristics, lower restriction of the diffusion of reactants in the mesopores, and low pressure drop. Our contribution provides general information regarding types and preparation methods of hierarchical zeolitic materials and their relative advantages and disadvantages. Thereafter, recent advances in the preparation and characterization of hierarchical zeolitic structures within the crystallites by post-synthetic treatment methods, such as dealumination or desilication; and structured devices by in situ and ex situ zeolite coatings on open-cellular ceramic foams as (non-reactive as well as reactive) supports are highlighted. Specific advantages of using hierarchical zeolitic catalysts/structures in selected catalytic reactions, such as benzene to phenol (BTOP) and methanol to olefins (MTO) are presented. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Extended Truncated Hierarchical Catmull-Clark Subdivision (United States)


    number of degrees of freedom and reduced continuity (C1 for cubic splines ). THCCS, on the other hand, addresses both local refinement and arbitrary...Catmull-Clark subdivision is a popular quadrilateral-based subdivision scheme that is generalized from mid-knot insertion of bi- cubic B- splines to...hierarchical B- splines [14, 11, 25, 2]. For cubic hierarchical B- splines and Catmull-Clark subdivision, however, such basis-function-refinement needs

  18. Translating Management Practices in Hierarchical Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    This study examines how translators in a hierarchical context approach the translation of management practices. Although current translation theory and research emphasize the importance of contextual factors in translation processes, little research has investigated how strongly hierarchical...... structures affect translators’ approaches taken towards management ideas. This paper reports the findings from a longitudinal case study of the translation of Leadership Pipeline in a Danish fire department and how the translators’ approach changed over time from a modifying to a reproducing mode. The study...

  19. Hierarchical organization versus self-organization


    Busseniers, Evo


    In this paper we try to define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization. Organization is defined as a structure with a function. So we can define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization both on the structure as on the function. In the next two chapters these two definitions are given. For the structure we will use some existing definitions in graph theory, for the function we will use existing theory on (self-)organization. In the t...

  20. Reinforcing adherence to antihypertensive medications. (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M; Alessi, Sheila M; Byrne, Shannon; White, William B


    This pilot study evaluated a reinforcement intervention to improve adherence to antihypertensive therapy. Twenty-nine participants were randomized to standard care or standard care plus financial reinforcement for 12 weeks. Participants in the reinforcement group received a cell phone to self-record videos of adherence, for which they earned rewards. These participants sent videos demonstrating on-time adherence 97.8% of the time. Pill count adherence differed significantly between the groups during treatment, with 98.8%±1.5% of pills taken during treatment in the reinforcement condition vs 92.6%±9.2% in standard care (PBenefits persisted throughout a 3-month follow-up, with 93.8%±9.3% vs 78.0%±18.5% of pills taken (Pphone technology and financial reinforcement holds potential to improve adherence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Modelling reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik


    A physio-chemical model for the simulation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete struc-tures was developed. The model allows for simulation of initiation and subsequent propaga-tion of reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion is assumed to be initiated once a defined critical chloride threshold is rea......, a numerical example is pre-sented, that illustrates the formation of corrosion cells as well as propagation of corrosion in a reinforced concrete structure.......A physio-chemical model for the simulation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete struc-tures was developed. The model allows for simulation of initiation and subsequent propaga-tion of reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion is assumed to be initiated once a defined critical chloride threshold...

  2. A hierarchical lattice spring model to simulate the mechanics of 2-D materials-based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas eBrely


    Full Text Available In the field of engineering materials, strength and toughness are typically two mutually exclusive properties. Structural biological materials such as bone, tendon or dentin have resolved this conflict and show unprecedented damage tolerance, toughness and strength levels. The common feature of these materials is their hierarchical heterogeneous structure, which contributes to increased energy dissipation before failure occurring at different scale levels. These structural properties are the key to exceptional bioinspired material mechanical properties, in particular for nanocomposites. Here, we develop a numerical model in order to simulate the mechanisms involved in damage progression and energy dissipation at different size scales in nano- and macro-composites, which depend both on the heterogeneity of the material and on the type of hierarchical structure. Both these aspects have been incorporated into a 2-dimensional model based on a Lattice Spring Model, accounting for geometrical nonlinearities and including statistically-based fracture phenomena. The model has been validated by comparing numerical results to continuum and fracture mechanics results as well as finite elements simulations, and then employed to study how structural aspects impact on hierarchical composite material properties. Results obtained with the numerical code highlight the dependence of stress distributions on matrix properties and reinforcement dispersion, geometry and properties, and how failure of sacrificial elements is directly involved in the damage tolerance of the material. Thanks to the rapidly developing field of nanocomposite manufacture, it is already possible to artificially create materials with multi-scale hierarchical reinforcements. The developed code could be a valuable support in the design and optimization of these advanced materials, drawing inspiration and going beyond biological materials with exceptional mechanical properties.

  3. Hierarchical screening for multiple mental disorders. (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew J


    There is a need for brief, accurate screening when assessing multiple mental disorders. Two-stage hierarchical screening, consisting of brief pre-screening followed by a battery of disorder-specific scales for those who meet diagnostic criteria, may increase the efficiency of screening without sacrificing precision. This study tested whether more efficient screening could be gained using two-stage hierarchical screening than by administering multiple separate tests. Two Australian adult samples (N=1990) with high rates of psychopathology were recruited using Facebook advertising to examine four methods of hierarchical screening for four mental disorders: major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder and social phobia. Using K6 scores to determine whether full screening was required did not increase screening efficiency. However, pre-screening based on two decision tree approaches or item gating led to considerable reductions in the mean number of items presented per disorder screened, with estimated item reductions of up to 54%. The sensitivity of these hierarchical methods approached 100% relative to the full screening battery. Further testing of the hierarchical screening approach based on clinical criteria and in other samples is warranted. The results demonstrate that a two-phase hierarchical approach to screening multiple mental disorders leads to considerable increases efficiency gains without reducing accuracy. Screening programs should take advantage of prescreeners based on gating items or decision trees to reduce the burden on respondents. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating Hierarchical Structure in Music Annotations. (United States)

    McFee, Brian; Nieto, Oriol; Farbood, Morwaread M; Bello, Juan Pablo


    Music exhibits structure at multiple scales, ranging from motifs to large-scale functional components. When inferring the structure of a piece, different listeners may attend to different temporal scales, which can result in disagreements when they describe the same piece. In the field of music informatics research (MIR), it is common to use corpora annotated with structural boundaries at different levels. By quantifying disagreements between multiple annotators, previous research has yielded several insights relevant to the study of music cognition. First, annotators tend to agree when structural boundaries are ambiguous. Second, this ambiguity seems to depend on musical features, time scale, and genre. Furthermore, it is possible to tune current annotation evaluation metrics to better align with these perceptual differences. However, previous work has not directly analyzed the effects of hierarchical structure because the existing methods for comparing structural annotations are designed for "flat" descriptions, and do not readily generalize to hierarchical annotations. In this paper, we extend and generalize previous work on the evaluation of hierarchical descriptions of musical structure. We derive an evaluation metric which can compare hierarchical annotations holistically across multiple levels. sing this metric, we investigate inter-annotator agreement on the multilevel annotations of two different music corpora, investigate the influence of acoustic properties on hierarchical annotations, and evaluate existing hierarchical segmentation algorithms against the distribution of inter-annotator agreement.

  5. Hierarchical Nanoceramics for Industrial Process Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, James, A.; Brosnan, Kristen, H.; Striker, Todd; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Aceto, Steven, C.; Gao, Yan; Willson, Patrick, D.; Manoharan, Mohan; Armstrong, Eric, N., Wachsman, Eric, D.; Kao, Chi-Chang


    This project developed a robust, tunable, hierarchical nanoceramics materials platform for industrial process sensors in harsh-environments. Control of material structure at multiple length scales from nano to macro increased the sensing response of the materials to combustion gases. These materials operated at relatively high temperatures, enabling detection close to the source of combustion. It is anticipated that these materials can form the basis for a new class of sensors enabling widespread use of efficient combustion processes with closed loop feedback control in the energy-intensive industries. The first phase of the project focused on materials selection and process development, leading to hierarchical nanoceramics that were evaluated for sensing performance. The second phase focused on optimizing the materials processes and microstructures, followed by validation of performance of a prototype sensor in a laboratory combustion environment. The objectives of this project were achieved by: (1) synthesizing and optimizing hierarchical nanostructures; (2) synthesizing and optimizing sensing nanomaterials; (3) integrating sensing functionality into hierarchical nanostructures; (4) demonstrating material performance in a sensing element; and (5) validating material performance in a simulated service environment. The project developed hierarchical nanoceramic electrodes for mixed potential zirconia gas sensors with increased surface area and demonstrated tailored electrocatalytic activity operable at high temperatures enabling detection of products of combustion such as NOx close to the source of combustion. Methods were developed for synthesis of hierarchical nanostructures with high, stable surface area, integrated catalytic functionality within the structures for gas sensing, and demonstrated materials performance in harsh lab and combustion gas environments.

  6. Using progressive ratio schedules to evaluate tokens as generalized conditioned reinforcers. (United States)

    Russell, Danielle; Ingvarsson, Einar T; Haggar, Jennifer L; Jessel, Joshua


    The properties of operant reinforcers are dynamic and dependent on a number of variables, such as schedule and effort. There has been sparse research on the generalized conditioned properties of token reinforcement. We evaluated leisure items, edible items, and tokens using a progressive ratio schedule with three children with diagnoses of ASD and developmental delays. The highest break points occurred during the token reinforcement condition for two out of three participants, but response rates tended to be higher with edibles. We then evaluated the effects of presession access to edibles on the break points of edible items and tokens with two participants. Break points decreased only in the edible reinforcement condition, and the participants chose to work for leisure items rather than edibles when presession access to edibles was in place. These findings suggest that the tokens functioned as generalized conditioned reinforcers. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  7. Evaluation of stainless steel reinforcement construction project (United States)


    Stainless steel reinforcement has greater corrosion resistance than that of the conventional reinforcement. In this project, bridge A6059, the first in Missouri utilizing stainless steel reinforcement in the deck, was constructed, along with bridge A...

  8. Hierarchical nanoreinforced composites for highly reliable large wind turbines: Computational modelling and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon


    , with modified, hybridor nanomodified structures. In this project, we seek to explore the potential of hybrid (carbon/glass),nanoreinforced and hierarchical composites (with secondary CNT, graphene or nanoclay reinforcement) as future materials for highly reliable large wind turbines. Using 3D multiscale......The major precondition for the successful development of wind energy in Europe is the high reliability of wind turbines, in particular, large off-shore turbines. The qualitative enhancement of the reliability of wind turbine blades can be achieved by the development of new highly damage materials...

  9. Inferring on the intentions of others by hierarchical Bayesian learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea O Diaconescu


    Full Text Available Inferring on others' (potentially time-varying intentions is a fundamental problem during many social transactions. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we applied computational modeling to behavioral data from an economic game in which 16 pairs of volunteers (randomly assigned to "player" or "adviser" roles interacted. The player performed a probabilistic reinforcement learning task, receiving information about a binary lottery from a visual pie chart. The adviser, who received more predictive information, issued an additional recommendation. Critically, the game was structured such that the adviser's incentives to provide helpful or misleading information varied in time. Using a meta-Bayesian modeling framework, we found that the players' behavior was best explained by the deployment of hierarchical learning: they inferred upon the volatility of the advisers' intentions in order to optimize their predictions about the validity of their advice. Beyond learning, volatility estimates also affected the trial-by-trial variability of decisions: participants were more likely to rely on their estimates of advice accuracy for making choices when they believed that the adviser's intentions were presently stable. Finally, our model of the players' inference predicted the players' interpersonal reactivity index (IRI scores, explicit ratings of the advisers' helpfulness and the advisers' self-reports on their chosen strategy. Overall, our results suggest that humans (i employ hierarchical generative models to infer on the changing intentions of others, (ii use volatility estimates to inform decision-making in social interactions, and (iii integrate estimates of advice accuracy with non-social sources of information. The Bayesian framework presented here can quantify individual differences in these mechanisms from simple behavioral readouts and may prove useful in future clinical studies of maladaptive social cognition.

  10. Stud Reinforcement in Beam-Column Joints under Seismic Loads (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hatem Hassan Ali

    Current codes recommend large amounts of shear reinforcement for reinforced concrete beam-column joints causing significant congestion. This research aims at investigating experimentally and numerically the efficiency of using studs with a head at each end in lieu of conventional closed hoops in reinforced concrete beam-column joints. The proposed reinforcement reduces congestion and ensures easier assembly of the reinforcing cage, saving labour cost and enhancing performance of the joint. Based on this research, a recommended arrangement and detailing of headed studs and their design for exterior beam-column joint are presented. The experimental investigation consisted of testing ten full-scale beam-column joint specimens under quasi-static cyclic loading. The specimens represented an exterior beam-column joint subassembly isolated at the points of contra-flexure from a typical multi-storey, multi-bay reinforced concrete frame. A test setup was developed to simulate the lateral inter-storey drift. The test parameters included: the type, arrangement and amount of shear reinforcement, the load history and rate of loading, and the amount of reinforcement for out-of-plane confinement of the joint. Envelopes of the hysteretic behaviour of the specimens and the joint deformation under shear stress are presented. The stiffness degradation, the strain levels in the joint reinforcement, the contribution of joint, beam, and column to the inter-storey drift, and the energy dissipation were compared. All the test specimens reinforced with headed studs in the joint achieved considerable enhancement in their behaviour under cyclic loads and exhibited a performance close to that of a joint reinforced with closed hoops and cross ties according to the code. All the specimens with adequate out-of-plane confinement had an equivalent behaviour compared with the code-based specimen and achieved a desirable mode of failure. Use of double-headed studs proved to be a viable option for

  11. Adaptive variable structure hierarchical fuzzy control for a class of high-order nonlinear dynamic systems. (United States)

    Mansouri, Mohammad; Teshnehlab, Mohammad; Aliyari Shoorehdeli, Mahdi


    In this paper, a novel adaptive hierarchical fuzzy control system based on the variable structure control is developed for a class of SISO canonical nonlinear systems in the presence of bounded disturbances. It is assumed that nonlinear functions of the systems be completely unknown. Switching surfaces are incorporated into the hierarchical fuzzy control scheme to ensure the system stability. A fuzzy soft switching system decides the operation area of the hierarchical fuzzy control and variable structure control systems. All the nonlinearly appeared parameters of conclusion parts of fuzzy blocks located in different layers of the hierarchical fuzzy control system are adjusted through adaptation laws deduced from the defined Lyapunov function. The proposed hierarchical fuzzy control system reduces the number of rules and consequently the number of tunable parameters with respect to the ordinary fuzzy control system. Global boundedness of the overall adaptive system and the desired precision are achieved using the proposed adaptive control system. In this study, an adaptive hierarchical fuzzy system is used for two objectives; it can be as a function approximator or a control system based on an intelligent-classic approach. Three theorems are proven to investigate the stability of the nonlinear dynamic systems. The important point about the proposed theorems is that they can be applied not only to hierarchical fuzzy controllers with different structures of hierarchical fuzzy controller, but also to ordinary fuzzy controllers. Therefore, the proposed algorithm is more general. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method four systems (two mechanical, one mathematical and one chaotic) are considered in simulations. Simulation results demonstrate the validity, efficiency and feasibility of the proposed approach to control of nonlinear dynamic systems. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Individualized Reinforcers and Hierarchical Exposure to Increase Food Flexibility in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Koegel, Robert L.; Bharoocha, Amber A.; Ribnick, Courtney B.; Ribnick, Ryan C.; Bucio, Mario O.; Fredeen, Rosy M.; Koegel, Lynn Kern


    Inflexibility is a major characteristic of autism. In the present study we addressed inflexible mealtime behaviors and collected longitudinal data across 48 foods for 3 children, ages 6.4-7.8 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, for up to 22 weeks. Participants exhibited severe challenges with adherence to an extremely restricted…

  13. Design of compression reinforcement in reinforced concrete membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Silva

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to design membrane elements of concrete with orthogonal mesh of reinforcement which are subject to compressive stress. Design methods, in general, define how to quantify the reinforcement necessary to support the tension stress and verify if the compression in concrete is within the strength limit. In case the compression in membrane is excessive, it is possible to use reinforcements subject to compression. However, there is not much information in the literature about how to design reinforcement for these cases. For that, this paper presents a procedure which uses the model based on Baumann's [1] criteria. The strength limits used herein are those recommended by CEB [3], however, a model is proposed in which this limit varies according to the tensile strain which occur perpendicular to compression. This resistance model is based on concepts proposed by Vecchio e Collins [2].

  14. Shear Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with GFRP Shear Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heecheul Kim


    Full Text Available This paper presents the shear capacities of concrete beams reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP plates as shear reinforcement. To examine the shear performance, we manufactured and tested a total of eight specimens. Test variables included the GFRP strip-width-to-spacing ratio and type of opening array. The specimen with a GFRP plate with a 3×2 opening array showed the highest shear strength. From the test results, the shear strength increased as the strip-width-to-strip-spacing ratio increased. Also, we used the experimental results to evaluate whether the shear strength equations of ACI 318-14 and ACI 440.1R can be applied to the design of GFRP shear reinforcement. In the results, the ACI 440 equation underestimated the experimental results more than that of ACI 318.

  15. Brief Report: Application of Proposed Model of Decreasing Reinforcement Intensity (United States)

    Cautilli, Joseph


    LaBlanc, Hagopian, Malieri, and Poling (2002) proposed a model for decreasing reinforcement intensity in clinical practice. This paper applies that model to the fading of a point system for a nine-year-old boy who displayed escape behavior around nightly homework assignments. Using a hanging criterion design, the author was able to track the…

  16. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jen

    Long fibers are generally preferred for reinforcing foams for performance reasons. However, uniform dispersion is difficult to achieve because they must be mixed with liquid resin prior to foam expansion. New approaches aiming to overcome such problem have been developed at USC's Composites Center. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams with long fibers (over 6 mm in length) manufactured at USC's Composites Center have achieved promising mechanical properties and demonstrated lower density relative to conventional composite foams. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were synthesized from thermosetting polymeric microspheres (amino and phenolic microspheres), as well as thermoplastic PVC heat expandable microspheres (HEMs). Carbon and/or aramid fibers were used to reinforce the syntactic foams. Basic mechanical properties, including shear, tensile, and compression, were measured in syntactic foams and fiber-reinforced syntactic foams. Microstructure and crack propagation behavior were investigated by scanning electron microscope and light microscopy. Failure mechanisms and reinforcing mechanisms of fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were also analyzed. As expected, additions of fiber reinforcements to foams enhanced both tensile and shear properties. However, only limited enhancement in compression properties was observed, and fiber reinforcement was of limited benefit in this regard. Therefore, a hybrid foam design was explored and evaluated in an attempt to enhance compression properties. HEMs were blended with glass microspheres to produce hybrid foams, and hybrid foams were subsequently reinforced with continuous aramid fibers to produce fiber-reinforced hybrid foams. Mechanical properties of these foams were evaluated. Findings indicated that the production of hybrid foams was an effective way to enhance the compressive properties of syntactic foams, while the addition of fiber reinforcements enhanced the shear and tensile performance of syntactic foams. Another approach

  17. Optimization of a Hybrid-Fiber-Reinforced High-Strength Concrete (United States)

    Ferreira, L. E. T.; de Hanai, J. B.; Ferrari, V. J.


    The fracture performance of a high-strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers was studied. Tests of notched beams subjected to fracture in the three-point bend configuration were conducted in accordance with RILEM recommendations TC 162-TDF. The R-curve concepts based on load-CMOD responses and the RILEM criteria were used for the performance evaluation of concrete beams reinforced with steel fiber mixtures and loaded up to fracture. Steel fibers of different types (regular and microfibers), in different proportions were employed as the reinforcement. The hybrid-fiber-reinforced concrete demonstrated a superior performance regarding their resistance and toughness properties as a result of interaction between the fibers.

  18. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.


    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  19. Interpreting Hierarchical Linear and Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models with Slopes as Outcomes (United States)

    Tate, Richard


    Current descriptions of results from hierarchical linear models (HLM) and hierarchical generalized linear models (HGLM), usually based only on interpretations of individual model parameters, are incomplete in the presence of statistically significant and practically important "slopes as outcomes" terms in the models. For complete description of…

  20. Reinforced Intrusion Detection Using Pursuit Reinforcement Competitive Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Yulia Prafitaning Tiyas


    Full Text Available Today, information technology is growing rapidly,all information can be obtainedmuch easier. It raises some new problems; one of them is unauthorized access to the system. We need a reliable network security system that is resistant to a variety of attacks against the system. Therefore, Intrusion Detection System (IDS required to overcome the problems of intrusions. Many researches have been done on intrusion detection using classification methods. Classification methodshave high precision, but it takes efforts to determine an appropriate classification model to the classification problem. In this paper, we propose a new reinforced approach to detect intrusion with On-line Clustering using Reinforcement Learning. Reinforcement Learning is a new paradigm in machine learning which involves interaction with the environment.It works with reward and punishment mechanism to achieve solution. We apply the Reinforcement Learning to the intrusion detection problem with considering competitive learning using Pursuit Reinforcement Competitive Learning (PRCL. Based on the experimental result, PRCL can detect intrusions in real time with high accuracy (99.816% for DoS, 95.015% for Probe, 94.731% for R2L and 99.373% for U2R and high speed (44 ms.The proposed approach can help network administrators to detect intrusion, so the computer network security systembecome reliable. Keywords: Intrusion Detection System, On-Line Clustering, Reinforcement Learning, Unsupervised Learning.

  1. Hierarchical regression for analyses of multiple outcomes. (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Hamra, Ghassan B; MacLehose, Richard F; Cole, Stephen R; Chu, Haitao


    In cohort mortality studies, there often is interest in associations between an exposure of primary interest and mortality due to a range of different causes. A standard approach to such analyses involves fitting a separate regression model for each type of outcome. However, the statistical precision of some estimated associations may be poor because of sparse data. In this paper, we describe a hierarchical regression model for estimation of parameters describing outcome-specific relative rate functions and associated credible intervals. The proposed model uses background stratification to provide flexible control for the outcome-specific associations of potential confounders, and it employs a hierarchical "shrinkage" approach to stabilize estimates of an exposure's associations with mortality due to different causes of death. The approach is illustrated in analyses of cancer mortality in 2 cohorts: a cohort of dioxin-exposed US chemical workers and a cohort of radiation-exposed Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Compared with standard regression estimates of associations, hierarchical regression yielded estimates with improved precision that tended to have less extreme values. The hierarchical regression approach also allowed the fitting of models with effect-measure modification. The proposed hierarchical approach can yield estimates of association that are more precise than conventional estimates when one wishes to estimate associations with multiple outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  2. Self-assembled biomimetic superhydrophobic hierarchical arrays. (United States)

    Yang, Hongta; Dou, Xuan; Fang, Yin; Jiang, Peng


    Here, we report a simple and inexpensive bottom-up technology for fabricating superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical micro-/nano-structures, which are inspired by the binary periodic structure found on the superhydrophobic compound eyes of some insects (e.g., mosquitoes and moths). Binary colloidal arrays consisting of exemplary large (4 and 30 μm) and small (300 nm) silica spheres are first assembled by a scalable Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technology in a layer-by-layer manner. After surface modification with fluorosilanes, the self-assembled hierarchical particle arrays become superhydrophobic with an apparent water contact angle (CA) larger than 150°. The throughput of the resulting superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical structures can be significantly improved by templating the binary periodic structures of the LB-assembled colloidal arrays into UV-curable fluoropolymers by a soft lithography approach. Superhydrophobic perfluoroether acrylate hierarchical arrays with large CAs and small CA hysteresis can be faithfully replicated onto various substrates. Both experiments and theoretical calculations based on the Cassie's dewetting model demonstrate the importance of the hierarchical structure in achieving the final superhydrophobic surface states. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Experimental study on the reinforced effect of light curing composite resins used for crowns and bridges]. (United States)

    Sun, J; Zhang, J Z


    To evaluate the reinforced effect of the light curing composite resins used for crowns and bridges. Three light curing composite resins which were used for crowns and bridges were chosen, and three polyester fiber sieves and three stainless steel sieves in different mesh were used as the additional reinforced materials. Compressive strength and three point flexural strength of test bars made of those materials were evaluated. The reinforced bridges with special fibers were used as control groups. (1)There was significant increase in the stainless steel sieves groups. Nevertheless, there was some decrease after use of the polyester fibers as the additional reinforced material. (2)The increase of the reinforced crowns was especially obvious. (3)Among the three resins, the property of Targis was better than that of Arglass and Solidex. The properties of the whole composite material were closely correlated with the additional reinforced materials, the resistance to compression of the sieves are better than its resistance to bend.

  4. Evolutionary computation for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Wiering, M.; van Otterlo, M.


    Algorithms for evolutionary computation, which simulate the process of natural selection to solve optimization problems, are an effective tool for discovering high-performing reinforcement-learning policies. Because they can automatically find good representations, handle continuous action spaces,

  5. Modeling reinforced concrete durability : [summary]. (United States)


    Many Florida bridges are built of steel-reinforced concrete. Floridas humid and marine : environments subject steel in these structures : to corrosion once water and salt penetrate the : concrete and contact the steel. Corroded steel : takes up mo...

  6. Deep Reinforcement Learning: An Overview


    Li, Yuxi


    We give an overview of recent exciting achievements of deep reinforcement learning (RL). We discuss six core elements, six important mechanisms, and twelve applications. We start with background of machine learning, deep learning and reinforcement learning. Next we discuss core RL elements, including value function, in particular, Deep Q-Network (DQN), policy, reward, model, planning, and exploration. After that, we discuss important mechanisms for RL, including attention and memory, unsuperv...

  7. Establishing operations and reinforcement effects. (United States)

    Vollmer, T R; Iwata, B A


    Positive reinforcement procedures have had a major impact on educational programs for the developmentally disabled; nevertheless, variation in reinforcer effectiveness both within and across individuals is a common phenomenon. This study examined one class of variables--establishing operations--that might influence the effectiveness of reinforcers. Five developmentally disabled adult males participated. Responding on one of two motor tasks--switch closure or block placement--was assessed during baseline, satiation, and deprivation conditions with respect to three classes of consequences: small food items, music, and social praise. Deprivation and satiation conditions were constructed so as not to alter significantly the normal course of events in a subject's day. For example, food deprivation entailed scheduling sessions just prior to a subject's regular lunch, and social deprivation involved limiting a subject's access to social interaction for 15 minutes, during which time the subject had access to an assortment of other activities. Results showed that each stimulus class functioned as reinforcement with different degrees of effectiveness during satiation versus deprivation conditions. These results are discussed in light of previous research on enhancement of reinforcer efficacy as well as the assessment and identification of functional reinforcers, and implications are presented for future research and client habilitation.

  8. Fracture Toughness of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Metal- and Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Chen


    Full Text Available Hierarchical analysis of the fracture toughness enhancement of carbon nanotube- (CNT- reinforced hard matrix composites is carried out on the basis of shear-lag theory and facture mechanics. It is found that stronger CNT/matrix interfaces cannot definitely lead to the better fracture toughness of these composites, and the optimal interfacial chemical bond density is that making the failure mode just in the transition from CNT pull-out to CNT break. For hard matrix composites, the fracture toughness of composites with weak interfaces can be improved effectively by increasing the CNT length. However, for soft matrix composite, the fracture toughness improvement due to the reinforcing CNTs quickly becomes saturated with an increase in CNT length. The proposed theoretical model is also applicable to short fiber-reinforced composites.

  9. [Comparative hierarchic structure of the genetic language]. (United States)

    Ratner, V A


    The genetical texts and genetic language are built according to hierarchic principle and contain no less than 6 levels of coding sequences, separated by marks of punctuation, separation and indication: codons, cistrons, scriptons, replicons, linkage groups, genomes. Each level has all the attributes of the language. This hierarchic system expresses some general properties and regularities. The rules of genetic language being determined, the variability of genetical texts is generated by block-modular combinatorics on each level. Between levels there are some intermediate sublevels and module types capable of being combined. The genetic language is compared with two different independent linguistic systems: human natural languages and artificial programming languages. Genetic language is a natural one by its origin, but it is a typical technical language of the functioning genetic regulatory system--by its predestination. All three linguistic systems under comparison have evident similarity of the organization principles and hierarchical structures. This argues for similarity of their principles of appearance and evolution.

  10. Hierarchical Neural Network Structures for Phoneme Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vasquez, Daniel; Minker, Wolfgang


    In this book, hierarchical structures based on neural networks are investigated for automatic speech recognition. These structures are evaluated on the phoneme recognition task where a  Hybrid Hidden Markov Model/Artificial Neural Network paradigm is used. The baseline hierarchical scheme consists of two levels each which is based on a Multilayered Perceptron. Additionally, the output of the first level serves as a second level input. The computational speed of the phoneme recognizer can be substantially increased by removing redundant information still contained at the first level output. Several techniques based on temporal and phonetic criteria have been investigated to remove this redundant information. The computational time could be reduced by 57% whilst keeping the system accuracy comparable to the baseline hierarchical approach.

  11. Hierarchical capillary adhesion of microcantilevers or hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianlin; Feng Xiqiao; Xia Re; Zhao Hongping


    As a result of capillary forces, animal hairs, carbon nanotubes or nanowires of a periodically or randomly distributed array often assemble into hierarchical structures. In this paper, the energy method is adopted to analyse the capillary adhesion of microsized hairs, which are modelled as clamped microcantilevers wetted by liquids. The critical conditions for capillary adhesion of two hairs, three hairs or two bundles of hairs are derived in terms of Young's contact angle, elastic modulus and geometric sizes of the beams. Then, the hierarchical capillary adhesion of hairs is addressed. It is found that for multiple hairs or microcantilevers, the system tends to take a hierarchical structure as a result of the minimization of the total potential energy of the system. The level number of structural hierarchy increases with the increase in the number of hairs if they are sufficiently long. Additionally, we performed experiments to verify our theoretical solutions for the adhesion of microbeams

  12. Static and dynamic friction of hierarchical surfaces. (United States)

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M


    Hierarchical structures are very common in nature, but only recently have they been systematically studied in materials science, in order to understand the specific effects they can have on the mechanical properties of various systems. Structural hierarchy provides a way to tune and optimize macroscopic mechanical properties starting from simple base constituents and new materials are nowadays designed exploiting this possibility. This can be true also in the field of tribology. In this paper we study the effect of hierarchical patterned surfaces on the static and dynamic friction coefficients of an elastic material. Our results are obtained by means of numerical simulations using a one-dimensional spring-block model, which has previously been used to investigate various aspects of friction. Despite the simplicity of the model, we highlight some possible mechanisms that explain how hierarchical structures can significantly modify the friction coefficients of a material, providing a means to achieve tunability.

  13. Hierarchical Micro-Nano Coatings by Painting (United States)

    Kirveslahti, Anna; Korhonen, Tuulia; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.


    In this paper, the wettability properties of coatings with hierarchical surface structures and low surface energy were studied. Hierarchically structured coatings were produced by using hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microparticles as additives in polyester (PES) and polyvinyldifluoride (PVDF). These particles created hierarchical micro-nano structures on the paint surfaces and lowered or supported the already low surface energy of the paint. Two standard application techniques for paint application were employed and the presented coatings are suitable for mass production and use in large surface areas. By regulating the particle concentrations, it was possible to modify wettability properties gradually. Highly hydrophobic surfaces were achieved with the highest contact angle of 165∘. Dynamic contact angle measurements were carried out for a set of selected samples and low hysteresis was obtained. Produced coatings possessed long lasting durability in the air and in underwater conditions.

