WorldWideScience

Sample records for point test kit

  1. Analytic laboratory performance of a point of care urine culture kit for diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongard, E; Frimodt-Møller, N; Gal, M; Wootton, M; Howe, R; Francis, N; Goossens, H; Butler, C C

    2015-10-01

    Currently available point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests for managing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in general practice are limited by poor performance characteristics, and laboratory culture generally provides results only after a few days. This laboratory evaluation compared the analytic performance of the POC UK Flexicult(™) (Statens Serum Institut) (SSI) urinary kit for quantification, identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing and routine UK National Health Service (NHS) urine processing to an advanced urine culture method. Two hundred urine samples routinely submitted to the Public Health Wales Microbiology Laboratory were divided and: (1) analysed by routine NHS microbiological tests as per local laboratory standard operating procedures, (2) inoculated onto the UK Flexicult(™) SSI urinary kit and (3) spiral plated onto Colorex Orientation UTI medium (E&O Laboratories Ltd). The results were evaluated between the NHS and Flexicult(™ )methods, and discordant results were compared to the spiral plating method. The UK Flexicult(™) SSI urinary kit was compared to routine NHS culture for identification of a pure or predominant uropathogen at ≥ 10(5) cfu/mL, with a positive discordancy rate of 13.5% and a negative discordancy rate of 3%. The sensitivity and specificity were 86.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73.8-93.7] and 82.6% (95% CI 75.8-87.7), respectively. The UK Flexicult(™) SSI urinary kit was comparable to routine NHS urine processing in identifying microbiologically positive UTIs in this laboratory evaluation. However, the number of false-positive samples could lead to over-prescribing of antibiotics in clinical practice. The Flexicult(™) SSI kit could be useful as a POC test for UTIs in primary care but further pragmatic evaluations are necessary.

  2. Perceptions of point-of-care infectious disease testing among European medical personnel, point-of-care test kit manufacturers, and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaman WE

    2013-06-01

    specialists and POC test kit manufacturers. The general public was much more favorable with respect to a perceived improvement in the quality of healthcare that these tests would bring to the hospital and home environment.Keywords: Survey, questionnaire, point-of-care, microbial diagnosis

  3. Accuracy of a point-of-care ELISA test kit for predicting the presence of protective canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus antibody concentrations in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litster, A L; Pressler, B; Volpe, A; Dubovi, E

    2012-08-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) are highly infectious and often fatal diseases with worldwide distributions, and are important population management considerations in animal shelters. A point-of-care ELISA test kit is available to detect serum antibodies to CPV and CDV, and presumptively to predict protective status. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the test compared to CPV hemagglutination inhibition titers and CDV serum neutralization titers determined by a reference laboratory, using sera collected from dogs housed at animal shelters. The ELISA test was used under both field and laboratory conditions and duplicate specimens were processed using an extra wash step. The test kit yielded accurate results (CPV: sensitivity 92.3%, specificity 93.5%; CDV: sensitivity 75.7%, specificity 91.8%) under field conditions. CDV sensitivity was improved by performing the test under laboratory conditions and using an optical density (OD) meter (laboratory performed 94.0%; OD 88.1%). Point-of-care ELISA testing for serum CPV and CDV antibody titers was demonstrated to be a useful tool for determining antibody status when making decisions regarding the need for CPV and/or CDV vaccination and also in animal shelters for population management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceptions of point-of-care infectious disease testing among European medical personnel, point-of-care test kit manufacturers, and the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E. Kaman (Wendy); E-R. Andrinopoulou (Eleni-Rosalina); J.P. Hays (John)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The proper development and implementation of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics requires knowledge of the perceived requirements and barriers to their implementation. To determine the current requirements and perceived barriers to the introduction of POC diagnostics in the field

  5. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-05-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is commercializing Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kits for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated ASTM Method D-5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In FY 99, twenty-five preproduction kits were successfully constructed in cooperation with CF Electronics, Inc., of Laramie, Wyoming. The kit components work well and the kits are fully operational. In the calendar year 2000, kits were provided to the following entities who agreed to participate as FY 99 and FY 00 JSR (Jointly Sponsored Research) cosponsors and use the kits as opportunities arose for field site work: Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) (3 units), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Gradient Corporation, The Johnson Company (2 units), IT Corporation (2 units), TRC Environmental Corporation, Stone Environmental, ENSR, Action Environmental, Laco Associates, Barenco, Brown and Caldwell, Dames and Moore Lebron LLP, Phillips Petroleum, GeoSyntek, and the State of New Mexico. By early 2001, ten kits had been returned to WRI following the six-month evaluation period. On return, the components of all ten kits were fully functional. The kits were upgraded with circuit modifications, new polyethylene foam inserts, and updated instruction manuals.

  6. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.

    2002-09-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed a new commercial product ready for technology transfer, the Diesel Dog{reg_sign} Portable Soil Test Kit, for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated as ASTM Method D 5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In June 2001, the Diesel Dog technology won an American Chemical Society Regional Industrial Innovations Award. To gain field experience with the new technology, Diesel Dog kits have been used for a variety of site evaluation and cleanup activities. Information gained from these activities has led to improvements in hardware configurations and additional insight into correlating Diesel Dog results with results from laboratory methods. The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) used Diesel Dog Soil Test Kits to guide cleanups at a variety of sites throughout the state. ENSR, of Acton, Massachusetts, used a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit to evaluate sites in the Virgin Islands and Georgia. ChemTrack and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers successfully used a test kit to guide excavation at an abandoned FAA fuel-contaminated site near Fairbanks, Alaska. Barenco, Inc. is using a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit for site evaluations in Canada. A small spill of diesel fuel was cleaned up in Laramie, Wyoming using a Diesel

  7. Experience with Phadebas hCS (HPL)-Test kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herter, U.

    1976-01-01

    The RIA determination of human placental lactogen (HPL) is described using the Phadebas test kit by Pharmacia, Sweden. The results of the test are shown graphically. The kit was tested over a period of one year and the tests were modified to meet the requirements of clinical examinations. The calibration curve is constant and applicable for a period of 14 days. The Phadebas kit has proved to be advantageous for both scientific research work and for routine clinical examinations. (L.O.)

  8. Statistical modeling of dental unit water bacterial test kit performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark E; Harte, Jennifer A; Stone, Mark E; O'Connor, Karen H; Coen, Michael L; Cullum, Malford E

    2007-01-01

    While it is important to monitor dental water quality, it is unclear whether in-office test kits provide bacterial counts comparable to the gold standard method (R2A). Studies were conducted on specimens with known bacterial concentrations, and from dental units, to evaluate test kit accuracy across a range of bacterial types and loads. Colony forming units (CFU) were counted for samples from each source, using R2A and two types of test kits, and conformity to Poisson distribution expectations was evaluated. Poisson regression was used to test for effects of source and device, and to estimate rate ratios for kits relative to R2A. For all devices, distributions were Poisson for low CFU/mL when only beige-pigmented bacteria were considered. For higher counts, R2A remained Poisson, but kits exhibited over-dispersion. Both kits undercounted relative to R2A, but the degree of undercounting was reasonably stable. Kits did not grow pink-pigmented bacteria from dental-unit water identified as Methylobacterium rhodesianum. Only one of the test kits provided results with adequate reliability at higher bacterial concentrations. Undercount bias could be estimated for this device and used to adjust test kit results. Insensitivity to methylobacteria spp. is problematic.

  9. Determining the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) status of FIV-vaccinated cats using point-of-care antibody kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Sheehy, Paul A; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2015-10-01

    This study challenges the commonly held view that the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection status of FIV-vaccinated cats cannot be determined using point-of-care antibody test kits due to indistinguishable antibody production in FIV-vaccinated and naturally FIV-infected cats. The performance of three commercially available point-of-care antibody test kits was compared in a mixed population of FIV-vaccinated (n=119) and FIV-unvaccinated (n=239) cats in Australia. FIV infection status was assigned by considering the results of all antibody kits in concert with results from a commercially available PCR assay (FIV RealPCR™). Two lateral flow immunochromatography test kits (Witness FeLV/FIV; Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV) had excellent overall sensitivity (100%; 100%) and specificity (98%; 100%) and could discern the true FIV infection status of cats, irrespective of FIV vaccination history. The lateral flow ELISA test kit (SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo) could not determine if antibodies detected were due to previous FIV vaccination, natural FIV infection, or both. The sensitivity and specificity of FIV RealPCR™ for detection of viral and proviral nucleic acid was 92% and 99%, respectively. These results will potentially change the way veterinary practitioners screen for FIV in jurisdictions where FIV vaccination is practiced, especially in shelter scenarios where the feasibility of mass screening is impacted by the cost of testing. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Desensol As a Standard Patch Test Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Shah

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study undertaken to find out the usefulness of ′Desensol′ patch test kit to detect contact allergens, in 200 cases revealed 24 cases with negative patch test with all the antigens and 55 cases reacted to even the Vaseline control. -Excluding these 79 cases, the common contact allergens were potassium bichr6ma,te, (40.49%, TMTD(28.92%, PPD(24.79%, epoxy resin (23.14%, colophony (19.0%, nickel sulfate (19.0%, Framycetin (19.0% and nitrofurazone (19.0%. Desensol patch test kit is lacking in certain antigens while in our country due to varied environmental factors and social customs, a person is exposed to a large number of natural and man-made contact allergens. So usefulness of such a kit like. Desensol is limited.

  11. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue

  12. Fabrication of CANFLEX bundle kit for irradiation test in NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Moon Sung; Kwon, Hyuk Il; Ji, Chul Goo; Chang, Ho Il; Sim, Ki Seob; Suk, Ho Chun.

    1997-10-01

    CANFLEX bundle kit was prepared at KAERI for the fabrication of complete bundle at AECL. Completed bundle will be used for irradiation test in NRU. Provisions in the 'Quality Assurance Manual for HWR Fuel Projects,' 'Manufacturing Plan' and 'Quality Verification, Inspection and Test Plan' were implemented as appropriately for the preparation of CANFLEX kit. A set of CANFLEX kit consist of 43 fuel sheath of two different sizes with spacers, bearing pads and buttons attached, 2 pieces of end plates and 86 pieces of end caps with two different sizes. All the documents utilized as references for the fabrication such as drawings, specifications, operating instructions, QC instructions and supplier's certificates are specified in this report. Especially, suppliers' certificates and inspection reports for the purchased material as well as KAERI's inspection report are integrated as attachments to this report. Attached to this report are supplier's certificates and KAERI inspection reports for the procured materials and KAERI QC inspection reports for tubes, pads, spacers, buttons, end caps, end plates and fuel sheath. (author). 37 refs

  13. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE INDUSTRIAL TEST SYSTEM, INC. CYANIDE REAGENTSTRIP™ TEST KIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanide can be present in various forms in water. The cyanide test kit evaluated in this verification study (Industrial Test System, Inc. Cyanide Regent Strip ™ Test Kit) was designed to detect free cyanide in water. This is done by converting cyanide in water to cyanogen...

  14. Evaluation of a rapid immunodiagnostic test kit for rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, BoKyu; Oh, JinSik; Lee, ChulSeung; Park, Bong-Kyun; Park, YoungNam; Hong, KyungSoo; Lee, KyungGi; Cho, ByungKi; Song, DaeSub

    2007-10-01

    A rapid immunodiagnostic test kit for rabies virus detection was evaluated using 51 clinical samples and 4 isolates of rabies virus. The quick detection of rabies virus under field conditions may be helpful in determining if post-exposure prophylaxis is needed, thereby avoiding unnecessary treatments, as well as undue economic burden. There are several widely used diagnostic methods for rabies, including fluorescent antibody tests, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and electron microscopy; however, these methods include time-consuming, intricate, and costly procedures. The rapid immunodiagnostic test was able to detect rabies virus in clinical samples, including brain tissue and saliva, in addition to 10(3.2) 50% lethal dose (LD(50))/mL cell-adapted rabies virus. The assay was not cross-reactive with non-rabies virus microbes. When the performance of the rapid immunodiagnostic test was compared to a fluorescent antibody test, the rapid immunodiagnostic test had a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 100% (95.8% CI).

  15. Research Note The reliability of a field test kit for the detection and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note The reliability of a field test kit for the detection and the persistence of ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The objectives were to test a field kit for practicality and reliability, to assess the spread of the bacteria among ...

  16. Tailgate test kit for determining appropriate sediment reducing chemicals and dose rates : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This study develops a Tailgate Test Kit to be used in the field to test flocculants for reducing turbidity in construction stormwater discharge. Turbidity of stormwater runoff at construction sites varies depending on which site soils are exposed to ...

  17. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TESTING OF THREE IMMUNOASSAY TEST KITS FOR ANTHRAX, BOTULINUM TOXIN AND RICIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunoassay test kits are based on immunoassay methods, where specific antibodies are used to detect and measure the contaminants of interest. Immunoassay test kits rely on the reaction of a contaminant or antigen with a selective antibody to give a product that can be measures....

  18. Community-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Rural Population: Who Returns Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) Kits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Stradtman, Lindsay; Collins, Tom; Vanderpool, Robin

    2017-09-01

    To determine the return rate of community-delivered fecal immunochemical test (FIT) kits in a rural population and to identify significant predictors of returning kits. Residents were recruited in 8 rural Kentucky counties to enroll in the study and receive an FIT kit. Of 345 recruited, 82.0% returned an FIT kit from the point of distribution. These participants were compared to the remainder relative to age, sex, marital status, having an annual income below $15,000, not graduating from high school, not having a regular health care provider, not having health care coverage, being a current smoker, indicating current overweight or obese status, and a scale measure of fatalism pertaining to colorectal cancer. Predictors achieving significance at the bivariate level were entered into a stepwise logistic regression model to calculate adjusted OR and 95% CI. The return rate was 82.0%. In adjusted analyses, those indicating an annual income of less than $15,000 were 2.85 times more likely to return their kits (95% CI: 1.56-5.24; P < .001). Also, those not perceiving themselves to be overweight/obese were 1.95 times more likely to return their kits (95% CI: 1.07-3.55; P = .029). An outreach-based colorectal cancer screening program in a rural population may yield high return rates. People with annual incomes below $15,000 and those not having perceptions of being overweight/obese may be particularly likely to return FIT kits. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  19. Evaluation of a clinic-based cholinesterase test kit for the Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Carden, Angela; Fenske, Richard A; Ruark, Harold E; Keifer, Matthew C

    2008-07-01

    The Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program for pesticide handlers requires blood draws at local clinics, with samples tested at a central laboratory. At present, workers with inhibited cholinesterase activity may be re-exposed before they can be removed from work. In this study we explored the option of on-site testing at local clinics using the EQM Test-mate Kittrade mark, a portable cholinesterase test kit. Test kit cholinesterase activity measurements were performed on 50 blood samples by our research staff, and compared to measurements on the same samples by the Washington State Public Health Laboratory. Another set of samples was also analyzed with the test kit by medical staff at an eastern Washington clinic. Triplicate measurements with the test kit had a 3.3% average coefficient of variation (CV) for plasma cholinesterase (PChE), and a 3.5% average CV for erythrocyte cholinesterase (AChE) measurements. The kit's PChE measurements were similar to PHL measurements (average ratio of 0.98) when performed in the laboratory, but had a tendency to underestimate activity when used in the clinic setting (average ratio of 0.87). The kit systematically overestimated AChE activity by 42-48% relative to the PHL measurements, regardless of where the samples were analyzed. This easy-to-use test kit appeared to be a viable method for clinic-based PChE measurements, but was less consistent for AChE measurements performed in the clinic. Absolute measurements with the kit need to be evaluated carefully relative to standardized methods. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Monitoring acetylcholinesterase levels in migrant agricultural workers and their children using a portable test kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, G M; Muñiz, J F; McCauley, L A

    2001-02-01

    The EQM Research, Inc., portable test kit was evaluated as a surveillance tool for blood cholinesterase levels among migrant workers and their children. Laboratory validation demonstrated a linear relationship between the reference Ellman and kit methods (Ellman = 0.95 x kit result + 0.82, r2 = 0.98). Pre- and post-season cholinesterase levels measured in 70 farm workers were within normal ranges, but significantly different at 28.5 and 29.7 U/g Hb, respectively (paired t-test, p = 0.014). Results from 98 migrant farm worker children and a comparison group of 53 age-matched non-agricultural children showed that cholinesterase levels were not significantly different between the agricultural and non-agricultural children (ANOVA, p = 0.69). These data demonstrate that a portable test kit can provide useful data pesticide exposures when measurements are made in a temperature-controlled setting.

