WorldWideScience

Sample records for point unknown density

  1. Unknown Vocabulary Density and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh-Chao, Marcella Hu; Nation, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Examines what percentage of coverage of text is needed for unassisted reading for pleasure, where learners are able to read without the interruption of looking up words. Looks at the effect of three densities of unknown vocabulary on two measures of reading comprehension, a multiple-choice test and a cued written recall test. (Author/VWL)

  2. Atmospheric turbulence profiling with unknown power spectral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, Tapio; Kindermann, Stefan; Lehtonen, Jonatan; Ramlau, Ronny

    2018-04-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology in modern ground-based optical telescopes to compensate for the wavefront distortions caused by atmospheric turbulence. One method that allows to retrieve information about the atmosphere from telescope data is so-called SLODAR, where the atmospheric turbulence profile is estimated based on correlation data of Shack–Hartmann wavefront measurements. This approach relies on a layered Kolmogorov turbulence model. In this article, we propose a novel extension of the SLODAR concept by including a general non-Kolmogorov turbulence layer close to the ground with an unknown power spectral density. We prove that the joint estimation problem of the turbulence profile above ground simultaneously with the unknown power spectral density at the ground is ill-posed and propose three numerical reconstruction methods. We demonstrate by numerical simulations that our methods lead to substantial improvements in the turbulence profile reconstruction compared to the standard SLODAR-type approach. Also, our methods can accurately locate local perturbations in non-Kolmogorov power spectral densities.

  3. Bayesian unknown change-point models to investigate immediacy in single case designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Prathiba; Hedges, Larry V

    2017-12-01

    Although immediacy is one of the necessary criteria to show strong evidence of a causal relation in single case designs (SCDs), no inferential statistical tool is currently used to demonstrate it. We propose a Bayesian unknown change-point model to investigate and quantify immediacy in SCD analysis. Unlike visual analysis that considers only 3-5 observations in consecutive phases to investigate immediacy, this model considers all data points. Immediacy is indicated when the posterior distribution of the unknown change-point is narrow around the true value of the change-point. This model can accommodate delayed effects. Monte Carlo simulation for a 2-phase design shows that the posterior standard deviations of the change-points decrease with increase in standardized mean difference between phases and decrease in test length. This method is illustrated with real data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Dose uncertainties associated with a set density override of unknown hip prosthetic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijken, James D; Colyer, Christopher J

    2017-09-01

    The dosimetric uncertainties associated with radiotherapy through hip prostheses while overriding the implant to a set density within the TPS has not yet been reported. In this study, the uncertainty in dose within a PTV resulting from this planning choice was investigated. A set of metallic hip prosthetics (stainless steel, titanium, and two different Co-Cr-Mo alloys) were CT scanned in a water bath. Within the TPS, the prosthetic pieces were overridden to densities between 3 and 10 g/cm 3 and irradiated on a linear accelerator. Measured dose maps were compared to the TPS to determine which density was most appropriate to override each metal. This was shown to be in disagreement with the reported literature values of density which was attributed to the TPS dose calculation algorithm and total mass attenuation coefficient differences in water and metal. The dose difference was then calculated for a set density override of 6 g/cm 3 in the TPS and used to estimate the dose uncertainty beyond the prosthesis. For beams passing through an implant, the dosimetric uncertainty in regions of the PTV may be as high as 10% if the implant composition remains unknown and a set density override is used. These results highlight limitations of such assumptions and the need for careful consideration by radiation oncologist, therapist, and physics staff. © 2017 Adelaide Radiotherapy Centre. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Two-shot point-diffraction interferometer with an unknown phase shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Fuzhong; Liu, Zhen; Bao, Xiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of a modified Mach–Zehnder interferometer, this paper proposes a two-shot point-diffraction interferometer (PDI), by which two π-shifted interferograms are created according to the principle of half-wave loss and are simultaneously captured by a single CCD camera. After an arbitrary unknown phase shift is induced, a second and final shot captures these last two patterns. Then a novel algorithm based on statistical principles is developed to extract the actual phase shift and the wavefront phase from four interferograms. The combination of two required shots and a robust algorithm allows the proposed PDI to be implemented efficiently and accurately. Related simulation and experiments are conducted to prove the correctness of the proposed method

  6. Contact point detection for grasping an unknown object using self-posture changeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Makoto (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Industrial and Systems Engineering); Tanie, Kazuo (Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tsukuba (Japan). Robotics Dept.)

    1994-06-01

    Determining where the fingers of a multi-fingered robot hand touch an object of unknown shape plays an important role in achieving a stable grasp. This paper focuses on a scheme for identifying such contact points. Instead of mounting a distributed tactile sensor all over the finger links, the authors propose an active sensing approach using joint compliance. The proposed scheme is composed of two phases. In the first phase, the approach phase, each finger is extended to its most distal position as it approaches the object. This phase continues until any part of a finger link contacts the object. During the second phase, the detection phase, each finger's posture is strategically changed by sliding the finger over the object while maintaining contact between the object and the finger. Using two selected postures during the detection phase, they can compute an intersecting point that gives an approximate contact point. This paper developed the algorithm and provides results from an experimental implementation of the scheme on a two-fingered robot hand running a joint level compliance controller. The process of changing the posture (or configuration) of the finger while maintaining object-finger contact is called Self-Posture Changeability (SPC). This is an essential part of the detection phase. SPC is possible by using a suitable combination of compliant and position-controlled joints. The posture change is made possible by making small angular displacements at position-controlled joints after part of finger makes contact with the object. This paper also develops sufficient conditions to demonstrate the robustness of the SPC technique to variations in the coefficient of friction. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the basic characteristics of Self-Posture Changing Motions (SPCM's).

  7. Uncertainty contribution on the density of liquids due to unknown sinker temperature in hydrostatic weighing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebl, M.; Zelenka, Z.; Buchner, C.; Pohl, R.; Steindl, D.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the influence of the unknown sinker temperature on the measured density of liquids is evaluated. Generally, due to the intrinsic temperature instability of the heat bath temperature controller, the system will never reach thermal equilibrium but instead will oscillate around a mean temperature. The sinker temperature follows this temperature oscillation with a certain time lag. Since the sinker temperature is not measured directly in a hydrostatic weighing apparatus, the temperature of the sinker, and thus in turn the volume of the sinker, is not known exactly. As a consequence, this leads to uncertainty in the value of the density of the liquid. From an analysis of the volume relaxation of the sinker immersed into a heat bath with time-dependent temperature characteristics, the heat transfer coefficient can be estimated, and thus a characteristic time constant for achieving quasi thermal equilibrium for a hydrostatic weighing apparatus is proposed. Additionally, from a theoretical analysis of the transient behavior of the sinker volume, the systematic deviation of the theoretical to the actual measured liquid density is calculated.

  8. Extremal-point densities of interface fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toroczkai, Z.; Korniss, G.; Das Sarma, S.; Zia, R. K. P.

    2000-01-01

    We introduce and investigate the stochastic dynamics of the density of local extrema (minima and maxima) of nonequilibrium surface fluctuations. We give a number of analytic results for interface fluctuations described by linear Langevin equations, and for on-lattice, solid-on-solid surface-growth models. We show that, in spite of the nonuniversal character of the quantities studied, their behavior against the variation of the microscopic length scales can present generic features, characteristic of the macroscopic observables of the system. The quantities investigated here provide us with tools that give an unorthodox approach to the dynamics of surface morphologies: a statistical analysis from the short-wavelength end of the Fourier decomposition spectrum. In addition to surface-growth applications, our results can be used to solve the asymptotic scalability problem of massively parallel algorithms for discrete-event simulations, which are extensively used in Monte Carlo simulations on parallel architectures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  9. Two-point density correlations of quasicondensates in free expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manz, S.; Bücker, R.; Betz, T.

    2010-01-01

    We measure the two-point density correlation function of freely expanding quasicondensates in the weakly interacting quasi-one-dimensional (1D) regime. While initially suppressed in the trap, density fluctuations emerge gradually during expansion as a result of initial phase fluctuations present ...... with a recent theoretical approach described by Imambekov yields good agreement with our experimental results and shows that density correlations can be used for thermometry of quasicondensates....

  10. Evaluating lidar point densities for effective estimation of aboveground biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Stoker, Jason M.; Vogel, John M.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) was recently established to provide airborne lidar data coverage on a national scale. As part of a broader research effort of the USGS to develop an effective remote sensing-based methodology for the creation of an operational biomass Essential Climate Variable (Biomass ECV) data product, we evaluated the performance of airborne lidar data at various pulse densities against Landsat 8 satellite imagery in estimating above ground biomass for forests and woodlands in a study area in east-central Arizona, U.S. High point density airborne lidar data, were randomly sampled to produce five lidar datasets with reduced densities ranging from 0.5 to 8 point(s)/m2, corresponding to the point density range of 3DEP to provide national lidar coverage over time. Lidar-derived aboveground biomass estimate errors showed an overall decreasing trend as lidar point density increased from 0.5 to 8 points/m2. Landsat 8-based aboveground biomass estimates produced errors larger than the lowest lidar point density of 0.5 point/m2, and therefore Landsat 8 observations alone were ineffective relative to airborne lidar for generating a Biomass ECV product, at least for the forest and woodland vegetation types of the Southwestern U.S. While a national Biomass ECV product with optimal accuracy could potentially be achieved with 3DEP data at 8 points/m2, our results indicate that even lower density lidar data could be sufficient to provide a national Biomass ECV product with accuracies significantly higher than that from Landsat observations alone.

  11. Way-point navigation for a skid-steer vehicle in unknown environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiyi; Das, Arun; Mukherjee, Prasenjit; Waslander, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) allow people to remotely access and perform tasks in dangerous or inconvenient locations more effectively. They have been successfully used for practical applications such as mine detection, sample retrieval, and exploration and mapping. One of the fundamental requirements for the autonomous operation of any vehicle is the capability to traverse its environment safely. To accomplish this, UGVs rely on the data from their on-board sensors to solve the problems of localization, mapping, path planning, and controls. This paper proposes a combined mapping, path planning, and controls solution that will allow a skidsteer UGV to navigate safely through unknown environments and reach a goal location. The mapping algorithm generates 2D maps of the traversable environment, the path planner uses these maps to find kinodynamically feasible paths to the goal, and the tracking controller ensures that the vehicle stays on the generated path during traversal. All of the algorithms are computationally efficient enough to run onboard the robot in real-time, and the proposed solution has been experimentally verified on a custom built skid-steer vehicle allowing it to navigate to desired GPS waypoints through a variety of unknown environments.

  12. Complex saddle points in QCD at finite temperature and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiromichi; Ogilvie, Michael C.; Pangeni, Kamal

    2014-08-01

    The sign problem in QCD at finite temperature and density leads naturally to the consideration of complex saddle points of the action or effective action. The global symmetry CK of the finite-density action, where C is charge conjugation and K is complex conjugation, constrains the eigenvalues of the Polyakov loop operator P at a saddle point in such a way that the action is real at a saddle point, and net color charge is zero. The values of TrFP and TrFP† at the saddle point are real but not identical, indicating the different free energy cost associated with inserting a heavy quark versus an antiquark into the system. At such complex saddle points, the mass matrix associated with Polyakov loops may have complex eigenvalues, reflecting oscillatory behavior in color-charge densities. We illustrate these properties with a simple model which includes the one-loop contribution of gluons and two flavors of massless quarks moving in a constant Polyakov loop background. Confinement-deconfinement effects are modeled phenomenologically via an added potential term depending on the Polyakov loop eigenvalues. For sufficiently large temperature T and quark chemical potential μ, the results obtained reduce to those of perturbation theory at the complex saddle point. These results may be experimentally relevant for the compressed baryonic matter experiment at FAIR.

  13. Separate density and viscosity measurements of unknown liquid using quartz crystal microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Tan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous liquids have a wide range of applications in many fields. Basic physical properties like the density and the viscosity have great impacts on the functionalities of a given ionic liquid. For the millions kinds of existing liquids, only a few have been systematically measured with the density and the viscosity using traditional methods. However, these methods are limited to measure the density and the viscosity of an ionic liquid simultaneously especially in processing micro sample volumes. To meet this challenge, we present a new theoretical model and a novel method to separate density and viscosity measurements with single quartz crystal microbalance (QCM in this work. The agreement of experimental results and theocratical calculations shows that the QCM is capable to measure the density and the viscosity of ionic liquids.

  14. Map generation in unknown environments by AUKF-SLAM using line segment-type and point-type landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihta, Sho; Maeyama, Shoichi; Watanebe, Keigo

    2018-02-01

    Recently, autonomous mobile robots that collect information at disaster sites are being developed. Since it is difficult to obtain maps in advance in disaster sites, the robots being capable of autonomous movement under unknown environments are required. For this objective, the robots have to build maps, as well as the estimation of self-location. This is called a SLAM problem. In particular, AUKF-SLAM which uses corners in the environment as point-type landmarks has been developed as a solution method so far. However, when the robots move in an environment like a corridor consisting of few point-type features, the accuracy of self-location estimated by the landmark is decreased and it causes some distortions in the map. In this research, we propose AUKF-SLAM which uses walls in the environment as a line segment-type landmark. We demonstrate that the robot can generate maps in unknown environment by AUKF-SLAM, using line segment-type and point-type landmarks.

  15. Technology to accelerate pangenomic scanning for unknown point mutations in exonic sequences: cycling temperature capillary electrophoresis (CTCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørheim Jens

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid means to discover and enumerate unknown mutations in the exons of human genes on a pangenomic scale are needed to discover the genes carrying inherited risk for common diseases or the genes in which somatic mutations are required for clonal diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancers. The method of constant denaturing capillary electrophoresis (CDCE permitted sensitive detection and enumeration of unknown point mutations but labor-intensive optimization procedures for each exonic sequence made it impractical for application at a pangenomic scale. Results A variant denaturing capillary electrophoresis protocol, cycling temperature capillary electrophoresis (CTCE, has eliminated the need for the laboratory optimization of separation conditions for each target sequence. Here are reported the separation of wild type mutant homoduplexes from wild type/mutant heteroduplexes for 27 randomly chosen target sequences without any laboratory optimization steps. Calculation of the equilibrium melting map of each target sequence attached to a high melting domain (clamp was sufficient to design the analyte sequence and predict the expected degree of resolution. Conclusion CTCE provides practical means for economical pangenomic detection and enumeration of point mutations in large-scale human case/control cohort studies. We estimate that the combined reagent, instrumentation and labor costs for scanning the ~250,000 exons and splice sites of the ~25,000 human protein-coding genes using automated CTCE instruments in 100 case cohorts of 10,000 individuals each are now less than U.S. $500 million, less than U.S. $500 per person.

  16. Lidar point density analysis: implications for identifying water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worstell, Bruce B.; Poppenga, Sandra K.; Evans, Gayla A.; Prince, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Most airborne topographic light detection and ranging (lidar) systems operate within the near-infrared spectrum. Laser pulses from these systems frequently are absorbed by water and therefore do not generate reflected returns on water bodies in the resulting void regions within the lidar point cloud. Thus, an analysis of lidar voids has implications for identifying water bodies. Data analysis techniques to detect reduced lidar return densities were evaluated for test sites in Blackhawk County, Iowa, and Beltrami County, Minnesota, to delineate contiguous areas that have few or no lidar returns. Results from this study indicated a 5-meter radius moving window with fewer than 23 returns (28 percent of the moving window) was sufficient for delineating void regions. Techniques to provide elevation values for void regions to flatten water features and to force channel flow in the downstream direction also are presented.

  17. Heat Convection at the Density Maximum Point of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Korganci, Nuri

    2018-01-01

    Water exhibits a maximum in density at normal pressure at around 4° degree temperature. This paper demonstrates that during cooling, at around 4 °C, the temperature remains constant for a while because of heat exchange associated with convective currents inside the water. Superficial approach implies it as a new anomaly of water, but actually it…

  18. Itinerant density instability at classical and quantum critical points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yejun; van Wezel, Jasper; Flicker, Felix; Wang, Jiyang; Silevitch, D. M.; Littlewood, P. B.; Rosenbaum, T. F.

    2015-03-01

    Itinerant density waves are model systems for studying quantum critical behavior. In both the model spin- and charge-density-wave systems Cr and NbSe2, it is possible to drive a continuous quantum phase transition with critical pressures below 10 GPa. Using x-ray diffraction techniques, we are able to directly track the evolution of the ordering wave vector Q across the pressure-temperature phase diagram. We find a non-monotonic dependence of Q on pressure. Using a Landau-Ginsburg theoretical framework developed by McMillan for CDWs, we evaluate the importance of the physical terms in driving the formation of ordered states at both the thermal and quantum phase transitions. We find that the itinerant instability is the deciding factor for the emergent order, which is further influenced by the critical fluctuations in both the thermal and quantum limits.

  19. Inverse identification of unknown finite-duration air pollutant release from a point source in urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalets, Ivan V.; Efthimiou, George C.; Andronopoulos, Spyros; Venetsanos, Alexander G.; Argyropoulos, Christos D.; Kakosimos, Konstantinos E.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we present an inverse computational method for the identification of the location, start time, duration and quantity of emitted substance of an unknown air pollution source of finite time duration in an urban environment. We considered a problem of transient pollutant dispersion under stationary meteorological fields, which is a reasonable assumption for the assimilation of available concentration measurements within 1 h from the start of an incident. We optimized the calculation of the source-receptor function by developing a method which requires integrating as many backward adjoint equations as the available measurement stations. This resulted in high numerical efficiency of the method. The source parameters are computed by maximizing the correlation function of the simulated and observed concentrations. The method has been integrated into the CFD code ADREA-HF and it has been tested successfully by performing a series of source inversion runs using the data of 200 individual realizations of puff releases, previously generated in a wind tunnel experiment.

  20. MIMIC: An Innovative Methodology for Determining Mobile Laser Scanning System Point Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Cahalane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how various Mobile Mapping System (MMS laser hardware configurations and operating parameters exercise different influence on point density is important for assessing system performance, which in turn facilitates system design and MMS benchmarking. Point density also influences data processing, as objects that can be recognised using automated algorithms generally require a minimum point density. Although obtaining the necessary point density impacts on hardware costs, survey time and data storage requirements, a method for accurately and rapidly assessing MMS performance is lacking for generic MMSs. We have developed a method for quantifying point clouds collected by an MMS with respect to known objects at specified distances using 3D surface normals, 2D geometric formulae and line drawing algorithms. These algorithms were combined in a system called the Mobile Mapping Point Density Calculator (MIMIC and were validated using point clouds captured by both a single scanner and a dual scanner MMS. Results from MIMIC were promising: when considering the number of scan profiles striking the target, the average error equated to less than 1 point per scan profile. These tests highlight that MIMIC is capable of accurately calculating point density for both single and dual scanner MMSs.

  1. Calculated neutron dose rates and flux densities from implantable californium-252 point and line sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A; Schwartz, B; Windham, J P; Kereiakes, J G

    1976-01-01

    The results of neutron-transport flux-density and dose rate calculations for implantable Californium-252 point and line sources in essentially infinite tissue-equivalent material are presented. The point-source flux densities were obtained from a discrete ordinates calculation, and the point dose rates were established by multiplying the flux densities by their appropriate kerma factors. Line-source dose rates were evaluated by integrating the point dose rates over the length of the line source. Dose-rate data are given within a 20 X 20-cm region from the source center for source lengths of 1.5, 2, and 3 cm. The dose rates established by these calculations showed good agreement with an independent Monte Carlo calculation. Detailed point-source flux-density data as a function of energy and position are also given.

  2. StreamMap: Smooth Dynamic Visualization of High-Density Streaming Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenhui; Baciu, George; Han, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Interactive visualization of streaming points for real-time scatterplots and linear blending of correlation patterns is increasingly becoming the dominant mode of visual analytics for both big data and streaming data from active sensors and broadcasting media. To better visualize and interact with inter-stream patterns, it is generally necessary to smooth out gaps or distortions in the streaming data. Previous approaches either animate the points directly or present a sampled static heat-map. We propose a new approach, called StreamMap, to smoothly blend high-density streaming points and create a visual flow that emphasizes the density pattern distributions. In essence, we present three new contributions for the visualization of high-density streaming points. The first contribution is a density-based method called super kernel density estimation that aggregates streaming points using an adaptive kernel to solve the overlapping problem. The second contribution is a robust density morphing algorithm that generates several smooth intermediate frames for a given pair of frames. The third contribution is a trend representation design that can help convey the flow directions of the streaming points. The experimental results on three datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of StreamMap when dynamic visualization and visual analysis of trend patterns on streaming points are required.

  3. Gulf of Maine - Control Points Used to Validate the Accuracies of the Interpolated Water Density Rasters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature dataset contains the control points used to validate the accuracies of the interpolated water density rasters for the Gulf of Maine. These control...

  4. The finite temperature density matrix and two-point correlations in the antiferromagnetic XXZ chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhmann, Frank; Hasenclever, Nils P.; Seel, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    We derive finite temperature versions of integral formulae for the two-point correlation functions in the antiferromagnetic XXZ chain. The derivation is based on the summation of density matrix elements characterizing a finite chain segment of length m. On this occasion we also supply a proof of the basic integral formula for the density matrix presented in an earlier publication.

  5. Density effects on tokamak edge turbulence and transport with magnetic X-points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Q.; Cohen, R.H.; Nevins, W.M.; Rognlien, T.D.; Ryutov, D.D.; Umansky, M.V.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Bulmer, R.H.; Russell, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Greenwald, M.; Snyder, P.B.; Mahdavi, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Results are presented from the 3D electromagnetic turbulence code BOUT, the 2D transport code UEDGE, and theoretical analysis of boundary turbulence and transport in a real divertor-plasma geometry and its relationship to the density limit. Key results include: (1) a transition of the boundary turbulence from resistive X-point to resistive-ballooning as a critical plasma density is exceeded; (2) formation of an X-point MARFE in 2D UEDGE transport simulations for increasing outboard radial transport as found by BOUT for increasing density; (3) identification of convective transport by localized plasma 'blobs' in the SOL at high density during neutral fueling, and decorrelation of turbulence between the midplane and the divertor leg due to strong X-point magnetic shear; (4) a new divertor-leg instability driven at high plasma beta by a radial tilt of the divertor plate. (author)

  6. Novel automated point collection software facilitates rapid, high-density electroanatomical mapping with multiple catheter types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszek, Leon M; Moon, Boyce; Rozen, Guy; Mahapatra, Srijoy; Mansour, Moussa

    2018-01-01

    Manual, point-by-point electroanatomical mapping requires the operator to directly evaluate each point during map construction. Consequently, point collection can be a slow process. An automated 3D mapping system was developed with the goal of improving key mapping metrics, including map completion time and point density. Automated 3D mapping software that includes morphology and cycle length discrimination functions for surface and intracardiac electrograms was developed. In five swine, electroanatomical maps (EAMs) of all four cardiac chambers were generated in sinus rhythm. Four catheters were used: two different four-pole ablation catheters, a 20-pole circular catheter, and a 64-pole basket catheter. Automated and manual 3D mapping were compared for 12 different catheter-chamber combinations (paired sets of 10 maps for most combinations, for a total of 156 maps). Automated 3D mapping produced more than twofold increase in the number of points per map, as compared with manual 3D mapping (P ≤0.007 for all catheter-chamber combinations tested). Automated 3D mapping also reduced map completion time by an average of 29% (P software described in this study is significantly faster than manual, point-by-point 3D mapping. This resulted in shorter mapping time and higher point density. The morphology discrimination functions effectively excluded ectopic beats during mapping in sinus rhythm and allowed for rapid mapping of intermittent ventricular ectopic beats. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. An Evaluation of the Plant Density Estimator the Point-Centred Quarter Method (PCQM) Using Monte Carlo Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Nabiul Islam; Hijbeek, Renske; Berger, Uta; Koedam, Nico; Grueters, Uwe; Islam, S M Zahirul; Hasan, Md Asadul; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2016-01-01

    In the Point-Centred Quarter Method (PCQM), the mean distance of the first nearest plants in each quadrant of a number of random sample points is converted to plant density. It is a quick method for plant density estimation. In recent publications the estimator equations of simple PCQM (PCQM1) and higher order ones (PCQM2 and PCQM3, which uses the distance of the second and third nearest plants, respectively) show discrepancy. This study attempts to review PCQM estimators in order to find the most accurate equation form. We tested the accuracy of different PCQM equations using Monte Carlo Simulations in simulated (having 'random', 'aggregated' and 'regular' spatial patterns) plant populations and empirical ones. PCQM requires at least 50 sample points to ensure a desired level of accuracy. PCQM with a corrected estimator is more accurate than with a previously published estimator. The published PCQM versions (PCQM1, PCQM2 and PCQM3) show significant differences in accuracy of density estimation, i.e. the higher order PCQM provides higher accuracy. However, the corrected PCQM versions show no significant differences among them as tested in various spatial patterns except in plant assemblages with a strong repulsion (plant competition). If N is number of sample points and R is distance, the corrected estimator of PCQM1 is 4(4N - 1)/(π ∑ R2) but not 12N/(π ∑ R2), of PCQM2 is 4(8N - 1)/(π ∑ R2) but not 28N/(π ∑ R2) and of PCQM3 is 4(12N - 1)/(π ∑ R2) but not 44N/(π ∑ R2) as published. If the spatial pattern of a plant association is random, PCQM1 with a corrected equation estimator and over 50 sample points would be sufficient to provide accurate density estimation. PCQM using just the nearest tree in each quadrant is therefore sufficient, which facilitates sampling of trees, particularly in areas with just a few hundred trees per hectare. PCQM3 provides the best density estimations for all types of plant assemblages including the repulsion process

  8. An Evaluation of the Plant Density Estimator the Point-Centred Quarter Method (PCQM Using Monte Carlo Simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nabiul Islam Khan

    Full Text Available In the Point-Centred Quarter Method (PCQM, the mean distance of the first nearest plants in each quadrant of a number of random sample points is converted to plant density. It is a quick method for plant density estimation. In recent publications the estimator equations of simple PCQM (PCQM1 and higher order ones (PCQM2 and PCQM3, which uses the distance of the second and third nearest plants, respectively show discrepancy. This study attempts to review PCQM estimators in order to find the most accurate equation form. We tested the accuracy of different PCQM equations using Monte Carlo Simulations in simulated (having 'random', 'aggregated' and 'regular' spatial patterns plant populations and empirical ones.PCQM requires at least 50 sample points to ensure a desired level of accuracy. PCQM with a corrected estimator is more accurate than with a previously published estimator. The published PCQM versions (PCQM1, PCQM2 and PCQM3 show significant differences in accuracy of density estimation, i.e. the higher order PCQM provides higher accuracy. However, the corrected PCQM versions show no significant differences among them as tested in various spatial patterns except in plant assemblages with a strong repulsion (plant competition. If N is number of sample points and R is distance, the corrected estimator of PCQM1 is 4(4N - 1/(π ∑ R2 but not 12N/(π ∑ R2, of PCQM2 is 4(8N - 1/(π ∑ R2 but not 28N/(π ∑ R2 and of PCQM3 is 4(12N - 1/(π ∑ R2 but not 44N/(π ∑ R2 as published.If the spatial pattern of a plant association is random, PCQM1 with a corrected equation estimator and over 50 sample points would be sufficient to provide accurate density estimation. PCQM using just the nearest tree in each quadrant is therefore sufficient, which facilitates sampling of trees, particularly in areas with just a few hundred trees per hectare. PCQM3 provides the best density estimations for all types of plant assemblages including the repulsion process

  9. Picture change error in quasirelativistic electron/spin density, Laplacian and bond critical points

    KAUST Repository

    Bučinský, Lukáš

    2014-06-01

    The change of picture of the quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock wave functions is considered for electron/spin densities, the negative Laplacian of electron density and the appropriate bond critical point characteristics from the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). [OsCl5(Hpz)]- and [RuCl5(NO)]2- transition metal complexes are considered. Both, scalar relativistic and spin-orbit effects have been accounted for using the Infinite Order Two Component (IOTC) Hamiltonian. Picture change error (PCE) correction in the electron and spin densities and the Laplacian of electron density are treated analytically. Generally, PCE is found significant only in the core region of the atoms for the electron/spin density as well as Laplacian.©2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of varying dispenser point source density on mating disruption of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lame, Frédérique M; Epstein, David; Gut, Larry J; Goldfarb, Heidi; Miller, James R

    2010-08-01

    Hand-applied dispensers are successfully used in mating disruption programs, but cost of labor to apply these dispensers limits their adoption. Creating hand-applied dispensers that release larger amounts of pheromone and that can be applied at lower densities per hectare could reduce the cost of mating disruption and increase its use. The effect of reducing the number of point sources per hectare while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant on the success of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) mating disruption was investigated with Confuse-OFM, paraffin disk, and Isomate-M Rosso dispensers. For all dispensers, as point source density decreased, numbers of moths captured increased, percentage of orientation disruption to traps decreased, and variability in these measures increased. Decreasing point source density, even while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant is not a viable option for reducing the cost of G. molesta mating disruption with hand-applied dispensers. Puffers (aerosol dispensers) are applied at 2.5-5 dispensers per ha for G. molesta control. However, hand-applied dispensers fail when clumped at such low numbers of release sites. Potential explanations for the success of Puffers and the failure of hand-applied dispensers at very low point source densities are presented. The utility of paraffin disk dispensers as experimental devices also is discussed.

  11. Point Defects in 2D and 3D Nanomaterials: A Density Functional Theory Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, a large number of point defects was studied in both 2D and 3D nanomaterials that are of utmost importance to nanoscience by means of first principles density functional theory calculations. First, we focused on the lead chalcogenide family: PbS, PbSe, and PbTe that are frequently

  12. Neutron density fluctuations in point reactor systems with dichotomic reactivity noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Okitsugu

    1984-01-01

    The exactly solvable stochastic point reactor model systems are analyzed through the stochastic Liouville equation. Three kinds of model systems are treated: (1) linear system without delayed neutrons, (2) linear system with one-group of delayed neutrons, and (3) nonlinear system with direct power feedback. The exact expressions for the fluctuations of neutron density, such as the moments, autocorrelation function and power spectral density, are derived in the case where the colored reactivity noise is described by the dichotomic, or two state, Markov process with arbitrary correlation time and intensity, and the effects of the finite correlation time and intensity of the noise on the neutron density fluctuations are investigated. The influence of presence of delayed neutrons and the effect of nonlinearity of system on the neutron density fluctuations are also elucidated. When the reactivity correlation time is very short, the correlation time has almost no effect on the power spectral density, and the relative fluctuation of neutron density in the stationary state is not affected very much by the presence of delayed neutrons and also by the nonlinearity of system. On the other hand, if the reactivity correlation time is very long, the effect of the reactivity noise on the power spectral density appears at very low frequency, and the presence of delayed neutrons has an effect of reducing the neutron density fluctuations. (author)

  13. Visualization of High-Dimensional Point Clouds Using Their Density Distribution's Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterling, P; Heine, C; Janicke, H; Scheuermann, G; Heyer, G

    2011-11-01

    We present a novel method to visualize multidimensional point clouds. While conventional visualization techniques, like scatterplot matrices or parallel coordinates, have issues with either overplotting of entities or handling many dimensions, we abstract the data using topological methods before presenting it. We assume the input points to be samples of a random variable with a high-dimensional probability distribution which we approximate using kernel density estimates on a suitably reconstructed mesh. From the resulting scalar field we extract the join tree and present it as a topological landscape, a visualization metaphor that utilizes the human capability of understanding natural terrains. In this landscape, dense clusters of points show up as hills. The nesting of hills indicates the nesting of clusters. We augment the landscape with the data points to allow selection and inspection of single points and point sets. We also present optimizations to make our algorithm applicable to large data sets and to allow interactive adaption of our visualization to the kernel window width used in the density estimation.

  14. Crowd Simulations and Determining the Critical Density Point of Emergency Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademipour, Gholamreza; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Anari, Seyed Mohammad Saberi; Sadeghi, Maryam; Ebrahimnejad, Hojjat; Sheikhbardsiri, Hojjat

    2017-12-01

    In modern societies, crowds and mass gatherings are recurrent. A combination of inadequate facilities and inefficient population management can lead to injury and death. Simulating people's behavior in crowds and mass gatherings can assist in the planning and management of gatherings, especially in emergency situations. We aimed to determine the crowd pattern and the critical density point in the grand bazaar of Kerman in Iran. We collected data by use of a census method with a questionnaire. To determine the critical density point, height and weight data were placed in the equation $\\,s\\,{\\equals}\\,\\sqrt {{{L{\\vskip -1.5pt \\,\\,\\asterisk\\,\\,}M} \\over {3600}}} $ and the outer body surface of all the individuals in the bazaar was calculated. The crowd was simulated by use of flow-based modeling. Flow rate was determined by using the equation (flow rate=density * speed). By use of SketchUp Pro software (version 8; Trimble, Sunnyvale, CA), the movement of each person and the general flow rate were simulated in the three-dimensional environment of Kerman bazaar. Our findings showed that the population critical density point in Kerman bazaar would be 6112 people. In an accident, the critical density point in Kerman bazaar would be created in about 1 minute 10 seconds after the event. It seems necessary to identify and provide solutions for reducing the risk of disasters caused by overcrowding in Kerman bazaar. It is suggested that researchers conduct studies to design safe and secure emergency evacuation of Kerman bazaar as well as proper planning for better and faster access of aid squads to this location. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:674-680).

  15. Spatially heterogeneous dynamics investigated via a time-dependent four-point density correlation function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacevic, N.; Starr, F. W.; Schrøder, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Relaxation in supercooled liquids above their glass transition and below the onset temperature of "slow" dynamics involves the correlated motion of neighboring particles. This correlated motion results in the appearance of spatially heterogeneous dynamics or "dynamical heterogeneity." Traditional...... two-point time-dependent density correlation functions, while providing information about the transient "caging" of particles on cooling, are unable to provide sufficiently detailed information about correlated motion and dynamical heterogeneity. Here, we study a four-point, time-dependent density......-q behavior of S4(q,t) provides an estimate of the range of correlated particle motion. We find that xi4(t) has a maximum as a function of time t, and that the value of the maximum of xi4(t) increases steadily from less than one particle diameter to a value exceeding nine particle diameters in the temperature...

  16. Generalized saddle point condition for ignition in a tokamak reactor with temperature and density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitari, O.; Hirose, A.; Skarsgard, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of a generalized ignition contour map, is extended to the realistic case of a plasma with temperature and density profiles in order to study access to ignition in a tokamak reactor. The generalized saddle point is found to lie between the Lawson and ignition conditions. If the height of the operation path with Goldston L-mode scaling is higher than the generalized saddle point, a reactor can reach ignition with this scaling for the case with no confinement degradation effect due to alpha-particle heating. In this sense, the saddle point given in a general form is a new criterion for reaching ignition. Peaking the profiles for the plasma temperature and density can lower the height of the generalized saddle point and help a reactor to reach ignition. With this in mind, the authors can judge whether next-generation tokamaks, such as Compact Ignition Tokamak, Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor, Next European Torus, Fusion Experimental Reactor, International Tokamak Reactor, and AC Tokamak Reactor, can reach ignition with realistic profile parameters and an L-mode scaling law

  17. Electron-density critical points analysis and catastrophe theory to forecast structure instability in periodic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merli, Marcello; Pavese, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    The critical points analysis of electron density, i.e. ρ(x), from ab initio calculations is used in combination with the catastrophe theory to show a correlation between ρ(x) topology and the appearance of instability that may lead to transformations of crystal structures, as a function of pressure/temperature. In particular, this study focuses on the evolution of coalescing non-degenerate critical points, i.e. such that ∇ρ(x c ) = 0 and λ 1 , λ 2 , λ 3 ≠ 0 [λ being the eigenvalues of the Hessian of ρ(x) at x c ], towards degenerate critical points, i.e. ∇ρ(x c ) = 0 and at least one λ equal to zero. The catastrophe theory formalism provides a mathematical tool to model ρ(x) in the neighbourhood of x c and allows one to rationalize the occurrence of instability in terms of electron-density topology and Gibbs energy. The phase/state transitions that TiO 2 (rutile structure), MgO (periclase structure) and Al 2 O 3 (corundum structure) undergo because of pressure and/or temperature are here discussed. An agreement of 3-5% is observed between the theoretical model and experimental pressure/temperature of transformation.

  18. An evaluation of the plant density estimator the point-centred quarter method (PCQM) using monte carlo simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.N.I.; Hijbeek, Renske; Berger, Uta; Koedam, Nico; Grueters, Uwe; Islam, S.M.Z.; Hasan, M.A.; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Point-Centred Quarter Method (PCQM), the mean distance of the first nearest plants in each quadrant of a number of random sample points is converted to plant density. It is a quick method for plant density estimation. In recent publications the estimator equations of simple PCQM

  19. Vacuum energy density fluctuations in Minkowski and Casimir states via smeared quantum fields and point separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nicholas G.; Hu, B. L.

    2000-10-01

    We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that, contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universes, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life ``time machines.'' For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the variance to the mean-squared, calculated from the coincidence limit, is identical to the value of the Casimir case at the same limit for spatial point separation while identical to the value of a hot flat space result with a temporal point separation. We analyze the origin of divergences in the fluctuations of the energy density and discuss choices in formulating a procedure for their removal, thus raising new questions about the uniqueness and even the very meaning of regularization of the energy momentum tensor for quantum fields in curved or even flat spacetimes when spacetime is viewed as having an extended structure.

  20. Lattice constants from semilocal density functionals with zero-point phonon correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pan; Fang, Yuan; Sun, Jianwei; Csonka, Gábor I.; Philipsen, Pier H. T.; Perdew, John P.

    2012-01-01

    In a standard Kohn-Sham density functional calculation, the total energy of a crystal at zero temperature is evaluated for a perfect static lattice of nuclei and minimized with respect to the lattice constant. Sometimes a zero-point vibrational energy, whose anharmonicity expands the minimizing or equilibrium lattice constant, is included in the calculation or (as here) is used to correct the experimental reference value for the lattice constant to that for a static lattice. A simple model for this correction, based on the Debye and Dugdale-MacDonald approximations, requires as input only readily available parameters of the equation of state, plus the experimental Debye temperature. However, particularly because of the rough Dugdale-MacDonald estimation of Grüneisen parameters for diatomic solids, this simple model is found to overestimate the correction by about a factor of two for some solids in diamond and zinc-blende structures. Using the quasiharmonic phonon frequencies calculated from density functional perturbation theory gives a more accurate zero-point anharmonic expansion (ZPAE) correction. However, the error statistics for the lattice constants of various semilocal density functionals for the exchange-correlation energy are little changed by improving the ZPAE correction. The Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for solids and the revised Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (revTPSS) meta-GGA, the latter of which is implemented self-consistently here in the band-structure program BAND and applied to a test set of 58 solids, remain the most accurate of the functionals tested, with MAREs below 0.7% for the lattice constants. The most positive and most negative revTPSS relative errors tend to occur for solids for which full nonlocality (missing from revTPSS) may be important.

  1. A density functional theory based approach for predicting melting points of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihua; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S

    2017-02-01

    Accurate prediction of melting points of ILs is important both from the fundamental point of view and from the practical perspective for screening ILs with low melting points and broadening their utilization in a wider temperature range. In this work, we present an ab initio approach to calculate melting points of ILs with known crystal structures and illustrate its application for a series of 11 ILs containing imidazolium/pyrrolidinium cations and halide/polyatomic fluoro-containing anions. The melting point is determined as a temperature at which the Gibbs free energy of fusion is zero. The Gibbs free energy of fusion can be expressed through the use of the Born-Fajans-Haber cycle via the lattice free energy of forming a solid IL from gaseous phase ions and the sum of the solvation free energies of ions comprising IL. Dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT) involving (semi)local (PBE-D3) and hybrid exchange-correlation (HSE06-D3) functionals is applied to estimate the lattice enthalpy, entropy, and free energy. The ions solvation free energies are calculated with the SMD-generic-IL solvation model at the M06-2X/6-31+G(d) level of theory under standard conditions. The melting points of ILs computed with the HSE06-D3 functional are in good agreement with the experimental data, with a mean absolute error of 30.5 K and a mean relative error of 8.5%. The model is capable of accurately reproducing the trends in melting points upon variation of alkyl substituents in organic cations and replacement one anion by another. The results verify that the lattice energies of ILs containing polyatomic fluoro-containing anions can be approximated reasonably well using the volume-based thermodynamic approach. However, there is no correlation of the computed lattice energies with molecular volume for ILs containing halide anions. Moreover, entropies of solid ILs follow two different linear relationships with molecular volume for halides and polyatomic fluoro

  2. Development of a new densimeter for the combined investigation of dew-point densities and sorption phenomena of fluid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Katharina; Kleinrahm, Reiner; McLinden, Mark O.; Richter, Markus

    2017-12-01

    For the determination of dew-point densities and pressures of fluid mixtures, a new densimeter has been developed. The new apparatus is based on the well-established two-sinker density measurement principle with the additional capability of quantifying sorption effects. In the vicinity of the dew line, such effects cause a change in composition of the gas mixture under study, which can significantly distort accurate density measurements. The new experimental technique enables the accurate measurement of dew-point densities and pressures and the quantification of sorption effects at the same time.

  3. Column Number Density Expressions Through M = 0 and M = 1 Point Source Plumes Along Any Straight Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Providers of payloads carried aboard the International Space Station must conduct analyses to demonstrate that any planned gaseous venting events generate no more than a certain level of material that may interfere with optical measurements from other experiments or payloads located nearby. This requirement is expressed in terms of a maximum column number density (CND). Depending on the level of rarefaction, such venting may be characterized by effusion for low flow rates, or by a sonic distribution at higher levels. Since the relative locations of other sensitive payloads are often unknown because they may refer to future projects, this requirement becomes a search for the maximum CND along any path.In another application, certain astronomical observations make use of CND to estimate light attenuation from a distant star through gaseous plumes, such as the Fermi Bubbles emanating from the vicinity of the black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy, in order to infer the amount of material being expelled via those plumes.This paper presents analytical CND expressions developed for general straight paths based upon a free molecule point source model for steady effusive flow and for a distribution fitted to model flows from a sonic orifice. Among other things, in this Mach number range it is demonstrated that the maximum CND from a distant location occurs along the path parallel to the source plane that intersects the plume axis. For effusive flows this value is exactly twice the CND found along the ray originating from that point of intersection and extending to infinity along the plumes axis. For sonic plumes this ratio is reduced to about 43.

  4. Automated Detection of Geomorphic Features in LiDAR Point Clouds of Various Spatial Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorninger, Peter; Székely, Balázs; Zámolyi, András.; Nothegger, Clemens

    2010-05-01

    considerably varying considerably because of the various base points that were needed to cover the whole landslide. The resulting point spacing is approximately 20 cm. The achievable accuracy was about 10 cm. The airborne data was acquired with mean point densities of 2 points per square-meter. The accuracy of this dataset was about 15 cm. The second testing site is an area of the Leithagebirge in Burgenland, Austria. The data was acquired by an airborne Riegl LMS-Q560 laser scanner mounted on a helicopter. The mean point density was 6-8 points per square with an accuracy better than 10 cm. We applied our processing chain on the datasets individually. First, they were transformed to local reference frames and fine adjustments of the individual scans respectively flight strips were applied. Subsequently, the local regression planes were determined for each point of the point clouds and planar features were extracted by means of the proposed approach. It turned out that even small displacements can be detected if the number of points used for the fit is enough to define a parallel but somewhat displaced plane. Smaller cracks and erosional incisions do not disturb the plane fitting, because mostly they are filtered out as outliers. A comparison of the different campaigns of the Doren site showed exciting matches of the detected geomorphic structures. Although the geomorphic structure of the Leithagebirge differs from the Doren landslide, and the scales of the two studies were also different, reliable results were achieved in both cases. Additionally, the approach turned out to be highly robust against points which were not located on the terrain. Hence, no false positives were determined within the dense vegetation above the terrain, while it was possible to cover the investigated areas completely with reliable planes. In some cases, however, some structures in the tree crowns were also recognized, but these small patches could be very well sorted out from the geomorphically

  5. Effects of LiDAR point density and landscape context on the retrieval of urban forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. K.; Chen, G.; McCarter, J. B.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), as an alternative to conventional optical remote sensing, is being increasingly used to accurately estimate aboveground forest biomass ranging from individual tree to stand levels. Recent advancements in LiDAR technology have resulted in higher point densities and better data accuracies, which however pose challenges to the procurement and processing of LiDAR data for large-area assessments. Reducing point density cuts data acquisition costs and overcome computational challenges for broad-scale forest management. However, how does that impact the accuracy of biomass estimation in an urban environment containing a great level of anthropogenic disturbances? The main goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of LiDAR point density on the biomass estimation of remnant forests in the rapidly urbanizing regions of Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. We used multiple linear regression to establish the statistical relationship between field-measured biomass and predictor variables (PVs) derived from LiDAR point clouds with varying densities. We compared the estimation accuracies between the general Urban Forest models (no discrimination of forest type) and the Forest Type models (evergreen, deciduous, and mixed), which was followed by quantifying the degree to which landscape context influenced biomass estimation. The explained biomass variance of Urban Forest models, adjusted R2, was fairly consistent across the reduced point densities with the highest difference of 11.5% between the 100% and 1% point densities. The combined estimates of Forest Type biomass models outperformed the Urban Forest models using two representative point densities (100% and 40%). The Urban Forest biomass model with development density of 125 m radius produced the highest adjusted R2 (0.83 and 0.82 at 100% and 40% LiDAR point densities, respectively) and the lowest RMSE values, signifying the distance impact of development on biomass estimation. Our evaluation

  6. Detection of Single Tree Stems in Forested Areas from High Density ALS Point Clouds Using 3d Shape Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, N.; Polewski, P.; Yao, W.; Krzystek, P.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is a widespread method for forest mapping and management purposes. While common ALS techniques provide valuable information about the forest canopy and intermediate layers, the point density near the ground may be poor due to dense overstory conditions. The current study highlights a new method for detecting stems of single trees in 3D point clouds obtained from high density ALS with a density of 300 points/m2. Compared to standard ALS data, due to lower flight height (150-200 m) this elevated point density leads to more laser reflections from tree stems. In this work, we propose a three-tiered method which works on the point, segment and object levels. First, for each point we calculate the likelihood that it belongs to a tree stem, derived from the radiometric and geometric features of its neighboring points. In the next step, we construct short stem segments based on high-probability stem points, and classify the segments by considering the distribution of points around them as well as their spatial orientation, which encodes the prior knowledge that trees are mainly vertically aligned due to gravity. Finally, we apply hierarchical clustering on the positively classified segments to obtain point sets corresponding to single stems, and perform ℓ1-based orthogonal distance regression to robustly fit lines through each stem point set. The ℓ1-based method is less sensitive to outliers compared to the least square approaches. From the fitted lines, the planimetric tree positions can then be derived. Experiments were performed on two plots from the Hochficht forest in Oberösterreich region located in Austria.We marked a total of 196 reference stems in the point clouds of both plots by visual interpretation. The evaluation of the automatically detected stems showed a classification precision of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively for Plot 1 and 2, with recall values of 0.7 and 0.67.