  14. Comparing the performance of flat and hierarchical Habitat/Land-Cover classification models in a NATURA 2000 site (United States)

    Gavish, Yoni; O'Connell, Jerome; Marsh, Charles J.; Tarantino, Cristina; Blonda, Palma; Tomaselli, Valeria; Kunin, William E.


    The increasing need for high quality Habitat/Land-Cover (H/LC) maps has triggered considerable research into novel machine-learning based classification models. In many cases, H/LC classes follow pre-defined hierarchical classification schemes (e.g., CORINE), in which fine H/LC categories are thematically nested within more general categories. However, none of the existing machine-learning algorithms account for this pre-defined hierarchical structure. Here we introduce a novel Random Forest (RF) based application of hierarchical classification, which fits a separate local classification model in every branching point of the thematic tree, and then integrates all the different local models to a single global prediction. We applied the hierarchal RF approach in a NATURA 2000 site in Italy, using two land-cover (CORINE, FAO-LCCS) and one habitat classification scheme (EUNIS) that differ from one another in the shape of the class hierarchy. For all 3 classification schemes, both the hierarchical model and a flat model alternative provided accurate predictions, with kappa values mostly above 0.9 (despite using only 2.2-3.2% of the study area as training cells). The flat approach slightly outperformed the hierarchical models when the hierarchy was relatively simple, while the hierarchical model worked better under more complex thematic hierarchies. Most misclassifications came from habitat pairs that are thematically distant yet spectrally similar. In 2 out of 3 classification schemes, the additional constraints of the hierarchical model resulted with fewer such serious misclassifications relative to the flat model. The hierarchical model also provided valuable information on variable importance which can shed light into "black-box" based machine learning algorithms like RF. We suggest various ways by which hierarchical classification models can increase the accuracy and interpretability of H/LC classification maps.

  15. Extending the Real-Time Maude Semantics of Ptolemy to Hierarchical DE Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Csaba Ölveczky


    Full Text Available This paper extends our Real-Time Maude formalization of the semantics of flat Ptolemy II discrete-event (DE models to hierarchical models, including modal models. This is a challenging task that requires combining synchronous fixed-point computations with hierarchical structure. The synthesis of a Real-Time Maude verification model from a Ptolemy II DE model, and the formal verification of the synthesized model in Real-Time Maude, have been integrated into Ptolemy II, enabling a model-engineering process that combines the convenience of Ptolemy II DE modeling and simulation with formal verification in Real-Time Maude.

  16. Dramatic increase in fatigue life in hierarchical graphene composites. (United States)

    Yavari, F; Rafiee, M A; Rafiee, J; Yu, Z-Z; Koratkar, N


    We report the synthesis and fatigue characterization of fiberglass/epoxy composites with various weight fractions of graphene platelets infiltrated into the epoxy resin as well as directly spray-coated on to the glass microfibers. Remarkably only ∼0.2% (with respect to the epoxy resin weight and ∼0.02% with respect to the entire laminate weight) of graphene additives enhanced the fatigue life of the composite in the flexural bending mode by up to 1200-fold. By contrast, under uniaxial tensile fatigue conditions, the graphene fillers resulted in ∼3-5-fold increase in fatigue life. The fatigue life increase (in the flexural bending mode) with graphene additives was ∼1-2 orders of magnitude superior to those obtained using carbon nanotubes. In situ ultrasound analysis of the nanocomposite during the cyclic fatigue test suggests that the graphene network toughens the fiberglass/epoxy-matrix interface and prevents the delamination/buckling of the glass microfibers under compressive stress. Such fatigue-resistant hierarchical materials show potential to improve the safety, reliability, and cost effectiveness of fiber-reinforced composites that are increasingly the material of choice in the aerospace, automotive, marine, sports, biomedical, and wind energy industries.

  17. A Neuro-Control Design Based on Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katebi, S.D.; Blanke, M.

    This paper describes a neuro-control fuzzy critic design procedure based on reinforcement learning. An important component of the proposed intelligent control configuration is the fuzzy credit assignment unit which acts as a critic, and through fuzzy implications provides adjustment mechanisms...... ones instruct the neuro-control unit to adjust its weights and are simultaneously stored in the memory unit during the training phase. In response to the internal reinforcement signal (set point threshold deviation), the stored information is retrieved by the action applier unit and utilized for re...

  18. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian Guo [Newton, MA; Lao, Jing Y [Chestnut Hill, MA; Li, Wenzhi [Brookline, MA


    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  19. Analyzing security protocols in hierarchical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ye; Nielson, Hanne Riis


    Validating security protocols is a well-known hard problem even in a simple setting of a single global network. But a real network often consists of, besides the public-accessed part, several sub-networks and thereby forms a hierarchical structure. In this paper we first present a process calculus...... capturing the characteristics of hierarchical networks and describe the behavior of protocols on such networks. We then develop a static analysis to automate the validation. Finally we demonstrate how the technique can benefit the protocol development and the design of network systems by presenting a series...

  20. Hierarchical Analysis of the Omega Ontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Paulson, Patrick R.


    Initial delivery for mathematical analysis of the Omega Ontology. We provide an analysis of the hierarchical structure of a version of the Omega Ontology currently in use within the US Government. After providing an initial statistical analysis of the distribution of all link types in the ontology, we then provide a detailed order theoretical analysis of each of the four main hierarchical links present. This order theoretical analysis includes the distribution of components and their properties, their parent/child and multiple inheritance structure, and the distribution of their vertical ranks.

  1. Hierarchical control of electron-transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Egger, Louis


    In this chapter the role of electron transfer in determining the behaviour of the ATP synthesising enzyme in E. coli is analysed. It is concluded that the latter enzyme lacks control because of special properties of the electron transfer components. These properties range from absence of a strong...... back pressure by the protonmotive force on the rate of electron transfer to hierarchical regulation of the expression of the gens that encode the electron transfer proteins as a response to changes in the bioenergetic properties of the cell.The discussion uses Hierarchical Control Analysis...

  2. Role of Instructions and Reinforcement in Behavior Changes in Token Reinforcement Programs (United States)

    Kazdin, Alan E.


    Major findings were that: contingent reinforcement was effective in altering behavior; instructions did not augment the efficacy of contingent reinforcement; noncontingent reinforcement was effective for nondeviant students who were told that the reinforcement was actually contingent; and contingent reinforcement led to greater generalization than…

  3. Hierarchical self-organization of non-cooperating individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Nepusz

    Full Text Available Hierarchy is one of the most conspicuous features of numerous natural, technological and social systems. The underlying structures are typically complex and their most relevant organizational principle is the ordering of the ties among the units they are made of according to a network displaying hierarchical features. In spite of the abundant presence of hierarchy no quantitative theoretical interpretation of the origins of a multi-level, knowledge-based social network exists. Here we introduce an approach which is capable of reproducing the emergence of a multi-levelled network structure based on the plausible assumption that the individuals (representing the nodes of the network can make the right estimate about the state of their changing environment to a varying degree. Our model accounts for a fundamental feature of knowledge-based organizations: the less capable individuals tend to follow those who are better at solving the problems they all face. We find that relatively simple rules lead to hierarchical self-organization and the specific structures we obtain possess the two, perhaps most important features of complex systems: a simultaneous presence of adaptability and stability. In addition, the performance (success score of the emerging networks is significantly higher than the average expected score of the individuals without letting them copy the decisions of the others. The results of our calculations are in agreement with a related experiment and can be useful from the point of designing the optimal conditions for constructing a given complex social structure as well as understanding the hierarchical organization of such biological structures of major importance as the regulatory pathways or the dynamics of neural networks.

  4. Global considerations in hierarchical clustering reveal meaningful patterns in data. (United States)

    Varshavsky, Roy; Horn, David; Linial, Michal


    A hierarchy, characterized by tree-like relationships, is a natural method of organizing data in various domains. When considering an unsupervised machine learning routine, such as clustering, a bottom-up hierarchical (BU, agglomerative) algorithm is used as a default and is often the only method applied. We show that hierarchical clustering that involve global considerations, such as top-down (TD, divisive), or glocal (global-local) algorithms are better suited to reveal meaningful patterns in the data. This is demonstrated, by testing the correspondence between the results of several algorithms (TD, glocal and BU) and the correct annotations provided by experts. The correspondence was tested in multiple domains including gene expression experiments, stock trade records and functional protein families. The performance of each of the algorithms is evaluated by statistical criteria that are assigned to clusters (nodes of the hierarchy tree) based on expert-labeled data. Whereas TD algorithms perform better on global patterns, BU algorithms perform well and are advantageous when finer granularity of the data is sought. In addition, a novel TD algorithm that is based on genuine density of the data points is presented and is shown to outperform other divisive and agglomerative methods. Application of the algorithm to more than 500 protein sequences belonging to ion-channels illustrates the potential of the method for inferring overlooked functional annotations. ClustTree, a graphical Matlab toolbox for applying various hierarchical clustering algorithms and testing their quality is made available. Although currently rarely used, global approaches, in particular, TD or glocal algorithms, should be considered in the exploratory process of clustering. In general, applying unsupervised clustering methods can leverage the quality of manually-created mapping of proteins families. As demonstrated, it can also provide insights in erroneous and missed annotations.

  5. Global considerations in hierarchical clustering reveal meaningful patterns in data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Varshavsky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A hierarchy, characterized by tree-like relationships, is a natural method of organizing data in various domains. When considering an unsupervised machine learning routine, such as clustering, a bottom-up hierarchical (BU, agglomerative algorithm is used as a default and is often the only method applied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that hierarchical clustering that involve global considerations, such as top-down (TD, divisive, or glocal (global-local algorithms are better suited to reveal meaningful patterns in the data. This is demonstrated, by testing the correspondence between the results of several algorithms (TD, glocal and BU and the correct annotations provided by experts. The correspondence was tested in multiple domains including gene expression experiments, stock trade records and functional protein families. The performance of each of the algorithms is evaluated by statistical criteria that are assigned to clusters (nodes of the hierarchy tree based on expert-labeled data. Whereas TD algorithms perform better on global patterns, BU algorithms perform well and are advantageous when finer granularity of the data is sought. In addition, a novel TD algorithm that is based on genuine density of the data points is presented and is shown to outperform other divisive and agglomerative methods. Application of the algorithm to more than 500 protein sequences belonging to ion-channels illustrates the potential of the method for inferring overlooked functional annotations. ClustTree, a graphical Matlab toolbox for applying various hierarchical clustering algorithms and testing their quality is made available. CONCLUSIONS: Although currently rarely used, global approaches, in particular, TD or glocal algorithms, should be considered in the exploratory process of clustering. In general, applying unsupervised clustering methods can leverage the quality of manually-created mapping of proteins families. As demonstrated, it can

  6. Creep behaviour of macro glass fibre reinforced concrete beams (United States)

    Löber, P.; Heiden, B.; Holschemacher, K.


    This paper aims to present a creep study on structural concrete reinforced with macro glass fibres and wants to contribute to the understanding of creep behaviour of fibre reinforced concrete (FRC). Fibre reinforced concrete beams have been subjected to bending and tested in cracked state under defined stress levels. Therefore, a four-point-bending test setup was chosen and the creep period was 372d. The aim was to determine creep coefficients and to test residual strength values afterwards. Results show a dependence of residual strength and applied stress level. It turned out, that the beams failed due to tertiary creep at stress levels between 65 and 70% of residual crack load at 0.5 mm pre-crack deflection. Nevertheless, all remaining specimens showed increased loads after creep period. Finally, the evaluation is conducted in comparison to other fibre types.

  7. Hierarchical Optimization of Material and Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Helder C.; Guedes, Jose M.; Bendsøe, Martin P.


    This paper describes a hierarchical computational procedure for optimizing material distribution as well as the local material properties of mechanical elements. The local properties are designed using a topology design approach, leading to single scale microstructures, which may be restricted in...

  8. Biased trapping issue on weighted hierarchical networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This may represent, for instance, the computational capacity of an internet router. Weighted networks carry more informa- tion and they are ... (i = 1, 2,...,M). The hub node in Gg always has label A. (4) Repeating the replication and connection steps, we obtain the weighted hierarchical networks. According to the weighted ...

  9. Widening the Schedulability Hierarchical Scheduling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; David, Alexandre; Kim, Jin Hyun


    This paper presents a compositional approach for schedula- bility analysis of hierarchical systems, which enables to prove more sys- tems schedulable by having richer and more detailed scheduling models. We use a lightweight method (statistical model checking) for design ex- ploration, easily ass...

  10. [Use of hierarchical models in nephrology]. (United States)

    Hogan, Julien; Couchoud, Cécile


    The use of hierarchical models in public health research is recently increasing in order to study all the factors explaining health outcomes. Thus, a better understanding of those models is needed first to identify questions that may be answered by using them and also to be aware of there limitations. On the one hand, hierarchical models managed to take into account the hierarchical structure of the data allowing a better estimation of the effects of the explanatory variables and the study of the impact of the "environment" (i.e.: neighborhood, treatment center, same clinical trial…) on health outcomes. They also allow the study of factors that may explain this impact of the "environment". On the other hand, they are more complex and a reflection on which determinant to include and how the environment is supposed to impact patients' health is much needed. This article reviews the rationale for using hierarchical models in public health research and especially in nephrologic research. We attempt to give a simple presentation of these models and to illustrate their results and potential use in the field of nephrology, as well as their limits. Copyright © 2014 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Runtime Concepts of Hierarchical Software Components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bureš, Tomáš; Hnětynka, P.; Plášil, František


    Roč. 8, special (2007), s. 454-463 ISSN 1525-9293 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : component -based development * hierarchical component s * connectors * controlers * runtime environment Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  12. Hierarchical control of aerial manipulation vehicle (United States)

    Kannan, Somasundar; Bezzaoucha, Souad; Guzman, Serket Quintanar; Dentler, Jan; Olivares-Mendez, Miguel A.; Voos, Holger


    Hierarchical Control of the Aerial Manipulator is treated here. The modelling aspect of the highly coupled Aerial Vehicle which includes Quadrotor and manipulator is discussed. The control design to perform tasks in operational space is addressed along with stability discussion. The simulation studies are successfully performed to validate the design methodology.

  13. Hierarchical spatial organization of geographical networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travencolo, Bruno A N; Costa, Luciano da F [Cybernetic Vision Research Group, GII-IFSC, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, Sao Carlos, SP, 13560-970 (Brazil)], E-mail:


    In this work, we propose a hierarchical extension of the polygonality index as the means to characterize geographical planar networks. By considering successive neighborhoods around each node, it is possible to obtain more complete information about the spatial order of the network at progressive spatial scales. The potential of the methodology is illustrated with respect to synthetic and real geographical networks.

  14. Modular networks with hierarchical organization: The dynamical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For both of these, we find that, increasing modularity or the number of hierarchical levels tends to increase the probability of instability. As both hierarchy and modularity are seen in natural systems, which necessarily have to be robust against environmental fluctuations, we conclude that additional constraints are necessary ...

  15. Hierarchical Broadcasting in the Future Mobile Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselman, C.E.W.; Eertink, E.H.; Fernandez, Milagros; Crnkovic, Ivica; Fohler, Gerhard; Griwodz, Carsten; Plagemann, Thomas; Gruenbacher, Paul


    We describe an architecture for the hierarchical distribution of multimedia broadcasts in the future mobile Internet. The architecture supports network as well as application-layer mobility solutions, and uses stream control functions that are influenced by available network resources, user-defined

  16. Biased trapping issue on weighted hierarchical networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hierarchical network. Here, we focus on a particular case with the trap located at the node with the highest degree. We derive rigorous solution to the MFPT that characterizes the trapping process. Moreover ..... The weighted networks can mimic some real-world natural and social systems to some extent [20–22]. We focus ...

  17. Ultrafast Hierarchical OTDM/WDM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Sotobayashi


    Full Text Available Ultrafast hierarchical OTDM/WDM network is proposed for the future core-network. We review its enabling technologies: C- and L-wavelength-band generation, OTDM-WDM mutual multiplexing format conversions, and ultrafast OTDM wavelengthband conversions.

  18. Tanzania: A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis Approach | Ngaruko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using survey data from Kibondo district, west Tanzania, we use hierarchical cluster analysis to classify borrower farmers according to their borrowing behaviour into four distinctive clusters. The appreciation of the existence of heterogeneous farmer clusters is vital in forging credit delivery policies that are not only ...

  19. A hierarchical model for ordinal matrix factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paquet, Ulrich; Thomson, Blaise; Winther, Ole


    This paper proposes a hierarchical probabilistic model for ordinal matrix factorization. Unlike previous approaches, we model the ordinal nature of the data and take a principled approach to incorporating priors for the hidden variables. Two algorithms are presented for inference, one based...

  20. Types of Online Hierarchical Repository Structures (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Arnon; Azran, Ronit; Hardof-Jaffe, Sharon; Nachmias, Rafi


    This study presents an empirical investigation of online hierarchical repositories of items presented to university students in Web-supported course websites, using Web mining methods. To this end, data from 1747 courses were collected, and the use of online repositories of content items in these courses was examined. At a later stage, courses…

  1. A hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    A two-stage hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis lesion images is proposed. These images are basically composed of three classes: normal skin, lesion and background. The scheme combines conventional tools to separate the skin from the background in the first stage, and the lesion from...

  2. Hierarchical silica particles by dynamic multicomponent assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Z. W.; Hu, Q. Y.; Pang, J. B.


    Abstract: Aerosol-assisted assembly of mesoporous silica particles with hierarchically controllable pore structure has been prepared using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO, H[OCH(CH3)CH2],OH) as co-templates. Addition of the hydrophobic PPO significantly...

  3. Hierarchical regression analysis in structural Equation Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P.F.


    In a hierarchical or fixed-order regression analysis, the independent variables are entered into the regression equation in a prespecified order. Such an analysis is often performed when the extra amount of variance accounted for in a dependent variable by a specific independent variable is the main

  4. Fabrication and biocompatibility of poly(L-lactic acid) and chitosan composite scaffolds with hierarchical microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Tao, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang, Xuejun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yan, Xu [College of Physics & Collaborative Innovation Center for Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials and Optoelectronic Devices, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Miao, Yu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Long, Yun-Ze, E-mail: [College of Physics & Collaborative Innovation Center for Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials and Optoelectronic Devices, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yin, Hai-Lei [Department of Osteology, No. 401 Hospital of P. L. A., Qingdao 266071 (China); Sun, Bin [College of Physics & Collaborative Innovation Center for Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials and Optoelectronic Devices, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Song, Guojun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)


    The scaffold microstructure is crucial to reconstruct tissue normal functions. In this article, poly(L-lactic acid) and chitosan fiber (PLLA/CTSF) composite scaffolds with hierarchical microstructures both in fiber and pore sizes were successfully fabricated by combining thermal induced phase separation and salt leaching techniques. The composite scaffolds consisted of a nanofibrous PLLA matrix with diameter of 50–500 nm, and chitosan fibers with diameter of about 20 μm were homogenously distributed in the PLLA matrix as a microsized reinforcer. The composite scaffolds also had high porosity (> 94%) and hierarchical pore size, which were consisted of both micropores (50 nm–10 μm) and macropores (50–300 μm). By tailoring the microstructure and chemical composition, the mechanical property, pH buffer and protein adsorption capacity of the composite scaffold were improved significantly compared with those of PLLA scaffold. Cell culture results also revealed that the PLLA/CTSF composite scaffolds supported MG-63 osteoblast proliferation and penetration. - Highlights: • Composite scaffolds fabricated by combining thermal induced phase separation and salt leaching techniques • Hierarchical microstructure both in fiber and pore sizes • The scaffold microenvironment facilitates the protein adsorption, cell proliferation and penetration.

  5. Fatigue of reinforcing bars during hydro-demolition (United States)

    Hyland, C. W. K.; Ouwejan, A.


    Reinforcing steel fractured during hydro-demolition of a reinforced concrete pier head due to low cycle flexural fatigue from vibration caused by impact of the high pressure water jet on the exposed length of the bars. Research into the fatigue performance of steel reinforcing steel tends to focus on the high cycle axial performance in reinforced concrete members and re-bending behaviour. However with the increasing use of hydro-demolition of concrete structures as part of remediation works care is required to ensure the steel reinforcement exposed to the high pressure jet of water is not going to suffer relatively low cycle flexural damage that may compromise the designed performance of the completed reinforced concrete structure. This paper describes the failure assessment, fatigue analysis, and metallographic examination that was undertaken. It was found that the rib to flank transition radius on the reinforcement steel was small enough to cause a significant stress concentration effect and was the location of fatigue crack growth. A relatively simple analysis using the maximum unrestrained cantilevered bar length and force exerted by the water jet was used to calculate the maximum expected bending moment. This was compared to the bending capacity at initiation of yielding at the rib flank transition accounting for stress concentration effects. This showed that the observed cyclic reversing ductile crack growth and fracture of the H25 bars was consistent with the loading applied. A method is proposed based on these observations to assess suitable limits for unrestrained bar lengths or maximum working offset of the water jet from the point of bar restraint when undertaking hydro-demolition work. The fatigue critical performance requirements of AS/NZS4671 500E bars are also therefore compared with those of BS4449:2005 and PN EN/ISO 15630-1:2011 for comparable 500C bars

  6. Switching hierarchical leadership mechanism in homing flight of pigeon flocks (United States)

    Chen, Duxin; Vicsek, Tamás; Liu, Xiaolu; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Hai-Tao


    To explore the fascinating inter-individual interaction mechanism governing the abundant biological grouping behaviors, more and more efforts have been devoted to collective motion investigation in recent years. Therein, bird flocking is one of the most intensively studied behaviors. A previous study (Nagy M. et al., Nature, 464 (2010) 890.) claims the existence of a well-defined hierarchical structure in pigeon flocks, which implies that a multi-layer leadership network leads to the occurrence of highly coordinated pigeon flock movements. However, in this study, by using high-resolution GPS data of homing flight of pigeon flocks, we reveal an explicit switching hierarchical mechanism underlying the group motions of pigeons. That is, a pigeon flock has a long-term leader for smooth moving trajectories, whereas the leading tenure passes to a temporary one upon sudden turns or zigzags. Therefore, the present observation helps explore more deeply into the principle of a huge volume of bird flocking dynamics. Meanwhile, from the engineering point of view, it may shed some light onto industrial multi-robot coordination and unmanned air vehicle formation control.

  7. Cities and regions in Britain through hierarchical percolation (United States)

    Arcaute, Elsa; Molinero, Carlos; Hatna, Erez; Murcio, Roberto; Vargas-Ruiz, Camilo; Masucci, A. Paolo; Batty, Michael


    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations which are the outcome of complex geographical, political and historical processes which leave almost indelible footprints on infrastructure such as the street network. In this work, we uncover a set of hierarchies in Britain at different scales using percolation theory on the street network and on its intersections which are the primary points of interaction and urban agglomeration. At the larger scales, the observed hierarchical structures can be interpreted as regional fractures of Britain, observed in various forms, from natural boundaries, such as National Parks, to regional divisions based on social class and wealth such as the well-known North-South divide. At smaller scales, cities are generated through recursive percolations on each of the emerging regional clusters. We examine the evolution of the morphology of the system as a whole, by measuring the fractal dimension of the clusters at each distance threshold in the percolation. We observe that this reaches a maximum plateau at a specific distance. The clusters defined at this distance threshold are in excellent correspondence with the boundaries of cities recovered from satellite images, and from previous methods using population density.

  8. Reinforcement learning and Tourette syndrome. (United States)

    Palminteri, Stefano; Pessiglione, Mathias


    In this chapter, we report the first experimental explorations of reinforcement learning in Tourette syndrome, realized by our team in the last few years. This report will be preceded by an introduction aimed to provide the reader with the state of the art of the knowledge concerning the neural bases of reinforcement learning at the moment of these studies and the scientific rationale beyond them. In short, reinforcement learning is learning by trial and error to maximize rewards and minimize punishments. This decision-making and learning process implicates the dopaminergic system projecting to the frontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits. A large body of evidence suggests that the dysfunction of the same neural systems is implicated in the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome. Our results show that Tourette condition, as well as the most common pharmacological treatments (dopamine antagonists), affects reinforcement learning performance in these patients. Specifically, the results suggest a deficit in negative reinforcement learning, possibly underpinned by a functional hyperdopaminergia, which could explain the persistence of tics, despite their evident inadaptive (negative) value. This idea, together with the implications of these results in Tourette therapy and the future perspectives, is discussed in Section 4 of this chapter. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Seismic performance of circular reinforced concrete bridge columns constructed with grade 80 reinforcement. (United States)


    This project assessed the use of ASTM A706 Grade 80 reinforcing bars in reinforced concrete columns. : Grade 80 is not currently allowed in reinforced concrete columns due to lack of information on the : material characteristics and column performanc...

  10. Effect of Reinforcement Architecture on Fracture of Selectively Reinforced Metallic Compact Tension Specimens (United States)

    Abada, Christopher H.; Farley, Gary L.; Hyer, Michael W.


    A computer-based parametric study of the effect of reinforcement architectures on fracture response of aluminum compact-tension (CT) specimens is performed. Eleven different reinforcement architectures consisting of rectangular and triangular cross-section reinforcements were evaluated. Reinforced specimens produced between 13 and 28 percent higher fracture load than achieved with the non-reinforced case. Reinforcements with blunt leading edges (rectangular reinforcements) exhibited superior performance relative to the triangular reinforcements with sharp leading edges. Relative to the rectangular reinforcements, the most important architectural feature was reinforcement thickness. At failure, the reinforcements carried between 58 and 85 percent of the load applied to the specimen, suggesting that there is considerable load transfer between the base material and the reinforcement.

  11. Health monitoring of precast bridge deck panels reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars. (United States)


    The present research project investigates monitoring concrete precast panels for bridge decks that are reinforced with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars. Due to the lack of long term research on concrete members reinforced with GFRP bars, lo...

  12. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Meunier


    Full Text Available The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or “modules-within-modules” decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at the highest level of the hierarchy were medial occipital, lateral occipital, central, parieto-frontal and fronto-temporal systems; occipital modules demonstrated less sub-modular organization than modules comprising regions of multimodal association cortex. Connector nodes and hubs, with a key role in inter-modular connectivity, were also concentrated in association cortical areas. We conclude that methods are available for hierarchical modular decomposition of large numbers of high resolution brain functional networks using computationally expedient algorithms. This could enable future investigations of Simon's original hypothesis that hierarchy or near-decomposability of physical symbol systems is a critical design feature for their fast adaptivity to changing environmental conditions.

  13. A nanostructured carbon-reinforced polyisobutylene-based thermoplastic elastomer. (United States)

    Puskas, Judit E; Foreman-Orlowski, Elizabeth A; Lim, Goy Teck; Porosky, Sara E; Evancho-Chapman, Michelle M; Schmidt, Steven P; El Fray, Mirosława; Piatek, Marta; Prowans, Piotr; Lovejoy, Krystal


    This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of a polyisobutylene (PIB)-based nanostructured carbon-reinforced thermoplastic elastomer. This thermoplastic elastomer is based on a self-assembling block copolymer having a branched PIB core carrying -OH functional groups at each branch point, flanked by blocks of poly(isobutylene-co-para-methylstyrene). The block copolymer has thermolabile physical crosslinks and can be processed as a plastic, yet retains its rubbery properties at room temperature. The carbon-reinforced thermoplastic elastomer had more than twice the tensile strength of the neat polymer, exceeding the strength of medical grade silicone rubber, while remaining significantly softer. The carbon-reinforced thermoplastic elastomer displayed a high T(g) of 126 degrees C, rendering the material steam-sterilizable. The carbon also acted as a free radical trap, increasing the onset temperature of thermal decomposition in the neat polymer from 256.6 degrees C to 327.7 degrees C. The carbon-reinforced thermoplastic elastomer had the lowest water contact angle at 82 degrees and surface nano-topography. After 180 days of implantation into rabbit soft tissues, the carbon-reinforced thermoplastic elastomer had the thinnest tissue capsule around the microdumbbell specimens, with no eosinophiles present. The material also showed excellent integration into bones. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors influencing the reinforcing value of fruit and unhealthy snacks. (United States)

    Vervoort, L; Clauwaert, A; Vandeweghe, L; Vangeel, J; Van Lippevelde, W; Goossens, L; Huybregts, L; Lachat, C; Eggermont, S; Beullens, K; Braet, C; De Cock, N


    The present study investigated the reinforcing value of healthy and unhealthy snack food in adolescents (n = 108, aged 14-16 years). Moderation by access to different foods, sex and the personality trait reward sensitivity is tested. In a computerized Food Reinforcement Task, adolescents could earn portions of a healthy and an unhealthy snack following an identical progressive reinforcement schedule for both food types. Reinforcing value of food was indexed by the number of button presses for each food type. Participants were allocated randomly to two-order condition: fruit-snack versus snack-fruit. Reward sensitivity was assessed with the Dutch age-downward version of Carver and White's BIS/BAS scale. Results showed that the reinforcing value of an unhealthy snack is higher than that of fruit, with participants making more button presses for unhealthy snacks, M = 1280.40, SD = 1203.53, than for fruit, M = 488.04, SD = 401.45, F(1,48) = 25.37, p present in the snack-fruit condition, not in the fruit-snack condition, indicating that access to food moderates the effect of food type. There is no evidence for moderation by reward sensitivity. Results point to the importance of simultaneously increasing barriers to obtain unhealthy food and promoting access to healthy food in order to facilitate healthy food choices.

  15. Constructive solutions for beamless capitalless floors with prestressed reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardysheva Yuliya Anatol'evna


    Full Text Available In the article the authors present advanced constructions of prestressed reinforced concrete flat ceiling, where high-strength ropes in elastic shell are used as stressed reinforcement. The novelty of the solution lays in diagonal arrangement of hard valves and use of high-strength ropes in a flexible shell of "Monostrand" type. This type of prestress, in our opinion, is the most acceptable from technical point of view for selective reinforcement of separate tense rods or cables. The use of pre-stressed reinforcement in the form of individual rods or cables increases the rigidity and crack resistance of concrete beamless slabs. The use of high-strength ropes in the monostrand-type shell makes it possible to prestress in frames of single cell plate or floor in general and to reduce labour input for stressing armature. The paper presents original solution with diagonal position of the valve. The authors suggest the use of prestressed diagonal valves as in all cells of the floor with the cells of the same or only slightly different size and in separate cells of the floor (for roofs with different cells. The diagonal location of stressed reinforcement proposed in the work is an efficient solution for extending the range of dimensions and loads size.

  16. Drive reinforcement neural networks for reactor control. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.G.; Jouse, W.C.