  1. Electronic vending machines for dispensing rapid HIV self-testing kits: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Klausner, Jeffrey; Fynn, Risa; Bolan, Robert

    2014-02-01

    This short report evaluates the feasibility of using electronic vending machines for dispensing oral, fluid, rapid HIV self-testing kits in Los Angeles County. Feasibility criteria that needed to be addressed were defined as: (1) ability to find a manufacturer who would allow dispensing of HIV testing kits and could fit them to the dimensions of a vending machine, (2) ability to identify and address potential initial obstacles, trade-offs in choosing a machine location, and (3) ability to gain community approval for implementing this approach in a community setting. To address these issues, we contracted a vending machine company who could supply a customized, Internet-enabled machine that could dispense HIV kits and partnered with a local health center available to host the machine onsite and provide counseling to participants, if needed. Vending machines appear to be feasible technologies that can be used to distribute HIV testing kits.

  2. An evaluation of chemical screening test kits for lead in paint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, L.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act (Title X) requires abatement and management of lead-based paint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three chemical screening test kits using materials and methods from one study and subjecting the results to the statistical analysis of another. The three kits were used to predict the presence of lead in paint at ten weight concentrations from 0.04 to 3.97%. Paint was applied to four wood boards yielding a sample size of 40. Four boards were painted with lead-free paint and used as blanks. All of the boards were tested with the three test kits by an untrained individual having no knowledge of the actual lead content. Sensitivity, specificity, and false positive and negative rates were calculated for the test kit results. The manufactures` detection limits, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.80, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.42, false positive ranged from 0 to 58%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. At the 0.5% Federal threshold level, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.94, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.5, false positives ranged from 0 to 11.1%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. The observed false positive and false negative rates for all three kits were found to be significantly lower than those reported in a previous study. These results indicate that the kits perform very well at the Federal threshold, with two of the kits having false negative rates below 12.5% and false positive rates of 3.13%. These results indicate that these two kits would probably be acceptable screening tests for lead in paint.

  3. Innovative accountability of tracking test kit as locked resources: a lesson in a restricted resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuwani, Ahmad M; Msuya, Sia; Haule, Dunstan; Mogella, Deus; Nkya, Efesper

    2013-09-01

    To implement quality screening in a blood service requires the presence of screening strategy with a clear algorithm and supporting standard operating procedures (SOPs), skilled and motivated human resource to perform testing, infrastructure, regular available test kits, and other supplies. In developing countries, smooth supply chain management of critical transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) screening reagents is a challenge. Therefore, managing the little available kits by knowing the rate of consumption, good forecasting, and monitoring expiry date may be a key in ensuring regular supply. Test kit monitoring tool (TKMT) for Vironostika HIV Uni-Form kit/192 1&2 Ag/Ab, Genedia kits for HBsAg and HCV, and RPR for syphilis was developed to track these reagents. This excel tool was developed to assess received reagents, quantity used, quantity remaining, and date of expiration. The tool was evaluated by assessing rerun for each test kits, match tests conducted with blood units tested, adherence to the principle of first in-first out (FIFO), and quantity remaining in the center against the need. The mean rerun for HIV ELISA Vironistika uniform II Ag/Ab observed over expected was 6.9% (n = 3.8) than 2.4% (n = 1.3), HBsAg was 9.9% (n = 5.7) than 6.7% (3.5) (expected), Genedia for HCV was 1.3% (n = 0.7) than 0.5% (n = 0.3), and RPR test for syphilis 3.3% (n = 1.5) than 0.5%. During implementation, TKMT managed to detect expiring kits in the zonal blood transfusion centers. A tool-like TKMT may capture other supplies within blood when expanded. Monitoring of supplies may enable blood service actual accounting and in forecasting supplies and reagents. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of blood as a diagnostic test in mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Vestergaard, Hanne; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The recent progress in sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis suggests that mutation analysis of peripheral blood (PB) represents a promising diagnostic test in mastocytosis. However, there is a need for systematic assessment of the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the approach in order...... to establish its value in clinical use. We therefore evaluated sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of PB as a diagnostic test in an entire case-series of adults with mastocytosis. We demonstrate for the first time that by using a sufficiently sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis, it is possible to detect...... the mutation in PB in nearly all adult mastocytosis patients. The mutation was detected in PB in 78 of 83 systemic mastocytosis (94%) and 3 of 4 cutaneous mastocytosis patients (75%). The test was 100% specific as determined by analysis of clinically relevant control patients who all tested negative. Mutation...

  5. Evaluation of rapid HIV test kits on whole blood and development of rapid testing algorithm for voluntary testing and counseling centers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegbaru, Belete; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Wolday, Dawit; Meles, PhD Hailu; Tesema, Desalegn; Birhanu, Hiwot; Tesfaye, Girma; Bond, Kyle B; Martin, Robert; Rayfield, Mark A; Wuhib, Tadesse; Fekadu, Makonnen

    2004-10-01

    Five simple and rapid HIV antibody detection assays viz. Determine, Capillus, Oraquick, Unigold and Hemastrip were evaluated to examine their performance and to develop an alternative rapid test based testing algorithm for voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) in Ethiopia. All the kits were tested on whole blood, plasma and serum. The evaluation had three phases: Primary lab review, piloting at point of service and implementation. This report includes the results of the first two phases. A total of 2,693 specimens (both whole blood and plasma) were included in the evaluation. Results were compared to double Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) system. Discordant EIA results were resolved using Western Blot. The assays had very good sensitivities and specificities, 99-100%, at the two different phases of the evaluation. A 98-100% result agreement was obtained from those tested at VCT centers and National Referral Laboratory for AIDS (NRLA), in the quality control phase of the evaluation. A testing strategy yielding 100% [95% CI; 98.9-100.0] sensitivity was achieved by the sequential use of the three rapid test kits. Direct cost comparison showed serial testing algorithm reduces the cost of testing by over 30% compared to parallel testing in the current situation. Determine, Capillus/Oraquick (presence/absence of frefrigeration) and Unigold were recommended as screening, confirmation and tiebreaker tests, respectively.

  6. Evaluation of nine HIV rapid test kits to develop a national HIV testing algorithm in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orji Bassey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-cold chain-dependent HIV rapid testing has been adopted in many resource-constrained nations as a strategy for reaching out to populations. HIV rapid test kits (RTKs have the advantage of ease of use, low operational cost and short turnaround times. Before 2005, different RTKs had been used in Nigeria without formal evaluation. Between 2005 and 2007, a study was conducted to formally evaluate a number of RTKs and construct HIV testing algorithms. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess and select HIV RTKs and develop national testing algorithms. Method: Nine RTKs were evaluated using 528 well-characterised plasma samples. These comprised 198 HIV-positive specimens (37.5% and 330 HIV-negative specimens (62.5%, collected nationally. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with 95% confidence intervals for all nine RTKs singly and for serial and parallel combinations of six RTKs; and relative costs were estimated. Results: Six of the nine RTKs met the selection criteria, including minimum sensitivity and specificity (both ≥ 99.0% requirements. There were no significant differences in sensitivities or specificities of RTKs in the serial and parallel algorithms, but the cost of RTKs in parallel algorithms was twice that in serial algorithms. Consequently, three serial algorithms, comprising four test kits (BundiTM, DetermineTM, Stat-Pak® and Uni-GoldTM with 100.0% sensitivity and 99.1% – 100.0% specificity, were recommended and adopted as national interim testing algorithms in 2007. Conclusion: This evaluation provides the first evidence for reliable combinations of RTKs for HIV testing in Nigeria. However, these RTKs need further evaluation in the field (Phase II to re-validate their performance.

  7. Diagnosis efficiency of urine malaria test kit for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic efficiencies of urine malaria test kit with microscopy as the gold standard in detecting Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2, a poly-histidine antigen in urine of febrile patients. The study was conducted in a primary and secondary health institution in Gombe Town, Gombe State, ...

  8. Self-Test Kit: Rapid Diagnosis of Urogenital Infections in Military Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    this project will result in a self-test kit for use on deployment and/or in other resource poor environments. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. N1 tUMER OF PAGES...DK, et al. Characteristics of women by smoking status in the San Francisco Bay Area. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 1992; 1:491-7. 10

  9. A simple kit for rapid field diagnosis of potato virus Y by latex serological test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarne Kurppa

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple kit for rapid detection of potato virus Y by latex serological test was developed. The test is carried out on a white cardboard sheet and the results can be read by naked eye in two minutes. A test card of 10 x 6 cm holds latex sensitized antibodies, buffers and other necessary ingredients as dry blue colored formulate on the ringed areas of the card. A test card includes space for six tests and positive and negative controls. The kit also includes disposable plastic sticks for mixing the samples with test reagents and a hand press with disposable plastic tips. For testing, dried reagents are dissolved in drops of sample and mixed. After gentle rotation, samples containing virus appear clearly granulated while samples from healthy plants remain unagglutinated. The testing of undiluted extracts of evenly developed tuber sprouts resulted in over 91 % identity with the results obtained with ELISA that was used as a control method. Testing of diluted leaf extracts reached the same reliability but undiluted leaf extracts from glasshouse grown potatoes were not well suitable as test samples because of their dark green color. No such problems occurred with field grown material and a complete identity with the ELISA readings was true when the samples included secondarily infected potato plants. No reaction to other potato viruses than PVY was obtained by the test kit.

  10. Evaluation of Commercially Available Cyanide Test Kits against Various Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    commercial products. This report may not be cited for purposes of advertisement . Acknowledgments The authors acknowledge the hard work...Sigma-Aldrich);  DG Clover Valley coffee creamer (Lot 09603235 9864 2048); and  Powdered milk ( Nestle ; Vevey, Switzerland). 2. PHASE I TESTING

  11. Testing Local Independence between Two Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allard, Denis; Brix, Anders; Chadæuf, Joël

    2001-01-01

    Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush......Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush...

  12. Field kit and method for testing for the presence of gunshot residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodacy, Philip J.; Walker, Pamela K.

    2003-09-02

    A field test kit for gunshot residue comprises a container having at least compartments separated by a barrier. A surface is tested by wiping it with a swab and placing the swab in a first compartment. The barrier is then breached, permitting reagent in the second compartment to flow onto the swab. The first compartment is transparent, and a color change will be observed if the reagent reacts with gunshot residue.

  13. A comparative study in three commercial kits of radioligand assay for GAD-Ab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yehua; Zhou Zhiguang; Huang Gan; Yang Feike; Li Zhangwei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To provide data for perfect selection of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Ab) assay commercial kits. Methods: The sera of 88 titer-graded samples by radioligand assay (RLA) were measured with two types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits and one type of immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kit for GAD-Ab in order to test their consistency with RLA. Another 140 diabetic sera were measured with RLA and screened by a type of suitable kit to search the cutoff point for discriminating patients who needed rechecking. Results: Compared with RLA, concordance ratio of 3 kits: Medizym kit(75%) > RSR kit(73.9%) > Biomerica kit(62.5%); Kappa value: Medizym kit (0.408, common) > RSR kit (0.405, common) > Biomerica kit (0.185, failing); correlation to RLA index: RSR kit (r= 0.992) > Medizym kit(r= 0. 791 ) > Biomerica kit (r = -0. 055); area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve: Medizym kit (0.812) > RSR kit (0. 727 ) > Biomerica kit (0.666). Conclusions: The efficiencies of RSR kit and Medizym kit are good. Serum concentration between 0.25-0.99 U/ml measured by RSR kit is suggested to further recheck by RLA. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of a rapid immunodiagnostic test kit for detection of African lyssaviruses from brain material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Markotter

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid immunodiagnostic test kit was evaluated against a selection of isolates of lyssavirus genotypes occurring in Africa. The test was carried out in parallel comparison with the fluorescent antibody test (FAT and isolates representing previously established phylogenetic groups from each genotype were included. The specificity of the rapid immunodiagnostic test compared favourably with the FAT and was found to detect all representatives of genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in brain samples of either field cases or suckling mouse brain inoculates.

  15. Determination of total galactose from dried blood spots—extensive assay evaluation of a CE-marked test-kit

    OpenAIRE

    Fingerhut, R; Torresani, T

    2013-01-01

    Most newborn screening laboratories use CE-marked or FDA-approved test-kits, like in routine clinical chemistry. National regulations require only minimal evaluation from the customer, if the test-kits are used as specified by the manufacturer. The microtiter-based kit-concept is often based on the perception, that the laboratory always processes whole microtiter plates. However, in the daily routine, this is rather a rare exception, which leads to much higher costs per newborn, compared to t...

  16. Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit. AOAC Performance Tested Method(SM) 021203.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Cheung, Win Den; Opdyke, Jason; Harvey, John; Chong, Songchun; Moon, Cheol Gon

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella, one of the most common causes of foodborne illness, is a significant public health concern worldwide. There is a need in the food industry for methods that are simple, rapid, and sensitive for the detection of foodborne pathogens. In this study, the Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit, a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Salmonella, was evaluated according to the current AOAC guidelines. The validation consisted of lot-to-lot consistency, stability, robustness, and inclusivity/exclusivity studies, as well as a method comparison of 10 different food matrixes. In the validation, the Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit was used in conjunction with the Applied Biosystems StepOnePlus PCR system and the Samsung Food Testing Software for the detection of Salmonella species. The performance of the assays was compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service-Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (USDA/FSIS-MLG) 4.05: Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, Pasteurized Egg, and Catfish and the and U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) Chapter 5 Salmonella reference methods. The validation was conducted using an unpaired study design for detection of Salmonella spp. in raw ground beef, raw pork, raw ground pork, raw chicken wings, raw salmon, alfalfa sprouts, pasteurized orange juice, peanut butter, pasteurized whole milk, and shell eggs. The Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit demonstrated lot-to-lot consistency among three independent lots as well as ruggedness with minor modifications to changes in enrichment incubation time, enrichment incubation temperature, and DNA sample volume for PCR reaction. Stability was observed for 13 months at -20 degrees C and 3 months at 5 degrees C. For the inclusivity/exclusivity study, the Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit correctly identified 147 Salmonella species isolates out of 147 isolates tested from each of three different enrichment

  17. Nationwide study of factors associated with public's willingness to use home self-test kit for dengue fever in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Atefi, Narges; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2016-08-12

    As there is no specific treatment for dengue, early detection and access to proper treatment may lower dengue fatality. Therefore, having new techniques for the early detection of dengue fever, such as the use of dengue test kit, is vitally important. The aims of the study were: 1) identify factors associated with acceptance of a home self-test kit for dengue fever if the dengue test is available to the public and 2) find out the characteristics of the test kits that influence the use of the dengue test kit. A national telephone survey was carried out with 2,512 individuals of the Malaysian public aged 18-60 years old. Individuals were contacted by random digit dialling covering the whole of Malaysia from February 2012 to June 2013. From 2,512 participants, 6.1 % reported to have heard of the availability of the dengue home test kit and of these, 44.8 % expressed their intention to use the test kit if it was available. Multivariate logistic regressions indicated that participants with primary (OR: 0.65; 95 % CI: 0.43-0.89; p = 0.02, vs. tertiary educational level) and secondary educational levels (OR: 0.73; 95 % CI: 0.57-0.90; p = 0.01, vs. tertiary educational level) were less likely than participants with a tertiary educational level to use a home self-testing dengue kit for dengue if the kit was available. Participants with lower perceived barriers to dengue prevention (level of barriers 0-5) were less likely (OR: 0.67, 95 % CI: 0.53-0.85, p dengue kit for dengue if the kit was available compared to those with higher perceived barriers to dengue prevention (level of barriers 6-10). Participants with a lower total dengue fever knowledge score (range 0-22) were also less likely to use a home self-testing dengue kit for dengue if the kit was available (OR: 0.75; 95 % CI: 0.61-0.91, p = 0.001, vs. higher total dengue fever knowledge score) compared to those with a higher total dengue fever knowledge score (range 23-44). With response to

  18. Realising point of care testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braybrook, J

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to move molecular diagnostic technologies out of a centralised lab setting and closer to the patient have proved problematic. Early diagnosis of disease is often dependent upon detection of trace amounts of a molecular marker in a complex background. This challenging analytical scenario is compounded when testing is done in rapid manner using miniaturized and portable instruments. Metrology will be fundamental to delivering high quality and reliable clinical data with measurable sensitivity and robustness. Quality of the sample, integrity of the analyser, and ease of use together with incorporation of appropriate QC standards and demonstration of 'fitness for purpose' will be key challenges.