  7. Impact of data model and point density on aboveground forest biomass estimation from airborne LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mariano; Saatchi, Sassan; Ferraz, Antonio; Silva, Carlos Alberto; Ustin, Susan; Koltunov, Alexander; Balzter, Heiko

    2017-12-01

    Accurate estimation of aboveground forest biomass (AGB) and its dynamics is of paramount importance in understanding the role of forest in the carbon cycle and the effective implementation of climate change mitigation policies. LiDAR is currently the most accurate technology for AGB estimation. LiDAR metrics can be derived from the 3D point cloud (echo-based) or from the canopy height model (CHM). Different sensors and survey configurations can affect the metrics derived from the LiDAR data. We evaluate the ability of the metrics derived from the echo-based and CHM data models to estimate AGB in three different biomes, as well as the impact of point density on the metrics derived from them. Our results show that differences among metrics derived at different point densities were significantly different from zero, with a larger impact on CHM-based than echo-based metrics, particularly when the point density was reduced to 1 point m -2 . Both data models-echo-based and CHM-performed similarly well in estimating AGB at the three study sites. For the temperate forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA, R 2 ranged from 0.79 to 0.8 and RMSE (relRMSE) from 69.69 (35.59%) to 70.71 (36.12%) Mg ha -1 for the echo-based model and from 0.76 to 0.78 and 73.84 (37.72%) to 128.20 (65.49%) Mg ha -1 for the CHM-based model. For the moist tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, the models gave R 2 ranging between 0.70 and 0.71 and RMSE between 30.08 (12.36%) and 30.32 (12.46) Mg ha -1 [between 0.69-0.70 and 30.42 (12.50%) and 61.30 (25.19%) Mg ha -1 ] for the echo-based [CHM-based] models. Finally, for the Atlantic forest in the Sierra do Mar, Brazil, R 2 was between 0.58-0.69 and RMSE between 37.73 (8.67%) and 39.77 (9.14%) Mg ha -1 for the echo-based model, whereas for the CHM R 2 was between 0.37-0.45 and RMSE between 45.43 (10.44%) and 67.23 (15.45%) Mg ha -1 . Metrics derived from the CHM show a higher dependence on point density than metrics

  8. Effects of LiDAR point density, sampling size and height threshold on estimation accuracy of crop biophysical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shezhou; Chen, Jing M; Wang, Cheng; Xi, Xiaohuan; Zeng, Hongcheng; Peng, Dailiang; Li, Dong

    2016-05-30

    Vegetation leaf area index (LAI), height, and aboveground biomass are key biophysical parameters. Corn is an important and globally distributed crop, and reliable estimations of these parameters are essential for corn yield forecasting, health monitoring and ecosystem modeling. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is considered an effective technology for estimating vegetation biophysical parameters. However, the estimation accuracies of these parameters are affected by multiple factors. In this study, we first estimated corn LAI, height and biomass (R2 = 0.80, 0.874 and 0.838, respectively) using the original LiDAR data (7.32 points/m2), and the results showed that LiDAR data could accurately estimate these biophysical parameters. Second, comprehensive research was conducted on the effects of LiDAR point density, sampling size and height threshold on the estimation accuracy of LAI, height and biomass. Our findings indicated that LiDAR point density had an important effect on the estimation accuracy for vegetation biophysical parameters, however, high point density did not always produce highly accurate estimates, and reduced point density could deliver reasonable estimation results. Furthermore, the results showed that sampling size and height threshold were additional key factors that affect the estimation accuracy of biophysical parameters. Therefore, the optimal sampling size and the height threshold should be determined to improve the estimation accuracy of biophysical parameters. Our results also implied that a higher LiDAR point density, larger sampling size and height threshold were required to obtain accurate corn LAI estimation when compared with height and biomass estimations. In general, our results provide valuable guidance for LiDAR data acquisition and estimation of vegetation biophysical parameters using LiDAR data.

  9. Individual tree detection based on densities of high points of high resolution airborne lidar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd Rahman, M.Z.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The retrieval of individual tree location from Airborne LiDAR has focused largely on utilizing canopy height. However, high resolution Airborne LiDAR offers another source of information for tree detection. This paper presents a new method for tree detection based on high points’ densities from a

  10. On the estimation of the current density in space plasmas: Multi- versus single-point techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Silvia; Valentini, Francesco; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Reda, Antonio; Malara, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Thanks to multi-spacecraft mission, it has recently been possible to directly estimate the current density in space plasmas, by using magnetic field time series from four satellites flying in a quasi perfect tetrahedron configuration. The technique developed, commonly called ;curlometer; permits a good estimation of the current density when the magnetic field time series vary linearly in space. This approximation is generally valid for small spacecraft separation. The recent space missions Cluster and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) have provided high resolution measurements with inter-spacecraft separation up to 100 km and 10 km, respectively. The former scale corresponds to the proton gyroradius/ion skin depth in ;typical; solar wind conditions, while the latter to sub-proton scale. However, some works have highlighted an underestimation of the current density via the curlometer technique with respect to the current computed directly from the velocity distribution functions, measured at sub-proton scales resolution with MMS. In this paper we explore the limit of the curlometer technique studying synthetic data sets associated to a cluster of four artificial satellites allowed to fly in a static turbulent field, spanning a wide range of relative separation. This study tries to address the relative importance of measuring plasma moments at very high resolution from a single spacecraft with respect to the multi-spacecraft missions in the current density evaluation.

  11. Effects of cloud-point grafting, chain length, and density of PEG layers on competitive adsorption of ocular proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingshott, P.; Thissen, H.; Griesser, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of pinning density, chain length, and 'cloud point' (CP) versus non-CP grafting conditions have been studied on the ability of polyethylene glycol (PEG) layers to minimize adsorption from a multicomponent (lysozyme, human serum albumin (HSA), IgG and lactoferrin) protein solution......-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that under these conditions, PEG(ald)(2) produced a thick linear PEG layer, most likely by aldol condensation. Protein adsorption was assessed using XPS and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS) in the surface mode...... density) r.f.g.d. polymer layers. The PEG graft density was varied also by increasing the temperature and salt (K2SO4) content of the grafting solution; it reached a maximum at the CP of the PEGs. The CP reaction conditions were critical for producing PEG layers capable of minimizing protein adsorption. X...

  12. a New Mask for Automatic Building Detection from High Density Point Cloud Data and Multispectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awrangjeb, M.; Siddiqui, F. U.

    2017-11-01

    In complex urban and residential areas, there are buildings which are not only connected with and/or close to one another but also partially occluded by their surrounding vegetation. Moreover, there may be buildings whose roofs are made of transparent materials. In transparent buildings, there are point returns from both the ground (or materials inside the buildings) and the rooftop. These issues confuse the previously proposed building masks which are generated from either ground points or non-ground points. The normalised digital surface model (nDSM) is generated from the non-ground points and usually it is hard to find individual buildings and trees using the nDSM. In contrast, the primary building mask is produced using the ground points, thereby it misses the transparent rooftops. This paper proposes a new building mask based on the non-ground points. The dominant directions of non-ground lines extracted from the multispectral imagery are estimated. A dummy grid with the target mask resolution is rotated at each dominant direction to obtain the corresponding height values from the non-ground points. Three sub-masks are then generated from the height grid by estimating the gradient function. Two of these sub-masks capture planar surfaces whose height remain constant in along and across the dominant direction, respectively. The third sub-mask contains only the flat surfaces where the height (ideally) remains constant in all directions. All the sub-masks generated in all estimated dominant directions are combined to produce the candidate building mask. Although the application of the gradient function helps in removal of most of the vegetation, the final building mask is obtained through removal of planar vegetation, if any, and tiny isolated false candidates. Experimental results on three Australian data sets show that the proposed method can successfully remove vegetation, thereby separate buildings from occluding vegetation and detect buildings with

  13. Sex Pheromone Dosages and Release Point Densities for Mating Disruption of Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in NE China Corn Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ri-Zhao; Jow, Chung-Kuang; Klein, Michael G; Jia, Yu-di; Zhang, Da-Yu; Li, Lan-Bing

    2017-08-01

    Mating disruption of Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with its sex pheromone has not been commonly used in NE China due to a lack of information about optimal sex pheromone dosages and the density of release points required in the field. During 2014-2016, first, the two active pheromone ingredients were evaluated in the laboratory alone at ca. 2.5-5.0 mg, or in combination at 0.2-6.0 mg, to disrupt male O. furnacalis mating behaviors. Then, mating disruption areas, with radii of disruption treatments. Finally, 6.0 (F30) and 0.2 mg (Fs) dosages were used in fields at 20-640 and 200-6,400 release points/ha. We found that ≧6.0 mg of the binary pheromone mixture, or ca. 5.0 mg of either of the two single components, completely disrupted mating behaviors, and F30 of the binary mixture provided a 200-m2 disruption area, with at least 50% capture reductions. At a density of 60-640 and 600-6,400 points/ha in a corn field, F30 and Fs dosages provided >90% mating disruption, leaf protection, and ear protection. The dispenser densities and inverse male catches in traps tended to follow a noncompetitive mechanism of mating disruption. Since 85% disruption of mating with 200-400 0.02 mg release points/ha was obtained, that level is recommended as the choice in future NE China O. furnacalis IPM programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Defining optimal DEM resolutions and point densities for modelling hydrologically sensitive areas in agricultural catchments dominated by microtopography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, I. A.; Jordan, P.; Shine, O.; Fenton, O.; Mellander, P.-E.; Dunlop, P.; Murphy, P. N. C.

    2017-02-01

    Defining critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse pollution in agricultural catchments depends upon the accurate delineation of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) at highest risk of generating surface runoff pathways. In topographically complex landscapes, this delineation is constrained by digital elevation model (DEM) resolution and the influence of microtopographic features. To address this, optimal DEM resolutions and point densities for spatially modelling HSAs were investigated, for onward use in delineating CSAs. The surface runoff framework was modelled using the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and maps were derived from 0.25 m LiDAR DEMs (40 bare-earth points m-2), resampled 1 m and 2 m LiDAR DEMs, and a radar generated 5 m DEM. Furthermore, the resampled 1 m and 2 m LiDAR DEMs were regenerated with reduced bare-earth point densities (5, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 points m-2) to analyse effects on elevation accuracy and important microtopographic features. Results were compared to surface runoff field observations in two 10 km2 agricultural catchments for evaluation. Analysis showed that the accuracy of modelled HSAs using different thresholds (5%, 10% and 15% of the catchment area with the highest TWI values) was much higher using LiDAR data compared to the 5 m DEM (70-100% and 10-84%, respectively). This was attributed to the DEM capturing microtopographic features such as hedgerow banks, roads, tramlines and open agricultural drains, which acted as topographic barriers or channels that diverted runoff away from the hillslope scale flow direction. Furthermore, the identification of 'breakthrough' and 'delivery' points along runoff pathways where runoff and mobilised pollutants could be potentially transported between fields or delivered to the drainage channel network was much higher using LiDAR data compared to the 5 m DEM (75-100% and 0-100%, respectively). Optimal DEM resolutions of 1-2 m were identified for modelling HSAs, which balanced the need

  15. High-density G-centers, light-emitting point defects in silicon crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Murata

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method of creating light-emitting point defects, or G-centers, by modifying a silicon surface with hexamethyldisilazane followed by laser annealing of the surface region. This laser annealing process has two advantages: creation of highly dense G-centers by incorporating carbon atoms into the silicon during heating; freezing in the created G-centers during rapid cooling. The method provides a surface region of up to 200 nm with highly dense carbon atoms of up to 4 × 1019 cm−3 to create G-centers, above the solubility limit of carbon atoms in silicon crystal (3 × 1017 cm−3. Photoluminescence measurement reveals that the higher-speed laser annealing produces stronger G-center luminescence. We demonstrate electrically-driven emission from the G-centers in samples made using our new method.

  16. Mammographic density and factors determining it from the point of view of high oncological risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Vasilyev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is now extensive proof that high percentage of mammographic density (MD is an independent risk factor for breast cance.r Taking this into account, the research data are summarized with regard to relation of MD to anthropometric, as well as hormonal, genetic and genotoxic factors. There is a negative correlation between MD and such risk factors as age, number of deliveries, BMI and waist-hip ratio. Most inves- tigations show a direct connection between MD and prolactin level or insulin-like growth factor in blood, mostly in premenopaus al women. Relations of MD with blood estrogens, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin prove to be too diverse to be taken in account of. It is pos- sible that the action of hormones, especially estrogens, is mediated through their metabolites catecholestrogens and / or reactive oxygen spe- cies. There is certain evidence that a genetic component plays a role in MD. It refers to COMT Val158Met, IGF-I rs6220 A> G and UGT1A1 in premenopausal women, and to ESR1 (XbaI и PvuII in menopausal cases.Although it is obvious that the risk of breast cancer related to MD is brought about by many factors, there is a necessity for studying addi- tional criteria modifying the process, as well as for searching means for preventing it.

  17. A High-Power-Density Single-Phase Rectifier Based on Three-Level Neutral-Point Clamped Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A single-phase three-level converter is suitable for medium-power applications, with an interface voltage that is higher than that of a traditional two-level configuration. The three-level neutral-point clamped converter is adopted using four switches in each bridge arm, which, compared to a two-level rectifier, leads to less voltage stress, a lower switching frequency, and switching loss on switches. The transient current control strategy is designed to control the active power. The single-phase space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM with a voltage balance strategy is designed to solve the neutral point voltage fluctuation problem and keep the dc-link voltage stable. A 1.3 kW high-power-density prototype based on SiC MOSFET was built and tested. The experimental results verified the high performance of steady-state and dynamic responses.

  18. Evaluation of magnetic helicity density in the wave number domain using multi-point measurements in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We develop an estimator for the magnetic helicity density, a measure of the spiral geometry of magnetic field lines, in the wave number domain as a wave diagnostic tool based on multi-point measurements in space. The estimator is numerically tested with a synthetic data set and then applied to an observation of magnetic field fluctuations in the Earth foreshock region provided by the four-point measurements of the Cluster spacecraft. The energy and the magnetic helicity density are determined in the frequency and the wave number domain, which allows us to identify the wave properties in the plasma rest frame correcting for the Doppler shift. In the analyzed time interval, dominant wave components have parallel propagation to the mean magnetic field, away from the shock at about Alfvén speed and a left-hand spatial rotation sense of helicity with respect to the propagation direction, which means a right-hand temporal rotation sense of polarization. These wave properties are well explained by the right-hand resonant beam instability as the driving mechanism in the foreshock. Cluster observations allow therefore detailed comparisons with various theories of waves and instabilities.

  19. High-spatial-resolution electron density measurement by Langmuir probe for multi-point observations using tiny spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, H.; Røed, K.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Trondsen, E.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Miloch, W. J.; Moen, J. I.

    2017-11-01

    A method for evaluating electron density using a single fixed-bias Langmuir probe is presented. The technique allows for high-spatio-temporal resolution electron density measurements, which can be effectively carried out by tiny spacecraft for multi-point observations in the ionosphere. The results are compared with the multi-needle Langmuir probe system, which is a scientific instrument developed at the University of Oslo comprising four fixed-bias cylindrical probes that allow small-scale plasma density structures to be characterized in the ionosphere. The technique proposed in this paper can comply with the requirements of future small-sized spacecraft, where the cost-effectiveness, limited space available on the craft, low power consumption and capacity for data-links need to be addressed. The first experimental results in both the plasma laboratory and space confirm the efficiency of the new approach. Moreover, detailed analyses on two challenging issues when deploying the DC Langmuir probe on a tiny spacecraft, which are the limited conductive area of the spacecraft and probe surface contamination, are presented in the paper. It is demonstrated that the limited conductive area, depending on applications, can either be of no concern for the experiment or can be resolved by mitigation methods. Surface contamination has a small impact on the performance of the developed probe.

  20. The chiral critical point of $N_f$=3 QCD at finite density to the order $(\\mu/T)^4$

    CERN Document Server

    De Forcrand, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    QCD with three degenerate quark flavours at zero baryon density exhibits a first order thermal phase transition for small quark masses, which changes to a smooth crossover for some critical quark mass m^c_0, i.e. the chiral critical point. It is generally believed that as an (even) function of quark chemical potential, m_c(mu), the critical point moves to larger quark masses, constituting the critical endpoint of a first order phase transition in theories with m\\geq m^c_0. To test this, we consider a Taylor expansion of m_c(mu) around mu=0 and determine the first two coefficients from lattice simulations with staggered fermions on N_t=4 lattices. We employ two different techniques: a) calculating the coefficients directly from a mu=0 ensemble using a novel finite difference method, and b) fitting them to simulation data obtained for imaginary chemical potentials. The mu^2 and mu^4 coefficients are found to be negative by both methods, with consistent absolute values. Combining both methods gives evidence that...

  1. Effects of reduced terrestrial LiDAR point density on high-resolution grain crop surface models in precision agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmerle, Martin; Höfle, Bernhard

    2014-12-16

    3D geodata play an increasingly important role in precision agriculture, e.g., for modeling in-field variations of grain crop features such as height or biomass. A common data capturing method is LiDAR, which often requires expensive equipment and produces large datasets. This study contributes to the improvement of 3D geodata capturing efficiency by assessing the effect of reduced scanning resolution on crop surface models (CSMs). The analysis is based on high-end LiDAR point clouds of grain crop fields of different varieties (rye and wheat) and nitrogen fertilization stages (100%, 50%, 10%). Lower scanning resolutions are simulated by keeping every n-th laser beam with increasing step widths n. For each iteration step, high-resolution CSMs (0.01 m2 cells) are derived and assessed regarding their coverage relative to a seamless CSM derived from the original point cloud, standard deviation of elevation and mean elevation. Reducing the resolution to, e.g., 25% still leads to a coverage of >90% and a mean CSM elevation of >96% of measured crop height. CSM types (maximum elevation or 90th-percentile elevation) react differently to reduced scanning resolutions in different crops (variety, density). The results can help to assess the trade-off between CSM quality and minimum requirements regarding equipment and capturing set-up.

  2. Density functional theory calculations of point defects and hydrogen isotopes in Li4SiO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Li4SiO4 is a promising breeder material for future fusion reactors. Radiation induced vacancies and hydrogen isotope related impurities are the major types of point defects in this breeder material. In present study, various kinds of vacancies and hydrogen isotopes related point defects in Li4SiO4 are investigated through density functional theory (DFT calculations. The band gap of Li4SiO4 is determined by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy experiments. Formation energies of all possible charge states of Li, Si and O vacancies are calculated using DFT methods. Formation energies of possible charge states of hydrogen isotopes substitution for Li and O are also calculated. We found that Li-vacancies will dominate among all vacancies in neutral charge state under radiation conditions and the O, Li, and Si vacancies (VO,VLi,VSi are stable in charge states +2, -1, -4 for most of the range of Fermi level, respectively. The interstitial hydrogen isotopes (Hi and substitutional HLi are stable in the charge states +1, 0 for most of the range of Fermi level, respectively. Moreover, substitutional HO are stable in +1 charge states. We also investigated the process of tritium recovery by discussing the interaction between interstitial H and Li-vacancy, O-vacancy, and found that H O + and H Li 0 are the most common H related defects during radiation process.

  3. Designing towards the unknown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilde, Danielle; Underwood, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    , to design towards unknown outcomes, using unknown materials. The impossibility of this task is proving as useful as it is disruptive. At its most potent, it is destabilising expectations, aesthetics and processes. Keeping the researchers, collaborators and participants in a state of unknowing, is opening...... the research potential to far-ranging possibilities. In this article we unpack the motivations driving the PKI project. We present our mixed-methodology, which entangles textile crafts, design interactions and materiality to shape an embodied enquiry. Our research outcomes are procedural and methodological...

  4. Fever of unknown origin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) often is defined as a fever greater than 38.3 degrees C on several occasions during at least 3 weeks with uncertain diagnosis after a number of obligatory tests. In general, infection accounts for approximately one-fourth of cases of FUO, followed by neoplasm and

  5. a New Approach for Progressive Dense Reconstruction from Consecutive Images Based on Prior Low-Density 3d Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Z.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, the increasing incidence of climate-related disasters has tremendously affected our environment. In order to effectively manage and reduce dramatic impacts of such events, the development of timely disaster management plans is essential. Since these disasters are spatial phenomena, timely provision of geospatial information is crucial for effective development of response and management plans. Due to inaccessibility of the affected areas and limited budget of first-responders, timely acquisition of the required geospatial data for these applications is usually possible only using low-cost imaging and georefencing sensors mounted on unmanned platforms. Despite rapid collection of the required data using these systems, available processing techniques are not yet capable of delivering geospatial information to responders and decision makers in a timely manner. To address this issue, this paper introduces a new technique for dense 3D reconstruction of the affected scenes which can deliver and improve the needed geospatial information incrementally. This approach is implemented based on prior 3D knowledge of the scene and employs computationally-efficient 2D triangulation, feature descriptor, feature matching and point verification techniques to optimize and speed up 3D dense scene reconstruction procedure. To verify the feasibility and computational efficiency of the proposed approach, an experiment using a set of consecutive images collected onboard a UAV platform and prior low-density airborne laser scanning over the same area is conducted and step by step results are provided. A comparative analysis of the proposed approach and an available image-based dense reconstruction technique is also conducted to prove the computational efficiency and competency of this technique for delivering geospatial information with pre-specified accuracy.

  6. A NEW APPROACH FOR PROGRESSIVE DENSE RECONSTRUCTION FROM CONSECUTIVE IMAGES BASED ON PRIOR LOW-DENSITY 3D POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increasing incidence of climate-related disasters has tremendously affected our environment. In order to effectively manage and reduce dramatic impacts of such events, the development of timely disaster management plans is essential. Since these disasters are spatial phenomena, timely provision of geospatial information is crucial for effective development of response and management plans. Due to inaccessibility of the affected areas and limited budget of first-responders, timely acquisition of the required geospatial data for these applications is usually possible only using low-cost imaging and georefencing sensors mounted on unmanned platforms. Despite rapid collection of the required data using these systems, available processing techniques are not yet capable of delivering geospatial information to responders and decision makers in a timely manner. To address this issue, this paper introduces a new technique for dense 3D reconstruction of the affected scenes which can deliver and improve the needed geospatial information incrementally. This approach is implemented based on prior 3D knowledge of the scene and employs computationally-efficient 2D triangulation, feature descriptor, feature matching and point verification techniques to optimize and speed up 3D dense scene reconstruction procedure. To verify the feasibility and computational efficiency of the proposed approach, an experiment using a set of consecutive images collected onboard a UAV platform and prior low-density airborne laser scanning over the same area is conducted and step by step results are provided. A comparative analysis of the proposed approach and an available image-based dense reconstruction technique is also conducted to prove the computational efficiency and competency of this technique for delivering geospatial information with pre-specified accuracy.

  7. DETERMINATION OF SURFACE CHARGE DENSITY OF α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    dissociation of these groups, result into a pH dependent surface charge whose density can be measured by acid-base titration. The surface charge density determined by such method is essentially measured relative to the unknown condition of the oxide/liquid interface prior to reagent addition (i.e. at the point of zero ...

  8. Cervicitis of unknown etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephanie N

    2014-07-01

    Cervicitis has been described by some as the female counterpart of urethritis in men. Over the years a number of clinical and microscopy-based definitions have been suggested in the literature. Clinical manifestations include mucopurulent discharge from the cervix, cervical friability (easy bleeding from the cervix with passage of a swab) and cervical ectopy. Microscopic definitions involving the use of Gram stain of cervical secretions have included either more than 10 white blood cells (WBCs) or more than 30 WBCs per high-power field. Combinations of these clinical and microscopic findings have been used in attempts to increase the accuracy of cervicitis diagnosis. When cervicitis was initially recognized as a clinical entity, several investigators reported the primary pathogens causing cervicitis as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. It is now well established that most cases of cervicitis are not caused by these two organisms. Most cases of cervicitis are of unknown etiology.

  9. Physics: unknown radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, E; Liksonov, V I; Tsinoiev, V G

    2002-01-01

    This article reports experiments concerning the study of the electrical explosion of a titanium foil in water. During the electrical discharge a strong luminescence appears, the analysis of spectra shows the presence of new chemical elements and this presence is confirmed by the mass-spectrometry measurements performed on the precipitates found after the discharge. This experiment has been repeated about 200 times and the results are consistent an show an average titanium transmutation rate of 4%. Neither gamma nor neutron radiation have been detected but an unknown radiation, sensitive to magnetic fields, has been detected through tracks left on RF-ZMP fluo-graphical films covered with a 10 mu m-thick emulsion layer. The assumption of a radiation made up of magnetic monopoles is supported by the author. (A.C.)

  10. Prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen density cutoff points among Indonesian population suspected for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Anies Shahab

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: PSA and PSAD cutoff point for Indonesian men in this series is relatively different from international consensus. Furthermore, these data show that PSA and PSAD cutoff point must be adjusted to racial variation to discriminate between malignant and benign disease. Urinary retention is a significant factor for PSA cutoff increase.

  11. Adaptive Localization of Focus Point Regions via Random Patch Probabilistic Density from Whole-Slide, Ki-67-Stained Brain Tumor Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazan M. Alomari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of whole-slide tissue for digital pathology images has been clinically approved to provide a second opinion to pathologists. Localization of focus points from Ki-67-stained histopathology whole-slide tissue microscopic images is considered the first step in the process of proliferation rate estimation. Pathologists use eye pooling or eagle-view techniques to localize the highly stained cell-concentrated regions from the whole slide under microscope, which is called focus-point regions. This procedure leads to a high variety of interpersonal observations and time consuming, tedious work and causes inaccurate findings. The localization of focus-point regions can be addressed as a clustering problem. This paper aims to automate the localization of focus-point regions from whole-slide images using the random patch probabilistic density method. Unlike other clustering methods, random patch probabilistic density method can adaptively localize focus-point regions without predetermining the number of clusters. The proposed method was compared with the k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering methods. Our proposed method achieves a good performance, when the results were evaluated by three expert pathologists. The proposed method achieves an average false-positive rate of 0.84% for the focus-point region localization error. Moreover, regarding RPPD used to localize tissue from whole-slide images, 228 whole-slide images have been tested; 97.3% localization accuracy was achieved.

  12. Changes in Paleoindian Projectile Point Densities as Possible Evidence of a Clovis Demographic Collapse in the Southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, A. C.; West, A.

    2007-05-01

    Recent evaluation by the author of the South Carolina Paleoindian point database indicates the substantial presence of a suspected Middle Paleoindian point historically known as Redstone (Cambron and Hulse, 1964; Mason, 1962; Perino, 1968; Williams and Stoltman, 1965). Because of recent discoveries in South Carolina of large fluted points typical of the Redstone, it became clear that the Redstone had a straight to trianguloid blade configuration from the earliest stage of its use life. Lanceolates with extremely long prominent flutes heretofore had been classified as Clovis (Charles and Michie, 1992; Goodyear et al., 1990; Michie, 1977). Accordingly, a review of all fluted points yielded a total of 48 Redstones that had previously been misclassified as Clovis. Reclassifying the South Carolina database resulted in approximately four Clovis points for every one Redstone. Using Clovis and Redstone fluted points made from coastal plain Allendale-type chert and high-quality metavolcanics, a total of 179 Clovis were found versus 40 Redstones (4.5 to 1). Within the Allendale chert cases, 115 were Clovis versus 24 Redstone (4.8 to 1). Within metavolcanics, it was 64 Clovis versus 16 Redstones (4 to 1). Assuming Redstones date from 10,800 to 10,500 RCYBP, and Clovis dates from 11,300 to 10,900 RCYBP, a precipitous decline in post-Clovis fluted points is indicated. No other Paleoindian points are known for this area of the Southeast to fill in this time period, since Daltons presumably began later around 10,500 RCYBP (Goodyear 1982). For the Allendale County region of South Carolina, there are an estimated 20 Dalton points for every Redstone. This apparent decline in Redstone projectile points occurs during the Younger Dryas, a time thought to be colder and dryer than Clovis times, and therefore, less hospitable. The strong presence of Dalton points throughout the Southeast would suggest any demographic problems were ameliorating by Dalton times. As a cross-check on the

  13. Point defect dynamics in sodium aluminum hydrides - a combined quasielastic neutron scattering and density functional theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Qing; Voss, Johannes; Jacobsen, H.S.

    2007-01-01

    we study hydrogen dynamics in undoped and TiCl3-doped samples of NaAlH4 and Na3AlH6 using a combination of density functional theory calculations and quasielastic neutron scattering. Hydrogen dynamics is found to be limited and mediated by hydrogen vacancies in both alanate phases, requiring...

  14. Statistical analysis of the ionospheric ion density recorded by DEMETER in the epicenter areas of earthquakes as well as in their magnetically conjugate point areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Parrot, Michel

    2018-02-01

    Results of a statistical variation of total ion density observed in the vicinity of epicenters as well as around magnetically conjugated points of earthquakes are presented in this paper. Two data sets are used: the ion density measured by DEMETER during about 6.5 years and the list of strong earthquakes (MW ≥ 4.8) occurring globally during this period (14,764 earthquakes in total). First of all, ionospheric perturbations with 23-120 s observation time corresponding to spatial scales of 160-840 km are automatically detected by a software (64,287 anomalies in total). Second, it is checked if a perturbation could be associated either with the epicenter of an earthquake or with its magnetically conjugated point (distance earthquake). The index Kp epicenter areas as well as above their conjugated points. About one third of the earthquakes are detected with ionospheric influence on both sides of the Earth. There is a trend showing that the perturbation length increases as the magnitude of the detected EQs but it is more obvious for large magnitude. The probability that a perturbation appears is higher on the day of the earthquake and then gradually decreases when the time before the earthquake increases. The spatial distribution of perturbations shows that the probability of perturbations appearing southeast of the epicenter before an earthquake is a little bit higher and that there is an obvious trend because perturbations appear west of the conjugated point of an earthquake.

  15. The density of tobacco retailers and its association with attitudes toward smoking, exposure to point-of-sale tobacco advertising, cigarette purchasing, and smoking among New York youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Brett R; Kim, Annice E; Busey, Andrew H; Farrelly, Matthew C; Willett, Jeffrey G; Juster, Harlan R

    2012-11-01

    Estimate the association between the density of licensed tobacco retailers (LTRs) and smoking-related attitudes and behaviors among middle and high school students in New York. The 2000-2008 New York Youth Tobacco Surveys were pooled (N=70,427) and linked with county-level density of LTRs and retailer compliance with laws restricting youth access to cigarettes. Logistic regressions tested for associations with attitudes toward smoking exposure to point-of-sale tobacco advertising, cigarette purchasing, and smoking prevalence. LTR density is associated with self-reported exposure to point-of-sale advertising in New York City (NYC) among all youth (OR=1.15; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.30) and nonsmokers (OR=1.14; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.30); youth believing that smoking makes them look cool, overall (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.22, 2.52) and among nonsmokers (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.55); and a counter-intuitive negative relationship with frequent smoking in NYC (OR=0.50; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.84). Retailer compliance was negatively associated with youth reporting that a retail store is their usual source for cigarettes (OR=0.93; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.98). Restricting tobacco licenses and enforcing youth access laws are reasonable policy approaches for influencing youth smoking outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamics of pulsed laser ablation plasmas in high-density CO2 near the critical point investigated by time-resolved shadowgraph imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urabe, Keiichiro; Kato, Toru; Himeno, Shohei; Kato, Satoshi; Stauss, Sven; Baba, Motoyoshi; Suemoto, Tohru; Terashima, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) plasmas generated in high-density gases and liquids are promising for the synthesis of nanomaterials. However, the characteristics of such plasmas are still not well understood. In order to improve the understandings of PLA plasmas in high-density fluids including gases, liquids, and supercritical fluids (SCFs), we have investigated the dynamics of PLA plasmas in high-density carbon dioxide (CO2) . We report on experimental results of time-resolved shadowgraph imaging, from the generation of plasma plume to the extinction of cavitation bubbles. Shadowgraph images revealed that the PLA plasma dynamics showed two distinct behaviors. These are divided by gas-liquid coexistence curve and the so-called Widom line, which separates gas-like and liquid-like SCF domains. Furthermore, cavitation bubble observed in liquid CO2 near the critical point showed peculiar characteristics, the formation of an inner bubble and an outer shell structure, which so far has never been reported. The experiments indicate that thermophysical properties of PLA plasmas can be tuned by controlling solvent temperature and pressure around the critical point, which may be useful for materials processing. This work was supported financially in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (No. 21110002) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.

  17. Time dependence of the field energy densities surrounding sources: Application to scalar mesons near point sources and to electromagnetic fields near molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persico, F.; Power, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The time dependence of the dressing-undressing process, i.e., the acquiring or losing by a source of a boson field intensity and hence of a field energy density in its neighborhood, is considered by examining some simple soluble models. First, the loss of the virtual field is followed in time when a point source is suddenly decoupled from a neutral scalar meson field. Second, an initially bare point source acquires a virtual meson cloud as the coupling is switched on. The third example is that of an initially bare molecule interacting with the vacuum of the electromagnetic field to acquire a virtual photon cloud. In all three cases the dressing-undressing is shown to take place within an expanding sphere of radius r = ct centered at the source. At each point in space the energy density tends, for large times, to that of the ground state of the total system. Differences in the time dependence of the dressing between the massive scalar field and the massless electromagnetic field are discussed. The results are also briefly discussed in the light of Feinberg's ideas on the nature of half-dressed states in quantum field theory

  18. Intrinsic point defects in β-In2S3 studied by means of hybrid density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Elaheh; Albe, Karsten

    2018-03-01

    We have employed first principles total energy calculations in the framework of density functional theory, with plane wave basis sets and screened exchange hybrid functionals to study the incorporation of intrinsic defects in bulk β-In2S3. The results are obtained for In-rich and S-rich experimental growth conditions. The charge transition level is discussed for all native defects, including VIn, VS, Ini, Si, SIn, and InS, and a comparison between the theoretically calculated charge transition levels and the available experimental findings is presented. The results imply that β-In2S3 shows n-type conductivity under both In-rich and S-rich growth conditions. The indium antiisite (InS), the indium interstitial (Ini), and the sulfur vacancy ( VS ' ) are found to be the leading sources of sample's n-type conductivity. When going from the In-rich to the S-rich condition, the conductivity of the material decreases; however, the type of conductivity remains unchanged.

  19. Comparison of 3-point Dixon imaging and fuzzy C-means clustering methods for breast density measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendenen, Tess V; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Moy, Linda; Pike, Malcolm C; Rusinek, Henry; Kim, Sungheon

    2013-08-01

    To assess two methods of fat and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) segmentation for measuring breast MRI FGT volume and FGT%, the volume percentage of FGT in the breast, in longitudinal studies. Nine premenopausal women provided one MRI per week for 4 weeks during a natural menstrual cycle for a total of 36 datasets. We compared a fuzzy c-means (FC) and a 3-point Dixon segmentation method for estimation of changes in FGT volume and FGT% across the menstrual cycle. We also assessed whether differences due to changes in positioning each week could be minimized by coregistration, i.e., the application of the breast boundary selected at one visit to images obtained at other visits. FC and Dixon FGT volume were highly correlated (r = 0.93, P < 0.001), as was FC and Dixon FGT% (r = 0.86, P = 0.01), although Dixon measurements were on average 10-20% higher. Although FGT measured by both methods showed the expected pattern of increase during the menstrual cycle, the magnitude, and for one woman the direction, of change varied according to the method used. Measurements of FGT for coregistered images were in close agreement with those for which the boundaries were determined independently. The method of segmentation of fat and FGT tissue may have an impact on the results of longitudinal studies of changes in breast MRI FGT. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Disentangling the roles of point-of-sale ban, tobacco retailer density and proximity on cessation and relapse among a cohort of smokers: findings from ITC Canada Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Lozano, Paula; Wu, Yun-Hsuan; Hardin, James W; Meng, Gang; Liese, Angela D; Fong, Geoffrey T; Thrasher, James F

    2018-03-08

    To examine how point-of-sale (POS) display bans, tobacco retailer density and tobacco retailer proximity were associated with smoking cessation and relapse in a cohort of smokers in Canada, where provincial POS bans were implemented differentially over time from 2004 to 2010. Data from the 2005 to 2011 administrations of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Canada Survey, a nationally representative cohort of adult smokers, were linked via residential geocoding with tobacco retailer data to derive for each smoker a measure of retailer density and proximity. An indicator variable identified whether the smoker's province banned POS displays at the time of the interview. Outcomes included cessation for at least 1 month at follow-up among smokers from the previous wave and relapse at follow-up among smokers who had quit at the previous wave. Logistic generalised estimating equation models were used to determine the relationship between living in a province with a POS display ban, tobacco retailer density and tobacco retailer proximity with cessation (n=4388) and relapse (n=866). Provincial POS display bans were not associated with cessation. In adjusted models, POS display bans were associated with lower odds of relapse which strengthened after adjusting for retailer density and proximity, although results were not statistically significant (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.07, p=0.089). Neither tobacco retailer density nor proximity was associated with cessation or relapse. Banning POS retail displays shows promise as an additional tool to prevent relapse, although these results need to be confirmed in larger longitudinal studies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Unknown foundation determination for scour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Unknown foundations affect about 9,000 bridges in Texas. For bridges over rivers, this creates a problem : regarding scour decisions as the calculated scour depth cannot be compared to the foundation depth, and a : very conservative costly approach m...

  2. Optimizing minimum free-energy crossing points in solution: Linear-response free energy/spin-flip density functional theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minezawa, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    Examining photochemical processes in solution requires understanding the solvent effects on the potential energy profiles near conical intersections (CIs). For that purpose, the CI point in solution is determined as the crossing between nonequilibrium free energy surfaces. In this work, the nonequilibrium free energy is described using the combined method of linear-response free energy and collinear spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory. The proposed approach reveals the solvent effects on the CI geometries of stilbene in an acetonitrile solution and those of thymine in water. Polar acetonitrile decreases the energy difference between the twisted minimum and twisted-pyramidalized CI of stilbene. For thymine in water, the hydrogen bond formation stabilizes significantly the CI puckered at the carbonyl carbon atom. The result is consistent with the recent simulation showing that the reaction path via this geometry is open in water. Therefore, the present method is a promising way of identifying the free-energy crossing points that play an essential role in photochemistry of solvated molecules

  3. Anomalous triple point effects in the spin-density-wave Cr{sub 1−x}Al{sub x} alloy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, C.J., E-mail: cjsheppard@uj.ac.za [Physics Department, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Prinsloo, A.R.E.; Alberts, H.L.; Muchono, B. [Physics Department, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Strydom, A.M. [Physics Department, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzerstr. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • Extensive investigation into the physical properties of Cr–Al single crystals. • Unusual and prominent influence of SDW reflected in physical properties. • Alternative magnetic phase diagram suggested for Cr–Al system. • Triple point on phase diagram minimum appears to be deeper and narrower. • Triple point appears to be enigmatic critical point to be further investigated. - Abstract: It was recently suggested that for the Cr{sub 1−x}Al{sub x} alloy system the Sommerfeld specific heat coefficient (γ) as a function of x may peak at the triple point (TP) concentration (x{sub t}) of the x–T magnetic phase diagram. The TP at (x{sub t}, T{sub t}) represents the intersection point of three magnetic phase transition lines at which incommensurate (I) and commensurate (C) spin-density-wave (SDW) phases are expected to coexist with the paramagnetic (P) phase. A comprehensive experimental study on the physical properties of single crystalline Cr{sub 1−x}Al{sub x} alloys in the concentration range 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.034, that encloses x{sub t}, is reported here for further investigations of the above conjecture and possible anomalous behaviour in other physical properties near x{sub t}. The measurements include the electrical resistivity (ρ), Seebeck coefficient (S), specific heat (C{sub p}), Hall coefficient (R{sub H}), magnetic susceptibility (χ) and thermal conductivity (κ). All these properties, except for κ, depict anomalous temperature and concentration dependencies of SDW origin for x close to x{sub t}. The present study indicates a value of x{sub t} rather close to x = 0.022. The x-dependence of γ exhibits an extraordinary large and sharp peak near this concentration. This observation is interpreted as indication that the temperature of the TP is likely situated at 0 K. A new magnetic phase diagram is therefore proposed for the Cr{sub 1−x}Al{sub x} alloy system for x in the region of x{sub t}. This study presents novel experimental

  4. Allocating monitoring effort in the face of unknown unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintle, B.A.; Runge, M.C.; Bekessy, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing view that to make efficient use of resources, ecological monitoring should be hypothesis-driven and targeted to address specific management questions. 'Targeted' monitoring has been contrasted with other approaches in which a range of quantities are monitored in case they exhibit an alarming trend or provide ad hoc ecological insights. The second form of monitoring, described as surveillance, has been criticized because it does not usually aim to discern between competing hypotheses, and its benefits are harder to identify a priori. The alternative view is that the existence of surveillance data may enable rapid corroboration of emerging hypotheses or help to detect important 'unknown unknowns' that, if undetected, could lead to catastrophic outcomes or missed opportunities. We derive a model to evaluate and compare the efficiency of investments in surveillance and targeted monitoring. We find that a decision to invest in surveillance monitoring may be defensible if: (1) the surveillance design is more likely to discover or corroborate previously unknown phenomena than a targeted design and (2) the expected benefits (or avoided costs) arising from discovery are substantially higher than those arising from a well-planned targeted design. Our examination highlights the importance of being explicit about the objectives, costs and expected benefits of monitoring in a decision analytic framework. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  5. A study on density functional theory of the effect of pressure on the formation and migration enthalpies of intrinsic point defects in growing single crystal Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueoka, Koji; Kamiyama, Eiji; Kariyazaki, Hiroaki

    2012-05-01

    In 1982, Voronkov presented a model describing point defect behavior during the growth of single crystal Si from a melt and derived an expression to predict if the crystal was vacancy- or self-interstitial-rich. Recently, Vanhellemont claimed that one should take into account the impact of compressive stress introduced by the thermal gradient at the melt/solid interface by considering the hydrostatic pressure dependence of the formation enthalpy of the intrinsic point defects. To evaluate the impact of thermal stress more correctly, the pressure dependence of both the formation enthalpy (Hf) and the migration enthalpy (Hm) of the intrinsic point defects should be taken into account. Furthermore, growing single crystal Si is not under hydrostatic pressure but almost free of external pressure (generally in Ar gas under reduced pressure). In the present paper, the dependence of Hf and Hm on the pressure P, or in other words, the pressure dependence of the formation energy (Ef) and the relaxation volume (vf), is quantified by density functional theory calculations. Although a large number of ab initio calculations of the properties of intrinsic point defects have been published during the last years, calculations for Si crystals under pressure are rather scarce. For vacancies V, the reported pressure dependences of HfV are inconsistent. In the present study, by using 216-atom supercells with a sufficient cut-off energy and mesh of k-points, the neutral I and V are found to have nearly constant formation energies EfI and EfV for pressures up to 1 GPa. For the relaxation volume, vfI is almost constant while vfV decreases linearly with increasing pressure P. In case of the hydrostatic pressure Ph, the calculated formation enthalpy HfI and migration enthalpy HmI at the [110] dumbbell site are given by HfI = 3.425 - 0.057 × Ph (eV) and HmI = 0.981 - 0.039 × Ph (eV), respectively, with Ph given in GPa. The calculated HfV and HmV dependencies on Ph given by HfV = 3.543 - 0

  6. Function analysis of unknown genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.

    2002-01-01

      This thesis entitled "Function analysis of unknown genes" presents the use of proteome analysis for the characterisation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) genes and their products (proteins especially those of unknown function). This study illustrates that proteome analysis can be used...... be obtained using proteome analysis. Chapter 1 and 2 provide the basic theoretical aspects of proteome analysis, its principles, the main techniques involved and their use in the studies of the molecular biology of yeast cells. Chapter 3 presents the methods and tools involved in proteome analysis and used...... presents a comparison of the proteomes of three yeast wild type strains CEN.PK2, FY1679 and W303 that are widely used in function analysis projects and proves that FY1679 and W303 strains are more similar to each other than to the CEN.PK2 strain. This study identifies 62 proteins that are differentially...

  7. Desquamative Inflammatory Vaginitis: The Unknown

    OpenAIRE

    María Trinidad Alumbreros Andújar; Ana González López; Celia Pérez Parra; Rafael López Pérez; Carmen Céspedes Casas; María Mercedes Ramírez Gómez; Castor Martin Francisco; Francisco Javier Haya Palazuelos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) is a chronic inflammatory process of unknown etiology, characterized by genital pain and profuse vaginal discharge, mainly affecting perimenopausal women. It is an entity little known by clinicians, leading to a delay in diagnosis and the consequent alteration of the patients’ quality of life. The aim in this manuscript is to analyze DIV through the review of a case and the scientific literature. Case presentation: We report the case ...

  8. Measurement of the forward charged particle pseudorapidity density in pp collisions at √(s) = 8 TeV using a displaced interaction point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Bruecken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Covault, C.; Csanad, M.; Csoergo, T.; Deile, M.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Georgiev, V.; Giani, S.; Grzanka, L.; Hammerbauer, J.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Karev, A.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J.; Lokajicek, M.V.; Losurdo, L.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Macri, M.; Maeki, T.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Oesterberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Peroutka, Z.; Prochazka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Scribano, A.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Sodzawiczny, T.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zielinski, K.

    2015-01-01

    The pseudorapidity density of charged particles dN ch /dη is measured by the TOTEM experiment in proton-proton collisions at √(s) = 8 TeV within the range 3.9 < η < 4.7 and -6.95 < η < -6.9. Data were collected in a low intensity LHC run with collisions occurring at a distance of 11.25 m from the nominal interaction point. The data sample is expected to include 96-97 % of the inelastic proton-proton interactions. The measurement reported here considers charged particles with p T > 0 MeV/c, produced in inelastic interactions with at least one charged particle in -7 < η < -6 or 3.7 < η < 4.8. The dN ch /dη has been found to decrease with vertical stroke η vertical stroke, from 5.11 ± 0.73 at η = 3.95 to 1.81 ± 0.56 at η = -6.925. Several Monte Carlo generators are compared to the data and are found to be within the systematic uncertainty of the measurement. (orig.)

  9. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for point-of-care detection of asymptomatic low-density malaria parasite carriers in Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jackie; Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; González, Iveth J; Bell, David; Edlund, Elin; Nassor, Majda H; Msellem, Mwinyi; Ali, Abdullah; Abass, Ali K; Mårtensson, Andreas; Björkman, Anders

    2015-01-28

    Asymptomatic, low parasite density malaria infections are difficult to detect with currently available point-of-care diagnostics. This study piloted a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) kit for field-friendly, high-throughput detection of asymptomatic malaria infections during mass screening and treatment (MSAT) in Zanzibar, a malaria pre-elimination setting. Screening took place in three known hotspot areas prior to the short rains in November. Finger-prick blood was taken for screening by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and LAMP and collected on filter paper for subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. LAMP results were compared to RDT and to PCR using McNemar's test. Approximately 1,000 people were screened. RDT detected ten infections (1.0% (95% CI 0.3-1.6)) whilst both LAMP and PCR detected 18 (1.8% (95% CI 0.9-2.6)) infections. However, PCR identified three infections that LAMP did not detect and vice versa. LAMP testing was easy to scale-up in field conditions requiring minimal training and equipment, with results ready one to three hours after screening. Despite lower than expected prevalence, LAMP detected a higher number of infections than the currently used diagnostic, RDT. LAMP is a field-friendly, sensitive diagnostic test that could be useful for MSAT malaria campaigns which require quick results to enable prompt treatment.