    In view of the loss of the third year funding, the scope of the project goals has been revised. The revision in project scope no longer allows for the detailed modeling of the EBR-11 start-up task that was originally envisaged. The authors are continuing, however, to model the control of the rapid power ascent of the University of Arizona TRIGA reactor using a model-based controller and using a drive reinforcement neural network. These will be combined during the concluding period of the project into a hierarchical control architecture. In addition, the modeling of a PWR feedwater heater has continued, and an autonomous fault-tolerant software architecture for its control has been proposed

  17. Flexural behaviour and punching shear of selfcompacting concrete ribbed slab reinforced with steel fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hazrina


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of steel fibres as a replacement to the conventional reinforcement under flexural behaviour and punching shear in self-compacting (SCC ribbed slab reinforced with steel fibres. Four ribbed slabs with similar dimensions of 2.8 m length × 1.2 m width and 0.2m thickness were constructed. Two of the samples were considered as control samples (conventionally reinforced with reinforcement bars and welded mesh while another two samples were fully reinforced with 1% (80 kg/m3 volume of steel fibres incorporated to the SCC mix. For the flexural behaviour study, the ribbed slab samples were subjected to two line loads under four point bending. Meanwhile, for the punching shear analysis, the ribbed slab samples were subjected to a point load to simulate loading from the column. The analysis of the experimental results displayed that steel fibres incorporation had been found to effectively delay the first crack occurrence under both flexural and punching shear. The steel fibre replacement has been proven to be able to sustain up to 80% and 73% of the ultimate load resistance for flexural and punching shear, respectively, in comparison to conventionally reinforced ribbed slab structure. The visual observation carried out during the experiment exhibited similar failure mode for both steel fibre reinforced and control samples. This was observed for both flexural and punching shear samples. Overall, it can be concluded that the steel fibres had displayed a promising potential to effectively replace the conventional reinforcements.

  18. The power reinforcement framework revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe; Andersen, Kim Normann; Danziger, James N.


    public organizations. This article revisits the 30-yearold power reinforcement framework by means of an empirical analysis on the use of mobile technology in a large-scale programme in Danish public sector home care. It explores whether and to what extent administrative management has controlled decision......-dominated and centrally controlled technologies that were the main focus of the 1970s and 1980s studies. Yet this study concludes that there is general support for the reinforcement framework in the contemporary application of mobile technology in public sector home care.......-making and gained most benefits from mobile technology use, relative to the effects of the technology on the street-level workers who deliver services. Current mobile technology-in-use might be less likely to be power reinforcing because it is far more decentralized and individualized than the mainly expert...

  19. Failure Criteria for Reinforced Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    Failure of materials is often characterized as ductile yielding, brittle fracture, creep rupture, etc., and different criteria given in terms of different parameters have been used to describe different types of failure. Only criteria expressing failure in terms of stress are considered in what...... follows. The reinforcement here consists of long bars or fibres and complete bond between matrix and reinforcement is assumed so that no problems arising from incomplete transfer of adhesive and frictional forces are discussed. During loading, the reinforcement may yield, but total failure does not take...... certain restrictions on the form of the failure criteria for anisotropic materials. In section 2, some failure criteria for homogenous materials are reviewed. Both isotropic and anisotropic materials are described, and in particular the constraints imposed on the criteria from the symmetries orthotropy...

  20. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl


    Idealized data are derived for the tensile strength of quenched and tempered prestressing steel and of quenched and self-tempered reinforcing bars for fire safety design. 0.2% stresses are derived as a function of the maximum temperature and in addition, 2.0% stresses are provided. A strain of 2.......0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire....... The COLD condition is relevant for analyses of residual load bearing capacity of a structure after a fire exposure. It is also relevant for analyses of concrete structures exposed to fully developed fire courses. The reason is that compression zones of concrete are always the weakest in the cooling phase...

  1. Hierarchically Nanoporous Bioactive Glasses for High Efficiency Immobilization of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, W.; Min, D.D.; Zhang, X.D.


    Bioactive glasses with hierarchical nanoporosity and structures have been heavily involved in immobilization of enzymes. Because of meticulous design and ingenious hierarchical nanostructuration of porosities from yeast cell biotemplates, hierarchically nanostructured porous bioactive glasses can...... and products of catalytic reactions can freely diffuse through open mesopores (2–40 nm). The formation mechanism of hierarchically structured porous bioactive glasses, the immobilization mechanism of enzyme and the catalysis mechanism of immobilized enzyme are then discussed. The novel nanostructure...

  2. Preliminary Study on Impact Resistances of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Applied Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Byeong Moo; Kim, Young Jin; Jeon, Se Jin


    impact loading to NPP structures, so it can be said that the benefits of fiber reinforce concrete usages to the pre-stressed reactor containment buildings are obvious from a point of view of the impact resistance enhancement

  3. Spatial hierarchical Bayes estimation of mean years of schooling (United States)

    Wahyuni, Dwi A. S.; Wage, Sutarman; Darnius, Open


    A spatial hierarchical bayes for estimating mean years of schooling district level is proposed. We developed spatial hierarchical bayes within a Monte Carlo simulation study with R software. The simulation generated posterior distribution invers gamma. The spatial correlation used rook contiguity for each district. Hierarchical bayes method with spatial weighted provides smaller relative bias and relative root mean square.

  4. Incorporating Usability Criteria into the Development of Animated Hierarchical Maps (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Pei-Ren; Chen, Sherry Y.


    Nowadays, Web-based learning systems have become popular because they can provide multiple tools, among which hierarchical maps are widely used to support teaching and learning. However, traditional hierarchical maps may let learners easily get lost within large information space. This study proposes an animated hierarchical map to address this…

  5. Scalable Hierarchical Algorithms for stochastic PDEs and Uncertainty Quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    H-matrices and Fast Multipole (FMM) are powerful methods to approximate linear operators coming from partial differential and integral equations as well as speed up computational cost from quadratic or cubic to log-linear (O(n log n)), where n number of degrees of freedom in the discretization. The storage is reduced to the log-linear as well. This hierarchical structure is a good starting point for parallel algorithms. Parallelization on shared and distributed memory systems was pioneered by R. Kriemann, 2005. Since 2005, the area of parallel architectures and software is developing very fast. Progress in GPUs and Many-Core Systems (e.g. XeonPhi with 64 cores) motivated us to extend work started in [1,2,7,8].

  6. Scalable Hierarchical Algorithms for stochastic PDEs and UQ

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    H-matrices and Fast Multipole (FMM) are powerful methods to approximate linear operators coming from partial differential and integral equations as well as speed up computational cost from quadratic or cubic to log-linear (O(n log n)), where n number of degrees of freedom in the discretization. The storage is reduced to the log-linear as well. This hierarchical structure is a good starting point for parallel algorithms. Parallelization on shared and distributed memory systems was pioneered by Kriemann [1,2]. Since 2005, the area of parallel architectures and software is developing very fast. Progress in GPUs and Many-Core Systems (e.g. XeonPhi with 64 cores) motivated us to extend work started in [1,2,7,8].

  7. Brachistochrone approach to the relaxation dynamics of complex hierarchical systems (United States)

    Appignanesi, Gustavo A.


    We investigate the structure and the relaxation dynamics of complex hierarchical systems from a variational point of view. First, an additional argument for the use of the ultrametric caricature to describe disordered systems is provided. Focusing on ultrametric models, we show that two relevant dynamical limit behaviors of such models, the limit of convergence of the dynamics and the transition from compact to noncompact exploration, are in fact realizations of brachistochrone relaxation pathways. In turn, by making use of a rugged model whose conformation space topology deviates from ultrametricity under selective controllable conditions, we show that while the exponent of the resulting relaxation law behaves as ruggedness-dependent, its functional form is robust with respect to the introduction of ruggedness. Finally, within this rugged context, the relaxation dynamics of the two above-mentioned limit behaviors are shown to correspond to characteristic relaxation laws: Debye-Kohlrausch and power decay, respectively.

  8. Reinforcing stimulus properties of drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.M. van


    The reinforcing efficacy of psychoactive drugs can reliably be studied in experimental animals by using procedures for drug self-administration. This property of drugs is used to predict qualitatively and quantitatively their abuse potential in humans. External factors like the dose of the drug, the

  9. Microfibre Reinforced Hot Mix Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zak Josef


    Full Text Available Cracks are common disturbances in pavement structure. The ability of hot mix asphalt to withstand tensile stresses is limited. This paper presents influence of different microfiber reinforcement types ITERFIBRA to hot mix asphalt behaviour in its chosen properties. Bulk density of hot mix asphalt, stiffness , resistance to the permanent deformation and resistance to the crack propagation are taken into consideration.

  10. Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H.


    The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order...

  11. Nanocellulose reinforcement of Transparent Composites (United States)

    Joshua Steele; Hong Dong; James F. Snyder; Josh A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie


    In this work, we evaluate the impact of nanocellulose reinforcement on transparent composite properties. Due to the small diameter, high modulus, and high strength of cellulose nanocrystals, transparent composites that utilize these materials should show improvement in bulk mechanical performances without a corresponding reduction in optical properties. In this study...

  12. Noise enhances information transfer in hierarchical networks. (United States)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Holyst, Janusz A; Sloot, Peter M A


    We study the influence of noise on information transmission in the form of packages shipped between nodes of hierarchical networks. Numerical simulations are performed for artificial tree networks, scale-free Ravasz-Barabási networks as well for a real network formed by email addresses of former Enron employees. Two types of noise are considered. One is related to packet dynamics and is responsible for a random part of packets paths. The second one originates from random changes in initial network topology. We find that the information transfer can be enhanced by the noise. The system possesses optimal performance when both kinds of noise are tuned to specific values, this corresponds to the Stochastic Resonance phenomenon. There is a non-trivial synergy present for both noisy components. We found also that hierarchical networks built of nodes of various degrees are more efficient in information transfer than trees with a fixed branching factor.

  13. Application of hierarchical matrices for partial inverse

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    In this work we combine hierarchical matrix techniques (Hackbusch, 1999) and domain decomposition methods to obtain fast and efficient algorithms for the solution of multiscale problems. This combination results in the hierarchical domain decomposition (HDD) method, which can be applied for solution multi-scale problems. Multiscale problems are problems that require the use of different length scales. Using only the finest scale is very expensive, if not impossible, in computational time and memory. Domain decomposition methods decompose the complete problem into smaller systems of equations corresponding to boundary value problems in subdomains. Then fast solvers can be applied to each subdomain. Subproblems in subdomains are independent, much smaller and require less computational resources as the initial problem.

  14. Hierarchical control system of advanced robot manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomichi, Takeo; Okino, Akihisa; Nishihara, Masatoshi; Sakamoto, Taizou; Matsuda, Koichi; Ohnishi, Ken


    We introduce a double arm with 4-finger's manipulator system which process the large volume of information at high speed. This is under research/development many type of works in the harsh condition. Namely, hierarchization of instruction unit in which motion control system as real time processing unit, and task planning unit as non-real time processing unit, interface with operation through the task planning unit has been made. Also, high speed processing of large volume information has been realized by decentralizing the motion control unit by function, hierarchizing the high speed processing unit, and developing high speed transmission, IC which does not depend on computer OS to avoid the delay in transmission. (author)

  15. Hierarchical antifouling brushes for biosensing applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Riedel, Tomáš; Brynda, Eduard; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar


    Roč. 202, 31 October (2014), s. 1313-1321 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/1702; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : hierarchically structured brushes * affinity biosensors * fouling Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.097, year: 2014

  16. Hierarchically structured distributed microprocessor network for control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.R.; Holloway, F.W.; Rupert, P.R.; Ozarski, R.G.; Suski, G.J.


    To satisfy a broad range of control-analysis and data-acquisition requirements for Shiva, a hierarchical, computer-based, modular-distributed control system was designed. This system handles the more than 3000 control elements and 1000 data acquisition units in a severe high-voltage, high-current environment. The control system design gives one a flexible and reliable configuration to meet the development milestones for Shiva within critical time limits

  17. Internet advertising effectiveness by using hierarchical model


    RAHMANI, Samaneh


    Abstract. Present paper has been developed with the title of internet advertising effectiveness by using hierarchical model. Presenting the question: Today Internet is an important channel in marketing and advertising. The reason for this could be the ability of the Internet to reduce costs and people’s access to online services[1]. Also advertisers can easily access a multitude of users and communicate with them at low cost [9]. On the other hand, compared to traditional advertising, interne...

  18. Hierarchical Fiber Structures Made by Electrospinning Polymers (United States)

    Reneker, Darrell H.


    A filter for water purification that is very thin, with small interstices and high surface area per unit mass, can be made with nanofibers. The mechanical strength of a very thin sheet of nanofibers is not great enough to withstand the pressure drop of the fluid flowing through. If the sheet of nanofibers is made thicker, the strength will increase, but the flow will be reduced to an impractical level. An optimized filter can be made with nanometer scale structures supported on micron scale structures, which are in turn supported on millimeter scale structures. This leads to a durable hierarchical structure to optimize the filtration efficiency with a minimum amount of material. Buckling coils,ootnotetextTao Han, Darrell H Reneker, Alexander L. Yarin, Polymer, Volume 48, issue 20 (September 21, 2007), p. 6064-6076. electrical bending coilsootnotetextDarrell H. Reneker and Alexander L. Yarin, Polymer, Volume 49, Issue 10 (2008) Pages 2387-2425, DOI:10.1016/j.polymer.2008.02.002. Feature Article. and pendulum coilsootnotetextT. Han, D.H. Reneker, A.L. Yarin, Polymer, Volume 49, (2008) Pages 2160-2169, doi:10.1016/jpolymer.2008.01.0487878. spanning dimensions from a few microns to a few centimeters can be collected from a single jet by controlling the position and motion of a collector. Attractive routes to the design and construction of hierarchical structures for filtration are based on nanofibers supported on small coils that are in turn supported on larger coils, which are supported on even larger overlapping coils. ``Such top-down'' hierarchical structures are easy to make by electrospinning. In one example, a thin hierarchical structure was made, with a high surface area and small interstices, having an open area of over 50%, with the thinnest fibers supported at least every 15 microns.

  19. Hierarchical morphological segmentation for image sequence coding


    Salembier Clairon, Philippe Jean; Pardàs Feliu, Montse


    This paper deals with a hierarchical morphological segmentation algorithm for image sequence coding. Mathematical morphology is very attractive for this purpose because it efficiently deals with geometrical features such as size, shape, contrast, or connectivity that can be considered as segmentation-oriented features. The algorithm follows a top-down procedure. It first takes into account the global information and produces a coarse segmentation, that is, with a small number of regions. Then...

  20. Hierarchical Archimedean Copulae: The HAC Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostap Okhrin


    Full Text Available This paper presents the R package HAC, which provides user friendly methods for dealing with hierarchical Archimedean copulae (HAC. Computationally efficient estimation procedures allow to recover the structure and the parameters of HAC from data. In addition, arbitrary HAC can be constructed to sample random vectors and to compute the values of the corresponding cumulative distribution plus density functions. Accurate graphics of the HAC structure can be produced by the plot method implemented for these objects.

  1. Analysis of crack and strain states of high performance reinforced fiber concrete beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Trzepieciński


    Full Text Available The article presents the crack and strain states analysis of the reinforced high performance concrete beams with steel and polypropylene fibre. The beams were bent in the 4-point model. Research was carried out for three different beams with regard to the quantity and the type of reinforcement. The beam B1 was constructed conventionally with steel rods reinforcement. As regards beams B2 and B3, instead of the stirrups and the compressive rods, fibre reinforcement of variable fibre volume percentage was applied. For the analysis, a non-contact system for three-dimensional measurements of strain – ARAMIS was used. The analysis of the behaviour of the beams under static load was based on the measurements of crack and strain.[b]Keywords[/b]: reinforced concrete beams, high performance concrete, steel fibre, polypropylene fibre, ARAMIS system, crack state, strain state

  2. Cracking of SHCC due to reinforcement corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savija, B.; Lukovic, M.; Pacheco Farias, J.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Saouma, V.; Bolander, J.; Landis, E.


    Reinforcement corrosion is the most important deterioration mechanism affecting reinforced concrete infrastructures. After corrosion starts, expansive pressures are exerted onto the surrounding concrete, causing cracking and spalling of the cover concrete. The amount of cover cracking can possibly

  3. Hierarchically structured materials for lithium batteries (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Ji-Guang


    The lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles, including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles. With the increasing demand for devices of high-energy densities (>500 Wh kg-1), new energy storage systems, such as lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB, have attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performance of these energy storage systems depends not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of the electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performance characteristics of batteries often have conflicting requirements with the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflicting requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li-O2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate (1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and (2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties and prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime.

  4. Hierarchical architecture for flexible energy storage. (United States)

    Pan, H; Ma, J; Tao, J; Zhu, S


    The introduction of hierarchy and chirality into structure is of great interest, and can result in new optical and electronic properties due to the synergistic effect of helical and anisotropic structures. Herein, we demonstrate a simple and straightforward route toward the fabrication of hierarchical chiral materials based on the assembly of two-dimensional graphene oxide nanosheets (GO) and one-dimensional cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The unique layered structure of CNC/GO could be preserved in the solid state, allowing electrode active SnO 2 to be loaded for potential applications in energy storage. The resultant SnO 2 /CNC/reduced GO (SnO 2 /CNC/rGO) composite could be processed into film, fiber, and textile with an extremely high tensile strength of 100 MPa. The free-standing SnO 2 /CNC/rGO electrodes exhibit highly improved energy storage performance, with a reversible capacity of ∼500 mA h g -1 maintained for 1500 cycles in the film and ∼800 mA h g -1 maintained for 150 cycles in the textile at a current density of 500 mA g -1 . This is attributed to the prepared hierarchical chiral structures. The presented technique provides an effective approach to producing hierarchical functional materials from nanoparticles as building blocks, which might open an avenue for the creation of new flexible energy storage devices.

  5. Hierarchical structure of Turkey's foreign trade (United States)

    Kantar, Ersin; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa


    We examine the hierarchical structures of Turkey's foreign trade by using real prices of their commodity export and import move together over time. We obtain the topological properties among the countries based on Turkey's foreign trade during the 1996-2010 period by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree, (MST) and hierarchical tree, (HT)). These periods are divided into two subperiods, such as 1996-2002 and 2003-2010, in order to test various time-window and observe the temporal evolution. We perform the bootstrap techniques to investigate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MSTs and HTs. We also use a clustering linkage procedure in order to observe the cluster structure much better. From the structural topologies of these trees, we identify different clusters of countries according to their geographical location and economic ties. Our results show that the DE (Germany), UK (United Kingdom), FR (France), IT (Italy) and RU (Russia) are more important within the network, due to a tighter connection with other countries. We have also found that these countries play a significant role for Turkey's foreign trade and have important implications for the design of portfolio and investment strategies.

  6. Hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik Hadorn

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic life contains hierarchical vesicular architectures (i.e. organelles that are crucial for material production and trafficking, information storage and access, as well as energy production. In order to perform specific tasks, these compartments differ among each other in their membrane composition and their internal cargo and also differ from the cell membrane and the cytosol. Man-made structures that reproduce this nested architecture not only offer a deeper understanding of the functionalities and evolution of organelle-bearing eukaryotic life but also allow the engineering of novel biomimetic technologies. Here, we show the newly developed vesicle-in-water-in-oil emulsion transfer preparation technique to result in giant unilamellar vesicles internally compartmentalized by unilamellar vesicles of different membrane composition and internal cargo, i.e. hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity. The compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles were subsequently isolated by a separation step exploiting the heterogeneity of the membrane composition and the encapsulated cargo. Due to the controlled, efficient, and technically straightforward character of the new preparation technique, this study allows the hierarchical fabrication of compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity and will ease the development of eukaryotic cell mimics that resemble their natural templates as well as the fabrication of novel multi-agent drug delivery systems for combination therapies and complex artificial microreactors.

  7. Hierarchically structured materials for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Ji-Guang


    The lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power sources to be deployed in electric vehicles, including solely battery powered vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles. With the increasing demand for devices of high-energy densities (>500 Wh kg −1 ), new energy storage systems, such as lithium–oxygen (Li–O 2 ) batteries and other emerging systems beyond the conventional LIB, have attracted worldwide interest for both transportation and grid energy storage applications in recent years. It is well known that the electrochemical performance of these energy storage systems depends not only on the composition of the materials, but also on the structure of the electrode materials used in the batteries. Although the desired performance characteristics of batteries often have conflicting requirements with the micro/nano-structure of electrodes, hierarchically designed electrodes can be tailored to satisfy these conflicting requirements. This work will review hierarchically structured materials that have been successfully used in LIB and Li–O 2 batteries. Our goal is to elucidate (1) how to realize the full potential of energy materials through the manipulation of morphologies, and (2) how the hierarchical structure benefits the charge transport, promotes the interfacial properties and prolongs the electrode stability and battery lifetime. (paper)

  8. Semantic Image Segmentation with Contextual Hierarchical Models. (United States)

    Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Tasdizen, Tolga


    Semantic segmentation is the problem of assigning an object label to each pixel. It unifies the image segmentation and object recognition problems. The importance of using contextual information in semantic segmentation frameworks has been widely realized in the field. We propose a contextual framework, called contextual hierarchical model (CHM), which learns contextual information in a hierarchical framework for semantic segmentation. At each level of the hierarchy, a classifier is trained based on downsampled input images and outputs of previous levels. Our model then incorporates the resulting multi-resolution contextual information into a classifier to segment the input image at original resolution. This training strategy allows for optimization of a joint posterior probability at multiple resolutions through the hierarchy. Contextual hierarchical model is purely based on the input image patches and does not make use of any fragments or shape examples. Hence, it is applicable to a variety of problems such as object segmentation and edge detection. We demonstrate that CHM performs at par with state-of-the-art on Stanford background and Weizmann horse datasets. It also outperforms state-of-the-art edge detection methods on NYU depth dataset and achieves state-of-the-art on Berkeley segmentation dataset (BSDS 500).

  9. Optimal control in microgrid using multi-agent reinforcement learning. (United States)

    Li, Fu-Dong; Wu, Min; He, Yong; Chen, Xin


    This paper presents an improved reinforcement learning method to minimize electricity costs on the premise of satisfying the power balance and generation limit of units in a microgrid with grid-connected mode. Firstly, the microgrid control requirements are analyzed and the objective function of optimal control for microgrid is proposed. Then, a state variable "Average Electricity Price Trend" which is used to express the most possible transitions of the system is developed so as to reduce the complexity and randomicity of the microgrid, and a multi-agent architecture including agents, state variables, action variables and reward function is formulated. Furthermore, dynamic hierarchical reinforcement learning, based on change rate of key state variable, is established to carry out optimal policy exploration. The analysis shows that the proposed method is beneficial to handle the problem of "curse of dimensionality" and speed up learning in the unknown large-scale world. Finally, the simulation results under JADE (Java Agent Development Framework) demonstrate the validity of the presented method in optimal control for a microgrid with grid-connected mode. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electromagnetic configurable architectures for assessment of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steigmann Rozina


    Full Text Available Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics are used in most wide domains due their low density, lack of mechanical fatigue phenomena and high strength–to weight ratio. From electromagnetic point of view, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics structure represents an inhomogeneous structure of electric conductive fibers embedded into a dielectric material, thus an electromagnetic configurable architecture can be used to evaluate above mentioned defects. The paper proposes a special sensor, send receiver type and the obtaining of electromagnetic image by post-processing each coil signals in each point of scanning, using a sub-encoding image reconstruction algorithm and super-resolution procedures. The layout of fibers can be detected interrogating only diagonal reception coils.

  11. Choice and the relative immediacy of reinforcement


    Dunn, Roger; Fantino, Edmund


    The relative immediacy of reinforcement in concurrent-chain schedules was varied while the relative reduction in the overall average time to reinforcement associated with terminal-link entry was held constant. For each of four pigeons, choice did not vary with relative immediacy of reinforcement. Subsequently, choice by the same subjects was shown to be sensitive to relative reduction in average time to reinforcement.

  12. The Usaquén Cemetery – A Case Study about the Spacial Manifestations of Society’s Hierarchical Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo González Vargas


    Full Text Available Beginning with an analysis of the spatial organization of the Usaquén Cemetery in Bogotá, this text proposes that the space of the cemetery functions like a scenario in which the hierarchical order of society is represented and reinforced. This order, however, is not admitted and interiorized totally by cemetery users. Through practices like the Cult to the Holy Souls the hierarchical social order is denied, in a cycle that repeats itself every week when this ritual is carried out. With the exploration of this case study it is proposed that investigations concerning social practices related to death are very useful for understanding the societies that produce them.

  13. Applied Implications of Reinforcement History Effects (United States)

    Pipkin, Claire St. Peter; Vollmer, Timothy R.


    Although the influence of reinforcement history is a theoretical focus of behavior analysis, the specific behavioral effects of reinforcement history have received relatively little attention in applied research and practice. We examined the potential effects of reinforcement history by reviewing nonhuman, human operant, and applied research and…

  14. Conditioned Reinforcement Value and Resistance to Change (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.


    Three experiments examined the effects of conditioned reinforcement value and primary reinforcement rate on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures with pigeons. In the absence of observing responses in both components, unsignaled periods of variable-interval (VI) schedule food reinforcement alternated with…

  15. Continuous jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plastic bags create a serious environmental problem. The proposed jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and reinforcement-fibre free paper laminate may help to combat the war against this pollutant to certain extent. The paper laminate, without reinforcement fibre, exhibited a few fold superiority in tensile ...

  16. Behavior of Reinforced Retaining Walls with Different Reinforcement Spacing during Vehicle Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangkuk Ahn


    reinforcement spacing using LS-DYNA, a general finite-element program. Eight tons of truck weight was used for the numerical analysis model. The behavior of a reinforced retaining wall under variable reinforcement spacing and positioning was analyzed. The results indicated that the reinforcement material was an important resistance factor against external collision load.

  17. Buckling of Fiber Reinforced Composite Plates with Nanofiber Reinforced Matrices (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.


    Anisotropic composite plates were evaluated with nanofiber reinforced matrices (NFRM). The nanofiber reinforcement volumes ratio in the matrix was 0.01. The plate dimensions were 20 by 10 by 1.0 in. (508 by 254 by 25.4 mm). Seven different loading condition cases were evaluated: three for uniaxial loading, three for pairs of combined loading, and one with three combined loadings. The anisotropy arose from the unidirectional plates having been at 30 from the structural axis. The anisotropy had a full 6 by 6 rigidities matrix which were satisfied and solved by a Galerkin buckling algorithm. The buckling results showed that the NFRM plates buckled at about twice those with conventional matrix.

  18. Experimental Study On Flexural Behaviour Of Beams Reinforced With GFRP Rebars (United States)

    Naveen Kumar, G.; Sundaravadivelu, Karthik


    In saline, moisture and cold conditions corrosion of steel is inevitable and the lot of economy is used for rehabilitation works. Corrosion of steel is nothing but oxidation of iron in moisture conditions and this corrosion leads to the spalling of concrete which intern reduces the strength of the structure. To reduce this corrosion effects, new materials with resistance against corrosion have to be introduced. Many experiments are going on using Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) as alternate material for steel due to its non-corrosive nature, weight of GFRP is nearly one third of steel and ultimate tensile strength is higher than steel. In this paper, six beams are casted in which three beams are casted with steel as main and shear reinforcement and another three beams are casted with GFRP as main reinforcement with steel as shear reinforcing material. All beams casted are of same dimensions with variation in reinforcement percentage. The size of the beams casted is of length 1200 mm, breadth 100 mm and depth 200 mm. The clear cover of 25 mm is provided on top and bottom of the beam. Beams are tested under two-point loading with constant aspect ratio (a/d) and comparing the flexural strength, load deflection curves and types of failures of beams reinforced with GFRP as main reinforcement and beams reinforced with conventional steel. The final experimental results are compared with numerical results. M30 grade concrete with Conplast as a superplasticizer is used for casting beams.

  19. Effect of Tensile Reinforcement Ratio on the Effective Moment of Inertia of Reinforced Lightweight Concrete Beams for Short Term Deflection Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper presents an improvement model of the effective moment of inertia to predict the short term deflection of reinforced lightweight concrete beam. The models were developed using 9 beams of reinforced pumice-lightweight concrete tested under two symmetrical-point loads. The presence of steel reinforcement in the beam was taken into consideration in the developed model. The models were verified by test carried out on other 9 beams. Those beams subjected to various-point loads and compressive strength. The results of investigation revealed that crack moment of inertia increased with the increased tensile reinforcement ratio. Thus, the reinforcement ratio significantly affects the value of effective moment of inertia of reinforced lightweight concrete beam. All the beam test results produced considerable deflection in comparison to that obtained using current Codes either ACI or SNI. The proposed model demonstrated a good agreement to the experimental results and in some cases have similar trend to that of the ACI or SNI prediction.

  20. Alumina-Reinforced Zirconia Composites (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.


    Alumina-reinforced zirconia composites, used as electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells, were fabricated by hot pressing 10 mol percent yttria-stabilized zirconia (10-YSZ) reinforced with two different forms of alumina particulates and platelets each containing 0 to 30 mol percent alumina. Major mechanical and physical properties of both particulate and platelet composites including flexure strength, fracture toughness, slow crack growth, elastic modulus, density, Vickers microhardness, thermal conductivity, and microstructures were determined as a function of alumina content either at 25 C or at both 25 and 1000 C. Flexure strength and fracture toughness at 1000 C were maximized with 30 particulate and 30 mol percent platelet composites, respectively, while resistance to slow crack growth at 1000 C in air was greater for 30 mol percent platelet composite than for 30 mol percent particulate composites.

  1. Comparison of Properties of Polymer Composite Materials Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygoń P.


    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes because of their high mechanical, optical or electrical properties, have found use as semiconducting materials constituting the reinforcing phase in composite materials. The paper presents the results of the studies on the mechanical properties of polymer composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT. Three-point bending tests were carried out on the composites. The density of each obtained composite was determined as well as the surface roughness and the resistivity at room temperature.

  2. Wax Reinforces Honeycomb During Machining (United States)

    Towell, Timothy W.; Fahringer, David T.; Vasquez, Peter; Scheidegger, Alan P.


    Method of machining on conventional metal lathe devised for precise cutting of axisymmetric contours on honeycomb cores made of composite (matrix/fiber) materials. Wax filling reinforces honeycomb walls against bending and tearing while honeycomb being contoured on lathe. Innovative method of machining on lathe involves preparation in which honeycomb is placed in appropriate fixture and the fixture is then filled with molten water-soluble wax. Number of different commercial waxes have been tried.

  3. Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Saeed G.


    Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

  4. Lignocellulosic fiber reinforced rubber composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya


    Full Text Available polymerization reaction using Zieglar-Natta- hetergenous catalyst. The important components of NR are given in Table I. Lignocellulosic Fiber Reinforced Rubber Composites -253- Figure 1. Structure of natural rubber NR has a very uniform.... Grafting a second polymer onto the NR backbone Grafting is mostly carried out using vinyl monomers like methyl methacrylate (MMA) and styrene. The commercial available grafted copolymer of NR with poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is Heveaplus MG...

  5. An accessible method for implementing hierarchical models with spatio-temporal abundance data (United States)

    Ross, Beth E.; Hooten, Melvin B.; Koons, David N.


    A common goal in ecology and wildlife management is to determine the causes of variation in population dynamics over long periods of time and across large spatial scales. Many assumptions must nevertheless be overcome to make appropriate inference about spatio-temporal variation in population dynamics, such as autocorrelation among data points, excess zeros, and observation error in count data. To address these issues, many scientists and statisticians have recommended the use of Bayesian hierarchical models. Unfortunately, hierarchical statistical models remain somewhat difficult to use because of the necessary quantitative background needed to implement them, or because of the computational demands of using Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms to estimate parameters. Fortunately, new tools have recently been developed that make it more feasible for wildlife biologists to fit sophisticated hierarchical Bayesian models (i.e., Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation, ‘INLA’). We present a case study using two important game species in North America, the lesser and greater scaup, to demonstrate how INLA can be used to estimate the parameters in a hierarchical model that decouples observation error from process variation, and accounts for unknown sources of excess zeros as well as spatial and temporal dependence in the data. Ultimately, our goal was to make unbiased inference about spatial variation in population trends over time.