  19. Moderne Groupware-Umgebung am KIT: Microsoft SharePoint 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Grindler, Sabine; Wörl, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    Anwender aus den Bereichen Verwaltung, Forschung und Lehre am Karlsruher Institut für Technologie nutzen Microsoft SharePoint Teamseiten als zentrale Groupware-Plattform. Seit letztem Jahr ist die aktuelle Version SharePoint 2013 im Einsatz. Ein Mehrwert der neuen Plattform ist die Office Web Apps Technologie, die eine gemeinsame Bearbeitung von Office-Dokumenten im Web-Browser ermöglicht. Die einfache Zusammenarbeit mit internen und externen Partnern erhöht ebenfalls die Akzeptanz für die Ve...

  20. Evaluation of field test kits including immunoassays for the detection of contaminants in soil and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, L.C.; Smith, R.R.; Counts, R.W.; Stewart, J.H.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Effective field test methods are needed for hazardous waste site characterization and remediation. Useful field methods should be rapid, analyte-specific, cost-effective and accurate in the concentration range at which the analyte is regulated. In this study, field test kits for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), mercury, lead and nitrate were evaluated with reference to these criteria. PCBs and mercury, in soils, were analyzed by immunoassay. Ionic lead and nitrate, in water, were measured chemically using test strips. Except for lead, each analyte was measured in both spiked and actual field samples. Twenty to 40 samples per day can be analyzed with the immunoassays and even more with the strip tests. The sensitivity of the immunoassays is in the 1-3 ppM range. Nitrate was consistently detected at ≥5 ppM; lead ions at ≥20 ppM. Results obtained using these methods compared favorably with those obtained by standard laboratory methods. In addition to being useful field screening methods, these kits can be used in the laboratory to sort out negative samples and/or to define proper dilutions for positive samples requiring further analysis

  1. Acceptability of using electronic vending machines to deliver oral rapid HIV self-testing kits: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean D Young

    Full Text Available Rates of unrecognized HIV infection are significantly higher among Latino and Black men who have sex with men (MSM. Policy makers have proposed that HIV self-testing kits and new methods for delivering self-testing could improve testing uptake among minority MSM. This study sought to conduct qualitative assessments with MSM of color to determine the acceptability of using electronic vending machines to dispense HIV self-testing kits.African American and Latino MSM were recruited using a participant pool from an existing HIV prevention trial on Facebook. If participants expressed interest in using a vending machine to receive an HIV self-testing kit, they were emailed a 4-digit personal identification number (PIN code to retrieve the test from the machine. We followed up with those who had tested to assess their willingness to participate in an interview about their experience.Twelve kits were dispensed and 8 interviews were conducted. In general, participants expressed that the vending machine was an acceptable HIV test delivery method due to its novelty and convenience.Acceptability of this delivery model for HIV testing kits was closely associated with three main factors: credibility, confidentiality, and convenience. Future research is needed to address issues, such as user-induced errors and costs, before scaling up the dispensing method.

  2. Acceptability of using electronic vending machines to deliver oral rapid HIV self-testing kits: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Daniels, Joseph; Chiu, ChingChe J; Bolan, Robert K; Flynn, Risa P; Kwok, Justin; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    Rates of unrecognized HIV infection are significantly higher among Latino and Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Policy makers have proposed that HIV self-testing kits and new methods for delivering self-testing could improve testing uptake among minority MSM. This study sought to conduct qualitative assessments with MSM of color to determine the acceptability of using electronic vending machines to dispense HIV self-testing kits. African American and Latino MSM were recruited using a participant pool from an existing HIV prevention trial on Facebook. If participants expressed interest in using a vending machine to receive an HIV self-testing kit, they were emailed a 4-digit personal identification number (PIN) code to retrieve the test from the machine. We followed up with those who had tested to assess their willingness to participate in an interview about their experience. Twelve kits were dispensed and 8 interviews were conducted. In general, participants expressed that the vending machine was an acceptable HIV test delivery method due to its novelty and convenience. Acceptability of this delivery model for HIV testing kits was closely associated with three main factors: credibility, confidentiality, and convenience. Future research is needed to address issues, such as user-induced errors and costs, before scaling up the dispensing method.

  3. Thyroxine determination in serum by radioimmunoassay and competitive protein-binding analysis (simultaneous study using four test kits)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, K.

    1978-01-01

    Three commercial test kits for radioimmunological T 4 -determination have been tested (T 4 -RIA Abbott, RIA-mat T 4 , T 4 -RIA Henning). The RIA method has also been compared with a CPBA test (Tetralute) for routine application. 1) The results show that CPBA (Tetralute) is superior over the three radioimmuno-assays with regard to intra-assay variance. The T 4 -RIA Abbott has been inferior to the two other RIA under test and to the Tetralute with regard to inter-assay variance. 2) The four test kits show significant differences and considerable deviations from the given nominal values in comparison with the mean values of two control sera. A control for correctness does not seem to be appropriate as it cannot be decided which of the test kits yields the true value of T 4 content. No systematic difference has been observed between RIA and CPBA in the determination of T 4 in control sera. 3) No detectable difference has been found among the RIA-T 4 test kits and comparing them with the CBPA test regarding their diagnostic precision. A good correlation of T 4 values of euthyroid patients comparing the Tetralute and the three radioimmunological test kits. The mean values of euthyroid sera obtained by the three radioimmuno-assays and the Tetralute are not in agreement with each other. (orig.) [de

  4. Quality and use of consumer information provided with home test kits: room for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grispen, Janaica E J; Ickenroth, Martine H P; de Vries, Nanne K; van der Weijden, Trudy; Ronda, Gaby

    2014-10-01

    Diagnostic self-tests (tests on body materials that are initiated by consumers with the aim of diagnosing a disorder or risk factor) are becoming increasingly available. Although the pros and cons of self-testing are currently not clear, it is an existing phenomenon that is likely to gain further popularity. To examine consumers' use of and needs for information about self-testing, and to assess the quality of consumer information provided with home test kits, as perceived by consumers and as assessed using a checklist of quality criteria. A cross-sectional Internet survey among 305 self-testers assessed their use of and needs for information and their perception of the quality of consumer information provided with self-test kits. A meta-search engine was used to identify Dutch and English consumer information for home diagnostic tests available online at the time of the study. The quality of this consumer information was evaluated using a checklist of quality criteria. The consumers' information needs were in line with the most frequently used information, and the information was perceived as being of moderate to good quality. The information was mostly in agreement with clinical practice guidelines, although information on reliability and follow-up behaviour was limited. Approximately half of the instruction leaflets did not include information on the target group of the test. Although generally of moderate to good quality, some aspects of the information provided were in many cases insufficient. European legislation concerning self-tests and accompanying information needs to be adapted and adhered to more closely. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Gyrotron development at KIT: FULGOR test facility and gyrotron concepts for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, M., E-mail: martin.schmid@kit.edu [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Franck, J.; Kalaria, P.; Avramidis, K.A.; Gantenbein, G.; Illy, S. [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Jelonnek, J. [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of High Frequency Techniques and Electronics (IHE), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Pagonakis, I. Gr.; Rzesnicki, T. [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Thumm, M. [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of High Frequency Techniques and Electronics (IHE), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Substantial extension of the KIT gyrotron test facility FULGOR has started. • FULGOR will be able to test gyrotrons with continuous RF output power up to 4 MW. • Design of 240 GHz gyrotrons for efficient electron cyclotron current drive is progressing. • Output power of 240 GHz gyrotrons with conventional cavity up to 830 kW, with coaxial cavity up to 2 MW is feasible. • Multi-frequency operation with gyrotrons is also possible (170–267 GHz). - Abstract: At the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), theoretical and experimental foundations for the development of future gyrotrons for fusion applications are being laid down. This includes the construction of the new Fusion Long Pulse Gyrotron Laboratory (FULGOR) test facility as well as physical design studies towards DEMO-compatible gyrotrons. Initially FULGOR will comprise of a 10 MW CW power supply, a 5 MW water cooling system (upgradeable to 10 MW), a superconducting 10 T magnet, one or two 2 MW ECRH test loads and a new control and data acquisition system for all these elements. The test facility will then be equipped to test the conventional 1 MW or coaxial 2 MW gyrotrons for DEMO, currently under design, as well as possible upgraded gyrotrons for W7-X and ITER. The design of the new high voltage DC power supply (HVDCPS) is flexible enough to handle gyrotrons with 4 MW CW output power (conceivably up to 170 GHz), but also test gyrotrons with higher frequencies (>250 GHz) which, due to physical limitations in the gyrotron design, will require less power but have more stringent demands on voltage stability.

  6. Information contained within the large scale gas injection test (Lasgit) dataset exposed using a bespoke data analysis tool-kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.P.; Thomas, H.R.; Cuss, R.J.; Harrington, J.F.; Vardon, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Large Scale Gas Injection Test (Lasgit) is a field scale experiment run by the British Geological Survey (BGS) and is located approximately 420 m underground at SKB's Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden. It has been designed to study the impact on safety of gas build up within a KBS-3V concept high level radioactive waste repository. Lasgit has been in almost continuous operation for approximately seven years and is still underway. An analysis of the dataset arising from the Lasgit experiment with particular attention to the smaller scale features and phenomenon recorded has been undertaken in parallel to the macro scale analysis performed by the BGS. Lasgit is a highly instrumented, frequently sampled and long-lived experiment leading to a substantial dataset containing in excess of 14.7 million datum points. The data is anticipated to include a wealth of information, including information regarding overall processes as well as smaller scale or 'second order' features. Due to the size of the dataset coupled with the detailed analysis of the dataset required and the reduction in subjectivity associated with measurement compared to observation, computational analysis is essential. Moreover, due to the length of operation and complexity of experimental activity, the Lasgit dataset is not typically suited to 'out of the box' time series analysis algorithms. In particular, the features that are not suited to standard algorithms include non-uniformities due to (deliberate) changes in sample rate at various points in the experimental history and missing data due to hardware malfunction/failure causing interruption of logging cycles. To address these features a computational tool-kit capable of performing an Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) on long-term, large-scale datasets with non-uniformities has been developed. Particular tool-kit abilities include: the parameterization of signal variation in the dataset

  7. Comparative study of three screening tests, two microbiological tube tests, and a multi-sulphonamide ELISA kit for the detection of antimicrobial and sulphonamide residues in eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, V; Hedou, C; Rault, A; Sanders, P; Verdon, E

    2009-04-01

    The screening of antimicrobial residues in eggs is an especially important subject. Three different commercial kits for the screening of sulphonamides and other antimicrobials in eggs were validated in accordance with Decision 2002/657/EC: one enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) kit multi-sulphonamides (from RAISIO Diagnostics) and two microbiological tests (a Premi test from DSM and an Explorer kit from Zeu-Inmunotec). The false-positive rates were lower than 2% for all kits. The detection capabilities (CCbeta) have to be as low as possible for banned substances and lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL) when MRLs have been set. The sensitivity of the Premi test was better than that of the Explorer test, probably because of the dilution of the eggs before the Explorer test was used. The CCbeta values towards most of the tested sulphonamides were satisfactory with the Premi test (amoxicillin, neomycin, tylosin and erythromycin were lower than their respective MRLs. Detection capabilities for sulphonamides were much lower for the ELISA kit than for microbiological tests. The ELISA kit could be recommended for the targeted screening of sulphonamides in eggs. On the other hand, the Explorer and Premi tests could be used as wide screening tests allowing the detection of most of the antimicrobial families.

  8. Forgotten evidence: A mixed methods study of why sexual assault kits (SAKs) are not submitted for DNA forensic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Bybee, Deborah; Shaw, Jessica

    2017-10-01

    Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) (also termed "rape kits") have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. DNA evidence can help sexual assault investigations and prosecutions by identifying offenders, revealing serial offenders through DNA matches across cases, and exonerating those who have been wrongly accused. In this article, we describe a 5-year action research project conducted with 1 city that had large numbers of untested SAKs-Detroit, Michigan-and our examination into why thousands of rape kits in this city were never submitted for forensic DNA testing. This mixed methods study combined ethnographic observations and qualitative interviews to identify stakeholders' perspectives as to why rape kits were not routinely submitted for testing. Then, we quantitatively examined whether these factors may have affected police practices regarding SAK testing, as evidenced by predictable changes in SAK submission rates over time. Chronic resource scarcity only partially explained why the organizations that serve rape victims-the police, crime lab, prosecution, and victim advocacy-could not test all rape kits, investigate all reported sexual assaults, and support all rape survivors. SAK submission rates significantly increased once criminal justice professionals in this city had full access to the FBI DNA forensic database Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), but even then, most SAKs were still not submitted for DNA testing. Building crime laboratories' capacities for DNA testing and training police on the utility of forensic evidence and best practices in sexual assault investigations can help remedy, and possibly prevent, the problem of untested rape kits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The clinical testing of a Hungarian-made triiodothyronine radioimmunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyertyanfy, G.; Foeldes, J.

    1981-01-01

    The parameters of the calibration curve of the new Hungarian RK-11 kit for the determination of the total T3 content of the serum and the reliability of the results were studied. The data of the measurements made on a number of patients by RK-11, Biodata and Byk-Mallinckrodt kits were compared. The new kit seems to be applicable to the determination of the total T3 content in the serum. (author)

  10. Performances of Four Helicobacter pylori Serological Detection Kits Using Stool Antigen Test as Gold Standard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susheela D Biranjia-Hurdoyal

    Full Text Available The aim was to determine the performances of four Helicobacter pylori serological detection kits in different target groups, using Amplified IDEIA™ Hp StAR™ as gold standard. Kits studied were Rapid Immunochromatoghraphic Hexagon, Helicoblot 2.1, an EIA IgG kit and EIA IgA kit.Stool and blood samples were collected from 162 apparently healthy participants (control and 60 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients.The performances of the four serological detection kits were found to be affected by gender, age, health status and ethnicity of the participants. In the control group, the Helicoblot 2.1 kit had the best performance (AUC = 0.85; p<0.05, accuracy = 86.4%, followed by EIA IgG (AUC = 0.75; p<0.05, accuracy = 75.2%. The Rapid Hexagon and EIA IgA kits had relatively poor performances. In the T2DM subgroup, the kits H2.1 and EIA IgG had best performances, with accuracies of 96.5% and 93.1% respectively. The performance of EIA IgG improved with adjustment of its cut-off value.The performances of the detection kits were affected by various factors which should be taken into consideration.

  11. [Clinical evaluation of triage as drug-of-abuse test kit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Toshiharu; Kohriyama, Kazuaki; Kondo, Rumiko; Goto, Kyoko; Yashiki, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    There are about 60,000 chemical substances which may cause poisoning. Identifying the cause substances is, therefore, very important for patient at emergency department. Triage is an immunoassay kit for the qualitative test for the metabolites of 8 major abuse drugs in urine. We assessed the usefullness of Triage on two patient groups. The first Group consists of the patients considered having not taken substances at initial diagnosis; the second Group consists of the patients considered having taken substances. The result are as follows. 1) The rate of Triage positive patients in the first Group were: attempt-suicide 23%, coma 24%, shock 10%, trauma 7%, respectively. Except for the habitually used medicine, narcotic and stimulant drugs were detected. In the first Group, negative result of Triage was effective in diagnosing the patients as not poisoned, excluding the possitivity of 8 major drugs usage. 2) The rate of Triage positive patients in the second Group were very high: attempt-suicide 77%, coma 51%, shock 57%, trauma 30%, respectively, showing mostly any of 8 major drugs were the cause of poisoning. In the second Group, positive result of Triage was effective in diagnosing the patient as poisoning or as coexisting poisoning with other diseases. 3) The specificity of Triage diagnosis in the first Group was 80% (113/142). The specificity and the sensitivity in the second Group were 64% (50/78) and 97% (74/76), respectively. These results means that Triage is very useful for diagnosis on 8 major drugs poisoning. 4) Triage is efficient for identifying the cause substances in drug poisoning and, therefore, can save medical expense. Triage is a very useful test kit at emergency department.