  10. Identification of a point mutation in growth factor repeat C of the low density lipoprotein-receptor gene in a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soutar, A.K.; Knight, B.L.; Patel, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    The coding region of the low density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor gene from a patient (MM) with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) has been sequenced from six overlapping 500-base-pair amplified fragments of the cDNA from cultured skin fibroblasts. Two separate single nucleotide base changes from the normal sequence were detected. The first involved substitution of guanine for adenine in the third position of the codon for amino acid residue Cys-27 and did not affect the protein sequence. The second mutation was substitution of thymine for cytosine in the DNA for the codon for amino acid residue 664, changing the codon from CCG (proline) to CTG (leucine) and introducing a new site for the restriction enzyme PstI. MM is a true homozygote with two identical genes, and the mutation cosegregated with clinically diagnosed FH in his family in which first cousin marriages occurred frequently. LDL receptors in MM's skin fibroblasts bind less LDL than normal and with reduced affinity. Thus this naturally occurring single point mutation affects both intracellular transport of the protein and ligand binding and occurs in growth factor-like repeat C, a region that has not previously been found to influence LDL binding

  11. Measurement of the forward charged particle pseudorapidity density in pp collisions at √(s) = 8 TeV using a displaced interaction point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antchev, G. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, INRNE-BAS, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Aspell, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Atanassov, I. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, INRNE-BAS, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Avati, V. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Baechler, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Berardi, V. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica di Bari, Bari (Italy); Berretti, M. [Universita degli Studi di Siena (Italy); Gruppo Collegato INFN di Siena, Siena (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bossini, E. [Universita degli Studi di Siena (Italy); Gruppo Collegato INFN di Siena, Siena (Italy); Bottigli, U. [Universita degli Studi di Siena (Italy); Gruppo Collegato INFN di Siena, Siena (Italy); Bozzo, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Bruecken, E. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Buzzo, A. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Cafagna, F.S. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Catanesi, M.G. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Covault, C. [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Physics, Cleveland, OH (United States); Csanad, M. [MTA Wigner Research Center, RMKI, Budapest (Hungary); Eoetvoes University, Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Csoergo, T. [MTA Wigner Research Center, RMKI, Budapest (Hungary); Deile, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Doubek, M. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Eggert, K. [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Physics, Cleveland, OH (United States); Eremin, V. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ferro, F. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Fiergolski, A. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Garcia, F. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Georgiev, V. [University of West Bohemia, Plzen (Czech Republic); Giani, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Grzanka, L. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Polish Academy of Science, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Hammerbauer, J. [University of West Bohemia, Plzen (Czech Republic); Heino, J. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Hilden, T. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Karev, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Kaspar, J. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Kopal, J. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Kundrat, V. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Lami, S. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Latino, G. [Universita degli Studi di Siena (Italy); Gruppo Collegato INFN di Siena, Siena (Italy); Lauhakangas, R. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Leszko, T. [Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Lippmaa, E. [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics NICPB, Tallinn (Estonia); Lippmaa, J. [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics NICPB, Tallinn (Estonia); Lokajicek, M.V. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Losurdo, L. [Universita degli Studi di Siena (IT); Gruppo Collegato INFN di Siena, Siena (IT); Lo Vetere, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (IT); Universita degli Studi di Genova, Genoa (IT); Lucas Rodriguez, F. [CERN, Geneva (CH); Macri, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (IT); Maeki, T. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (FI); Mercadante, A. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (IT); Minafra, N. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica di Bari, Bari (IT); CERN, Geneva (CH); Minutoli, S. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (IT); Nemes, F. [MTA Wigner Research Center, RMKI, Budapest (HU); Eoetvoes University, Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest (HU); Niewiadomski, H. [CERN, Geneva (CH); Oliveri, E. [Universita degli Studi di Siena (IT); Gruppo Collegato INFN di Siena, Siena (IT); Oljemark, F. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (FI); University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (FI); Orava, R. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (FI); University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (FI); Oriunno, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA (US); Oesterberg, K. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (FI); University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (FI); Palazzi, P. [Universita degli Studi di Siena (IT); Gruppo Collegato INFN di Siena, Siena (IT); Peroutka, Z. [University of West Bohemia, Plzen (CZ); Prochazka, J. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (CZ); Quinto, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (IT); Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica di Bari, Bari (IT); Radermacher, E. [CERN, Geneva (CH); Radicioni, E. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (IT); Ravotti, F. [CERN, Geneva (CH); Robutti, E. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (IT); Ropelewski, L. [CERN, Geneva (CH); Ruggiero, G. [CERN, Geneva (CH); Saarikko, H. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (FI); University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (FI); Scribano, A. [Universita degli Studi di Siena (IT); Gruppo Collegato INFN di Siena, Siena (IT); Smajek, J. [CERN, Geneva (CH); Snoeys, W. [CERN, Geneva (CH); Sodzawiczny, T. [CERN, Geneva (CH); Sziklai, J. [MTA Wigner Research Center, RMKI, Budapest (HU); Taylor, C. [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Physics, Cleveland, OH (US); Turini, N. [Universita degli Studi di Siena (IT); Gruppo Collegato INFN di Siena, Siena (IT); Vacek, V. [Czech Technical University, Prague (CZ); Welti, J. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (FI); University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (FI); Whitmore, J. [Penn State University, Department of Physics, University Park, PA (US); Wyszkowski, P. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (PL); Zielinski, K. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (PL); Collaboration: TOTEM Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    The pseudorapidity density of charged particles dN{sub ch}/dη is measured by the TOTEM experiment in proton-proton collisions at √(s) = 8 TeV within the range 3.9 < η < 4.7 and -6.95 < η < -6.9. Data were collected in a low intensity LHC run with collisions occurring at a distance of 11.25 m from the nominal interaction point. The data sample is expected to include 96-97 % of the inelastic proton-proton interactions. The measurement reported here considers charged particles with p{sub T} > 0 MeV/c, produced in inelastic interactions with at least one charged particle in -7 < η < -6 or 3.7 < η < 4.8. The dN{sub ch}/dη has been found to decrease with vertical stroke η vertical stroke, from 5.11 ± 0.73 at η = 3.95 to 1.81 ± 0.56 at η = -6.925. Several Monte Carlo generators are compared to the data and are found to be within the systematic uncertainty of the measurement. (orig.)

  12. Chemical composition, effective atomic number and electron density study of trommel sieve waste (TSW), Portland cement, lime, pointing and their admixtures with TSW in different proportions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Aygun, Murat; Erzeneoglu, Salih Zeki

    2010-01-01

    The trommel sieve waste (TSW) which forms during the boron ore production is considered to be a promising building material with its use as an admixture with Portland cement and is considered to be an alternative radiation shielding material, also. Thus, having knowledge on the chemical composition and radiation interaction properties of TSW as compared to other building materials is of importance. In the present study, chemical compositions of the materials used have been determined using a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (WDXRFS). Also, TSW, some commonly used building materials (Portland cement, lime and pointing) and their admixtures with TSW have been investigated in terms of total mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ), photon interaction cross sections (σ t ), effective atomic numbers (Z eff ) and effective electron densities (N e ) by using X-rays at 22.1, 25 keV and γ-rays at 88 keV photon energies. Possible conclusions were drawn with respect to the variations in photon energy and chemical composition.

  13. Chemical composition, effective atomic number and electron density study of trommel sieve waste (TSW), Portland cement, lime, pointing and their admixtures with TSW in different proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Aygun, Murat; Erzeneoğlu, Salih Zeki

    2010-06-01

    The trommel sieve waste (TSW) which forms during the boron ore production is considered to be a promising building material with its use as an admixture with Portland cement and is considered to be an alternative radiation shielding material, also. Thus, having knowledge on the chemical composition and radiation interaction properties of TSW as compared to other building materials is of importance. In the present study, chemical compositions of the materials used have been determined using a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (WDXRFS). Also, TSW, some commonly used building materials (Portland cement, lime and pointing) and their admixtures with TSW have been investigated in terms of total mass attenuation coefficients (mu/rho), photon interaction cross sections (sigma(t)), effective atomic numbers (Z(eff)) and effective electron densities (N(e)) by using X-rays at 22.1, 25keV and gamma-rays at 88keV photon energies. Possible conclusions were drawn with respect to the variations in photon energy and chemical composition. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inflammation in Heart Failure: known knowns and unknown unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Giuseppe; Jerie, Paul; Amiet, Philipp; Pandolfi, Stefano

    2017-08-01

    The review deals with inflammation in heart failure (HF). Many data show that systemic inflammation is frequent in HF and implicate that inflammation contributes to damage and dysfunction of the cardiovascular system. Areas Covered: Experimental data have been mainly obtained in acute laboratory animal models. It is questionable whether animals' data can be translated into clinical settings with patients with chronic HF who have concomitant pathologies. The idea of a common inflammatory pathway that characterizes all different forms of clinical HF is unrealistic. It seems realistic that inflammation differs in non-cardiac and cardiac diseases. Research therapeutic options address the use of inhibitors of cytokines, of agents antagonizing oxidative stress, of MMP and of PI3K signaling pathways. Expert Opinion: Considering the many unknowns in our knowledge it is not surprising that early trials aimed to antagonize inflammation in HF have been disappointing. We are far away from having solid therapeutic schedules to use immunomodulation in all subtypes of HF. However, modern trials on HF due to virus infections have proven that immunomodulation is therapeutically effective. We should wisely use the known facts and accept that we have many unknowns. By appropriate selection of the subtypes of HF we may be able to find the appropriate therapy against inflammation in HF.

  15. Intraabdominal abscessus of unknown etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intraabdominal abscesses are in 98-99% cases the result of secondary and only in 1-2% of primary peritonitis. They are easy and successfully diagnosed. Abdominal abscesses of unknown cause are extremely rare. Case Outline. The authors present a 68-year-old man, without significant data in past history, who suddenly developed epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting and leukocytosis which was treated with antibiotics resulting in the alleviation of complaints and reduction of white blood cells count. After five days ultrasonography showed incapsulated collection of dense fluid in the epigastrium confirmed by CT scan two days later. Upper endoscopy excluded ulcer and/or perforation of the stomach and duodenum. Under local anesthesia, through the upper part of the left rectal muscle, puncture followed by incision was done, and about 50 ml of dense pus was removed. Finger exploration of the cavity showed no foreign body within the cavity. Using drainage, the recovery was quick and uneventful. By preoperative and postoperative abdominal investigations no cause of the abscess was found. Two and a half years after surgery the patient remained symptom-free with normal clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings. Conclusion. The authors presented an intraabdominal abscess of unknown cause that was successfully treated with antibiotics, percutaneous puncture and drainage under local anaesthesia. In spite of all diagnostic methods the cause of the abscess could not be found. Thus, such a possibility, although being rare, should be taken into account.

  16. Information gain when measuring an unknown qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Gunnar

    2018-01-01

    In quantum information the fundamental information-containing system is the qubit. A measurement of a single qubit can at most yield one classical bit. However, a dichotomous measurement of an unknown qubit will yield much less information about the qubit state. We use Bayesian inference to compute how much information one progressively gets by making sucessive, individual measurements on an ensemble of identically prepared qubits. Perhaps surprisingly, even if the measurements are arranged so that each measurement yields one classical bit, that is, the two possible measurement outcomes are a priori equiprobable, it takes almost a handful of measurements before one has gained one bit of information about the gradually concentrated qubit probability density. We also show that by following a strategy that reaps the maximum information per measurement, we are led to a mutually unbiased basis as our measurement bases. This is a pleasing, although not entirely surprising, result.

  17. 'Poorly defined': unknown unknowns in New Zealand Rural Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, David; Lawrenson, Ross; Nixon, Garry

    2016-08-05

    There is a considerable mismatch between the population that accesses rural healthcare in New Zealand and the population defined as 'rural' using the current statistics New Zealand rural and urban categorisations. Statistics New Zealand definitions (based on population size or density) do not accurately identify the population of New Zealanders who actually access rural health services. In fact, around 40% of people who access rural health services are classified as 'urban' under the Statistics New Zealand definition, while a further 20% of people who are currently classified as 'rural' actually have ready access to urban health services. Although there is some recognition that current definitions are suboptimal, the extent of the uncertainty arising from these definitions is not widely appreciated. This mismatch is sufficient to potentially undermine the validity of both nationally-collated statistics and also any research undertaken using Statistics New Zealand data. Under these circumstances it is not surprising that the differences between rural and urban health care found in other countries with similar health services have been difficult to demonstrate in New Zealand. This article explains the extent of this mismatch and suggests how definitions of rural might be improved to allow a better understanding of New Zealand rural health.

  18. NOAA Point Shapefile - 100m2 Fish Density of El Seco, Puerto Rico, Project NF-09-01-USVI, 2009, WGS84 (NCEI Accession 0137091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains densities of fishes detected using mobile fisheries sonar on board the NOAA Ship Nancy Foster. The data were acquired in concert with a multibeam...

  19. NOAA Point Shapefile - 100m2 Fish Density of St. Johns Shelf, United States Virgin Islands, Project NF-10-03-USVI, 2010, WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains densities of fishes detected using mobile fisheries sonar on board the NOAA Ship Nancy Foster. The data were acquired in concert with a multibeam...

  20. NOAA Point Shapefile - 100m2 Fish Density of Grand Northeast Ecological Corridor, Puerto Rico, Project NF-13-02-PR, 2013, WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains densities of fishes detected using mobile fisheries sonar on board the NOAA Ship Nancy Foster. The data were acquired in concert with a multibeam...

  1. NOAA Point Shapefile - 100m2 Fish Density of Grand Northeast Ecological Corridor, Puerto Rico, Project NF-12-01-PR, 2012, WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains densities of fishes detected using mobile fisheries sonar on board the NOAA Ship Nancy Foster. The data were acquired in concert with a multibeam...

  2. NOAA Point Shapefile - 100m2 Fish Density for Virgin Passage, United States Virgin Islands, Project NF-10-03-USVI, 2010, WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains densities of fishes detected using mobile fisheries sonar on board the NOAA Ship Nancy Foster. The data were acquired in concert with a multibeam...

  3. NOAA Point Shapefile - 100m2 Fish Density of El Seco, Puerto Rico, Project NF-09-01-USVI, 2009, WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains densities of fishes detected using mobile fisheries sonar on board the NOAA Ship Nancy Foster. The data were acquired in concert with a multibeam...

  4. Iterative Selection of Unknown Weights in Direct Weight Optimization Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To the direct weight optimization identification of the nonlinear system, we add some linear terms about input sequences in the former linear affine function so as to approximate the nonlinear property. To choose the two classes of unknown weights in the more linear terms, this paper derives the detailed process on how to choose these unknown weights from theoretical analysis and engineering practice, respectively, and makes sure of their key roles between the unknown weights. From the theoretical analysis, the added unknown weights’ auxiliary role can be known in the whole process of approximating the nonlinear system. From the practical analysis, we learn how to transform one complex optimization problem to its corresponding common quadratic program problem. Then, the common quadratic program problem can be solved by the basic interior point method. Finally, the efficiency and possibility of the proposed strategies can be confirmed by the simulation results.

  5. Mitochondrial point mutation m.3243A > G associates with lower bone mineral density, thinner cortices and reduced bone strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdahl, Jakob Høgild; Frederiksen, Anja Lisbeth; Hansen, Stinus Jørn

    2017-01-01

    turnover markers (BTM) P1NP and CTX were measured. Cases and controls were well matched except for body weight, which was lower in cases (63.6 kg ± 18.1 vs. 74.6 kg ± 14.8, p ..., total hip and femoral neck in cases. Mean lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck T-scores were -1.5, -1.3 and -1.6 in cases, respectively, and -0.8, -0.3 and -0.7 in controls (all p  G mutation was associated with lower bone mineral density, cortical but not trabecular density...

  6. A Field Evaluation of the Time-of-Detection Method to Estimate Population Size and Density for Aural Avian Point Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew W. Alldredge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The time-of-detection method for aural avian point counts is a new method of estimating abundance, allowing for uncertain probability of detection. The method has been specifically designed to allow for variation in singing rates of birds. It involves dividing the time interval of the point count into several subintervals and recording the detection history of the subintervals when each bird sings. The method can be viewed as generating data equivalent to closed capture-recapture information. The method is different from the distance and multiple-observer methods in that it is not required that all the birds sing during the point count. As this method is new and there is some concern as to how well individual birds can be followed, we carried out a field test of the method using simulated known populations of singing birds, using a laptop computer to send signals to audio stations distributed around a point. The system mimics actual aural avian point counts, but also allows us to know the size and spatial distribution of the populations we are sampling. Fifty 8-min point counts (broken into four 2-min intervals using eight species of birds were simulated. Singing rate of an individual bird of a species was simulated following a Markovian process (singing bouts followed by periods of silence, which we felt was more realistic than a truly random process. The main emphasis of our paper is to compare results from species singing at (high and low homogenous rates per interval with those singing at (high and low heterogeneous rates. Population size was estimated accurately for the species simulated, with a high homogeneous probability of singing. Populations of simulated species with lower but homogeneous singing probabilities were somewhat underestimated. Populations of species simulated with heterogeneous singing probabilities were substantially underestimated. Underestimation was caused by both the very low detection probabilities of all distant

  7. Electron density characteristics in bond critical point (QTAIM) versus interaction energy components (SAPT): the case of charge-assisted hydrogen bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankiewicz, Barbara; Matczak, Piotr; Palusiak, Marcin

    2012-01-12

    Charge-assisted hydrogen bonds (CAHBs) of N-H···Cl, N-H···Br, and P-H···Cl type were investigated using advanced computational approach (MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory). The properties of electron density function defined in the framework of Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) were estimated as a function of distance in H-bridges. Additionally, the interaction energy decomposition was performed for H-bonded complexes with different H-bond lengths using the Symmetry-Adapted Perturbation Theory (SAPT). In this way both QTAIM parameters and SAPT energy components could be expressed as a function of the same variable, that is, the distance in H-bridge. A detailed analysis of the changes in QTAIM and SAPT parameters due to the changes in H···A distance revealed that, over some ranges of H···A distances, electrostatic, inductive and dispersive components of the SAPT interaction energy show a linear correlation with the value of the electron density at H-BCP ρ(BCP). The linear relation between the induction component, E(ind), and ρ(BCP) confirms numerically the intuitive expectation that the ρ(BCP) reflects directly the effects connected with the sharing of electron density between interacting centers. These conclusions are important in view of charge density studies performed for crystals in which the distance between atoms results not only from effects connected with the interaction between atomic centers directly involved in bonding, but also from packing effects which may strongly influence the length of the H-bond.

  8. Fast grasping of unknown objects using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qujiang; Chen, Guangming; Wisse, Martijn

    2017-09-01

    Fast grasping of unknown objects has crucial impact on the efficiency of robot manipulation especially subjected to unfamiliar environments. In order to accelerate grasping speed of unknown objects, principal component analysis is utilized to direct the grasping process. In particular, a single-view partial point cloud is constructed and grasp candidates are allocated along the principal axis. Force balance optimization is employed to analyze possible graspable areas. The obtained graspable area with the minimal resultant force is the best zone for the final grasping execution. It is shown that an unknown object can be more quickly grasped provided that the component analysis principle axis is determined using single-view partial point cloud. To cope with the grasp uncertainty, robot motion is assisted to obtain a new viewpoint. Virtual exploration and experimental tests are carried out to verify this fast gasping algorithm. Both simulation and experimental tests demonstrated excellent performances based on the results of grasping a series of unknown objects. To minimize the grasping uncertainty, the merits of the robot hardware with two 3D cameras can be utilized to suffice the partial point cloud. As a result of utilizing the robot hardware, the grasping reliance is highly enhanced. Therefore, this research demonstrates practical significance for increasing grasping speed and thus increasing robot efficiency under unpredictable environments.

  9. Fast grasping of unknown objects using principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qujiang Lei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast grasping of unknown objects has crucial impact on the efficiency of robot manipulation especially subjected to unfamiliar environments. In order to accelerate grasping speed of unknown objects, principal component analysis is utilized to direct the grasping process. In particular, a single-view partial point cloud is constructed and grasp candidates are allocated along the principal axis. Force balance optimization is employed to analyze possible graspable areas. The obtained graspable area with the minimal resultant force is the best zone for the final grasping execution. It is shown that an unknown object can be more quickly grasped provided that the component analysis principle axis is determined using single-view partial point cloud. To cope with the grasp uncertainty, robot motion is assisted to obtain a new viewpoint. Virtual exploration and experimental tests are carried out to verify this fast gasping algorithm. Both simulation and experimental tests demonstrated excellent performances based on the results of grasping a series of unknown objects. To minimize the grasping uncertainty, the merits of the robot hardware with two 3D cameras can be utilized to suffice the partial point cloud. As a result of utilizing the robot hardware, the grasping reliance is highly enhanced. Therefore, this research demonstrates practical significance for increasing grasping speed and thus increasing robot efficiency under unpredictable environments.

  10. Measurement of the forward charged particle pseudorapidity density in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV using a displaced interaction point

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Brücken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Covault, C.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Deile, M.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Georgiev, V.; Giani, S.; Grzanka, L.; Hammerbauer, J.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Karev, A.; Kašpar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrát, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J.; Lokajíček, M.V.; Losurdo, L.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Macrí, M.; Mäki, T.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Peroutka, Z.; Procházka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Scribano, A.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Sodzawiczny, T.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zielinski, K.

    2015-01-01

    The the pseudorapidity density of charged particles dN$_{ch}$/d$\\eta$ is measured by the TOTEM experiment in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV within the range 3.9 0 MeV/c, produced in inelastic interactions with at least one charged particle in −7 < $\\eta$ < −6 or 3.7< $\\eta$ < 4.8. The dN$_{ch}$/d$\\eta$ has been found to decrease with |$\\eta$|, from 5.11 ± 0.73 at $\\eta$ =3.95 to 1.81 ± 0.56 at $\\eta$ = −6.925. Several MC generators are compared to the data and are found to be within the systematic uncertainty of the measurement.

  11. Linear-scaling density-functional simulations of charged point defects in Al2O3 using hierarchical sparse matrix algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, N D M; Haynes, P D; Mostofi, A A; Payne, M C

    2010-09-21

    We present calculations of formation energies of defects in an ionic solid (Al(2)O(3)) extrapolated to the dilute limit, corresponding to a simulation cell of infinite size. The large-scale calculations required for this extrapolation are enabled by developments in the approach to parallel sparse matrix algebra operations, which are central to linear-scaling density-functional theory calculations. The computational cost of manipulating sparse matrices, whose sizes are determined by the large number of basis functions present, is greatly improved with this new approach. We present details of the sparse algebra scheme implemented in the ONETEP code using hierarchical sparsity patterns, and demonstrate its use in calculations on a wide range of systems, involving thousands of atoms on hundreds to thousands of parallel processes.

  12. Laboratory Density Functionals

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.

  13. Multifocal, chronic osteomyelitis of unknown etiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Feltham, C.; James, M.; Nespoli, L.; Tamaela, L.; Pavia Univ.; Municipal Hospital, Nelson; Medical School, Jakarta

    1985-01-01

    Four cases of multifocal osteomyelitis of unknown origin in childhood are reported. The variable clinical and radiographic appearances of the disease are illustrated and the diagnostic difficulties in the early stages of the disease are stressed. (orig.) [de

  14. A novel method to estimate blood flow velocity in the left atrial appendage using enhanced computed tomography: role of Hounsfield unit density ratio at two distinct points within the left atrial appendage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuoka, Ryobun; Kurita, Takashi; Kotake, Yasuhito; Akaiwa, Yuzuru; Hashiguchi, Naotaka; Motoki, Koichiro; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Kobuke, Kazuhiro; Iwanaga, Yoshitaka; Hirano, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Shunichi

    2017-07-01

    Low blood flow velocity in the left atrial appendage (LAA) indicates a high risk of thromboembolism. Although transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been the standard method with which to evaluate the LAA blood flow velocity, a clinically noninvasive method is desired. We hypothesized that the ratio of the Hounsfield unit (HU) density at two distinct points within the LAA represents the blood flow velocity in the LAA. We retrospectively investigated 60 consecutive patients with atrial fibrillation (paroxysmal type, n = 29) who underwent enhanced computed tomography (CT) and TEE. The peak emptying flow velocity in the LAA (LAAPV) was evaluated using TEE. HU density was measured at proximal and distal sites of the LAA (LAAp and LAAd) on CT images. The LAAd/LAAp ratio was correlated with the LAAPV (P velocity of the LAA can be estimated by the HU density ratio at distal and proximal sites within the LAA. Our method might be a feasible substitution for TEE to discriminate patients with a reduced LAAPV.

  15. Three-dimensional cinematography with control object of unknown shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapena, J; Harman, E A; Miller, J A

    1982-01-01

    A technique for reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) motion which involves a simple filming procedure but allows the deduction of coordinates in large object volumes was developed. Internal camera parameters are calculated from measurements of the film images of two calibrated crosses while external camera parameters are calculated from the film images of points in a control object of unknown shape but at least one known length. The control object, which includes the volume in which the activity is to take place, is formed by a series of poles placed at unknown locations, each carrying two targets. From the internal and external camera parameters, and from locations of the images of point in the films of the two cameras, 3D coordinates of the point can be calculated. Root mean square errors of the three coordinates of points in a large object volume (5m x 5m x 1.5m) were 15 mm, 13 mm, 13 mm and 6 mm, and relative errors in lengths averaged 0.5%, 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively.

  16. Bayesian modeling of unknown diseases for biosurveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanna; Cooper, Gregory F

    2009-11-14

    This paper investigates Bayesian modeling of unknown causes of events in the context of disease-outbreak detection. We introduce a Bayesian approach that models and detects both (1) known diseases (e.g., influenza and anthrax) by using informative prior probabilities and (2) unknown diseases (e.g., a new, highly contagious respiratory virus that has never been seen before) by using relatively non-informative prior probabilities. We report the results of simulation experiments which support that this modeling method can improve the detection of new disease outbreaks in a population. A key contribution of this paper is that it introduces a Bayesian approach for jointly modeling both known and unknown causes of events. Such modeling has broad applicability in medical informatics, where the space of known causes of outcomes of interest is seldom complete.

  17. Protocol for counterfactually transporting an unknown qubit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim eSalih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, Alice and Bob. Here, by using our dual version of the chained quantum Zeno effect to achieve a counterfactual CNOT gate, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob—no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement.

  18. Situation assessment for aggregated vehicle merging at an unknown location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaria, Kanupriya; Das, Suman; Hinman, Michael; Salerno, John; Bai, Li

    2005-05-01

    This paper introduces the merge at a point (MAP) algorithm to detect the vehicles convoys whose destination locations are unknown. The algorithm will predict the merged vehicles identification numbers in an iterative manner. We applied this method using the simulated Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) data. The technique is similar to the dead reckoning and Kalman filtering algorithms. This algorithm consists of following procedures: 1) approximates the destination locations for each vehicle using its tracks, 2) validates what vehicles are going to merge at these predicted destination locations using the minimum error solution (MES), and 3) predicts the future destination locations where the vehicles will be merged at for the next iteration. This algorithm will be iteratively processed until predicted destination locations converge. We can use this algorithm to associate the vehicles that will merge to some unknown destination locations. It also has the potential to identify the convoy names and the threats associated with these vehicle groups.

  19. Conquering the Unknown: Exploring the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    There are many challenges that lie ahead for families of children with special needs. It is indeed a time for conquering the unknown and diligently exploring the options in an effort to locate, understand, and ultimately embrace the as yet undiscovered beauties of the new setting. This paper will consider some of the issues relevant for parents,…

  20. Ovine wet carcass syndrome of unknown aetiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A condition of unknown aetiology, known as 'the wet sheep carcass syndrome' has led to the loss of about ... aetiology. Introduction. Wet sheep carcasses were seen with increasing frequency at abattoirs from January 1981. ... the holding pens, and transport stress. In the high incidence area (see Figure 1), feeding systems.

  1. Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Nishant; Ho, Shirley; Myers, Adam D.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Ross, Ashley J.; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Muna, Demitri; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe; Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; Schneider, Donald P.; Streblyanska, Alina; Weaver, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study

  2. Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Nishant; Ho, Shirley [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ross, Ashley J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Bahcall, Neta [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Brinkmann, Jonathan [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Muna, Demitri [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pâris, Isabelle [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Petitjean, Patrick [Université Paris 6 et CNRS, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis blvd. Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Streblyanska, Alina [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: nishanta@andrew.cmu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study.

  3. Christian Petzold’s melodramas : From unknown woman to reciprocal unknownness in Phoenix, Wolfsburg, and Barbara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staat, W.

    2016-01-01

    Stanley Cavell’s theory of film melodrama is used for Christian Petzold’s Phoenix, Wolfsburg, and Barbara. Key for Cavell’s understanding of classical Hollywood melodrama is his notion of the ‘unknown woman.’ Remarkably, Petzold’s more contemporary melodramas feature unknown, i.e. unacknowledged,

  4. Melanoma of unknown origin: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J

    2010-12-01

    The natural history of metastatic melanoma involving lymph nodes, in the absence of a known primary site (cutaneous, ocular or mucosal) has, to date, been poorly defined; and the optimal management of this rare subtype of disease is therefore unclear. Melanomas of unknown primary site (MUP) are estimated to comprise between 3.7 and 6% of all melanomas (Anbari et al. in Cancer 79:1861-1821, 1997).

  5. "Freud" and Bullitt: an unknown manuscript.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solms, Mark

    2006-01-01

    An English translation of a previously unknown manuscript by Freud is presented. The manuscript, originally prepared in 1931 for William Bullitt's psychobiography of Woodrow Wilson, provides a general theoretical introduction to psychoanalysis. It also includes an original interpretation of Christianity that postulates a deep-going continuity between Christ identification and latent homosexuality. An editorial introduction to the translation clarifies the nature and limits of Freud's involvement with Bullitt's controversial psychobiography.

  6. Multidimensional procurement auctions with unknown weights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Thomas

    This paper studies the consequences of holding a procurement auction when the principal chooses not to show its preferences. My paper extends the procurement auction model of Che (1993) to a situation where both the principal and the agents have private information. Thus, unknown parameters of bo...... gives rise to an analysis of a principal that can not fully commit to the outcome induced by the scoring rule. Therefore, my result apply to contract theory and it’s problems with imperfect commitment....

  7. Paramagnetic ionic liquids for measurements of density using magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwambok, David K; Thuo, Martin M; Atkinson, Manza B J; Mirica, Katherine A; Shapiro, Nathan D; Whitesides, George M

    2013-09-03

    Paramagnetic ionic liquids (PILs) provide new capabilities to measurements of density using magnetic levitation (MagLev). In a typical measurement, a diamagnetic object of unknown density is placed in a container containing a PIL. The container is placed between two magnets (typically NdFeB, oriented with like poles facing). The density of the diamagnetic object can be determined by measuring its position in the magnetic field along the vertical axis (levitation height, h), either as an absolute value or relative to internal standards of known density. For density measurements by MagLev, PILs have three advantages over solutions of paramagnetic salts in aqueous or organic solutions: (i) negligible vapor pressures; (ii) low melting points; (iii) high thermal stabilities. In addition, the densities, magnetic susceptibilities, glass transition temperatures, thermal decomposition temperatures, viscosities, and hydrophobicities of PILs can be tuned over broad ranges by choosing the cation-anion pair. The low melting points and high thermal stabilities of PILs provide large liquidus windows for density measurements. This paper demonstrates applications and advantages of PILs in density-based analyses using MagLev.

  8. Metastasis to neck from unknown primary tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, B.; Bosch, A.; Caldwell, W.L.; Frias, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The records of 54 consecutive patients who were irradiated for metastatic disease in the neck from an unknown primary tumor were reviewed. The overall survival results are comparable to those of other reported series. Patients with high or posterior cervical lymph node involvement were irradiated with fields including the nasopharynx and oropharynx. Patients with high neck nodes had a better survival rate than those with low neck nodes. The size of the neck tumors and the local control after treatment also have prognostic significance. (Auth.)

  9. To Know The Way To The Unknown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Mikkel Snorre Wilms

    2017-01-01

    , in various ways, expertise plays an important part in creative processes. However, the case studies also indicate that expertise sometimes leads to an entrenched perspective, in the sense that knowledge and experience may work as a path into the well-known rather than into the unknown. In this article......, these issues are explored with reference to different theoretical approaches to creativity and learning, including actor-network theory, the theory of blind variation and selective retention, and Csikszentmihalyi’s system model. Finally, some educational aspects and implications of this are discussed....

  10. Infectious causes of fever of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Alastair C; Moore, David A

    2015-06-01

    The causes of fever of unknown origin (FUO) are changing because advances in clinical practice and diagnostics have facilitated the identification of some infections. A variety of bacterial infections can cause FUO, and these can be divided into those that are easy to identify using culture and those that require serological or molecular tests for identification. A number of viral, parasitic and fungal infections can also cause prolonged fever. This article summarises the clinical features and diagnostic strategy of these infections. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  11. TOURISM PROMOTION FOR UNKNOWN AREAS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotache Lacramioara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an effort to unknown areas identity affirmation, through collaborative development of advertising mix, with an emphasis on virtual platforms as admissible solution for increasing visibility. Based upon comparative effective analysis of categories of communication particularities, it is suggested a positioning strategic solution, via virtual advertising platform as unique, integrated, complex and very attractive tourism product promotion, fitted for the internal and international tourism circuit. The active promotion of the specified territorial identity will launch a brand with an impact among tourists by using marketing techniques and innovating technical means and prioritizing tourism as a principal vector of local and regional development.

  12. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  13. Density games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Sebastian; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-10-07

    The basic idea of evolutionary game theory is that payoff determines reproductive rate. Successful individuals have a higher payoff and produce more offspring. But in evolutionary and ecological situations there is not only reproductive rate but also carrying capacity. Individuals may differ in their exposure to density limiting effects. Here we explore an alternative approach to evolutionary game theory by assuming that the payoff from the game determines the carrying capacity of individual phenotypes. Successful strategies are less affected by density limitation (crowding) and reach higher equilibrium abundance. We demonstrate similarities and differences between our framework and the standard replicator equation. Our equation is defined on the positive orthant, instead of the simplex, but has the same equilibrium points as the replicator equation. Linear stability analysis produces the classical conditions for asymptotic stability of pure strategies, but the stability properties of internal equilibria can differ in the two frameworks. For example, in a two-strategy game with an internal equilibrium that is always stable under the replicator equation, the corresponding equilibrium can be unstable in the new framework resulting in a limit cycle. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Method for solving the problem of nonlinear heating a cylindrical body with unknown initial temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaparova, N.

    2017-10-01

    We consider the problem of heating a cylindrical body with an internal thermal source when the main characteristics of the material such as specific heat, thermal conductivity and material density depend on the temperature at each point of the body. We can control the surface temperature and the heat flow from the surface inside the cylinder, but it is impossible to measure the temperature on axis and the initial temperature in the entire body. This problem is associated with the temperature measurement challenge and appears in non-destructive testing, in thermal monitoring of heat treatment and technical diagnostics of operating equipment. The mathematical model of heating is represented as nonlinear parabolic PDE with the unknown initial condition. In this problem, both the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are given and it is required to calculate the temperature values at the internal points of the body. To solve this problem, we propose the numerical method based on using of finite-difference equations and a regularization technique. The computational scheme involves solving the problem at each spatial step. As a result, we obtain the temperature function at each internal point of the cylinder beginning from the surface down to the axis. The application of the regularization technique ensures the stability of the scheme and allows us to significantly simplify the computational procedure. We investigate the stability of the computational scheme and prove the dependence of the stability on the discretization steps and error level of the measurement results. To obtain the experimental temperature error estimates, computational experiments were carried out. The computational results are consistent with the theoretical error estimates and confirm the efficiency and reliability of the proposed computational scheme.

  15. Carcinomatous Meningitis from Unknown Primary Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Favier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Carcinomatous meningitis (CM occurs in 3 to 8% of cancer patients. Patients present with a focal symptom, and multifocal signs are often found following neurological examination. The gold standard for diagnosis remains the demonstration of carcinomatous cells in the cerebrospinal fluid on cytopathological examination. Despite the poor prognosis, palliative treatment could improve quality of life and, in some cases, overall survival. We report on a patient who presented with vertigo, tinnitus and left-sided hearing loss followed by progressive diffuse facial nerve paralysis. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of CM. However, no primary tumor was discovered, even after multiple invasive investigations. This is the first reported case in the English-language medical literature of CM resulting from a carcinoma of unknown primary origin.

  16. The Unknown Component Problem Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Tiziano; Brayton, Robert K; Mishchenko, Alan; Petrenko, Alexandre; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The Problem of the Unknown Component: Theory and Applications addresses the issue of designing a component that, combined with a known part of a system, conforms to an overall specification. The authors tackle this problem by solving abstract equations over a language. The most general solutions are studied when both synchronous and parallel composition operators are used. The abstract equations are specialized to languages associated with important classes of automata used for modeling systems. The book is a blend of theory and practice, which includes a description of a software package with applications to sequential synthesis of finite state machines. Specific topologies interconnecting the components, exact and heuristic techniques, and optimization scenarios are studied. Finally the scope is enlarged to domains like testing, supervisory control, game theory and synthesis for special omega languages. The authors present original results of the authors along with an overview of existing ones.

  17. Fever of unknown origin in returning travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gaweł, Bartłomiej; Krankowska, Dagny; Wasilczuk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to discuss issues associated with the occurrence of febrile illnesses in leisure and business travellers, with a particular emphasis on fevers of unknown origin (FUO). FUO, apart from diarrhoeas, respiratory tract infections and skin lesions, are one of the most common health problems in travellers to tropical and subtropical countries. FUO are manifestations of various diseases, typically of infectious or invasive aetiology. In one out of 3 cases, the cause of a fever in travellers returning from the hot climate zone is malaria, and therefore diagnostic tests should first aim at ruling out this specific disease entity. Other illnesses with persistent fever include dengue, enteric fever, viral hepatitis A, bacterial diarrhoeas and rickettsioses. Fever may also occur in travellers suffering from diseases of non-tropical origin, e.g. cosmopolitan respiratory tract or urinary tract infections, also, fever may coexist with other illnesses or injuries (skin rashes, bites, burns).

  18. Fukushima to Jaitapur: battling fear of unknown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghate, Tushar P.; Takwale, M.G.; Dhole, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    After-Fukushima incident, various concerns were raised by public and media about the safety of nuclear installations operating all around the world. All nuclear related eventualities of the past were meshed with the present, adding disproportionate factors, unrealistic conclusions were framed based mostly on notions. Fear of unknown radiation syndrome has played up on the minds of common man. India, on a verge of entering path-breaking nuclear energy arena, obviously could not be isolated from such concerns. Such issues were discussed with ongoing protests at Jaitapur and Kudankulam. This paper discusses various concerns expressed after Fukushima incident, overview on proposed Jaitapur nuclear power plant and justifications to the raised concerns. (author)

  19. Education Through Exploration: Evaluating the Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Mastery of the peculiar and powerful practices of science is increasingly important for the average citizen. With the rise of the Internet, most of human knowledge is at our fingertips. As content becomes a commodity, success and survival aren't about who knows the most, but who is better able to explore the unknown, actively applying and extending knowledge through critical thinking and hypothesis-driven problem-solving. This applies to the economic livelihoods of individuals and to society at large as we grapple with climate change and other science-infused challenges. Unfortunately, science is too often taught as an encyclopedic collection of settled facts to be mastered rather than as a process of exploration that embraces curiosity, inquiry, testing, and communication to reduce uncertainty about the unknown. This problem is exacerbated by the continued prevalence of teacher-centric pedagogy, which promotes learning-from-authority and passive learning. The initial wave of massively open online courses (MOOCs) generally mimic this teaching style in virtual form. It is hypothesized that emerging digital teaching technologies can help address this challenge at Internet scale in "next generation" MOOCs and flipped classroom experiences. Interactive simulations, immersive virtual field trips, gamified elements, rapid adaptive feedback, intelligent tutoring systems, and personalized pathways, should motivate and enhance learning. Through lab-like projects and tutorials, students should be able to construct knowledge from interactive experiences, modeling the authentic practice of science while mastering complex concepts. Freed from lecturing, teaching staff should be available for direct and intense student-teacher interactions. These claims are difficult to evaluate with traditional assessment instruments, but digital technologies provide powerful new ways to evaluate student learning and learn from student behaviors. We will describe ongoing experiences with such

  20. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  1. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Unknown Risks: Parental Hesitation about Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, Laura L; Gutheil, Caitlin; Hootsmans, Norbert A M; Han, Paul K J

    2016-05-01

    This qualitative study of a select sample of vaccine-hesitant parents (VHPs) explores perceived and constructed personal judgments about the risks and uncertainties associated with vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) and how these subjective risk judgments influence parents' decisions about childhood vaccination. The study employed semistructured focus group interviews with 42 VHPs to elicit parents' perceptions and thought processes regarding the risks associated with vaccination and nonvaccination, the sources of these perceptions, and their approach to decision making about vaccination for their children. VHPs engage in various reasoning processes and tend to perceive risks of vaccination as greater than the risks of VPDs. At the same time, VHPs engage in other reasoning processes that lead them to perceive ambiguity in information about the harms of vaccination-citing concerns about the missing, conflicting, changing, or otherwise unreliable nature of information. VHPs' refusal of vaccination may reflect their aversion to both the risk and ambiguity they perceive to be associated with vaccination. Mitigating this vaccine hesitancy likely requires reconstructing the risks and ambiguities associated with vaccination-a challenging task that requires providing parents with meaningful evidence-based information on the known risks of vaccination versus VPDs and explicitly acknowledging the risks that remain truly unknown. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Automatic detection of the unknown number point targets in FMICW radar signals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rejfek, L.; Mošna, Zbyšek; Beran, L.; Fišer, O.; Dobrovolný, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 11 (2017), s. 116-120 ISSN 2313-626X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-24688S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : FMICW radar * 2D FFT * signal filtration * taraget detection * target parameter estimation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences http://science-gate.com/IJAAS/ Articles /2017-4-11/18%202017-4-11-pp.116-120.pdf

  4. Matrix- and tensor-based recommender systems for the discovery of currently unknown inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Atsuto; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Kashima, Hisashi; Tanaka, Isao

    2018-01-01

    Chemically relevant compositions (CRCs) and atomic arrangements of inorganic compounds have been collected as inorganic crystal structure databases. Machine learning is a unique approach to search for currently unknown CRCs from vast candidates. Herein we propose matrix- and tensor-based recommender system approaches to predict currently unknown CRCs from database entries of CRCs. Firstly, the performance of the recommender system approaches to discover currently unknown CRCs is examined. A Tucker decomposition recommender system shows the best discovery rate of CRCs as the majority of the top 100 recommended ternary and quaternary compositions correspond to CRCs. Secondly, systematic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to investigate the phase stability of the recommended compositions. The phase stability of the 27 compositions reveals that 23 currently unknown compounds are newly found to be stable. These results indicate that the recommender system has great potential to accelerate the discovery of new compounds.

  5. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  6. Estimation of symmetrical components and their orthogonal components under unknown frequencies and unknown biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhaobi; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Bo; Li, Hua

    2017-07-01

    An algorithm to estimate symmetrical components, orthogonal components and amplitudes of each sinusoidal component in three-phase power system signal under unknown frequencies and unknown biases is presented. The algorithm consists of a signal transformation, a biased adaptive orthogonal decomposition (BAOD) and a symmetrical component estimation. The BAOD can be regarded as a combination of a low pass filter and a number of three-phase frequency estimators in parallel. The symmetrical component estimation employs addition and multiplication rather than operations of trigonometry, division and phase shift. The decomposition property and the convergence property were investigated by Lyapunov theorem, integral manifold of slow adaptation and average method. Two design parameters, bandwidth parameter and frequency adaptive gains, give different effects on the convergence property of frequency adaptation and amplitude estimation independently. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the method.

  7. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  8. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...

  9. Density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.

    1984-07-01

    The state of the art of the density functional formalism (DFT) is reviewed. The theory is quantum statistical in nature; its simplest version is the well-known Thomas-Fermi theory. The DFT is a powerful formalism in which one can treat the effect of interactions in inhomogeneous systems. After some introductory material, the DFT is outlined from the two basic theorems, and various generalizations of the theorems appropriate to several physical situations are pointed out. Next, various approximations to the density functionals are presented and some practical schemes, discussed; the approximations include an electron gas of almost constant density and an electron gas of slowly varying density. Then applications of DFT in various diverse areas of physics (atomic systems, plasmas, liquids, nuclear matter) are mentioned, and its strengths and weaknesses are pointed out. In conclusion, more recent developments of DFT are indicated

  10. Testing the Granger noncausality hypothesis in stationary nonlinear models of unknown functional form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Péguin-Feissolle, Anne; Strikholm, Birgit; Teräsvirta, Timo

    In this paper we propose a general method for testing the Granger noncausality hypothesis in stationary nonlinear models of unknown functional form. These tests are based on a Taylor expansion of the nonlinear model around a given point in the sample space. We study the performance of our tests...

  11. Crowdsourcing the unknown: the satellite search for Genghis Khan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Y M Lin

    Full Text Available Massively parallel collaboration and emergent knowledge generation is described through a large scale survey for archaeological anomalies within ultra-high resolution earth-sensing satellite imagery. Over 10K online volunteers contributed 30K hours (3.4 years, examined 6,000 km², and generated 2.3 million feature categorizations. Motivated by the search for Genghis Khan's tomb, participants were tasked with finding an archaeological enigma that lacks any historical description of its potential visual appearance. Without a pre-existing reference for validation we turn towards consensus, defined by kernel density estimation, to pool human perception for "out of the ordinary" features across a vast landscape. This consensus served as the training mechanism within a self-evolving feedback loop between a participant and the crowd, essential driving a collective reasoning engine for anomaly detection. The resulting map led a National Geographic expedition to confirm 55 archaeological sites across a vast landscape. A increased ground-truthed accuracy was observed in those participants exposed to the peer feedback loop over those whom worked in isolation, suggesting collective reasoning can emerge within networked groups to outperform the aggregate independent ability of individuals to define the unknown.

  12. Conditioning in spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This tutorial provides an introduction to conditioning in spatial point processes or so-called Palm distributions. Initially, in the context of finite point processes, we give an explicit definition of Palm distributions in terms of their density functions. Then we review Palm distributions...... in the general case. Finally we discuss some examples of specific models and applications...