  6. NASA Thesaurus. Volumes 1 and 2; Hierarchical Listing with Definitions; Rotated Term Display (United States)


    The NASA Thesaurus contains the authorized subject terms by which the documents in the NASA STI Databases are indexed and retrieved. The scope of this controlled vocabulary includes not only aerospace engineering, but all supporting areas of engineering and physics, the natural space sciences (astronomy, astrophysics, planetary science), Earth sciences, and to some extent, the biological sciences. Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing With Definitions contains over 18,400 subject terms, 4,300 definitions, and more than 4,500 USE cross references. The Hierarchical Listing presents full hierarchical structure for each term along with 'related term' lists, and can serve as an orthographic authority. Volume 2 - Rotated Term Display is a ready-reference tool which provides over 52,700 additional 'access points' to the thesaurus terminology. It contains the postable and nonpostable terms found in the Hierarchical Listing arranged in a KWIC (key-word-in-context) index. This CD-ROM version of the NASA Thesaurus is in PDF format and is updated to the current year of purchase.

  7. Continuous carbon nanotube reinforced composites. (United States)

    Ci, L; Suhr, J; Pushparaj, V; Zhang, X; Ajayan, P M


    Carbon nanotubes are considered short fibers, and polymer composites with nanotube fillers are always analogues of random, short fiber composites. The real structural carbon fiber composites, on the other hand, always contain carbon fiber reinforcements where fibers run continuously through the composite matrix. With the recent optimization in aligned nanotube growth, samples of nanotubes in macroscopic lengths have become available, and this allows the creation of composites that are similar to the continuous fiber composites with individual nanotubes running continuously through the composite body. This allows the proper utilization of the extreme high modulus and strength predicted for nanotubes in structural composites. Here, we fabricate such continuous nanotube polymer composites with continuous nanotube reinforcements and report that under compressive loadings, the nanotube composites can generate more than an order of magnitude improvement in the longitudinal modulus (up to 3,300%) as well as damping capability (up to 2,100%). It is also observed that composites with a random distribution of nanotubes of same length and similar filler fraction provide three times less effective reinforcement in composites.

  8. Tooling with reinforced elastomeric materials (United States)

    Musch, G.; Bishop, W.

    During vacuum bag/autoclave processing of thermosetting advanced composite prepregs, problems often develop with the pressure distribution on the composite component. These problems can result in local variations in finished component thickness, shape, resin/fiber ratio and void content and lead to rejection of the part or make it necessary to carry out expensive and time consuming rework. These pressure distributions problems are discussed and the key difficulty of bridging of composite lay-ups in female corner zones is examined. Conventional, unreinforced elastomeric tooling concepts designed to overcome these pressure distribution problems are reviewed, and, working from the shortcomings associated with these techniques, a set of requirements is established for improved elastomeric tooling. Reinforced elastomeric tooling based on AIRPAD polyacrylic rubber is shown to meet these performance requirements and the overall concept is presented, together with a detailed examination of the key elements of this form of tooling. Basic design quidelines are given for reinforced elastomeric tooling, and tooling concepts for more complex applications are discussed. Finally, two practical applications of the reinforced elastomeric tooling concept are described and examined in detail to fully illustrate the techniques involved.

  9. Factors other than chloride level influencing rate of reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castel, A.; Arliguie, G. [Paul Sabatier Univ., Toulouse (France); Francois, R. [Institut National Des Sciences Appliques, Toulouse (France)


    To evaluate the degree of corrosion a 14 year-old concrete member was completely bared and three meter-long beams were stored in three-point flexion in an aggressive environment by sequences of drying and wetting by a salt fog. Total chloride content was measured at the level of all reinforcements. Despite the small concrete cover of 10 mm at the stirrups and 16 mm for the longitudinal reinforcement, no evidence was found to relate corrosion to chloride content, since a large part of the reinforcement was not affected by corrosion. It was concluded that the steel-concrete interface had a major influence on being able to predict the onset of corrosion in relation to chloride content. Indeed, corrosion damage was only present when the steel-concrete interface was damaged. These results call into question the validity of the chloride threshold as the single determining criterion to forecast corrosion development. It is suggested that the nature of the interface between steel and concrete, which may be randomly distributed along the reinforcements, should also be considered. Experimental evidence shows that steel-concrete interface damage is linked to non-elastic behaviour of bond that occurs at a given level of mechanical loading. Therefore, corrosion damage is best considered as a deterministic phenomenon linked to a bonding damage. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. Hierarchical Parallelization of Gene Differential Association Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwarkadas Sandhya


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray gene differential expression analysis is a widely used technique that deals with high dimensional data and is computationally intensive for permutation-based procedures. Microarray gene differential association analysis is even more computationally demanding and must take advantage of multicore computing technology, which is the driving force behind increasing compute power in recent years. In this paper, we present a two-layer hierarchical parallel implementation of gene differential association analysis. It takes advantage of both fine- and coarse-grain (with granularity defined by the frequency of communication parallelism in order to effectively leverage the non-uniform nature of parallel processing available in the cutting-edge systems of today. Results Our results show that this hierarchical strategy matches data sharing behavior to the properties of the underlying hardware, thereby reducing the memory and bandwidth needs of the application. The resulting improved efficiency reduces computation time and allows the gene differential association analysis code to scale its execution with the number of processors. The code and biological data used in this study are downloadable from Conclusions The performance sweet spot occurs when using a number of threads per MPI process that allows the working sets of the corresponding MPI processes running on the multicore to fit within the machine cache. Hence, we suggest that practitioners follow this principle in selecting the appropriate number of MPI processes and threads within each MPI process for their cluster configurations. We believe that the principles of this hierarchical approach to parallelization can be utilized in the parallelization of other computationally demanding kernels.

  11. Technique for fast and efficient hierarchical clustering (United States)

    Stork, Christopher


    A fast and efficient technique for hierarchical clustering of samples in a dataset includes compressing the dataset to reduce a number of variables within each of the samples of the dataset. A nearest neighbor matrix is generated to identify nearest neighbor pairs between the samples based on differences between the variables of the samples. The samples are arranged into a hierarchy that groups the samples based on the nearest neighbor matrix. The hierarchy is rendered to a display to graphically illustrate similarities or differences between the samples.

  12. Robust Pseudo-Hierarchical Support Vector Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Sjöstrand, Karl; Olafsdóttir, Hildur


    Support vector clustering (SVC) has proven an efficient algorithm for clustering of noisy and high-dimensional data sets, with applications within many fields of research. An inherent problem, however, has been setting the parameters of the SVC algorithm. Using the recent emergence of a method...... for calculating the entire regularization path of the support vector domain description, we propose a fast method for robust pseudo-hierarchical support vector clustering (HSVC). The method is demonstrated to work well on generated data, as well as for detecting ischemic segments from multidimensional myocardial...

  13. Modelling complex networks by random hierarchical graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Numerous complex networks contain special patterns, called network motifs. These are specific subgraphs, which occur oftener than in randomized networks of Erdős-Rényi type. We choose one of them, the triangle, and build a family of random hierarchical graphs, being Sierpiński gasket-based graphs with random "decorations". We calculate the important characteristics of these graphs - average degree, average shortest path length, small-world graph family characteristics. They depend on probability of decorations. We analyze the Ising model on our graphs and describe its critical properties using a renormalization-group technique.

  14. SORM applied to hierarchical parallel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager


    of a particular first order reliability method (FORM) was first described in a celebrated paper by Rackwitz and Fiessler more than a quarter of a century ago. The method has become known as the Rackwitz-Fiessler algorithm. The original RF-algorithm as applied to a hierarchical random variable model...... is recapitulated so that a simple but quite effective accuracy improving calculation can be explained. A limit state curvature correction factor on the probability approximation is obtained from the final stop results of the RF-algorithm. This correction factor is based on Breitung’s asymptotic formula for second...

  15. Additive Manufacturing of Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division. Polymers and Coatings


    Additive manufacturing has become a tool of choice for the development of customizable components. Developments in this technology have led to a powerful array of printers that t serve a variety of needs. However, resin development plays a crucial role in leading the technology forward. This paper addresses the development and application of printing hierarchical porous structures. Beginning with the development of a porous scaffold, which can be functionalized with a variety of materials, and concluding with customized resins for metal, ceramic, and carbon structures.

  16. Sharing the proceeds from a hierarchical venture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Tvede, Mich


    We consider the problem of distributing the proceeds generated from a joint venture in which the participating agents are hierarchically organized. We introduce and characterize a family of allocation rules where revenue ‘bubbles up’ in the hierarchy. The family is flexible enough to accommodate ...... the no-transfer rule (where no revenue bubbles up) and the full-transfer rule (where all the revenues bubble up to the top of the hierarchy). Intermediate rules within the family are reminiscent of popular incentive mechanisms for social mobilization or multi-level marketing....

  17. Document turn-over analysis to determine need of NPP construction in build-up structures of reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojpe, D.K.; Lyubavin, V.K.


    Document turn-over to determine used of NPP construction in build-up structures of reinforced concrete is carried out. Ways of improving determination of needs of NPP construction board in the mentioned structures are pointed out

  18. Modified glass fibre reinforced polymer composites (United States)

    Cao, Yumei

    A high ratio of strength to density and relatively low-cost are some of the significant features of glass fibre reinforced polymer composites (GFRPCs) that made them one of the most rapidly developed materials in recent years. They are widely used as the material of construction in the areas of aerospace, marine and everyday life, such as airplane, helicopter, boat, canoe, fishing rod, racket, etc. Traditionally, researchers tried to raise the mechanical properties and keep a high strength/weight ratio using all or some of the following methods: increasing the volume fraction of the fibre; using different polymeric matrix material; or changing the curing conditions. In recent years, some new techniques and processing methods were developed to further improve the mechanical properties of glass fibre (GF) reinforced polymer composite. For example, by modifying the surface condition of the GF, both the interface strength between the GF and the polymer matrix and the shear strength of the final composite can be significantly increased. Also, by prestressing the fibre during the curing process of the composite, the tensile, flexural and the impact properties of the composite can be greatly improved. In this research project, a new method of preparing GFRPCs, which combined several traditional and modern techniques together, was developed. This new method includes modification of the surface of the GF with silica particles, application of different levels of prestressing on the GF during the curing process, and the change of the fibre volume fraction and curing conditions in different sets of experiments. The results of the new processing were tested by the three-point bend test, the short beam shear test and the impact test to determine the new set of properties so formed in the composite material. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was used to study the fracture surface of the new materials after the mechanical tests were performed. By taking advantages of the

  19. Polymer/inorganic nanocomposites with tailored hierarchical structure as advanced dielectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manias, Evangelos [Pennsylvania State University; Randall, Clive [Pennsylvania State University; Tomer, Vivek [Pennsylvania State University; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL


    Most advances and commercial successes of polymer/inorganic nanocomposites rely only on the dispersion of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. Such approaches leave untapped opportunities where performance can be improved by controlling the larger length-scale structures. Here, we review selected examples where the hierarchical structure (from millimeter to nanometer) is tailored to control the transport properties of the materials, giving rise to marked property enhancements, relevant to dielectric materials for power capacitors. These examples address composite structures that are self-assembled, both at the nm and the micron scales, and, thus, can be produced using standard industrial practices. Specifically, polyethylene (PE) blends or poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) copolymers are reinforced with nanofillers; these composites are designed with high filler orientation, which yielded marked improvements in electric-field breakdown strength and, consequently, large improvements in their recoverable energy densities.

  20. A Comparison of Hierarchical and Non-Hierarchical Bayesian Approaches for Fitting Allometric Larch (Larix.spp. Biomass Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Chen


    Full Text Available Accurate biomass estimations are important for assessing and monitoring forest carbon storage. Bayesian theory has been widely applied to tree biomass models. Recently, a hierarchical Bayesian approach has received increasing attention for improving biomass models. In this study, tree biomass data were obtained by sampling 310 trees from 209 permanent sample plots from larch plantations in six regions across China. Non-hierarchical and hierarchical Bayesian approaches were used to model allometric biomass equations. We found that the total, root, stem wood, stem bark, branch and foliage biomass model relationships were statistically significant (p-values < 0.001 for both the non-hierarchical and hierarchical Bayesian approaches, but the hierarchical Bayesian approach increased the goodness-of-fit statistics over the non-hierarchical Bayesian approach. The R2 values of the hierarchical approach were higher than those of the non-hierarchical approach by 0.008, 0.018, 0.020, 0.003, 0.088 and 0.116 for the total tree, root, stem wood, stem bark, branch and foliage models, respectively. The hierarchical Bayesian approach significantly improved the accuracy of the biomass model (except for the stem bark and can reflect regional differences by using random parameters to improve the regional scale model accuracy.

  1. Extracting hierarchical organization of complex networks by dynamics towards synchronization (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Hua; Jiao, Li-Cheng; Wu, Jian-She


    Based on the dynamics towards synchronization in hierarchical networks, we present an efficient method for extracting hierarchical organization in complex network. In the synchronization process, hierarchical structures corresponding to well defined communities of nodes emerge in different time scales, ordered in a hierarchical way. Thus, a new strategy for quantifying the dissimilarity between a pair of nodes in networks is introduced according to their time scales of synchronization. Then, using such a dissimilarity measure in conjunction with a hierarchical clustering method, our extracting method is proposed. The performance of our approach is tested on a set of computer generated and real-world networks with known hierarchical organization. The results demonstrate that our method enables us to offer insight into the complex networks with a multi-scale description. In addition, using a criterion of modularity, the method can also accurately find community structures in complex networks.

  2. Learning of hierarchical serial patterns emerges in infancy. (United States)

    Lewkowicz, David J; Schmuckler, Mark A; Mangalindan, Diane M J


    Recursive, hierarchically organized serial patterns provide the underlying structure in many cognitive and motor domains including speech, language, music, social interaction, and motor action. We investigated whether learning of hierarchical patterns emerges in infancy by habituating 204 infants to different hierarchical serial patterns and then testing for discrimination and generalization of such patterns. Results indicated that 8- to 10-month-old and 12- to 14-month-old infants exhibited sensitivity to the difference between hierarchical and non-hierarchical structure but that 4- to 6-month-old infants did not. These findings demonstrate that the ability to perceive, learn, and generalize recursive, hierarchical, pattern rules emerges in infancy and add to growing evidence that general-purpose pattern learning mechanisms emerge during the first year of life. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Adamo, Angela; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Aloisi, Alessandra; Bright, Stacey N.; Cignoni, Michele; Lee, Janice; Sabbi, Elena; Andrews, Jennifer; Calzetti, Daniela; Annibali, Francesca; Evans, Aaron S.; Johnson, Kelsey; Gallagher III, John S.; Grebel, Eva K.; Hunter, Deidre A.; Kim, Hwihyun; Smith, Linda J.; Thilker, David


    Hierarchical structure in ultraviolet images of 12 late-type LEGUS galaxies is studied by determining the numbers and fluxes of nested regions as a function of size from ∼1 to ∼200 pc, and the number as a function of flux. Two starburst dwarfs, NGC 1705 and NGC 5253, have steeper number-size and flux-size distributions than the others, indicating high fractions of the projected areas filled with star formation. Nine subregions in seven galaxies have similarly steep number-size slopes, even when the whole galaxies have shallower slopes. The results suggest that hierarchically structured star-forming regions several hundred parsecs or larger represent common unit structures. Small galaxies dominated by only a few of these units tend to be starbursts. The self-similarity of young stellar structures down to parsec scales suggests that star clusters form in the densest parts of a turbulent medium that also forms loose stellar groupings on larger scales. The presence of super star clusters in two of our starburst dwarfs would follow from the observed structure if cloud and stellar subregions more readily coalesce when self-gravity in the unit cell contributes more to the total gravitational potential

  4. A neural network with modular hierarchical learning (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre F. (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)


    This invention provides a new hierarchical approach for supervised neural learning of time dependent trajectories. The modular hierarchical methodology leads to architectures which are more structured than fully interconnected networks. The networks utilize a general feedforward flow of information and sparse recurrent connections to achieve dynamic effects. The advantages include the sparsity of units and connections, the modular organization. A further advantage is that the learning is much more circumscribed learning than in fully interconnected systems. The present invention is embodied by a neural network including a plurality of neural modules each having a pre-established performance capability wherein each neural module has an output outputting present results of the performance capability and an input for changing the present results of the performance capabilitiy. For pattern recognition applications, the performance capability may be an oscillation capability producing a repeating wave pattern as the present results. In the preferred embodiment, each of the plurality of neural modules includes a pre-established capability portion and a performance adjustment portion connected to control the pre-established capability portion.

  5. Automated hierarchical testable design of digital circuits (United States)

    Kraak, M.


    The thesis gives an overview of approaches dealing with the selection of test strategies and methods for digital circuits and the incorporation of test in designs. A review is provided of existing testability analyzers. A new way to analyze testability at three hierarchical levels of abstraction is presented. It is shown how this approach is contained in an expert system rule-base called TRI Stage Testability Analysis (TRISTAN). The paper then deals with testability synthesis. It is shown that a new synthesis method had to be devised to be able to hierarchically select test strategies and methods. The testability synthesizer is also contained in a rule-base, called Intelligent Synthesis of Testable Designs (ISOLDE). TRISTAN and ISOLDE are parts of an expert system called WAGNER. The knowledge processor for WAGNER is covered, presenting its knowledge representation scheme, knowledge acquisition and inference mechanism. Results of experiments done with WAGNER on board and chip level designs are given. Conclusive remarks provide an outlook to continued research.

  6. Hierarchical feature selection for erythema severity estimation (United States)

    Wang, Li; Shi, Chenbo; Shu, Chang


    At present PASI system of scoring is used for evaluating erythema severity, which can help doctors to diagnose psoriasis [1-3]. The system relies on the subjective judge of doctors, where the accuracy and stability cannot be guaranteed [4]. This paper proposes a stable and precise algorithm for erythema severity estimation. Our contributions are twofold. On one hand, in order to extract the multi-scale redness of erythema, we design the hierarchical feature. Different from traditional methods, we not only utilize the color statistical features, but also divide the detect window into small window and extract hierarchical features. Further, a feature re-ranking step is introduced, which can guarantee that extracted features are irrelevant to each other. On the other hand, an adaptive boosting classifier is applied for further feature selection. During the step of training, the classifier will seek out the most valuable feature for evaluating erythema severity, due to its strong learning ability. Experimental results demonstrate the high precision and robustness of our algorithm. The accuracy is 80.1% on the dataset which comprise 116 patients' images with various kinds of erythema. Now our system has been applied for erythema medical efficacy evaluation in Union Hosp, China.

  7. Discrete hierarchical organization of social group sizes. (United States)

    Zhou, W-X; Sornette, D; Hill, R A; Dunbar, R I M


    The 'social brain hypothesis' for the evolution of large brains in primates has led to evidence for the coevolution of neocortical size and social group sizes, suggesting that there is a cognitive constraint on group size that depends, in some way, on the volume of neural material available for processing and synthesizing information on social relationships. More recently, work on both human and non-human primates has suggested that social groups are often hierarchically structured. We combine data on human grouping patterns in a comprehensive and systematic study. Using fractal analysis, we identify, with high statistical confidence, a discrete hierarchy of group sizes with a preferred scaling ratio close to three: rather than a single or a continuous spectrum of group sizes, humans spontaneously form groups of preferred sizes organized in a geometrical series approximating 3-5, 9-15, 30-45, etc. Such discrete scale invariance could be related to that identified in signatures of herding behaviour in financial markets and might reflect a hierarchical processing of social nearness by human brains.

  8. The concept of a hierarchical cosmos (United States)

    Grujić, P. V.


    The idea of a hierachically structured cosmos can be traced back to the Presocratic Hellada. In the fifth century BC Anaxagoras from Clazomenae developed an idea of a sort of fractal material world, by introducing the concept of seeds (spermata), or homoeomeries as Aristotle dubbed it later (Grujić 2001). Anaxagoras ideas have been grossly neglected during the Middle Ages, to be invoked by a number of post-Renaissance thinkers, like Leibniz, Kant, etc, though neither of them referred to their Greek predecessor. But the real resurrections of the hierarchical paradigm started at the beginning of the last century, with Fournier and Charlier (Grujić 2002). Second half of the 20th century witnessed an intensive development of the theoretical models based on the (multi)fractal paradigm, as well as a considerable body of the observational evidence in favour of the hierarchical cosmos (Saar 1988). We overview the state of the art of the cosmological fractal concept, both within the astrophysical (Sylos Labini et al 1998), methodological (Ribeiro 2001) and epistemological (Ribeiro and Videira 1998) context.

  9. Nanoscale hierarchical optical interactions for secure information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tate Naoya


    Full Text Available There is increasing demand for novel physical security that can differentiate between real and false specific artifact that have been added to bank bills, certifications, and other vouchers. The most simple and effective method for improving the security level is to scale down the elemental structures so that they cannot be duplicated by attackers. While there is a paradox that the achieved fabrication resolution by a defender can also be realized by an attacker, further improvement in security is possible by the functional fusion of artifact metrics and nanophotonics. The fundamental advantages of this concept are the high-level clone resistance and individuality of nanoscale artifacts, which are based on the super-resolution fabrication and nanoscale hierarchical structure of optical near-field interactions, respectively. In this paper, the basis for the fabrication of nanoscale artifacts by utilizing random phenomena is described, and a quantitative evaluation of the security level is presented. An experimental demonstration using a nano-/macro-hierarchical hologram is presented to demonstrate the fundamental procedure for retrieving nanoscale features as hidden information. Finally, the concept and a simple demonstration of non-scanning probe microscopy are described as a practical application of the retrieval and authentication of nanoscale artifact metrics.

  10. Hierarchical prisoner’s dilemma in hierarchical game for resource competition (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yuma; Sagawa, Takahiro; Kaneko, Kunihiko


    Dilemmas in cooperation are one of the major concerns in game theory. In a public goods game, each individual cooperates by paying a cost or defecting without paying it, and receives a reward from the group out of the collected cost. Thus, defecting is beneficial for each individual, while cooperation is beneficial for the group. Now, groups (say, countries) consisting of individuals also play games. To study such a multi-level game, we introduce a hierarchical game in which multiple groups compete for limited resources by utilizing the collected cost in each group, where the power to appropriate resources increases with the population of the group. Analyzing this hierarchical game, we found a hierarchical prisoner’s dilemma, in which groups choose the defecting policy (say, armament) as a Nash strategy to optimize each group’s benefit, while cooperation optimizes the total benefit. On the other hand, for each individual, refusing to pay the cost (say, tax) is a Nash strategy, which turns out to be a cooperation policy for the group, thus leading to a hierarchical dilemma. Here the group reward increases with the group size. However, we find that there exists an optimal group size that maximizes the individual payoff. Furthermore, when the population asymmetry between two groups is large, the smaller group will choose a cooperation policy (say, disarmament) to avoid excessive response from the larger group, and the prisoner’s dilemma between the groups is resolved. Accordingly, the relevance of this hierarchical game on policy selection in society and the optimal size of human or animal groups are discussed.

  11. Hierarchically organized layout for visualization of biochemical pathways. (United States)

    Tsay, Jyh-Jong; Wu, Bo-Liang; Jeng, Yu-Sen


    Many complex pathways are described as hierarchical structures in which a pathway is recursively partitioned into several sub-pathways, and organized hierarchically as a tree. The hierarchical structure provides a natural way to visualize the global structure of a complex pathway. However, none of the previous research on pathway visualization explores the hierarchical structures provided by many complex pathways. In this paper, we aim to develop algorithms that can take advantages of hierarchical structures, and give layouts that explore the global structures as well as local structures of pathways. We present a new hierarchically organized layout algorithm to produce layouts for hierarchically organized pathways. Our algorithm first decomposes a complex pathway into sub-pathway groups along the hierarchical organization, and then partition each sub-pathway group into basic components. It then applies conventional layout algorithms, such as hierarchical layout and force-directed layout, to compute the layout of each basic component. Finally, component layouts are joined to form a final layout of the pathway. Our main contribution is the development of algorithms for decomposing pathways and joining layouts. Experiment shows that our algorithm is able to give comprehensible visualization for pathways with hierarchies, cycles as well as complex structures. It clearly renders the global component structures as well as the local structure in each component. In addition, it runs very fast, and gives better visualization for many examples from previous related research. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental and Theoretical Research on Reinforced Lightweight Concrete Flexural Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deividas Rumšys


    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of structural lightweight concrete. New lightweight concrete mixture made with expanded clay aggregate has been proposed and applied for experimental rein-forced concrete beams. Totally 8 beams with different rein-forcement ratios (0.309%, 0.557%, 0.895% and 1.255% were tested under short-term four point bending loading. Stress-strain behavior of the beams under considerations has been investigated. Average strains at 4 different levels of pure bend-ing zone and vertical displacements at 12 different points of the beam were measured. During the test, deformations and crack-ing of the pure bending zone were additionally observed using high-speed digital video cameras. The data obtained by cameras were analyzed using digital image correlation technique. Applying the test data bending moments and curvature diagrams were derived for each beam. The obtained relationships were compared with theoretical results calculated using design code methods LST EN and STR. Using the inverse algorithm developed by VGTU, tension reinforced lightweight concrete stress and strain diagrams were obtained, which were adapted to numerical modeling by software ATENA. Moment and curvature diagrams obtained by finite elements program were compared with experimental moment and curvature diagrams. Good agreement between both diagrams has been obtained.

  13. Biodegradable nanofibers-reinforced microfibrous composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. (United States)

    Martins, Albino; Pinho, Elisabete D; Correlo, Vítor M; Faria, Susana; Marques, Alexandra P; Reis, Rui L; Neves, Nuno M


    Native bone extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex hierarchical fibrous composite structure, resulting from the assembling of collagen fibrils at several length scales, ranging from the macro to the nanoscale. The combination of nanofibers within microfibers after conventional reinforcement methodologies seems to be a feasible solution to the rational design of highly functional synthetic ECM substitutes. The present work aims at the development of bone ECM inspired structures, conjugating electrospun chitosan (Cht) nanofibers within biodegradable polymeric microfibers [poly(butylene succinate)-PBS and PBS/Cht], assembled in a fiber mesh structure. The nanofibers-reinforced composite fiber mesh scaffolds were seeded with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and cultured under osteogenic differentiation conditions. These nanofibers-reinforced composite scaffolds sustained ECM deposition and mineralization, mainly in the PBS/Cht-based fiber meshes, as depicted by the increased amount of calcium phosphates produced by the osteogenic differentiated hBMSCs. The osteogenic genotype of the cultured hBMSCs was confirmed by the expression of osteoblastic genes, namely Alkaline Phosphatase, Osteopontin, Bone Sialoprotein and Osteocalcin, and the transcription factors Runx2 and Osterix, all involved in different stages of the osteogenesis. These data represent the first report on the biological functionality of nanofibers-reinforced composite scaffolds, envisaging the applicability of the developed structures for bone tissue engineering.

  14. In Vitro Study of Transverse Strength of Fiber Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hashemi


    Full Text Available Objective: Reinforcement with fiber is an effective method for considerable improvement in flexural properties of indirect composite resin restorations. The aim of this in-vitrostudy was to compare the transverse strength of composite resin bars reinforced with preimpregnated and non-impregnated fibers.Materials and Methods: Thirty six bar type composite resin specimens (3×2×25 mmwere constructed in three groups. The first group was the control group (C without any fiber reinforcement. The specimens in the second group (P were reinforced with preimpregnatedfibers and the third group (N with non-impregnated fibers. These specimens were tested by the three-point bending method to measure primary transverse strength.Data were statistically analyzed with one way ANOVA and Tukey's tests.Results: There was a significant difference among the mean primary transverse strength in the three groups (P<0.001. The post-hoc (Tukey test showed that there was a significant difference between the pre-impregnated and control groups in their primary transversestrength (P<0.001. Regarding deflection, there was also a significant difference among the three groups (P=0.001. There were significant differences among the mean deflection of the control group and two other groups (PC&N<.001 and PC&P=.004, but there was no significant difference between the non- and pre-impregnated groups (PN&P=.813.Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that reinforcement with fiber considerably increased the transverse strength of composite resin specimens, but impregnationof the fiber used implemented no significant difference in the transverse strength of composite resin samples.

  15. Efficient Actor-Critic Algorithm with Hierarchical Model Learning and Planning (United States)

    Fu, QiMing


    To improve the convergence rate and the sample efficiency, two efficient learning methods AC-HMLP and RAC-HMLP (AC-HMLP with ℓ 2-regularization) are proposed by combining actor-critic algorithm with hierarchical model learning and planning. The hierarchical models consisting of the local and the global models, which are learned at the same time during learning of the value function and the policy, are approximated by local linear regression (LLR) and linear function approximation (LFA), respectively. Both the local model and the global model are applied to generate samples for planning; the former is used only if the state-prediction error does not surpass the threshold at each time step, while the latter is utilized at the end of each episode. The purpose of taking both models is to improve the sample efficiency and accelerate the convergence rate of the whole algorithm through fully utilizing the local and global information. Experimentally, AC-HMLP and RAC-HMLP are compared with three representative algorithms on two Reinforcement Learning (RL) benchmark problems. The results demonstrate that they perform best in terms of convergence rate and sample efficiency. PMID:27795704

  16. Efficient Actor-Critic Algorithm with Hierarchical Model Learning and Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Zhong


    Full Text Available To improve the convergence rate and the sample efficiency, two efficient learning methods AC-HMLP and RAC-HMLP (AC-HMLP with l2-regularization are proposed by combining actor-critic algorithm with hierarchical model learning and planning. The hierarchical models consisting of the local and the global models, which are learned at the same time during learning of the value function and the policy, are approximated by local linear regression (LLR and linear function approximation (LFA, respectively. Both the local model and the global model are applied to generate samples for planning; the former is used only if the state-prediction error does not surpass the threshold at each time step, while the latter is utilized at the end of each episode. The purpose of taking both models is to improve the sample efficiency and accelerate the convergence rate of the whole algorithm through fully utilizing the local and global information. Experimentally, AC-HMLP and RAC-HMLP are compared with three representative algorithms on two Reinforcement Learning (RL benchmark problems. The results demonstrate that they perform best in terms of convergence rate and sample efficiency.

  17. Hierarchical Image Segmentation of Remotely Sensed Data using Massively Parallel GNU-LINUX Software (United States)

    Tilton, James C.