  12. Performances of Four Helicobacter pylori Serological Detection Kits Using Stool Antigen Test as Gold Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biranjia-Hurdoyal, Susheela D; Seetulsingh-Goorah, Sharmila P

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to determine the performances of four Helicobacter pylori serological detection kits in different target groups, using Amplified IDEIA™ Hp StAR™ as gold standard. Kits studied were Rapid Immunochromatoghraphic Hexagon, Helicoblot 2.1, an EIA IgG kit and EIA IgA kit. Stool and blood samples were collected from 162 apparently healthy participants (control) and 60 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The performances of the four serological detection kits were found to be affected by gender, age, health status and ethnicity of the participants. In the control group, the Helicoblot 2.1 kit had the best performance (AUC = 0.85; ppoor performances. In the T2DM subgroup, the kits H2.1 and EIA IgG had best performances, with accuracies of 96.5% and 93.1% respectively. The performance of EIA IgG improved with adjustment of its cut-off value. The performances of the detection kits were affected by various factors which should be taken into consideration.

  13. {sup 14}C urea breath test kit- an evaluation of a compact, cost-effective kit for the detection of H. pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellon, M.S. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Dept of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa causes active chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. Carbon-14 urea breath testing has been well documented in its ability to detect the presence of H. pylori. The aims of this study were to evaluate and refine the test to substantially reduce costs and improve its simplicity, availability and accuracy. We reviewed the results of 138 patients who underwent {sup 14}C urea breath testing for the detection of H. pylori utilising a kit developed at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Modifications to the standard technique that were assessed included the relevance of buccal cleansing, single sample v multiple sampling, use of alternative CO{sub 2} absorbers and sampling techniques. In those patients with positive biopsy results, a test sensitivity of 100% was achieved. No buccal cleansing is necessary (45% oral contamination without brushing teeth v 41% with). A single breath sample only at 15 min resulted in 100% sensitivity. Alternative (cheaper and safer) CO{sub 2} absorbers such as KOH can be used. Based on these results, modifications to this well documented test have enabled us to substantially reduce costs, improve simplicity and safety and increase accuracy and availability of the test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori.

  14. Prolonged expression of the c-kit receptor in germ cells of intersex fetal testes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Jørgensen, N; Müller, Jørn

    1996-01-01

    conditions which included 45,X/46,XY mosaicism; androgen insensitivity syndrome; and 46,XY/iso(p)Y mosaicism. Individuals with such disorders of sexual differentiation and Y-chromosome material carry a very high risk of developing testicular neoplasms. Fetal testicular germ cells of the intersex subjects...... expressed Kit at a later developmental age than controls, in which no Kit protein was detectable beyond the 15th week of gestation. This finding may indicate a disturbance of the chronology of germ cell development, or it may suggest a change of the regulation of c-kit expression in subjects with disorders...

  15. Perceived Cost Advantages and Disadvantages of Purchasing HIV Self-Testing Kits among Urban Tanzanian Men: An Inductive Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Conserve, Donaldson F; Merrill, Jamison; Kajula, Lusajo; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Maman, Suzanne

    2017-08-01

    Impoverished men have lower rates of facility-based HIV counseling and testing and higher unknown HIV-positive status than women. Economic theory suggests that individuals will obtain an HIV test if anticipated benefits are greater than anticipated costs. Yet, few studies have investigated the range of financial preferences of HIV self-testing (HIVST) among poor men who decline testing or do not test regularly. Twenty-three interviews were conducted to qualitatively assess perceived costs saved and costs incurred from use of HIVST kits in infrequently- or never-tested Tanzanian men. All men were shown an HIVST kit and video. They were then asked about the costs associated with provider-led HIV testing, financial benefits and concerns of HIVST and willingness to pay for HIVST. Data were transcribed, coded and analyzed using inductive content analyses. We then grouped codes into perceived cost advantages and disadvantages and tabulated the range of prices men were willing to pay for a self-test kit. Perceived cost advantages of HIVST were avoidance of spending money to test in facilities, omission of follow-up fees, affordability relative to private clinics, and increased time for earning income and other activities. Men also discussed the imbalance of the financial benefit of accessing free, public HIV testing with the resources spent for transport, purchasing meals away from home and long wait lines. Perceived cost disadvantages of HIVST were prohibitive kit costs, required prior savings to purchase kits, expenditures relating to death and preferences for free provider-performed testing. Men were also concerned about the psychological costs of inaccurate results. HIVST willingness to pay varied among men. Men's decisions to self-test for HIV takes into account expected financial gains and losses. Demand generation for HIVST among men should consider use of low fees or free HIVST, while emphasizing potential savings from reduced travel, clinical costs, or time way

  16. Preappointment testing for BRAF/KIT mutation in advanced melanoma: a model in molecular data delivery for individualized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounajjed, Taofic; Brown, Char L; Stern, Therese K; Bjorheim, Annette M; Bridgeman, Andrew J; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; McWilliams, Robert R; Flotte, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    The emergence of individualized medicine is driven by developments in precision diagnostics, epitomized by molecular testing. Because treatment decisions are being made based on such molecular data, data management is gaining major importance. Among data management challenges, creating workflow solutions for timely delivery of molecular data has become pivotal. This study aims to design and implement a scalable process that permits preappointment BRAF/KIT mutation analysis in melanoma patients, allowing molecular results necessary for treatment plans to be available before the patient's appointment. Process implementation aims to provide a model for efficient molecular data delivery for individualized medicine. We examined the existing process of BRAF/KIT testing in melanoma patients visiting our institution for oncology consultation. We created 5 working groups, each designing a specific segment of an alternative process that would allow preappointment BRAF/KIT testing and delivery of results. Data were captured and analyzed to evaluate the success of the alternative process. For 1 year, 35 (59%) of 55 patients had prior BRAF/KIT testing. The remaining 20 patients went through the new process of preappointment testing; results were available at the time of appointment for 12 patients (overall preappointment results availability, 85.5%). The overall process averaged 13.4 ± 4.7 days. In conclusion, we describe the successful implementation of a scalable workflow solution that permits preappointment BRAF/KIT mutation analysis and result delivery in melanoma patients. This sets the stage for further applications of this model to other conditions, answering an increasing demand for robust delivery of molecular data for individualized medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A new field test kit for the rapid determination of diesel fuel in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabron, J.F.; Niss, N.D.; Hart, B.K.; Hart, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    A new test kit is available for evaluating diesel and other fuel contamination in soils. While the Freon extraction/infrared method estimates fuel concentration by measuring aliphatic C-H stretch, approaches designed to replace this such as the immunoassay method and the method involving a Fridel-Crafts alkylation reaction measure the aromatic component of fuel mixtures. Both of these methods measure aromatic content indirectly with visible color development. The new method measures the aromatic components directly with a 254 nm portable field photometer. The method is very simple since it does not involve complicated color development steps, and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. It involves a 3-minute extraction of soil with a 10:1 ratio of isopropyl alcohol. Prior to extraction, the soil is treated with an agent to minimize the extraction of humic materials which can interfere. The extract solution is passed through a syringe filter and the absorbance is read at 254 nm. The fuel concentration is calculated based on average relative response factors. Alternatively, the actual contaminant fuel can be used as a standard if it is known. The quantitation limit is about 75 mg/kg diesel in soil. The method has been tested with a variety of soils and fuel types

  18. Inventions leading to the development of the diagnostic test kit industry--from the modern pregnancy test to the sandwich assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wide, Leif

    2005-01-01

    The universities are encouraged by the government nowadays to stimulate innovations and also to provide the proper machinery for assisting the protection and commercialisation of innovations. A better understanding of the innovation process may help to create an atmosphere suitable for inventions at the university. Examples can be taken from successful innovations previously made at the university. During the 1960's I made a series of inventions, which ultimately led to the development of the diagnostic test kit industry. The first, which I made as an undergraduate, was a simple and reliable test kit for diagnosis of pregnancy. This was followed by the solid phase radioimmunoassay and a solid phase assay for vitamin B12; next, the dual specific non-competitive sandwich assay and the in-vitro test for diagnosis of allergy, called RAST (Radioallergosorbent test). Organon in Holland with the pregnancy test kit, and Pharmacia in Sweden with test kits for radioimmunoassay, became pioneers among the diagnostic test kit industries. Pharmacia Diagnostics later became one of the leading diagnostic test kit companies in the world and has continued to be so in the field of allergy diagnosis. Each one of these inventions started with a few unique observations leading to a technical development. The pregnancy test as well as the allergy test emerged from the development of assay methods with unique qualities with the subsequent search for appropriate applications. The foreseeing of a commercial value on a future market was a very important step. This was followed by the search for a suitable industry interested to exploit the invention with its new business opportunity i.e. apply for a patent, produce and market the products, which in my case consisted of the necessary reagents and equipments for particular diagnostic tests. Finally, an agreement had to be settled between the entrepreneur and the inventors. This report describes these inventions and particularly discusses some

  19. Design of test kits for the RF characterization of the PAM antenna of LHCD system for Aditya-upgrade Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Yogesh M.; Sharma, P.K.; Parmar, P.R.; Ambulkar, K.K.

    2017-01-01

    The Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system of the ADITYA-Upgrade tokamak will employ a Passive Active Multijunction (PAM) antenna to launch 250 kW of RF power at 3.7 GHz to drive plasma current non inductively in the tokamak. To evaluate the RF performance of the designed PAM antenna, it is characterized with the help of VNA measurements. The performance of the PAM antenna is mainly decided by the integrated performance of the entire antenna (with a differential phase shift of 270° and equal power distribution between each of the output waveguides) and the performance of mode converter, which transforms input TE 10 mode to TE 30 mode (with a mode purity of 98.5% at the output). This poster thus reports the design and analysis of these testing kits. Also, the test results of PAM antenna obtained by using these test kits would also be presented and discussed in this poster

  20. Guided wave testing for touch point corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleyne, David

    2012-01-01

    Guided wave testing (GWT) is established in the petrochemical and related industries, primarily for the detection of corrosion flaws. Touch point corrosion at support positions in pipe-work has become a significant problem within many operating gas, chemical and petro-chemical plants world-wide, particularly as a high proportion of these plants have been operational for many decades. This article demonstrates how GWT using guided waves sent axially along the pipe can be performed for the detection and accurate classification of touchpoint corrosion. The major advantage of GWT methods for the detection of touch point corrosion is its ability to examine several support positions from a single easy to access transducer position. The strategy is then to prioritize or rank the condition of the pipe at the supports by removing those with negligible wall loss from scheduling for further inspection. Guided waves are accurate at detecting and classifying corrosion patches at support positions, but deep pits within such patches are more difficult to accurately identify. Examples using data from routine inspection testing are used to support the development of the methods and testing approaches presented. Recent developments of the interpretation methods, testing procedures and calibration methods have significantly enhanced the capabilities of GWT for this important application.

  1. Benchmarking Tool Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Health Libraries Association.

    Nine Canadian health libraries participated in a pilot test of the Benchmarking Tool Kit between January and April, 1998. Although the Tool Kit was designed specifically for health libraries, the content and approach are useful to other types of libraries as well. Used to its full potential, benchmarking can provide a common measuring stick to…

  2. Optimal time-point for 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT imaging in assessment of prostate cancer: feasibility of sterile cold-kit tracer preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Mohsen; Paymani, Zeinab; Brilhante, Joana; Geinitz, Hans; Gehring, Daniela; Leopoldseder, Thomas; Wouters, Ludovic; Pirich, Christian; Loidl, Wolfgang; Langsteger, Werner

    2018-07-01

    In this prospective study, we evaluated the optimal time-point for 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT acquisition in the assessment of prostate cancer. We also examined, for the first time the feasibility of tracer production using a PSMA-11 sterile cold-kit in the clinical workflow of PET/CT centres. Fifty prostate cancer patients (25 staging, 25 biochemical recurrence) were enrolled in this study. All patients received an intravenous dose of 2.0 MBq/kg body weight 68 Ga-PSMA-11 prepared using a sterile cold kit (ANMI SA, Liege, Belgium), followed by an early (20 min after injection) semi-whole-body PET/CT scan and a standard-delay (100 min after injection) abdominopelvic PET/CT scan. The detection rates with 68 Ga-PSMA-11 were compared between the two acquisitions. The pattern of physiological background activity and tumour to background ratio were also analysed. The total preparation time was reduced to 5 min using the PSMA-11 sterile cold kit, which improved the final radionuclide activity by about 30% per single 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator elution. Overall, 158 pathological lesions were analysed in 45 patients (90%) suggestive of malignancy on both (early and standard-delay) 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT images. There was a significant (p PET/CT imaging seems to provide a detection rate comparable with that of standard-delay imaging. Furthermore, the shorter preparation time using the 68 Ga-PSMA-11 sterile cold kit and promising value of early PET/CT scanning could allow tailoring of imaging protocols which may reduce the costs and improve the time efficiency in PET/CT centres.

  3. QUENCH-LOCA program at KIT and results of the QUENCH-L0 bundle test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuckert, J.; Grosse, M.; Roessger, C.; Steinbrueck, M.; Walter, M.

    2012-01-01

    of Technology (KIT) in the QUENCH facility. Compared to single-rod experiments, bundle tests have the advantage of studying the mutual interference of rod ballooning among fuel rod simulators as well as the local coolant channel blockages in a more realistic arrangement. The program was started in 2010 with the QUENCH-L0 scoping test used 21 heated rods with as-received Zry-4 claddings. Then advanced claddings (Duplex D4, M5 registered , ZIRLO trademark) will be used. (orig.)

  4. QUENCH-LOCA program at KIT and results of the QUENCH-L0 bundle test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuckert, J.; Grosse, M.; Roessger, C.; Steinbrueck, M.; Walter, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in the QUENCH facility. Compared to single-rod experiments, bundle tests have the advantage of studying the mutual interference of rod ballooning among fuel rod simulators as well as the local coolant channel blockages in a more realistic arrangement. The program was started in 2010 with the QUENCH-L0 scoping test used 21 heated rods with as-received Zry-4 claddings. Then advanced claddings (Duplex D4, M5 {sup registered}, ZIRLO trademark) will be used. (orig.)

  5. [Utilization of self-sampling kits for HPV testing in cervical cancer screening - pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondryášová, H; Koudeláková, V; Drábek, J; Vaněk, P; Slavkovský, R; Hajdúch, M

    2015-12-01

    To get initial experience with alternative sampling (self-sampling) for HPV testing as the means of cervical cancer screening program. Original work. Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University in Olomouc. Based on expression of interest, 215 self-sampling kits were posted to women. Evalyn(®) Brush Vaginal swabs obtained by self-sampling were analyzed for the presence of HPV infection by Cobas 4800 HPV (Roche) followed by genotyping using PapilloCheck(®) HPV-Screening (Greiner Bio-One). Sixty women randomly chosen from our sample were sent a questionnaire focused on their experience with self-sampling. One hundred seventy-four of 215 (81%) distributed self-sampling devices have been delivered to analysis. All cervicovaginal swabs were sampled correctly and it was possible to analyze them by Cobas 4800 HPV test. Similarly, 98% (171/174) samples were analyzable by PapilloCheck(®) HPV-Screening.One hundred twenty-five (72%) of 174 tested samples were HPV negative. Low risk HPV infection was detected only in 7 samples (4%), and high risk HPV (hrHPV) infection was present in 42 samples (24%). The most frequently detected hrHPV genotypes were HPV16 (11/42; 26%) and HPV53 (6/42; 14%). HrHPV co-infection was detected in 10 cases, in 5 of them lrHPV infection was find also.Of the 60 questionnaires, 48 (80%) were returned. From this group, 47 (98%) women rated their experience with self-sampling device as good to excellent. User manual of self-sampling device was considered good to excellent by all women (100%). All women also rated the convenience of self-sampling device using as good to excellent. As expected, most of the women (n = 42 [88%]) preferred self-sampling to physician sampling. Cervicovaginal self-sampling leads to valid results of HPV screening using two molecular genetics methods and was accepted by Czech women very well. The self-sampling as an opportunity to participate in cervical cancer

  6. Efficacy of a chairside diagnostic test kit for estimation of C-reactive protein levels in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarale, Girish; Ravindra, S; Thakur, Srinath; Setty, Swati

    2010-10-01

    C-reactive protein [CRP] levels increase to hundreds of mg/mL within hours following infection. Studies have shown that serum CRP levels were elevated in periodontal disease. However, in all the previous studies, CRP levels were measured by using high-sensitivity CRP assay kits with minimal detection limits of 0.1 to 3 mg/L, which was much below the normal value of 10 mg/L. These high-sensitivity CRP assays need a proper laboratory setup, and these methods cannot be used as a routine chair-side test in the dental office. The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum CRP levels in subjects with periodontal disease by using a rapid chair-side diagnostic test kit with a lower detection limit of 6 mg/L and to compare the CRP levels before and after periodontal therapy. A total of 45 systemically healthy subjects were selected for the study. Subjects were divided into three groups: group A: healthy controls, group B: gingivitis, group C: periodontitis. Serum levels of CRP were determined by using a latex slide agglutination method with commercially available kit with lower detection limit of 6 mg/L. CRP was negative in all the 15 subjects in groups A and B at baseline, 7th and 30th day. CRP was positive only in 2 subjects in Group C at baseline and 7th day. Estimation of serum CRP by using a rapid chair-side diagnostic test kit is not of any significance in subjects with periodontitis.