  13. Recursive confidence band construction for an unknown distribution function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Given a sample X1,...,Xn of independent observations from an unknown continuous distribution function F, the problem of constructing a confidence band for F is considered, which is a fundamental problem in statistical inference. This confidence band provides simultaneous inferences on all quantiles and also on all of the cumulative probabilities of the distribution, and so they are among the most important inference procedures that address the issue of multiplicity. A fully nonparametric approach is taken where no assumptions are made about the distribution function F. Historical approaches to this problem, such as Kolmogorov's famous () procedure, represent some of the earliest inference methodologies that address the issue of multiplicity. This is because a confidence band at a given confidence level 1-α allows inferences on all of the quantiles of the distribution, and also on all of the cumulative probabilities, at that specified confidence level. In this paper it is shown how recursive methodologies can be employed to construct both one-sided and two-sided confidence bands of various types. The first approach operates by putting bounds on the cumulative probabilities at the data points, and a recursive integration approach is described. The second approach operates by providing bounds on certain specified quantiles of the distribution, and its implementation using recursive summations of multinomial probabilities is described. These recursive methodologies are illustrated with examples, and R code is available for their implementation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Determination of the origin of unknown irradiated nuclear fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, G

    2006-01-01

    An isotopic fingerprinting method is presented to determine the origin of unknown nuclear material with forensic importance. Spent nuclear fuel of known origin has been considered as the 'unknown' nuclear material in order to demonstrate the method and verify its prediction capabilities. The method compares, using factor analysis, the measured U, Pu isotopic compositions of the 'unknown' material with U, Pu isotopic compositions simulating well known spent fuels from a range of commercial nuclear power stations. Then, the 'unknown' fuel has the same origin as the commercial fuel with which it exhibits the highest similarity in U, Pu compositions.

  15. Determination of the origin of unknown irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolaou, G.

    2006-01-01

    An isotopic fingerprinting method is presented to determine the origin of unknown nuclear material with forensic importance. Spent nuclear fuel of known origin has been considered as the 'unknown' nuclear material in order to demonstrate the method and verify its prediction capabilities. The method compares, using factor analysis, the measured U, Pu isotopic compositions of the 'unknown' material with U, Pu isotopic compositions simulating well known spent fuels from a range of commercial nuclear power stations. Then, the 'unknown' fuel has the same origin as the commercial fuel with which it exhibits the highest similarity in U, Pu compositions

  16. Kriging with Unknown Variance Components for Regional Ionospheric Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric delay effect is a critical issue that limits the accuracy of precise Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS positioning and navigation for single-frequency users, especially in mid- and low-latitude regions where variations in the ionosphere are larger. Kriging spatial interpolation techniques have been recently introduced to model the spatial correlation and variability of ionosphere, which intrinsically assume that the ionosphere field is stochastically stationary but does not take the random observational errors into account. In this paper, by treating the spatial statistical information on ionosphere as prior knowledge and based on Total Electron Content (TEC semivariogram analysis, we use Kriging techniques to spatially interpolate TEC values. By assuming that the stochastic models of both the ionospheric signals and measurement errors are only known up to some unknown factors, we propose a new Kriging spatial interpolation method with unknown variance components for both the signals of ionosphere and TEC measurements. Variance component estimation has been integrated with Kriging to reconstruct regional ionospheric delays. The method has been applied to data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC and compared with the ordinary Kriging and polynomial interpolations with spherical cap harmonic functions, polynomial functions and low-degree spherical harmonic functions. The statistics of results indicate that the daily ionospheric variations during the experimental period characterized by the proposed approach have good agreement with the other methods, ranging from 10 to 80 TEC Unit (TECU, 1 TECU = 1 × 1016 electrons/m2 with an overall mean of 28.2 TECU. The proposed method can produce more appropriate estimations whose general TEC level is as smooth as the ordinary Kriging but with a smaller standard deviation around 3 TECU than others. The residual results show that the interpolation precision of the

  17. Kriging with Unknown Variance Components for Regional Ionospheric Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; Zhang, Hongping; Xu, Peiliang; Geng, Jianghui; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jingnan

    2017-02-27

    Ionospheric delay effect is a critical issue that limits the accuracy of precise Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning and navigation for single-frequency users, especially in mid- and low-latitude regions where variations in the ionosphere are larger. Kriging spatial interpolation techniques have been recently introduced to model the spatial correlation and variability of ionosphere, which intrinsically assume that the ionosphere field is stochastically stationary but does not take the random observational errors into account. In this paper, by treating the spatial statistical information on ionosphere as prior knowledge and based on Total Electron Content (TEC) semivariogram analysis, we use Kriging techniques to spatially interpolate TEC values. By assuming that the stochastic models of both the ionospheric signals and measurement errors are only known up to some unknown factors, we propose a new Kriging spatial interpolation method with unknown variance components for both the signals of ionosphere and TEC measurements. Variance component estimation has been integrated with Kriging to reconstruct regional ionospheric delays. The method has been applied to data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) and compared with the ordinary Kriging and polynomial interpolations with spherical cap harmonic functions, polynomial functions and low-degree spherical harmonic functions. The statistics of results indicate that the daily ionospheric variations during the experimental period characterized by the proposed approach have good agreement with the other methods, ranging from 10 to 80 TEC Unit (TECU, 1 TECU = 1 × 10 16 electrons/m²) with an overall mean of 28.2 TECU. The proposed method can produce more appropriate estimations whose general TEC level is as smooth as the ordinary Kriging but with a smaller standard deviation around 3 TECU than others. The residual results show that the interpolation precision of the new proposed

  18. Kriging with Unknown Variance Components for Regional Ionospheric Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; Zhang, Hongping; Xu, Peiliang; Geng, Jianghui; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jingnan

    2017-01-01

    Ionospheric delay effect is a critical issue that limits the accuracy of precise Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning and navigation for single-frequency users, especially in mid- and low-latitude regions where variations in the ionosphere are larger. Kriging spatial interpolation techniques have been recently introduced to model the spatial correlation and variability of ionosphere, which intrinsically assume that the ionosphere field is stochastically stationary but does not take the random observational errors into account. In this paper, by treating the spatial statistical information on ionosphere as prior knowledge and based on Total Electron Content (TEC) semivariogram analysis, we use Kriging techniques to spatially interpolate TEC values. By assuming that the stochastic models of both the ionospheric signals and measurement errors are only known up to some unknown factors, we propose a new Kriging spatial interpolation method with unknown variance components for both the signals of ionosphere and TEC measurements. Variance component estimation has been integrated with Kriging to reconstruct regional ionospheric delays. The method has been applied to data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) and compared with the ordinary Kriging and polynomial interpolations with spherical cap harmonic functions, polynomial functions and low-degree spherical harmonic functions. The statistics of results indicate that the daily ionospheric variations during the experimental period characterized by the proposed approach have good agreement with the other methods, ranging from 10 to 80 TEC Unit (TECU, 1 TECU = 1 × 1016 electrons/m2) with an overall mean of 28.2 TECU. The proposed method can produce more appropriate estimations whose general TEC level is as smooth as the ordinary Kriging but with a smaller standard deviation around 3 TECU than others. The residual results show that the interpolation precision of the new proposed

  19. RBF neural network based H∞ synchronization for unknown chaotic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radial Basis Function Neural Network H∞ synchronization (RBFNNHS) strategy, for unknown chaotic systems in ... lation, the RBFNNHS controller and the learning laws are presented to reduce the effect of disturbance to an ... unknown chaotic systems; linear matrix inequality (LMI); learning law. 1. Introduction. Since the ...

  20. Level density of 57Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, V.; Boukharouba, N.; Brient, C.E.; Grimes, S.M.; Pedroni, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    Levels in 57 Co have been studied in the region of resolved levels (E 57 Fe(p,n) 57 Co neutron spectrum with resolution ΔE∼5 keV. Seventeen previously unknown levels are located. Level density parameters in the continuum region are deduced from thick target measurements of the same reaction and additional level density information is deduced from Ericson fluctuation studies of the reaction 56 Fe(p,n) 56 Co. A set of level density parameters is found which describes the level density of 57 Co at energies up to 14 MeV. Efforts to obtain level density information from the 56 Fe(d,n) 57 Co reaction were unsuccessful, but estimates of the fraction of the deuteron absorption cross section corresponding to compound nucleus formation are obtained

  1. Importing low-density ideas to high-density revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnholtz, Jens; Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Ibsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Why did union officials from a high-union-density country like Denmark choose to import an organising strategy from low-density countries such as the US and the UK? Drawing on in-depth interviews with key union officials and internal documents, the authors of this article argue two key points. Fi...

  2. Regional 4-D modeling of the ionospheric electron density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Bilitza, D.; Shum, C. K.; Zeilhofer, C.

    2008-08-01

    The knowledge of the electron density is the key point in correcting ionospheric delays of electromagnetic measurements and in studying the ionosphere. During the last decade GNSS, in particular GPS, has become a promising tool for monitoring the total electron content (TEC), i.e., the integral of the electron density along the ray-path between the transmitting satellite and the receiver. Hence, geometry-free GNSS measurements provide informations on the electron density, which is basically a four-dimensional function depending on spatial position and time. In addition, these GNSS measurements can be combined with other available data including nadir, over-ocean TEC observations from dual-frequency radar altimetry (T/P, JASON, ENVISAT), and TECs from GPS-LEO occultation systems (e.g., FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC, CHAMP) with heterogeneous sampling and accuracy. In this paper, we present different multi-dimensional approaches for modeling spatio-temporal variations of the ionospheric electron density. To be more specific, we split the target function into a reference part, computed from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), and an unknown correction term. Due to the localizing feature of B-spline functions we apply tensor-product spline expansions to model the correction term in a certain multi-dimensional region either completely or partly. Furthermore, the multi-resolution representation derived from wavelet analysis allows monitoring the ionosphere at different resolutions levels. For demonstration we apply three approaches to electron density data over South America.

  3. Bayesian analysis of Markov point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Kasper Klitgaard; Møller, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Recently Møller, Pettitt, Berthelsen and Reeves introduced a new MCMC methodology for drawing samples from a posterior distribution when the likelihood function is only specified up to a normalising constant. We illustrate the method in the setting of Bayesian inference for Markov point processes...... a partially ordered Markov point process as the auxiliary variable. As the method requires simulation from the "unknown" likelihood, perfect simulation algorithms for spatial point processes become useful....

  4. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone ... to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether ...

  5. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

  6. Using the Wheatstone Bridge to Compute Unknown Resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document presents a secondary level physics unit which introduces students to the Wheatstone Bridge, its use in determining the value of unknown resistors, and the effects of wiring resistors in series or in parallel. (SL)

  7. Stochastic Online Learning in Dynamic Networks under Unknown Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-02

    Stochastic Online Learning in Dynamic Networks under Unknown Models This research aims to develop fundamental theories and practical algorithms for...12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Online learning , multi-armed bandit, dynamic networks REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S... Online Learning in Dynamic Networks under Unknown Models Report Title This research aims to develop fundamental theories and practical algorithms for

  8. A sequential point process model and Bayesian inference for spatial point patterns with linear structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    We introduce a flexible spatial point process model for spatial point patterns exhibiting linear structures, without incorporating a latent line process. The model is given by an underlying sequential point process model, i.e. each new point is generated given the previous points. Under this model...... points is such that the dependent cluster point is likely to occur closely to a previous cluster point. We demonstrate the flexibility of the model for producing point patterns with linear structures, and propose to use the model as the likelihood in a Bayesian setting when analyzing a spatial point...... pattern exhibiting linear structures but where the exact mechanism responsible for the formations of lines is unknown. We illustrate this methodology by analyzing two spatial point pattern data sets (locations of bronze age graves in Denmark and locations of mountain tops in Spain) without knowing which...

  9. A novel algorithm for fast grasping of unknown objects using C-shape configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qujiang; Chen, Guangming; Meijer, Jonathan; Wisse, Martijn

    2018-02-01

    Increasing grasping efficiency is very important for the robots to grasp unknown objects especially subjected to unfamiliar environments. To achieve this, a new algorithm is proposed based on the C-shape configuration. Specifically, the geometric model of the used under-actuated gripper is approximated as a C-shape. To obtain an appropriate graspable position, this C-shape configuration is applied to fit geometric model of an unknown object. The geometric model of unknown object is constructed by using a single-view partial point cloud. To examine the algorithm using simulations, a comparison of the commonly used motion planners is made. The motion planner with the highest number of solved runs, lowest computing time and the shortest path length is chosen to execute grasps found by this grasping algorithm. The simulation results demonstrate that excellent grasping efficiency is achieved by adopting our algorithm. To validate this algorithm, experiment tests are carried out using a UR5 robot arm and an under-actuated gripper. The experimental results show that steady grasping actions are obtained. Hence, this research provides a novel algorithm for fast grasping of unknown objects.

  10. A novel algorithm for fast grasping of unknown objects using C-shape configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qujiang Lei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing grasping efficiency is very important for the robots to grasp unknown objects especially subjected to unfamiliar environments. To achieve this, a new algorithm is proposed based on the C-shape configuration. Specifically, the geometric model of the used under-actuated gripper is approximated as a C-shape. To obtain an appropriate graspable position, this C-shape configuration is applied to fit geometric model of an unknown object. The geometric model of unknown object is constructed by using a single-view partial point cloud. To examine the algorithm using simulations, a comparison of the commonly used motion planners is made. The motion planner with the highest number of solved runs, lowest computing time and the shortest path length is chosen to execute grasps found by this grasping algorithm. The simulation results demonstrate that excellent grasping efficiency is achieved by adopting our algorithm. To validate this algorithm, experiment tests are carried out using a UR5 robot arm and an under-actuated gripper. The experimental results show that steady grasping actions are obtained. Hence, this research provides a novel algorithm for fast grasping of unknown objects.

  11. Hidden treasures - 50 km points of interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommi, Matias; Kortelainen, Jaana

    2015-04-01

    Tampere is third largest city in Finland and a regional centre. During 70's there occurred several communal mergers. Nowadays this local area has both strong and diversed identity - from wilderness and agricultural fields to high density city living. Outside the city center there are interesting geological points unknown for modern city settlers. There is even a local proverb, "Go abroad to Teisko!". That is the area the Hidden Treasures -student project is focused on. Our school Tammerkoski Upper Secondary School (or Gymnasium) has emphasis on visual arts. We are going to offer our art students scientific and artistic experiences and knowledge about the hidden treasures of Teisko area and involve the Teisko inhabitants into this project. Hidden treasures - Precambrian subduction zone and a volcanism belt with dense bed of gold (Au) and arsenic (As), operating goldmines and quarries of minerals and metamorphic slates. - North of subduction zone a homogenic precambrian magmastone area with quarries, products known as Kuru Grey. - Former ashores of post-glasial Lake Näsijärvi and it's sediments enabled the developing agriculture and sustained settlement. Nowadays these ashores have both scenery and biodiversity values. - Old cattle sheds and dairy buildings made of local granite stones related to cultural stonebuilding inheritance. - Local active community of Kapee, about 100 inhabitants. Students will discover information of these "hidden" phenomena, and rendering this information trough Enviromental Art Method. Final form of this project will be published in several artistic and informative geocaches. These caches are achieved by a GPS-based special Hidden Treasures Cycling Route and by a website guiding people to find these hidden points of interests.

  12. Grasping Unknown Objects in an Early Cognitive Vision System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, Mila

    2011-01-01

    Grasping of unknown objects presents an important and challenging part of robot manipulation. The growing area of service robotics depends upon the ability of robots to autonomously grasp and manipulate a wide range of objects in everyday environments. Simple, non task-specific grasps of unknown ...... and comparing vision-based grasping methods, and the creation of algorithms for bootstrapping a process of acquiring world understanding for artificial cognitive agents....... presents a system for robotic grasping of unknown objects us- ing stereo vision. Grasps are defined based on contour and surface information provided by the Early Cognitive Vision System, that organizes visual informa- tion into a biologically motivated hierarchical representation. The contributions...... of the thesis are: the extension of the Early Cognitive Vision representation with a new type of feature hierarchy in the texture domain, the definition and evaluation of contour based grasping methods, the definition and evaluation of surface based grasping methods, the definition of a benchmark for testing...

  13. A novel KFCM based fault diagnosis method for unknown faults in satellite reaction wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Di; Sarosh, Ali; Dong, Yun-Feng

    2012-03-01

    Reaction wheels are one of the most critical components of the satellite attitude control system, therefore correct diagnosis of their faults is quintessential for efficient operation of these spacecraft. The known faults in any of the subsystems are often diagnosed by supervised learning algorithms, however, this method fails to work correctly when a new or unknown fault occurs. In such cases an unsupervised learning algorithm becomes essential for obtaining the correct diagnosis. Kernel Fuzzy C-Means (KFCM) is one of the unsupervised algorithms, although it has its own limitations; however in this paper a novel method has been proposed for conditioning of KFCM method (C-KFCM) so that it can be effectively used for fault diagnosis of both known and unknown faults as in satellite reaction wheels. The C-KFCM approach involves determination of exact class centers from the data of known faults, in this way discrete number of fault classes are determined at the start. Similarity parameters are derived and determined for each of the fault data point. Thereafter depending on the similarity threshold each data point is issued with a class label. The high similarity points fall into one of the 'known-fault' classes while the low similarity points are labeled as 'unknown-faults'. Simulation results show that as compared to the supervised algorithm such as neural network, the C-KFCM method can effectively cluster historical fault data (as in reaction wheels) and diagnose the faults to an accuracy of more than 91%. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

    2010-03-01

    Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene

  15. Adaptive Incentive Controls for Stackelberg Games with Unknown Cost Functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    APR EZT:: F I AN 73S e OsL:-: UNCLASSI?:-- Q4~.’~- .A.., 6, *~*i i~~*~~*.- U ADAPTIVE INCENTIVE CONTROLS FOR STACKELBERG GAMES WITH UNKNOWN COST...AD-A161 885 ADAPTIVE INCENTIVE CONTROLS FOR STACKELBERG GAMES WITH i/1 UNKNOWN COST FUNCTIONALSCU) ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA DECISION AND CONTROL LAB T...ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7.. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION CoriaeLcenef~pda~ Joint Services Electronics Program Laboratory, Univ. of Illinois N/A

  16. Biomarkers for Ectopic Pregnancy and Pregnancy of Unknown Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Suneeta; Barnhart, Kurt T.

    2013-01-01

    Early pregnancy failure is the most common complication of pregnancy, and 1–2% of all pregnancies will be ectopic. As one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and determining the fate of a pregnancy of unknown location are of great clinical concern. Several serum and plasma biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy have been investigated independently and in combination. The following is a review of the state of biomarker discovery and development for ectopic pregnancy and pregnancy of unknown location. PMID:23290746

  17. Quantum Sharing an Unknown Multi-Particle State via POVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jia-Yin; Mo, Zhi-Wen

    2013-02-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to present a new tripartite quantum state sharing using partially quantum resources. The first scheme is to probabilistically split an unknown n-particle state using pre-shared a partially entangled four-particle cluster state as quantum resource by constructing some proper POVM. This scheme is further extended to share an unknown multi-particle cluster state using different states as quantum resources. Our schemes with general quantum channels are useful for various quantum information processing and quantum network tasks.

  18. Prediction of Primary Tumors in Cancers of Unknown Primary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dan; Nielsen, Svend; Pedersen, Christian N S

    2017-01-01

    treatment choice and thus improve the clinical outcome. In this paper, we present a new method for predicting the location of the primary tumor using gene expression data: locating cancers of unknown primary (LoCUP). The method models the data as a mixture of normal and tumor cells and thus allows correct......A cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a metastatic cancer for which standard diagnostic tests fail to identify the location of the primary tumor. CUPs account for 3-5% of cancer cases. Using molecular data to determine the location of the primary tumor in such cases can help doctors make the right...

  19. Adaptive fuzzy prescribed performance control for MIMO nonlinear systems with unknown control direction and unknown dead-zone inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wuxi; Luo, Rui; Li, Baoquan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an adaptive fuzzy prescribed performance control approach is developed for a class of uncertain multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear systems with unknown control direction and unknown dead-zone inputs. The properties of symmetric matrix are exploited to design adaptive fuzzy prescribed performance controller, and a Nussbaum-type function is incorporated in the controller to estimate the unknown control direction. This method has two prominent advantages: it does not require the priori knowledge of control direction and only three parameters need to be updated on-line for this MIMO systems. It is proved that all the signals in the resulting closed-loop system are bounded and that the tracking errors converge to a small residual set with the prescribed performance bounds. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is validated by simulation results. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Liability for Unknown Risks: A Law and Economics Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Faure (Michael); L.T. Visscher (Louis); F. Weber (Franziska)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn the law and economics literature liability is generally regarded as an instrument which provides potential tortfeasors with incentives for optimal care taking. The question, however, arises whether liability can still provide those incentives when risks are unknown. That is the

  1. Prevalence and predictors of unknown HIV status among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sum test and logistic regression were used to test associations. Results: The prevalence of unknown HIV status was ... and occurs in utero, during labour and delivery and during breastfeeding1. Without any intervention, the MTCT rate ... transport costs to health facilities. Other service delivery factors assessed included ...

  2. Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolski, J.A.; Ho, F.C.; Waldorf, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results are given of the analysis at five different laboratories of an unknown optical multilayer coating. In all, eleven different analytical and laboratory techniques were applied to the problem. The multilayer nominally consisted of three dielectric and two metallic layers. It was demonstrated convincingly that with present day techniques it is possible to determine the basic structure of such a coating

  3. Clostridium difficile: A healthcare-associated infection of unknown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clostridium difficile: A healthcare-associated infection of unknown significance in adults in sub-Saharan Africa. ... Abstract. Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes a high burden of disease in high-resource healthcare systems, with significant morbidity, mortality, and financial implications. CDI is a ...

  4. Vision-based autonomous grasping of unknown piled objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Computer vision techniques have been used to develop a vision-based grasping capability for autonomously picking and placing unknown piled objects. This work is currently being applied to the problem of hazardous waste sorting in support of the Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Operations Program

  5. Editoria: EBOLA: Fear of the unknown | Comoro | Tanzania Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editoria: EBOLA: Fear of the unknown. C. Comoro, J.

  6. Prevalence and treatment outcome of cervicitis of unknown etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephanie N; Lensing, Shelly; Schwebke, Jane; Lillis, Rebecca; Mena, Leandro A; Nelson, Anita L; Rinaldi, Anne; Saylor, Lisa; McNeil, Linda; Lee, Jeannette Y

    2013-05-01

    Mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC) is a clinical syndrome characterized by mucopurulent discharge from the cervix and other signs of inflammation. This was a phase III, multicenter study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of placebo versus empiric antibiotic treatment for clinical cure of MPC of unknown etiology at 2-month follow-up. Unfortunately, enrollment was terminated because of low accrual of women with cervicitis of unknown etiology, but important prevalence and outcome data were obtained. Five hundred seventy-seven women were screened for MPC. Women with MPC were randomized to the treatment or placebo arm of the study, and the 2 arms were evaluated based on the etiology, clinical cure rates, adverse events (AEs), and rates of pelvic inflammatory disease. One hundred thirty-one (23% [131/577]) screened women were found to have MPC. Eighty-seven were enrolled and randomized. After excluding women with sexually transmitted infections and other exclusions, 61% (53/87) had cervicitis of unknown etiology. The overall clinical failure rate was 30% (10/33), and the clinical cure rate was only 24% (8/33). Rates were not significantly different between the arms. There were 24 gastrointestinal AEs in the treatment arm compared with 1 AE in the placebo arm. More than half of the cases of MPC were of unknown etiology. Clinical cure rates for the placebo and treatment arms were extremely low, with most women concluding the study with a partial response. Gastrointestinal AEs were higher in the treatment arm.

  7. Severe scratcher-reaction: an unknown health hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Sauer Mikkelsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink.

  8. Bayesian Compressed Sensing with Unknown Measurement Noise Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn; Pedersen, Niels Lovmand

    2013-01-01

    In sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) approximate Bayesian inference is applied to find sparse estimates from observations corrupted by additive noise. Current literature only vaguely considers the case where the noise level is unknown a priori. We show that for most state-of-the-art reconstruction a...

  9. Inventory control in case of unknown demand and control parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with unknown demand and control parameters in inventory control. Inventory control involves decisions on what to order when and in what quantity. These decisions are based on information about the demand. Models are constructed using complete demand information; these models ensure

  10. A Size Exclusion Chromatography Laboratory with Unknowns for Introductory Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntee, Edward J.; Graham, Kate J.; Colosky, Edward C.; Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2015-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography is an important technique in the separation of biological and polymeric samples by molecular weight. While a number of laboratory experiments have been published that use this technique for the purification of large molecules, this is the first report of an experiment that focuses on purifying an unknown small…

  11. Metastatic Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Presenting as Jugular Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Cheriyan Modayil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Jugular venous thrombosis is unusual and is associated with central venous catheterisation, intravenous drug abuse and head and neck sepsis. It is rarely associated with malignancy. We report a case of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary in a forty year old female which presented with jugular venous thrombosis. The discussion includes investigation and treatment options for this condition.

  12. ELMs, strike point jumps and SOL currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Emilia R.; Jachmich, S.; Villone, F.; Hawkes, N.; Guenther, K.; Korotkov, A.; Stamp, M.; Andrew, P.; Conboy, J.; Mattews, G.F.; Corre, Y.; Loarte, A.; Pitts, R.A.; Cenedese, A.; Kempenaars, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Rachlew, E.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma equilibria before and after ELMs in JET are investigated. ELMs could be associated with fragile equilibria and separatrix instabilities: previously closed field lines would open up, releasing plasma current and leading to the formation of a new, smaller separatrix. This model could explain experimental observations of sudden jumps and shifts in strike point positions. Novel instability mechanisms are discussed to explain the large transient jumps observed in the strike point position: positive X-point instability, due to positive toroidal current density at the X-point and diamagnetic instability, due to negative inboard toroidal current density. (author)

  13. Bright point study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transition region and coronal observations of bright points by instruments aboard the Solar Maximum Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright points and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona

  14. Bayesian source term determination with unknown covariance of measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Alkomiet; Tichý, Ondřej; Šmídl, Václav

    2017-04-01

    Determination of a source term of release of a hazardous material into the atmosphere is a very important task for emergency response. We are concerned with the problem of estimation of the source term in the conventional linear inverse problem, y = Mx, where the relationship between the vector of observations y is described using the source-receptor-sensitivity (SRS) matrix M and the unknown source term x. Since the system is typically ill-conditioned, the problem is recast as an optimization problem minR,B(y - Mx)TR-1(y - Mx) + xTB-1x. The first term minimizes the error of the measurements with covariance matrix R, and the second term is a regularization of the source term. There are different types of regularization arising for different choices of matrices R and B, for example, Tikhonov regularization assumes covariance matrix B as the identity matrix multiplied by scalar parameter. In this contribution, we adopt a Bayesian approach to make inference on the unknown source term x as well as unknown R and B. We assume prior on x to be a Gaussian with zero mean and unknown diagonal covariance matrix B. The covariance matrix of the likelihood R is also unknown. We consider two potential choices of the structure of the matrix R. First is the diagonal matrix and the second is a locally correlated structure using information on topology of the measuring network. Since the inference of the model is intractable, iterative variational Bayes algorithm is used for simultaneous estimation of all model parameters. The practical usefulness of our contribution is demonstrated on an application of the resulting algorithm to real data from the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX). This research is supported by EEA/Norwegian Financial Mechanism under project MSMT-28477/2014 Source-Term Determination of Radionuclide Releases by Inverse Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling (STRADI).

  15. Neurobiology: Setting the Set Point for Neural Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Torrey L S; Aizenman, Carlos D

    2015-12-07

    Neural homeostasis allows neural networks to maintain a dynamic range around a given set point. How this set point is determined remains unknown. New evidence shows that alterations of activity during a critical developmental period can alter the homeostatic set point, resulting in epilepsy-like activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nonlinear robust controller design for multi-robot systems with unknown payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. D.; Anderson, J. N.; Homaifar, A.; Lai, H. Y.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the control problem of a multi-robot system handling a payload with unknown mass properties. Force constraints at the grasp points are considered. Robust control schemes are proposed that cope with the model uncertainty and achieve asymptotic path tracking. To deal with the force constraints, a strategy for optimally sharing the task is suggested. This strategy basically consists of two steps. The first detects the robots that need help and the second arranges that help. It is shown that the overall system is not only robust to uncertain payload parameters, but also satisfies the force constraints.

  17. Unknown Regulations in Ladino from Salonika (ca. 1740: Ethos, Ideal, Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaron Ben-Naeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the mid-1930s, Viennese bookseller David Fränkel described a booklet containing regulations in Ladino. Its whereabouts were unknown until it recently appeared in a public auction in Jerusalem. Though Fränkel attributed it to Istanbul, his description leaves no room for doubt that this is the same text, but internal evidence points to Salonika. The four-page booklet is unsigned and undated; one can only conjecture that it was printed in the mid-1740s upon the initiative of the rabbinical and communal leadership in Salonika. It contains two groups of regulations…

  18. The determination of an unknown boundary condition in a fractional diffusion equation

    KAUST Repository

    Rundell, William

    2013-07-01

    In this article we consider an inverse boundary problem, in which the unknown boundary function ∂u/∂v = f(u) is to be determined from overposed data in a time-fractional diffusion equation. Based upon the free space fundamental solution, we derive a representation for the solution f as a nonlinear Volterra integral equation of second kind with a weakly singular kernel. Uniqueness and reconstructibility by iteration is an immediate result of a priori assumption on f and applying the fixed point theorem. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  19. Address Points - Allegheny County Address Points 201601

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This dataset contains Address Points in Allegheny County. The Address Points were created by GDR for the Allegheny County CAD project, October 2008. Data is updated...

  20. Towards high-speed autonomous navigation of unknown environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Charles; Roy, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we summarize recent research enabling high-speed navigation in unknown environments for dynamic robots that perceive the world through onboard sensors. Many existing solutions to this problem guarantee safety by making the conservative assumption that any unknown portion of the map may contain an obstacle, and therefore constrain planned motions to lie entirely within known free space. In this work, we observe that safety constraints may significantly limit performance and that faster navigation is possible if the planner reasons about collision with unobserved obstacles probabilistically. Our overall approach is to use machine learning to approximate the expected costs of collision using the current state of the map and the planned trajectory. Our contribution is to demonstrate fast but safe planning using a learned function to predict future collision probabilities.

  1. Quadrotor Control in the Presence of Unknown Mass Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duivenvoorden, Rikky Ricardo Petrus Rufino

    Quadrotor UAVs are popular due to their mechanical simplicity, as well as their capability to hover and vertically take-off and land. As applications diversify, quadrotors are increasingly required to operate under unknown mass properties, for example as a multirole sensor platform or for package delivery operations. The work presented here consists of the derivation of a generalized quadrotor dynamic model without the typical simplifying assumptions on the first and second moments of mass. The maximum payload capacity of a quadrotor in hover, and the observability of the unknown mass properties are discussed. A brief introduction of L1 adaptive control is provided, and three different L 1 adaptive controllers were designed for the Parrot AR.Drone quadrotor. Their tracking and disturbance rejection performance was compared to the baseline nonlinear controller in experiments. Finally, the results of the combination of L1 adaptive control with iterative learning control are presented, showing high performance trajectory tracking under uncertainty.

  2. Learning Unknown Structure in CRFs via Adaptive Gradient Projection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of fitting probabilistic graphical models to the given data when the structure is not known. More specifically, we focus on learning unknown structure in conditional random fields, especially learning both the structure and parameters of a conditional random field model simultaneously. To do this, we first formulate the learning problem as a convex minimization problem by adding an l_2-regularization to the node parameters and a group l_1-regularization to the edge parameters, and then a gradient-based projection method is proposed to solve it which combines an adaptive stepsize selection strategy with a nonmonotone line search. Extensive simulation experiments are presented to show the performance of our approach in solving unknown structure learning problems.

  3. On the emergence of unusual, unfamiliar and unknown climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, L. J.; Frame, D.; Joshi, M.; Hawkins, E.; Harrington, L. J.

    2016-12-01

    The concept of `Time of Emergence' (ToE), which characterizes when significant signals of climate change will emerge from existing variability, is a useful and increasingly common metric. However, its applicability to international policy has been limited by both usage and presentation. Here we present more generalized ToEs and related signal to noise (S/N) ratios, termed unusual, unfamiliar and unknown climates (based on how likely they would be in a human lifetime in the absence of anthropogenic warming), for different emissions scenarios. If transient climate response (TCR) is high, mitigation can delay the onset of "unknown" climates by decades for large sections of the world's population; even if TCR is low, mitigation can delay the onset of "unfamiliar" climates for many people by decades. We then disaggregate the time at which integer S/N values are passed into international groups to show how rapidly these integer S/N values are crossed under different scenarios.

  4. A New Method of Force Control for Unknown Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Mallapragada

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Current robotic systems are expected to interact with unknown environment where controlling the interaction forces becomes an important issue. We propose a new control technique for force control on unknown environments that tunes the force controller based on online estimation of the environment parameters. However, the proposed approach overcomes the need for precise estimation of environment parameters, which are needed in many system identification-based force control approaches. This framework uses an artificial neural network (ANN-based proportional-integral (PI-gain scheduling force controller to track the desired force by adjusting control gains such that error in parameter estimation can be accommodated. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed control framework. Finally, the advantages and limitations of the proposed controller are discussed.

  5. Gender Differences in Brain Functional Connectivity Density

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D.

    2011-01-01

    The neural bases of gender differences in emotional, cognitive, and socials behaviors are largely unknown. Here, magnetic resonance imaging data from 336 women and 225 men revealed a gender dimorphism in the functional organization of the brain. Consistently across five research sites, women had 14% higher local functional connectivity density (lFCD) and up to 5% higher gray matter density than men in cortical and subcortical regions. The negative power scaling of the lFCD was steeper for men...

  6. SEOM clinical guideline on unknown primary cancer (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa, F; Soler, G; Casado, A; Estival, A; Fernández, I; Giménez, S; Longo, F; Pazo-Cid, R; Salgado, J; Seguí, M Á

    2018-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary site is a histologically confirmed cancer that manifests in advanced stage, with no identifiable primary site following standard diagnostic procedures. Patients are initially categorized based on the findings of the initial biopsy: adenocarcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and poorly differentiated carcinoma. Appropriate patient management requires understanding several clinical and pathological features that aid in identifying several subsets of patients with more responsive tumors.

  7. Unknown Word Processing Method for the Common Sense Judgement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Seiji; Kojima, Kazuhide; Watabe, Hirokazu; Kawaoka, Tsukasa

    When we humans receive uncertain information, we interpret it properly, so we can expand the conversation, and take the proper actions. This is possible because we have “common sense” concerning the basic word concept, which is built up from long time experience storing knowledge of our language. Of the common sense we use in our every day lives we think that there are; common sense concerning quantity such as size, weight, speed, time, or place; common sense concerning sense or feeling such as hot, beautiful, or loud; and moreover common sense concerning emotion such as happy or sad. In order to make computers closer to human beings, we think that the construction of a “Common Sense Judgment System” which deals with these kinds of common sense is necessary. When aiming to realize this “Common Sense Judgment System” and trying to make a computer have the same common sense knowledge and judgment ability as human beings, a very important factor is the handling of unknown words. Judgment concerning words which were given to the computer as knowledge before hand, it can refer to that knowledge, and the process will have no problem at all. But when an unknown word, which is not registered as knowledge, is inputted, how to process that word is a very difficult problem. In this paper, by using a concept base, which is made from several electric dictionaries; the degree of association, which is done based on the concept base; neural network, putting the closeness of meaning in consideration, we propose a method of unknown word processing, which connects an inputted unknown word to a representing word that is registered in the judgment knowledge base, and we will verify its effectiveness by experiment applied to the emotional judgment subsystem.

  8. Diagnosis of the cancer of unknown primary origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurisova, S.; Poersoek, S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) is one of the ten most frequent cancers worldwide. It constitutes of 3-5% of all human malignancies. At time of diagnosis patients with CUP present with disseminated metastases without established primary origin. CUP manifests as heterogenous group of mainly epithelial cancers recognised by distinct clinico pathological entities. The diagnostic work-up includes extensive histopathology investigations and modern imaging technology. Nevertheless, the primary tumour remains undetected most of the time. (author)

  9. Evaluation of Unknown Tube Well Depth Using Electrical Resistivity Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Abidin Mohd Hazreek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical resistivity method has increasingly adopted in engineering, environmental, mining and archaeological studies. Systematic and proper studies of unknown civil engineering structure evaluation particularly on tube well depth was rarely being established. Conventionally, camera test or string with weight approach has been used to evaluate unknown tube well depth thus exposed to several restriction due to its expensive and time consuming. Hence, this study focused on evaluation of unknown tube well depth using indirect test with particular reference to electrical resistivity method (ERM.A single spread line of electrical resistivity survey was performed using ABEM SAS 4000 equipment set based on Wenner and Pole-dipole array in line with the tube well position. Electrical resistivity raw data was processed using RES2DINV software producing electrical resistivity tomography (ERT of the subsurface profile studied. Then, electrical resistivity value (ERV obtained from RES2DINV analyses (ERT was extracted and analysed using plotted graph (depth versus ERV specifically at tube well position based on electrical resistivity spread line performed. It was found that both array have shown some good similarity results in term of tube well depth (20 m thus able to verify the result interpreted. Both array have shown some good similarity of ERV representing groundwater (ERV = 10 – 100 Ωm and soil with water (ERV > 100 Ωm at depth of 0 – 20 m and >20 m respectively. All those interpretation have shown good agreement based on verification thru established ERV of earth materials references, geological map and nearest available boreholes data. Hence, this study has shown that the application of ERM was applicable in evaluation of unknown tube well depth which efficient in term of cost, time and environmental sustainable.

  10. Component spectra extraction from terahertz measurements of unknown mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Hou, D B; Huang, P J; Cai, J H; Zhang, G X

    2015-10-20

    The aim of this work is to extract component spectra from unknown mixtures in the terahertz region. To that end, a method, hard modeling factor analysis (HMFA), was applied to resolve terahertz spectral matrices collected from the unknown mixtures. This method does not require any expertise of the user and allows the consideration of nonlinear effects such as peak variations or peak shifts. It describes the spectra using a peak-based nonlinear mathematic model and builds the component spectra automatically by recombination of the resolved peaks through correlation analysis. Meanwhile, modifications on the method were made to take the features of terahertz spectra into account and to deal with the artificial baseline problem that troubles the extraction process of some terahertz spectra. In order to validate the proposed method, simulated wideband terahertz spectra of binary and ternary systems and experimental terahertz absorption spectra of amino acids mixtures were tested. In each test, not only the number of pure components could be correctly predicted but also the identified pure spectra had a good similarity with the true spectra. Moreover, the proposed method associated the molecular motions with the component extraction, making the identification process more physically meaningful and interpretable compared to other methods. The results indicate that the HMFA method with the modifications can be a practical tool for identifying component terahertz spectra in completely unknown mixtures. This work reports the solution to this kind of problem in the terahertz region for the first time, to the best of the authors' knowledge, and represents a significant advance toward exploring physical or chemical mechanisms of unknown complex systems by terahertz spectroscopy.

  11. Adaptive Stabilization for Nonholonomic Systems with Unknown Time Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive control strategy for a class of nonholonomic systems in chained form with virtual control coefficients, nonlinear uncertainties, and unknown time delays. State scaling technique and backstepping recursive approach are applied to design a nonlinear state feedback controller, which can guarantee the stabilization of the closed-loop systems. The simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Persistent Surveillance of Transient Events with Unknown Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-18

    that events at each location follow a stochastic process with an unknown rate that is independent of other locations’ rates. Since the events are...case for both the prediction for ex- perts problem [20] and MAB [4], [5]. Unfortunately however, application or extension of these algorithms to the...station is independent of other stations’ rates. We assume that the stations are spatially distributed in the domain and hence the robot must spend a non

  13. Hydrogen slush density reference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, D. H.; Lowe, L. T.; Ellerbruch, D. A.; Cruz, J. E.; Sindt, C. F.

    1971-01-01

    A hydrogen slush density reference system was designed for calibration of field-type instruments and/or transfer standards. The device is based on the buoyancy principle of Archimedes. The solids are weighed in a low-mass container so arranged that solids and container are buoyed by triple-point liquid hydrogen during the weighing process. Several types of hydrogen slush density transducers were developed and tested for possible use as transfer standards. The most successful transducers found were those which depend on change in dielectric constant, after which the Clausius-Mossotti function is used to relate dielectric constant and density.

  14. Prevalence and Impact of Unknown Diabetes in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, David L; Gregg, Sara R; Xu, Kejun; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2015-12-01

    Many patients with diabetes and their care providers are unaware of the presence of the disease. Dysglycemia encompassing hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glucose variability is common in the ICU in patients with and without diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of unknown diabetes on glycemic control in the ICU. Prospective observational study. Nine ICUs in an academic, tertiary hospital and a hybrid academic/community hospital. Hemoglobin A1c levels were ordered at all ICU admissions from March 1, 2011 to September 30, 2013. Electronic medical records were examined for a history of antihyperglycemic medications or International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition diagnosis of diabetes. Patients were categorized as having unknown diabetes (hemoglobin A1c > 6.5%, without history of diabetes), no diabetes (hemoglobin A1c 6.5%, with documented history of diabetes). None. A total of 15,737 patients had an hemoglobin A1c and medical record evaluable for the history of diabetes, and 5,635 patients had diabetes diagnosed by either medical history or an elevated hemoglobin A1c in the ICU. Of these, 1,460 patients had unknown diabetes, accounting for 26.0% of all patients with diabetes. This represented 41.0% of patients with an hemoglobin A1c > 6.5% and 9.3% of all ICU patients. Compared with patients without diabetes, patients with unknown diabetes had a higher likelihood of requiring an insulin infusion (44.3% vs 29.3%; p 180 mg/dL; p < 0.0001) and hypoglycemia (8.9% vs 2.5%; blood glucose < 70 mg/dL; p < 0.0001), higher glycemic variability (55.6 vs 28.8, average of patient SD of glucose; p < 0.0001), and increased mortality (13.8% vs 11.4%; p = 0.01). Patients with unknown diabetes represent a significant percentage of ICU admissions. Measurement of hemoglobin A1c at admission can prospectively identify a population that are not known to have diabetes but have significant challenges in glycemic control in the ICU.

  15. QCD critical point: The race is on

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... Critical points in a phase diagram in the temperature–density plane are special for several reasons. Starting from their .... Extending this approach to larger and fine lattices appears not to be easy because of an .... (filled) points display the results for the ratio (root) method (from ref. [21]). Figure 1 shows the ...

  16. Determination of an unknown source term temperature distribution for the sub-diffusion equation at the initial and final data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Kirane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider a class of problems modeling the process of determining the temperature and density of nonlocal sub-diffusion sources given by initial and finite temperature. Their mathematical statements involve inverse problems for the fractional-time heat equation in which, solving the equation, we have to find the an unknown right-hand side depending only on the space variable. The results on existence and uniqueness of solutions of these problems are presented.

  17. Pharmacophore searching: A potential solution for correcting unknown ligands (UNK) labelling errors in Protein Data Bank (PDB'S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Musadiq; Lapthorn, Adrian Jonathan; Ibrahim, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is the single most important repository of structural data for proteins and other biologically relevant molecules. Therefore, it is critically important to keep the PDB data, error-free as much as possible. In this study, we have critically examined PDB structures of 292 protein molecules which have been deposited in the repository along with potentially incorrect ligands labelled as Unknown ligands (UNK). Pharmacophores were generated for all the protein structures by using Discovery Studio Visualizer (DSV) and Accelrys, Catalyst ® . The generated pharmacophores were subjected to the database search containing the reported ligand. Ligands obtained through Pharmacophore searching were then checked for fitting the observed electron density map by using Coot ® . The predicted ligands obtained via Pharmacophore searching fitted well with the observed electron density map, in comparison to the ligands reported in the PDB's. Based on our study we have learned that till may 2016, among 292 submitted structures in the PDB, at least 20 structures have ligands with a clear electron density but have been incorrectly labelled as unknown ligands (UNK). We have demonstrated that Pharmacophore searching and Coot ® can provide potential help to find suitable known ligands for these protein structures, the former for ligand search and the latter for electron density analysis. The use of these two techniques can facilitate the quick and reliable labelling of ligands where the electron density map serves as a reference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimation of the false discovery proportion with unknown dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Xu

    2017-09-01

    Large-scale multiple testing with correlated test statistics arises frequently in many scientific research. Incorporating correlation information in approximating false discovery proportion has attracted increasing attention in recent years. When the covariance matrix of test statistics is known, Fan, Han & Gu (2012) provided an accurate approximation of False Discovery Proportion (FDP) under arbitrary dependence structure and some sparsity assumption. However, the covariance matrix is often unknown in many applications and such dependence information has to be estimated before approximating FDP. The estimation accuracy can greatly affect FDP approximation. In the current paper, we aim to theoretically study the impact of unknown dependence on the testing procedure and establish a general framework such that FDP can be well approximated. The impacts of unknown dependence on approximating FDP are in the following two major aspects: through estimating eigenvalues/eigenvectors and through estimating marginal variances. To address the challenges in these two aspects, we firstly develop general requirements on estimates of eigenvalues and eigenvectors for a good approximation of FDP. We then give conditions on the structures of covariance matrices that satisfy such requirements. Such dependence structures include banded/sparse covariance matrices and (conditional) sparse precision matrices. Within this framework, we also consider a special example to illustrate our method where data are sampled from an approximate factor model, which encompasses most practical situations. We provide a good approximation of FDP via exploiting this specific dependence structure. The results are further generalized to the situation where the multivariate normality assumption is relaxed. Our results are demonstrated by simulation studies and some real data applications.

  19. Fault tolerant control of wind turbines using unknown input observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for accommodating faults in the rotor and generator speed sensors in a wind turbine. These measured values are important both for the wind turbine controller as well as the supervisory control of the wind turbine. The scheme is based on unknown input observers, which...... are also used to detect and isolate these faults. The scheme is tested on a known benchmark for FDI and FTC of wind turbines. Tests on this benchmark model show a clear potential of the proposed scheme....

  20. Fast entanglement detection for unknown states of two spatial qutrits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, G.; Gomez, E. S.; Saavedra, C.; Vargas, A.; Vianna, R. O.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the practicality of the method proposed by Maciel et al. [Phys. Rev. A. 80, 032325 (2009).] for detecting the entanglement of two spatial qutrits (three-dimensional quantum systems), which are encoded in the discrete transverse momentum of single photons transmitted through a multislit aperture. The method is based on the acquisition of partial information of the quantum state through projective measurements, and a data processing analysis done with semidefinite programs. This analysis relies on generating gradually an optimal entanglement witness operator, and numerical investigations have shown that it allows for the entanglement detection of unknown states with a cost much lower than full state tomography.

  1. Modal Parameter Identification from Responses of General Unknown Random Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, S. R.; Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    1996-01-01

    Modal parameter identification from ambient responses due to a general unknown random inputs is investigated. Existing identification techniques which are based on assumptions of white noise and or stationary random inputs are utilized even though the inputs conditions are not satisfied....... This is accomplished via adding. In cascade. A force cascade conversion to the structures system under consideration. The input to the force conversion system is white noise and the output of which is the actual force(s) applied to the structure. The white noise input(s) and the structures responses are then used...