    A hierarchical set of image segmentations is a set of several image segmentations of the same image at different levels of detail in which the segmentations at coarser levels of detail can be produced from simple merges of regions at finer levels of detail. In [1], Tilton, et a1 describes an approach for producing hierarchical segmentations (called HSEG) and gave a progress report on exploiting these hierarchical segmentations for image information mining. The HSEG algorithm is a hybrid of region growing and constrained spectral clustering that produces a hierarchical set of image segmentations based on detected convergence points. In the main, HSEG employs the hierarchical stepwise optimization (HSWO) approach to region growing, which was described as early as 1989 by Beaulieu and Goldberg. The HSWO approach seeks to produce segmentations that are more optimized than those produced by more classic approaches to region growing (e.g. Horowitz and T. Pavlidis, [3]). In addition, HSEG optionally interjects between HSWO region growing iterations, merges between spatially non-adjacent regions (i.e., spectrally based merging or clustering) constrained by a threshold derived from the previous HSWO region growing iteration. While the addition of constrained spectral clustering improves the utility of the segmentation results, especially for larger images, it also significantly increases HSEG s computational requirements. To counteract this, a computationally efficient recursive, divide-and-conquer, implementation of HSEG (RHSEG) was devised, which includes special code to avoid processing artifacts caused by RHSEG s recursive subdivision of the image data. The recursive nature of RHSEG makes for a straightforward parallel implementation. This paper describes the HSEG algorithm, its recursive formulation (referred to as RHSEG), and the implementation of RHSEG using massively parallel GNU-LINUX software. Results with Landsat TM data are included comparing RHSEG with classic

  18. Bending in laminas of NFPR: type of reinforcement, fracture and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtânia Antunes Leão


    Full Text Available Natural fiber reinforced plastics (NFRP have awakened considerable interest in the area of polymer composites, because of the need to develop new, environmentally friendly materials. One of the most complex ways of manufacturing this type of material is in the form of ultrathin laminar layers; however, this process hinders mechanical testing, mainly three and four-point bending. The present investigation faces this challenge and shows the influence of parameters, such as the grammage of reinforcing fabric and lamination process, on strength, stiffness and fracture characteristics for three-point bending in this type of structural element. The industrially manufactured laminas were composed of orthophthalic polyester resin reinforced with licuri fibers. Macromechanical and micromechanical analyses were conducted in the study of fracture characteristics for all the parameters. The mechanical behavior in the three-point bending of the laminar composite showed that the use of licuri fiber to obtain natural fiber-based plastic is completely viable.

  19. Concretes reinforced with acrylic fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amat, T.


    Full Text Available This article is based on works, carried out at the IETcc, aimed to evaluate the behaviour of concretes reinforced with acrylic polyacrylonitrile fibres, and to study the influence they have on concrete physical and mechanical properties.

    El presente artículo está basado en trabajos realizados en el Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja, teniendo por objetivo evaluar el comportamiento de los hormigones reforzados con fibras acrílicas de poliacrilonitrilo, estudiando la influencia que tiene sobre sus propiedades físicas y mecánicas.

  20. Glassfibre Reinforced Concrete: a Review (United States)

    Bartos, P. J. M.


    Introduced to construction about 40 years ago, GRC has come of age. It is now widely used all over the world and in quantities very likely greater than most of the other types of fibre reinforced concrete, although it remains less known. A brief history of GRC is followed by review of the basic make-up of this complex composite. Methods of production are identified, properties reviewed and modes of fracture which are unique to GRC are explained. Benefits which are already available and exploited by its users are summarised and the wide spectrum of current applications of GRC is outlined.

  1. Skew decks in reinforced concrete bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. ROCHA

    Full Text Available Abstract This research investigates reinforced concrete plates and shells with skew reinforcement whose directions are not aligned with the principal internal forces. Two normal forces, one tangential force, two bending moments, and one twisting moment are defined in the plane of the element. The analysis includes two shear forces in the transverse direction. The membrane and flexural forces are distributed between two panels at the upper and lower faces of the element. The smeared cracking model, equilibrium considerations, and plasticity approach yield the design equations of the skew reinforcement. The slab reinforcement of flat bridges, with and without lateral beams and girder bridges are compared considering different skew angles. The minimum reinforcement criteria of skew meshes are discussed. The results show that skew reinforcement yields higher steel and concrete stresses.

  2. A comparison of wire- and Kevlar-reinforced provisional restorations. (United States)

    Powell, D B; Nicholls, J I; Yuodelis, R A; Strygler, H


    Stainless steel wire 0.036 inch in diameter was compared with Kevlar 49 polyaramid fiber as a means of reinforcing a four-unit posterior provisional fixed restoration with 2 pontics. Three reinforcement patterns for wire and two for Kevlar 49 were evaluated and compared with the control, which was an unreinforced provisional restoration. A central tensile load was placed on the cemented provisional restoration and the variables were measured: (1) the initial stiffness; (2) the load at initial fracture; and (3) the unit toughness, or the energy stored in the beam at a point where the load had undergone a 1.0-mm deflection. Statistical analysis showed (1) the bent wire configuration had a significantly higher initial stiffness (P < or = .05), (2) there was no difference between designs for load at initial fracture, and (3) the bent wire had a significantly higher unit toughness value (P < or = .05).

  3. Assessment of historical masonry pillars reinforced by CFRP strips (United States)

    Fedele, Roberto; Rosati, Giampaolo; Biolzi, Luigi; Cattaneo, Sara


    In this methodological study, the ultimate response of masonry pillars strengthened by externally bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) was investigated. Historical bricks were derived from a XVII century rural building, whilst a high strength mortar was utilized for the joints. The conventional experimental information, concerning the overall reaction force and relative displacements provided by "point" sensors (LVDTs and clip gauge), were herein enriched with no-contact, full-field kinematic measurements provided by 2D Digital Image Correlation (2D DIC). Experimental information were critically compared with prediction provided by an advanced three-dimensional models, based on nonlinear finite elements under the simplifying assumption of perfect adhesion between the reinforcement and the support.

  4. Numerical modeling of reinforced foundation pads structures


    Ponomarev Andrey Budimirovich; Tat’yannikov Daniil Andreevich


    The wide use of reinforced foundation pads is complicated because of the absence of technical rules and regulations on design of such structures. It is necessary to investigate the main parameters and regularities of such structures operation under loading. For this aim numerical study of the foundation was carried out, the parameters of which were improved by reinforced foundation pad. The numerical modeling of reinforced foundation pads was carried out in the Plaxis 2D for study of the basi...

  5. Amaranth as Reinforcement Source: A Rodent Study


    González-Rivera, Ivette; Trejo, Diana; Saavedra, Nuria; Padrón, Erika; Silva, David; Carrillo, Paulina; Arevalo, Oscar; Castro, César; Sánchez-Castillo, Hugo


    This study evaluates amaranth as an alternative to reinforcers which are currently used in experimental laboratories with rodents. We compared some elements such as consumer preference, motivation and reinforcing value of three types of food (two types of pellets and amaranth) through four experiments with free radial maze and free consumption in 11 Wistar rats. The results show that amaranth has a high reinforcing value. Also, there was a preference for amaranth consumption compared with the...



    Seydibeyoglu, M.Ozgur; Demiroğlu, Sibel; Erdoğan, Fatma; Akın, Ecem; Ayvalık, Aynur; Karavana, Hüseyin Ata


    The main objective of this study was to prepare polyurethane foam reinforced with local Turkish natural resources. In this work, olive kernel and nutshell fibers were used for reinforcing the polyurethane foam. In order to characterize reinforced polyurethane samples, mechanical, chemical, thermal, and morphological methods were used. Mechanical properties of polyurethane foam were measured by compression test. With compression test, it was observed that compressive strength of polyurethane f...

  7. Reinforcement Learning in Repeated Portfolio Decisions


    Diao, Linan; Rieskamp, Jörg


    How do people make investment decisions when they receive outcome feedback? We examined how well the standard mean-variance model and two reinforcement models predict people's portfolio decisions. The basic reinforcement model predicts a learning process that relies solely on the portfolio's overall return, whereas the proposed extended reinforcement model also takes the risk and covariance of the investments into account. The experimental results illustrate that people reacted sensitively to...

  8. Investigation of Methods for Selectively Reinforcing Aluminum and Aluminum-Lithium Materials (United States)

    Bird, R. Keith; Alexa, Joel A.; Messick, Peter L.; Domack, Marcia S.; Wagner, John A.


    Several studies have indicated that selective reinforcement offers the potential to significantly improve the performance of metallic structures for aerospace applications. Applying high-strength, high-stiffness fibers to the high-stress regions of aluminum-based structures can increase the structural load-carrying capability and inhibit fatigue crack initiation and growth. This paper discusses an investigation into potential methods for applying reinforcing fibers onto the surface of aluminum and aluminum-lithium plate. Commercially-available alumina-fiber reinforced aluminum alloy tapes were used as the reinforcing material. Vacuum hot pressing was used to bond the reinforcing tape to aluminum alloy 2219 and aluminum-lithium alloy 2195 base plates. Static and cyclic three-point bend testing and metallurgical analysis were used to evaluate the enhancement of mechanical performance and the integrity of the bond between the tape and the base plate. The tests demonstrated an increase in specific bending stiffness. In addition, no issues with debonding of the reinforcing tape from the base plate during bend testing were observed. The increase in specific stiffness indicates that selectively-reinforced structures could be designed with the same performance capabilities as a conventional unreinforced structure but with lower mass.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Mordich


    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental research results and their analysis in respect of flat reinforced concrete slabs resting on point supports or soil in case of concentrated punching force. However the conducted researches have shown a number of incompatibilities accepted in computational model standards that appear in the form of critical parameters in the punching zone and configuration of computational (critical sections in comparison with an actual pattern of slab crack formation and their collapse in the places of concentrated force application. Moreover, the computational methods do not take into account at all an influence of longitudinal reinforcement on both principal axis of the building frame or take it into account this phenomenon by empirical dependence indirectly. In view of the above-mentioned facts an accumulation of new experimental data is considered as an expedient process with the purpose to identify a physical pattern of flat reinforced concrete slabs operation under concentrated punching force. The paper makes it possible to revise a calculative methodology and, preserving a high reliability, it also permits to improve efficiency of a floor construction of the whole framework. It has been determined that longitudinal reinforcement of reinforced concrete slabs is actively involved in their work under concentrated punching force and exerts a prominent influence on their resistance to punching force. The paper presents a possible approach pertaining to evaluation of a longitudinal reinforcement influence on resistance of reinforced concrete slabs to punching force with due account of regulations of the appropriate standardized documents. 

  10. Reinforcement of Bolted Timber Joints Using GFRP Sheets in Poplar and Pine Woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrab Madhoushi


    Full Text Available Failure in timber structures occurs mainly in crucial points such as joints areas. Therefore, the idea of using composite sheets in timber joints has been intro-duced as a method in order to increase the strength and ductility behaviour of timber joints. This research aims to study the behaviour of bolted joints in poplar and pine woods, which are reinforced by two types of GFRP sheets. A single shear bolted joint consisted of 3 timber members whose length and width were 30 cm in length and 5 cm in width. The thickness of each member was 4 cm for internal part and 2 cm for external part. The employed steel bolt was 10 cm in length and 1 cm in diameter. In this respect, one layer of GFRP sheet was used to be bonded to timber members by using epoxy resin and left between the clamps for 24 hours. They were then kept at room temperature for three weeks. Also the effect of adding a wood veneer on the reinforced joints was investigated. The tensile strength of the reinforced and control samples (un-reinforced joints was measured according to ASTM D5652-92 standard. The results show that the reinforced samples have higher tensile strength compared to that of reinforced joints, although it is not statistically signifcant. Also, two types of sheets infuence the joint behaviour as the reinforced joints display more ductility behaviour.

  11. Hierarchical Recurrent Neural Hashing for Image Retrieval With Hierarchical Convolutional Features. (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Yaxiong; Li, Xuelong

    Hashing has been an important and effective technology in image retrieval due to its computational efficiency and fast search speed. The traditional hashing methods usually learn hash functions to obtain binary codes by exploiting hand-crafted features, which cannot optimally represent the information of the sample. Recently, deep learning methods can achieve better performance, since deep learning architectures can learn more effective image representation features. However, these methods only use semantic features to generate hash codes by shallow projection but ignore texture details. In this paper, we proposed a novel hashing method, namely hierarchical recurrent neural hashing (HRNH), to exploit hierarchical recurrent neural network to generate effective hash codes. There are three contributions of this paper. First, a deep hashing method is proposed to extensively exploit both spatial details and semantic information, in which, we leverage hierarchical convolutional features to construct image pyramid representation. Second, our proposed deep network can exploit directly convolutional feature maps as input to preserve the spatial structure of convolutional feature maps. Finally, we propose a new loss function that considers the quantization error of binarizing the continuous embeddings into the discrete binary codes, and simultaneously maintains the semantic similarity and balanceable property of hash codes. Experimental results on four widely used data sets demonstrate that the proposed HRNH can achieve superior performance over other state-of-the-art hashing methods.Hashing has been an important and effective technology in image retrieval due to its computational efficiency and fast search speed. The traditional hashing methods usually learn hash functions to obtain binary codes by exploiting hand-crafted features, which cannot optimally represent the information of the sample. Recently, deep learning methods can achieve better performance, since deep

  12. Harambee : Reinforcing African Voices through Collaboration ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outputs. Papers. Harambee : reinforcing African voices through collaborative processes and technologies. Download PDF. Reports. OPA (Online Proposal Appraisal) for Harambee : technical report. Download PDF ...

  13. Reinforcement of RC structure by carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissi B.


    Full Text Available In recent years, rehabilitation has been the subject of extensive research due to the increased spending on building maintenance work and restoration of built works. In all cases, it is essential to carry out methods of reinforcement or maintenance of structural elements, following an inspection analysis and methodology of a correct diagnosis. This research focuses on the calculation of the necessary reinforcement sections of carbon fiber for structural elements with reinforced concrete in order to improve their load bearing capacity and rigidity. The different results obtained reveal a considerable gain in resistance and deformation capacity of reinforced sections without significant increase in the weight of the rehabilitated elements.

  14. Methodology of shell structure reinforcement layout optimization (United States)

    Szafrański, Tomasz; Małachowski, Jerzy; Damaziak, Krzysztof


    This paper presents an optimization process of a reinforced shell diffuser intended for a small wind turbine (rated power of 3 kW). The diffuser structure consists of multiple reinforcement and metal skin. This kind of structure is suitable for optimization in terms of selection of reinforcement density, stringers cross sections, sheet thickness, etc. The optimisation approach assumes the reduction of the amount of work to be done between the optimization process and the final product design. The proposed optimization methodology is based on application of a genetic algorithm to generate the optimal reinforcement layout. The obtained results are the basis for modifying the existing Small Wind Turbine (SWT) design.

  15. Assessing preference and reinforcer effectiveness in dogs. (United States)

    Vicars, Sara M; Miguel, Caio F; Sobie, Jennifer L


    The paired-stimulus (PS) preference assessment has been shown to be effective in assessing preference with animal subjects, including dogs; however, evaluations on whether preferred stimuli would also function as reinforcers are lacking. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the use of the PS preference assessment as a predictor of reinforcer effectiveness in eight dogs. The assessment was followed by concurrent and progressive ratio schedules to evaluate the reinforcer efficacy of food items. Results showed that the preference assessment predicted reinforcer efficacy for all subjects. Benefits of using this assessment with dogs are discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Ultra-light hierarchical meta-materials on a body-centred cubic lattice (United States)

    Rayneau-Kirkhope, Daniel; Mao, Yong; Farr, Robert


    Modern fabrication techniques offer the freedom to design and manufacture structures with complex geometry on many lengthscales, offering many potential advantages. For example, fractal/hierarchical struts have been shown to be exceptionally strong and yet light (Rayneau-Kirkhope D. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 109 (2012) 204301). In this letter, we propose a new class of meta-material, constructed from fractal or hierarchical struts linking a specific set of lattice points. We present a mechanical analysis of this meta-material resulting from a body-centred cubic (BCC) lattice. We show that, through the use of hierarchy, the material usage follows an enhanced scaling relation, and both material property and overall efficiency can be optimised for a specific applied stress. Such a design has the potential of providing the next generation of lightweight, buckling-resistant meta-materials.

  17. Hierarchical control of a photovoltaic/battery based DC microgrid including electric vehicle wireless charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Fan, Haodong; Guerrero, Josep M.


    In this paper, the hierarchical control strategy of a photovoltaic/battery based dc microgrid is presented for electric vehicle (EV) wireless charging. Considering irradiance variations, battery charging/discharging requirements, wireless power transmission characteristics, and onboard battery...... charging power change and other factors, the possible operation states are obtained. A hierarchical control strategy is established, which includes central and local controllers. The central controller is responsible for the selection and transfer of operation states and the management of the local...... controllers. Local controllers implement these functions, which include PV maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, battery charging/discharging control, voltage control of DC bus for high-frequency inverter, and onboard battery charging control. By optimizing and matching parameters of transmitting...

  18. Hybrid Iterative Scheme for Triple Hierarchical Variational Inequalities with Mixed Equilibrium, Variational Inclusion, and Minimization Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Chuan Ceng


    Full Text Available We introduce and analyze a hybrid iterative algorithm by combining Korpelevich's extragradient method, the hybrid steepest-descent method, and the averaged mapping approach to the gradient-projection algorithm. It is proven that, under appropriate assumptions, the proposed algorithm converges strongly to a common element of the fixed point set of finitely many nonexpansive mappings, the solution set of a generalized mixed equilibrium problem (GMEP, the solution set of finitely many variational inclusions, and the solution set of a convex minimization problem (CMP, which is also a unique solution of a triple hierarchical variational inequality (THVI in a real Hilbert space. In addition, we also consider the application of the proposed algorithm to solving a hierarchical variational inequality problem with constraints of the GMEP, the CMP, and finitely many variational inclusions.

  19. Polypropylene/glass fiber hierarchical composites incorporating inorganic fullerene-like nanoparticles for advanced technological applications. (United States)

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Naffakh, Mohammed


    Novel isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/glass fiber (GF) laminates reinforced with inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulfide (IF-WS2) nanoparticles as environmentally friendly fillers have been successfully fabricated by simple melt-blending and fiber impregnation in a hot-press without the addition of any compatibilizer. The influence of IF-WS2 concentration on the morphology, viscosity. and thermal and mechanical behavior of the hierarchical composites has been investigated. Results revealed an unprecedented 62 °C increase in the degradation temperature of iPP/GF upon addition of only 4.0 wt % IF-WS2. The coexistence of both micro- and nanoscale fillers resulted in synergistic effects on enhancing the stiffness, strength, crystallinity, thermal stability, glass transition (Tg) and heat distortion temperature (HDT) of the matrix. The approach used in this work is an efficient, versatile, scalable and economic strategy to improve the mechanical and thermal behavior of GF-reinforced thermoplastics with a view to extend their use in advanced technological applications. This new type of composite materials shows great potential to improve the efficiency and sustainability of many forms of transport.

  20. Entrepreneurial intention modeling using hierarchical multiple regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Jeger


    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to identify the contribution of effectuation dimensions to the predictive power of the entrepreneurial intention model over and above that which can be accounted for by other predictors selected and confirmed in previous studies. As is often the case in social and behavioral studies, some variables are likely to be highly correlated with each other. Therefore, the relative amount of variance in the criterion variable explained by each of the predictors depends on several factors such as the order of variable entry and sample specifics. The results show the modest predictive power of two dimensions of effectuation prior to the introduction of the theory of planned behavior elements. The article highlights the main advantages of applying hierarchical regression in social sciences as well as in the specific context of entrepreneurial intention formation, and addresses some of the potential pitfalls that this type of analysis entails.

  1. Optimization of Hierarchically Scheduled Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru


    We present an approach to the analysis and optimization of heterogeneous distributed embedded systems. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. When several scheduling policies share a resource......, they are organized in a hierarchy. In this paper, we address design problems that are characteristic to such hierarchically scheduled systems: assignment of scheduling policies to tasks, mapping of tasks to hardware components, and the scheduling of the activities. We present algorithms for solving these problems....... Our heuristics are able to find schedulable implementations under limited resources, achieving an efficient utilization of the system. The developed algorithms are evaluated using extensive experiments and a real-life example....

  2. Hierarchical Power Sharing Control in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peyghami, Saeed; Mokhtari, Hossein; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Because of the advances in power electronics, DC-based power systems, have been used in industrial applications such as data centers [18], space applications [10], aircraft [12], offshore wind farms, electric vehicles [56], DC home systems [5, 20], and high-voltage DC transmission systems....... To provide such sensitive loads with more reliability, efficiency, and controllability for future power systems, AC microgrid and more recently DC microgrid and smart-grid technologies have been employed [ , , , and ]. To obtain stable and optimal operation in DC power systems (microgrids), proper load...... sharing among different energy units and acceptable voltage regulation across the microgrid is required. This can be achieved by use of a hierarchical power management structure. The highest level in this hierarchy (tertiary) is responsible for the power flow control between the microgrid and the utility...

  3. A continuum model for hierarchical fibril assembly (United States)

    van Lith, B. S.; Muntean, A.; Storm, C.


    Most of the biological polymers that make up our cells and tissues are hierarchically structured. For biopolymers ranging from collagen, to actin, to fibrin and amyloid fibrils this hierarchy provides vitally important versatility. The structural hierarchy must be encoded in the self-assembly process, from the earliest stages onward, in order to produce the appropriate substructures. In this letter, we explore the kinetics of multistage self-assembly processes in a model system which allows comparison to bulk probes such as light scattering. We apply our model to recent turbidimetry data on the self-assembly of collagen fibrils. Our analysis suggests a connection between diffusion-limited aggregation kinetics and fibril growth, supported by slow, power-law growth at very long time scales.

  4. Optimization of Hierarchical System for Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Novotny


    Full Text Available Television broadcasting over IP networks (IPTV is one of a number of network applications that are except of media distribution also interested in data acquisition from group of information resources of variable size. IP-TV uses Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP protocol for media streaming and RTP Control Protocol (RTCP protocol for session quality feedback. Other applications, for example sensor networks, have data acquisition as the main task. Current solutions have mostly problem with scalability - how to collect and process information from large amount of end nodes quickly and effectively? The article deals with optimization of hierarchical system of data acquisition. Problem is mathematically described, delay minima are searched and results are proved by simulations.

  5. Hierarchical image segmentation for learning object priors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xingwei [TEMPLE UNIV.; Latecki, Longin J [TEMPLE UNIV.; Li, Nan [TEMPLE UNIV.


    The proposed segmentation approach naturally combines experience based and image based information. The experience based information is obtained by training a classifier for each object class. For a given test image, the result of each classifier is represented as a probability map. The final segmentation is obtained with a hierarchial image segmentation algorithm that considers both the probability maps and the image features such as color and edge strength. We also utilize image region hierarchy to obtain not only local but also semi-global features as input to the classifiers. Moreover, to get robust probability maps, we take into account the region context information by averaging the probability maps over different levels of the hierarchical segmentation algorithm. The obtained segmentation results are superior to the state-of-the-art supervised image segmentation algorithms.

  6. Inferring hierarchical clustering structures by deterministic annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, T.; Buhmann, J.M.


    The unsupervised detection of hierarchical structures is a major topic in unsupervised learning and one of the key questions in data analysis and representation. We propose a novel algorithm for the problem of learning decision trees for data clustering and related problems. In contrast to many other methods based on successive tree growing and pruning, we propose an objective function for tree evaluation and we derive a non-greedy technique for tree growing. Applying the principles of maximum entropy and minimum cross entropy, a deterministic annealing algorithm is derived in a meanfield approximation. This technique allows us to canonically superimpose tree structures and to fit parameters to averaged or open-quote fuzzified close-quote trees

  7. Evolution of groups with a hierarchical structure (United States)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki


    The universal occurrence of a hierarchical structure and its dynamic behavior in various types of group, living or abstract, are discussed. Here the word “group” refers not only to tangible aggregation but also to invisible aggregation of social psychological and of geopolitical meaning. The evolution of these groups is simulated using a model of agents distributed on the lattices of cellular grids. It is assumed that agents, fearing isolation, interact asymmetrically with each other with regard to exchange of “power”. As an indicator of hierarchy, the Gini coefficient is introduced. Example calculations are made for the aggregation, fusion and fission of animal groups, and for the appearance of a powerful empire and the rise and fall of supremacy. It is shown that such abstract objects evolve with time in accordance with the universal rules of groups common to birds and fish.

  8. Hierarchical Codebook Design for Massive MIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Su


    Full Text Available The Research of Massive MIMO is an emerging area, since the more antennas the transmitters or receivers equipped with, the higher spectral efficiency and link reliability the system can provide. Due to the limited feedback channel, precoding and codebook design are important to exploit the performance of massive MIMO. To improve the precoding performance, we propose a novel hierarchical codebook with the Fourier-based perturbation matrices as the subcodebook and the Kerdock codebook as the main codebook, which could reduce storage and search complexity due to the finite a lphabet. Moreover, t o f urther r educe t he search complexity and feedback overhead without noticeable performance degradation, we use an adaptive selection algorithm to decide whether to use the subcodebook. Simulation results show that the proposed codebook has remarkable performance gain compared to the conventional Kerdock codebook, without significant increase in feedback overhead and search complexity.

  9. Crack Propagation in Bamboo's Hierarchical Cellular Structure (United States)

    Habibi, Meisam K.; Lu, Yang


    Bamboo, as a natural hierarchical cellular material, exhibits remarkable mechanical properties including excellent flexibility and fracture toughness. As far as bamboo as a functionally graded bio-composite is concerned, the interactions of different constituents (bamboo fibers; parenchyma cells; and vessels.) alongside their corresponding interfacial areas with a developed crack should be of high significance. Here, by using multi-scale mechanical characterizations coupled with advanced environmental electron microscopy (ESEM), we unambiguously show that fibers' interfacial areas along with parenchyma cells' boundaries were preferred routes for crack growth in both radial and longitudinal directions. Irrespective of the honeycomb structure of fibers along with cellular configuration of parenchyma ground, the hollow vessels within bamboo culm affected the crack propagation too, by crack deflection or crack-tip energy dissipation. It is expected that the tortuous crack propagation mode exhibited in the present study could be applicable to other cellular natural materials as well.

  10. Hierarchical reorganization of dimensions in OLAP visualizations. (United States)

    Lafon, Sébastien; Bouali, Fatma; Guinot, Christiane; Venturini, Gilles


    In this paper, we propose a new method for the visual reorganization of online analytical processing (OLAP) cubes that aims at improving their visualization. Our method addresses dimensions with hierarchically organized members. It uses a genetic algorithm that reorganizes k-ary trees. Genetic operators perform permutations of subtrees to optimize a visual homogeneity function. We propose several ways to reorganize an OLAP cube depending on which set of members is selected for the reorganization: all of the members, only the displayed members, or the members at a given level (level by level approach). The results that are evaluated by using optimization criteria show that our algorithm has a reliable performance even when it is limited to 1 minute runs. Our algorithm was integrated in an interactive 3D interface for OLAP. A user study was conducted to evaluate our approach with users. The results highlight the usefulness of reorganization in two OLAP tasks.

  11. Power Efficient Hierarchical Scheduling for DSP Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Merakos


    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of scheduling the computation of partial products in transformational Digital Signal Processing (DSP algorithms, aiming at the minimization of the switching activity in data and address buses, is addressed. The problem is stated as a hierarchical scheduling problem. Two different optimization algorithms, which are based on the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP, are defined. The proposed optimization algorithms are independent on the target architecture and can be adapted to take into account it. Experimental results obtained from the application of the proposed algorithms in various widely used DSP transformations, like Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT, show that significant switching activity savings in data and address buses can be achieved, resulting in corresponding power savings. In addition, the differences between the two proposed methods are underlined, providing envisage for their suitable selection for implementation, in particular transformational algorithms and architectures.

  12. Flexible fabrication of biomimetic compound eye array via two-step thermal reflow of simply pre-modeled hierarchic microstructures (United States)

    Huang, Shengzhou; Li, Mujun; Shen, Lianguan; Qiu, Jinfeng; Zhou, Youquan


    A flexible fabrication method for the biomimetic compound eye (BCE) array is proposed. In this method, a triple-layer sandwich-like coating configuration was introduced, and the required hierarchic microstructures are formed with a simple single-scan exposure in maskless digital lithography. Taking advantage of the difference of glass transition point (Tg) between photoresists of each layer, the pre-formed hierarchic microstructures are in turn reflowed to the curved substrate and the BCE ommatidia in a two-step thermal reflow process. To avoid affecting the spherical substrate formed in the first thermal reflow, a non-contact strategy was proposed in the second reflow process. The measurement results were in good agreement with the designed BCE profiles. Results also showed that the fabricated BCE had good performances in optical test. The presented method is flexible, convenient, low-cost and can easily adapt to the fabrications of other optical elements with hierarchic microstructures.

  13. Hierarchical imaging of the human knee (United States)

    Schulz, Georg; Götz, Christian; Deyhle, Hans; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Zanette, Irene; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Khimchenko, Anna; Thalmann, Peter; Rack, Alexander; Müller, Bert


    Among the clinically relevant imaging techniques, computed tomography (CT) reaches the best spatial resolution. Sub-millimeter voxel sizes are regularly obtained. For investigations on true micrometer level lab-based μCT has become gold standard. The aim of the present study is the hierarchical investigation of a human knee post mortem using hard X-ray μCT. After the visualization of the entire knee using a clinical CT with a spatial resolution on the sub-millimeter range, a hierarchical imaging study was performed using a laboratory μCT system nanotom m. Due to the size of the whole knee the pixel length could not be reduced below 65 μm. These first two data sets were directly compared after a rigid registration using a cross-correlation algorithm. The μCT data set allowed an investigation of the trabecular structures of the bones. The further reduction of the pixel length down to 25 μm could be achieved by removing the skin and soft tissues and measuring the tibia and the femur separately. True micrometer resolution could be achieved after extracting cylinders of several millimeters diameters from the two bones. The high resolution scans revealed the mineralized cartilage zone including the tide mark line as well as individual calcified chondrocytes. The visualization of soft tissues including cartilage, was arranged by X-ray grating interferometry (XGI) at ESRF and Diamond Light Source. Whereas the high-energy measurements at ESRF allowed the simultaneous visualization of soft and hard tissues, the low-energy results from Diamond Light Source made individual chondrocytes within the cartilage visual.

  14. Automated tetraploid genotype calling by hierarchical clustering. (United States)

    Schmitz Carley, Cari A; Coombs, Joseph J; Douches, David S; Bethke, Paul C; Palta, Jiwan P; Novy, Richard G; Endelman, Jeffrey B


    New software to make tetraploid genotype calls from SNP array data was developed, which uses hierarchical clustering and multiple F1 populations to calibrate the relationship between signal intensity and allele dosage. SNP arrays are transforming breeding and genetics research for autotetraploids. To fully utilize these arrays, the relationship between signal intensity and allele dosage must be calibrated for each marker. We developed an improved computational method to automate this process, which is provided as the R package ClusterCall. In the training phase of the algorithm, hierarchical clustering within an F1 population is used to group samples with similar intensity values, and allele dosages are assigned to clusters based on expected segregation ratios. In the prediction phase, multiple F1 populations and the prediction set are clustered together, and the genotype for each cluster is the mode of the training set samples. A concordance metric, defined as the proportion of training set samples equal to the mode, can be used to eliminate unreliable markers and compare different algorithms. Across three potato families genotyped with an 8K SNP array, ClusterCall scored 5729 markers with at least 0.95 concordance (94.6% of its total), compared to 5325 with the software fitTetra (82.5% of its total). The three families were used to predict genotypes for 5218 SNPs in the SolCAP diversity panel, compared with 3521 SNPs in a previous study in which genotypes were called manually. One of the additional markers produced a significant association for vine maturity near a well-known causal locus on chromosome 5. In conclusion, when multiple F1 populations are available, ClusterCall is an efficient method for accurate, autotetraploid genotype calling that enables the use of SNP data for research and plant breeding.