  7. Dry Kit Development And Clinical Test Of 99mTc-L,L-ECD Radiopharmaceutical For Vrain Perfusion Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, Nani; Sofyan, Rohestri; Rukmini; Iswahyudi

    2000-01-01

    Technetium- 99m ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-L,L-ECD) has been synthesized and formulated based on ligand exchanged reaction with 99mTc-glucoheptonate. Considering the low stability of the dry kit produced, it was fairly necessary to develop the manufacture of L,L-ECD dry kit in order to obtain a more stable one that meet the requirements as brain perfusion imaging radiopharmaceutical. Experiment was done by modifying the packing of dry kit components of the previous formulation. Characteristics of 99m Tc-L,L-ECD produced from this formulation were studied by carrying out the sterility and toxicity test, then followed with clinical test to some volunteers. Evaluation of brain perfusion was done by tomography technique using gamma camera at Nuclear Medicine Installation, Hasan Sadikin Hospital. The modified formulation obtained consist of three components i.e. main ligand L,L-ECD; exchange ligand Ca-glucoheptonate and HaOH. Its stability could reach 8 months at-10 derajat C of storage. Effects of toxicity on mice did not appear. The result of clinical study shows that the radiopharmaceutical was distributed very rapidly in the blood brain circulations and retained in the brain for about one hour. The body scanning indicates that the substance was excreted in the brain for about one hour. The body scanning indicates that the substance was excreted though kidney, liver and spleen. Based on the results obtained the radiopharmaceutical could be promoted to be used for brain perfusion imaging

  8. Point-of-Care Testing: General Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carlos E S; Guerra, Joao C C; Slhessarenko, Natasha; Scartezini, Marileia; Franca, Carolina N; Colombini, Marjorie P; Berlitz, Fernando; Machado, Antonia M O; Campana, Gustavo A; Faulhaber, Adriana C L; Galoro, Cesar A; Dias, Claudia M; Shcolnik, Wilson; Martino, Marines D V; Cesar, Katia R; Sumita, Nairo M; Mendes, Maria E; Faulhaber, Marcelo H W; Pinho, Joao R R; Barbosa, Ismar V; Batista, Marcelo C; Khawali, Cristina; Pariz, Vitor M; Andriolo, Adagmar

    2018-01-01

    Point-of-Care Testing (POCT) has been highlighted in the health care sector in recent decades. On the other hand, due to its low demand, POCT is at a disadvantage compared to conventional equipment, since its cost is inversely proportional to the volume of use. In addition, for the implementation of POCT to succeed, it is essential to rely on the work of a multidisciplinary team. The awareness of health professionals of the importance of each step is perhaps the critical success factor. The trend towards the continuous advancement of the use of POCT and the great potential of its contributions reinforce the need to implement quality management tools, including performance indicators, to ensure their results. This review presents some advantages and disadvantages concerning POCT and the real need to use it. A worldwide call for the availability of easy-to-use health technologies that are increasingly closer to the final user is one of the main reasons for this focus.

  9. Evaluation of microcystin contamination in blue-green algal dietary supplements using a protein phosphatase inhibition-based test kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsan, David W; Conrad, Stephen M; Stutts, Whitney L; Parker, Christine H; Deeds, Jonathan R

    2018-03-01

    The cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA), from Upper-Klamath Lake, Oregon, are used to produce blue-green algal (BGA) dietary supplements. The periodic co-occurrence of hepatotoxin-producing contaminant species prompted the Oregon Health Division to establish a limit of 1 μg/g microcystin (MC) for products sold in Oregon in 1997. At the federal level, the current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations for dietary supplements require manufacturers establish a specification, and test, for limits on contaminants that may adulterate finished products. Despite this, several previous international surveys reported MC in BGA supplements in excess of 1 μg/g. The objectives of this study were (1) identify a reliable, easy to use test kit for the detection of MC in dried BGA materials and (2) use this kit to assess the occurrence of MC contamination in AFA-BGA dietary supplements in the U.S. A commercial protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), based on the enzyme PP2A, was found to have acceptable relative enzyme inhibition and accuracy for the majority of MC variants tested, including those most commonly identified in commercial samples, making the kit fit for purpose. Using the PPIA kit, 51% (26 of 51) distinct AFA-BGA products had MC ≥0.25 μg/g (the detection limit of the kit), 10 products had MC concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 μg/g, and 4 products exceeded the limit (1.1-2.8 μg/g). LC-MS/MS confirmed PPIA results ≥0.5 μg/g and determined that MC-LA and MC-LR were the main congeners present. PPIA is a reliable method for the detection of MC contamination in dried BGA dietary supplements produced in the U.S. While the majority of AFA-BGA products contained ≥0.25 μg/g MC, most were at or below 1.0 μg/g, suggesting that manufacturers have adopted this level as a specification in these products; however, variability in recommended serving sizes prevented further analysis of consumer exposure based on the concentrations of MC

  10. Evaluation of microcystin contamination in blue-green algal dietary supplements using a protein phosphatase inhibition-based test kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Marsan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA, from Upper-Klamath Lake, Oregon, are used to produce blue-green algal (BGA dietary supplements. The periodic co-occurrence of hepatotoxin-producing contaminant species prompted the Oregon Health Division to establish a limit of 1 μg/g microcystin (MC for products sold in Oregon in 1997. At the federal level, the current good manufacturing practice (CGMP regulations for dietary supplements require manufacturers establish a specification, and test, for limits on contaminants that may adulterate finished products. Despite this, several previous international surveys reported MC in BGA supplements in excess of 1 μg/g. The objectives of this study were (1 identify a reliable, easy to use test kit for the detection of MC in dried BGA materials and (2 use this kit to assess the occurrence of MC contamination in AFA-BGA dietary supplements in the U.S. A commercial protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA, based on the enzyme PP2A, was found to have acceptable relative enzyme inhibition and accuracy for the majority of MC variants tested, including those most commonly identified in commercial samples, making the kit fit for purpose. Using the PPIA kit, 51% (26 of 51 distinct AFA-BGA products had MC ≥0.25 μg/g (the detection limit of the kit, 10 products had MC concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 μg/g, and 4 products exceeded the limit (1.1–2.8 μg/g. LC-MS/MS confirmed PPIA results ≥0.5 μg/g and determined that MC-LA and MC-LR were the main congeners present. PPIA is a reliable method for the detection of MC contamination in dried BGA dietary supplements produced in the U.S. While the majority of AFA-BGA products contained ≥0.25 μg/g MC, most were at or below 1.0 μg/g, suggesting that manufacturers have adopted this level as a specification in these products; however, variability in recommended serving sizes prevented further analysis of consumer exposure based on the concentrations of MC

  11. Preparation of phase I of clinical testing of kit for bleomycin labelling with 57Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brousil, J.; Svihovcova, P.; Seblova, J.; Raban, P.

    1986-01-01

    Experience is described gained in preclinical trials with a kit for bleomycin labelling with 57 Co, of original manufacture. The 57 Co-labelled bleomycin shows a positive tumor imaging potential. As against other labelled bleomycins described in the literature, it best meets the requirements of imaging tumors in the highest possible number of tissues and of good differentiation of tumors from the adjacent tissues. The three-component kit uses a phosphate buffer which makes it more suitable for i.v. administration and significantly increases bleomycin stability. The kit was found to show advantages over previously described radiopharmaceuticals of this type in that that it can quickly be reconstituted immediately prior to the application and that it is significantly cheaper to use, namely 140-fold cheaper than most other similar radiopharmaceuticals. Its disadvantage, i.e., the long half-life is balanced with a short biological half-life; within 24 hours following application 80 to 90% of the applied activity was found to be excreted from the organism. The short biological half-life is also beneficial for the patient in that the radiation load of the patient is 10 times lower than in the application of 67 Ga. (L.O.)

  12. [The comparison of two newborn cytomegalovirus IgG antibody screening ELISA kits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-Xian; He, Xiao-Zhou; Wang, Shi-Wen; Wang, Xiao-Fang

    2013-10-01

    This study compared two newborn Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG antibody screening ELISA kits and evaluated the detection effectiveness of Abnova kit. CMV IgG antibodies were detected by both SeraQuest and Abnova kits from dried blood spot (DBS) samples of 488 newborn heel sticks. The detection abilities of these two kits were compared in different sample dilution concentrations. Relative detection effectiveness of the Abnova kit was defined by statistical method using the SeraQuest kit as a point of comparison. Compared to the SeraQuest screening test kit, the Abnova kit revealed a sensitivity of 98.9%, specificity of 78.6%, positive predictive value of 99.3%, negative predictive value of 68.8%, and the coincidence rate for these two screening test kits at 98.3%. The consistency check of both kits based on interpretation of the kappa statistic was relatively good. For the Abnova kit, the "area under the ROC curve" was 0.887, which indicates moderate accuracy. Abnova kit can be applied to newborn screening for congenital CMV infections. However, repeating the test for ambiguous results is suggested to increase the specificity and negative predictive value.

  13. Nationwide study of factors associated with public’s willingness to use home self-test kit for dengue fever in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Wong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As there is no specific treatment for dengue, early detection and access to proper treatment may lower dengue fatality. Therefore, having new techniques for the early detection of dengue fever, such as the use of dengue test kit, is vitally important. The aims of the study were: 1 identify factors associated with acceptance of a home self-test kit for dengue fever if the dengue test is available to the public and 2 find out the characteristics of the test kits that influence the use of the dengue test kit. Methods A national telephone survey was carried out with 2,512 individuals of the Malaysian public aged 18–60 years old. Individuals were contacted by random digit dialling covering the whole of Malaysia from February 2012 to June 2013. Results From 2,512 participants, 6.1 % reported to have heard of the availability of the dengue home test kit and of these, 44.8 % expressed their intention to use the test kit if it was available. Multivariate logistic regressions indicated that participants with primary (OR: 0.65; 95 % CI: 0.43–0.89; p = 0.02, vs. tertiary educational level and secondary educational levels (OR: 0.73; 95 % CI: 0.57–0.90; p = 0.01, vs. tertiary educational level were less likely than participants with a tertiary educational level to use a home self-testing dengue kit for dengue if the kit was available. Participants with lower perceived barriers to dengue prevention (level of barriers 0–5 were less likely (OR: 0.67, 95 % CI: 0.53–0.85, p < 0.001, vs. higher perceived barriers to use a home self-testing dengue kit for dengue if the kit was available compared to those with higher perceived barriers to dengue prevention (level of barriers 6-10. Participants with a lower total dengue fever knowledge score (range 0–22 were also less likely to use a home self-testing dengue kit for dengue if the kit was available (OR: 0.75; 95 % CI: 0.61–0.91, p = 0.001, vs. higher total dengue

  14. A new paradigm for Aedes spp. surveillance using gravid ovipositing sticky trap and NS1 antigen test kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sai Ming; Chua, Tock H; Sulaiman, Wan-Yussof; Joanne, Sylvia; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Chinna, Karuthan; Venugopalan, Balan; Vythilingam, Indra

    2017-03-21

    Dengue remains a serious public health problem in Southeast Asia and has increased 37-fold in Malaysia compared to decades ago. New strategies are urgently needed for early detection and control of dengue epidemics. We conducted a two year study in a high human density dengue-endemic urban area in Selangor, where Gravid Ovipositing Sticky (GOS) traps were set up to capture adult Aedes spp. mosquitoes. All Aedes mosquitoes were tested using the NS1 dengue antigen test kit. All dengue cases from the study site notified to the State Health Department were recorded. Weekly microclimatic temperature, relative humidity (RH) and rainfall were monitored. Aedes aegypti was the predominant mosquito (95.6%) caught in GOS traps and 23% (43/187 pools of 5 mosquitoes each) were found to be positive for dengue using the NS1 antigen kit. Confirmed cases of dengue were observed with a lag of one week after positive Ae. aegypti were detected. Aedes aegypti density as analysed by distributed lag non-linear models, will increase lag of 2-3 weeks for temperature increase from 28 to 30 °C; and lag of three weeks for increased rainfall. Proactive strategy is needed for dengue vector surveillance programme. One method would be to use the GOS trap which is simple to setup, cost effective (below USD 1 per trap) and environmental friendly (i.e. use recyclable plastic materials) to capture Ae. aegypti followed by a rapid method of detecting of dengue virus using the NS1 dengue antigen kit. Control measures should be initiated when positive mosquitoes are detected.

  15. Collimator kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    A collimator kit having a number of parts which may be assembled in various combinations to provide focusing collimators with different performance characteristics for radioisotope imaging apparatus is described

  16. Ex post and ex ante willingness to pay (WTP) for the ICT Malaria Pf/Pv test kit in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho-Min-Naing; Lertmaharit, S; Kamol-Ratanakul, P; Saul, A J

    2000-03-01

    Willingness to pay (WTP) for the ICT Malaria Pf/Pv test kit was assessed by the contingent valuation method using a bidding game approach in two villages in Myanmar. Kankone (KK) village has a rural health center (RHC) and Yae-Aye-Sann (YAS) is serviced by community health worker (CHW). The objectives were to assess WTP for the ICT Malaria Pf/Pv test kit and to determine factors affecting the WTP. In both villages WTP was assessed in two different conditions, ex post and ex ante. The ex post WTP was assessed at an RHC in the KK village and at the residence of a CHW in the YAS village on patients immediately following diagnosis of malaria. The ex ante WTP was assessed by household interviews in both villages on people with a prior history of malaria. Ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regression analysis was used to analyze factors affecting WTP. The WTP was higher in ex post conditions than ex ante in both villages. WTP was significantly positively associated with the average monthly income of the respondents and severity of illness in both ex post and ex ante conditions (p WTP (p < 0.05) in the ex post condition in the RHC survey in KK village.

  17. LANL12-RS-108J Report on Device Modeler Testing of the Device Modeler Tool Kit. DMTK in FY14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, Brian Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pimentel, David A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-28

    This document covers the various testing and modifications of the Device Modeler Tool Kit (DMTK) for project LANL12-RS-108J in FY14. The testing has been comprised of different device modelers and trainees for device modeling using DMTK on the secure network for a few test problems. Most of these problems have been synthetic data problems. There has been a local secure network training drill where one of the trainees has used DMTK for real data. DMTK has also been used on a laptop for a deployed real data training drill. Once DMTK gets into the home team, it will be used for more training drills (TDs) which will contain real data in the future.