  2. Maximum-revenue tariff under Bertrand duopoly with unknown costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2009-09-01

    This paper considers an international trade under Bertrand model with differentiated products and with unknown production costs. The home government imposes a specific import tariff per unit of imports from the foreign firm. We prove that this tariff is decreasing in the expected production costs of the foreign firm and increasing in the production costs of the home firm. Furthermore, it is increasing in the degree of product substitutability. We also show that an increase in the tariff results in both firms increasing their prices, an increase in both expected sales and expected profits for the home firm, and a decrease in both expected sales and expected profits for the foreign firm.

  3. Performing colonic mast cell counts in patients with chronic diarrhea of unknown etiology has limited diagnostic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Aisha; Jain, Dhanpat; Roland, Bani Chander; Kinzel, Jason; Gibson, Joanna; Schrader, Ronald; Hanson, Joshua Anspach

    2015-02-01

    Mastocytic enterocolitis is a recently described entity defined by chronic diarrhea of unknown etiology and normal colon biopsy results with increased mast cells (MCs) seen on special stains. These patients may benefit from mast cell stabilizers; however, the clinical utility of MC counts remains unknown. To determine the clinical utility of colonic MC counts on normal biopsies in patients with chronic diarrhea of unknown etiology. Blinded MC counts using a c-Kit stain were performed in 76 consecutive patients with chronic diarrhea of unknown etiology who had normal colon biopsy results and in 89 consecutive control patients presenting for screening colonoscopy. Mast cells were counted per single high-power field in the highest-density area. A t test was used to compare the counts, and receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to examine sensitive and specific cutoff values. Overall, MC counts averaged 31 MCs per high-power field in the study group versus 24 MCs per high-power field in the control group (P chronic diarrhea of unknown etiology, primarily in the left colon. However, receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrates no discriminatory cutoff values. Quantitative MC stains yield little useful diagnostic information, and further studies are necessary to determine whether mastocytic enterocolitis truly represents a distinct entity.

  4. Why Bond Critical Points Are Not "Bond" Critical Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazian, Shant

    2017-12-28

    Equating (3,-1) critical points (CPs), derived from the topological analysis of the electron densities, to chemical bonds has triggered a lot of confusion in recent years. Part of this confusion stems from calling these CPs "bond" CPs (BCPs). While the origin of this terminology is traceable to the late seventies and beginning of eighties, when it sounded reasonable, new computational studies conducted on molecular electron densities cast serious doubt on the supposed universal equivalence between the chemical bonds and (3,-1) CPs. Herein, recent computational studies are briefly reviewed to demonstrate why (3,-1) CPs are not indicators of chemical bonds. It is discussed why this confusing terminology needs to be changed and reemphasized that (3,-1) CPs should be called "line" critical points (LCPs). The proposed terminology detaches the topological properties of molecular electron densities from any a priori chemical interpretation. Such detachment, if adopted by other authors, will hopefully prevent further misinterpretation of the data emerging from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The dynamics of variable-density turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The dynamics of variable-density turbulent fluids are studied by direct numerical simulation. The flow is incompressible so that acoustic waves are decoupled from the problem, and implying that density is not a thermodynamic variable. Changes in density occur due to molecular mixing. The velocity field, is in general, divergent. A pseudo-spectral numerical technique is used to solve the equations of motion. Three-dimensional simulations are performed using a grid size of 128 3 grid points. Two types of problems are studied: (1) the decay of isotropic, variable-density turbulence, and (2) buoyancy-generated turbulence in a fluid with large density fluctuations. In the case of isotropic, variable-density turbulence, the overall statistical decay behavior, for the cases studied, is relatively unaffected by the presence of density variations when the initial density and velocity fields are statistically independent. The results for this case are in quantitative agreement with previous numerical and laboratory results. In this case, the initial density field has a bimodal probability density function (pdf) which evolves in time towards a Gaussian distribution. The pdf of the density field is symmetric about its mean value throughout its evolution. If the initial velocity and density fields are statistically dependent, however, the decay process is significantly affected by the density fluctuations. For the case of buoyancy-generated turbulence, variable-density departures from the Boussinesq approximation are studied. The results of the buoyancy-generated turbulence are compared with variable-density model predictions. Both a one-point (engineering) model and a two-point (spectral) model are tested against the numerical data. Some deficiencies in these variable-density models are discussed and modifications are suggested

  6. Unknown facets of Well-Known Scientists Series - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Dixit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 1st in the series of articles on “Unknown Facets of well-known Scientists” was about Sir Frederick Grant Banting, co-discoverer of Insulin, who also researched in Aviation and Diving Medicines, results of which brought extraordinary benefits for Flight crew during the World War II. The article was published in the previous issue of the Journal Unknown facets could be celebrated attributes, talents or otherwise, but it is necessary that we get to know fully about the “great mind". THIS ARTICLE IS ABOUT DR WERNER THEODOR OTTO FORSSMANN, A CARDIOLOGIST, WHO BECAME A UROLOGIST! Does the name Dr Forssmann ring a bell? He shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with “Andre Cournand and Dickinson Richards". The trio was awarded for their “discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system". Dr Forssmann was nominated for performing an experiment in which he introduced a catheter into a vein of his arm, further passing it onward into his heart It was risky. This was in the year 1929. Subject of this article is the self-experimentation he carried out and what happened later.

  7. Reactive Path Planning Approach for Docking Robots in Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous robots need to be recharged and exchange information with the host through docking in the long-distance tasks. Therefore, feasible path is required in the docking process to guide the robot and adjust its pose. However, when there are unknown obstacles in the work area, it becomes difficult to determine the feasible path for docking. This paper presents a reactive path planning approach named Dubins-APF (DAPF to solve the path planning problem for docking in unknown environment with obstacles. In this proposed approach the Dubins curves are combined with the designed obstacle avoidance potential field to plan the feasible path. Firstly, an initial path is planned and followed according to the configurations of the robot and the docking station. Then when the followed path is evaluated to be infeasible, the intermediate configuration is calculated as well as the replanned path based on the obstacle avoidance potential field. The robot will be navigated to the docking station with proper pose eventually via the DAPF approach. The proposed DAPF approach is efficient and does not require the prior knowledge about the environment. Simulation results are given to validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed approach.

  8. Detecting unknown chemical clouds at distance with multispectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Sylvain; Alazarine, Aymeric; Verneau, Manon; Verollet, Romain; Blanchard, Sébastien

    2017-05-01

    In the past, chemical incidents or attacks have often involved mixtures of chemicals or fractional formulations of toxic compounds. Terrorist groups are also likely to generate new toxic chemical agents. These situations involve unknown compounds and thus may be undetectable using traditional methods. Indeed, standoff gas detection with infrared devices traditionally relies on the comparison between measured signal and a library of signals included in a database. Observing the gas absorption in infrared band III (LWIR 8-14 μm), our multispectral infrared camera is used to detect gas clouds up to a range of several kilometers, to provide identification of gas type and to follow the motion of the cloud in real time. The approach described in this paper develops an algorithm that enables the device to detect gas even if the measured signature is not in the database - a pattern-matching-free algorithm. This detection process has been evaluated in the laboratory and subjected to significant experimental feedback. The results are a capability to detect unknown gases and gas mixtures.

  9. PHYLOGENOMICS - GUIDED VALIDATION OF FUNCTION FOR CONSERVED UNKNOWN GENES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V, DE CRECY-LAGARD; D, HANSON A

    2012-01-03

    Identifying functions for all gene products in all sequenced organisms is a central challenge of the post-genomic era. However, at least 30-50% of the proteins encoded by any given genome are of unknown function, or wrongly or vaguely annotated. Many of these 'unknown' proteins are common to prokaryotes and plants. We accordingly set out to predict and experimentally test the functions of such proteins. Our approach to functional prediction is integrative, coupling the extensive post-genomic resources available for plants with comparative genomics based on hundreds of microbial genomes, and functional genomic datasets from model microorganisms. The early phase is computer-assisted; later phases incorporate intellectual input from expert plant and microbial biochemists. The approach thus bridges the gap between automated homology-based annotations and the classical gene discovery efforts of experimentalists, and is much more powerful than purely computational approaches to identifying gene-function associations. Among Arabidopsis genes, we focused on those (2,325 in total) that (i) are unique or belong to families with no more than three members, (ii) are conserved between plants and prokaryotes, and (iii) have unknown or poorly known functions. Computer-assisted selection of promising targets for deeper analysis was based on homology .. independent characteristics associated in the SEED database with the prokaryotic members of each family, specifically gene clustering and phyletic spread, as well as availability of functional genomics data, and publications that could link candidate families to general metabolic areas, or to specific functions. In-depth comparative genomic analysis was then performed for about 500 top candidate families, which connected ~55 of them to general areas of metabolism and led to specific functional predictions for a subset of ~25 more. Twenty predicted functions were experimentally tested in at least one prokaryotic organism

  10. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Hernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV. To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  11. Villitis of unknown aetiology: correlation of recurrence with clinical outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeley, L

    2010-01-01

    Villitis of unknown aetiology (VUA) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Consequently, an ability to predict recurrence could be clinically relevant. We examined placentas where villitis was diagnosed in a previous pregnancy to establish the risk of recurrence and outcome. A total of 304 cases of VUA were diagnosed in our laboratory over a 4-year period. Subsequently, 19 of this cohort had a second placenta examined histologically. Recurrence and clinical outcome were recorded. Villitis recurred in 7 of 19 cases (37%). There was a high level of adverse pregnancy outcome in this cohort overall, characterised by small for gestational age infants and stillbirth, particularly in cases with high-grade villitis. We identified recurrent villitis more frequently than previously reported. Our findings confirm an association between high-grade villitis and poor outcome. Adequately powered prospective studies are required to determine if enhanced surveillance of subsequent pregnancies is indicated following a diagnosis of villitis.

  12. Cancer of unknown primary origin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa De Carlo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP accounts for 2-10% of all malignancies. The apparent absence of the primary tumour, the development of early, uncommon systemic metastases and the resistance to therapy and poor prognosis are hallmarks of this heterogeneous clinical entity and are a challenge for physicians. The diagnostic workup of patients with CUP includes a large amount of histopathological examination, as well as the use of imaging techniques that often fail to identify the primary tumour. Therefore, the optimal workup and treatment for these patients remains to be determined. Molecular diagnostic tools, such as DNA microarray analysis, could help in the search for "lost" CUP origin and guide the further treatment approach. We report the case of a 66-year-old man, with mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis of carcinoma and neurological syndrome with diplopia and balance disorders, in which many exams have been performed without finding the primary tumour.

  13. A Brief Introduction on Mystery, the Unknown, Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Scanlan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this age of globalization, this age of so many ways to know—and so many ways to know things so quickly—it is both satisfying and deeply unnerving to come upon things and events that are really hard to understand, things and events so shocking or strange or mysterious, that they seem Unknown. Perhaps even unknowable. The first note of NANO Issue 2 focuses on an unsolved murder and reveals a mystery that is confounding, creepy, and yet oddly compelling. In “Karr’s Kill Cult: Virtual Cults and Pseudo-Killing in the Digital Age,” Jeremy Biles and Brian Collins explore the edges of where cyber-crime threatens to turn real—and vice versa. In the second note, Jennifer Ballengee compares Oedipus at Colonus with Don DeLillo’s Falling Man.

  14. Distributed Synchronization Control of Multiagent Systems With Unknown Nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shize; Lin, Zongli; Garcia, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits the distributed adaptive control problem for synchronization of multiagent systems where the dynamics of the agents are nonlinear, nonidentical, unknown, and subject to external disturbances. Two communication topologies, represented, respectively, by a fixed strongly-connected directed graph and by a switching connected undirected graph, are considered. Under both of these communication topologies, we use distributed neural networks to approximate the uncertain dynamics. Decentralized adaptive control protocols are then constructed to solve the cooperative tracker problem, the problem of synchronization of all follower agents to a leader agent. In particular, we show that, under the proposed decentralized control protocols, the synchronization errors are ultimately bounded, and their ultimate bounds can be reduced arbitrarily by choosing the control parameter appropriately. Simulation study verifies the effectiveness of our proposed protocols.

  15. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in agricultural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer, Miguel; Herrera, Raúl; Orantes, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, Central America, Egypt, India and Sri Lanka have reported a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. This essay examines the disease's case definitions, epidemiology (disease burden, demographics, associated risk factors) and causal hypotheses, by reviewing published findings from El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Sri Lanka, Egypt and India. The range of confirmed chronic kidney disease prevalence was 17.9%-21.1%. Prevalence of reduced glomerular filtration (homemade alcohol use and family history of chronic kidney disease. There is no strong evidence for a single cause, and multiple environmental, occupational and social factors are probably involved. Further etiological research is needed, plus interventions to reduce preventable risk factors.

  16. Analysing Trust Transitivity and The Effects of Unknown Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touhid Bhuiyan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Trust can be used to improve online automated recommendation within a given domain. Trust transitivity is used to make it successful. But trust transitivity has different interpretations. Trust and trust transitivity; both are the human mental phenomenon and for this reason, there is no such thing as objective transitivity. Trust transitivity and trust fusion both are important elements in computational trust. This paper analyses the parameter dependence problem in trust transitivity and proposes some definitions considering the effects of base rate. In addition, it also proposes belief functions based on subjective logic to analyse trust transitivity of three specified cases with sensitive and insensitive based rate. Then it presents a quantitative analysis of the effects of unknown dependence problem in an interconnected network environment; such Internet.

  17. Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Undersea Vehicle in Unknown Unstructured Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheping Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To avoid obstacle in the unknown environment for unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV, an obstacle avoiding system based on improved vector field histogram (VFH is designed. Forward looking sonar is used to detect the environment, and the divisional sonar modal is applied to deal with the measure uncertainty. To adapt to the VFH, rolling occupancy grids are used for the map building, and high accuracy details of local environment are obtained. The threshold is adaptively adjusted by the statistic of obstacles to solve the problem that VFH is sensitive to threshold. To improve the environment adaptability, the hybrid-behaviors strategy is proposed, which selects the optimal avoidance command according to the motion status and environment character. The simulation shows that UUV could avoid the obstacles fast and escape from the U shape obstacles.

  18. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan David; Istenič, Klemen; Gracias, Nuno; Palomeras, Narcís; Campos, Ricard; Vidal, Eduard; García, Rafael; Carreras, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario. PMID:27472337

  19. The Difficulty of Sexing Skeletons from Unknown Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Sierp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of sex from skeletal remains is performed using a number of methods developed by biological anthropology. They must be evaluated for consistency and for their performance in a forensic setting. Twenty skeletons of varied provenance had their sex determined by 15 existing methods of forensic anthropology (7 metric and 8 morphological. The methods were evaluated for their consistency in determination of sex. No single individual was identified as belonging to one sex exclusively. Ambiguous results were obtained by metric methods for fourteen individuals (70% and by morphological methods for only five individuals (25% (Chi-squared = 4.3, df = 1, P<0.05. Methods which use the size of bones as an indicator of sex perform poorly on skeletal remains of individuals of unknown provenance. Methods which combine morphologic and metric techniques, that is, geometric morphometric analysis, may result in greater levels of consistency.

  20. Distributed Multisensor Data Fusion under Unknown Correlation and Data Inconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abu Bakr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of multisensor data fusion has been evolved from a centralized architecture to a decentralized or distributed architecture along with the advancement in sensor and communication technologies. These days, distributed state estimation and data fusion has been widely explored in diverse fields of engineering and control due to its superior performance over the centralized one in terms of flexibility, robustness to failure and cost effectiveness in infrastructure and communication. However, distributed multisensor data fusion is not without technical challenges to overcome: namely, dealing with cross-correlation and inconsistency among state estimates and sensor data. In this paper, we review the key theories and methodologies of distributed multisensor data fusion available to date with a specific focus on handling unknown correlation and data inconsistency. We aim at providing readers with a unifying view out of individual theories and methodologies by presenting a formal analysis of their implications. Finally, several directions of future research are highlighted.

  1. Distributed Multisensor Data Fusion under Unknown Correlation and Data Inconsistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Muhammad Abu; Lee, Sukhan

    2017-10-27

    The paradigm of multisensor data fusion has been evolved from a centralized architecture to a decentralized or distributed architecture along with the advancement in sensor and communication technologies. These days, distributed state estimation and data fusion has been widely explored in diverse fields of engineering and control due to its superior performance over the centralized one in terms of flexibility, robustness to failure and cost effectiveness in infrastructure and communication. However, distributed multisensor data fusion is not without technical challenges to overcome: namely, dealing with cross-correlation and inconsistency among state estimates and sensor data. In this paper, we review the key theories and methodologies of distributed multisensor data fusion available to date with a specific focus on handling unknown correlation and data inconsistency. We aim at providing readers with a unifying view out of individual theories and methodologies by presenting a formal analysis of their implications. Finally, several directions of future research are highlighted.

  2. Impact of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhausen, J.; Stoeblen, F.; Mueller, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of CT in patients with sepsis of unknown origin. Material and Methods: Sixty-three consecutive intensive care patients with suspicion of an abscess and negative or inconclusive previous radiological examinations were included. CT was performed using the helical technique. A total of 45 abdominal and 38 chest examinations were evaluated. Results: 5/38 examinations of the chest revealed the source of sepsis (pleural empyema 2, lung abscess 1, mediastinitis 1, retrosternal abscess 1). 7/45 abdominal CT examinations showed the source of sepsis (intraabdominal abscess 2, hepatic abscess 3, intestinal perforation 1, gangrenous colitis 1). Conclusion: CT is useful for the evaluation of patients with fever or sepsis without a known source. Due to the detection of a spetic focus by CT, 19% of the patients in our study could be immediately referred to causal therapy as percutaneous drainage or surgery. (orig.)

  3. Lichen Scrofulosorum Presenting as Pyrexia of Unknown Origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, S.; Patro, B.; Patel, R.; Aneja, S.; Sarkar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis forms a subset of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. It accounts for about 1.5% of all the cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Lichen Scrofulosorum is a rare form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is usually seen in children or young adults and an important marker of occult tuberculosis. Usually, the eruption appears in children and adolescents with strong immune sensitivity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and consists of tiny follicular papules. Underlying systemic involvement is more common in children, compared with adults. We report a case of 3 years old boy who was investigated for pyrexia of unknown origin and finally diagnosed as Lichen Scrofulosorum associated with tuberculous lymphadenitis of mediastinal lymph nodes. A skin biopsy showed extensive tuberculoid granulomas surrounding hair follicles which were consistent with the diagnosis of Lichen Scrofulosorum. The child was treated with antitubercular drugs and it showed improvement within 2 weeks of starting treatment with resolution of skin lesions. (author)

  4. Fever of unknown origin - Hidden in the head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kishore Pandita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The original algorithmic approach, as outlined by de Kleijn and colleagues and practiced commonly, envisages performing computed tomography (CT of chest, abdomen, and pelvis in patients with classical fever of unknown origin (FUO, in whom no potentially diagnostic clue exists. It further envisages performing positron emission tomography (PET scan, if CT scan is unrevealing. Imaging of head and neck especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has not been included in this algorithm, that leaves these important regions unexplored in most settings where PET scan is unavailable. MRI is a safe modality for evaluating central nervous system lesions and its role in FUO has not been adequately evaluated. We present three patients of FUO in whom the diagnosis of tuberculoma of brain as a cause of prolonged pyrexia got delayed because the MRI of head was not done initially, to comply with the approach of minimum diagnostic evaluation.

  5. Designing low cost autonomous robots in unknown environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouani, Ali T.; Sri, Aravind M.

    2008-04-01

    This paper documents the design and development of a low cost robot capable of autonomous navigation in unknown indoor environments. The proposed design uses only two complementary rotating sensors for navigation. The use of real time mapping allows for detection and avoidance of obstacles. The fusion of the sensors data helped improve accuracy of the online map of the robot environment. The robot builds an online map of its environment, and then automatically plans its navigation path. The feedback control keeps the robot moving along its planned path. The robot has been successfully tested in a cluttered environment in the Advanced Systems Lab. Preliminary tests carried out have shown the success of the robot in navigating autonomously.

  6. Myofascial trigger point pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Myofascial trigger point pain is an extremely prevalent cause of persistent pain disorders in all parts of the body, not just the head, neck, and face. Features include deep aching pain in any structure, referred from focally tender points in taut bands of skeletal muscle (the trigger points). Diagnosis depends on accurate palpation with 2-4 kg/cm2 of pressure for 10 to 20 seconds over the suspected trigger point to allow the referred pain pattern to develop. In the head and neck region, cervical muscle trigger points (key trigger points) often incite and perpetuate trigger points (satellite trigger points) and referred pain from masticatory muscles. Management requires identification and control of as many perpetuating factors as possible (posture, body mechanics, psychological stress or depression, poor sleep or nutrition). Trigger point therapies such as spray and stretch or trigger point injections are best used as adjunctive therapy.

  7. How Thin Is Foil? Applying Density to Find the Thickness of Aluminum Foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James P.

    2011-01-01

    In this activity, I show how high school students apply their knowledge of density to solve an unknown variable, such as thickness. Students leave this activity with a better understanding of density, the knowledge that density is a characteristic property of a given substance, and the ways density can be measured. (Contains 4 figures and 1 table.)

  8. Smooth extrapolation of unknown anatomy via statistical shape models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupp, R. B.; Chiang, H.; Otake, Y.; Murphy, R. J.; Gordon, C. R.; Armand, M.; Taylor, R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Several methods to perform extrapolation of unknown anatomy were evaluated. The primary application is to enhance surgical procedures that may use partial medical images or medical images of incomplete anatomy. Le Fort-based, face-jaw-teeth transplant is one such procedure. From CT data of 36 skulls and 21 mandibles separate Statistical Shape Models of the anatomical surfaces were created. Using the Statistical Shape Models, incomplete surfaces were projected to obtain complete surface estimates. The surface estimates exhibit non-zero error in regions where the true surface is known; it is desirable to keep the true surface and seamlessly merge the estimated unknown surface. Existing extrapolation techniques produce non-smooth transitions from the true surface to the estimated surface, resulting in additional error and a less aesthetically pleasing result. The three extrapolation techniques evaluated were: copying and pasting of the surface estimate (non-smooth baseline), a feathering between the patient surface and surface estimate, and an estimate generated via a Thin Plate Spline trained from displacements between the surface estimate and corresponding vertices of the known patient surface. Feathering and Thin Plate Spline approaches both yielded smooth transitions. However, feathering corrupted known vertex values. Leave-one-out analyses were conducted, with 5% to 50% of known anatomy removed from the left-out patient and estimated via the proposed approaches. The Thin Plate Spline approach yielded smaller errors than the other two approaches, with an average vertex error improvement of 1.46 mm and 1.38 mm for the skull and mandible respectively, over the baseline approach.

  9. Identification of unknown sample using NAA, EDXRF, XRD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvi, Aditi A.; Swain, K.K.; Chavan, Trupti; Remya Devi, P.S.; Wagh, D.N.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry Division (ACD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) receives samples from law enforcement agencies such as Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, Customs for analysis. Five unknown grey powdered samples were received for identification and were suspected to be Iridium (Ir). Identification of unknown sample is always a challenging task and suitable analytical techniques have to be judiciously utilized for arriving at the conclusion. Qualitative analysis was carried out using Jordan Valley, EX-3600 M Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer at ACD, BARC. A SLP series LEO Si (Li) detector (active area: 30 mm 2 ; thickness: 3.5 mm; resolution: 140 eV at 5.9 keV of Mn K X-ray) was used during the measurement and only characteristic X-rays of Ir (Lα: 9.17 keV and Lβ: 10.70 keV) was seen in the X-ray spectrum. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement results indicated that the Ir was in the form of metal. To confirm the XRD data, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was carried out by irradiating samples and elemental standards (as comparator) in graphite reflector position of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor Critical Facility (AHWR CF) reactor, BARC, Mumbai. After suitable decay period, gamma activity measurements were carried out using 45% HPGe detector coupled to 8 k multi channel analyzer. Characteristic gamma line at 328.4 keV of the activation product 194 Ir was used for quantification of iridium and relative method of NAA was used for concentration calculations. NAA results confirmed that all the samples were Iridium metal. (author)

  10. Social networks and inference about unknown events: A case of the match between Google's AlphaGo and Sedol Lee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghoon Bae

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the way that a person makes inferences about unknown events is associated with his or her social relations, more precisely, those characterized by ego network density that reflects the structure of a person's immediate social relation. From the analysis of individual predictions over the Go match between AlphaGo and Sedol Lee in March 2016 in Seoul, Korea, this study shows that the low-density group scored higher than the high-density group in the accuracy of the prediction over a future state of a social event, i.e., the outcome of the first game. We corroborated this finding with three replication tests that asked the participants to predict the following: film awards, President Park's impeachment in Korea, and the counterfactual assessment of the US presidential election. Taken together, this study suggests that network density is negatively associated with vision advantage, i.e., the ability to discover and forecast an unknown aspect of a social event.

  11. Effects of casein, whey and soy proteins on volumetric bone density and bone strength in immunocompromised piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Bjørnvad, Charlotte; Mølgaard, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Summary:Background and aims: Bone-promoting effect of different proteins in early life, under immunocompromised conditions, is unknown. We investigated effects of milk- and plantderived proteins on bone development in immunocompromised piglets. Methods: Newborn, colostrum-deprived piglets were...... sick and were early euthanised. After 6 days, bone density (peripheral quantitative computed tomography), bone mechanical strength (three-point bending test) and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) (immunoassay) were measured in the surviving piglets (casein n=5, whey n=9, soy n=5)....

  12. Fermion-induced quantum critical points

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zi-Xiang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    A unified theory of quantum critical points beyond the conventional Landau?Ginzburg?Wilson paradigm remains unknown. According to Landau cubic criterion, phase transitions should be first-order when cubic terms of order parameters are allowed by symmetry in the Landau?Ginzburg free energy. Here, from renormalization group analysis, we show that second-order quantum phase transitions can occur at such putatively first-order transitions in interacting two-dimensional Dirac semimetals. As such t...

  13. Calibration of Binocular Vision Sensors Based on Unknown-Sized Elliptical Stripe Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing calibration methods for binocular stereo vision sensor (BSVS depend on a high-accuracy target with feature points that are difficult and costly to manufacture and. In complex light conditions, optical filters are used for BSVS, but they affect imaging quality. Hence, the use of a high-accuracy target with certain-sized feature points for calibration is not feasible under such complex conditions. To solve these problems, a calibration method based on unknown-sized elliptical stripe images is proposed. With known intrinsic parameters, the proposed method adopts the elliptical stripes located on the parallel planes as a medium to calibrate BSVS online. In comparison with the common calibration methods, the proposed method avoids utilizing high-accuracy target with certain-sized feature points. Therefore, the proposed method is not only easy to implement but is a realistic method for the calibration of BSVS with optical filter. Changing the size of elliptical curves projected on the target solves the difficulty of applying the proposed method in different fields of view and distances. Simulative and physical experiments are conducted to validate the efficiency of the proposed method. When the field of view is approximately 400 mm × 300 mm, the proposed method can reach a calibration accuracy of 0.03 mm, which is comparable with that of Zhang’s method.

  14. The unknown-unknowns: Revealing the hidden insights in massive biomedical data using combined artificial intelligence and knowledge networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Yoo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Genomic data is estimated to be doubling every seven months with over 2 trillion bases from whole genome sequence studies deposited in Genbank in just the last 15 years alone. Recent advances in compute and storage have enabled the use of artificial intelligence techniques in areas such as feature recognition in digital pathology and chemical synthesis for drug development. To apply A.I. productively to multidimensional data such as cellular processes and their dysregulation, the data must be transformed into a structured format, using prior knowledge to create contextual relationships and hierarchies upon which computational analysis can be performed. Here we present the organization of complex data into hypergraphs that facilitate the application of A.I. We provide an example use case of a hypergraph containing hundreds of biological data values and the results of several classes of A.I. algorithms applied in a popular compute cloud. While multiple, biologically insightful correlations between disease states, behavior, and molecular features were identified, the insights of scientific import were revealed only when exploration of the data included visualization of subgraphs of represented knowledge. The results suggest that while machine learning can identify known correlations and suggest testable ones, the greater probability of discovering unexpected relationships between seemingly independent variables (unknown-unknowns requires a context-aware system – hypergraphs that impart biological meaning in nodes and edges. We discuss the implications of a combined hypergraph-A.I. analysis approach to multidimensional data and the pre-processing requirements for such a system.

  15. The Effect of Obesity onBone Mineral Density in Primary Fibromyalgia Cases - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Yesevi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal disease, characterized by tender points in various areas at body and widespread pain musculoskeletal system and unknown etiology, in which metabolic, immunologic and neuroendocrin abnormalities are seen. In this study, 45 female patients were enrolled according to 1990 ACR fibromyalgia criteria. They were divided to 3 groups, with 15 patients; normal, preobese and obese, depending to the body mass index. They were tested for bone mineral density of the lomber spine and femur, using dual energy x-ray absorptionmeter. The depression presence was investigated by Hamilton Depression Scale. The bone mineral density of L1-4 region of fibromyalgic normal body weight patients were normal range and there was no significant statistical difference between others groups. In contrast, femur bone mineral density vaules were found to be statistically significantly osteopenic, as compared with obese groups. There was a negative statistical correlation between depression and lomber area bone mineral density. Whereas in femur it was seen that bone mineral density was protected in preobese and obese fibromyalgia patients. The number of studies on this subject is not sufficient. Also the number of patients determined on current studies are low. Further studies, with langer patient numbers and more detailed protocols are needed. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2005; 4: 148-150

  16. Hybrid reconstruction of quantum density matrix: when low-rank meets sparsity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kezhi; Zheng, Kai; Yang, Jingbei; Cong, Shuang; Liu, Xiaomei; Li, Zhaokai

    2017-12-01

    Both the mathematical theory and experiments have verified that the quantum state tomography based on compressive sensing is an efficient framework for the reconstruction of quantum density states. In recent physical experiments, we found that many unknown density matrices in which people are interested in are low-rank as well as sparse. Bearing this information in mind, in this paper we propose a reconstruction algorithm that combines the low-rank and the sparsity property of density matrices and further theoretically prove that the solution of the optimization function can be, and only be, the true density matrix satisfying the model with overwhelming probability, as long as a necessary number of measurements are allowed. The solver leverages the fixed-point equation technique in which a step-by-step strategy is developed by utilizing an extended soft threshold operator that copes with complex values. Numerical experiments of the density matrix estimation for real nuclear magnetic resonance devices reveal that the proposed method achieves a better accuracy compared to some existing methods. We believe that the proposed method could be leveraged as a generalized approach and widely implemented in the quantum state estimation.

  17. Protecting unknown two-qubit entangled states by nesting Uhrig's dynamical decoupling sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, Musawwadah; Soh, Wee Tee; Saw, Thuan Beng; Gong, Jiangbin

    2010-01-01

    Future quantum technologies rely heavily on good protection of quantum entanglement against environment-induced decoherence. A recent study showed that an extension of Uhrig's dynamical decoupling (UDD) sequence can (in theory) lock an arbitrary but known two-qubit entangled state to the Nth order using a sequence of N control pulses [Mukhtar et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 012331 (2010)]. By nesting three layers of explicitly constructed UDD sequences, here we first consider the protection of unknown two-qubit states as superposition of two known basis states, without making assumptions of the system-environment coupling. It is found that the obtained decoherence suppression can be highly sensitive to the ordering of the three UDD layers and can be remarkably effective with the correct ordering. The detailed theoretical results are useful for general understanding of the nature of controlled quantum dynamics under nested UDD. As an extension of our three-layer UDD, it is finally pointed out that a completely unknown two-qubit state can be protected by nesting four layers of UDD sequences. This work indicates that when UDD is applicable (e.g., when the environment has a sharp frequency cutoff and when control pulses can be taken as instantaneous pulses), dynamical decoupling using nested UDD sequences is a powerful approach for entanglement protection.

  18. The point-defect of carbon nanotubes anchoring Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Y. A.; Cui, Y. H.; Li, X. N.

    2010-01-01

    between Au clusters and CNTs by means of density functional theory calculations. Both experimental and theoretical studies show that point defects are the anchoring sites of Au nanoparticles. The mechanisms of enhanced bond between Au and CNTs via the point defects are explained by the analysis of density...

  19. On holographic entanglement density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushterov, Nikola I.; O'Bannon, Andy; Rodgers, Ronnie

    2017-10-01

    We use holographic duality to study the entanglement entropy (EE) of Conformal Field Theories (CFTs) in various spacetime dimensions d, in the presence of various deformations: a relevant Lorentz scalar operator with constant source, a temperature T , a chemical potential μ, a marginal Lorentz scalar operator with source linear in a spatial coordinate, and a circle-compactified spatial direction. We consider EE between a strip or sphere sub-region and the rest of the system, and define the "entanglement density" (ED) as the change in EE due to the deformation, divided by the sub-region's volume. Using the deformed CFTs above, we show how the ED's dependence on the strip width or sphere radius, L, is useful for characterizing states of matter. For example, the ED's small- L behavior is determined either by the dimension of the perturbing operator or by the first law of EE. For Lorentz-invariant renormalization group (RG) flows between CFTs, the "area theorem" states that the coefficient of the EE's area law term must be larger in the UV than in the IR. In these cases the ED must therefore approach zero from below as L→∞. However, when Lorentz symmetry is broken and the IR fixed point has different scaling from the UV, we find that the ED often approaches the thermal entropy density from above, indicating area theorem violation.

  20. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  1. Radiotherapy of metastatic neck nodes from an unknown primary site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I. K.; Yun, S. M.; Kim, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    This study was to evaluate survival, failure patterns, and prognostic factors of patients with metastatic neck nodes from an unknown primary site. A retrospective analysis was done for 35 patients with metastatic neck nodes from an unknown primary site who were treated with radiation from January 1986 to September 1994. There were 26 male and 9 female patients. Patients' age ranged from 41 to 74 years (median 58 years). Radiation therapy alone was done in 7 patients, induction chemotherapy and radiation therapy in 10, and postoperative radiation therapy in 18. Radiation therapy fields included both neck and pharyngeal axis, and total dose was 40-95.6Gy using 6MV X-ray. Chemotherapy consisted of 2 cycles of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. Surgical methods were a radical neck dissection in 17 patients and an excisional biopsy in 1 patient. Follow-up time ranged from 2 to 95 months, median 15 months. Overall and disease-free survival rate at 4 years were 33.4% and 33.9%, respectively. The factors associated with the overall survival rate were histologic type (adenocarcinoma vs. non-adenocarcinoma ), N stage, and the site of involved nodes. According to the treatment modality, 2-year survival rate was 14.3% in radiation therapy alone group, 35.8% in induction chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and 37.5% in postoperative radiation therapy, which might be due to the difference of N stage distribution. Local failure was noted in 7 patients, distant metastases in 6, local failure and distant metastases in 1. Excluding the 7 patients with supraclavicular lymph node metastases alone, 28%(7/25) of the patients had distant metastases. During the follow-up period, 11%(3/35) of the patients showed a delayed primary site, 1 in oral cavity, 1 in nasopharynx and 1 in hypopharynx. N stage, the site of involved node, and histologic type were associated with survival rate. In patients with advanced N stage, curative rather than inductive chemotherapy is needed because combined surgery

  2. A starting-point strategy for interior-point algorithms for shakedown analysis of engineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jaan-Willem; Höwer, Daniel; Weichert, Dieter

    2014-05-01

    Lower-bound shakedown analysis leads to nonlinear convex optimization problems with large numbers of unknowns and constraints, the solution of which can be obtained efficiently by interior-point algorithms. The performance of these algorithms strongly depends on the choice of the starting point. In general, starting points should be located inside the feasible region. In addition, they should also be well centred. Although there exist several heuristics for the construction of suitable starting points, these are restricted, as long as only the mathematical procedure is considered without taking into account the nature of the underlying mechanical problem. Thus, in this article, a strategy is proposed for choosing appropriate starting points for interior-point algorithms applied to shakedown analysis. This strategy is based on both the mathematical characteristics and the physical meaning of the variables involved. The efficiency of the new method is illustrated by numerical examples from the field of power plant engineering.

  3. Water Density Raster Images for the Gulf of Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geodatabase contains water density raster images for the Gulf of Maine that were interpolated from water density (sigma t or kilograms/ meters cubed) point data...

  4. Multi-AUV Hunting Algorithm Based on Bio-inspired Neural Network in Unknown Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqi Zhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The multi-AUV hunting problem is one of the key issues in multi-robot system research. In order to hunt the target efficiently a new hunting algorithm based on a bio-inspired neural network has been proposed in this paper. Firstly, the AUV's working environment can be represented, based on the biological-inspired neural network model. There is one-to-one correspondence between each neuron in the neural network and the position of the grid map in the underwater environment. The activity values of biological neurons then guide the AUV's sailing path and finally the target is surrounded by AUVs. In addition, a method called negotiation is used to solve the AUV's allocation of hunting points. The simulation results show that the algorithm used in the paper can provide rapid and highly efficient path planning in the unknown environment with obstacles and non-obstacles.

  5. Intrinsic point defects in aluminum antimonide

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Daniel; Erhart, Paul; Williamson, Andrew J.; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Calculations within density functional theory on the basis of the local density approximation are carried out to study the properties of intrinsic point defects in aluminum antimonide. Special care is taken to address finite-size effects, band gap error, and symmetry reduction in the defect structures. The correction of the band gap is based on a set of GW calculations. The most important defects are identified to be the aluminum interstitial $Al_{i,Al}^{1+}$, the antimony antisites $Sb_{Al}^...

  6. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan Chrishan; Selvarajah, Mathu

    2016-07-01

    In the last two decades, chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has emerged as a significant contributor to the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rural Sri Lanka. It is characterized by the absence of identified causes for CKD. The prevalence of CKDu is 15.1-22.9% in some Sri Lankan districts, and previous research has found an association with farming occupations. A systematic literature review in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and Lilacs databases identified 46 eligible peer-reviewed articles and one conference abstract. Geographical mapping indicates a relationship between CKDu and agricultural irrigation water sources. Health mapping studies, human biological studies, and environment-based studies have explored possible causative agents. Most studies focused on likely causative agents related to agricultural practices, geographical distribution based on the prevalence and incidence of CKDu, and contaminants identified in drinking water. Nonetheless, the link between agrochemicals or heavy metals and CKDu remains to be established. No definitive cause for CKDu has been identified. Evidence to date suggests that the disease is related to one or more environmental agents, however pinpointing a definite cause for CKDu is challenging. It is plausible that CKDu is multifactorial. No specific guidelines or recommendations exist for treatment of CKDu, and standard management protocols for CKD apply. Changes in agricultural practices, provision of safe drinking water, and occupational safety precautions are recommended by the World Health Organization.

  7. Familial clustering of Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata: an unknown genetic syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daboul Isam

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD is defined as the occurrence of multiple tumorous intraabdominal lesions, which are myomatous nodules. LPD is a rare disease with only about 100 cases reported. The usual course of LPD is benign with the majority of the patients being premenopausal females. Only two cases involving men have been reported, no syndrome or familial occurrence of LPD has been described. Case presentation We describe a Caucasian-American family in which six members (three men are diagnosed with Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD and three deceased family members most likely had LPD (based on the autopsy reports. Furthermore we describe the association of LPD with Raynaud's syndrome and Prurigo nodularis. Conclusion Familial clustering of Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD has not been reported so far. The etiology of LPD is unknown and no mode of inheritance is known. We discuss possible modes of inheritance in the presented case, taking into account the possibility of a genetic syndrome. Given the similarity to other genetic syndromes with leiomyomatosis and skin alterations, we describe possible similar genetic pathomechanisms.

  8. Systemic treatment of cancer of unknown primary origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) comprises a heterogenous group of cancers with distinct biology and prognosis. There is, however, a specific group of patients with curable diseases, or incurable diseases with good prognosis. The main aim of treatment in the group of patients with CUP is timely initiation of therapy in the cases of curable disease. There is no known standard of care in the cases of CUP with poor prognosis, but most frequently, platinum-based regimens are used. In the cases of specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) or molecular gene expression profile, there are used the treatment regimens similar to those used in the patients with known primary tumor and similar IHC or molecular profile. Currently, most of data in patients with CUP are from phase II clinical trials. Thus proficiently designed phase III randomized clinical trials with translation research is priority, with aim to improve our knowledge and personalize treatment of such heterogenous group of patients as is a group of patients with CUP. (author)

  9. Radiotherapeutic concepts in cancer of unknown primary site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, D.; Debus, J.; Sterzing, F.

    2014-01-01

    The term cancer of unknown primary (CUP) encompasses a group of entities which differ to a great extent regarding etiology, prognosis and therapeutic management. The aim of the study was an elaboration of the role of radiotherapy in CUP syndrome. Systematic literature search and specification of the available treatment options. Radiotherapy is an integral part of interdisciplinary management approaches for patients with CUP in both curative and palliative situations. Radio-oncological techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy and stereotactic body radiotherapy increase the therapeutic window. Modern diagnostic modalities from radiology and nuclear medicine are the cornerstone of radiotherapeutic interventions, especially in terms of target volume definition and pretherapeutic staging. In the interdisciplinary setting radiation oncology offers the possibility of curative and often organ preserving approaches in patients with axillary and cervical CUP. In addition, improvement and preservation of quality of life can be achieved in patients with metastatic disease. Radiation oncology is a crucial component of the interdisciplinary management of patients with CUP. Therapeutic decisions in patients with CUP should be made in an interdisciplinary setting. (orig.) [de

  10. Exploration for Agents with Different Personalities in Unknown Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Sarjoun; Minai, Ali

    We present in this paper a personality-based architecture (PA) that combines elements from the subsumption architecture and reinforcement learning to find alternate solutions for problems facing artificial agents exploring unknown environments. The underlying PA algorithm is decomposed into layers according to the different (non-contiguous) stages that our agent passes in, which in turn are influenced by the sources of rewards present in the environment. The cumulative rewards collected by an agent, in addition to its internal composition serve as factors in shaping its personality. In missions where multiple agents are deployed, our solution-goal is to allow each of the agents develop its own distinct personality in order for the collective to reach a balanced society, which then can accumulate the largest possible amount of rewards for the agent and society as well. The architecture is tested in a simulated matrix world which embodies different types of positive rewards and negative rewards. Varying experiments are performed to compare the performance of our algorithm with other algorithms under the same environment conditions. The use of our architecture accelerates the overall adaptation of the agents to their environment and goals by allowing the emergence of an optimal society of agents with different personalities. We believe that our approach achieves much efficient results when compared to other more restrictive policy designs.

  11. Physics at 13 TeV: CMS - scanning the unknown

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    CMS is getting ready to use its accurate detector to scan the many ripples of the unknown physics that may lie beyond the Standard Model. Foremost in everyone’s mind is the search for signs of the production of dark matter at a man-made machine.   Interestingly, the observation of dark matter or new weakly interacting particles implies detecting that some energy has escaped, i.e. it’s missing from the upcoming proton collisions at the LHC. This is why measuring and understanding “missing energy” will be a very important step in that direction. “A large amount of missing energy is the signature for many processes of physics beyond the Standard Model. However, it’s not the only interesting signature that we will be able to exploit when the new collision energy is available,” explains Luca Malgeri, CMS Physics Coordinator. Among the interesting things not associated with missing energy are high-mass resonanc...

  12. Developing Probabilistic Safety Performance Margins for Unknown and Underappreciated Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Allan; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Everett, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic safety requirements currently formulated or proposed for space systems, nuclear reactor systems, nuclear weapon systems, and other types of systems that have a low-probability potential for high-consequence accidents depend on showing that the probability of such accidents is below a specified safety threshold or goal. Verification of compliance depends heavily upon synthetic modeling techniques such as PRA. To determine whether or not a system meets its probabilistic requirements, it is necessary to consider whether there are significant risks that are not fully considered in the PRA either because they are not known at the time or because their importance is not fully understood. The ultimate objective is to establish a reasonable margin to account for the difference between known risks and actual risks in attempting to validate compliance with a probabilistic safety threshold or goal. In this paper, we examine data accumulated over the past 60 years from the space program, from nuclear reactor experience, from aircraft systems, and from human reliability experience to formulate guidelines for estimating probabilistic margins to account for risks that are initially unknown or underappreciated. The formulation includes a review of the safety literature to identify the principal causes of such risks.

  13. Fever in Children and Fever of Unknown Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Rajeshwar; Agarwal, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    Fever is the most common symptom in children and can be classified as fever with or without focus. Fever without focus can be less than 7 d and is subclassified as fever without localizing signs and fever of unknown origin (FUO). FUO is defined as a temperature greater than 38.3 °C, for more than 3 wk or failure to reach a diagnosis after 1 wk of inpatient investigations. The most common causes of FUO in children are infections, connective tissue disorders and neoplasms. Infectious diseases most commonly implicated in children with FUO are salmonellosis, tuberculosis, malaria and rickettsial diseases. Juvenile rheumatic arthritis is the connective tissue disease frequently associated with FUO. Malignancy is the third largest group responsible for FUO in children. Diagnostic approach of FUO includes detailed history and examination supported with investigations. Age, history of contact, exposure to wild animals and medications should be noted. Examination should include, apart from general appearance, presence of sweating, rashes, tonsillitis, sinusitis and lymph node enlargement. Other signs such as abdominal tenderness and hepatosplenomegly should be looked for. The muscles and bones should be carefully examined for connective tissue disorders. Complete blood count, blood smear examination and level of acute phase reactants should be part of initial investigations. Radiological imaging is useful aid in diagnosing FUO. Trials of antimicrobial agents should not be given as they can obscure the diagnosis of the disease in FUO.

  14. Fever of unknown origin: Most frequent causes in adults patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovska-Jovicić, Biljana; Canović, Predrag; Gajović, Olgica; Raković, Ivana; Mijailović, Zeljko

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin (FUO) includes more than 200 different diseases and conditions. The aim of this study was to identify the most frequent causes of FUO among adult patients according to gender and age. The study included 74 patients examined from June 2010 to June 2013 at the Infectious Disease Clinic, Clinical Center Kragujevac in Serbia, according to the defined criteria for FUO. The patients were divided according to the diagnosis into four groups: infectious, malignant, rheumatic and "other diseases". A cause of febricity could not be estabilshed in a portion of subjects, and they comprised the group of undiagnosed cases. Infectious diseases were dominant in the study, followed by rheumatic diseases, which were most frequently found in women and the elderly. The diseases recognised as the most common causes of febricity were subacute thyroiditis, subacute endocarditis, Still's disease, rheumatic polymyalgia with or without temporal arteritis, and cytomegalovirus infection. In 44% of the patients, the final diagnosis was composed of only six clinical entities. The importance of establishing the diagnosis of rheumatic disease is especially emphasised, in line with other authors' research indicating the number of these diseases is on the rise. The diagnostic approach to FUO should always be directed to the known frequency of diseases.