  15. A multicomponent approach to thinning reinforcer delivery during noncontingent reinforcement schedules. (United States)

    Slocum, Sarah K; Grauerholz-Fisher, Emma; Peters, Kerri P; Vollmer, Timothy R


    We evaluated a noncontingent reinforcement procedure that involved initially providing three subjects with signaled, continuous access to the functional reinforcer for aggression and slowly increasing the amount of time subjects were exposed to the signaled unavailability of the reinforcer. Additionally, alternative potential reinforcers were available throughout the sessions. Results showed immediate and substantial reductions in aggression for all three subjects. The clinical utility of this intervention is discussed, and future research directions are recommended. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  16. A numerical investigation on the size effect of fiber-reinforced concrete specimens in crack propagation (United States)

    Bruggi, Matteo; Venini, Paolo


    The paper addresses a numerical investigation on the size effect in fiber-reinforced concrete specimens that is based on an alternative approach for cohesive crack propagation. A discrete version of the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle manages mode I crack growth in the case of piece-wise linear cohesive softening equations. A three-point bending test is investigated according to the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced mixtures that have been characterized in the experimental literature. The achieved results point out that each segment of the considered cohesive laws plays an important role in the control of the size effect, depending on the dimension of the specimen.

  17. Bending test in epoxy composites reinforced with continuous and aligned PALF fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Oliveira Glória


    Full Text Available Sustainable actions aiming to prevent increasing worldwide pollution are motivating the substitution of environmentally friendly materials for conventional synthetic ones. A typical example is the use of natural lignocellulosic fiber (LCF as reinforcement of polymer composites that have traditionally been reinforced with glass fiber. Both scientific research and engineering applications support the use of numerous LCFs composites. The pineapple fiber (PALF, extracted from the leaves of Ananas comosus, is considered a LCF with potential for composite reinforcement. However, specific mechanical properties and microstructural characterization are still necessary for this purpose. Therefore, the objective of this short work is to evaluate the flexural properties, by means of three points, bend tests, of epoxy composites incorporated with up to 30 vol% of PALF. Results reveal that continuous and aligned fibers significantly increase the flexural strength. Scanning electron microscopy disclosed the fracture mechanism responsible for this reinforcement. Keywords: Pineapple fibers, PALF, Flexural properties, Bending test, Epoxy composites, Fracture mechanism

  18. A full-capture Hierarchical Bayesian model of Pollock's Closed Robust Design and application to dolphins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert William Rankin


    Full Text Available We present a Hierarchical Bayesian version of Pollock's Closed Robust Design for studying the survival, temporary-migration, and abundance of marked animals. Through simulations and analyses of a bottlenose dolphin photo-identification dataset, we compare several estimation frameworks, including Maximum Likelihood estimation (ML, model-averaging by AICc, as well as Bayesian and Hierarchical Bayesian (HB procedures. Our results demonstrate a number of advantages of the Bayesian framework over other popular methods. First, for simple fixed-effect models, we show the near-equivalence of Bayesian and ML point-estimates and confidence/credibility intervals. Second, we demonstrate how there is an inherent correlation among temporary-migration and survival parameter estimates in the PCRD, and while this can lead to serious convergence issues and singularities among MLEs, we show that the Bayesian estimates were more reliable. Third, we demonstrate that a Hierarchical Bayesian model with carefully thought-out hyperpriors, can lead to similar parameter estimates and conclusions as multi-model inference by AICc model-averaging. This latter point is especially interesting for mark-recapture practitioners, for whom model-uncertainty and multi-model inference have become a major preoccupation. Lastly, we extend the Hierarchical Bayesian PCRD to include full-capture histories (i.e., by modelling a recruitment process and individual-level heterogeneity in detection probabilities, which can have important consequences for the range of phenomena studied by the PCRD, as well as lead to large differences in abundance estimates. For example, we estimate 8%-24% more bottlenose dolphins in the western gulf of Shark Bay than previously estimated by ML and AICc-based model-averaging. Other important extensions are discussed. Our Bayesian PCRD models are written in the BUGS-like JAGS language for easy dissemination and customization by the community of capture

  19. Hierarchical clustering using correlation metric and spatial continuity constraint (United States)

    Stork, Christopher L.; Brewer, Luke N.


    Large data sets are analyzed by hierarchical clustering using correlation as a similarity measure. This provides results that are superior to those obtained using a Euclidean distance similarity measure. A spatial continuity constraint may be applied in hierarchical clustering analysis of images.

  20. Discursive Hierarchical Patterning in Law and Management Cases (United States)

    Lung, Jane


    This paper investigates the differences in the discursive patterning of cases in Law and Management. It examines a corpus of 271 Law and Management cases and discusses the kind of information that these two disciplines call for and how discourses are constructed in discursive hierarchical patterns. A discursive hierarchical pattern is a model…

  1. Hierarchical Approaches to the Analysis of Genetic Diversity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hierarchical Approaches to the Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Plants: A Systematic Overview. ME Osawaru, MC Ogwu, RO Aiwansoba. Abstract. Hierarchical analysis highlights the nature of relationship between and among type samples as outlined by standard descriptors. It produces an output called dendrogram, which ...

  2. Hierarchical microcrack model for materials exemplified at enamel. (United States)

    Özcoban, H; Yilmaz, E D; Schneider, G A


    This article investigates the mechanical properties of a material with hierarchically arranged microcracks. Hierarchically structured biomaterials such as enamel exhibit superior mechanical properties as being stiff and damage tolerant at the same time. The common mechanical explanation for this behavior is based on the hierarchically structured arrangement of hard minerals and soft organics and their cooperative deformation mechanisms. In situ mechanical experiments with mm-sized bovine enamel bending bars an scanning electron microscope reveal that enamel is able to withstand mechanical loading even if it contains microcracks on different lengths scales. To clarify this issue an analytical hierarchical microcrack model of non-interacting cracks is presented. The model predicts a decrease of the elastic modulus and the fracture strength with increasing levels of hierarchy. The fracture strain on the other hand may decrease or increase with the number of hierarchical levels, depending on the microcrack density. This simple hierarchical microcrack model is able to explain already published experiments with focused ion beam prepared μm-sized enamel cantilevers on different hierarchical levels. In addition it is shown that microcracking during loading in hierarchical materials may lead to substantial pseudoplastic behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Topology-based hierarchical scheduling using deficit round robin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Yan, Ying; Berger, Michael Stubert


    This paper proposes a topology-based hierarchical scheduling scheme using Deficit Round Robin (DRR). The main idea of the topology-based hierarchical scheduling is to map the topology of the connected network into the logical structure of the scheduler, and combine several token schedulers accord...... of malicious traffic. This is significant for IPTV services in Carrier Ethernet networks....

  4. In-plane crashworthiness of bio-inspired hierarchical honeycombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Hanfeng; Huang, Xiaofei; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Wen, Guilin; Chen, Yanyu; Zhang, Chao


    Biological tissues like bone, wood, and sponge possess hierarchical cellular topologies, which are lightweight and feature an excellent energy absorption capability. Here we present a system of bio-inspired hierarchical honeycomb structures based on hexagonal, Kagome, and triangular tessellations. The hierarchical designs and a reference regular honeycomb configuration are subjected to simulated in-plane impact using the nonlinear finite element code LS-DYNA. The numerical simulation results show that the triangular hierarchical honeycomb provides the best performance compared to the other two hierarchical honeycombs, and features more than twice the energy absorbed by the regular honeycomb under similar loading conditions. We also propose a parametric study correlating the microstructure parameters (hierarchical length ratio r and the number of sub cells N) to the energy absorption capacity of these hierarchical honeycombs. The triangular hierarchical honeycomb with N = 2 and r = 1/8 shows the highest energy absorption capacity among all the investigated cases, and this configuration could be employed as a benchmark for the design of future safety protective systems.

  5. Hierarchical Data Structures, Institutional Research, and Multilevel Modeling (United States)

    O'Connell, Ann A.; Reed, Sandra J.


    Multilevel modeling (MLM), also referred to as hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) or mixed models, provides a powerful analytical framework through which to study colleges and universities and their impact on students. Due to the natural hierarchical structure of data obtained from students or faculty in colleges and universities, MLM offers many…

  6. Hierarchical anatomical brain networks for MCI prediction: revisiting volumetric measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luping Zhou

    Full Text Available Owning to its clinical accessibility, T1-weighted MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging has been extensively studied in the past decades for prediction of Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The volumes of gray matter (GM, white matter (WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are the most commonly used measurements, resulting in many successful applications. It has been widely observed that disease-induced structural changes may not occur at isolated spots, but in several inter-related regions. Therefore, for better characterization of brain pathology, we propose in this paper a means to extract inter-regional correlation based features from local volumetric measurements. Specifically, our approach involves constructing an anatomical brain network for each subject, with each node representing a Region of Interest (ROI and each edge representing Pearson correlation of tissue volumetric measurements between ROI pairs. As second order volumetric measurements, network features are more descriptive but also more sensitive to noise. To overcome this limitation, a hierarchy of ROIs is used to suppress noise at different scales. Pairwise interactions are considered not only for ROIs with the same scale in the same layer of the hierarchy, but also for ROIs across different scales in different layers. To address the high dimensionality problem resulting from the large number of network features, a supervised dimensionality reduction method is further employed to embed a selected subset of features into a low dimensional feature space, while at the same time preserving discriminative information. We demonstrate with experimental results the efficacy of this embedding strategy in comparison with some other commonly used approaches. In addition, although the proposed method can be easily generalized to incorporate other metrics of regional similarities, the benefits of using Pearson correlation in our application are reinforced by the experimental

  7. Simple approach to reinforce hydrogels with cellulose nanocrystals (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Han, Chun-Rui; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang


    The physical crosslinking of colloidal nanoparticles via dynamic and directional non-covalent interactions has led to significant advances in composite hydrogels. In this paper, we report a simple approach to fabricate tough, stretchable and hysteretic isotropic nanocomposite hydrogels, where rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are encapsulated by flexible polymer chains of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA). The CNC-PDMA colloidal clusters build a homogeneously cross-linked network and lead to significant reinforcing effect of the composites. Hierarchically structured CNC-PDMA clusters, from isolated particles to an interpenetrated network, are observed by transmission electron microscopy measurements. Dynamic shear oscillation measurements are applied to demystify the differences in network rheological behaviors, which were compared with network behaviors of chemically cross-linked PDMA counterparts. Tensile tests indicate that the hybrid hydrogels possess higher mechanical properties and a more efficient energy dissipation mechanism. In particular, with only 0.8 wt% of CNC loading, a 4.8-fold increase in Young's modulus, 9.2-fold increase in tensile strength, and 5.8-fold increase in fracture strain are achieved, which is ascribed to a combination of CNC reinforcement in the soft matrix and CNC-PDMA colloidal cluster conformational rearrangement under stretching. Physical interactions within networks serve as reversible sacrificial bonds that dissociate upon deformation, exhibiting large hysteresis as an energy dissipation mechanism via cluster mobility. This result contrasts with the case of chemically cross-linked PDMA counterparts where the stress relaxation is slow due to the permanent cross-links and low resistance against crack propagation within the covalent network.The physical crosslinking of colloidal nanoparticles via dynamic and directional non-covalent interactions has led to significant advances in composite hydrogels. In this paper, we report

  8. Seismic Behavior of Substandard RC Columns Retrofitted with Embedded Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymer (AFRP Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin C. Seyhan


    Full Text Available Many existing reinforced concrete structures were constructed with substandard characteristics. Low quality concrete, poor transverse reinforcement details and insufficient flexural strength are among the most common deficiencies. While substandard structures are in need of retrofitting, particularly in seismic areas, problems such as high costs and disturbance to occupants are major obstacles for retrofit interventions. Fiber reinforced polymers can provide feasible retrofit solutions with minimum disturbance to occupants. In this study, the basic aim is to investigate the flexural seismic performance of substandard reinforced concrete columns retrofitted with embedded longitudinal fiber reinforced polymer reinforcement without increasing the original dimensions of the columns. In the experimental study, the reference and retrofitted columns were tested under constant vertical and reversed cyclic lateral loads. Three different connection methods of aramid fiber reinforced polymer reinforcement to the footing were investigated experimentally. A significant enhancement was obtained in lateral flexural strength through the proposed retrofitting method. Furthermore, it was observed that the cyclic lateral drift capacities of the retrofitted columns were as high as 3%, which can be deemed as quite satisfactory against seismic actions. The comparison of the experimental data with analytical calculations revealed that a conventional design approach assuming composite action between concrete and fiber reinforced polymer reinforcement can be used for flexural retrofit design. Experimental results also demonstrated that strain limit for longitudinal fiber reinforced polymer (FRP reinforcement should be remarkably lower in case of reversed cyclic loading conditions.

  9. Address Points - Allegheny County Address Points 201601 (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This dataset contains Address Points in Allegheny County. The Address Points were created by GDR for the Allegheny County CAD project, October 2008. Data is updated...

  10. Anti-hierarchical evolution of the active galactic nucleus space density in a hierarchical universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enoki, Motohiro; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagashima, Masahiro


    Recent observations show that the space density of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) peaks at higher redshifts than that of faint AGNs. This downsizing trend in the AGN evolution seems to be contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario. In this study, we present the AGN space density evolution predicted by a semi-analytic model of galaxy and AGN formation based on the hierarchical structure formation scenario. We demonstrate that our model can reproduce the downsizing trend of the AGN space density evolution. The reason for the downsizing trend in our model is a combination of the cold gas depletion as a consequence of star formation, the gas cooling suppression in massive halos, and the AGN lifetime scaling with the dynamical timescale. We assume that a major merger of galaxies causes a starburst, spheroid formation, and cold gas accretion onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH). We also assume that this cold gas accretion triggers AGN activity. Since the cold gas is mainly depleted by star formation and gas cooling is suppressed in massive dark halos, the amount of cold gas accreted onto SMBHs decreases with cosmic time. Moreover, AGN lifetime increases with cosmic time. Thus, at low redshifts, major mergers do not always lead to luminous AGNs. Because the luminosity of AGNs is correlated with the mass of accreted gas onto SMBHs, the space density of luminous AGNs decreases more quickly than that of faint AGNs. We conclude that the anti-hierarchical evolution of the AGN space density is not contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario.

  11. pH sensitive hierarchically self-organized bioinspired films. (United States)

    Escalé, Pierre; Rubatat, Laurent; Derail, Christophe; Save, Maud; Billon, Laurent


    In the present manuscript, we have demonstrated that hierarchically structured smart porous polymer films based on honeycomb-patterned surface can be elaborated from PS-b-P4VP pH-responsive block copolymer using the breath figure process. Despite the fast film formation by a bottom-up process, the copolymer nanostructuration was observed inside the walls of the honeycomb porous film. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), small angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) measurements were used to reveal both the hexagonal arrays formed by the pores at the micrometer length scale and the hexagonal copolymer self-assembly at the nanometer length scale. Contact angle (CA) measurements were used to point out the reversible pH-responsive wettability character of the surface. The PS-b-P4VP honeycomb film shows a contact angle variation of 20° between pH 9 and pH 3. An increase of the roughness was obtained with the pincushions hexagonal array enhancing the pH responsiveness of the polymer film with a switching CA gap of 75° when pH tuned from pH 9 to pH 3. This work presents the first report on honeycomb porous and pincushion films exhibiting a reversible pH-responsive character. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Decoupled Hierarchical Structures for Suppression of Leidenfrost Phenomenon. (United States)

    Farokhnia, Nazanin; Sajadi, Seyed Mohammad; Irajizad, Peyman; Ghasemi, Hadi


    Thermal management of high temperature systems through cooling droplets is limited by the existence of the Leidenfrost point (LFP), at which the formation of a continuous vapor film between a hot solid and a cooling droplet diminishes the heat transfer rate. This limit results in a bottleneck for the advancement of the wide spectrum of systems including high-temperature power generation, electronics/photonics, reactors, and spacecraft. Despite a long time effort on development of surfaces for suppression of this phenomenon, this limit has only shifted to higher temperatures, but still exists. Here, we report a new multiscale decoupled hierarchical structure that suppress the Leidenfrost state and provide efficient heat dissipation at high temperatures. The architecture of these structures is composed of a nanomembrane assembled on top of a deep micropillar structure. This architecture allows to independently tune the involved forces and to suppress LFP. Once a cooling droplet contacts these surfaces, by rerouting the path of vapor flow, the cooling droplet remains attached to the hot solid substrates even at high temperatures (up to 570 °C) for heat dissipation with no existence of Leidenfrost phenomenon. These new surfaces offer unprecedented heat dissipation capacity at high temperatures (2 orders of magnitude higher than the other state-of-the-art surfaces). We envision that these surfaces open a new avenue in thermal management of high-temperature systems through spray cooling.

  13. Applying Hierarchical Task Analysis Method to Discovery Layer Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Promann


    Full Text Available Libraries are implementing discovery layers to offer better user experiences. While usability tests have been helpful in evaluating the success or failure of implementing discovery layers in the library context, the focus has remained on its relative interface benefits over the traditional federated search. The informal site- and context specific usability tests have offered little to test the rigor of the discovery layers against the user goals, motivations and workflow they have been designed to support. This study proposes hierarchical task analysis (HTA as an important complementary evaluation method to usability testing of discovery layers. Relevant literature is reviewed for the discovery layers and the HTA method. As no previous application of HTA to the evaluation of discovery layers was found, this paper presents the application of HTA as an expert based and workflow centered (e.g. retrieving a relevant book or a journal article method to evaluating discovery layers. Purdue University’s Primo by Ex Libris was used to map eleven use cases as HTA charts. Nielsen’s Goal Composition theory was used as an analytical framework to evaluate the goal carts from two perspectives: a users’ physical interactions (i.e. clicks, and b user’s cognitive steps (i.e. decision points for what to do next. A brief comparison of HTA and usability test findings is offered as a way of conclusion.

  14. Facile sonochemical synthesis of hierarchical porous CuO nanotablets. (United States)

    Deng, Chonghai; Hu, Hanmei; Ge, Xinqing; Han, Chengliang; Yang, Benhong


    Hierarchical semiconductor CuO nanotablets with pores have been fabricated on a large scale by a facile and one-pot sonochemical process using the copper acetate and ammonia aqueous solution as precursor in the absence of surfactants or additives. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and N2 physisorption. The results reveal that porous tablet-shaped CuO nanostructures composed of nanoribbons possess a monoclinc phase CuO with the average diameters about 200 nm and around 50 nm in thickness. The Brunnauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area and the single point adsorption total pore volume were measured to be 26.8 m2/g and 0.083 cm3/g, respectively. The band-gap energies were estimated to be 2.52 eV from a UV-vis absorption spectrum, which showed the quantum size effects of the nanosized semiconductors. A possible mechanism for porous CuO nanotablets was discussed.

  15. Kinematic gait patterns in healthy runners: A hierarchical cluster analysis. (United States)

    Phinyomark, Angkoon; Osis, Sean; Hettinga, Blayne A; Ferber, Reed


    Previous studies have demonstrated distinct clusters of gait patterns in both healthy and pathological groups, suggesting that different movement strategies may be represented. However, these studies have used discrete time point variables and usually focused on only one specific joint and plane of motion. Therefore, the first purpose of this study was to determine if running gait patterns for healthy subjects could be classified into homogeneous subgroups using three-dimensional kinematic data from the ankle, knee, and hip joints. The second purpose was to identify differences in joint kinematics between these groups. The third purpose was to investigate the practical implications of clustering healthy subjects by comparing these kinematics with runners experiencing patellofemoral pain (PFP). A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the entire gait waveform data and then a hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) determined group sets of similar gait patterns and homogeneous clusters. The results show two distinct running gait patterns were found with the main between-group differences occurring in frontal and sagittal plane knee angles (Pgait strategies. These results suggest care must be taken when selecting samples of subjects in order to investigate the pathomechanics of injured runners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SharePoint 2010 Business Intelligence 24-Hour Trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Adam; Knight, Devin; LeBlanc, Patrick; Schacht, Brad


    Learn to build and deliver SharePoint BI applications Written by a team of leading SharePoint and Business Intelligence (BI) experts, this unique book-and-DVD package shows you how to successfully build and deliver BI applications using SharePoint 2010. Assuming no previous SharePoint experience, the authors deliver a clear explanation of what SharePoint will do for your BI and information management capabilities. Each lesson in the book is reinforced with a helpful tutorial on the DVD and cover topics such as interactive reporting with Excel, document sharing for collaborative reporting, and

  17. The "hierarchical" Scratch Collapse Test for identifying multilevel ulnar nerve compression. (United States)

    Davidge, Kristen M; Gontre, Gil; Tang, David; Boyd, Kirsty U; Yee, Andrew; Damiano, Marci S; Mackinnon, Susan E


    The Scratch Collapse Test (SCT) is used to assist in the clinical evaluation of patients with ulnar nerve compression. The purpose of this study is to introduce the hierarchical SCT as a physical examination tool for identifying multilevel nerve compression in patients with cubital tunnel syndrome. A prospective cohort study (2010-2011) was conducted of patients referred with primary cubital tunnel syndrome. Five ulnar nerve compression sites were evaluated with the SCT. Each site generating a positive SCT was sequentially "frozen out" with a topical anesthetic to allow determination of both primary and secondary ulnar nerve entrapment points. The order or "hierarchy" of compression sites was recorded. Twenty-five patients (mean age 49.6 ± 12.3 years; 64 % female) were eligible for inclusion. The primary entrapment point was identified as Osborne's band in 80 % and the cubital tunnel retinaculum in 20 % of patients. Secondary entrapment points were also identified in the following order in all patients: (1) volar antebrachial fascia, (2) Guyon's canal, and (3) arcade of Struthers. The SCT is useful in localizing the site of primary compression of the ulnar nerve in patients with cubital tunnel syndrome. It is also sensitive enough to detect secondary compression points when primary sites are sequentially frozen out with a topical anesthetic, termed the hierarchical SCT. The findings of the hierarchical SCT are in keeping with the double crush hypothesis described by Upton and McComas in 1973 and the hypothesis of multilevel nerve compression proposed by Mackinnon and Novak in 1994.

  18. Reinforcement learning and its application to Othello

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. van Wezel (Michiel); N.J.P. van Eck (Nees Jan)


    textabstractIn this article we describe reinforcement learning, a machine learning technique for solving sequential decision problems. We describe how reinforcement learning can be combined with function approximation to get approximate solutions for problems with very large state spaces. One such

  19. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Reinforced concrete structures during their exploitation may be exposed to the common action of carbonation and chlorides causing corrosion of steel reinforcement. Therefore, the related data seem to be interesting and important when the evaluation of the service life of the structures is the object of interest. This.

  20. Degradation of Waterfront Reinforced Concrete Structures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact , tension, compressive or fatigue cracking, degradation of waterfront structures are caused by mainly ... International, 2002). Corrosion of steel reinforcement contributes greatly to the deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion products accompany the .... selected piers and masonry walls have shown a.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    modulus of chitin reinforced (meth) acrylic resin varied between 1.2 and 5 GPa while the tensile strength was between 30 and 70 MPa depending on the number of the repeating units of acrylic acid resin. The mechanical properties of CHW reinforced poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) composites films with or without heat treatment ...

  2. Conditioned reinforcement and information theory reconsidered. (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A; Cunningham, Paul


    The idea that stimuli might function as conditioned reinforcers because of the information they convey about primary reinforcers has a long history in the study of learning. However, formal application of information theory to conditioned reinforcement has been largely abandoned in modern theorizing because of its failures with respect to observing behavior. In this paper we show how recent advances in the application of information theory to Pavlovian conditioning offer a novel approach to conditioned reinforcement. The critical feature of this approach is that calculations of information are based on reductions of uncertainty about expected time to primary reinforcement signaled by a conditioned reinforcer. Using this approach, we show that previous failures of information theory with observing behavior can be remedied, and that the resulting framework produces predictions similar to Delay Reduction Theory in both observing-response and concurrent-chains procedures. We suggest that the similarity of these predictions might offer an analytically grounded reason for why Delay Reduction Theory has been a successful theory of conditioned reinforcement. Finally, we suggest that the approach provides a formal basis for the assertion that conditioned reinforcement results from Pavlovian conditioning and may provide an integrative approach encompassing both domains. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  3. Durability of fibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard


    The planned research will indicate, whether fibre reinforced concrete has better or worse durability than normal concrete. Durability specimens will be measured on cracked as well as uncracked specimens. Also the pore structure in the concrete will be characterized.Keywords: Fibre reinforced...... concrete, durability, pore structure, mechanical load...

  4. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reinforced concrete structures during their exploitation may be exposed to the common action of carbonation and chlorides causing corrosion of steel reinforcement. Therefore, the related data seem to be interesting and important when the evaluation of the service life of the structures is the object of interest. This fact was a ...

  5. Structural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) Bars (United States)

    Ovitigala, Thilan

    The main challenge for civil engineers is to provide sustainable, environmentally friendly and financially feasible structures to the society. Finding new materials such as fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) material that can fulfill the above requirements is a must. FRP material was expensive and it was limited to niche markets such as space shuttles and air industry in the 1960s. Over the time, it became cheaper and spread to other industries such as sporting goods in the 1980-1990, and then towards the infrastructure industry. Design and construction guidelines are available for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and they are currently used in structural applications. Since FRP is linear elastic brittle material, design guidelines for the steel reinforcement are not valid for FRP materials. Corrosion of steel reinforcement affects the durability of the concrete structures. FRP reinforcement is identified as an alternative to steel reinforcement in corrosive environments. Although basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) has many advantages over other FRP materials, but limited studies have been done. These studies didn't include larger BFRP bar diameters that are mostly used in practice. Therefore, larger beam sizes with larger BFRP reinforcement bar diameters are needed to investigate the flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams. Also, shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams was not yet studied. Experimental testing of mechanical properties and bond strength of BFRP bars and flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams are needed to include BFRP reinforcement bars in the design codes. This study mainly focuses on the use of BFRP bars as internal reinforcement. The test results of the mechanical properties of BFRP reinforcement bars, the bond strength of BFRP reinforcement bars, and the flexural and shear behavior of concrete beams

  6. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place


    Durability studies are carried out at BKM as part of the research project "Design Methods for Fibre Reinforced Concrete" (FRC) involving BKM, The Concrete Research Center at DTI, Building Technology at Aalborg University, Rambøll, 4K-Beton and Rasmussen & Schiøtz. Concrete beams with or without...... fibre reinforcement are exposed to a combination of mechanical and environmental load to indicate whether fibre reinforcement will improve the durability of cracked concrete structures. Secondly, it is the aim to identify important mechanisms for the effect of the fibre reinforcement on the durability......) and polypropylene fibres (PP) are used in the concrete beams as well as main reinforcement. Results of the durability tests on cracked FRC-beams are compared with results for uncracked FRC-beams and beams without fibres....


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, J.I.; Miller, C.A.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bezler, P.; Chang, T.Y.


    This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate, in probabilistic terms, the effects of age-related degradation on the structural performance of reinforced concrete members at nuclear power plants. The paper focuses on degradation of reinforced concrete flexural members and shear walls due to the loss of steel reinforcing area and loss of concrete area (cracking/spalling). Loss of steel area is typically caused by corrosion while cracking and spalling can be caused by corrosion of reinforcing steel, freeze-thaw, or aggressive chemical attack. Structural performance in the presence of uncertainties is depicted by a fragility (or conditional probability of failure). The effects of degradation on the fragility of reinforced concrete members are calculated to assess the potential significance of various levels of degradation. The fragility modeling procedures applied to degraded concrete members can be used to assess the effects of degradation on plant risk and can lead to the development of probability-based degradation acceptance limits

  8. D Nearest Neighbour Search Using a Clustered Hierarchical Tree Structure (United States)

    Suhaibah, A.; Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Mioc, D.; Rahman, A. A.


    Locating and analysing the location of new stores or outlets is one of the common issues facing retailers and franchisers. This is due to assure that new opening stores are at their strategic location to attract the highest possible number of customers. Spatial information is used to manage, maintain and analyse these store locations. However, since the business of franchising and chain stores in urban areas runs within high rise multi-level buildings, a three-dimensional (3D) method is prominently required in order to locate and identify the surrounding information such as at which level of the franchise unit will be located or is the franchise unit located is at the best level for visibility purposes. One of the common used analyses used for retrieving the surrounding information is Nearest Neighbour (NN) analysis. It uses a point location and identifies the surrounding neighbours. However, with the immense number of urban datasets, the retrieval and analysis of nearest neighbour information and their efficiency will become more complex and crucial. In this paper, we present a technique to retrieve nearest neighbour information in 3D space using a clustered hierarchical tree structure. Based on our findings, the proposed approach substantially showed an improvement of response time analysis compared to existing approaches of spatial access methods in databases. The query performance was tested using a dataset consisting of 500,000 point locations building and franchising unit. The results are presented in this paper. Another advantage of this structure is that it also offers a minimal overlap and coverage among nodes which can reduce repetitive data entry.

  9. Axial Compression Tests on Corroded Reinforced Concrete Columns Consolidated with Fibre Reinforced Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ding


    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete structure featured by strong bearing capacity, high rigidity, good integrity, good fire resistance, and extensive applicability occupies a mainstream position in contemporary architecture. However, with the development of social economy, people need higher requirements on architectural structure; durability, especially, has been extensively researched. Because of the higher requirement on building material, ordinary reinforced concrete structure has not been able to satisfy the demand. As a result, some new materials and structures have emerged, for example, fibre reinforced polymers. Compared to steel reinforcement, fibre reinforced polymers have many advantages, such as high tensile strength, good durability, good shock absorption, low weight, and simple construction. The application of fibre reinforced polymers in architectural structure can effectively improve the durability of the concrete structure and lower the maintenance, reinforcement, and construction costs in severe environments. Based on the concepts of steel tube concrete, fibre reinforced composite material confined concrete, and fibre reinforced composite material tubed concrete, this study proposes a novel composite structure, i.e., fibre reinforced composite material and steel tube concrete composite structure. The structure was developed by pasting fibre around steel tube concrete and restraining core concrete using fibre reinforced composite material and steel tubes. The bearing capacity and ultimate deformation capacity of the structure was tested using column axial compression test.