  18. eTEST: Developing a Smart Home HIV Testing Kit that Enables Active, Real-Time Follow-Up and Referral After Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Tyler; Chan, Philip A; Simpanen, Erik; Operario, Don

    2017-05-08

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group at highest risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States, but many do not test as frequently as recommended. Home-based self-testing (HBST) for HIV holds promise for promoting regular testing among these individuals, but currently available HBSTs have limited follow-up options, providing only a 1-800 number that participants can call. Failure to actively conduct follow-up counseling and referrals after HBST use could result in delays in seeking confirmatory testing and care among users receiving reactive (preliminary positive) test results. HBST also fails to connect users who test negative with other prevention services that can reduce their future risk for HIV. The aim of our study was to use qualitative research methods with high-risk MSM to inform development of a "smart" HBST kit. The kit utilizes existing Internet-of-Things (IoT) technologies to monitor HBST use in real-time and enable delivery of timely, active follow-up counseling and referrals over the phone. In phase 1, individual interviews (n=10) explored how participants might use HBST and their views and preferences for conducting counseling and referral after HBST. Based on these perspectives, we developed a smartphone app (iOS, Android) that uses data from light sensors on Bluetooth low energy (BLE) beacons to monitor when HBST kits are opened, facilitating timely follow-up phone contact with users. In phase 2, a usability study conducted among high-risk MSM (n=10) examined the acceptability and feasibility of this system and provided user perspectives after using the system along with HBST. Phase 1 themes suggested that MSM preferred HBST, that most thought active follow-up after HBST would be valuable, and that doing so over the phone within 24 h after testing was preferable. Phase 2 results showed that the eTEST system successfully detected HBST use in nearly all cases. Participant perspectives also suggested that the

  19. Development and testing of monoclonal antibody-based rapid immunodiagnostic test kits for direct detection of Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, J A; Huq, A; Nair, G B; Garg, S; Mukhopadhyay, A K; Loomis, L; Bernstein, D; Colwell, R R

    1995-11-01

    We report on the development and testing of two monoclonal antibody-based rapid immunodiagnostic test kits, BengalScreen, a coagglutination test, and Bengal DFA, a direct fluorescent-antibody test, for direct detection of Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym Bengal in clinical and environmental specimens. The BengalScreen test requires less than 5 min to complete and can be used in the field. Bengal DFA, being more sensitive than BengalScreen, requires only one reagent and less than 20 min for detection and enumeration of V. cholerae O139 synonym Bengal. In tests for specificity, all 40 strains of V. cholerae O139 reacted with both test kits, whereas 157 strains of heterologous species examined did not, yielding 100% specificity in this study. A field trial was conducted in with both BengalScreen and Bengal DFA, and the results were compared with those obtained by conventional culture methods. BengalScreen demonstrated a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 94%. Results obtained by Bengal DFA, on the other hand, were 100% sensitive and 100% specific and yielded 100% positive and negative predictive values compared with culture methods. In a second evaluation, 93 stool specimens from Mexico that were negative for V. cholerae O139 by culture were also tested with both the BengalScreen and Bengal DFA kits. None of the 93 specimens were positive for V. cholerae O139 by both tests. A concentration method was optimized for screening of environmental water samples for V. cholerae O139 synonym Bengal with rapid test kits. BengalScreen results were unequivocally positive when water samples contained at least 2.0 x 10(3) CFU/ml, whereas Bengal DFA demonstrated an unequivocally positive reaction when the water sample contained at least 1.5 x 10(2) CFU/ml. When Bengal DFA was compared with conventional culture methods for enumeration of V. cholerae O139 synonym Bengal organisms, no difference was observed.

  20. Correlates of requesting home HIV self-testing kits on online social networks among African-American and Latino men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, ChingChe J; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    High levels of HIV stigma are one of the main difficulties in engaging African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in HIV testing. The availability of home HIV test and the possibility of self-testing in private may improve uptake and counteract stigma. This paper sought to determine the correlates of requesting home HIV test kits among a sample of MSM social media users. The odds of participants requesting a test kit were significantly associated with using social networks to seek sexual partners (aOR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.07-6.06) and thinking it is easier to use social networks for seeking sexual partners (1.87, 1.2-3.12), uncertain HIV status (4.29, 1.37-14.4), and having sex under the influence of alcohol (2.46, 1.06-5.77). Participants who had not been tested for more than 6 months were more likely to request a test kit than those who were tested in the past 6 months (2.53, 1.02-6.37). Participants who frequently talked to others about having sex with men online were less likely to request a test kit (0.73, 0.56-0.92). By reaching people over social media and offering them access to test kits, we were able to reach at-risk individuals who were uncertain about their HIV status and had not been regularly tested. The findings of the study will help to inform future HIV testing interventions.

  1. Evaluation of the KEMRI Hep-cell II test kit for detection of hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the Hep-cell II test, blood samples were collected from blood donors and processed for detection of HBsAg using Hep-cell II based on the test principle and procedure outlined by the manufacturer. ELISA Axsym HBsAg test was used as golden standard. Of the 400 samples tested, 287 (71.8%) were positive by ...

  2. Self-sampling kits to increase HIV testing among black Africans in the UK: the HAUS mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Maureen; Dodds, Catherine; Mugweni, Esther; McDaid, Lisa; Flowers, Paul; Wayal, Sonali; Zomer, Ella; Weatherburn, Peter; Fakoya, Ibidun; Hartney, Thomas; McDonagh, Lorraine; Hunter, Rachael; Young, Ingrid; Khan, Shabana; Freemantle, Nick; Chwaula, Jabulani; Sachikonye, Memory; Anderson, Jane; Singh, Surinder; Nastouli, Eleni; Rait, Greta; Burns, Fiona

    2018-04-01

    Timely diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enables access to antiretroviral treatment, which reduces mortality, morbidity and further transmission in people living with HIV. In the UK, late diagnosis among black African people persists. Novel methods to enhance HIV testing in this population are needed. To develop a self-sampling kit (SSK) intervention to increase HIV testing among black Africans, using existing community and health-care settings (stage 1) and to assess the feasibility for a Phase III evaluation (stage 2). A two-stage, mixed-methods design. Stage 1 involved a systematic literature review, focus groups and interviews with key stakeholders and black Africans. Data obtained provided the theoretical base for intervention development and operationalisation. Stage 2 was a prospective, non-randomised study of a provider-initiated, HIV SSK distribution intervention targeted at black Africans. The intervention was assessed for cost-effectiveness. A process evaluation explored feasibility, acceptability and fidelity. Twelve general practices and three community settings in London. HIV SSK return rate. Stage 1 - the systematic review revealed support for HIV SSKs, but with scant evidence on their use and clinical effectiveness among black Africans. Although the qualitative findings supported SSK distribution in settings already used by black Africans, concerns were raised about the complexity of the SSK and the acceptability of targeting. These findings were used to develop a theoretically informed intervention. Stage 2 - of the 349 eligible people approached, 125 (35.8%) agreed to participate. Data from 119 were included in the analysis; 54.5% (65/119) of those who took a kit returned a sample; 83.1% of tests returned were HIV negative; and 16.9% were not processed, because of insufficient samples. Process evaluation showed the time pressures of the research process to be a significant barrier to feasibility. Other major barriers were

  3. Verification of ELISA Test Kits to Determine EDCs in Animal Feedlot Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    The key points discussed in this presentation are: (1) Climate change will very likely exacerbate the already stressed water supply in the U.S. Southeast, the only region that has experienced precipitation decline over >100 years; (2) The effect in precipitation change is locati...

  4. Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit (cFS Kit) will allow a small satellite or CubeSat developer to rapidly develop, deploy, test, and operate flight...

  5. Clinical evaluation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test with a sensitive immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Saeko; Demura, Reiko; Yamanaka, Yukako; Ishiwatari, Naoko; Jibiki, Kazuko; Odagiri, Emi; Demura, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test was performed using a commercially available immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit (RIA-gnost hTSH) in patients with endocrine diseases. The basal serum concentration of TSH ranged from 0.2 to 2.9 μU/ml in healthy subjects. The values for endocrine diseases, except for Graves' disease, were almost within the normal range. A significant increase in TSH values caused by TRH test was observed in females compared with males (4.4 - 24.7 μU/ml vs 4.1 - 12.3 μU/ml). In cases of Graves' disease, there was a good correlation between the basal TSH value and the response of TSH to TRH. However, in the other endocrine diseases, including acromegaly, prolactinoma, anorexia nervosa, Cushing syndrome, and hypopituitarism, the response of TSH to TRH did not necessarily correlated with the basal TSH value. TRH test would be of value in elucidating pathophysiologic features, as well as in accurately diagnosing secretion reserve of TSH. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Clinical evaluation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test with a sensitive immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Saeko; Demura, Reiko; Yamanaka, Yukako; Ishiwatari, Naoko; Jibiki, Kazuko; Odagiri, Emi; Demura, Hiroshi

    1987-10-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test was performed using a commercially available immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit (RIA-gnost hTSH) in patients with endocrine diseases. The basal serum concentration of TSH ranged from 0.2 to 2.9 ..mu..U/ml in healthy subjects. The values for endocrine diseases, except for Graves' disease, were almost within the normal range. A significant increase in TSH values caused by TRH test was observed in females compared with males (4.4 - 24.7 ..mu..U/ml vs 4.1 - 12.3 ..mu..U/ml). In cases of Graves' disease, there was a good correlation between the basal TSH value and the response of TSH to TRH. However, in the other endocrine diseases, including acromegaly, prolactinoma, anorexia nervosa, Cushing syndrome, and hypopituitarism, the response of TSH to TRH did not necessarily correlated with the basal TSH value. TRH test would be of value in elucidating pathophysiologic features, as well as in accurately diagnosing secretion reserve of TSH. (Namekawa, K.).

  7. Comparison of three commercial fecal calprotectin ELISA test kits used in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Bachmann Holmetoft, Ulla; Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fecal calprotectin is a noninvasive marker of intestinal inflammation used to distinguish between functional and organic bowel diseases and to evaluate disease activity among patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The goal of this study was to compare three different ELISA tests...... and 18 to 67 years, respectively. Disease activity in the patients was established using the following clinical activity indices: the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI), the Harvey Bradshaw Index (HBI) and the Modified Pouchitis Disease Activity Index (MPDAI). Three ELISA calprotectin tests...... (EK-CAL, CALPRO and HK325) were performed on fecal specimens and results compared. RESULTS: The CALPRO calprotectin ELISA test was shown to have the best specificity of 96% compared to the HK325 and the EK-CAL calprotectin ELISA tests with 28% specificity and 74% specificity, respectively...

  8. Evaluation of dengue NS1 antigen rapid tests and ELISA kits using clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhamoy Pal

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV infection can improve clinical outcomes by ensuring close follow-up, initiating appropriate supportive therapies and raising awareness to the potential of hemorrhage or shock. Non-structural glycoprotein-1 (NS1 has proven to be a useful biomarker for early diagnosis of dengue. A number of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs targeting NS1 antigen (Ag are now commercially available. Here we evaluated these tests using a well-characterized panel of clinical samples to determine their effectiveness for early diagnosis.Retrospective samples from South America were used to evaluate the following tests: (i "Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP" and (ii "Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag ELISA" (Bio-Rad, France, (iii "Dengue NS1 Detect Rapid Test (1st Generation" and (iv "DENV Detect NS1 ELISA" (InBios International, United States, (v "Panbio Dengue Early Rapid (1st generation" (vi "Panbio Dengue Early ELISA (2nd generation" and (vii "SD Bioline Dengue NS1 Ag Rapid Test" (Alere, United States. Overall, the sensitivity of the RDTs ranged from 71.9%-79.1% while the sensitivity of the ELISAs varied between 85.6-95.9%, using virus isolation as the reference method. Most tests had lower sensitivity for DENV-4 relative to the other three serotypes, were less sensitive in detecting secondary infections, and appeared to be most sensitive on Day 3-4 post symptom onset. The specificity of all evaluated tests ranged from 95%-100%.ELISAs had greater overall sensitivity than RDTs. In conjunction with other parameters, the performance data can help determine which dengue diagnostics should be used during the first few days of illness, when the patients are most likely to present to a clinic seeking care.

  9. '. . . if you bring the kit home, you [can] get time and test together with your partner': Pregnant women and male partners' perceptions regarding female partner-delivered HIV self-testing in Uganda - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovu, Joseph Kb; Buregyeya, Esther; Arinaitwe, Jim; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2017-11-01

    In 2015, the World Health Organization reported that more than 60 million people were tested for HIV in 122 low- and middle-income countries between 2010 and 2014. Despite this level of progress, over 40% of people living with HIV remain unaware of their HIV status. This calls for innovative approaches to improve uptake of HIV testing services, including use of HIV self-test (HIVST) kits. We conducted a cross-sectional, qualitative study to assess pregnant women and their male partners' perceptions regarding female partner-delivered HIVST kits. This study was conducted at two health facilities in Central Uganda between November and December 2015. Data were collected on pregnant women's willingness to take HIVST kits to their male partners and other household members using eight focus group discussions and 30 in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed following a thematic framework approach. Overall, pregnant women were willing to take HIVST kits to their partners and other household members, with the exception of their cowives. Male partners were willing to use HIVST kits brought by their female partners. Our findings suggest that secondary distribution of HIVST kits through female partners is acceptable and has the potential to improve male partner and household-member HIV testing.

  10. Effect of the presence of two commercial adsorbents in animal feed on Aflatoxin B1 determination by ELISA kit test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Masoero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid AFB1 detection method by ELISA kit test was used on feedstuff samples, and compared to an HPLC method, to verify if the presence of clay-adsorbent (SA could cause erroneous quantification of the toxin. Samples were obtained using two AFB1-contaminated feedstuffs (7.92 and 17.58 µg/kg for low and high contaminated feeds; LC and HC respectively, added either one of two commercial SAs (Atox® and Myco AD and three different inclusion doses (0, 10 and 20 g/kg, respectively for CTR, 1% and 2% doses. The HPLC and ELISA data were compared in CTR samples with a paired t-test. The AFB1 recoveries, performed with ELISA, were analysed as a completely randomized design using a 2×2×3 factorial arrangement. The ELISA method tended to underestimate the AFB1 concentrations with respect to the HPLC method, both in HC (P=0.050 and in LC (P<0.001 feedstuffs. A more drastic reduction (P<0.001 was observed when SAs were included in the two feedstuffs. In particular, Atox® determined an AFB1 recovery of 15,5% in HC and 7,6% in LC (1% dose and of 11,1% in HC and 8,4% in LC (2% dose. Less severe penalisation were observed when Myco AD was added to feeds.

  11. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST Kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl Test for Detecting Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Kemal; Albay, Ali; Simsek, Hulya; Sig, Ali Korhan; Guney, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test. The sensitivity and specificity values for the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit were both 100% for amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin (4 µg/mL), and ofloxacin; 100% and 95.3%, respectively, for capreomycin (10 µg/mL); and 85.7% and 100%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The sensitivity and specificity values for the GenoType MTBDRsl test to detect fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside/cyclic peptide resistance were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, for ofloxacin and 85.7% and 94.9%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The accuracy of the GenoType MTBDRsl assay for kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin was lower than that of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST. The BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl were successful in detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance. Preliminary results of the GenoType MTBDRsl are very valuable for early treatment decisions, but we still recommend additional BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit usage in the routine evaluation of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  12. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST Kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl Test for Detecting Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Kemal; Albay, Ali; Simsek, Hulya; Sig, Ali Korhan; Guney, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Materials and Methods: Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test. Results: The sensitivity and specificity values for the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit were both 100% for amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin (4 µg/mL), and ofloxacin; 100% and 95.3%, respectively, for capreomycin (10 µg/mL); and 85.7% and 100%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The sensitivity and specificity values for the GenoType MTBDRsl test to detect fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside/cyclic peptide resistance were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, for ofloxacin and 85.7% and 94.9%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The accuracy of the GenoType MTBDRsl assay for kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin was lower than that of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST. Conclusion: The BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl were successful in detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance. Preliminary results of the GenoType MTBDRsl are very valuable for early treatment decisions, but we still recommend additional BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit usage in the routine evaluation of drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:29123441

  13. Multiple Monte Carlo Testing with Applications in Spatial Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrkvička, Tomáš; Myllymäki, Mari; Hahn, Ute

    with a function as the test statistic, 3) several Monte Carlo tests with functions as test statistics. The rank test has correct (global) type I error in each case and it is accompanied with a p-value and with a graphical interpretation which shows which subtest or which distances of the used test function......(s) lead to the rejection at the prescribed significance level of the test. Examples of null hypothesis from point process and random set statistics are used to demonstrate the strength of the rank envelope test. The examples include goodness-of-fit test with several test functions, goodness-of-fit test...