  15. Investigation of cervical lymph node metastasis from primary unknown carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Kosuke; Terada, Tomonori; Saeki, Nobuo; Uwa, Nobuhiro; Mohri, Takeshi; Sakagami, Masafumi

    2012-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated 41 patients with metastatic cervical tumors from unknown primary sites at the Hyogo College of Medicine between 1997 and 2007. The N stage classification of cervical lymph nodes was: N1 in 3 cases, N2a in 10 cases, N2b in 10 cases, N2c in 4 cases, and N3 in 14 cases. The histopathological diagnoses of cervical lymph node were: squamous cell carcinoma in 33 cases, adenocarcinoma in 5 cases, undifferentiated carcinoma in 2 cases, and papillary carcinoma in 1 cases. Primary tumor sites were: tonsil in 5 cases, esophaguses in 2 cases, hypopharynxies in 2 cases, and thyroid, oral floor, submandibular gland, lung, gastric and colon in 1 case each. The useful tests were gastric endoscope, positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and blind biopsy of tonsil. We treated 24 of the 41 patients. Therapies were: neck dissection with postoperative radiation therapy in 11 cases, neck dissection alone in 1 case, only radiation or chemoradiation therapy alone in 8 cases, and chemotherapy alone in 4 cases. The 5-year survival rate was 40.1% in all cases and 81.5% in cases who underwent neck dissection. (author)

  16. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  17. How to know unknown fungi: the role of a herbarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Patrick M; Döring, Heidi; Bidartondo, Martin I

    2009-01-01

    The development of a universal approach to the identification of fungi from the environment is impeded by the limited number and narrow phylogenetic range of the named internal transcribed spacer DNA sequences available on GenBank. The goal here was to assess the potential impact of systematic DNA sequencing from a fungal herbarium collection. DNA sequences were generated from a diverse set of 279 specimens deposited at the fungal herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew (UK) and bioinformatic analyses were used to study their overlap with the public database. It is estimated that c. 70% of the herbarium taxonomic diversity is not yet represented in GenBank and that a further c. 10% of our sequences match solely to 'environmental samples' or fungi otherwise unidentified. Here it is shown that the unsampled diversity residing in fungal herbaria can substantially enlarge the coverage of GenBank's fully identified sequence pool to ameliorate the problem of environmental unknowns and to aid in the detection of truly novel fungi by molecular data.

  18. Ultrastructural mitochondrial alterations in equine myopathies of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Driessche, K; Ducatelle, R; Chiers, K; Van Coster, R; van der Kolk, J H; van der Kolk, H

    2015-03-01

    Very few mitochondrial myopathies have been described in horses. To examine the ultrastructure of muscle mitochondria in equine cases of myopathy of unknown origin. Biopsies of vastus lateralis of the Musculus quadriceps femoris were taken predominantly immediately post mortem and processed for transmission electron microscopy. As a result, electron micrographs of 90 horses in total were available for analysis comprising 4 control horses, 16 horses suffering from myopathy and 70 otherwise diseased horses. Following a thorough clinical and laboratory work-up, four out of five patients that did not fit into the usual algorithm to detect known causes of myopathy showed ultrastructural mitochondrial alterations. Small mitochondria with zones with complete disruption of cristae associated with lactic acidemia were detected in a 17-year-old pony mare, extremely long and slender mitochondria with longitudinal cristae in a 5-year-old Quarter horse stallion, a mixture of irregular extremely large mitochondria (measuring 2500 by 800 nm) next to smaller ones in an 8-year-old Hanoverian mare and round mitochondria with only few cristae in a 11-year-old pony gelding. It remains uncertain whether the subsarcolemmal mitochondrial accumulations observed in the fifth patient have any pathological significance. Ultrastructural alterations in mitochondria were detected in at least four horses. To conclude that these are due to mitochondrial dysfuntions, biochemical tests should be performed. The possibility of a mitochondrial myopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis of muscle weakness.

  19. Challenges of the Unknown: Clinical Application of Microbial Metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Rose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Availability of fast, high throughput and low cost whole genome sequencing holds great promise within public health microbiology, with applications ranging from outbreak detection and tracking transmission events to understanding the role played by microbial communities in health and disease. Within clinical metagenomics, identifying microorganisms from a complex and host enriched background remains a central computational challenge. As proof of principle, we sequenced two metagenomic samples, a known viral mixture of 25 human pathogens and an unknown complex biological model using benchtop technology. The datasets were then analysed using a bioinformatic pipeline developed around recent fast classification methods. A targeted approach was able to detect 20 of the viruses against a background of host contamination from multiple sources and bacterial contamination. An alternative untargeted identification method was highly correlated with these classifications, and over 1,600 species were identified when applied to the complex biological model, including several species captured at over 50% genome coverage. In summary, this study demonstrates the great potential of applying metagenomics within the clinical laboratory setting and that this can be achieved using infrastructure available to nondedicated sequencing centres.

  20. Overfitting Bayesian Mixture Models with an Unknown Number of Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoé van Havre

    Full Text Available This paper proposes solutions to three issues pertaining to the estimation of finite mixture models with an unknown number of components: the non-identifiability induced by overfitting the number of components, the mixing limitations of standard Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC sampling techniques, and the related label switching problem. An overfitting approach is used to estimate the number of components in a finite mixture model via a Zmix algorithm. Zmix provides a bridge between multidimensional samplers and test based estimation methods, whereby priors are chosen to encourage extra groups to have weights approaching zero. MCMC sampling is made possible by the implementation of prior parallel tempering, an extension of parallel tempering. Zmix can accurately estimate the number of components, posterior parameter estimates and allocation probabilities given a sufficiently large sample size. The results will reflect uncertainty in the final model and will report the range of possible candidate models and their respective estimated probabilities from a single run. Label switching is resolved with a computationally light-weight method, Zswitch, developed for overfitted mixtures by exploiting the intuitiveness of allocation-based relabelling algorithms and the precision of label-invariant loss functions. Four simulation studies are included to illustrate Zmix and Zswitch, as well as three case studies from the literature. All methods are available as part of the R package Zmix, which can currently be applied to univariate Gaussian mixture models.

  1. Overfitting Bayesian Mixture Models with an Unknown Number of Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Havre, Zoé; White, Nicole; Rousseau, Judith; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes solutions to three issues pertaining to the estimation of finite mixture models with an unknown number of components: the non-identifiability induced by overfitting the number of components, the mixing limitations of standard Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling techniques, and the related label switching problem. An overfitting approach is used to estimate the number of components in a finite mixture model via a Zmix algorithm. Zmix provides a bridge between multidimensional samplers and test based estimation methods, whereby priors are chosen to encourage extra groups to have weights approaching zero. MCMC sampling is made possible by the implementation of prior parallel tempering, an extension of parallel tempering. Zmix can accurately estimate the number of components, posterior parameter estimates and allocation probabilities given a sufficiently large sample size. The results will reflect uncertainty in the final model and will report the range of possible candidate models and their respective estimated probabilities from a single run. Label switching is resolved with a computationally light-weight method, Zswitch, developed for overfitted mixtures by exploiting the intuitiveness of allocation-based relabelling algorithms and the precision of label-invariant loss functions. Four simulation studies are included to illustrate Zmix and Zswitch, as well as three case studies from the literature. All methods are available as part of the R package Zmix, which can currently be applied to univariate Gaussian mixture models.

  2. Point of Technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .

    Minimally invasive techniques are becoming popular choice for the recent times. These techniques are lowering the cost and giving the best cosmetic results. For cardiovascular surgery these techniques are much more newer and much more unknown. Open lumbar sympathectomy for certain indications is a very well ...

  3. The End of Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jo

    2018-01-01

    Have teachers become too dependent on points? This article explores educators' dependency on their points systems, and the ways that points can distract teachers from really analyzing students' capabilities and achievements. Feldman argues that using a more subjective grading system can help illuminate crucial information about students and what…

  4. Density Distributions of Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramines (RDX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D M

    2002-01-01

    As part of the US Army Foreign Comparative Testing (FCT) program the density distributions of six samples of class 1 RDX were measured using the density gradient technique. This technique was used in an attempt to distinguish between RDX crystallized by a French manufacturer (designated insensitive or IRDX) from RDX manufactured at Holston Army Ammunition Plant (HAAP), the current source of RDX for Department of Defense (DoD). Two samples from different lots of French IRDX had an average density of 1.7958 ± 0.0008 g/cc. The theoretical density of a perfect RDX crystal is 1.806 g/cc. This yields 99.43% of the theoretical maximum density (TMD). For two HAAP RDX lots the average density was 1.786 ± 0.002 g/cc, only 98.89% TMD. Several other techniques were used for preliminary characterization of one lot of French IRDX and two lot of HAAP RDX. Light scattering, SEM and polarized optical microscopy (POM) showed that SNPE and Holston RDX had the appropriate particle size distribution for Class 1 RDX. High performance liquid chromatography showed quantities of HMX in HAAP RDX. French IRDX also showed a 1.1 C higher melting point compared to HAAP RDX in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) consistent with no melting point depression due to the HMX contaminant. A second part of the program involved characterization of Holston RDX recrystallized using the French process. After reprocessing the average density of the Holston RDX was increased to 1.7907 g/cc. Apparently HMX in RDX can act as a nucleating agent in the French RDX recrystallization process. The French IRDX contained no HMX, which is assumed to account for its higher density and narrower density distribution. Reprocessing of RDX from Holston improved the average density compared to the original Holston RDX, but the resulting HIRDX was not as dense as the original French IRDX. Recrystallized Holston IRDX crystals were much larger (3-500 (micro)m or more) then either the original class 1 HAAP RDX or French

  5. Popular Music in Jia Zhangke’s Unknown Pleasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With his documentary-style films reflecting upon China’s unprecedented transformation from a state-controlled to a market-driven economy, Jia Zhangke has risen from within the movement of independent Chinese cinema that began to flourish in the late 1990s to become one of the most recognized filmmakers of contemporary China. Born in 1970 and raised in the underdeveloped Shanxi Province, Jia studied film theory at Beijing Film Academy and was first noticed for his controversial “Hometown Trilogy”—'Pickpocket '('Xiao Wu', 1997, 'Platform '('Zhantai', 1999, and 'Unknown Pleasures '('Ren xiao yao', 2002. These three films, shot with handheld video camera on the streets of his hometown province, focus on the reckless changes that China’s aggressive economic growth and globalization have brought to socially marginalized groups. Like other independently made films—films that are produced with capital from outside the state-sponsored avenues and without the approval of film censorship, and that are not allowed to be shown in China’s public theaters—Jia’s first three films reach domestic audiences only through unofficial DVD copies and small-scaled screenings at universities, film bars, and art salons. His limited domestic influence sharply contrasts with the critical acclaim that he receives from international film festival audiences, who are searching for alternative film culture from China after the Fifth Generation directors. By the late 1990s, Jia had become a spokesperson for an ever-increasing group of aspiring Chinese independent filmmakers, particularly through writings and interviews that theorize independent Chinese cinema’s practice.

  6. Vestibular Function in Adults With Epilepsy of Unknown Etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Sherifa A; Tohamy, Amal M; Oseilly, Amira M

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate vestibular function in adults with chronic epilepsy of unknown etiology in the inter-ictal period. Epilepsy is a chronic medical disorder. Life-long therapy may be required in one-third of patients. Epilepsy is associated with comorbid somatic conditions which impairs patients' quality of life. This cross-sectional study included 28 with generalized tonic clonic (GTC) convulsions and 14 and 3 with temporal (TLE) and frontal lobe (FLE) epilepsies with secondary generalization (all were on regular carbamazepine therapy) and 40 healthy control subjects. The patients' mean age was 34.97 ± 7.35 years and the duration of illness was 18.75 ± 7.99 years. All underwent videonystagmography (VNG). Compared with controls, patients had frequent vestibular symptoms including dizziness (62.22%) (p = 0.0001) and sense of imbalance (44.44%) (p = 0.0001). Eleven patients (24.44%) had central vestibular dysfunction (p = 0.0001); 9 (20%) had mixed vestibular dysfunction and one (2.22%) had peripheral vestibular dysfunction (p = 0.0001). Abnormalities were observed in saccadic (44.4%) and pursuit (42.2%) eye movements, optokinetic nystagmus (42.2%) and positioning/positional (11.11%) and caloric (13.33%) testing. TLE and FLE were associated with more VNG abnormalities than GTC. No significant differences were observed in the demographic and clinical characteristics between patients with and without VNG abnormalities. Vestibular manifestations are frequent in patients with epilepsy. This may be a result of the permanent damaging effect of chronic epilepsy on the vestibular cortical areas and/or a toxic effect from prolonged carbamazepine therapy on the peripheral and central vestibular systems.

  7. Adaptive vison aided integrated navigation for dynamic unknown enviroments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematallah, Heba

    In this research, a novel method for visual odometry (VO) and the integration with multi-sensors navigation systems for vehicular platforms is proposed. The proposed method partitions the field of single camera view into regions of interests where each region likely contains different types of visual features. By applying computer vision processing techniques, ambiguous pose estimation is calculated up to a scale factor. The proposed method uses aiding measurements from vehicle's odometer to adaptively resolve the scale factor ambiguity problem in monocular camera systems. Unlike some state-of-art approaches, this work does not depend on offline pre-processing or predefined landmarks or visual maps. In addition, this work addresses unknown uncontrolled environments where moving objects likely exist. Innovative odometer-aided Local Bundle Adjustment (LBA) along with a fuzzy C-mean clustering mechanism is proposed to reject outliers corresponding to moving objects. A Gaussian Mixture approach is also applied to detect visual background regions during stationary periods which enables further rejection of moving objects. Finally, an empirical scoring method is applied to calculate a matching score of the different visual features and to use this score in a Kalman filter as measurement covariance noise to integrate VOestimated pose changes within a larger multi-sensors integrated navigation system. Experimental work was performed with a physical vehicular platform equipped by MEMS inertial sensors, GPS, speed measurements and GPS-enabled camera. The experimental work includes three testing vehicular trajectories in downtown Toronto and the surrounding areas. The experimental work showed significant navigation improvements during long GPS outages where only VO is fused with inertial sensors and the vehicle's speed measurements.

  8. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2016-10-01

    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  9. Direct sampling for stand density index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ducey; Harry T. Valentine

    2008-01-01

    A direct method of estimating stand density index in the field, without complex calculations, would be useful in a variety of silvicultural situations. We present just such a method. The approach uses an ordinary prism or other angle gauge, but it involves deliberately "pushing the point" or, in some cases, "pulling the point." This adjusts the...

  10. Estimating continuous floodplain and major river bed topography mixing ordinal coutour lines and topographic points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, J. S.; Dartevelle, M.; Delenne, C.; Rousseau, A.

    2017-12-01

    Floodplain and major river bed topography govern many river biophysical processes during floods. Despite the grow of direct topographic measurements from LiDARS on riverine systems, it still room to develop methods for large (e.g. deltas) or very local (e.g. ponds) riverine systems that take advantage of information coming from simple SAR or optical image processing on floodplain, resulting from waterbodies delineation during flood up or down, and producing ordered coutour lines. The next challenge is thus to exploit such data in order to estimate continuous topography on the floodplain combining heterogeneous data: a topographic points dataset and a located but unknown and ordered contourline dataset. This article is comparing two methods designed to estimate continuous topography on the floodplain mixing ordinal coutour lines and continuous topographic points. For both methods a first estimation step is to value each contourline with elevation and a second step is next to estimate the continuous field from both topographic points and valued contourlines. The first proposed method is a stochastic method starting from multigaussian random-fields and conditional simualtion. The second is a deterministic method based on radial spline fonction for thin layers used for approximated bivariate surface construction. Results are first shown and discussed from a set of synoptic case studies presenting various topographic points density and topographic smoothness. Next, results are shown and discuss on an actual case study in the Montagua laguna, located in the north of Valparaiso, Chile.

  11. Metaharmonic Lattice Point Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi

    2011-01-01

    Metaharmonic Lattice Point Theory covers interrelated methods and tools of spherically oriented geomathematics and periodically reflected analytic number theory. The book establishes multi-dimensional Euler and Poisson summation formulas corresponding to elliptic operators for the adaptive determination and calculation of formulas and identities of weighted lattice point numbers, in particular the non-uniform distribution of lattice points. The author explains how to obtain multi-dimensional generalizations of the Euler summation formula by interpreting classical Bernoulli polynomials as Green

  12. Point Counts of Birds: What Are We Estimating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas H. Johnson

    1995-01-01

    Point counts of birds are made for many reasons, including estimating local densities, determining population trends, assessing habitat preferences, and exploiting the activities of recreational birdwatchers. Problems arise unless there is a clear understanding of what point counts mean in terms of actual populations of birds. Criteria for conducting point counts...

  13. Point Information Gain and Multidimensional Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rychtáriková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the point information gain (PIG and derived quantities, i.e., point information gain entropy (PIE and point information gain entropy density (PIED, for the case of the Rényi entropy and simulate the behavior of PIG for typical distributions. We also use these methods for the analysis of multidimensional datasets. We demonstrate the main properties of PIE/PIED spectra for the real data with the examples of several images and discuss further possible utilizations in other fields of data processing.

  14. Robust Decentralized Adaptive Neural Control for a Class of Nonaffine Nonlinear Large-Scale Systems with Unknown Dead Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of robust decentralized adaptive neural stabilization control is investigated for a class of nonaffine nonlinear interconnected large-scale systems with unknown dead zones. In the controller design procedure, radical basis function (RBF neural networks are applied to approximate packaged unknown nonlinearities and then an adaptive neural decentralized controller is systematically derived without requiring any information on the boundedness of dead zone parameters (slopes and break points. It is proven that the developed control scheme can ensure that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded in the sense of mean square. Simulation study is provided to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed control scheme.

  15. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure bas...

  16. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  17. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  18. Model Breaking Points Conceptualized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Rozy; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Current curriculum initiatives (e.g., National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate that models be used in the mathematics classroom. However, despite their apparent promise, there comes a point when models break, a point in the mathematical problem space where the model cannot,…

  19. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Aguilera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case: Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  20. The knowns and unknowns of human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The provision of donor human milk instead of formula is an important contribution to the nutrition and protection from infections for preterm infants. Systematic reviews suggest a lower risk of necrotizing enterocolitis with pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) as opposed to artificial formula, although evidence supporting PDHM use from randomized control trials is limited. Human milk banks (HMBs) must have a risk management system to maintain a safe product especially as many operate in an unregulated environment. To ensure safety, the HMB in Australia has committed to meet the appropriate standards recommended in the Code of Good Manufacturing Practices (Blood and Tissues) and models risk management during processing on Codex HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) requirements. There is scope to continually reevaluate the screening of donors and quality standards recommended during HMB. This will be most effective if strong networks of HMBs are developed with regional reference laboratories to encourage compliance with safety guidelines. Further research and development is needed to refine technology for treating donor milk such as thermal ultrasound and ultraviolet light, aimed at the retention of full bioactivity. HMB networks will facilitate collection of evidence for refining HMB practice which should translate to improved outcomes for preterm and sick infants. Cost effectiveness is most likely when HMBs are associated with large neonatal intensive care units. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Linkage between the Biosphere and Geomagnetic field: Knowns and Unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Zhu, R.

    2017-12-01

    The geomagnetic field extends from Earth's interior into space, and protects our planets habitability by shielding the planet from solar winds and cosmic rays. Recently, single zircon paleomagnetic study provides evidence of the field to ages as old as 4.2 Ga. Many great questions remain, including whether the emergence of life on Earth was a consequence of the field's protection, how organisms utilize the field, and if field variations (polarity reversal, excursion and secular variation) impact the evolution of the biosphere. In the past decade, great efforts have been made to probe these very complex and great challenging questions through the inter-disciplinary subject of biogeomagnetism. Numerous birds, fish, sea turtles, bats and many other organisms utilize the geomagnetic field during orientation and long-distance navigation. We recently found that bats, the second most abundant order of mammals, can use the direction of magnetic field with a weak strength comparable to polarity transitions/excursions, which is indicative of advanced magnetoreception developed in bats co-evolving with the geomagnetic field since the Eocene. Magnetotactic bacteria swim along the geomagnetic field lines by synthesizing intracellular nano-sized and chain-arranged magnetic minerals (magnetosomes). Recent field surveys in China, Europe, America and Australia have shown that these microbes are ubiquitous in aqueous habitats. Both their biogeography distribution and magnetotactic swimming speed are field intensity dependent. On the other hand, it is increasingly accepted that the geomagnetic field influences life through several indirect pathways. For example, it has been discovered that solar wind erosion enhanced the atmospheric oxygen escape during periods of weak magnetic field and global mean ionospheric electron density profiles can be affected by geomagnetic field strength variation. In addition, depletion of the ozone layer during a weak magnetic field could result in

  2. Variational Bayesian labeled multi-Bernoulli filter with unknown sensor noise statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Hao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to build accurate model for measurement noise covariance in complex backgrounds. For the scenarios of unknown sensor noise variances, an adaptive multi-target tracking algorithm based on labeled random finite set and variational Bayesian (VB approximation is proposed. The variational approximation technique is introduced to the labeled multi-Bernoulli (LMB filter to jointly estimate the states of targets and sensor noise variances. Simulation results show that the proposed method can give unbiased estimation of cardinality and has better performance than the VB probability hypothesis density (VB-PHD filter and the VB cardinality balanced multi-target multi-Bernoulli (VB-CBMeMBer filter in harsh situations. The simulations also confirm the robustness of the proposed method against the time-varying noise variances. The computational complexity of proposed method is higher than the VB-PHD and VB-CBMeMBer in extreme cases, while the mean execution times of the three methods are close when targets are well separated.

  3. Iterative PDF Estimation-Based Multiuser Diversity Detection and Channel Estimation with Unknown Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinovic Nenad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The equivalent diversity order of multiuser detector employing multiple receive antennas and minimum mean squared error (MMSE processing for frequency-selective channels is decreased if it aims at suppressing unknown cochannel interference (UCCI while detecting multiple users' signals. This is an unavoidable consequence of linear processing at the receiver. In this paper, we propose a new multiuser signal detection scheme with the aim to preserve the detector's diversity order by taking into account the structure of the UCCI. We use the fact that the structure of the UCCI appears in the probability density function (PDF of the UCCI plus noise, which can be characterized as multimodal Gaussian. A kernel smoothing PDF estimation based receiver is derived. The PDF estimation can be based on training symbols only (noniterative PDF estimation or on training symbols as well as feedback from the decoder (iterative PDF estimation. It is verified through simulations that the proposed receiver significantly outperforms the conventional covariance estimation in channels with low frequency selectivity. The iterative PDF estimation significantly outperforms the noniterative PDF estimation-based receiver with minor training overhead.

  4. Do acupuncture points exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi; Liu Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Huang Yuying; He Wei; Ding Guanghong

    2009-01-01

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  5. Do acupuncture points exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory), and Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Dang, Ruishan [Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yuying; He Wei [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ding Guanghong [Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-07

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  6. a Curvature Based Adaptive Neighborhood for Individual Point Cloud Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, E.; Chen, Q.; Wang, H.; Liu, X.

    2017-09-01

    As a key step in 3D scene analysis, point cloud classification has gained a great deal of concerns in the past few years. Due to the uneven density, noise and data missing in point cloud, how to automatically classify the point cloud with a high precision is a very challenging task. The point cloud classification process typically includes the extraction of neighborhood based statistical information and machine learning algorithms. However, the robustness of neighborhood is limited to the density and curvature of the point cloud which lead to a label noise behavior in classification results. In this paper, we proposed a curvature based adaptive neighborhood for individual point cloud classification. Our main improvement is the curvature based adaptive neighborhood method, which could derive ideal 3D point local neighborhood and enhance the separability of features. The experiment result on Oakland benchmark dataset shows that the proposed method can effectively improve the classification accuracy of point cloud.

  7. Fermion-induced quantum critical points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-Xiang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong

    2017-08-22

    A unified theory of quantum critical points beyond the conventional Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm remains unknown. According to Landau cubic criterion, phase transitions should be first-order when cubic terms of order parameters are allowed by symmetry in the Landau-Ginzburg free energy. Here, from renormalization group analysis, we show that second-order quantum phase transitions can occur at such putatively first-order transitions in interacting two-dimensional Dirac semimetals. As such type of Landau-forbidden quantum critical points are induced by gapless fermions, we call them fermion-induced quantum critical points. We further introduce a microscopic model of SU(N) fermions on the honeycomb lattice featuring a transition between Dirac semimetals and Kekule valence bond solids. Remarkably, our large-scale sign-problem-free Majorana quantum Monte Carlo simulations show convincing evidences of a fermion-induced quantum critical points for N = 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, consistent with the renormalization group analysis. We finally discuss possible experimental realizations of the fermion-induced quantum critical points in graphene and graphene-like materials.Quantum phase transitions are governed by Landau-Ginzburg theory and the exceptions are rare. Here, Li et al. propose a type of Landau-forbidden quantum critical points induced by gapless fermions in two-dimensional Dirac semimetals.

  8. Point/Counterpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungar, David; Ernst, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Point Argument: "Dynamic Languages (in Reactive Environments) Unleash Creativity," by David Ungar. For the sake of creativity, the profession needs to concentrate more on inventing new and better dynamic languages and environments and less on improving static languages. Counterpoint Argument...

  9. Bedrock Outcrop Points Compilation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A compilation of bedrock outcrops as points and/or polygons from 1:62,500 and 1:24,000 geologic mapping by the Vermont Geological Survey, the United States...

  10. Triple Point Topological Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziming Zhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Topologically protected fermionic quasiparticles appear in metals, where band degeneracies occur at the Fermi level, dictated by the band structure topology. While in some metals these quasiparticles are direct analogues of elementary fermionic particles of the relativistic quantum field theory, other metals can have symmetries that give rise to quasiparticles, fundamentally different from those known in high-energy physics. Here, we report on a new type of topological quasiparticles—triple point fermions—realized in metals with symmorphic crystal structure, which host crossings of three bands in the vicinity of the Fermi level protected by point group symmetries. We find two topologically different types of triple point fermions, both distinct from any other topological quasiparticles reported to date. We provide examples of existing materials that host triple point fermions of both types and discuss a variety of physical phenomena associated with these quasiparticles, such as the occurrence of topological surface Fermi arcs, transport anomalies, and topological Lifshitz transitions.

  11. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  12. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  13. Designated Wildlife Lakes - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a point shapefile of Designated Wildlife Lakes in Minnesota. This shapefile was created by converting lake polygons from the Designated Wildlife Lakes...

  14. Arctic climate tipping points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the Arctic are briefly reviewed. Then, the current behaviour of a range of Arctic systems is summarised. Looking ahead, a range of potential tipping phenomena are described. This leads to a revised and expanded list of potential Arctic climate tipping elements, whose likelihood is assessed, in terms of how much warming will be required to tip them. Finally, the available responses are considered, especially the prospects for avoiding Arctic climate tipping points.

  15. Future Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  16. Unconventional Quantum Critical Points

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Cenke

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the theory of unconventional quantum critical points that are beyond the Landau's paradigm. Three types of unconventional quantum critical points will be discussed: (1). The transition between topological order and semiclassical spin ordered phase; (2). The transition between topological order and valence bond solid phase; (3). The direct second order transition between different competing orders. We focus on the field theory and universality class of these unconventio...

  17. Crowding and Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Design and Environment, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Three-part report pinpointing problems and uncovering solutions for the dual concepts of density (ratio of people to space) and crowding (psychological response to density). Section one, A Primer on Crowding,'' reviews new psychological and social findings; section two, Density in the Suburbs,'' shows conflict between status quo and increased…

  18. Density Functional Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (1) The total energy of an electron system in an external potential is a unique functional of the total electron density; and. (2)The density that minimizes the energy is the ground-state density, and this minimum energy is the ground-state energy of the system.

  19. Solar corona electron density distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, P.B.; Edenhofer, P.; Lueneburg, E.

    1980-01-01

    Three and one-half months of single-frequency (f= 0 2.2 x 10 9 Hz) time delay data (earth-to-spacecraft and return signal travel time) were acquired from the Helios 2 spacecraft around the time of its solar occupation (May 16, 1976). Following the determination of the spacecraft trajectory the excess time delay due to the integrated effect of free electrons along the signal's ray path could be separated and modeled. An average solar corona, equatorial, electron density profile, during solar minimum, was deduced from time delay measurements acquired within 5--60 solar radii (R/sub S/) of the sun. As a point of reference, at 10 R/sub S/ from the sun we find an average electron density of 4500 el cm -3 . However, there appears to be an asymmtry in the electron density as the ray path moved from the west (preoccultation) to east (post-occulation) solar limb. This may be related to the fact that during entry into occulation the heliographic latitude of the ray path (at closes approach to the sun) was about 6 0 , whereas during exit it became -7 0 . The Helios electron density model is compared with similar models deduced from a variety of different experimental techniques. Within 5--20 R/sub S/ of the sun the models separate according to solar minimum or maximum conditions; however, anomalies are evident

  20. Path-following based Point Matching using Similarity Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Lian, Wei

    2017-01-01

    To address the problem of 3D point matching where the poses of two point sets are unknown, we adapt a recently proposed path following based method to use similarity transformation instead of the original affine transformation. The reduced number of transformation parameters leads to more constrained and desirable matching results. Experimental results demonstrate better robustness of the proposed method over state-of-the-art methods.

  1. Distributed Optimal Consensus Control for Nonlinear Multiagent System With Unknown Dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jilie; Zhang, Huaguang; Feng, Tao

    2017-08-01

    This paper focuses on the distributed optimal cooperative control for continuous-time nonlinear multiagent systems (MASs) with completely unknown dynamics via adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) technology. By introducing predesigned extra compensators, the augmented neighborhood error systems are derived, which successfully circumvents the system knowledge requirement for ADP. It is revealed that the optimal consensus protocols actually work as the solutions of the MAS differential game. Policy iteration algorithm is adopted, and it is theoretically proved that the iterative value function sequence strictly converges to the solution of the coupled Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. Based on this point, a novel online iterative scheme is proposed, which runs based on the data sampled from the augmented system and the gradient of the value function. Neural networks are employed to implement the algorithm and the weights are updated, in the least-square sense, to the ideal value, which yields approximated optimal consensus protocols. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  2. Direct Position Determination of Unknown Signals in the Presence of Multipath Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianping; Wang, Ding; Yu, Wanting; Yu, Hongyi

    2018-03-17

    A novel geolocation architecture, termed "Multiple Transponders and Multiple Receivers for Multiple Emitters Positioning System (MTRE)" is proposed in this paper. Existing Direct Position Determination (DPD) methods take advantage of a rather simple channel assumption (line of sight channels with complex path attenuations) and a simplified MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm cost function to avoid the high dimension searching. We point out that the simplified assumption and cost function reduce the positioning accuracy because of the singularity of the array manifold in a multi-path environment. We present a DPD model for unknown signals in the presence of Multi-path Propagation (MP-DPD) in this paper. MP-DPD adds non-negative real path attenuation constraints to avoid the mistake caused by the singularity of the array manifold. The Multi-path Propagation MUSIC (MP-MUSIC) method and the Active Set Algorithm (ASA) are designed to reduce the dimension of searching. A Multi-path Propagation Maximum Likelihood (MP-ML) method is proposed in addition to overcome the limitation of MP-MUSIC in the sense of a time-sensitive application. An iterative algorithm and an approach of initial value setting are given to make the MP-ML time consumption acceptable. Numerical results validate the performances improvement of MP-MUSIC and MP-ML. A closed form of the Cramér-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) is derived as a benchmark to evaluate the performances of MP-MUSIC and MP-ML.

  3. Effects of unknown fermion generations on the msub(w),msub(z) interdependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolini, S.; Sirlin, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of unknown fermion generation of the msub(w), msub(z) interdependence is analyzed. It is shown that an additional fermion generation can increase the quantum correction Δr and, therefore, the predicted mass difference msub(z)-msub(w) for given msub(z), but such positive contributions are bounded above by small quantities. In particular, as previously pointed out by Veltman, massive degenerate fermions do not fully decouple but lead to small positive corrections. On the other hand, it is known that significant negative contributions to Δr and msub(z)-msub(w) can arise from exotic values for the mass of the top quark and the isodoublet splittings in higher generations. A method of obtaining information about such masses when msub(w) and msub(z) become precisely known is discussed. The analytic methods of obtaining the general features of the corrections, for essentially arbitrary fermion masses, exploit the convexity properties of elementary functions. (orig.)

  4. Biodiversity and global health—hubris, humility and the unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    biodiversity and well-being; and the links of biodiversity to the green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty alleviation. References [1] Schuiteman A et al 2011 Nocturne for an unknown pollinator: first description of a night-flowering orchid (Bulbophyllum nocturnum) Bot. J. Linean Soc. 167 344-50 [2] Kinver M and Gill V 2011 Botanists discover 'remarkable' night-flowering orchid BBC News Science and Environment (www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-15818662) [3] Rudd M A 2011 Scientists' opinions on the global status and management of biological diversity Conserv. Biol. 25 1165-75 [4] Bottrill M C et al 2008 Is conservation triage just smart decision making? Trends Ecol. Evol. 23 649-54 [5] Parr M J et al 2009 Why we should aim for zero extinction Trends Ecol. Evol. 24 181 Bottrill M C et al 2009 Finite conservation funds mean triage is unavoidable Trends Ecol. Evol. 24 183-4 [6] Pushpangadan P and Behl H M 2005 Environment & Biodiversity: Agenda for Future (Lucknow: International Society of Environmental Botanists) (http://isebindia.com/icpep-3/icpep3-s-2.html) [7] Alves R and Rosa I 2007 Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where do they meet? J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed. 3 14 [8] Center for Biodiversity and Conservation 1997 Biodiversity and Human Health: A Guide for Policymakers (New York: American Museum of Natural History) [9] Chivian E 1997 Global environmental degradation and biodiversity loss: implications for human health Biodiversity and Human Health ed F Grifo and J Rosenthal (Washington, DC: Island) pp 7-38 [10] UNEP-WCMC 2011 Health and Well Being of Communities Directly Dependent on Ecosystem Goods and Services: An Indicator for the Convention on Biological Diversity (Cambridge: UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre) [11] Nettleton C, Stephens C and Bristow F 2007 Utz Wachil: a study of indigenous perceptions of health and environment in five countries Ecohealth 4 461-772 [12] Jones G P et al 2004 Coral decline

  5. Simultaneous bulk density and soil moisture determination by attenuation of 137 Cs and 241 Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Ferraz, E.S. de.

    1974-01-01

    The method of simultaneous bulk density and soil moisture determination by attenuation of 241 Am and 137 Cs gamma-radiation is introduced and studied with detail. Theoretical considerations are made about the attenuation process in the absorbers, the form of solving the problem of two unknowns, the sensitivity of the method the influences of the resolution time of the electronic counting equipment, and of the Compton scattering in the sample. From the methodological point of view studies are made about the influence of the geometry, adjustment of counting system, choice of radiation sources, attenuation coefficient and the manner of obtaining reliable measurements. Data obtained are analysed, discussed and compared with those found in the literature. Finally the author presents some applications of the method, its use in soil-water movement studies, in soil profile compaction studies, and specially in swelling soils. (author)

  6. A Bayesian MCMC method for point process models with intractable normalising constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Kasper Klitgaard; Møller, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    to simulate from the "unknown distribution", perfect simulation algorithms become useful. We illustrate the method in cases whre the likelihood is given by a Markov point process model. Particularly, we consider semi-parametric Bayesian inference in connection to both inhomogeneous Markov point process models...... and pairwise interaction point processes....

  7. Parametric change point estimation, testing and confidence interval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many applications like finance, industry and medicine, it is important to consider that the model parameters may undergo changes at unknown moment in time. This paper deals with estimation, testing and confidence interval of a change point for a univariate variable which is assumed to be normally distributed. To detect ...

  8. Cloud Point Depressants

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Wax formation and deposition in subsea crude oil piepline is most important problem in cold environments faced by petroleum industry. Significant research is been going on at industrial as well as academic levels to develop additives which are able to break the wax crystal structure or at least weakens it. Addition of cloud point depressants has been found to be an effective way of dealing with waxes. The main focus of this project is chemical control of wax gel formation by using cloud point...

  9. Probability densities and Lévy densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler

    For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated.......For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated....

  10. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Slide 29 · Slide 30 · Fundamental diagram in the ant-trail model · Non-monotonic variation of average speed with density of ants in a trail · Slide 33 · Theory of the Ant-trail model · Ant-trail model: (2+1)-cluster approximation · A self-consistent heuristic MFT for the ant-trail model · Ant-trail model: A self-consistent heuristic MFT.

  11. Proteins of Unknown Function in the Protein Data Bank (PDB: An Inventory of True Uncharacterized Proteins and Computational Tools for Their Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Nadzirin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of uncharacterized functions form a large part of many of the currently available biological databases and this situation exists even in the Protein Data Bank (PDB. Our analysis of recent PDB data revealed that only 42.53% of PDB entries (1084 coordinate files that were categorized under “unknown function” are true examples of proteins of unknown function at this point in time. The remainder 1465 entries also annotated as such appear to be able to have their annotations re-assessed, based on the availability of direct functional characterization experiments for the protein itself, or for homologous sequences or structures thus enabling computational function inference.

  12. Proteins of unknown function in the Protein Data Bank (PDB): an inventory of true uncharacterized proteins and computational tools for their analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadzirin, Nurul; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2012-10-08

    Proteins of uncharacterized functions form a large part of many of the currently available biological databases and this situation exists even in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Our analysis of recent PDB data revealed that only 42.53% of PDB entries (1084 coordinate files) that were categorized under "unknown function" are true examples of proteins of unknown function at this point in time. The remainder 1465 entries also annotated as such appear to be able to have their annotations re-assessed, based on the availability of direct functional characterization experiments for the protein itself, or for homologous sequences or structures thus enabling computational function inference.

  13. Local density approximations for relativistic exchange energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The use of local density approximations to approximate exchange interactions in relativistic electron systems is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the physical content of these exchange energies by discussing results for the uniform relativistic electron gas from a new point of view. Work on applying these local density approximations in atoms and solids is reviewed and it is concluded that good accuracy is usually possible provided self-interaction corrections are applied. The local density approximations necessary for spin-polarized relativistic systems are discussed and some new results are presented

  14. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. PowerPoint Presentation · CHANDIPURA VIRUS · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · VIRUSES · PROPERTIES OF VIRUSES · CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES · VIRUS FAMILIES · VIRUS FAMILIES – contd · General Classification · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19.

  15. ACS Zero Point Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    The uncertainties in the photometric zero points create a fundamental limit to the accuracy of photometry. The current state of the ACS calibration is surprisingly poor, with zero point uncertainties of 0.03 magnitudes. The reason for this is that the ACS calibrations are based primarily on semi-emprical synthetic zero points and observations of fields too crowded for accurate ground-based photometry. I propose to remedy this problem by obtaining ACS images of the omega Cen standard field with all nine broadband ACS/WFC filters. This will permit the direct determination of the ACS zero points by comparison with excellent ground-based photometry, and should reduce their uncertainties to less than 0.01 magnitudes. A second benefit is that it will facilitate the comparison of the WFPC2 and ACS photometric systems, which will be important as WFPC2 is phased out and ACS becomes HST's primary imager. Finally, three of the filters will be repeated from my Cycle 12 observations, allowing for a measurement of any change in sensitivity.

  16. Building Temperature Set Point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meincke, Carol L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, Christopher A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This white paper provides information and recommendations for an actionable and enforceable corporate policy statement on temperature set points for office and related spaces at Sandia and presents a strategy that balances the need to achieve the energy goals with optimizing employee comfort and productivity.

  17. Point Lepreau generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganong, G.H.D.; Strang, A.E.; Gunter, G.E.; Thompson, T.S.

    Point Lepreau-1 reactor is a 600 MWe generating station expected to be in service by October 1979. New Brunswick is suffering a 'catch up' phenomenon in load growth and needs to decrease dependence on foreign oil. The site is on salt water and extensive study has gone into corrosion control. Project management, financing and scheduling have unique aspects. (E.C.B.)

  18. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Receptor-mediated endocytosis · Slide 4 · Publications – Direct therapeutic approaches · Importance of ECM recognition · Publications – ECM interactions · Slide 8 · L. donovani, when attached to the macrophage surface, behaves like any other microbe which are killed ...

  19. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...

  20. Holographic Three point Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martirosyan, Ara

    . In the spirit of understanding this problem better, the thesis discusses the divergences appearing in the calculation of structure constants involving two giant and one point-like gravitons in the string theories on AdS_5 x S^5 and AdS_4 x S^7/Z_k backgrounds. Coherent state approach for the tree-level...

  1. New Novae snack point

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Located next to the car park by the flag poles, a few metres from the Main CERN Reception (building 33), a new snack point catered by Novae will open to the public on Wednesday 8 August. More information will be available in the next issue of the Bulletin!

  2. Hillclimbing saddle point inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawana, Kiyoharu; Sakai, Katsuta

    2018-03-01

    Recently a new inflationary scenario was proposed in [1] which can be applicable to an inflaton having multiple vacua. In this letter, we consider a more general situation where the inflaton potential has a (UV) saddle point around the Planck scale. This class of models can be regarded as a natural generalization of the hillclimbing Higgs inflation [2].

  3. Point kinetics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimpland, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    A normalized form of the point kinetics equations, a prompt jump approximation, and the Nordheim-Fuchs model are used to model nuclear systems. Reactivity feedback mechanisms considered include volumetric expansion, thermal neutron temperature effect, Doppler effect and void formation. A sample problem of an excursion occurring in a plutonium solution accidentally formed in a glovebox is presented

  4. Density dependence of the nuclear energy-density functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Panagiota; Park, Tae-Sun; Lim, Yeunhwan; Hyun, Chang Ho

    2018-01-01

    Background: The explicit density dependence in the coupling coefficients entering the nonrelativistic nuclear energy-density functional (EDF) is understood to encode effects of three-nucleon forces and dynamical correlations. The necessity for the density-dependent coupling coefficients to assume the form of a preferably small fractional power of the density ρ is empirical and the power is often chosen arbitrarily. Consequently, precision-oriented parametrizations risk overfitting in the regime of saturation and extrapolations in dilute or dense matter may lose predictive power. Purpose: Beginning with the observation that the Fermi momentum kF, i.e., the cubic root of the density, is a key variable in the description of Fermi systems, we first wish to examine if a power hierarchy in a kF expansion can be inferred from the properties of homogeneous matter in a domain of densities, which is relevant for nuclear structure and neutron stars. For subsequent applications we want to determine a functional that is of good quality but not overtrained. Method: For the EDF, we fit systematically polynomial and other functions of ρ1 /3 to existing microscopic, variational calculations of the energy of symmetric and pure neutron matter (pseudodata) and analyze the behavior of the fits. We select a form and a set of parameters, which we found robust, and examine the parameters' naturalness and the quality of resulting extrapolations. Results: A statistical analysis confirms that low-order terms such as ρ1 /3 and ρ2 /3 are the most relevant ones in the nuclear EDF beyond lowest order. It also hints at a different power hierarchy for symmetric vs. pure neutron matter, supporting the need for more than one density-dependent term in nonrelativistic EDFs. The functional we propose easily accommodates known or adopted properties of nuclear matter near saturation. More importantly, upon extrapolation to dilute or asymmetric matter, it reproduces a range of existing microscopic

  5. A definition of unknown parent groups based on bull usage patterns across herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, A; Renand, G; Phocas, F

    2011-03-01

    In genetic evaluations, the definition of unknown parent groups (UPG) is usually based on time periods, selection path and flows of foreign founders. The definition of UPG may be more complex for populations presenting genetic heterogeneity due to both, large national expansion and coexistence of artificial insemination (AI) and natural service (NS). A UPG definition method accounting for beef bull flows was proposed and applied to the French Charolais cattle population. It assumed that, at a given time period, unknown parents belonged to the same UPG when their progeny were bred in herds that used bulls with similar origins (birth region and reproduction way). Thus, the birth period, region and AI rate of a herd were pointed out to be the three criteria reflecting genetic disparities at the national level in a beef cattle population. To deal with regional genetic disparities, 14 regions were identified using a factorial approach combining principal component analysis and Ward clustering. The selection nucleus of the French cattle population was dispersed over three main breeding areas. Flows of NS bulls were mainly carried out within each breeding area. On the contrary, the use and the selection of AI bulls were based on a national pool of candidates. Within a time period, herds of different regions were clustered together when they used bulls coming from the same origin and with an estimated difference of genetic level lower than 20% of genetic standard deviation (σg) for calf muscle and skeleton scores (SS) at weaning. This led to the definition of 16 UPG of sires, which were validated as robust and relevant in a sire model, meaning numerically stable and corresponding to distinct genetic subpopulations. The UPG genetic levels were estimated for muscle and SS under sire and animal models. Whatever the trait, differences between bull UPG estimates within a time period could reach 0.5 σg across regions. For a given time period, bull UPG estimates for muscle and

  6. Density limits in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.

    1984-06-01

    The energy loss from a tokamak plasma due to neutral hydrogen radiation and recycling is of great importance for the energy balance at the periphery. It is shown that the requirement for thermal equilibrium implies a constraint on the maximum attainable edge density. The relation to other density limits is discussed. The average plasma density is shown to be a strong function of the refuelling deposition profile. (author)

  7. Why Density Dependent Propulsion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 Khoury and Weltman produced a density dependent cosmology theory they call the Chameleon, as at its nature, it is hidden within known physics. The Chameleon theory has implications to dark matter/energy with universe acceleration properties, which implies a new force mechanism with ties to the far and local density environment. In this paper, the Chameleon Density Model is discussed in terms of propulsion toward new propellant-less engineering methods.

  8. Nuclear Level Densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research in the area of nuclear level densities is reviewed. The current interest in nuclear astrophysics and in structure of nuclei off of the line of stability has led to the development of radioactive beam facilities with larger machines currently being planned. Nuclear level densities for the systems used to produce the radioactive beams influence substantially the production rates of these beams. The modification of level-density parameters near the drip lines would also affect nucleosynthesis rates and abundances

  9. Children with hypercholesterolemia of unknown cause: Value of genetic risk scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjouke, Barbara; Tanck, Michael W T; Fouchier, Sigrid W; Defesche, Joep C; Hutten, Barbara A; Wiegman, Albert; Kastelein, John J P; Hovingh, G Kees

    2016-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is caused by mutations in LDLR, APOB, or PCSK9, and in a previous study, we identified a causative mutation in these FH genes in 95% (255 of 269) of children with the FH phenotype. It has been hypothesized that a polygenic form of hypercholesterolemia is present in FH patients in whom no mutation is identified in the 3 FH genes. To address whether a polygenic form of hypercholesterolemia, defined as high-weighted effect of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) raising SNPs expressed as the genetic risk score (GRS), is present in the remaining 14 children. On reassessment of the molecular diagnosis and clinical phenotype, 8 FH kindreds met the criteria for hypercholesterolemia of unknown cause and were included in this study. We calculated a weighted GRS comprising 10 established LDL-C-associated SNPs and the APOE genotype in these index cases and evaluated whether the index cases were characterized by an increased GRS compared to 26 first-degree relatives. Phenotypically affected and unaffected individuals could not be distinguished based on any of the risk scores. In this and our previous study, we show that a causal mutation in LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9 can be identified in almost all children with a definite clinical diagnosis of FH. In the small group of patients without a mutation, we did not observe a higher GRS compared with unaffected relatives, which suggests that the FH phenotype is not caused by the aggregate of LDL-C increasing SNPs. Our data imply that application of the GRS is not instrumental as a diagnostic tool to individually define clinically diagnosed FH patients with polygenic hypercholesterolemia in our study population. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Finding the Density of Objects without Measuring Mass and Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumba, Frackson; Tsige, Mesfin

    2007-01-01

    A simple method based on the moment of forces and Archimedes' principle is described for finding density without measuring the mass and volume of an object. The method involves balancing two unknown objects of masses M[subscript 1] and M[subscript 2] on each side of a pivot on a metre rule and measuring their corresponding moment arms. The object…

  11. Two-point model for divertor transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.D.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1984-04-01

    Plasma transport along divertor field lines was investigated using a two-point model. This treatment requires considerably less effort to find solutions to the transport equations than previously used one-dimensional (1-D) models and is useful for studying general trends. It also can be a valuable tool for benchmarking more sophisticated models. The model was used to investigate the possibility of operating in the so-called high density, low temperature regime

  12. Point of Care Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Goudie, Adrian; Chiorean, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the use of portable ultrasound scanners has enhanced the concept of point of care ultrasound (PoC-US), namely, "ultrasound performed at the bedside and interpreted directly by the treating clinician." PoC-US is not a replacement for comprehensive ultrasound, but rather allow...... and critical care medicine, cardiology, anesthesiology, rheumatology, obstetrics, neonatology, gynecology, gastroenterology and many other applications. In the future, PoC-US will be more diverse than ever and be included in medical student training.......Over the last decade, the use of portable ultrasound scanners has enhanced the concept of point of care ultrasound (PoC-US), namely, "ultrasound performed at the bedside and interpreted directly by the treating clinician." PoC-US is not a replacement for comprehensive ultrasound, but rather allows...