  10. Hierarchical Inorganic Assemblies for Artificial Photosynthesis. (United States)

    Kim, Wooyul; Edri, Eran; Frei, Heinz


    Artificial photosynthesis is an attractive approach for renewable fuel generation because it offers the prospect of a technology suitable for deployment on highly abundant, non-arable land. Recent leaps forward in the development of efficient and durable light absorbers and catalysts for oxygen evolution and the growing attention to catalysts for carbon dioxide activation brings into focus the tasks of hierarchically integrating the components into assemblies for closing of the photosynthetic cycle. A particular challenge is the efficient coupling of the multi-electron processes of CO2 reduction and H2O oxidation. Among the most important requirements for a complete integrated system are catalytic rates that match the solar flux, efficient charge transport between the various components, and scalability of the photosynthetic assembly on the unprecedented scale of terawatts in order to have impact on fuel consumption. To address these challenges, we have developed a heterogeneous inorganic materials approach with molecularly precise control of light absorption and charge transport pathways. Oxo-bridged heterobinuclear units with metal-to-metal charge-transfer transitions absorbing deep in the visible act as single photon, single charge transfer pumps for driving multi-electron catalysts. A photodeposition method has been introduced for the spatially directed assembly of nanoparticle catalysts for selective coupling to the donor or acceptor metal of the light absorber. For CO2 reduction, a Cu oxide cluster is coupled to the Zr center of a ZrOCo light absorber, while coupling of an Ir nanoparticle catalyst for water oxidation to the Co donor affords closing of the photosynthetic cycle of CO2 conversion by H2O to CO and O2. Optical, vibrational, and X-ray spectroscopy provide detailed structural knowledge of the polynuclear assemblies. Time resolved visible and rapid-scan FT-IR studies reveal charge transfer mechanisms and transient surface intermediates under

  11. Measuring of Electrical Properties of MWNT-Reinforced PAN Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sliman Almuhamed


    Full Text Available Nano-web sheets of polyacrylonitrile (PAN reinforced by carbon nanotubes (CNT were prepared by electrospinning process. Multi wall nanotubes (MWNT were dispersed mechanically by high shear mixing using a homogenizer device. It has been found that the spinning solution presented an electrical percolation threshold less than 0.5 wt.% of MWNT. Electrical volume and surface conductivity of the obtained nano-webs was studied by measuring the electrical volume resistance and surface resistance thanks to home-made plate electrodes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM has been used to characterize the nano-web sheets produced. The average filament diameters range from 320 to 750 nm depending on the concentration of CNT and of PAN. From an electrical point of view, it has been observed that the electrical volume conductivity increases by about six orders of magnitude from 2×10−12 S/m for pristine PAN to 4×10−6 S/m for PAN charged by MWNT. Increasing the pressure on the specimen induces an exponential decrease of the volume resistivity while surface resistivity shows no significant changes, neither between pristine PAN and reinforced nano-webs, nor among reinforced nano-web in relation to MWNT concentration (in the limit of the study. This observed behavior is very interesting in the context of sensor developments.

  12. Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Beams with CFRP and GFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mustafa Önal


    Full Text Available Concrete beams were strengthened by wrapping the shear edges of the beams twice at 45° in opposite directions by either carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP or glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP. The study included 3 CFRP wrapped beams, 3 GFRP wrapped beams, and 3 control beams, all of which were 150 × 250 × 2200 mm and manufactured with C20 concrete and S420a structural steel at the Gazi University Technical Education Faculty labs, Turkey. Samples in molds were cured by watering in the open air for 21 days. Four-point bending tests were made on the beam test specimens and the data were collected. Data were evaluated in terms of load displacement, bearing strength, ductility, and energy consumption. In the CFRP and GFRP reinforced beams, compared to controls, 38% and 42%, respectively, strength increase was observed. In all beams, failure-flexural stress occurred in the center as expected. Most cracking was observed in the flexural region 4. A comparison of CFRP and GFRP materials reveals that GFRP enforced parts absorb more energy. Both materials yielded successful results. Thicker epoxy application in both CFRP and GFRP beams was considered to be effective in preventing break-ups.

  13. Flexural Cracking Behavior Of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abdalkader


    Full Text Available Steel fibers are added to concrete due to its ability to improve the tensile strength and control propagation of cracks in reinforced concrete members. Steel fiber reinforced concrete is made of cement fine water and coarse aggregate in addition to steel fibers. In this experimental work flexural cracking behavior of reinforced concrete beams contains different percentage of hooked-end steel fibers with length of 50 mm and equivalent diameter of 0.5 mm was studied. The beams were tested under third-point loading test at 28 days. First cracking load maximum crack width cracks number and load-deflection relations were investigated to evaluate the flexural cracking behavior of concrete beams with 34 MPa target mean strength. Workability wet density compressive and splitting tensile strength were also investigated. The results showed that the flexural crack width is significantly reduced with the addition of steel fibers. Fiber contents of 1.0 resulted in 81 reduction in maximum crack width compared to control concrete without fiber. The results also showed that the first cracking load and maximum load are increased with the addition of steel fibers.

  14. Long-term performance of GFRP reinforcement : technical report. (United States)


    Significant research has been performed on glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) concrete reinforcement. : This research has shown that GFRP reinforcement exhibits high strengths, is lightweight, can decrease time of : construction, and is corrosion ...

  15. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard


    Durability studies are carried out by subjecting FRC-beams to combined mechanical and environmental load. Mechanical load is obtained by exposing beams to 4-point bending until a predefined crack width is reached, using a newly developed test setup. Exposure to a concentrated chloride solution...... is used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....

  16. Challenges in the Verification of Reinforcement Learning Algorithms (United States)

    Van Wesel, Perry; Goodloe, Alwyn E.


    Machine learning (ML) is increasingly being applied to a wide array of domains from search engines to autonomous vehicles. These algorithms, however, are notoriously complex and hard to verify. This work looks at the assumptions underlying machine learning algorithms as well as some of the challenges in trying to verify ML algorithms. Furthermore, we focus on the specific challenges of verifying reinforcement learning algorithms. These are highlighted using a specific example. Ultimately, we do not offer a solution to the complex problem of ML verification, but point out possible approaches for verification and interesting research opportunities.

  17. Classifying hospitals as mortality outliers: logistic versus hierarchical logistic models. (United States)

    Alexandrescu, Roxana; Bottle, Alex; Jarman, Brian; Aylin, Paul


    The use of hierarchical logistic regression for provider profiling has been recommended due to the clustering of patients within hospitals, but has some associated difficulties. We assess changes in hospital outlier status based on standard logistic versus hierarchical logistic modelling of mortality. The study population consisted of all patients admitted to acute, non-specialist hospitals in England between 2007 and 2011 with a primary diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, acute cerebrovascular disease or fracture of neck of femur or a primary procedure of coronary artery bypass graft or repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. We compared standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) from non-hierarchical models with SMRs from hierarchical models, without and with shrinkage estimates of the predicted probabilities (Model 1 and Model 2). The SMRs from standard logistic and hierarchical models were highly statistically significantly correlated (r > 0.91, p = 0.01). More outliers were recorded in the standard logistic regression than hierarchical modelling only when using shrinkage estimates (Model 2): 21 hospitals (out of a cumulative number of 565 pairs of hospitals under study) changed from a low outlier and 8 hospitals changed from a high outlier based on the logistic regression to a not-an-outlier based on shrinkage estimates. Both standard logistic and hierarchical modelling have identified nearly the same hospitals as mortality outliers. The choice of methodological approach should, however, also consider whether the modelling aim is judgment or improvement, as shrinkage may be more appropriate for the former than the latter.

  18. Star Cluster Structure from Hierarchical Star Formation (United States)

    Grudic, Michael; Hopkins, Philip; Murray, Norman; Lamberts, Astrid; Guszejnov, David; Schmitz, Denise; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael


    Young massive star clusters (YMCs) spanning 104-108 M⊙ in mass generally have similar radial surface density profiles, with an outer power-law index typically between -2 and -3. This similarity suggests that they are shaped by scale-free physics at formation. Recent multi-physics MHD simulations of YMC formation have also produced populations of YMCs with this type of surface density profile, allowing us to narrow down the physics necessary to form a YMC with properties as observed. We show that the shallow density profiles of YMCs are a natural result of phase-space mixing that occurs as they assemble from the clumpy, hierarchically-clustered configuration imprinted by the star formation process. We develop physical intuition for this process via analytic arguments and collisionless N-body experiments, elucidating the connection between star formation physics and star cluster structure. This has implications for the early-time structure and evolution of proto-globular clusters, and prospects for simulating their formation in the FIRE cosmological zoom-in simulations.

  19. Hierarchical characterization procedures for dimensional metrology (United States)

    MacKinnon, David; Beraldin, Jean-Angelo; Cournoyer, Luc; Carrier, Benjamin


    We present a series of dimensional metrology procedures for evaluating the geometrical performance of a 3D imaging system that have either been designed or modified from existing procedures to ensure, where possible, statistical traceability of each characteristic value from the certified reference surface to the certifying laboratory. Because there are currently no internationally-accepted standards for characterizing 3D imaging systems, these procedures have been designed to avoid using characteristic values provided by the vendors of 3D imaging systems. For this paper, we focus only on characteristics related to geometric surface properties, dividing them into surface form precision and surface fit trueness. These characteristics have been selected to be familiar to operators of 3D imaging systems that use Geometrical Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T). The procedures for generating characteristic values would form the basis of either a volumetric or application-specific analysis of the characteristic profile of a 3D imaging system. We use a hierarchical approach in which each procedure builds on either certified reference values or previously-generated characteristic values. Starting from one of three classes of surface forms, we demonstrate how procedures for quantifying for flatness, roundness, angularity, diameter error, angle error, sphere-spacing error, and unidirectional and bidirectional plane-spacing error are built upon each other. We demonstrate how these procedures can be used as part of a process for characterizing the geometrical performance of a 3D imaging system.

  20. Fast approximate hierarchical clustering using similarity heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kull Meelis


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC is a common unsupervised data analysis technique used in several biological applications. Standard AHC methods require that all pairwise distances between data objects must be known. With ever-increasing data sizes this quadratic complexity poses problems that cannot be overcome by simply waiting for faster computers. Results We propose an approximate AHC algorithm HappieClust which can output a biologically meaningful clustering of a large dataset more than an order of magnitude faster than full AHC algorithms. The key to the algorithm is to limit the number of calculated pairwise distances to a carefully chosen subset of all possible distances. We choose distances using a similarity heuristic based on a small set of pivot objects. The heuristic efficiently finds pairs of similar objects and these help to mimic the greedy choices of full AHC. Quality of approximate AHC as compared to full AHC is studied with three measures. The first measure evaluates the global quality of the achieved clustering, while the second compares biological relevance using enrichment of biological functions in every subtree of the clusterings. The third measure studies how well the contents of subtrees are conserved between the clusterings. Conclusion The HappieClust algorithm is well suited for large-scale gene expression visualization and analysis both on personal computers as well as public online web applications. The software is available from the URL

  1. Dynamic hierarchical algorithm for accelerated microfossil identification (United States)

    Wong, Cindy M.; Joseph, Dileepan


    Marine microfossils provide a useful record of the Earth's resources and prehistory via biostratigraphy. To study Hydrocarbon reservoirs and prehistoric climate, geoscientists visually identify the species of microfossils found in core samples. Because microfossil identification is labour intensive, automation has been investigated since the 1980s. With the initial rule-based systems, users still had to examine each specimen under a microscope. While artificial neural network systems showed more promise for reducing expert labour, they also did not displace manual identification for a variety of reasons, which we aim to overcome. In our human-based computation approach, the most difficult step, namely taxon identification is outsourced via a frontend website to human volunteers. A backend algorithm, called dynamic hierarchical identification, uses unsupervised, supervised, and dynamic learning to accelerate microfossil identification. Unsupervised learning clusters specimens so that volunteers need not identify every specimen during supervised learning. Dynamic learning means interim computation outputs prioritize subsequent human inputs. Using a dataset of microfossils identified by an expert, we evaluated correct and incorrect genus and species rates versus simulated time, where each specimen identification defines a moment. The proposed algorithm accelerated microfossil identification effectively, especially compared to benchmark results obtained using a k-nearest neighbour method.

  2. Hierarchical Bayesian models of subtask learning. (United States)

    Anglim, Jeromy; Wynton, Sarah K A


    The current study used Bayesian hierarchical methods to challenge and extend previous work on subtask learning consistency. A general model of individual-level subtask learning was proposed focusing on power and exponential functions with constraints to test for inconsistency. To study subtask learning, we developed a novel computer-based booking task, which logged participant actions, enabling measurement of strategy use and subtask performance. Model comparison was performed using deviance information criterion (DIC), posterior predictive checks, plots of model fits, and model recovery simulations. Results showed that although learning tended to be monotonically decreasing and decelerating, and approaching an asymptote for all subtasks, there was substantial inconsistency in learning curves both at the group- and individual-levels. This inconsistency was most apparent when constraining both the rate and the ratio of learning to asymptote to be equal across subtasks, thereby giving learning curves only 1 parameter for scaling. The inclusion of 6 strategy covariates provided improved prediction of subtask performance capturing different subtask learning processes and subtask trade-offs. In addition, strategy use partially explained the inconsistency in subtask learning. Overall, the model provided a more nuanced representation of how complex tasks can be decomposed in terms of simpler learning mechanisms. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Mitigating Herding in Hierarchical Crowdsourcing Networks. (United States)

    Yu, Han; Miao, Chunyan; Leung, Cyril; Chen, Yiqiang; Fauvel, Simon; Lesser, Victor R; Yang, Qiang


    Hierarchical crowdsourcing networks (HCNs) provide a useful mechanism for social mobilization. However, spontaneous evolution of the complex resource allocation dynamics can lead to undesirable herding behaviours in which a small group of reputable workers are overloaded while leaving other workers idle. Existing herding control mechanisms designed for typical crowdsourcing systems are not effective in HCNs. In order to bridge this gap, we investigate the herding dynamics in HCNs and propose a Lyapunov optimization based decision support approach - the Reputation-aware Task Sub-delegation approach with dynamic worker effort Pricing (RTS-P) - with objective functions aiming to achieve superlinear time-averaged collective productivity in an HCN. By considering the workers' current reputation, workload, eagerness to work, and trust relationships, RTS-P provides a systematic approach to mitigate herding by helping workers make joint decisions on task sub-delegation, task acceptance, and effort pricing in a distributed manner. It is an individual-level decision support approach which results in the emergence of productive and robust collective patterns in HCNs. High resolution simulations demonstrate that RTS-P mitigates herding more effectively than state-of-the-art approaches.

  4. Hierarchical programming for data storage and visualization (United States)

    Donovan, J.M.; Smith, P.E.; ,


    Graphics software is an essential tool for interpreting, analyzing, and presenting data from multidimensional hydrodynamic models used in estuarine and coastal ocean studies. The post-processing of time-varying three-dimensional model output presents unique requirements for data visualization because of the large volume of data that can be generated and the multitude of time scales that must be examined. Such data can relate to estuarine or coastal ocean environments and come from numerical models or field instruments. One useful software tool for the display, editing, visualization, and printing of graphical data is the Gr application, written by the first author for use in U.S. Geological Survey San Francisco Bay Program. The Gr application has been made available to the public via the Internet since the year 2000. The Gr application is written in the Java (Sun Microsystems, Nov. 29, 2001) programming language and uses the Extensible Markup Language standard for hierarchical data storage. Gr presents a hierarchy of objects to the user that can be edited using a common interface. Java's object-oriented capabilities allow Gr to treat data, graphics, and tools equally and to save them all to a single XML file.

  5. Hierarchical analysis of dependency in metabolic networks. (United States)

    Gagneur, Julien; Jackson, David B; Casari, Georg


    Elucidation of metabolic networks for an increasing number of organisms reveals that even small networks can contain thousands of reactions and chemical species. The intimate connectivity between components complicates their decomposition into biologically meaningful sub-networks. Moreover, traditional higher-order representations of metabolic networks as metabolic pathways, suffers from the lack of rigorous definition, yielding pathways of disparate content and size. We introduce a hierarchical representation that emphasizes the gross organization of metabolic networks in largely independent pathways and sub-systems at several levels of independence. The approach highlights the coupling of different pathways and the shared compounds responsible for those couplings. By assessing our results on Escherichia coli (E.coli metabolic reactions, Genetic Circuits Research Group, University of California, San Diego,, 'model v 1.01. reactions') against accepted biochemical annotations, we provide the first systematic synopsis of an organism's metabolism. Comparison with operons of E.coli shows that low-level clusters are reflected in genome organization and gene regulation. Source code, data sets and supplementary information are available at

  6. In situ ultrasonic diagnostic of zeolite X crystallization with novel (hierarchical) morphology from coal fly ash. (United States)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M; Petrik, Leslie F; Hums, Eric; Baser, Hasan; Schwieger, Wilhelm


    In this paper the applicability of an in situ ultrasonic diagnostic technique in understanding the formation process of zeolite X with a novel morphology was demonstrated. The complexity of the starting fly ash feedstock demands independent studies of the formation process for each type of zeolite since it is not known whether the crystallization mechanism will always follow the expected reaction pathway. The hierarchical zeolite X was noted to follow a solution phase-mediated crystallization mechanism which differs from earlier studies of the zeolite A formation process from unaged, clear solution extracted from fused fly ash. The use of the in situ ultrasonic monitoring system provided sufficient data points which enabled closer estimation of the time of transition from the nucleation to the crystal growth step. In order to evaluate the effect of temperature on the resulting in situ attenuation signal, synthesis at three higher temperatures (80, 90 and 94 °C) was investigated. It was shown, by the shift of the US-attenuation signal, that faster crystallization occurred when higher temperatures were applied. The novel hierarchical zeolite X was comprised of intergrown disc-like platelets. It was further observed that there was preferential growth of the disc-shaped platelets of zeolite X crystals in one dimension as the synthesis temperature was increased, allowing tailoring of the hierarchical morphology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Hierarchical Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in Six Local Star-forming Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasha, K.; Calzetti, D. [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Adamo, A.; Messa, M. [Dept. of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, H. [Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Hts., NY (United States); Gouliermis, D. A. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Dale, D. A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Fumagalli, M. [Institute for Computational Cosmology and Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Grebel, E. K.; Shabani, F. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Johnson, K. E. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Kahre, L. [Dept. of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States); Kennicutt, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pellerin, A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Geneseo, Geneseo NY (United States); Ryon, J. E.; Ubeda, L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Smith, L. J. [European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thilker, D., E-mail: [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)


    We present a study of the hierarchical clustering of the young stellar clusters in six local (3–15 Mpc) star-forming galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope broadband WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey). We identified 3685 likely clusters and associations, each visually classified by their morphology, and we use the angular two-point correlation function to study the clustering of these stellar systems. We find that the spatial distribution of the young clusters and associations are clustered with respect to each other, forming large, unbound hierarchical star-forming complexes that are in general very young. The strength of the clustering decreases with increasing age of the star clusters and stellar associations, becoming more homogeneously distributed after ∼40–60 Myr and on scales larger than a few hundred parsecs. In all galaxies, the associations exhibit a global behavior that is distinct and more strongly correlated from compact clusters. Thus, populations of clusters are more evolved than associations in terms of their spatial distribution, traveling significantly from their birth site within a few tens of Myr, whereas associations show evidence of disruption occurring very quickly after their formation. The clustering of the stellar systems resembles that of a turbulent interstellar medium that drives the star formation process, correlating the components in unbound star-forming complexes in a hierarchical manner, dispersing shortly after formation, suggestive of a single, continuous mode of star formation across all galaxies.

  8. Periorbital melasma: Hierarchical cluster analysis of clinical features in Asian patients. (United States)

    Jung, Y S; Bae, J M; Kim, B J; Kang, J-S; Cho, S B


    Studies have shown melasma lesions to be distributed across the face in centrofacial, malar, and mandibular patterns. Meanwhile, however, melasma lesions of the periorbital area have yet to be thoroughly described. We analyzed normal and ultraviolet light-exposed photographs of patients with melasma. The periorbital melasma lesions were measured according to anatomical reference points and a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed. The periorbital melasma lesions showed clinical features of fine and homogenous melasma pigmentation, involving both the upper and lower eyelids that extended to other anatomical sites with a darker and coarser appearance. The hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that patients with periorbital melasma can be categorized into two clusters according to the surface anatomy of the face. Significant differences between cluster 1 and cluster 2 were found in lateral distance and inferolateral distance, but not in medial distance and superior distance. Comparing the two clusters, patients in cluster 2 were found to be significantly older and more commonly accompanied by melasma lesions of the temple and medial cheek. Our hierarchical cluster analysis of periorbital melasma lesions demonstrated that Asian patients with periorbital melasma can be categorized into two clusters according to the surface anatomy of the face. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A new mutually reinforcing network node and link ranking algorithm. (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghua; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Padgett, Jamie E


    This study proposes a novel Normalized Wide network Ranking algorithm (NWRank) that has the advantage of ranking nodes and links of a network simultaneously. This algorithm combines the mutual reinforcement feature of Hypertext Induced Topic Selection (HITS) and the weight normalization feature of PageRank. Relative weights are assigned to links based on the degree of the adjacent neighbors and the Betweenness Centrality instead of assigning the same weight to every link as assumed in PageRank. Numerical experiment results show that NWRank performs consistently better than HITS, PageRank, eigenvector centrality, and edge betweenness from the perspective of network connectivity and approximate network flow, which is also supported by comparisons with the expensive N-1 benchmark removal criteria based on network efficiency. Furthermore, it can avoid some problems, such as the Tightly Knit Community effect, which exists in HITS. NWRank provides a new inexpensive way to rank nodes and links of a network, which has practical applications, particularly to prioritize resource allocation for upgrade of hierarchical and distributed networks, as well as to support decision making in the design of networks, where node and link importance depend on a balance of local and global integrity.

  10. A new mutually reinforcing network node and link ranking algorithm (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghua; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Padgett, Jamie E.


    This study proposes a novel Normalized Wide network Ranking algorithm (NWRank) that has the advantage of ranking nodes and links of a network simultaneously. This algorithm combines the mutual reinforcement feature of Hypertext Induced Topic Selection (HITS) and the weight normalization feature of PageRank. Relative weights are assigned to links based on the degree of the adjacent neighbors and the Betweenness Centrality instead of assigning the same weight to every link as assumed in PageRank. Numerical experiment results show that NWRank performs consistently better than HITS, PageRank, eigenvector centrality, and edge betweenness from the perspective of network connectivity and approximate network flow, which is also supported by comparisons with the expensive N-1 benchmark removal criteria based on network efficiency. Furthermore, it can avoid some problems, such as the Tightly Knit Community effect, which exists in HITS. NWRank provides a new inexpensive way to rank nodes and links of a network, which has practical applications, particularly to prioritize resource allocation for upgrade of hierarchical and distributed networks, as well as to support decision making in the design of networks, where node and link importance depend on a balance of local and global integrity.

  11. Probability of failure of veneered glass fiber-reinforced composites and glass-infiltrated alumina with or without zirconia reinforcement. (United States)

    Chong, Kok-Heng; Chai, John


    The probability of failure under flexural load of veneered specimens of a unidirectional glass fiber-reinforced composite (FibreKor/Sculpture), a bidirectional glass fiber-reinforced composite (Vectris/Targis), a glass-infiltrated alumina (In-Ceram Alumina/Vita alpha), and a zirconia-reinforced glass-infiltrated alumina (In-Ceram Zirconia/Vita alpha) was investigated; a metal-ceramic (PG200/Vita omega) system served as a control. Ten uniform beams of the veneered core materials were fabricated for each system and subjected to a three-point bending test. The data were analyzed using the Weibull method. The failure load of specimens at a 10% probability of failure (B10 load) was compared. The mode of failure was analyzed. The B10 load of the systems investigated was not significantly different from that of the metal-ceramic system. FibreKor possessed significantly higher B10 load than Vectris, In-Ceram Alumina, and In-Ceram Zirconia. The B10 strength loads of Vectris, In-Ceram Alumina, and In-Ceram Zirconia were not significantly different from one another. The probability of FibreKor to fracture under a flexural load was significantly lower than that of Vectris, In-Ceram Alumina, or In-Ceram Zirconia.

  12. Optimal reinforcing of reticular structures Optimal reinforcing of reticular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Santiago Mejía


    Full Text Available This article presents an application of Genetic Algorithms (GA and Finite Element Analysis (FEA to solve a structural optimisation problem on reticular plastic structures. Structural optimisation is used to modify the original shape by placing reinforcements at optimum locations. As a result, a reduction in the maximum stress by 14,70% for a structure with a final volume increase of 8,36% was achieved. This procedure solves the structural optimisation problem by adjusting the original mold and thereby avoiding the re-construction of a new one.Este artículo presenta una aplicación de Algoritmos Genéticos (GA y Análisis por Elementos Finitos (FEA a la solución de un problema de optimización estructural en estructuras reticulares plásticas. Optimización estructurales usada para modificar la forma original colocando refuerzos en posiciones óptimas. Como resultado se obtuvo una reducción en el esfuerzo máximo de 14,70% para una estructura cuyo volumen original aumento en 8,36%. Este procedimiento soluciona el problema de optimización estructural ajustando el molde original y evitando la manufactura de un nuevo molde.

  13. [Discussion on twirling reinforcing-reducing method]. (United States)

    Shen, Te-Li


    The essence of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is discussed to provide theoretical guidance for clinical application of reinforcing-reducing method. Through retrospection on historical literature of twirling reinforcing-reducing method, records and explanatory notes are thoroughly explored. Several existing opinions are analyzed and explained for instance twirling method has connection with circulation direction of channels; twirling method is subdivided into right and left, male and female, hand and foot; twriling method is related to quantity of stimulus and operation time; twriling method belongs to spiral motion and so on. As a result, it is found that the key of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is the posture of needle-holding hand that defines three-dimensional motion. If twirling method is subdivided into right and left, male and female, hand and foot and so on, steric effects of lifting-thrusting movement that come along with twirling method could be ignored at the same time. It is that the essence of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is close to the principle of lifting-thrusting reinforcing-reducing method, enriching effect with slow insertion and fast withdrawal of needle while reducing effect with fast insertion and slow withdrawal, which is recorded in Miraculous Pivot: Nine needle and Twelve Yuan. With this principle as guide, manipulation could be avoided to become a mere formality and illusory metaphysics during clinical application of twirling reinforcing-reducing method.

  14. Strong reinforcing selection in a Texas wildflower. (United States)

    Hopkins, Robin; Guerrero, Rafael F; Rausher, Mark D; Kirkpatrick, Mark


    Reinforcement, the process of increased reproductive isolation due to selection against hybrids, is an important mechanism by which natural selection contributes to speciation [1]. Empirical studies suggest that reinforcement has generated reproductive isolation in many taxa (reviewed in [2-4]), and theoretical work shows it can act under broad selective conditions [5-11]. However, the strength of selection driving reinforcement has never been measured in nature. Here, we quantify the strength of reinforcing selection in the Texas wildflower Phlox drummondii using a strategy that weds a population genetic model with field data. Reinforcement in this system is caused by variation in two loci that affect flower color [12]. We quantify sharp clines in flower color where this species comes into contact with its congener, Phlox cuspidata. We develop a spatially explicit population genetic model for these clines based on the known genetics of flower color. We fit our model to the data using likelihood, and we searched parameter space using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. We find that selection on flower color genes generated by reinforcement is exceptionally strong. Our findings demonstrate that natural selection can play a decisive role in the evolution of reproductive isolation through the process of reinforcement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metallic Glasses as Potential Reinforcements in Al and Mg Matrices: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jayalakshmi


    Full Text Available Development of metal matrix composites (MMCs with metallic glass/amorphous alloy reinforcements is an emerging research field. As reinforcements, metallic glasses with their high strength (up to ~2 GPa and high elastic strain limit (~2% can provide superior mechanical properties. Being metallic in nature, the glassy alloys can ensure better interfacial properties when compared to conventional ceramic reinforcements. Given the metastable nature of metallic glasses, lightweight materials such as aluminum (Al and magnesium (Mg with relatively lower melting points are suitable matrix materials. Synthesis of these advanced composites is a challenge as selection of processing method and appropriate reinforcement type (which does not allow devitrification of the metallic glass during processing is important. Non-conventional techniques such as high frequency induction sintering, bidirectional microwave sintering, friction stir processing, accumulative roll-bonding, and spark plasma sintering are being explored to produce these novel materials. In this paper, an overview on the synthesis and properties of aluminum and magnesium based composites with glassy reinforcement produced by various unconventional methods is presented. Evaluation of properties of the produced composites indicate: (i retention of amorphous state of the reinforcement after processing; (ii significant improvement in hardness and strength; (iii improvement/retention of ductility; and (iv high wear resistance and low coefficient of friction. Further, a comparative understanding of the properties highlights that the selection of the processing method is important in producing high performance composites.

  16. Flexural Strength of Cold and Heat Cure Acrylic Resins Reinforced with Different Materials. (United States)

    Heidari, Bijan; Firouz, Farnaz; Izadi, Alireza; Ahmadvand, Shahbaz; Radan, Pegah


    Heat-polymerized acrylic resin has been the most commonly used denture base material for over 60 years. However, the mechanical strength of acrylic resin is not adequate for long-term clinical performance of dentures. Consequently, fracture is a common clinical occurrence, which often develops in the midline of the denture base. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of cold-cure and heat-cure acrylic resins, reinforced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire for denture base repair. Ninety specimens were prepared and allocated to nine groups. Ten specimens were considered as controls, and 80 were divided into 8 experimental groups. In the experimental groups, the specimens were sectioned into two halves from the middle, and were then divided into two main groups: one group was repaired with heat cure acrylic resin, and the other with cold cure acrylic resin. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups: unreinforced, reinforced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire. All specimens were subjected to a 3-point bending test, and the flexural strength was calculated. The group repaired with heat cure acrylic resin and reinforced with glass fiber showed the highest flexural strength; however, the group repaired with cold cure acrylic resin and reinforced with polyethylene fibers had the lowest flexural strength. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with heat cure and cold cure acrylic resins without reinforcement. Repairing denture base with heat cure acrylic resin, reinforced with glass fibers increases the flexural strength of denture base.

  17. Determination of tensile forces to enhance the supply stability of reinforced fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Woo; Lee, Jae Wook; Jang, Jin Seok; Jeong, Myeong Sik; Oh, Joo Young; Kang, Hoon; Kang, Ji Heon [Daegyeong Regional Division, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Ryul [Agency for Defense Development, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Wan Suk [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    The manufacturing process of long fiber thermoplastic is initiated by supplying reinforced fiber wound in a spool dispenser. If problems such as tangling or kinking occur in the apparatus used for supplying the reinforced fiber in the long-fiber thermoplastic direct process, the productivity of the long-fiber thermoplastic decreases. Therefore, it is important to enhance the supply stability of reinforced fiber. In general, the increase in supply stability can be achieved by maintaining a steady balloon shape that is controlled by the unwinding velocity or tensile force of the reinforced fiber. In this research, the range of suitable tensile force was determined under the assumption that the unwinding velocity remained constant. The reinforced fiber was assumed to be inextensible, homogeneous, and isotropic and to have uniform density. The transient-state unwinding equation of motion to analyze the unwinding motion of reinforced fiber can be derived by using Hamilton’s principle for an open system in which mass can change within a control volume. In the process of solving the transient-state unwinding equation of motion, the exact two-point boundary conditions are adopted for each time step.

  18. Near Surface Mounted Composites for Flexural Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Akter Hosen


    Full Text Available Existing structural components require strengthening after a certain period of time due to increases in service loads, errors in design, mechanical damage, and the need to extend the service period. Externally-bonded reinforcement (EBR and near-surface mounted (NSM reinforcement are two preferred strengthening approach. This paper presents a NSM technique incorporating NSM composites, namely steel and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP bars, as reinforcement. Experimental and analytical studies carried out to explore the performance of reinforced concrete (RC members strengthened with the NSM composites. Analytical models were developed in predicting the maximum crack spacing and width, concrete cover separation failure loads, and deflection. A four-point bending test was applied on beams strengthened with different types and ratios of NSM reinforcement. The failure characteristics, yield, and ultimate capacities, deflection, strain, and cracking behavior of the beams were evaluated based on the experimental output. The test results indicate an increase in the cracking load of 69% and an increase in the ultimate load of 92% compared with the control beam. The predicted result from the analytical model shows good agreement with the experimental result, which ensures the competent implementation of the present NSM-steel and CFRP technique.