  14. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit for Scrub Typhus with Improved Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Sungman; Premaratna, Ranjan; Selvaraj, Stephen; Park, Sang-Jin; Kim, Sora; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Min Soo; Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Kyung-Chan; Kwon, Soon-Hwan; Seo, Wonjun; Lee, Nam Taek; Kim, Seung-Han; Kang, Heui Keun; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2016-08-01

    Diagnosis of scrub typhus is challenging due to its more than twenty serotypes and the similar clinical symptoms with other acute febrile illnesses including leptospirosis, murine typhus and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Accuracy and rapidity of a diagnostic test to Orientia tsutsugamushi is an important step to diagnose this disease. To discriminate scrub typhus from other diseases, the improved ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was evaluated in Korea and Sri Lanka. The sensitivity at the base of each IgM and IgG indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) in Korean patients was 98.6% and 97.1%, and the specificity was 98.2% and 97.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for retrospective diagnosis at the base of IFA in Sri Lanka was 92.1% and 96.1%. ImmuneMed RDT was not reactive to any serum from seventeen diseases including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (n = 48), leptospirosis (n = 23), and murine typhus (n = 48). ImmuneMed RDT shows superior sensitivity (98.6% and 97.1%) compared with SD Bioline RDT (84.4% at IgM and 83.3% at IgG) in Korea. The retrospective diagnosis of ImmuneMed RDT exhibits 94.0% identity with enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using South India patient serum samples. These results suggest that this RDT can replace other diagnostic tests and is applicable for global diagnosis of scrub typhus. This rapid and accurate diagnosis will be beneficial for diagnosing and managing scrub typhus.

  15. Screening and Monitoring Coeliac Disease: Multicentre Trial of a New Serum Antibody Test Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Devine

    1994-01-01

    average interassay CV was 6.4% for IgA and 4.3% for IgG (n=3. By defining a positive te st as both IgA and IgG elevated, a sensitivity of 93% in untreated coeliacs (n=75 was observed. The corresponding specificities in healthy adults (n=130 and healthy children (n=77 were >99% and 100% respectively, while in patients with other gastrointestinal disorders (disease controls the specificity was 94% (n=129. The test was also useful in monitoring patients, with anti-gliadin IgA and IgG falling for up to a year after commencing a gluten-free diet (GFD (12 adults. In some patients however, antibody levels did not reach the normal cutpoint after many months on a GFD, which may reflect the patients ' poor adherence to their gluten free diet. The test was superior to the Pharmacia anti-gliadin ELISA, and should be useful as an aid to the diagnosis of coeliac disease, as well as in the follow-up of treated patients.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis and mortality impact estimation of scaling-up pregnancy test kits in Madagascar, Ethiopia and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Robert J; Audibert, Martine; Comfort, Alison B

    2017-07-01

    Cost-effective, innovative approaches are needed to accelerate progress towards ending preventable infant, child and maternal mortality. To inform policy decisions, we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of adding urine pregnancy test kits to the maternal and reproductive services package offered at the community level in Madagascar, Ethiopia and Malawi. We used a decision tree model to compare the intervention with the status quo for each country. We also completed single factor sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations with 10 000 iterations to generate the probability distribution of the estimates and uncertainty limits. Among a hypothetical cohort of 100 000 women of reproductive age, we estimate that over a 1-year period, the intervention would save 26, 35 and 48 lives in Madagascar, Ethiopia, and Malawi, respectively. The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) for the cost per life saved varies by country: $2311 [95% Uncertainty Interval (UI): $1699; $3454] in Madagascar; $2969 [UI: $2260; $5041] in Ethiopia and $1228 [UI: $918; $1777] in Malawi. This equates to an average cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted of $36.28, $47.95 and $21.92, respectively. Based on WHO criteria and a comparison with other maternal, newborn, and child health interventions, we conclude that the addition of urine pregnancy tests to an existing community health worker maternal and reproductive services package is highly cost-effective in all three countries. To optimize uptake of family planning and antenatal care services and, in turn, accelerate the reduction of mortality and DALYs, decision makers and program planners should consider adding urine pregnancy tests to the community-level package of services. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. On tests of randomness for spatial point patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doguwa, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    New tests of randomness for spatial point patterns are introduced. These test statistics are then compared in a power study with the existing alternatives. These results of the power study suggest that one of the tests proposed is extremely powerful against both aggregated and regular alternatives. (author). 9 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Business models & business cases for point-of-care testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A.J.; Meertens, L. O.; Sikkel, N.

    2016-01-01

    Point-Of-Care Testing (POCT) enables clinical tests at or near the patient, with test results that are available instantly or in a very short time frame, to assist caregivers with immediate diagnosis and/or clinical intervention. The goal of POCT is to provide accurate, reliable, fast, and

  19. Fixed Points on Abstract Structures without the Equality Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korovina, Margarita

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this talk is to present a study of definability properties of fixed points of effective operators on abstract structures without the equality test. The question of definability of fixed points of -operators on abstract structures with equality was first studied by Gandy, Barwise, Mosch...

  20. Point-of-Care Test Equipment for Flexible Laboratory Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Won Suk; Park, Jae Jun; Jin, Sung Moon; Ryew, Sung Moo; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol

    2014-08-01

    Blood tests are some of the core clinical laboratory tests for diagnosing patients. In hospitals, an automated process called total laboratory automation, which relies on a set of sophisticated equipment, is normally adopted for blood tests. Noting that the total laboratory automation system typically requires a large footprint and significant amount of power, slim and easy-to-move blood test equipment is necessary for specific demands such as emergency departments or small-size local clinics. In this article, we present a point-of-care test system that can provide flexibility and portability with low cost. First, the system components, including a reagent tray, dispensing module, microfluidic disk rotor, and photometry scanner, and their functions are explained. Then, a scheduler algorithm to provide a point-of-care test platform with an efficient test schedule to reduce test time is introduced. Finally, the results of diagnostic tests are presented to evaluate the system. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  1. Long-lived immunity to canine core vaccine antigens in UK dogs as assessed by an in-practice test kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killey, R; Mynors, C; Pearce, R; Nell, A; Prentis, A; Day, M J

    2018-01-01

    To determine the utility of an in-practice test kit to detect protective serum antibody against canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus type 2 in a sample of the UK dog population. Serum samples from 486 dogs, last vaccinated between less than 1 month and 124 months previously, were tested with the VacciCheck™ test kit for protective antibodies against distemper, adenovirus and parvovirus type 2. A high proportion of the dogs tested (93·6%) had protective antibody against all three of the core vaccine antigens: 95·7% of the dogs were seropositive against canine distemper virus, 97·3% against canine adenovirus and 98·5% against canine parvovirus type 2. The small number of dogs that were seronegative for one or more of the antigens (n = 31) may have had waning of previous serum antibody or may have been rare genetic non-responders to that specific antigen. UK veterinarians can be reassured that triennial revaccination of adult dogs with core vaccines provides long-lived protective immunity. In-practice serological test kits are a valuable tool for informing decision-making about canine core revaccination. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Nested-PCR and a new ELISA-based NovaLisa test kit for malaria diagnosis in an endemic area of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongdee, Pimwan; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Kuesap, Jiraporn; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-08-01

    Microscopy is considered as the gold standard for malaria diagnosis although its wide application is limited by the requirement of highly experienced microscopists. PCR and serological tests provide efficient diagnostic performance and have been applied for malaria diagnosis and research. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of nested PCR and a recently developed an ELISA-based new rapid diagnosis test (RDT), NovaLisa test kit, for diagnosis of malaria infection, using microscopic method as the gold standard. The performance of nested-PCR as a malaria diagnostic tool is excellent with respect to its high accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and ability to discriminate Plasmodium species. The sensitivity and specificity of nested-PCR compared with the microscopic method for detection of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and P. falciparum/P. vivax mixed infection were 71.4 vs 100%, 100 vs 98.7%, and 100 vs 95.0%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA-based NovaLisa test kit compared with the microscopic method for detection of Plasmodium genus were 89.0 vs 91.6%, respectively. NovaLisa test kit provided comparable diagnostic performance. Its relatively low cost, simplicity, and rapidity enables large scale field application.

  3. Testing of the BipiColombo Antenna Pointing Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Pablo; Barrio, Aingeru; Martin, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    BepiColombo is an ESA mission to Mercury, its planetary orbiter (MPO) has two antenna pointing mechanism, High gain antenna (HGA) pointing mechanism steers and points a large reflector which is integrated at system level by TAS-I Rome. Medium gain antenna (MGA) APM points a 1.5 m boom with a horn antenna. Both radiating elements are exposed to sun fluxes as high as 10 solar constants without protections.A previous paper [1] described the design and development process to solve the challenges of performing in harsh environment.. Current paper is focused on the testing process of the qualification units. Testing performance of antenna pointing mechanism in its specific environmental conditions has required special set-up and techniques. The process has provided valuable feedback on the design and the testing methods which have been included in the PFM design and tests.Some of the technologies and components were developed on dedicated items priort to EQM, but once integrated, test behaviour had relevant differences.Some of the major concerns for the APM testing are:- Create during the thermal vacuum testing the qualification temperature map with gradients along the APM. From of 200oC to 70oC.- Test in that conditions the radio frequency and pointing performances adding also high RF power to check the power handling and self-heating of the rotary joint.- Test in life up to 12000 equivalent APM revolutions, that is 14.3 million motor revolutions in different thermal conditions.- Measure low thermal distortion of the mechanical chain, being at the same time insulated from external environment and interfaces (55 arcsec pointing error)- Perform deployment of large items guaranteeing during the process low humidity, below 5% to protect dry lubrication- Verify stability with representative inertia of large boom or reflector 20 Kgm2.

  4. A smartphone-based system for the automated management of point-of-care test results in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dasom; Shin, Soo-Yong; Seo, Dong-Woo; Joo, Segyeong; Huh, Soo-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Managing test results is an important issue in hospitals because of the increasing use of point-of-care testing (POCT). Here, we propose a smartphone-based system for automatically managing POCT test results. We developed the system to provide convenience to the medical staffs. The system recognizes the patient identification or prescription number of the test by reading barcodes and provides a countdown to indicate when the results will be ready. When the countdown in finished, a picture of the test result is transferred to the electronic medical record server using the Health Level 7 protocol. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) kits were selected in this research because HIV is a life-threatening infectious virus, especially for the medical staff who treat undiagnosed patients. The performance of the system was verified from a survey of the users. The performance of the system was tested at the emergency room (ER) for 10 months using commercially available POCT kits for detecting HIV. The survey showed that, in total, 80% and 0% of users reported positive or negative feedback, respectively. The staff also reported that the system reduced total processing time by approximately 32 min, in addition to reducing workload. The developed automated management system was successfully tested at an ER for 10 months. The survey results show that the system is effective and that medical staff members who used the system are satisfied with using the system at the ER.

  5. Point of Care Testing Services Delivery: Policy Analysis using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Biomedical Sciences ... The service providers (hospital management) and the testing personnel are faced with the task of trying to explain these problems. Objective of the study: To critically do a policy analysis of the problems of point of care testing with the aim of identifying the causes of these problems and ...

  6. Fixed Points on the Real numbers without the Equality Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korovina, Margarita

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of definability properties of fixed points of effective operators on the real numbers without the equality test. In particular we prove that Gandy theorem holds for the reals without the equality test. This provides a useful tool for dealing with recursive...

  7. Evaluation of two commercial, rapid, ELISA kits testing or scrapie in retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kittelberger, R.; McIntuyre, L.; Watts, S.; MacDiarmid, S.; Hannah, M.J.; Jenner, J.; Bueno, R.; Swainsbury, R.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Keulen, van L.J.M.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Wemheuer, W.M.; Richt, J.A.; Sorenson, S.J.; Pigott, C.J.; O'Keefe, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the number of cases of scrapie that would occur in sheep of different prion protein (PrP) genotypes if scrapie was to become established in New Zealand, and to compare the performance of two commercially available, rapid ELISA kits using ovine retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN)

  8. Using Spare Logic Resources To Create Dynamic Test Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Richard; Kleyner, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A technique has been devised to enable creation of a dynamic set of test points in an embedded digital electronic system. As a result, electronics contained in an application specific circuit [e.g., gate array, field programmable gate array (FPGA)] can be internally probed, even when contained in a closed housing during all phases of test. In the present technique, the test points are not fixed and limited to a small number; the number of test points can vastly exceed the number of buffers or pins, resulting in a compact footprint. Test points are selected by means of spare logic resources within the ASIC(s) and/or FPGA(s). A register is programmed with a command, which is used to select the signals that are sent off-chip and out of the housing for monitoring by test engineers and external test equipment. The register can be commanded by any suitable means: for example, it could be commanded through a command port that would normally be used in the operation of the system. In the original application of the technique, commanding of the register is performed via a MIL-STD-1553B communication subsystem.

  9. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Laboratory; Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Laboratory; Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Laboratory; Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Laboratory; Kinsey, James Carl [Idaho National Laboratory; Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Laboratory; Kumar, Akansha [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-04-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200 MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched UCO fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technological readiness level, licensing approach and costs.

  10. OFF-Stagnation point testing in plasma facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladegut, A.; Chazot, O.

    2015-06-01

    Reentry space vehicles face extreme conditions of heat flux when interacting with the atmosphere at hypersonic velocities. Stagnation point heat flux is normally used as a reference for Thermal Protection Material (TPS) design; however, many critical phenomena also occur at off-stagnation point. This paper adresses the implementation of an offstagnation point methodology able to duplicate in ground facility the hypersonic boundary layer over a flat plate model. The first analysis using two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations is carried out to understand the limitations of this methodology when applying it in plasma wind tunnel. The results from the testing campaign at VKI Plasmatron are also presented.

  11. Risk Management for Point-of-Care Testing

    OpenAIRE

    James, H. Nichols

    2014-01-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) is growing in popularity, and with this growth comes an increased chance of errors. Risk management is a way to reduce errors. Originally developed for the manufacturing industry, risk management principles have application for improving the quality of test results in the clinical laboratory. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), EP23-A Laboratory Quality Control based on Risk Management guideline, introduces risk management to the clinical labor...

  12. Towards Automatic Testing of Reference Point Based Interactive Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ojalehto, Vesa; Podkopaev, Dmitry; Miettinen, Kaisa

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand strengths and weaknesses of optimization algorithms, it is important to have access to different types of test problems, well defined performance indicators and analysis tools. Such tools are widely available for testing evolutionary multiobjective optimization algorithms. To our knowledge, there do not exist tools for analyzing the performance of interactive multiobjective optimization methods based on the reference point approach to communicating ...

  13. Performance testing of 3D point cloud software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-González, M.; González-Jorge, H.; Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.

    2013-10-01

    LiDAR systems are being used widely in recent years for many applications in the engineering field: civil engineering, cultural heritage, mining, industry and environmental engineering. One of the most important limitations of this technology is the large computational requirements involved in data processing, especially for large mobile LiDAR datasets. Several software solutions for data managing are available in the market, including open source suites, however, users often unknown methodologies to verify their performance properly. In this work a methodology for LiDAR software performance testing is presented and four different suites are studied: QT Modeler, VR Mesh, AutoCAD 3D Civil and the Point Cloud Library running in software developed at the University of Vigo (SITEGI). The software based on the Point Cloud Library shows better results in the loading time of the point clouds and CPU usage. However, it is not as strong as commercial suites in working set and commit size tests.

  14. Parametric change point estimation, testing and confidence interval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many applications like finance, industry and medicine, it is important to consider that the model parameters may undergo changes at unknown moment in time. This paper deals with estimation, testing and confidence interval of a change point for a univariate variable which is assumed to be normally distributed. To detect ...

  15. The development of new diagnostic test-systems and improvement of the existed radio immunochemical kits in the industrial production conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukayumov, A.M.