  13. Precise Point Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaohong

    performance of point positioning for kinematic applications, the precise point positioning attracted a lot of attention and opened a new alternative door to kinematic positioning. In this report different tests have been done to evaluate the ability and accuracy of the software TriP in the kinematic...... and static case by using internal consistency (residuals, RMS, repeatability etc.), known coordinates, ground truth and double-differenced solutions. The kinematic GPS positioning accuracy using four different software systems has been investigated and tested by comparing the degree of agreement between...... the airborne lidar system misalignment angle by automating the matching of lidar data with ground truth. Kinematic GPS positioning has been widely used, but the available commercial software systems are normally only suitable for the short or medium range kinematic baseline. However, in polar areas, airborne...

  14. Point clouds in BIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antova, Gergana; Kunchev, Ivan; Mickrenska-Cherneva, Christina

    2016-10-01

    The representation of physical buildings in Building Information Models (BIM) has been a subject of research since four decades in the fields of Construction Informatics and GeoInformatics. The early digital representations of buildings mainly appeared as 3D drawings constructed by CAD software, and the 3D representation of the buildings was only geometric, while semantics and topology were out of modelling focus. On the other hand, less detailed building representations, with often focus on ‘outside’ representations were also found in form of 2D /2,5D GeoInformation models. Point clouds from 3D laser scanning data give a full and exact representation of the building geometry. The article presents different aspects and the benefits of using point clouds in BIM in the different stages of a lifecycle of a building.

  15. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · HABITAT TYPES & PRIMATE GROUPS · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · TOPOGRAPHY OF KARNATAKA · SOUTHERN PLATEAU · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · WESTERN GHATS · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · LARGE SQUIRRELS · Slide 19 · OPEN PLAINS · Slide 21 · Slide 22.

  16. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Getting Smart with Smart Windows! Slide 5 · Energy Crisis!! Total World Primary Energy Supply · “We Ride on Water!” Volume for storage of 4 kg H2 in different states · Slide 10 · Linkers make a Difference! Coordination Polymers · Principle Behind Formation of MOFs · Slide 14.

  17. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Distribution of viral encephalitis · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Status dystonicus in Japanese encephalitis.

  18. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25.

  19. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Planck CMB sky map · Slide 9 · Planck Angular power spectrum · CMB Polarization spectra · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Cosmological Parameters · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Hemispherical asymmetry · Modulation model of SI ...

  20. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · The Heat Engine of the Earth · Slide 4 · Volcanoes at various settings · Slide 6 · Why study carbonatites? Uniqueness of Carbonatites · Origin of Carbonatites · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Primary Objectives · Methods/Tracers Used · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19.

  1. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Demands for Space Transportation Systems for the next 30 years · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Launch demand & costs · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24.

  2. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7 mai 2012 ... cervico-thoracique confirme l'existence d'un goitre plon- geant aux dépens du lobe droit restant à 15 mm de la crosse aortique associé à un processus expansif tissulai- ... DU CANCER DIFFERENCIE DE LA ThYROIDE. R. BEN M'hAMED et al. Journal ORL N°26 .ai:Mise au point 07/05/12 09:45 page54 ...

  3. Critical point predication device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kazuhiko; Kariyama, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    An operation for predicting a critical point by using a existent reverse multiplication method has been complicated, and an effective multiplication factor could not be plotted directly to degrade the accuracy for the prediction. The present invention comprises a detector counting memory section for memorizing the counting sent from a power detector which monitors the reactor power, a reverse multiplication factor calculation section for calculating the reverse multiplication factor based on initial countings and current countings of the power detector, and a critical point prediction section for predicting the criticality by the reverse multiplication method relative to effective multiplication factors corresponding to the state of the reactor core previously determined depending on the cases. In addition, a reactor core characteristic calculation section is added for analyzing an effective multiplication factor depending on the state of the reactor core. Then, if the margin up to the criticality is reduced to lower than a predetermined value during critical operation, an alarm is generated to stop the critical operation when generation of a period of more than a predetermined value predicted by succeeding critical operation. With such procedures, forecasting for the critical point can be easily predicted upon critical operation to greatly mitigate an operator's burden and improve handling for the operation. (N.H.)

  4. The fundamentals behind solving for unknown molecular structures using computer-assisted structure elucidation: a free software package at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Arvin; Pautler, Brent G

    2016-05-15

    The successful elucidation of an unknown compound's molecular structure often requires an analyst with profound knowledge and experience of advanced spectroscopic techniques, such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The implementation of Computer-Assisted Structure Elucidation (CASE) software in solving for unknown structures, such as isolated natural products and/or reaction impurities, can serve both as elucidation and teaching tools. As such, the introduction of CASE software with 112 exercises to train students in conjunction with the traditional pen and paper approach will strengthen their overall understanding of solving unknowns and explore of various structural end points to determine the validity of the results quickly. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A tutorial on Palm distributions for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2017-01-01

    This tutorial provides an introduction to Palm distributions for spatial point processes. Initially, in the context of finite point processes, we give an explicit definition of Palm distributions in terms of their density functions. Then we review Palm distributions in the general case. Finally, we...... discuss some examples of Palm distributions for specific models and some applications....

  6. JTM advances in uncharted territories: diseases and disorders of unknown etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Panelli, Monica C.

    2017-01-01

    We are delighted to announce a new section in the Journal of Translational Medicine, ?Illnesses of Unknown Etiology?. This section aims to provide a translational medicine forum for the publication of research on illnesses, multisystem diseases and syndromes of unknown etiology. Examples of these include Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia Syndrome.

  7. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  8. Synthesis, characterization and density functional theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We synthesized a number of aniline derivatives containing acyl groups to compare their barriers of rotation around the N-CO groups. Geometry optimization for all the rotamers have been performed using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G** level of theory. For each stationary point we carried out vibrational ...

  9. Density functional theory, methods, techniques, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, S.; Salahub, S.

    2001-01-01

    Important concepts of Density Functional Theory (DFT) and the different types of approximation for the exchange-correlation energy functional are presented. Applications illustrate the advantages of using DFT as a computational tool and point out some limitations as well. (authors)

  10. Non-parametric Bayesian inference for inhomogeneous Markov point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Kasper Klitgaard; Møller, Jesper; Johansen, Per Michael

    is a shot noise process, and the interaction function for a pair of points depends only on the distance between the two points and is a piecewise linear function modelled by a marked Poisson process. Simulation of the resulting posterior using a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm in the "conventional" way...... involves evaluating ratios of unknown normalising constants. We avoid this problem by applying a new auxiliary variable technique introduced by Møller, Pettitt, Reeves & Berthelsen (2006). In the present setting the auxiliary variable used is an example of a partially ordered Markov point process model....

  11. An Iterative Closest Points Algorithm for Registration of 3D Laser Scanner Point Clouds with Geometric Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Liang, Bin; Yang, Jun; Li, Shunzhi; He, Jin

    2017-08-11

    The Iterative Closest Points (ICP) algorithm is the mainstream algorithm used in the process of accurate registration of 3D point cloud data. The algorithm requires a proper initial value and the approximate registration of two point clouds to prevent the algorithm from falling into local extremes, but in the actual point cloud matching process, it is difficult to ensure compliance with this requirement. In this paper, we proposed the ICP algorithm based on point cloud features (GF-ICP). This method uses the geometrical features of the point cloud to be registered, such as curvature, surface normal and point cloud density, to search for the correspondence relationships between two point clouds and introduces the geometric features into the error function to realize the accurate registration of two point clouds. The experimental results showed that the algorithm can improve the convergence speed and the interval of convergence without setting a proper initial value.

  12. Sintered ceramics having controlled density and porosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassfield, H.C.; DeHollander, W.R.; Nivas, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A new method was developed for sintering ceramic uranium dioxide powders, in which ammonium oxalate is admixed with the powder prior to being pressed into a cylindrical green body, so that the end-point density of the final nuclear-reactor fuel product can be controlled. When the green body is heated, the ammonium oxalate decomposes and leaves discrete porosity in the sintered body, which corresponds to the ammonium oxalate regions in the green body. Thus the end-point density of the sintered body is a function of the amount of ammonium oxalate added. The final density of the sintered product is about 90-97% of the theoretical. The addition of ammonium oxalate also allows control of the pore size and distribution throughout the fuel. The process leaves substantially no impurities in the sintered strucuture. (DN)

  13. Prevalence of detecting unknown cerebral metastases in fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and its potential clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Boom Ting; Auyong, T K; Tong, C M

    2014-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of incidental finding of unknown cerebral metastases and explore the clinical impact of detecting unknown brain metastases among individuals underwent whole body fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with brain included in field of view. A retrospective review of 1876 patients who underwent whole body PET/CT examination in our clinical PET center for oncological evaluation from January 2009 to September 2009 was performed. The total number and prevalence of unknown brain metastases detected by PET/CT were calculated. Patients diagnosed with cerebral metastases by PET/CT were further analyzed via the electronic patient record system for relevant clinical and radiological findings. Positive predictive value of PET/CT for the diagnosis of cerebral metastases was calculated with reference to contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or contrast enhanced CT. Of the 1876 subjects, 71 patients (3.8%) were diagnosed with cerebral metastases by PET/CT. 31 patients were already diagnosed with brain metastases before PET/CT. Among the 40 patients with unknown brain metastasis, 24 (60.0%) underwent either MRI (n = 5) or CT (n = 19) after PET/CT, of which 17 patients were confirmed with cerebral metastases. The true positive rate was 70.8% (17/24), while the false positive rate of PET/CT was 29.2% (7/24). Nearly 94.1% (16/17) patients with confirmed cerebral metastases on MRI or CT had subsequent change in management. Among the remaining 16 patients with positive findings of cerebral metastases without further radiological correlation, 43.8% (7/16) patients had change in management after PET/CT. A total of 57.5% (23/40) patients had change in management after PET/CT. The point prevalence of detecting unknown cerebral metastases by PET/CT was 2.1% (40/1876). 94.1% patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases confirmed with either MRI or CT received immediate treatment for cerebral

  14. Direct Position Determination of Unknown Signals in the Presence of Multipath Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Du

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel geolocation architecture, termed “Multiple Transponders and Multiple Receivers for Multiple Emitters Positioning System (MTRE” is proposed in this paper. Existing Direct Position Determination (DPD methods take advantage of a rather simple channel assumption (line of sight channels with complex path attenuations and a simplified MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC algorithm cost function to avoid the high dimension searching. We point out that the simplified assumption and cost function reduce the positioning accuracy because of the singularity of the array manifold in a multi-path environment. We present a DPD model for unknown signals in the presence of Multi-path Propagation (MP-DPD in this paper. MP-DPD adds non-negative real path attenuation constraints to avoid the mistake caused by the singularity of the array manifold. The Multi-path Propagation MUSIC (MP-MUSIC method and the Active Set Algorithm (ASA are designed to reduce the dimension of searching. A Multi-path Propagation Maximum Likelihood (MP-ML method is proposed in addition to overcome the limitation of MP-MUSIC in the sense of a time-sensitive application. An iterative algorithm and an approach of initial value setting are given to make the MP-ML time consumption acceptable. Numerical results validate the performances improvement of MP-MUSIC and MP-ML. A closed form of the Cramér–Rao Lower Bound (CRLB is derived as a benchmark to evaluate the performances of MP-MUSIC and MP-ML.

  15. A previously unknown zinc finger protein, DST, regulates drought and salt tolerance in rice via stomatal aperture control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin-Yuan; Chao, Dai-Yin; Gao, Ji-Ping; Zhu, Mei-Zhen; Shi, Min; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2009-08-01

    Abiotic stresses, such as drought and salinity, lead to crop growth damage and a decrease in crop yields. Stomata control CO(2) uptake and optimize water use efficiency, thereby playing crucial roles in abiotic stress tolerance. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is an important signal molecule that induces stomatal closure. However, the molecular pathway that regulates the H(2)O(2) level in guard cells remains largely unknown. Here, we clone and characterize DST (drought and salt tolerance)-a previously unknown zinc finger transcription factor that negatively regulates stomatal closure by direct modulation of genes related to H(2)O(2) homeostasis-and identify a novel pathway for the signal transduction of DST-mediated H(2)O(2)-induced stomatal closure. Loss of DST function increases stomatal closure and reduces stomatal density, consequently resulting in enhanced drought and salt tolerance in rice. These findings provide an interesting insight into the mechanism of stomata-regulated abiotic stress tolerance, and an important genetic engineering approach for improving abiotic stress tolerance in crops.

  16. Tipping point leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2003-04-01

    When William Bratton was appointed police commissioner of New York City in 1994, turf wars over jurisdiction and funding were rife and crime was out of control. Yet in less than two years, and without an increase in his budget, Bratton turned New York into the safest large city in the nation. And the NYPD was only the latest of five law-enforcement agencies Bratton had turned around. In each case, he succeeded in record time despite limited resources, a demotivated staff, opposition from powerful vested interests, and an organization wedded to the status quo. Bratton's turnarounds demonstrate what the authors call tipping point leadership. The theory of tipping points hinges on the insight that in any organization, fundamental changes can occur quickly when the beliefs and energies of a critical mass of people create an epidemic movement toward an idea. Bratton begins by overcoming the cognitive hurdles that block organizations from recognizing the need for change. He does this by putting managers face-to-face with operational problems. Next, he manages around limitations on funds, staff, or equipment by concentrating resources on the areas that are most in need of change and that have the biggest payoffs. He meanwhile solves the motivation problem by singling out key influencers--people with disproportionate power due to their connections or persuasive abilities. Finally, he closes off resistance from powerful opponents. Not every CEO has the personality to be a Bill Bratton, but his successes are due to much more than his personality. He relies on a remarkably consistent method that any manager looking to turn around an organization can use to overcome the forces of inertia and reach the tipping point.

  17. A novel fractional technique for the modified point kinetics equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Aboanber

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A fractional model for the modified point kinetics equations is derived and analyzed. An analytical method is used to solve the fractional model for the modified point kinetics equations. This methodical technique is based on the representation of the neutron density as a power series of the relaxation time as a small parameter. The validity of the fractional model is tested for different cases of step, ramp and sinusoidal reactivity. The results show that the fractional model for the modified point kinetics equations is the best representation of neutron density for subcritical and supercritical reactors.

  18. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Metal Oxides: Range of properties · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27.

  19. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · 2-D Aromaticity · Condensed Aromatics and Hückel Rule · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27 · Slide 28.

  20. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tomie est replacé et fixé par des fils d'acier, krönlein lais- sait ce fragment pédiculé au fascia temporalis afin d'évi- ter la dépression de la fosse temporale due à la désinser- tion du muscle temporal [20] ; dans notre série, après reconstitution du cadre, le muscle temporal est suturé à son point d'insertion. pour les tumeurs ...

  1. The point on.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In this last article, we find the point of view about the world petroleum activity, the reserves and the recent discoveries, the deep offshore, the technological developments in petroleum upstream. The petroleum situation in China is treated. The trends of world refining are described. The recent technological developments in the petroleum downstream are detailed. The prices of crude oil and the refining margins are the subject of a chapter. The investments of hydrocarbons area are given, the world trade and the lng projects, the gas availability in Western Europe have their place. The trends of European automobile industry and the fuels distribution are also discussed. (N.C.)

  2. Torsades de Pointes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Chen, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: 70-year-old male with a history ventricular arrhythmia, AICD (automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator, coronary artery disease and cardiac stents presented to the Emergency Department after three AICD discharges with dyspnea but no chest pain. During triage, he was found to have an irregular radial pulse and was placed on a cardiac monitor. Significant findings: The patient was found to be in a polymorphic ventricular tachycardia; he was alert, awake and asymptomatic. A rhythm strip showed a wide complex tachycardia with the QRS complex varying in amplitude around the isoelectric line consistent with Torsades de Pointes. Discussion: Torsades de Pointes (TdP is a specific type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. The arrhythmia’s characteristic morphology consists of the QRS complex “twisting” around the isoelectric line with gradual variation of the amplitude, reflecting its literal translation of “twisting of the points.”1 This arrhythmia occurs in the context of prolonged QT. The most common form of acquired QT prolongation is medication induced. Common causes include antiarrhythmics, antipsychotics, antiemetics, and antibiotics.2 Patient specific risk factors include female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hypothermia and heart disease.3 In the setting of prolonged QT, the repolarization phase is extended. TdP is initiated when a PVC (premature ventricular contraction occurs during this repolarization, known as an ‘R on T’ phenomenon. TdP is often asymptomatic and self-limited. The danger in TdP is its potential to deteriorate into ventricular fibrillation. A mainstay of management of TdP is prevention of risk factors when possible.4 Unstable patients should be treated with synchronized cardioversion. Magnesium sulfate should be administered in all cases of TdP.1 If a patient is not responsive to magnesium, consider isoproterenol, amiodarone, and overdrive

  3. Problems in the theory of point explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeinikov, V. P.

    The book is concerned with the development of the theory of point explosions, which is relevant to the study of such phenomena as the initiation of detonation, high-power explosions, electric discharges, cosmic explosions, laser blasts, and hypersonic aerodynamics. The discussion covers the principal equations and the statement of problems; linearized non-self-similar one-dimensional problems; spherical, cylindrical, and plane explosions with allowance for counterpressure under conditions of constant initial density; explosions in a combustible mixture of gases; and point explosions in inhomogeneous media with nonsymmetric energy release. Attention is also given to point explosions in an electrically conducting gas with allowance for the effect of the magnetic field and to the propagation of perturbations from solar flares.

  4. Field dynamics inference via spectral density estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Philipp; Steininger, Theo; Enßlin, Torsten A.

    2017-11-01

    Stochastic differential equations are of utmost importance in various scientific and industrial areas. They are the natural description of dynamical processes whose precise equations of motion are either not known or too expensive to solve, e.g., when modeling Brownian motion. In some cases, the equations governing the dynamics of a physical system on macroscopic scales occur to be unknown since they typically cannot be deduced from general principles. In this work, we describe how the underlying laws of a stochastic process can be approximated by the spectral density of the corresponding process. Furthermore, we show how the density can be inferred from possibly very noisy and incomplete measurements of the dynamical field. Generally, inverse problems like these can be tackled with the help of Information Field Theory. For now, we restrict to linear and autonomous processes. To demonstrate its applicability, we employ our reconstruction algorithm on a time-series and spatiotemporal processes.

  5. Relative Critical Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Lewis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures – symplectic, Poisson, or variational – generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (coadjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems – the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids – and generalizations of these systems.

  6. Referential Zero Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Potrč

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the most important controversy in which ordinary language philosophy was involved is that of definite descriptions, presenting referential act as a community-involving communication-intention endeavor, thereby opposing the direct acquaintance-based and logical proper names inspired reference aimed at securing truth conditions of referential expression. The problem of reference is that of obtaining access to the matters in the world. This access may be forthcoming through the senses, or through descriptions. A review of how the problem of reference is handled shows though that one main practice is to indulge in relations of acquaintance supporting logical proper names, demonstratives, indexicals and causal or historical chains. This testifies that the problem of reference involves the zero point, and with it phenomenology of intentionality. Communication-intention is but one dimension of rich phenomenology that constitutes an agent’s experiential space, his experiential world. Zero point is another constitutive aspect of phenomenology involved in the referential relation. Realizing that the problem of reference is phenomenology based opens a new perspective upon the contribution of analytical philosophy in this area, reconciling it with continental approach, and demonstrating variations of the impossibility related to the real. Chromatic illumination from the cognitive background empowers the referential act, in the best tradition of ordinary language philosophy.

  7. Social networks and inference about unknown events: A case of the match between Google’s AlphaGo and Sedol Lee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jonghoon; Cha, Young-Jae; Lee, Hyungsuk; Lee, Boyun; Baek, Sojung; Choi, Semin

    2017-01-01

    This study examines whether the way that a person makes inferences about unknown events is associated with his or her social relations, more precisely, those characterized by ego network density that reflects the structure of a person’s immediate social relation. From the analysis of individual predictions over the Go match between AlphaGo and Sedol Lee in March 2016 in Seoul, Korea, this study shows that the low-density group scored higher than the high-density group in the accuracy of the prediction over a future state of a social event, i.e., the outcome of the first game. We corroborated this finding with three replication tests that asked the participants to predict the following: film awards, President Park’s impeachment in Korea, and the counterfactual assessment of the US presidential election. Taken together, this study suggests that network density is negatively associated with vision advantage, i.e., the ability to discover and forecast an unknown aspect of a social event. PMID:28222114

  8. Air shower density spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M. R.; Foster, J. M.; Hodson, A. L.; Hazen, W. E.; Hendel, A. Z.; Bull, R. M.

    Results are presented of a measurement of the differential local density spectrum of extensive air showers at sea level using 1 sq m current-limited spark chambers. The 2 cm gap, Ne/He-filled discharge chambers with 6 mm thick 'Georgia-wired' glass faces, were mounted directly on the underside of a light, uniform, sandwich-panel roof. Separate runs with different trigger requirements were made. Low density spectra according to different counting criteria are presented in a graph. Another graph shows a differential local density spectrum. The results of the measurements are compared with previous measurements

  9. Melanoma Patients with Unknown Primary Site or Nodal Recurrence after Initial Diagnosis Have a Favourable Survival Compared to Those with Synchronous Lymph Node Metastasis and Primary Tumour

    OpenAIRE

    Weide, Benjamin; Faller, Christine; Els?sser, Margrit; B?ttner, Petra; Pflugfelder, Annette; Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas Kurt; Bauer, J?rgen; Meier, Friedegund; Garbe, Claus

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A direct comparison of prognosis between patients with regional lymph node metastases (LNM) detected synchronously with the primary melanoma (primary LNM), patients who developed their first LNM subsequently (secondary LNM) and those with initial LNM in melanoma with unknown primary site (MUP) is missing thus far. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Survival of 498 patients was calculated from the time point of the first macroscopic LNM using Kaplan Meier and multivariate Cox hazard regression ...

  10. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  11. Low Density Supersonic Decelerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator project will demonstrate the use of inflatable structures and advanced parachutes that operate at supersonic speeds to more...

  12. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  13. The Temporal Tipping Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    “Slow journalism” is a term anthropologist and sociologists sometimes use to describe their empirical work, ethnography. To journalists and media observers, meanwhile, “slow journalism” signifies a newfound dedication to serious long-form journalism. Not surprisingly, thus, “ethnographic journalism......”—a genre where reporters adopt research strategies from social science—takes “slow” to the extreme. Immersing themselves in communities for weeks, months and years, ethnographic journalists seek to gain what anthropologists call “the native's point of view”. Based on in-depth interviews with practitioners...... and analyses of their journalistic works, this paper offers a study of ethnographic journalism suggesting that slow time operates in at least three separate registers. First, in terms of regimentation, ethnographic journalism is mostly long-form pieces that demand time-consuming research and careful writing...

  14. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Morelli, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    In contemporary urban societies multiple networks and systems interact, overlap, exist in parallel, converge, conflict etc. creating unforeseen complexity and less transparency. By exploring how layered networks of physical movement, service information, goods delivery, commercial communication etc....... are connected (and disconnected) we get a much better understanding of how to design and intervene regardless if we are thinking about public spaces in the city or new systems of service design. The many networks orchestrating and facilitating contemporary everyday life are dependent on the strategic sites...... where the networks meet and establish contact. Thus we argue for the usefulness of the notion of Critical Point of Contact (CPC) to deepen our understanding of the actual life within networks. En route to this notion we draw upon theories within as diverse realms such as interaction design, service...

  15. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  16. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  17. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the speculation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  18. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2012-01-01

    student studios made at the 1st semester of the Urban Design Master Programme in the fall of 2009 and 2010. The CPC concept is double edged since it both provides the stepping-stone for analysis as well as scaffolding for intervention and re-design. Thereby, it fits the underlying philosophy of teaching......In this brief article, we shall illustrate the application of the analytical and interventionist concept of ‘Critical Points of Contact’ (CPC) through a number of urban design studios. The notion of CPC has been developed over a span of the last three to four years and is reported in more detail...... elsewhere (Jensen & Morelli 2011). In this article, we will only discuss the conceptual and theoretical framing superficially, since our real interest is to show and discuss the concept's application value to spatial design in a number of urban design studios. The 'data' or the projects presented are seven...

  19. Density of liquid Ytterbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankus, S.V.; Basin, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented for measurements of the density of metallic ytterbium in the liquid state and at the liquid-solid phase transition. Based on the numerical data obtained, the coefficient of thermal expansion βZ of the liquid and the density discontinuity on melting deltarho/sub m/ are calculated. The magnitudes of βZ and deltarho/sub m/ for the heavy lanthanides are compared

  20. Population Density Modeling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    194 POPULATION DENSITY MODELING TOOL by Davy Andrew Michael Knott David Burke 26 June 2012 Distribution...MARYLAND NAWCADPAX/TR-2012/194 26 June 2012 POPULATION DENSITY MODELING TOOL by Davy Andrew Michael Knott David Burke...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE 26

  1. The local mass density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeder, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    An improved mass-luminosity relation for faint main-sequence stars derived from recently revised masses for some faint double stars is presented. The total local mass density is increased to nearly 0.2 solar masses per cu pc. This estimate is as large as the mass density required by Oort's (1965) dynamical analysis of stellar motions perpendicular to the galactic plane if the mass is concentrated in a narrow layer.

  2. Relationships between melting point and boiling point of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalkowsky, S.H.; Krzyzaniak, J.F.; Myrdal, P.B. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). College of Pharmacy)

    1994-07-01

    Relationships between melting point and boiling point are shown to be dependent upon the molecular symmetry number and a modified count of the total number of atoms in the molecule. Using the above relationships, the boiling and melting points of nearly 1,000 non-hydrogen-bonding organic compounds have been correlated. The correlations for boiling point and melting point have root mean square errors of 28 and 36 C, respectively.

  3. May 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  4. September 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  5. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  6. Density regulation in Northeast Atlantic fish populations: Density dependence is stronger in recruitment than in somatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Fabian; Ricard, Daniel; Heino, Mikko

    2018-01-30

    Population regulation is a central concept in ecology, yet in many cases its presence and the underlying mechanisms are difficult to demonstrate. The current paradigm maintains that marine fish populations are predominantly regulated by density-dependent recruitment. While it is known that density-dependent somatic growth can be present too, its general importance remains unknown and most practical applications neglect it. This study aimed to close this gap by for the first time quantifying and comparing density dependence in growth and recruitment over a large set of fish populations. We fitted density-dependent models to time-series data on population size, recruitment and age-specific weight from commercially exploited fish populations in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Data were standardized to enable a direct comparison within and among populations, and estimated parameters were used to quantify the impact of density regulation on population biomass. Statistically significant density dependence in recruitment was detected in a large proportion of populations (70%), whereas for density dependence in somatic growth the prevalence of density dependence depended heavily on the method (26% and 69%). Despite age-dependent variability, the density dependence in recruitment was consistently stronger among age groups and between alternative approaches that use weight-at-age or weight increments to assess growth. Estimates of density-dependent reduction in biomass underlined these results: 97% of populations with statistically significant parameters for growth and recruitment showed a larger impact of density-dependent recruitment on population biomass. The results reaffirm the importance of density-dependent recruitment in marine fishes, yet they also show that density dependence in somatic growth is not uncommon. Furthermore, the results are important from an applied perspective because density dependence in somatic growth affects productivity and

  7. Calculation of target-specific point distribution for 2D mobile laser scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalane, Conor; McElhinney, Conor P; Lewis, Paul; McCarthy, Tim

    2014-05-27

    The current generation of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMSs) capture high density spatial data in a short time-frame. The quantity of data is difficult to predict as there is no concrete understanding of the point density that different scanner configurations and hardware settings will exhibit for objects at specific distances. Obtaining the required point density impacts survey time, processing time, data storage and is also the underlying limit of automated algorithms. This paper details a novel method for calculating point and profile information for terrestrial MMSs which are required for any point density calculation. Through application of algorithms utilising 3D surface normals and 2D geometric formulae, the theoretically optimal profile spacing and point spacing are calculated on targets. Both of these elements are a major factor in calculating point density on arbitrary objects, such as road signs, poles or buildings-all important features in asset management surveys.

  8. Calculation of Target-Specific Point Distribution for 2D Mobile Laser Scanners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Cahalane

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current generation of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMSs capture high density spatial data in a short time-frame. The quantity of data is difficult to predict as there is no concrete understanding of the point density that different scanner configurations and hardware settings will exhibit for objects at specific distances. Obtaining the required point density impacts survey time, processing time, data storage and is also the underlying limit of automated algorithms. This paper details a novel method for calculating point and profile information for terrestrial MMSs which are required for any point density calculation. Through application of algorithms utilising 3D surface normals and 2D geometric formulae, the theoretically optimal profile spacing and point spacing are calculated on targets. Both of these elements are a major factor in calculating point density on arbitrary objects, such as road signs, poles or buildings-all important features in asset management surveys.

  9. Determination of binary mixture vapor-liquid critical densities from coexisting density data

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Poolen, L. J.; Rainwater, J. C.

    1987-11-01

    Two-phase vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) isochores for binary mixtures are defined as the thermodynamic paths along which the overall density and composition are fixed. Data along such isochores are generated from a modified Leung-Griffiths model fit to experimental data for the binary system nitrogen-methane. The behavior of the liquid volume fraction along these isochores is found to be similar to that for pure fluids. Rectilinear diameters for varying overall densities (fixed composition) are seen to be nearly coincident. Straight-line diameters and the critical liquid volume fraction method are utilized to predict critical densities using data near and removed from the critical point. Both methods give acceptable results but the critical liquid volume fraction method is more accurate. A critical literature review of the need for binary mixture critical densities is presented and a proposed experimental procedure is given for the determination of mixture critical densities.

  10. Speeding up transmissions of unknown quantum information along Ising-type quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo W J; Wei L F

    2017-01-01

    Quantum teleportation with entanglement channels and a series of two-qubit SWAP gates between the nearest-neighbor qubits are usually utilized to achieve the transfers of unknown quantum state from the sender to the distant receiver. In this paper, by simplifying the usual SWAP gates we propose an approach to speed up the transmissions of unknown quantum information, specifically including the single-qubit unknown state and two-qubit unknown entangled ones, by a series of entangling and disentangling operations between the remote qubits with distant interactions. The generic proposal is demonstrated specifically with experimentally-existing Ising-type quantum channels without transverse interaction; liquid NMR-molecules driven by global radio frequency electromagnetic pulses and capacitively-coupled Josephson circuits driven by local microwave pulses. The proposal should be particularly useful to set up the connections between the distant qubits in a chip of quantum computing. (paper)

  11. Output feedback adaptive fuzzy control of uncertain MIMO nonlinear systems with unknown input nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive fuzzy output feedback controller is proposed for a class of uncertain MIMO nonlinear systems with unknown input nonlinearities. The input nonlinearities can be backlash-like hysteresis or dead-zone. Besides, the gains of unknown input nonlinearities are unknown nonlinear functions. Based on universal approximation theorem, the unknown nonlinear functions are approximated by fuzzy systems. The proposed method does not need the availability of the states and an observer based on strictly positive real (SPR) theory is designed to estimate the states. An adaptive robust structure is used to cope with fuzzy approximation error and external disturbances. The semi-global asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed via Lyapunov approach. The applicability of the proposed method is also shown via simulations. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Ultrasound Cephalometry, Radiology, and Liquor Studies in Patients with Unknown Confinement Dates*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Rosemary A.; Beazley, John M.; Campbell, Stuart

    1971-01-01

    The accuracy of predicting fetal maturity by ultrasound cephalometry, radiology, and liquor studies in patients with unknown confinement dates has been compared. The best prediction was given by ultrasound cephalometry. Liquor studies were least helpful. PMID:4106479

  13. Application of the TTC concept to unknown substances found in analysis of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, S.; Boobis, A.R.; Cubberley, R.; Hollnagel, H.M.; Richling, E.; Wildemann, T.; Würtzen, G.; Galli, C.L.

    2011-01-01

    Unknown substances, not previously observed, are frequently detected in foods by quality control laboratories. In many cases, the assessment of these 'new' substances requires additional chemical analysis for their identification prior to assessing risk. This identification procedure can be

  14. Robust Control for the Segway with Unknown Control Coefficient and Model Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Woo Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Segway, which is a popular vehicle nowadays, is an uncertain nonlinear system and has an unknown time-varying control coefficient. Thus, we should consider the unknown time-varying control coefficient and model uncertainties to design the controller. Motivated by this observation, we propose a robust control for the Segway with unknown control coefficient and model uncertainties. To deal with the time-varying unknown control coefficient, we employ the Nussbaum gain technique. We introduce an auxiliary variable to solve the underactuated problem. Due to the prescribed performance control technique, the proposed controller does not require the adaptive technique, neural network, and fuzzy logic to compensate the uncertainties. Therefore, it can be simple. From the Lyapunov stability theory, we prove that all signals in the closed-loop system are bounded. Finally, we provide the simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  15. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from UNKNOWN from 19630301 to 19650331 (NODC Accession 9500033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The chorophyll data set was collected from unknown platforms. Data was collected over two year period spanning from March 1, 1963 to March 31, 1965. The data...

  16. Function parametrization by using 4-point transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikusar, N.D.

    1996-01-01

    A continuous parametrization of the smooth curve f(x)=f(x;R) is suggested on a basis of four-point transformations. Coordinates of three reference points of the curve are chosen as parameters R. This approach allows to derive a number of advantages in function approximation and fitting of empiric data. The transformations have made possible to derive a new class of polynomials (monosplines) having the better approximation quality than monomials {x n }. A behaviour of an error of the approximation has a uniform character. A three-point model of the cubic spline (TPS) is proposed. The model allows to reduce a number of unknown parameters in twice and to obtain an advantage in a computing aspect. The new approach to the function approximation and fitting are shown on a number of examples. The proposed approach gives a new mathematical tool and a new possibility in both practical applications and theoretical research of numerical and computational methods. 13 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Distributed Optimization Design of Continuous-Time Multiagent Systems With Unknown-Frequency Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinghu; Hong, Yiguang; Yi, Peng; Ji, Haibo; Kang, Yu

    2017-05-24

    In this paper, a distributed optimization problem is studied for continuous-time multiagent systems with unknown-frequency disturbances. A distributed gradient-based control is proposed for the agents to achieve the optimal consensus with estimating unknown frequencies and rejecting the bounded disturbance in the semi-global sense. Based on convex optimization analysis and adaptive internal model approach, the exact optimization solution can be obtained for the multiagent system disturbed by exogenous disturbances with uncertain parameters.

  18. Pattern Recognition Algorithm for High-Sensitivity Odorant Detection in Unknown Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A.

    2012-01-01

    In a realistic odorant detection application environment, the collected sensory data is a mix of unknown chemicals with unknown concentrations and noise. The identification of the odorants among these mixtures is a challenge in data recognition. In addition, deriving their individual concentrations in the mix is also a challenge. A deterministic analytical model was developed to accurately identify odorants and calculate their concentrations in a mixture with noisy data.

  19. Control of an Aerial Manipulator using On-line Parameter Estimator for an Unknown Payload

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyeonbeom; Kim, Suseong; Kim, H. Jin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an estimation and control algorithm for an aerial manipulator using a hexacopter with a 2-DOF robotic arm. The unknown parameters of a payload are estimated by an on-line estimator based on parametrization of the aerial manipulator dynamics. With the estimated mass information and the augmented passivity-based controller, the aerial manipulator can fly with the unknown object. Simulation for an aerial manipulator is performed to compare estimation performance between the p...

  20. Eddy current analysis by BEM utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    The surface integral equations whose unknowns are the surface electric and magnetic currents are widely used in eddy current analysis. However, when the skin depth is thick, computational error is increased especially in obtaining electromagnetic fields near the edge of the conductor. In order to obtain the electromagnetic field accurately, we propose an approach to solve surface integral equations utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns. (Author)

  1. A Control Method Based on Modal Transformation for Biped Robots to Climb Unknown Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmyo, Shuhei; Nakazato, Miki; Mikami, Kei; Sato, Tomoya; Sakaino, Sho; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    This paper proposes a control method based on modal transformation for biped robots to climb unknown steps. This method is able to control the foot position of the biped robot and the ground reaction force acting in vertical direction when the biped robot climbs unknown steps in a double-support phase. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by simulation and experimental results.

  2. Statistics of primordial density perturbations from discrete seed masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Robert J.; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1991-01-01

    The statistics of density perturbations for general distributions of seed masses with arbitrary matter accretion is examined. Formal expressions for the power spectrum, the N-point correlation functions, and the density distribution function are derived. These results are applied to the case of uncorrelated seed masses, and power spectra are derived for accretion of both hot and cold dark matter plus baryons. The reduced moments (cumulants) of the density distribution are computed and used to obtain a series expansion for the density distribution function. Analytic results are obtained for the density distribution function in the case of a distribution of seed masses with a spherical top-hat accretion pattern. More generally, the formalism makes it possible to give a complete characterization of the statistical properties of any random field generated from a discrete linear superposition of kernels. In particular, the results can be applied to density fields derived by smoothing a discrete set of points with a window function.

  3. Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Control of Uncertain Nonlinear Large-Scale Systems With Unknown Dead Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mou; Tao, Gang

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, an adaptive neural fault-tolerant control scheme is proposed and analyzed for a class of uncertain nonlinear large-scale systems with unknown dead zone and external disturbances. To tackle the unknown nonlinear interaction functions in the large-scale system, the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is employed to approximate them. To further handle the unknown approximation errors and the effects of the unknown dead zone and external disturbances, integrated as the compounded disturbances, the corresponding disturbance observers are developed for their estimations. Based on the outputs of the RBFNN and the disturbance observer, the adaptive neural fault-tolerant control scheme is designed for uncertain nonlinear large-scale systems by using a decentralized backstepping technique. The closed-loop stability of the adaptive control system is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis and the satisfactory tracking performance is achieved under the integrated effects of unknown dead zone, actuator fault, and unknown external disturbances. Simulation results of a mass-spring-damper system are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive neural fault-tolerant control scheme for uncertain nonlinear large-scale systems.

  4. Quantum jointly assisted cloning of an unknown three-dimensional equatorial state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Gui-Bin; Li, Xiao-Wei; Zhan, You-Bang

    2018-02-01

    We present two schemes for perfectly cloning an unknown single-qutrit equatorial state with assistance from two and N state preparers, respectively. In the first scheme, the sender wishes to teleport an unknown single-qutrit equatorial state from two state preparers to a remote receiver, and then to create a perfect copy of the unknown state at her location. The scheme consists of two stages. The first stage of the scheme requires the usual teleportation. In the second stage, to help the sender realize the quantum cloning, two state preparers perform single-qutrit projective measurements on their own qutrits from the sender, then the sender can acquire a perfect copy of the unknown state. It is shown that, only if the two state preparers collaborate with each other, the sender can create a copy of the unknown state by means of some appropriate unitary operations. In the second scheme, we generalized the jointly assisted cloning in the first scheme to the case of N state prepares. In the present schemes, the total probability of success for assisted cloning of a perfect copy of the unknown state can reach 1.

  5. Function Point Analysis Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, R.; Martinez, El; Szafran, J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Function Point Analysis (FPA) Depot is a web application originally designed by one of the NE-C3 branch's engineers, Jamie Szafran, and created specifically for the Software Development team of the Launch Control Systems (LCS) project. The application consists of evaluating the work of each developer to be able to get a real estimate of the hours that is going to be assigned to a specific task of development. The Architect Team had made design change requests for the depot to change the schema of the application's information; that information, changed in the database, needed to be changed in the graphical user interface (GUI) (written in Ruby on Rails (RoR and the web service/server side in Java to match the database changes. These changes were made by two interns from NE-C, Ricardo Muniz from NE-C3, who made all the schema changes for the GUI in RoR and Edwin Martinez, from NE-C2, who made all the changes in the Java side.

  6. Five points on columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S Rockland

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract “Column,” like “gene,” has both conceptual and linguistic shortcomings. The simple question “what is a column” is not easy to answer and the word itself is not easy to replace. In the present article, I have selected five points, in no way comprehensive or canonical, but which may nevertheless serve as a prompt and aid for further discussions and reevaluation. These are: that anatomical columns are not solid structures, that they are part of locally interdigitating systems, that any delimited column also participates in a widely distributed network, that columns are not an obligatory cortical feature, and that columns (as “modules” occur widely in the brain in non-cortical structures. I focus on the larger scale macrocolumns, mainly from an anatomical perspective. My position is that cortical organization is inherently dynamic and likely to incorporate multiple processing styles. One can speculate that the distributed mappings within areas like piriform cortex may resemble at least one mode of neocortical processing strategy.

  7. ATLAS Point 1 Construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J

    After 3 years of work in point 1, a number of surface buildings have already been completed and handed over to CERN (the control, the gas and the cooling and ventilation buildings) and, probably more appealing to the public, 60,000 m3 of earth have already been excavated from underground. At present, the technical cavern USA15 and its access shaft are almost finished, leaving only the main cavern and the liaison galleries to be completed in the coming year and a half. The main cavern has been excavated down to the radiation limit and its walls and vault will presently be concreted (see below the picture of the section of the vault with the impressive shell of 1.2 m thickness). The excavation of the bench (27 vertical metres to go yet!) will proceed from August, when some additional civil engineering work in the LHC tunnel will be undertaken. Needless to say many different services are necessary around the detector, both for its installation and future operation for physics. To that end much of the heavy...

  8. Point 1 Updates

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J.

    The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are ever so busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Not only has Civil Engineering finished the construction of the USA15 technical cavern, but the excavation of the main UX15 cavern has resumed below the machine tunnel, after a brief halt to allow the construction of the UJ-caverns for the power converters of the LHC machine. The excavation work should end in August 2002. The UX15 hand-over to ATLAS is expected in April 2003. On the surface civil engineering is starting to complete the last two surface buildings (SDX1 and SH1), once the services (cooling pipes, ventilation ducts and the largest item, the lift modules and its lift of course) in the shaft PX15 have been completed. But the civil engineering is not all. A lot more is under way. The site installation of the steel structures in the caverns is to begin in Autumn, along with all the cooling pipes, airconditi...

  9. Rational points on varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Poonen, Bjorn

    2017-01-01

    This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...

  10. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  11. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  12. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  13. Crystal structure of an unknown solvate of bis(tetra-n-butylammonium [N,N′-(4-trifluoromethyl-1,2-phenylenebis(oxamato-κ4O,N,N′,O′]nickelate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Eya'ane Meva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [N(C4H94]2[Ni(C11H3F3N2O6] or [N(n-Bu4]2[Ni(topbo] [n-Bu = n-butyl and topbo = 4-trifluoromethyl-1,2-phenylenebis(oxamate], the Ni2+ cation is coordinated by two deprotonated amido N atoms and two carboxylate O atoms, setting up a slightly distorted square-planar coordination environment. The [Ni(topbo]2− anion lies on a twofold rotation axis. Due to an incompatibility with the point-group symmetry of the complete molecule, orientational disorder of the CF3 group is observed. The tetrahedral ammonium cations and the anion are linked by weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...F hydrogen-bonding interactions into a three-dimensional network. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] following unsuccessful attempts to model it as plausible solvent molecule(s. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account the unknown solvent molecule.

  14. High Density Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been the subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has led to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. There remains great uncertainty in these models which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfil basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics. In this contribution latest developments in construction of the Equation of State (EoS of high-density matter at zero and finite temperature assuming different composition of matter will be discussed. Critical comparison of model EoS with available experimental data from heavy ion collisions and observations on neutron stars, including gravitational mass, radii and cooling patterns and data on X-ray burst sources and low mass X-ray binaries are made. Fundamental differences between the EoS of low-density, high temperature matter, such as is created in heavy ion collisions and of high-density, low temperature compact objects is discussed.

  15. Communication: Simple liquids' high-density viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigliola, Lorenzo; Pedersen, Ulf R; Heyes, David M; Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2018-02-28

    This paper argues that the viscosity of simple fluids at densities above that of the triple point is a specific function of temperature relative to the freezing temperature at the density in question. The proposed viscosity expression, which is arrived at in part by reference to the isomorph theory of systems with hidden scale invariance, describes computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones system as well as argon and methane experimental data and simulation results for an effective-pair-potential model of liquid sodium.

  16. Communication: Simple liquids' high-density viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigliola, Lorenzo; Pedersen, Ulf R.; Heyes, David M.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2018-02-01

    This paper argues that the viscosity of simple fluids at densities above that of the triple point is a specific function of temperature relative to the freezing temperature at the density in question. The proposed viscosity expression, which is arrived at in part by reference to the isomorph theory of systems with hidden scale invariance, describes computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones system as well as argon and methane experimental data and simulation results for an effective-pair-potential model of liquid sodium.

  17. Spontaneous magnetization in high-density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constanca

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that spontaneous magnetization occurs due to the anomalous magnetic moments of quarks in high-density quark matter under the tensor-type four-point interaction. The spin polarized condensate for each flavor of quark appears at high baryon density, which leads to the spontaneous...