  19. Replacement of minimum steel bar reinforcement with steel fibres in structural concrete members (United States)

    Junker, F.; Holschemacher, K.; Müller, T.; Kieslich, H.


    Using lightweight concrete enables a decrease in dead load and thermal conductivity in the case of the manufacturing of structural concrete members. With the addition of steel fibres in concrete, its properties are altered from brittle to ductile, so that the use of additional minimum reinforcement for securing ductility and crack control can be avoided. This study is aimed at investigating the possibility of replacing conventional minimum steel bar reinforcement with steel fibre reinforcement in lightweight aggregate concrete under flexural loading. Therefore, six full-scaled beams with two different lightweight aggregate concretes (LWAC) (oven-dry densities of beam with traditional steel bars, a beam with steel fibres and a beam with a combination of steel fibre reinforcement and reduced steel bar reinforcement were produced. The cracking behaviour of the lightweight concrete beams was studied in a four-point bending test. The results of this study show that it is possible to replace a high amount of the conventional mesh or bar reinforcement with steel fibres.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich


    Full Text Available The authors demonstrate that the foam concrete performance can be improved by dispersed reinforcement, including methods that involve basalt fibres. They address the results of the foam concrete modeling technology and assess the importance of technology-related parameters. Reinforcement efficiency criteria are also provided in the article. Dispersed reinforcement improves the plasticity of the concrete mix and reduces the settlement crack formation rate. Conventional reinforcement that involves metal laths and rods demonstrates its limited application in the production of concrete used for thermal insulation and structural purposes. Dispersed reinforcement is preferable. This technology contemplates the infusion of fibres into porous mixes. Metal, polymeric, basalt and glass fibres are used as reinforcing components. It has been identified that products reinforced by polypropylene fibres demonstrate substantial abradability and deformability rates even under the influence of minor tensile stresses due to the low adhesion strength of polypropylene in the cement matrix. The objective of the research was to develop the type of polypropylene of D500 grade that would demonstrate the operating properties similar to those of Hebel and Ytong polypropylenes. Dispersed reinforcement was performed by the basalt fibre. This project contemplates an autoclave-free technology to optimize the consumption of electricity. Dispersed reinforcement is aimed at the reduction of the block settlement in the course of hardening at early stages of their operation, the improvement of their strength and other operating properties. Reduction in the humidity rate of the mix is based on the plasticizing properties of fibres, as well as the application of the dry mineralization method. Selection of optimal parameters of the process-related technology was performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 Software, developed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. The authors also

  1. Effect of corrosion on the fatigue service-life on steel and reinforced concrete beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, R.P.; van Breugel, K.; Koenders, E.A.B.


    Chloride-induced corrosion is a point of big concern in reinforced concrete (RC) structures. To monitor the actual health and to predict the remaining service-life of structures, it is important to understand the structural behaviour and the failure mechanism of structures exposed to chlorides under

  2. Determinants of Human Fixed-Interval Performance Following Varied Exposure to Reinforcement Schedules (United States)

    Torgrud, Laine J.; Holborn, Stephen W.; Zak, Robert D.


    Undergraduates given accurate instructions pressed keys for token points under either a variety of reinforcement schedules (variety training) or under a single schedule. Response rates on a fixed-interval (FI) test schedule then were assessed. Experiment 1 compared variety training inclusive of FI-optimal rates (functional) to training excluding…

  3. Fibre reinforced concrete in flexure and single fibre pull-out test: a correlation (United States)

    Manca, M.; Ciancio, D.; Dight, P.


    The aim of the present work is to assess whether a single fibre pull-out test can be related to the behaviour of multiple fibres in fibre reinforced concrete under bending condition. A simple model based on the stress block theory is described and compared with experimental results on three point bending tests with aligned fibres.

  4. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornberg, J. G.


    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  5. Shear reinforced beams in autoclaved aerated concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelius, Thomas


    combinations of reinforcement and for variable slenderness ratios. Theoretical approaches will be evaluated and compared with the test results of several test series. The load bearing capacity of shear reinforced aircrete is highly dependent on the anchorage and bond behaviour of the shear reinforcement......Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different...

  6. Fatigue Performance of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jun, Zhang; Stang, Henrik


    The objective of the present study is to obtain basic data of fibre reinforced concrete under fatigue load and to set up a theoretical model based on micromechanics. In this study, the bridging stress in fiber reinforced concrete under cyclic tensile load was investigted in details. The damage...... mechanism of the interface between fiber and matrix was proposed and a rational model given. Finally, the response of a steel fiber reinforced concrete beam under fatigue loading was predicted based on this model and compared with experimental results....

  7. Polymer reinforcement of cement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamy, R.N.


    In the last couple of decades several cement- and concrete-based composites have come into prominence. Of these, cement-polymer composites, like cement-fibre composites, have been recognised as very promising, and considerable research and development on their properties, fabrication methods and application are in progress. Of the three types of concrete materials which incorporate polymers to form composites, polymer impregnated concrete forms a major development in which hardened concrete is impregnated with a liquid monomer which is subsequently polymerized to form a rigid polymer network in the pores of the parent material. In this first part of the extensive review of the polymer reinforcement of cement systems, the process technology of the various monomer impregnation techniques and the properties of the impregnated composite are assessed critically. It is shown that the high durability and superior performance of polymer impregnated concrete can provide an economic and competitive alternative in in situ strengthening, and in other areas where conventional concrete can only at best provide adequate performance. The review includes a section on radiation-induced polymerization. (author)

  8. Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    Hudson, Jared L.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan


    Elastomers are reinforced with functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) giving them high-breaking strain levels and low densities. Cross-linked elastomers are prepared using amine-terminated, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), with an average molecular weight of 5,000 daltons, and a functionalized SWNT. Cross-link densities, estimated on the basis of swelling data in toluene (a dispersing solvent) indicated that the polymer underwent cross-linking at the ends of the chains. This thermally initiated cross-linking was found to occur only in the presence of the aryl alcohol functionalized SWNTs. The cross-link could have been via a hydrogen-bonding mechanism between the amine and the free hydroxyl group, or via attack of the amine on the ester linage to form an amide. Tensile properties examined at room temperature indicate a three-fold increase in the tensile modulus of the elastomer, with rupture and failure of the elastomer occurring at a strain of 6.5.

  9. A novel Bayesian hierarchical model for road safety hotspot prediction. (United States)

    Fawcett, Lee; Thorpe, Neil; Matthews, Joseph; Kremer, Karsten


    In this paper, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for predicting accident counts in future years at sites within a pool of potential road safety hotspots. The aim is to inform road safety practitioners of the location of likely future hotspots to enable a proactive, rather than reactive, approach to road safety scheme implementation. A feature of our model is the ability to rank sites according to their potential to exceed, in some future time period, a threshold accident count which may be used as a criterion for scheme implementation. Our model specification enables the classical empirical Bayes formulation - commonly used in before-and-after studies, wherein accident counts from a single before period are used to estimate counterfactual counts in the after period - to be extended to incorporate counts from multiple time periods. This allows site-specific variations in historical accident counts (e.g. locally-observed trends) to offset estimates of safety generated by a global accident prediction model (APM), which itself is used to help account for the effects of global trend and regression-to-mean (RTM). The Bayesian posterior predictive distribution is exploited to formulate predictions and to properly quantify our uncertainty in these predictions. The main contributions of our model include (i) the ability to allow accident counts from multiple time-points to inform predictions, with counts in more recent years lending more weight to predictions than counts from time-points further in the past; (ii) where appropriate, the ability to offset global estimates of trend by variations in accident counts observed locally, at a site-specific level; and (iii) the ability to account for unknown/unobserved site-specific factors which may affect accident counts. We illustrate our model with an application to accident counts at 734 potential hotspots in the German city of Halle; we also propose some simple diagnostics to validate the predictive capability of our

  10. Hierarchical Sets: Analyzing Pangenome Structure through Scalable Set Visualizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Lin


    information to increase in knowledge. As the pangenome data structure is essentially a collection of sets we explore the potential for scalable set visualization as a tool for pangenome analysis. We present a new hierarchical clustering algorithm based on set arithmetics that optimizes the intersection sizes...... not correspond with the hierarchy, can be visualized using hierarchical edge bundles. When applied to pangenome data this plot shows putative horizontal gene transfers between the genomes and can highlight relationships between genomes that is not represented by the hierarchy.We illustrate the utility...... of hierarchical sets by applying it to a pangenome based on 113 Escherichia and Shigella genomes and find it provides a powerful addition to pangenome analysis. The described clustering algorithm and visualizations are implemented in the hierarchicalSets R package available from CRAN (https://cran.r-project...

  11. Facile synthesis and photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide hierarchical microcrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinjiang


    ZnO microcrystals with hierarchical structure have been synthesized by a simple solvothermal approach. The microcrystals were studied by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Research on the formation mechanism of the hierarchical microstructure shows that the coordination solvent and precursor concentration have considerable influence on the size and morphology of the microstructures. A possible formation mechanism of the hierarchical structure was suggested. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of the ZnO microcrystals was studied by treating low concentration Rhodamine B (RhB) solution under UV light, and research results show the hierarchical microstructures of ZnO display high catalytic activity in photocatalysis, the catalysis process follows first-order reaction kinetics, and the apparent rate constant k = 0.03195 min-1.

  12. Bayesian disease mapping: hierarchical modeling in spatial epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawson, Andrew


    .... Exploring these new developments, Bayesian Disease Mapping: Hierarchical Modeling in Spatial Epidemiology, Second Edition provides an up-to-date, cohesive account of the full range of Bayesian disease mapping methods and applications...

  13. Tree Representations: Graphics Libraries for Displaying Hierarchical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Wilhelm


    Full Text Available Tree representations can be useful for presenting hierarchical data on the screen. In this article I’ll briefly describe building trees using the Dojo, Yahoo User Interface, Java Server Faces, and Google Web Toolkit libraries.

  14. Improving hierarchical clustering of genotypic data via principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odong, T.L.; Heerwaarden, van J.; Hintum, van T.J.L.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Jansen, J.


    Understanding the genetic structure of germplasm collections is a prerequisite for effective and efficient use of crop genetic resources in genebanks. Currently, hierarchical clustering techniques are most popular for describing genetic structure in germplasm collections. Traditionally performed

  15. A Hierarchical Clustering Methodology for the Estimation of Toxicity (United States)

    A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) methodology based on hierarchical clustering was developed to predict toxicological endpoints. This methodology utilizes Ward's method to divide a training set into a series of structurally similar clusters. The structural sim...

  16. What are hierarchical models and how do we analyze them? (United States)

    Royle, Andy


    In this chapter we provide a basic definition of hierarchical models and introduce the two canonical hierarchical models in this book: site occupancy and N-mixture models. The former is a hierarchical extension of logistic regression and the latter is a hierarchical extension of Poisson regression. We introduce basic concepts of probability modeling and statistical inference including likelihood and Bayesian perspectives. We go through the mechanics of maximizing the likelihood and characterizing the posterior distribution by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. We give a general perspective on topics such as model selection and assessment of model fit, although we demonstrate these topics in practice in later chapters (especially Chapters 5, 6, 7, and 10 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 10)

  17. Object recognition with hierarchical discriminant saliency networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhyoung eHan


    Full Text Available The benefits of integrating attention and object recognition are investigated. While attention is frequently modeled as pre-processor for recognition, we investigate the hypothesis that attention is an intrinsic component of recognition and vice-versa. This hypothesis is tested with a recognitionmodel, the hierarchical discriminant saliency network (HDSN, whose layers are top-down saliency detectors, tuned for a visual class according to the principles of discriminant saliency. The HDSN has two possible implementations. In a biologically plausible implementation, all layers comply with the standard neurophysiological model of visual cortex, with sub-layers of simple and complex units that implement a combination of filtering, divisive normalization, pooling, and non-linearities. In a neuralnetwork implementation, all layers are convolutional and implement acombination of filtering, rectification, and pooling. The rectificationis performed with a parametric extension of the now popular rectified linearunits (ReLUs, whose parameters can be tuned for the detection of targetobject classes. This enables a number of functional enhancementsover neural network models that lack a connection to saliency, including optimal feature denoising mechanisms for recognition, modulation ofsaliency responses by the discriminant power of the underlying features,and the ability to detect both feature presence and absence.In either implementation, each layer has a precise statistical interpretation, and all parameters are tuned by statistical learning. Each saliency detection layer learns more discriminant saliency templates than its predecessors and higher layers have larger pooling fields. This enables the HDSN to simultaneously achieve high selectivity totarget object classes and invariance. The resulting performance demonstrates benefits for all the functional enhancements of the HDSN.

  18. A hierarchical stochastic model for bistable perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Albert


    Full Text Available Viewing of ambiguous stimuli can lead to bistable perception alternating between the possible percepts. During continuous presentation of ambiguous stimuli, percept changes occur as single events, whereas during intermittent presentation of ambiguous stimuli, percept changes occur at more or less regular intervals either as single events or bursts. Response patterns can be highly variable and have been reported to show systematic differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Existing models of bistable perception often use detailed assumptions and large parameter sets which make parameter estimation challenging. Here we propose a parsimonious stochastic model that provides a link between empirical data analysis of the observed response patterns and detailed models of underlying neuronal processes. Firstly, we use a Hidden Markov Model (HMM for the times between percept changes, which assumes one single state in continuous presentation and a stable and an unstable state in intermittent presentation. The HMM captures the observed differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, but remains descriptive. Therefore, we secondly propose a hierarchical Brownian model (HBM, which produces similar response patterns but also provides a relation to potential underlying mechanisms. The main idea is that neuronal activity is described as an activity difference between two competing neuronal populations reflected in Brownian motions with drift. This differential activity generates switching between the two conflicting percepts and between stable and unstable states with similar mechanisms on different neuronal levels. With only a small number of parameters, the HBM can be fitted closely to a high variety of response patterns and captures group differences between healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. At the same time, it provides a link to mechanistic models of bistable perception, linking the group

  19. A hierarchical stochastic model for bistable perception. (United States)

    Albert, Stefan; Schmack, Katharina; Sterzer, Philipp; Schneider, Gaby


    Viewing of ambiguous stimuli can lead to bistable perception alternating between the possible percepts. During continuous presentation of ambiguous stimuli, percept changes occur as single events, whereas during intermittent presentation of ambiguous stimuli, percept changes occur at more or less regular intervals either as single events or bursts. Response patterns can be highly variable and have been reported to show systematic differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Existing models of bistable perception often use detailed assumptions and large parameter sets which make parameter estimation challenging. Here we propose a parsimonious stochastic model that provides a link between empirical data analysis of the observed response patterns and detailed models of underlying neuronal processes. Firstly, we use a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for the times between percept changes, which assumes one single state in continuous presentation and a stable and an unstable state in intermittent presentation. The HMM captures the observed differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, but remains descriptive. Therefore, we secondly propose a hierarchical Brownian model (HBM), which produces similar response patterns but also provides a relation to potential underlying mechanisms. The main idea is that neuronal activity is described as an activity difference between two competing neuronal populations reflected in Brownian motions with drift. This differential activity generates switching between the two conflicting percepts and between stable and unstable states with similar mechanisms on different neuronal levels. With only a small number of parameters, the HBM can be fitted closely to a high variety of response patterns and captures group differences between healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. At the same time, it provides a link to mechanistic models of bistable perception, linking the group differences to

  20. Hierarchical morphological segmentation for image sequence coding. (United States)

    Salembier, P; Pardas, M


    This paper deals with a hierarchical morphological segmentation algorithm for image sequence coding. Mathematical morphology is very attractive for this purpose because it efficiently deals with geometrical features such as size, shape, contrast, or connectivity that can be considered as segmentation-oriented features. The algorithm follows a top-down procedure. It first takes into account the global information and produces a coarse segmentation, that is, with a small number of regions. Then, the segmentation quality is improved by introducing regions corresponding to more local information. The algorithm, considering sequences as being functions on a 3-D space, directly segments 3-D regions. A 3-D approach is used to get a segmentation that is stable in time and to directly solve the region correspondence problem. Each segmentation stage relies on four basic steps: simplification, marker extraction, decision, and quality estimation. The simplification removes information from the sequence to make it easier to segment. Morphological filters based on partial reconstruction are proven to be very efficient for this purpose, especially in the case of sequences. The marker extraction identifies the presence of homogeneous 3-D regions. It is based on constrained flat region labeling and morphological contrast extraction. The goal of the decision is to precisely locate the contours of regions detected by the marker extraction. This decision is performed by a modified watershed algorithm. Finally, the quality estimation concentrates on the coding residue, all the information about the 3-D regions that have not been properly segmented and therefore coded. The procedure allows the introduction of the texture and contour coding schemes within the segmentation algorithm. The coding residue is transmitted to the next segmentation stage to improve the segmentation and coding quality. Finally, segmentation and coding examples are presented to show the validity and interest of

  1. Topographical length scales of hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhillon, P.K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Nangal Road, Rupnagar, Punjab 140001 (India); Brown, P.S.; Bain, C.D.; Badyal, J.P.S. [Department of Chemistry, Science Laboratories, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, England (United Kingdom); Sarkar, S., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Nangal Road, Rupnagar, Punjab 140001 (India)


    Highlights: • Hydrophobic CF{sub 4} plasma fluorinated polybutadiene surfaces has been characterised using AFM. • Micro, Nano, and Micro + Nano topographies generated by altering plasma power and duration. • Dynamic scaling theory and FFT analysis used to characterize these surfaces quantitatively. • Roughnesses are different for different length scales of the surfaces considered. • Highest local roughness obtained from scaling analysis for shorter length scales of about 500 nm explains the superhydrophobicity for the Micro + Nano surface. - Abstract: The morphology of hydrophobic CF{sub 4} plasma fluorinated polybutadiene surfaces has been characterised using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Judicious choice of the plasma power and exposure duration leads to formation of three different surface morphologies (Micro, Nano, and Micro + Nano). Scaling theory analysis shows that for all three surface topographies, there is an initial increase in roughness with length scale followed by a levelling-off to a saturation level. At length scales around 500 nm, it is found that the roughness is very similar for all three types of surfaces, and the saturation roughness value for the Micro + Nano morphology is found to be intermediate between those for the Micro and Nano surfaces. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis has shown that the Micro + Nano topography comprises a hierarchical superposition of Micro and Nano morphologies. Furthermore, the Micro + Nano surfaces display the highest local roughness (roughness exponent α = 0.42 for length scales shorter than ∼500 nm), which helps to explain their superhydrophobic behaviour (large water contact angle (>170°) and low hysteresis (<1°))

  2. Alligator osteoderms: Mechanical behavior and hierarchical structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Irene H. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Yang, Wen, E-mail: [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Meyers, Marc A. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Departments of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)


    Osteoderms are bony scutes embedded underneath the dermal layers of the skin acting as a protection of the alligator (Archosauria: Crocodylia) internal organs and tissues. Additionally, these scutes function as an aid in temperature regulation. The scutes are inter-linked by fibrous connective tissue. They have properties similar to bone and thus have the necessary toughness to provide protection against predators. The scutes consist of hydroxyapatite and have a porosity of approximately 12%. They have a disc-like morphology with a ridge along the middle of the plate, called the keel; the outer perimeter of the disc has depressions, grooves, and jagged edges which anchor the collagen and act as sutures. Computerized tomography reveals the pattern of elongated pores, which emanate from the keel in a radial pattern. Micro-indentation measurements along the cross-section show a zigzag behavior due to the porosity. Compression results indicate that the axial direction is the strongest (UTS ∼ 67 MPa) and toughest (11 MJ/m{sup 3}); this is the orientation in which they undergo the largest external compression forces from predator teeth. Toughening mechanisms are identified through observation of the damage progression and interpreted in mechanistic terms. They are: flattening of pores, microcrack opening, and microcrack growth and coalescence. Collagen plays an essential role in toughening and plasticity by providing bridges that impede the opening of the cracks and prevent their growth. - Highlights: • We characterized the hierarchical structure of alligator scute. • The anisotropic mechanical behavior of alligator scute was studied. • Toughening mechanisms were identified at the micro- and nano-levels.

  3. Hierarchical architectures TiO{sub 2}: Pollen-inducted synthesis, remarkable crystalline-phase stability, tunable size, and reused photo-catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Lingling; Gao, Lishuang [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Yang, Xiaohui [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Shijiazhuang University, Shijiazhuang 050801 (China); Song, Xiuqin, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthetic method is much milder and simpler than that of conventional methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained hierarchical TiO{sub 2} shows three interesting hierarchical morphology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The products have tunable crystal phase structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pure phase of anatase can be retained after being annealed at 900 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The product exhibits higher and reused photo-catalytic activity. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} with hierarchical architectures, tunable crystalline phase and thermal stability is successfully fabricated on a large scale through a facile hydrolysis process of TiCl{sub 4} combining with inducing of pollen. The structure of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} is characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectra, and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results indicate that different phases (anatase, rutile or mixed crystallite) of TiO{sub 2} can be synthesized by controlling the experimental conditions. The pure phase of rutile or anatase can be obtained at 100 Degree-Sign C, while the pure phase of anatase can be retained after being annealed at 900 Degree-Sign C. The hierarchical structures TiO{sub 2} are constitute through self-assembly of nanoparticles or nanorods TiO{sub 2}, which exhibit high and reused photo-catalytic properties for degradation of methylene blue.

  4. The Revised Hierarchical Model: A critical review and assessment


    Kroll, Judith F.; van Hell, Janet G.; Tokowicz, Natasha; Green, David W.


    Brysbaert and Duyck (2009) suggest that it is time to abandon the Revised Hierarchical Model (Kroll and Stewart, 1994) in favor of connectionist models such as BIA+ (Dijkstra and Van Heuven, 2002) that more accurately account for the recent evidence on nonselective access in bilingual word recognition. In this brief response, we first review the history of the Revised Hierarchical Model (RHM), consider the set of issues that it was proposed to address, and then evaluate the evidence that supp...

  5. A Formal, Hierarchical Design and Validation Methodology for VLSI


    Davie, Bruce S.


    The high cost of fabricating VLSI circuits requires that they be validated, that is, shown to function correctly, before manufacture. The cost of design errors can be kept to a minimum if such validation occurs as early as possible; this is achieved by integrating validation into a hierarchical design procedure. In this thesis, a hierarchical approach to design, in which validation is performed between each pair of adjacent levels in the hierarchy, is developed. In order to ...

  6. Hierarchical Sliding Mode Algorithm for Athlete Robot Walking


    Van Dong Hai Nguyen; Xuan-Dung Huynh; Minh-Tam Nguyen; Ionel Cristian Vladu; Mircea Ivanescu


    Dynamic equations and the control law for a class of robots with elastic underactuated MIMO system of legs, athlete Robot, are discussed in this paper. The dynamic equations are determined by Euler-Lagrange method. A new method based on hierarchical sliding mode for controlling postures is also introduced. Genetic algorithm is applied to design the oscillator for robot motion. Then, a hierarchical sliding mode controller is implemented to control basic posture of athlete robot stepping. Succe...

  7. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with hierarchical structures. (United States)

    Lee, Eunyoung; Lee, Kun-Hong


    Hierarchical structures were fabricated on the surfaces of SUS304 plates using a one-step process of direct microwave irradiation under a carbon dioxide atmosphere. The surface nanostructures were composed of chrome-doped hematite single crystals. Superhydrophobic surfaces with a water contact angle up to 169° were obtained by chemical modification of the hierarchical structures. The samples maintained superhydrophobicity under NaCl solution up to 2 weeks.

  8. Operational Maneuver: Creator of the Decisive Point, (United States)


    they were Thirty thousand men, among them 2,000 cavalry, together with 60 guns and 40 standards have fallen Into the hands of the victors...Since the...Dyle Plan was reinforced by the Menchelen Incident in which a copy of Plan Yellow fell into Belgian hands and was passed to the French. This incident...linked to the concept of the decisive point, this list may not be complete. There may be other factors such as risk taking, surprise and strenght against

  9. Dynamic rupture analysis of reinforced concrete shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebora, B.; Zimmermann, Th.; Wolf, J.P.


    Extreme dynamic loading conditions often require the rupture analysis of reinforced and prestressed-concrete structures. The study presented in this paper extends a method of analysis of dynamic loading conditions which has proven efficient for short-time loads. Another aim is to adapt the method to thin-walled structures. It is not sufficient to work only with plastic rupture and yield surfaces locally which are compared to the elastic distribution of the stress resultants; it is essential to account for the redistribution of the latter. The method proposed consists of discretizing the structure into isoparametric three-dimensional elements with 20 nodes for the concrete and one-dimensional bar elements with three nodes for the steel. The latter can also be handled with a 'smeared' two-dimensional membrane element. In compression a three-dimensional non-linear elastic constitutive law is introduced for the concrete, and a triaxial failure surface expressed in the stress invariants is used, determining cracking and crushing. Two- and three-dimensional cracking surfaces in which no components of stress are transmitted are accounted for. The possibility exists that, during the history of loading, cracks can close up again. For steel, a yield criterion is selected. The non-linear analysis is based on the concept of initial stress. Residual loads are calculated using information in Gauss integration points. The ultimate load is reached when the algorithm does not converge. The corresponding failure modes can be interpreted as those for which a state of equilibrium is no longer possible. The equations of motion are discretized in time, using an extension of the linear acceleration method. (Auth.)

  10. Oxidation of nano-reinforced polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Castro, G.G.


    Nano-composite materials attract search due to their improvements on barrier properties by incorporating low level of nano-filler of 5%w. Nowadays, organically modified montmorillonite (MMT-O) is the most used filler due to its high aspect ratio which permits stronger clay/polymer interactions. If nano-reinforced materials are highly performing, the ways in which clay presence affects polyolefin durability have not being subject of a rigorous study, thus they are not yet clear. Our goal was to examine unstabilized clay polypropylene and unstabilized clay polyethylene nano composites to get a better comprehension of the clay effects on their thermo-oxidation process under low temperatures. The effects induced by a dual physic-chemical nature of the clay were explored. The problem was tackled from both experimental and theoretical point of views for degradation process not controlled and controlled by oxygen diffusion (homogenous and heterogeneous respectively). It seems that MMT-O speeds up oxidation. This phenomenon was modeled by adding a catalytic reaction between metallic particles initially present in the MMT-O and hydroperoxide groups (main responsible of oxidation). Regarding the oxygen permeability two situations were confronted: for the clay polypropylene system a decrease of 45% of oxygen permeability was measured. On the other hand, no variation was found for the polyethylene case. This effect was attributed to the fact that polyethylene nano-composite reached a blend morphology less developed than those of the polypropylene nano-composite. Kinetics and oxidation products profiles across the sample thickness were simulated for both systems by coupling oxidation reactions with oxygen diffusion equations. For the polyethylene case, the effects induced by oxidation on molar mass and crystalline morphology were also simulated. Finally, based on a structure-property relationship, simulations of mechanic modulus profiles were performed for the heterogeneous

  11. Three Ways to Link Merge with Hierarchical Concept-Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Thornton


    Full Text Available In the Minimalist Program, language competence is seen to stem from a fundamental ability to construct hierarchical structure, an operation dubbed ‘Merge’. This raises the problem of how to view hierarchical concept-combination. This is a conceptual operation which also builds hierarchical structure. We can conceive of a garden that consists of a lawn and a flower-bed, for example, or a salad consisting of lettuce, fennel and rocket, or a crew consisting of a pilot and engineer. In such cases, concepts are put together in a way that makes one the accommodating element with respect to the others taken in combination. The accommodating element becomes the root of a hierarchical unit. Since this unit is itself a concept, the operation is inherently recursive. Does this mean the mind has two independent systems of hierarchical construction? Or is some form of integration more likely? Following a detailed examination of the operations involved, this paper shows there are three main ways in which Merge might be linked to hierarchical concept-combination. Also examined are the architectural implications that arise in each case.

  12. A study on the estimation method of internal stresses caused by the difference of thermal expansion coefficients between concrete and reinforcement at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazu, Tsutomu


    When a reinforced concrete member is exposed to high temperature conditions over 100degC, tensile strain occurs in the concrete and compressive strain occurs in reinforcements due to a difference of thermal expansion coefficients between concrete and reinforcement. Its mechanism is the same as that of restrained stress caused by drying shrinkage of concrete; tensile stress occurs in the concrete because drying shrinkage strain is restrained by reinforcements, but there is a different point that the phenomenon at a high temperature condition includes the change of mechanical properties of concrete and reinforcement. In the study, the phenomenon is measured in the experiments and is clarified quantitatively. Moreover, the estimation method, which is derived from expanding the equation of average strain of reinforcement in the CEB Design Manual, is suggested and is verified by the comparison with the experimental results. (author)

  13. Fiber reinforced polymer bridge decks : [technical summary]. (United States)


    A number of researchers have addressed the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) deck as a replacement solution for deteriorated bridge decks made of traditional materials. The use of new, advanced materials such as FRP is advantageous when the bridg...

  14. Epoxy-based carbon nanotubes reinforced composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani


    Full Text Available developed strategy offering promising results is to reinforce epoxy matrices with nano-sized organic and inorganic particles such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibres (CNFs), nanoclays, metal oxide nanoparticles, etc. and make new materials...

  15. Vegetated Reinforced Soil Slope Streambank Erosion Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sotir, Robbin B; Fischenich, J. C


    ...). The VRSS system is useful for the immediate repair or prevention of deeper failures providing a structurally sound system with soil reinforcement, drainage and erosion control typically on steepened...

  16. Punishment and rate of positive reinforcement1 (United States)

    Holz, William C.


    This experiment investigated the effect of several punishment intensities on two responses maintained by contrasting rates of reinforcement. The responses were concurrently reinforced according to two different variable-interval schedules. Because these schedules were independent of one another and programmed different rates of reinforcement, the two responses occurred at dissimilar rates. When responses were simultaneously suppressed by punishment, both rates were reduced proportionately until suppression was virtually complete. In other words, the per cent suppression resulting from punishment was independent of the rate at which the response was reinforced. Phenomena found in single-response studies were duplicated here. Responding tended to increase both within and between punishment sessions at mild and moderate punishment intensities. Cessation of punishment led to a “compensatory” overshooting beyond the prepunished response rate. PMID:5660709

  17. Corrosion resistant alloys for reinforced concrete [2007 (United States)


    Deterioration of concrete bridges because of reinforcing steel corrosion has been recognized for 4-plus decades as a major technical and economic challenge for the United States. As an option for addressing this problem, renewed interest has focused ...

  18. Corrosion resistant alloys for reinforced concrete [2009 (United States)


    Deterioration of concrete bridges because of reinforcing steel corrosion has been recognized for four-plus decades as a major technical and economic challenge for the United States. As an option for addressing this problem, renewed interest has focus...

  19. Thin fiber and textile reinforced cementitious systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldea, Corina-Maria


    This Special Publication (SP) contains ten papers which provide insight on the topics of state of the art of thin fiber and textile-reinforced cementitious systems both in academia and the industry...

  20. Do Positive Reinforcement Programs Reduce Employee Absenteeism? (United States)

    Schmitz, Loretta M.; Heneman, Herbert G., III


    Although they express some reservations, the authors report that a consistent pattern of evidence from 10 studies suggests that implementation of a positive reinforcement program is accompanied by some reduction in employee absenteeism. (Author/IRT)