  18. Automated pathway and reaction prediction facilitates in silico identification of unknown metabolites in human cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quell, Jan D; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Colombo, Marco; Krumsiek, Jan; Evans, Anne M; Mohney, Robert; Salomaa, Veikko; de Faire, Ulf; Groop, Leif C; Agakov, Felix; Looker, Helen C; McKeigue, Paul; Colhoun, Helen M; Kastenmüller, Gabi

    2017-12-15

    Identification of metabolites in non-targeted metabolomics continues to be a bottleneck in metabolomics studies in large human cohorts. Unidentified metabolites frequently emerge in the results of association studies linking metabolite levels to, for example, clinical phenotypes. For further analyses these unknown metabolites must be identified. Current approaches utilize chemical information, such as spectral details and fragmentation characteristics to determine components of unknown metabolites. Here, we propose a systems biology model exploiting the internal correlation structure of metabolite levels in combination with existing biochemical and genetic information to characterize properties of unknown molecules. Levels of 758 metabolites (439 known, 319 unknown) in human blood samples of 2279 subjects were measured using a non-targeted metabolomics platform (LC-MS and GC-MS). We reconstructed the structure of biochemical pathways that are imprinted in these metabolomics data by building an empirical network model based on 1040 significant partial correlations between metabolites. We further added associations of these metabolites to 134 genes from genome-wide association studies as well as reactions and functional relations to genes from the public database Recon 2 to the network model. From the local neighborhood in the network, we were able to predict the pathway annotation of 180 unknown metabolites. Furthermore, we classified 100 pairs of known and unknown and 45 pairs of unknown metabolites to 21 types of reactions based on their mass differences. As a proof of concept, we then looked further into the special case of predicted dehydrogenation reactions leading us to the selection of 39 candidate molecules for 5 unknown metabolites. Finally, we could verify 2 of those candidates by applying LC-MS analyses of commercially available candidate substances. The formerly unknown metabolites X-13891 and X-13069 were shown to be 2-dodecendioic acid and 9

  19. On the Diagnosis of Radiative Feedback in the Presence of Unknown Radiative Forcing (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R. W.; Braswell, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    Phase space analysis applied to output from both a simple forcing-feedback model, and output from the IPCC AR4 coupled climate models, demonstrates that much of the radiative variability observed in satellite radiation budget data is likely due to internal radiative forcing -- non-feedback, internally-generated variations in clouds, and possibly water vapor. It is shown that, within the classic forcing-feedback paradigm of climate variability, time-varying radiative forcing causes an uncorrelated temperature response which almost totally obscures the signature of radiative feedback. From a practical point of view, this has corrupted the diagnosis of radiative feedback from satellite data, leading to a variety of feedback estimates, usually biased toward zero. The problem does not seem to be widely appreciated, despite several published studies. Part of the persistent confusion stems from the common (but unrealistic) example of an instantaneously imposed radiative imbalance on the climate system. This example just happens to be the only case in which radiative feedback can be accurately diagnosed in response to an unknown amount of radiative forcing. This is because all of the subsequent radiative change is due only to feedback - not forcing. In contrast, for any real-world situations radiative feedback can only be clearly observed when it is in response to non-radiative forcing of temperature. Non-radiative forcing, mostly due to changes in the rate of convective heat flux from surface to the atmosphere, results in a highly correlated radiative response simply because the radiative variations are then totally composed of feedback - not forcing. Thus, the accurate diagnosis of radiative feedback from satellite measurements of natural climate variability depends upon either (1) analysis of time periods when internal radiative forcing is small relative to non-radiative forcing, or (2) the development of new methods of feedback diagnosis which do not currently exist

  20. CRISS power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.

    1979-04-01

    The correlation of signal components at different frequencies like higher harmonics cannot be detected by a normal power spectral density measurement, since this technique correlates only components at the same frequency. This paper describes a special method for measuring the correlation of two signal components at different frequencies: the CRISS power spectral density. From this new function in frequency analysis, the correlation of two components can be determined quantitatively either they stem from one signal or from two diverse signals. The principle of the method, suitable for the higher harmonics of a signal as well as for any other frequency combinations is shown for the digital frequency analysis technique. Two examples of CRISS power spectral densities demonstrates the operation of the new method. (orig.) [de

  1. Simultaneous determination of soil density and moisture by gamma ray attenuation from Cs137 and Am241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Ferraz, E.S. de.

    1974-09-01

    The method of simultaneous bulk density and soil moisture determination by attenuation of 241 Am and 137 Cs gamma-radiation is introduced and studied with details. Theoretical considerations are made about the attenuation process in the absorbers, the form of solving the problem of two unknowns; the sensitivity of the method; the influences of the resolution time of the electronic counting equipment, and of the compton scattering in the sample. From the methodological point of view studies are made about the influence of the geometry, adjustment of counting system, choice of radiation sources, attenuation coeficients and the manner of obtaining reliable measurements. It is also presented some applications of the method, its use in soil-water movement studies, in soil profile compaction studies, and specially in swelling soils

  2. Distributed Sensing for Quickest Change Detection of Point Radiation Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    paper, we consider an architecture in which each sensor node makes a local binary decision based on current observations only, binary decisions are...quickest change-point detection using a sensor network. They consider non- parametric CUSUM tests at each sensor node without an explicit statistical model of...post-change distribution is unknown and modeled as member of parametric family, one can follow a generalized likelihood ratio based approach [8] or a

  3. Holographic magnetisation density waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Stockton Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Fisica Quantica i Astrofisica & Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-10-10

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D=4 Einstein theory coupled to a scalar and two U(1) gauge fields. The solutions are holographically dual to d=3 CFTs in a constant external magnetic field along one of the U(1)’s. Below a critical temperature the system’s magnetisation density becomes inhomogeneous, leading to spontaneous formation of current density waves. We find that the transition can be of second order and that the solutions which minimise the free energy locally in the parameter space of solutions have averaged stressed tensor of a perfect fluid.

  4. Nuclear level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso Junior, J.L.

    1982-10-01

    Experimental data show that the number of nuclear states increases rapidly with increasing excitation energy. The properties of highly excited nuclei are important for many nuclear reactions, mainly those that go via processes of the compound nucleus type. In this case, it is sufficient to know the statistical properties of the nuclear levels. First of them is the function of nuclear levels density. Several theoretical models which describe the level density are presented. The statistical mechanics and a quantum mechanics formalisms as well as semi-empirical results are analysed and discussed. (Author) [pt

  5. Detection of viral sequence fragments of HIV-1 subfamilies yet unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanke Mario

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods of determining whether or not any particular HIV-1 sequence stems - completely or in part - from some unknown HIV-1 subtype are important for the design of vaccines and molecular detection systems, as well as for epidemiological monitoring. Nevertheless, a single algorithm only, the Branching Index (BI, has been developed for this task so far. Moving along the genome of a query sequence in a sliding window, the BI computes a ratio quantifying how closely the query sequence clusters with a subtype clade. In its current version, however, the BI does not provide predicted boundaries of unknown fragments. Results We have developed Unknown Subtype Finder (USF, an algorithm based on a probabilistic model, which automatically determines which parts of an input sequence originate from a subtype yet unknown. The underlying model is based on a simple profile hidden Markov model (pHMM for each known subtype and an additional pHMM for an unknown subtype. The emission probabilities of the latter are estimated using the emission frequencies of the known subtypes by means of a (position-wise probabilistic model for the emergence of new subtypes. We have applied USF to SIV and HIV-1 sequences formerly classified as having emerged from an unknown subtype. Moreover, we have evaluated its performance on artificial HIV-1 recombinants and non-recombinant HIV-1 sequences. The results have been compared with the corresponding results of the BI. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that USF is suitable for detecting segments in HIV-1 sequences stemming from yet unknown subtypes. Comparing USF with the BI shows that our algorithm performs as good as the BI or better.

  6. A new method of joint nonparametric estimation of probability density and its support

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama, Taku

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method of joint nonparametric estimation of probability density and its support. As is well known, nonparametric kernel density estimator has "boundary bias problem" when the support of the population density is not the whole real line. To avoid the unknown boundary effects, our estimator detects the boundary, and eliminates the boundary-bias of the estimator simultaneously. Moreover, we refer an extension to a simple multivariate case, and propose an improved e...

  7. Pika Population Density Is Associated with the Composition and Diversity of Gut Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huan; Qu, Jiapeng; Li, Tongtong; Li, Jiabao; Lin, Qiang; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Host population density is positively associated with the strength of social interactions or the frequency of physical contacts, and thus potentially influences microbial transmission among individuals. However, the relationship between host density and gut microbiota remains unknown. Here, we characterized the gut microbiota of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) in wild experimental fields with different host population densities. The abundance of some gut microbes significantly correlated w...

  8. Pika population density is associated with composition and diversity of gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Huan eLi; Jiapeng eQu; Tongtong eLi; Jiabao eLi; Qiang eLin; Xiangzhen eLi

    2016-01-01

    Host population density is positively associated with the strength of social interactions or the frequency of physical contacts, and thus potentially influences microbial transmission among individuals. However, the relationship between host density and gut microbiota remains unknown. Here, we characterized the gut microbiota of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) in wild experimental fields with different host population densities. The abundance of some gut microbes significantly correlated w...

  9. Interior point decoding for linear vector channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadayama, T

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel decoding algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on convex optimization is presented. The decoding algorithm, called interior point decoding, is designed for linear vector channels. The linear vector channels include many practically important channels such as inter-symbol interference channels and partial response channels. It is shown that the maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) rule for a linear vector channel can be relaxed to a convex optimization problem, which is called a relaxed MLD problem

  10. Exceptional Points and Dynamical Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rotter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of non-Hermitian quantum physics, the relation between exceptional points,dynamical phase transitions and the counter intuitive behavior of quantum systems at high level density is considered. The theoretical results obtained for open quantum systems and proven experimentally some years ago on a microwave cavity, may explain environmentally induce deffects (including dynamical phase transitions, which have been observed in various experimental studies. They also agree(qualitatively with the experimental results reported recently in PT symmetric optical lattices.

  11. Density in Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesin, Gert; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a fourth-grade unit on density which introduces a concept useful in the study of chemistry and procedures appropriate to the chemistry laboratory. The hands-on activities, which use simple equipment and household substances, are at the level of thinking Piaget describes as concrete operational. (BC)

  12. density functional theory (DFT)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the present investigation, interaction of ruthenium (Ru) atoms with fluorine (F) atoms was studied using the density functional theory utilizing B3LYP method. It was found that up to seven F atoms can bind to a single Ru atom which results in increase of electron affinities successively, reaching a peak value of ...

  13. High order sliding mode observer for linear systems with unbounded unknown inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Francisco J.; Fridman, Leonid

    2010-09-01

    A global observer is designed for strongly detectable systems with unbounded unknown inputs. The design of the observer is based on three steps. First, the system is extended taking the unknown inputs (and possibly some of their derivatives) as a new state; then, using a global high-order sliding mode differentiator, a new output of the system is generated in order to fulfil, what we will call, the Hautus condition, which finally allows decomposing the system, in new coordinates, into two subsystems; the first one being unaffected directly by the unknown inputs, and the state vector of the second subsystem is obtained directly from the original system output. Such decomposition permits designing of a Luenberger observer for the first subsystem, which satisfies the Hautus condition, i.e. all the outputs have relative degree one w.r.t. the unknown inputs. This procedure enables one to estimate the state and the unknown inputs using the least number of differentiations possible. Simulations are given in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed observer.

  14. Intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in patients with symptomatic epilepsy and epilepsy of unknown etiology ('cryptogenic').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, S; Soellner, C; Bien, C G; Tumani, H

    2017-09-01

    To compare the frequency of intrathecal immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis in patients with symptomatic epilepsy and epilepsy of unknown etiology ('cryptogenic'). Patients with epileptic (n = 301) and non-epileptic (n = 10) seizures were retrospectively screened for autochthonous intrathecal Ig synthesis and oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid. Intrathecal IgG/OCBs were detected in 8% of patients with epilepsies of unknown etiology, 5% of patients with first seizures of unknown cause and 0-4% of patients with epilepsy due to brain tumors, cerebrovascular disease or other etiologies. Intrathecal IgG/OCBs were not seen in patients with psychogenic seizures. Identical OCBs in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were more common in all patient groups (10-40% depending on underlying etiology). Intrathecal IgG synthesis/OCBs were observed slightly more frequently in patients with 'cryptogenic' epilepsy and with first seizures of unknown etiology than in other patient groups. However, this remained an infrequent finding and thus we could not confirm humoral immunity as a leading disease mechanism in patients with epilepsy in general or with unknown etiology in particular. © 2017 EAN.

  15. The computed cranial focal point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G.A. de; Maal, T.J.J.; Delye, H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stereophotogrammetry is a radiation-free method for monitoring skull development after craniosynostosis repair. Lack of clear fixed reference points complicate longitudinal comparison of 3D photographs. Therefore we developed the 'computed cranial focal point' (CCFP). METHODS: The CCFP

  16. DensityMap: a genome viewer for illustrating the densities of features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizard, Sébastien; Piégu, Benoît; Bigot, Yves

    2016-05-06

    Several tools are available for visualizing genomic data. Some, such as Gbrowse and Jbrowse, are very efficient for small genomic regions, but they are not suitable for entire genomes. Others, like Phenogram and CViT, can be used to visualise whole genomes, but are not designed to display very dense genomic features (eg: interspersed repeats). We have therefore developed DensityMap, a lightweight Perl program that can display the densities of several features (genes, ncRNA, cpg, etc.) along chromosomes on the scale of the whole genome. A critical advantage of DensityMap is that it uses GFF annotation files directly to compute the densities of features without needing additional information from the user. The resulting picture is readily configurable, and the colour scales used can be customized for a best fit to the data plotted. DensityMap runs on Linux architecture with few requirements so that users can easily and quickly visualize the distributions and densities of genomic features for an entire genome. The input is GFF3-formated data representing chromosomes (linkage groups or pseudomolecules) and sets of features which are used to calculate representations in density maps. In practise, DensityMap uses a tilling window to compute the density of one or more features and the number of bases covered by these features along chromosomes. The densities are represented by colour scales that can be customized to highlight critical points. DensityMap can compare the distributions of features; it calculates several chromosomal density maps in a single image, each of which describes a different genomic feature. It can also use the genome nucleotide sequence to compute and plot a density map of the GC content along chromosomes. DensityMap is a compact, easily-used tool for displaying the distribution and density of all types of genomic features within a genome. It is flexible enough to visualize the densities of several types of features in a single representation. The

  17. Sequential function approximation on arbitrarily distributed point sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kailiang; Xiu, Dongbin

    2018-02-01

    We present a randomized iterative method for approximating unknown function sequentially on arbitrary point set. The method is based on a recently developed sequential approximation (SA) method, which approximates a target function using one data point at each step and avoids matrix operations. The focus of this paper is on data sets with highly irregular distribution of the points. We present a nearest neighbor replacement (NNR) algorithm, which allows one to sample the irregular data sets in a near optimal manner. We provide mathematical justification and error estimates for the NNR algorithm. Extensive numerical examples are also presented to demonstrate that the NNR algorithm can deliver satisfactory convergence for the SA method on data sets with high irregularity in their point distributions.

  18. IRAS galaxies versus POTENT mass - Density fields, biasing, and Omega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Avishai; Bertschinger, Edmund; Yahil, Amos; Strauss, Michael A.; Davis, Marc; Huchra, John P.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison of the galaxy density field extracted from a complete redshift survey of IRAS galaxies brighter than 1.936 Jy with the mass-density field reconstructed by the POTENT procedure from the observed peculiar velocities of 493 objects is presented. A strong correlation is found between the galaxy and mass-density fields; both feature the Great Attractor, part of the Perseus-Pisces supercluster, and the large void between them. Monte Carlo noise simulations show that the data are consistent with the hypotheses that the smoothed fluctuations of galaxy and mass densities at each point are proportional to each other with the 'biasing' factor of IRAS galaxies, b(I), and that the peculiar velocity field is related to the mass-density field as expected according to the gravitational instability theory. Under these hypotheses, the two density fields can be related by specifying b(I) and the cosmological density parameter, Omega.

  19. Point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous diffusion in germanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahini, H A; Chroneos, A; Grimes, R W; Schwingenschlögl, U; Bracht, H

    2013-01-07

    The diffusion of phosphorous in germanium is very fast, requiring point defect engineering strategies to retard it in support of technological application. Density functional theory corroborated with hybrid density functional calculations are used to investigate the influence of the isovalent codopants tin and hafnium in the migration of phosphorous via the vacancy-mediated diffusion process. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous are increased significantly in the presence of oversized isovalent codopants. Therefore, it is proposed that tin and in particular hafnium codoping are efficient point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous migration.

  20. Junction leakage measurements with micro four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Rong; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    We present a new, preparation-free method for measuring the leakage current density on ultra-shallow junctions. The junction leakage is found by making a series of four-point sheet resistance measurements on blanket wafers with variable electrode spacings. The leakage current density is calculated...... using a fit of the measured four-point resistances to an analytical two-sheet model. The validity of the approximation involved in the two-sheet model is verified by a comparison to finite element model calculations....

  1. Point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The diffusion of phosphorous in germanium is very fast, requiring point defect engineering strategies to retard it in support of technological application. Density functional theory corroborated with hybrid density functional calculations are used to investigate the influence of the isovalent codopants tin and hafnium in the migration of phosphorous via the vacancy-mediated diffusion process. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous are increased significantly in the presence of oversized isovalent codopants. Therefore, it is proposed that tin and in particular hafnium codoping are efficient point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous migration. © the Owner Societies 2013.

  2. Magic Pointing for Eyewear Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbegi, Diako; Pederson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a combination of head and eye movements for touchlessly controlling the "mouse pointer" on eyewear devices, exploiting the speed of eye pointing and accuracy of head pointing. The method is a wearable computer-targeted variation of the original MAGIC pointing approach...

  3. Genetic similarity among Tunisian olive cultivars and two unknown feral olive trees estimated through SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ayed, Rayda; Sans-Grout, Cinderella; Moreau, Fabienne; Grati-Kamoun, Naziha; Rebai, Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    We used eight informative microsatellite markers for fingerprinting and evaluation of genetic similarity among 15 Tunisian olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars and two feral unknown trees named Soulela 1 and Soulela 2. Thirty-one alleles were revealed, and the number of alleles per SSR varied from 2 (UDO12) to 6 (GAPU71A). Cluster analysis grouped cultivars into three main clusters. The two unknown varieties could not be reliably classified into any of these cultivar groups. SSR analysis indicated the presence of three erroneous denominations of cultivars. We resolved two synonymy cases (Zalmati and Chemlali; Rkhami and Chetoui) and one case of homonymy (Chemlali Tataouine). Genetic analyses of DNA extracted from leaves, oils, and embryos of the two unknown cultivars and the two major Tunisian olive cultivars (Chemlali and Chetoui) were also studied. We conclude that the reliable identification of these two feral cultivars needs to be addressed by a larger set of markers.

  4. Zero Distribution of System with Unknown Random Variables Case Study: Avoiding Collision Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parman Setyamartana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the stochastic analysis of finding the feasible trajectories of robotics arm motion at obstacle surrounding. Unknown variables are coefficients of polynomials joint angle so that the collision-free motion is achieved. ãk is matrix consisting of these unknown feasible polynomial coefficients. The pattern of feasible polynomial in the obstacle environment shows as random. This paper proposes to model the pattern of this randomness values using random polynomial with unknown variables as coefficients. The behavior of the system will be obtained from zero distribution as the characteristic of such random polynomial. Results show that the pattern of random polynomial of avoiding collision can be constructed from zero distribution. Zero distribution is like building block of the system with obstacles as uncertainty factor. By scale factor k, which has range, the random coefficient pattern can be predicted.

  5. High-order sliding mode observer for fractional commensurate linear systems with unknown input

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2017-05-20

    In this paper, a high-order sliding mode observer (HOSMO) is proposed for the joint estimation of the pseudo-state and the unknown input of fractional commensurate linear systems with single unknown input and a single output. The convergence of the proposed observer is proved using a Lyapunov-based approach. In addition, an enhanced variant of the proposed fractional-HOSMO is introduced to avoid the peaking phenomenon and thus to improve the estimation results in the transient phase. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed fractional observer in both noise-free and noisy cases. The effect of the observer’s gains on the estimated pseudo-state and unknown input is also discussed.

  6. Structure Elucidation of Unknown Metabolites in Metabolomics by Combined NMR and MS/MS Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Rene M; Hoyt, David W; Nicora, Carrie D; Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A; Ward, Joy K; Bingol, Kerem

    2018-01-17

    We introduce a cheminformatics approach that combines highly selective and orthogonal structure elucidation parameters; accurate mass, MS/MS (MS²), and NMR into a single analysis platform to accurately identify unknown metabolites in untargeted studies. The approach starts with an unknown LC-MS feature, and then combines the experimental MS/MS and NMR information of the unknown to effectively filter out the false positive candidate structures based on their predicted MS/MS and NMR spectra. We demonstrate the approach on a model mixture, and then we identify an uncatalogued secondary metabolite in Arabidopsis thaliana . The NMR/MS² approach is well suited to the discovery of new metabolites in plant extracts, microbes, soils, dissolved organic matter, food extracts, biofuels, and biomedical samples, facilitating the identification of metabolites that are not present in experimental NMR and MS metabolomics databases.

  7. Spatial memory alterations in children with epilepsy of genetic origin or unknown cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimadevilla, José Manuel; Lizana, Julio Ramos; Roldán, Maria Dolores; Cánovas, Rosa; Rodríguez, Eva

    2014-06-01

    Genetic generalised epilepsy or epilepsy of unknown cause can remit before adolescence. In many children, the disease does not interfere with their academic achievement. Although there are neuropsychological studies characterising the cognitive profile, there are no studies in this population focused on spatial orientation abilities. In this study, we compared children with genetic generalised epilepsy or epilepsy of unknown cause with a control group using a virtual spatial learning task. Children with epilepsy showed worse performance on the spatial orientation task, although their visuo-spatial memory, attention, and working memory were normal. These results confirm that genetic generalised epilepsy or epilepsy of unknown cause is associated with more cognitive deficits. Virtual reality technologies can complement clinical assessment.

  8. Circuit realization, chaos synchronization and estimation of parameters of a hyperchaotic system with unknown parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elsonbaty

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the adaptive chaos synchronization technique is implemented by an electronic circuit and applied to the hyperchaotic system proposed by Chen et al. We consider the more realistic and practical case where all the parameters of the master system are unknowns. We propose and implement an electronic circuit that performs the estimation of the unknown parameters and the updating of the parameters of the slave system automatically, and hence it achieves the synchronization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to implement a circuit that estimates the values of the unknown parameters of chaotic system and achieves synchronization. The proposed circuit has a variety of suitable real applications related to chaos encryption and cryptography. The outputs of the implemented circuits and numerical simulation results are shown to view the performance of the synchronized system and the proposed circuit.

  9. Controlling hyperchaotic complex systems with unknown parameters based on adaptive passive method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, M. Mahmoud; Emad, E. Mahmoud; Ayman, A. Arafa

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the control of hyperchaotic complex nonlinear systems with unknown parameters using passive control theory. An approach is stated to design the passive controller and estimate the unknown parameters based on the property of the passive system. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through its application to the hyperchaotic complex Lü system, as an example. The estimated values of the unknown parameters are calculated. The analytical form of the complex controller is derived and used in the numerical simulation to control the hyperchaotic attractors of this example. Block diagrams of this example using Matlab/Simulink are constructed after and before the control to ensure the validity of the analytical results. Other examples of hyperchaotic complex nonlinear systems can be similarly treated.

  10. Adaptive Robust Actuator Fault Accommodation for a Class of Uncertain Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Control Gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuefei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive robust fault tolerant control approach is proposed for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown signs of high-frequency gain and unmeasured states. In the recursive design, neural networks are employed to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, K-filters are designed to estimate the unmeasured states, and a dynamical signal and Nussbaum gain functions are introduced to handle the unknown sign of the virtual control direction. By incorporating the switching function σ algorithm, the adaptive backstepping scheme developed in this paper does not require the real value of the actuator failure. It is mathematically proved that the proposed adaptive robust fault tolerant control approach can guarantee that all the signals of the closed-loop system are bounded, and the output converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by the simulation examples.

  11. Adaptive Tracking and Obstacle Avoidance Control for Mobile Robots with Unknown Sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Cui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive control approach is proposed for trajectory tracking and obstacle avoidance for mobile robots with consideration given to unknown sliding. A kinematic model of mobile robots is established in this paper, in which both longitudinal and lateral sliding are considered and processed as three time-varying parameters. A sliding model observer is introduced to estimate the sliding parameters online. A stable tracking control law for this nonholonomic system is proposed to compensate the unknown sliding effect. From Lyapunov-stability analysis, it is proved, regardless of unknown sliding, that tracking errors of the controlled closed-loop system are asymptotically stable, the tracking errors converge to zero outside the obstacle detection region and obstacle avoidance is guaranteed inside the obstacle detection region. The efficiency and robustness of the proposed control system are verified by simulation results.

  12. Building a RAPPOR with the Unknown: Privacy-Preserving Learning of Associations and Data Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanti Giulia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Techniques based on randomized response enable the collection of potentially sensitive data from clients in a privacy-preserving manner with strong local differential privacy guarantees. A recent such technology, RAPPOR [12], enables estimation of the marginal frequencies of a set of strings via privacy-preserving crowdsourcing. However, this original estimation process relies on a known dictionary of possible strings; in practice, this dictionary can be extremely large and/or unknown. In this paper, we propose a novel decoding algorithm for the RAPPOR mechanism that enables the estimation of “unknown unknowns,” i.e., strings we do not know we should be estimating. To enable learning without explicit dictionary knowledge, we develop methodology for estimating the joint distribution of multiple variables collected with RAPPOR. Our contributions are not RAPPOR-specific, and can be generalized to other local differential privacy mechanisms for learning distributions of string-valued random variables.

  13. Multivariate Bayesian modeling of known and unknown causes of events--an application to biosurveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanna; Cooper, Gregory F

    2012-09-01

    This paper investigates Bayesian modeling of known and unknown causes of events in the context of disease-outbreak detection. We introduce a multivariate Bayesian approach that models multiple evidential features of every person in the population. This approach models and detects (1) known diseases (e.g., influenza and anthrax) by using informative prior probabilities and (2) unknown diseases (e.g., a new, highly contagious respiratory virus that has never been seen before) by using relatively non-informative prior probabilities. We report the results of simulation experiments which support that this modeling method can improve the detection of new disease outbreaks in a population. A contribution of this paper is that it introduces a multivariate Bayesian approach for jointly modeling both known and unknown causes of events. Such modeling has general applicability in domains where the space of known causes is incomplete. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adaptive synchronization of T-S fuzzy chaotic systems with unknown parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Chang-Woo; Kim, Euntai; Park, Mignon

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy model-based adaptive approach for synchronization of chaotic systems which consist of the drive and response systems. Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is employed to represent the chaotic drive and response systems. Since the parameters of the drive system are assumed unknown, we design the response system that estimates the parameters of the drive system by adaptive strategy. The adaptive law is derived to estimate the unknown parameters and its stability is guaranteed by Lyapunov stability theory. In addition, the controller in the response system contains two parts: one part that can stabilize the synchronization error dynamics and the other part that estimates the unknown parameters. Numerical examples, including Duffing oscillator and Lorenz attractor, are given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed adaptive synchronization approach

  15. What's the point? Golden and Labrador retrievers living in kennels do not understand human pointing gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aniello, Biagio; Alterisio, Alessandra; Scandurra, Anna; Petremolo, Emanuele; Iommelli, Maria Rosaria; Aria, Massimo

    2017-07-01

    In many studies that have investigated whether dogs' capacities to understand human pointing gestures are aspects of evolutionary or developmental social competences, family-owned dogs have been compared to shelter dogs. However, for most of these studies, the origins of shelter dogs were unknown. Some shelter dogs may have lived with families before entering shelters, and from these past experiences, they may have learned to understand human gestures. Furthermore, there is substantial variation in the methodology and analytic approaches used in such studies (e.g. different pointing protocols, different treatment of trials with no-choice response and indoor vs. outdoor experimental arenas). Such differences in methodologies and analysis techniques used make it difficult to compare results obtained from different studies and may account for the divergent results obtained. We thus attempted to control for several parameters by carrying out a test on dynamic proximal and distal pointing. We studied eleven kennel dogs of known origin that were born and raised in a kennels with limited human interaction. This group was compared to a group of eleven dogs comparable in terms of breed, sex and age that had lived with human families since they were puppies. Our results demonstrate that pet dogs outperform kennel dogs in their comprehension of proximal and distal pointing, regardless of whether trials where no-choice was made were considered as errors or were excluded from statistical analysis, meaning that dogs living in kennels do not understand pointing gestures. Even if genetic effects of the domestication process on human-dog relationships cannot be considered as negligible, our data suggest that dogs need to learn human pointing gestures and thus underscore the importance of ontogenetic processes.

  16. Accessory papillary muscles and papillary muscle hypertrophy are associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jae-Sun; Youn, Jong-Chan; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Park, Junbeom; Park, Jin-Kyu; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Joung, Boyoung; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2015-10-15

    The present study was performed for elucidating the associations between the morphology of the papillary muscles (PMs) and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). We retrospectively reviewed history, laboratory data, electrocardiography, echocardiography, coronary angiography, and cardiac CT/MRI for 190 patients with SCA. The prevalence of accessory PMs and PM hypertrophy in patients with SCA of unknown cause was compared with that in patients with SCA of known causes and 98 age- and sex-matched patients without SCA. An accessory PM was defined as a PM with origins separated from the anterolateral and posteromedial PMs, or a PM that branched into two or three bellies at the base of the anterolateral or posteromedial PM. PM hypertrophy was defined as at least one of the two PMs having a diameter of ≥1.1cm. In 49 patients (age 49.9±15.9years; 38 men) the cause of SCA was unknown, whereas 141 (age 54.2±16.6years; 121 men) had a known cause. The prevalence of accessory PMs was significantly higher in the unknown-cause group than in the known-cause group (24.5% and 7.8%, respectively; p=0.002) or the no-SCA group (7.1%, p=0.003). The same was true for PM hypertrophy (unknown-cause 12.2%, known-cause 2.1%, p=0.010; no SCA group 1.0%, p=0.006). By logistic regression, accessory PM and PM hypertrophy were independently associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause. An accessory PM and PM hypertrophy are associated with SCA of unknown cause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bone mineral density and mammographic density in Mexican women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseson, Heidi; Rice, Megan S.; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Torres, Gabriela; Blanco, Margarita; Tamayo-Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Lajous, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is a putative marker for lifetime exposure to estrogen. Studies that have explored whether BMD is a determinant of mammographic density (MD) have observed inconsistent results. Therefore, we examined this potential association in a sample of women (N=1,516) from the clinical sub-cohort in the Mexican Teachers’ Cohort (N=115,315). Methods We used multivariable linear regression to assess the association between quartiles of BMD and percent MD, as well as total dense and non-dense area of the breast, stratified by menopausal status. We also examined the associations by body mass index (BMI) (<30kg/m2,, ≥30kg/m2). Results Overall, there was no association between BMD and MD among premenopausal women. However, when we stratified by BMI, there was a modest inverse association between BMD and percent MD (difference between extreme quartiles= −2.8, 95%CI: −5.9, 0.27, p-trend=0.04) among women with BMI <30 kg/m2, but a positive association among obese women (comparable difference=5.1, 95%CI: 0.02, 10.1, p-trend=0.03; p-interaction<0.01). Among postmenopausal women, BMD and percent MD were positively associated after adjustment for BMI (p-trend<0.01). Postmenopausal women in the highest two quartiles of BMD had 4–5 percentage point higher percent MD compared to women in the lowest quartile. The association did not differ by BMI in postmenopausal women (p-interaction=0.76). Conclusion Among obese premenopausal women as well as postmenopausal women, BMD was positively associated with percent MD. Among leaner premenopausal women, BMD and percent MD were modestly inversely associated. These findings support the hypothesis that cumulative exposure to estrogen (as measured by BMD) may influence MD. PMID:26463740

  18. Critical Points of the Electric Field from a Collection of Point Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N; Weinkauf, T

    2007-02-16

    The electric field around a molecule is generated by the charge distribution of its constituents: positively charged atomic nuclei, which are well approximated by point charges, and negatively charged electrons, whose probability density distribution can be computed from quantum mechanics. For the purposes of molecular mechanics or dynamics, the charge distribution is often approximated by a collection of point charges, with either a single partial charge at each atomic nucleus position, representing both the nucleus and the electrons near it, or as several different point charges per atom. The critical points in the electric field are useful in visualizing its geometrical and topological structure, and can help in understanding the forces and motion it induces on a charged ion or neutral dipole. Most visualization tools for vector fields use only samples of the field on the vertices of a regular grid, and some sort of interpolation, for example, trilinear, on the grid cells. There is less risk of missing or misinterpreting topological features if they can be derived directly from the analytic formula for the field, rather than from its samples. This work presents a method which is guaranteed to find all the critical points of the electric field from a finite set of point charges. To visualize the field topology, we have modified the saddle connector method to use the analytic formula for the field.

  19. MUSIC-type imaging of small perfectly conducting cracks with an unknown frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) is a famous non-iterative detection algorithm in inverse scattering problems. However, when the applied frequency is unknown, inaccurate locations are identified via MUSIC. This fact has been confirmed through numerical simulations. However, the reason behind this phenomenon has not been investigated theoretically. Motivated by this fact, we identify the structure of MUSIC-type imaging functionals with unknown frequency, by establishing a relationship with Bessel functions of order zero of the first kind. Through this, we can explain why inaccurate results appear. (paper)

  20. Air-fuel-ratio control of engine system with unknown input observer

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Jing; Herrmann, Guido; Rames, Clement; Burke, Richard; Brace, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative control to maintain the air-fuel-ratio (AFR) of port-injected spark ignition (SI) engines at certain value, i.e. stoichiometric value, to improve the fuel economy. We first reformulate the AFR regulation problem as a tracking control for the injected fuel mass flow rate, which can simplify the control synthesis when the fuel film dynamics are taken into account. The unknown engine parameters and dynamics can be lumped as an unknown signal, and then compensat...

  1. General methods for modified projective synchronization of hyperchaotic systems with known or unknown parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Fang, Jian-an

    2008-03-01

    This work is concerned with the general methods for modified projective synchronization of hyperchaotic systems. A systematic method of active control is developed to synchronize two hyperchaotic systems with known parameters. Moreover, by combining the adaptive control and linear feedback methods, general sufficient conditions for the modified projective synchronization of identical or different chaotic systems with fully unknown or partially unknown parameters are presented. Meanwhile, the speed of parameters identification can be regulated by adjusting adaptive gain matrix. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  2. Content-Based Multimedia Retrieval in the Presence of Unknown User Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beecks, Christian; Assent, Ira; Seidl, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Content-based multimedia retrieval requires an appropriate similarity model which reflects user preferences. When these preferences are unknown or when the structure of the data collection is unclear, retrieving the most preferable objects the user has in mind is challenging, as the notion...... address the problem of content-based multimedia retrieval in the presence of unknown user preferences. Our idea consists in performing content-based retrieval by considering all possibilities in a family of similarity models simultaneously. To this end, we propose a novel content-based retrieval approach...

  3. A sensitivity analysis approach to control of manipulators with unknown load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzes, A.; Yurkovich, S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a straightforward control strategy applied to an N-link manipulator holding an unknown load and driving its end effector along a prespecified trajectory. The control is constituted into two primary components. The non-adaptive component is derived from the inverse problem technique while the adaptive component is computed via the application of sensitivity analysis applied to the complete, centralized dynamic model of the manipulator. The result is a robust adaptive controller which tunes its parameters at specified time instants and can withstand all expected variations of the payload. The control synthesis is illustrated by simulations in a 2-link planar manipulator holding an unknown load

  4. Projective and hybrid projective synchronization for the Lorenz-Stenflo system with estimation of unknown parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Payel; Banerjee, Santo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, in the first phase, we study the phenomenon of projective synchronization in the Lorenz-Stenflo system. Synchronization is then investigated for the same system with unknown parameters. We show analytically that synchronization is possible for some proper choice of the nonlinear controller by using a suitable Lyapunov function. With the help of this result, it is also possible to estimate the values of the unknown system parameters. In the second phase as an extension of our analysis, we investigate the new hybrid projective synchronization for the same system. All our analyses are well supported with numerical evidence.

  5. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X H; Zhang, X Y [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Physics Department, and Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory) of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu, C L [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Dang, R S [Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ando, M [DDS center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Yamasaki 2541, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Sugiyama, H [Photon Factory, Institute of Material Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Chen, H S [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ding, G H, E-mail: xy-zhang@fudan.edu.c [Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-09-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  6. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, X H; Zhang, X Y; Liu, C L; Dang, R S; Ando, M; Sugiyama, H; Chen, H S; Ding, G H

    2009-01-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  7. PowerPoint 2010 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2010-01-01

    Master PowerPoint and improve your presentation skills-with one book!. It's no longer enough to have slide after slide of text, bullets, and charts. It's not even enough to have good speaking skills if your PowerPoint slides bore your audience. Get the very most out of all that PowerPoint 2010 has to offer while also learning priceless tips and techniques for making good presentations in this new PowerPoint 2010 Bible. Well-known PowerPoint expert and author Faithe Wempen provides formatting tips; shows you how to work with drawings, tables, and SmartArt; introduces new collaboration tools; wa

  8. Lee-Yang-inspired functional with a density-dependent neutron-neutron scattering length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, M.; Lacroix, D.; Yang, C. J.

    2017-05-01

    Inspired by the low-density Lee-Yang expansion for the energy of a dilute Fermi gas of density ρ and momentum kF, we introduce here a Skyrme-type functional that contains only s -wave terms and provides, at the mean-field level, (i) a satisfactory equation of state for neutron matter from extremely low densities up to densities close to the equilibrium point, and (ii) a good-quality equation of state for symmetric matter at density scales around the saturation point. This is achieved by using a density-dependent neutron-neutron scattering length a (ρ ) which satisfies the low-density limit (for Fermi momenta going to zero) and has a density dependence tuned in such a way that the low-density constraint |a (ρ ) kF|≤1 is satisfied at all density scales.

  9. A balloon borne telescope for planetary observations with a fine pointing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Yasuhiro; Onishi, Tomoya; Battazzo, Steve; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Kazuya; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Taguchi, Makoto

    A balloon borne telescope is one of the effective observation methods for planets under space environment. A telescope is carried up to the stratosphere at an altitude of higher than 32 km where the air density is as thin as 1/100 of that at the ground. The thin atmosphere gives a telescope better observation conditions: fine seeing, stable weather, and high transmittance especially in the infrared region. Moreover there is a chance that a planet can be continuously seen for a window longer than 24 hours from the polar stratosphere. The authors have been developing a balloon borne telescope system for years to take finer images of planets in the solar system., The first object is Venus, of which atmospheric motions are derived by tracking the changes of cloud patterns with bands of UV, visible and NIR. Highly precise pointing control within the error of sub-arcseconds is required so that the balloon borne telescope achieves its diffraction-limited spatial resolution. The flight system is equipped with a three-stage attitude and pointing control system in order to realize the desired pointing control precision. In 2009, the flight system was built and tested in various ground tests and an actual balloon flight. Although the balloon experiment failed due to trouble with an onboard computer, the ground tests before the flight operation have verified that the pointing control system can achieve pointing error of less than 0.2 arcseconds. The balloon borne telescope is being redesigned for a sequential observation of Venus, Mars and Jupiter in the summer of 2011. This flight will be a step for a long-duration observation in the polar stratosphere. Additionally, an observation of the sodium tail of Mercury with a small telescope and a wide field of view has been under consideration. Mercury has very thin atmosphere called a surface-bounded exosphere. Past observations by spacecraft and ground-based telescopes revealed that one of the atmospheric components, gaseous

  10. Density Estimation in Several Populations With Uncertain Population Membership

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan

    2011-09-01

    We devise methods to estimate probability density functions of several populations using observations with uncertain population membership, meaning from which population an observation comes is unknown. The probability of an observation being sampled from any given population can be calculated. We develop general estimation procedures and bandwidth selection methods for our setting. We establish large-sample properties and study finite-sample performance using simulation studies. We illustrate our methods with data from a nutrition study.

  11. Anorexia Reduces GFAP+ Cell Density in the Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Haro, Daniel; Labrada-Moncada, Francisco Emmanuel; Varman, Durairaj Ragu; Krüger, Janina; Morales, Teresa; Miledi, Ricardo; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder observed primarily in young women. The neurobiology of the disorder is unknown but recently magnetic resonance imaging showed a volume reduction of the hippocampus in anorexic patients. Dehydration-induced anorexia (DIA) is a murine model that mimics core features of this disorder, including severe weight loss due to voluntary reduction in food intake. The energy supply to the brain is mediated by astrocytes, but whether their density is compromised by anorexia is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate GFAP+ cell density in the main regions of the hippocampus (CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus) in the DIA model. Our results showed that GFAP+ cell density was significantly reduced (~20%) in all regions of the hippocampus, except in CA1. Interestingly, DIA significantly reduced the GFAP+ cells/nuclei ratio in CA2 (-23%) and dentate gyrus (-48%). The reduction of GFAP+ cell density was in agreement with a lower expression of GFAP protein. Additionally, anorexia increased the expression of the intermediate filaments vimentin and nestin. Accordingly, anorexia increased the number of reactive astrocytes in CA2 and dentate gyrus more than twofold. We conclude that anorexia reduces the hippocampal GFAP+ cell density and increases vimentin and nestin expression.

  12. Quantal density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sahni, Viraht

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with quantal density functional theory (QDFT) which is a time-dependent local effective potential theory of the electronic structure of matter. The treated time-independent QDFT constitutes a special case. In the 2nd edition, the theory is extended to include the presence of external magnetostatic fields. The theory is a description of matter based on the ‘quantal Newtonian’ first and second laws which is in terms of “classical” fields that pervade all space, and their quantal sources. The fields, which are explicitly defined, are separately representative of electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle, Coulomb repulsion, correlation-kinetic, correlation-current-density, and correlation-magnetic effects. The book further describes Schrödinger theory from the new physical perspective of fields and quantal sources. It also describes traditional Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham DFT, and explains via QDFT the physics underlying the various energy functionals and functional derivatives o...

  13. Linear covariance analysis for gimbaled pointing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Randall S.

    Linear covariance analysis has been utilized in a wide variety of applications. Historically, the theory has made significant contributions to navigation system design and analysis. More recently, the theory has been extended to capture the combined effect of navigation errors and closed-loop control on the performance of the system. These advancements have made possible rapid analysis and comprehensive trade studies of complicated systems ranging from autonomous rendezvous to vehicle ascent trajectory analysis. Comprehensive trade studies are also needed in the area of gimbaled pointing systems where the information needs are different from previous applications. It is therefore the objective of this research to extend the capabilities of linear covariance theory to analyze the closed-loop navigation and control of a gimbaled pointing system. The extensions developed in this research include modifying the linear covariance equations to accommodate a wider variety of controllers. This enables the analysis of controllers common to gimbaled pointing systems, with internal states and associated dynamics as well as actuator command filtering and auxiliary controller measurements. The second extension is the extraction of power spectral density estimates from information available in linear covariance analysis. This information is especially important to gimbaled pointing systems where not just the variance but also the spectrum of the pointing error impacts the performance. The extended theory is applied to a model of a gimbaled pointing system which includes both flexible and rigid body elements as well as input disturbances, sensor errors, and actuator errors. The results of the analysis are validated by direct comparison to a Monte Carlo-based analysis approach. Once the developed linear covariance theory is validated, analysis techniques that are often prohibitory with Monte Carlo analysis are used to gain further insight into the system. These include the creation

  14. Learning Grasp Affordance Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Kroemer, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    these and records their outcomes. When a satisfactory number of grasp data is available, an importance-sampling algorithm turns these into a grasp density. We evaluate our method in a largely autonomous learning experiment run on three objects of distinct shapes. The experiment shows how learning increases success...... rates. It also measures the success rate of grasps chosen to maximize the probability of success given reaching constraints....

  15. Toward a Redefinition of Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Amos

    1975-01-01

    This paper suggests that in addition to the recent work indicating that crowding is a subjective phenomenon, an adequate definition of density must also include a subjective component since density is a complex phenomenon in itself. Included is a discussion of both physical density and perceived density. (Author/MA)

  16. The influence of mineral matter on the separation of amorphous marine kerogens using density gradient centrifugation

    OpenAIRE

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hartgers, W.A.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Ling, Y.; Crelling, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Three relatively immature amorphous marine kerogens were subjected to density gradient centrifugation (DGC). The density fractions obtained were analyzed by Curie-point pyrolysis in combination with gas chromatography (Py-GC) and with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). Despite the variations in density, no significant variations were observed in chemical compositions of the flash pyrolysates of the density fractions of each kerogen. The variations in density were due to varying ...

  17. Lefschetz Fixed Point Theorem and Lattice Points in Convex Polytopes

    OpenAIRE

    Sardo-Infirri, Sacha

    1993-01-01

    A simple convex lattice polytope $\\Box$ defines a torus-equivariant line bundle $\\LB$ over a toric variety $\\XB.$ Atiyah and Bott's Lefschetz fixed-point theorem is applied to the torus action on the $d''$-complex of $\\LB$ and information is obtained about the lattice points of $\\Box$. In particular an explicit formula is derived, computing the number of lattice points and the volume of $\\Box$ in terms of geometric data at its extreme points. We show this to be equivalent the results of Brion...

  18. Strike Point Control for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolemen, E.; Gates, D.A.; Rowley, C.W.; Kasdin, N.J.; Kallman, J.; Gerhardt, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Mueller, D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first control algorithm for the inner and outer strike point position for a Spherical Torus (ST) fusion experiment and the performance analysis of the controller. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD) will be installed on NSTX which is believed to provide better pumping than lithium coatings on carbon PFCs. The shape of the plasma dictates the pumping rate of the lithium by channeling the plasma to LLD, where strike point location is the most important shape parameter. Simulations show that the density reduction depends on the proximity of strike point to LLD. Experiments were performed to study the dynamics of the strike point, design a new controller to change the location of the strike point to desired location and stabilize it. The most effective PF coils in changing inner and outer strike points were identified using equilibrium code. The PF coil inputs were changed in a step fashion between various set points and the step response of the strike point position was obtained. From the analysis of the step responses, PID controllers for the strike points were obtained and the controller was tuned experimentally for better performance. The strike controller was extended to include the outer-strike point on the inner plate to accommodate the desired low outer-strike points for the experiment with the aim of achieving 'snowflake' divertor configuration in NSTX.

  19. Subcutaneous injection of 99mTc pertechnetate at acupuncture points K-3 and B-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chung-Chieng; Jong Shiang-Bin; Lin Chun-Ching; Chen Min-Fen; Chen Jong-Rern; Chung Chieng.

    1990-01-01

    The acupuncture points are known to be morphologically related to the nerves and vessels. Yet the physiological role of blood vessels in the formation of acupuncture points remains unknown. With subcutaneous injection of 99m Tc pertechnetate at the acupuncture points K-3 and B-60 and with intra-acupuncture point injection of 99m Tc pertechnetate at K-3 and B-60, a lower-limb venography like what was obtained by intravenous injection of 99m Tc macroaggregated albumin was demonstrated in the present study. It seems that some acupuncture points do play a role in drainage of tissue fluid from soft tissue into the veins. (author)

  20. A unified framework for testing in the linear regression model under unknown order of fractional integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Kruse, Robinson; Sibbertsen, Philipp

    We consider hypothesis testing in a general linear time series regression framework when the possibly fractional order of integration of the error term is unknown. We show that the approach suggested by Vogelsang (1998a) for the case of integer integration does not apply to the case of fractional...