    2002-04-01

    The highly effective method had been developed for HBsAg preparing and purification that allowed to use as the raw material a plasma of donors with low content of the target product and based on the application of the stepped fractionation by Ammonium Sulphate and affinity chromatography. The use efficiency of the produced HBsAg preparations had been shown for laboratory animals immunization with the purpose of antiserum production that was the intermediate product for component manufacture needed for high sensitive kit creation; for preparation of affinity immunosorbent with the purpose of highly specific anti-HBs preparing. The method had been developed for production of anti-HBs preparations with standard immunoreactivity from donkey serum by means of specific antibodies fractionation on affinity immunosorbent. The work was done to finish the method for 125 I incorporation into the monoclonal mouse antibody molecules resulting maximum high biological activity. It was determined that the highest quality provided by approach of the isotope introduction by means of Chloraimine T reagent. It had been developed and introduced into industrial production the modified highly sensitive kit 'IRMA-M-HBsAg- 125 I' for HBsAg detection in human blood serum with use of monoclonal antibodies with the help of which it was managed to increase the stability and sensitivity and to standardize the technology of the kit. The technology had been developed and completed the laboratory and clinical testing of the kits of reagents 'IRMA-M-HBsAg- 125 I', 'ELISA-HBsAg', 'Recombinant-anti-HCV-strip' that had shown the high specificity and reproduction of the analysis results. Immunoenzymetic kit 'ELISA-HBsAg' of the third generation for HBsAg detection in human blood serum with the sensitivity not less than 0.5 ng/ml was introduced into industrial production. It had been developed and introduced into industrial production the highly sensitive immunoenzymetic test-system 'Recombinant

  16. Comparação de kits ELISA® comerciais para anticorpos no soro e leite com um teste coproparasitológico em bovinos naturalmente infectados por Fasciola hepatica Comparison of comercial® ELISA kits for antibodies in serum and milk with a fecal test in cattle naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia das C. Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fasciolose é uma enfermidade causada por um trematoda que acomete o fígado principalmente de ruminantes domésticos, podendo parasitar o homem e seu diagnóstico é realizado rotineiramente por exames coproparasitológicos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar kits comerciais de ELISA para anticorpos no soro e leite com um teste coproprarasitológico em bovinos naturalmente infectados por Fasciola hepatica. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes (92 sangue (92 e leite (43 de bovinos provenientes de propriedades de gado leiteiro do município de Jerônimo Monteiro, sul do Estado do Espírito Santo. As amostras de fezes coletadas foram processadas pela técnica de sedimentação fecal para ovos de F. hepatica, utilizada como padrão ouro para as análises. Amostras de sangue e de leite foram processadas segundo a orientação do fabricante dos respectivos Kits ELISA comerciais testados. Utilizou-se o c² de McNemar para comparação estatística e calcularam-se a sensibilidade e especificidade, valores preditivos e kappa. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as frequências de positividade pelo uso dos kits ELISA comerciais de soro e de leite diferiram significativamente (pThe fascioliasis is a disease caused by a trematode that affects the liver mainly of domestic ruminants and can also parasite man; its diagnosis is routinely done by coprological methods. The aim of this study was to compare commercial ELISA kits for antibodies in serum and milk with a coprological test in cattle naturally infected by Fasciola hepatica. We collected fecal, blood and milk samples from cattle in the municipality of Jerônimo Monteiro, southern Espírito Santo state. The fecal samples were processed by the fecal egg sedimentation for F. hepatica, which is used as a gold standard for analyzis. Blood (92 and milk (43 samples were processed according to the manufacturer instructions of the respective commercial ELISA kits tested. We used the McNemar chi-square for

  17. Practical challenges related to point of care testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L.V. Shaw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Point of care testing (POCT refers to laboratory testing that occurs near to the patient, often at the patient bedside. POCT can be advantageous in situations requiring rapid turnaround time of test results for clinical decision making. There are many challenges associated with POCT, mainly related to quality assurance. POCT is performed by clinical staff rather than laboratory trained individuals which can lead to errors resulting from a lack of understanding of the importance of quality control and quality assurance practices. POCT is usually more expensive than testing performed in the central laboratory and requires a significant amount of support from the laboratory to ensure the quality testing and meet accreditation requirements.Here, specific challenges related to POCT compliance with accreditation standards are discussed along with strategies that can be used to overcome these challenges. These areas include: documentation of POCT orders, charting of POCT results as well as training and certification of individuals performing POCT. Factors to consider when implementing connectivity between POCT instruments and the electronic medical record are also discussed in detail and include: uni-directional versus bidirectional communication, linking patient demographic information with POCT software, the importance of positive patient identification and considering where to chart POCT results in the electronic medical record. Keywords: Point of care Testing, Laboratory accreditation, Medical directive, Results documentation, Electronic Medical Record, Transcription error, Connectivity, Positive patient identification

  18. On the Cut-off Point for Combinatorial Group Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Klasner, N.; Wegener, I.

    1999-01-01

    is answered by 1 if Q contains at least one essential object and by 0 otherwise. In the statistical setting the objects are essential, independently of each other, with a given probability p combinatorial setting the number k ... group testing is equal to p* = 12(3 - 5), i.e., the strategy of testing each object individually minimizes the average number of queries iff p >= p* or n = 1. In the combinatorial setting the worst case number of queries is of interest. It has been conjectured that the cut-off point of combinatorial...

  19. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  20. First aid kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  1. Create an Emergency Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... models take up less space in your kit. Cell phone. Always carry a cell phone and let people know where you are going ... pump in your emergency kit. Remember that despite safety standards and careful monitoring, these devices can fail. ...

  2. Performance testing of 3D point cloud software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varela-González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR systems are being used widely in recent years for many applications in the engineering field: civil engineering, cultural heritage, mining, industry and environmental engineering. One of the most important limitations of this technology is the large computational requirements involved in data processing, especially for large mobile LiDAR datasets. Several software solutions for data managing are available in the market, including open source suites, however, users often unknown methodologies to verify their performance properly. In this work a methodology for LiDAR software performance testing is presented and four different suites are studied: QT Modeler, VR Mesh, AutoCAD 3D Civil and the Point Cloud Library running in software developed at the University of Vigo (SITEGI. The software based on the Point Cloud Library shows better results in the loading time of the point clouds and CPU usage. However, it is not as strong as commercial suites in working set and commit size tests.

  3. Economic Evidence and Point-of-Care Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Andrew; Price, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    Health economics has been an established feature of the research, policymaking, practice and management in the delivery of healthcare. However its role is increasing as the cost of healthcare begins to drive changes in most healthcare systems. Thus the output from cost effectiveness studies is now being taken into account when making reimbursement decisions, e.g. in Australia and the United Kingdom. Against this background it is also recognised that the health economic tools employed in healthcare, and particularly the output from the use of these tools however, are not always employed in the routine delivery of services. One of the notable consequences of this situation is the poor record of innovation in healthcare with respect to the adoption of new technologies, and the realisation of their benefits. The evidence base for the effectiveness of diagnostic services is well known to be limited, and one consequence of this has been a very limited literature on cost effectiveness. One reason for this situation is undoubtedly the reimbursement strategies employed in laboratory medicine for many years, simplistically based on the complexity of the test procedure, and the delivery as a cost-per-test service. This has proved a disincentive to generate the required evidence, and little effort to generate an integrated investment and disinvestment business case, associated with care pathway changes. Point-of-care testing creates a particularly challenging scenario because, on the one hand, the unit cost-per-test is larger through the loss of the economy of scale offered by automation, whilst it offers the potential of substantial savings through enabling rapid delivery of results, and reduction of facility costs. This is important when many health systems are planning for complete system redesign. We review the literature on economic assessment of point-of-care testing in the context of these developments. PMID:24151342

  4. Practical challenges related to point of care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julie L V

    2016-04-01

    Point of care testing (POCT) refers to laboratory testing that occurs near to the patient, often at the patient bedside. POCT can be advantageous in situations requiring rapid turnaround time of test results for clinical decision making. There are many challenges associated with POCT, mainly related to quality assurance. POCT is performed by clinical staff rather than laboratory trained individuals which can lead to errors resulting from a lack of understanding of the importance of quality control and quality assurance practices. POCT is usually more expensive than testing performed in the central laboratory and requires a significant amount of support from the laboratory to ensure the quality testing and meet accreditation requirements. Here, specific challenges related to POCT compliance with accreditation standards are discussed along with strategies that can be used to overcome these challenges. These areas include: documentation of POCT orders, charting of POCT results as well as training and certification of individuals performing POCT. Factors to consider when implementing connectivity between POCT instruments and the electronic medical record are also discussed in detail and include: uni-directional versus bidirectional communication, linking patient demographic information with POCT software, the importance of positive patient identification and considering where to chart POCT results in the electronic medical record.

  5. A case of psychosis after use of a detoxification kit and a review of techniques, risks, and regulations associated with the subversion of urine drug tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Moneeshindra Singh; Kalia, Rachna; Khan, Ahsan Y

    2011-01-01

    The practice of drug testing in the workplace has been adopted for US federal government employees, and many state and local governments as well as private businesses have followed suit. However, a parallel industry dedicated to subverting the results of urine drug testing has emerged with little or no regulation. First, the case of a 19-year-old man who developed psychosis after the use of a detoxification kit is presented. Second, a review of the existing literature on the techniques, risks, and regulations associated with the use of drug tampering kits is provided. PubMed, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar were searched using the keywords UDS, urine toxicology, pass the drug test, and clean UA, with no restrictions on publication date. Case reports, letters to the editor, and original research and review articles in multiple languages were reviewed, as were federal regulations and acts on the topic. The search yielded 4,082 results, of which 49 articles were selected for relevance. Some articles were later omitted as they had cited the original article and had nothing new to offer. Three commonly used tampering techniques are in vivo adulteration, urine substitution, and in vitro adulteration. Review of the literature regarding the risks involved with use of tampering kits yielded no results. In 1986, an executive order was issued requiring all federal employees to refrain from illicit drug use, and the 1988 Drug-Free Workplace Act precipitated the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration guidelines and their subsequent revisions. Recently, many states have made regulatory efforts to bring drug test defrauding under the ambit of law. Clinicians need to be aware of the tampering techniques and the possibility of false-negative urine drug tests. Cognizance of inherent risks involved with using these techniques including psychiatric and/or medical complications is also warranted. The manufacture, sale, and use of these products have little or

  6. Point-of-care testing: applications of 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ho Nam; Tan, Ming Jun Andrew; Wu, Hongkai

    2017-08-08

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) devices fulfil a critical need in the modern healthcare ecosystem, enabling the decentralized delivery of imperative clinical strategies in both developed and developing worlds. To achieve diagnostic utility and clinical impact, POCT technologies are immensely dependent on effective translation from academic laboratories out to real-world deployment. However, the current research and development pipeline is highly bottlenecked owing to multiple restraints in material, cost, and complexity of conventionally available fabrication techniques. Recently, 3D printing technology has emerged as a revolutionary, industry-compatible method enabling cost-effective, facile, and rapid manufacturing of objects. This has allowed iterative design-build-test cycles of various things, from microfluidic chips to smartphone interfaces, that are geared towards point-of-care applications. In this review, we focus on highlighting recent works that exploit 3D printing in developing POCT devices, underscoring its utility in all analytical steps. Moreover, we also discuss key advantages of adopting 3D printing in the device development pipeline and identify promising opportunities in 3D printing technology that can benefit global health applications.

  7. Validation of Geno-Sen's scrub typhus real time polymerase chain reaction kit by its comparison with a serological ELISA Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Anitharaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the recent past, scrub typhus (ST has been reported from different parts of India, based on Weil-Felix/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA/indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. Molecular tests are applied only by a few researchers. Aims: Evaluation of a new commercial real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR kit for molecular diagnosis of ST by comparing it with the commonly used IgM ELISA is our aim. Settings and Design: ST has been reported all over India including Puducherry and surrounding Tamil Nadu and identified as endemic for ST. This study was designed to correlate antibody detection by IgM ELISA and Orientia tsutsugamushi DNA in real time PCR. Materials and Methods: ST IgM ELISA (InBios Inc., USA was carried out for 170 consecutive patients who presented with the symptoms of acute ST during 11 months (November, 2015– September, 2016. All 77 of these patients with IgM ELISA positivity and 49 of 93 IgM ELISA negative patients were subjected to real time PCR (Geno-Sen's ST real time PCR, Himachal Pradesh, India. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis for clinical and laboratory results was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 17 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA. Chi-square test with Yates correction (Fisher's test was employed for a small number of samples. Results and Conclusion: Among 77 suspected cases of acute ST with IgM ELISA positivity and 49 IgM negative patients, 42 and 7 were positive, respectively, for O. tsutsugamushi 56-kDa type-specific gene in real time PCR kit. Until ST IFA, the gold standard diagnostic test, is properly validated in India, diagnosis of acute ST will depend on both ELISA and quantitative PCR.

  8. TEST KIT FOR THE DETECTION AND GENOTYPING OF HIGHLY PATHOGENIC INFLUENZA VIRUS A H5N1 BY REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Stepaniuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of the annual monitoring of epizooties indicate that highly pathogenic HPAI/H5N1 avian influenza widely circulated in Eurasian region. Over a period of 2010–2013 years more than 165 cases of outbreaks in 14 countries were found out. Ukraine became one of the first countries in Europe where in Autonomous Republic of Crimea in October 2005 outbreak of avian epizootic with HPAI/H5N1 was documented and until February 2008 more than 236,000 poultry were killed. Since then the question of monitoring of infected both migrating birds and poultry in places of cross contact in Ukraine remains of high priority. The test system is developed for identification and genotyping A H5N1 on three genes (M, H5 and N1 HPAI/H5N1 in real-time mode for polymerase chain reaction. Test kit capacity to detect HPAI/h5n1avian influenza virus and differentiate it from the other viral infection agents of birds and animals were studied by testing of HPAI/H5N1 virus isolated during mass infection outbreak in Crimea in 2005 and cultural specimens of other viral pathogens. It was established that the «DIA Real Avian Influenza» test kit was capable to detect RNA influenza A virus of high pathogenic H5N1 strains having high sensitivity (100% while RNA of the Crimean HPAI/H5N1 isolate studying and specificity (100% while RNA viruses of Newcastle birds disease, fowl powershift, syndrome of drop in egg production and horse influenza studying.

  9. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Koretz, Daniel; Yu, C; Mbekeani, Preeya Pandya; Langi, M.; Dhaliwal, Tasminda Kaur; Braslow, David Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA) from high school GPA an...

  10. Evaluation and clinical application of a new commercial test kit (Seralute-Total T3 RIA) for triiodothyronine radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Kei; Yamamoto, Toshihide

    1975-01-01

    A new radioimmunoassay kit (Seralute) for serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ) was evaluated, and serum T 3 was measured in sera from a variety of thyroid disorders and other conditions associated with altered serum thyroid hormone binding proteins. One or two hundred μl of sera to be measured were mixed with an alkaline solution of 125 I-T 3 on the top of small Sephadex column, by which T 3 was freed from serum binding proteins and adsorbed onto Sephadex. Anti-T 3 anti-body was added to the Sephadex column, and incubation was carried out at room temperature for two hours. The % of free hormone remained on the column after washing the column with buffer. Serum T 3 was assessed from a standard curve. The least detectable T 3 concentration was 10 ng/dl. The intra- and inter-assay variability was approximately 3.0%. The measured T 3 of sera from various thyroid disorders and conditions associated with altered thyroid hormone binding proteins were as follows: euthyroid, 159 +- 29 ng/dl (n=40), hypothyroid, 65 +- 31 ng/dl (n=20), hyperthyroid 450 +- 174 ng/dl (n=20), normal pregnancy 224 +- 38 ng/dl (n=10), idiopathic increase of thyroxine binding globlin (TBG) 224 - 328 ng/dl, idiopathic decrease of TBG 50 - 98 ng/dl, and nephrotic syndrome and cirrhosis of the liver, 58 - 115 ng/dl. (auth.)

  11. Points to consider for prioritizing clinical genetic testing services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Franziska; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    Given the cost constraints of the European health-care systems, criteria are needed to decide which genetic services to fund from the public budgets, if not all can be covered. To ensure that high-priority services are available equitably within and across the European countries, a shared set...... testing services available in the next decade. Ethically and economically reflected prioritization criteria are needed. Prioritization should be based on considerations of medical benefit, health need and costs. Medical benefit includes evidence of benefit in terms of clinical benefit, benefit......, following the principles of accountability for reasonableness. We provide points to consider to stimulate this debate across the EU and to serve as a reference for improving patient management.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 24 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.190....

  12. Performance of the Angio Detect™ in-clinic test kit for detection of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in dog samples from Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jiayou; Schnyder, Manuela; Willesen, Jakob L.

    2017-01-01

    of the Angio Detect test kit by comparing Angio Detect testing results using serum or plasma samples with the results of Baermann-Wetzel testing using matched fecal samples. Samples from 214 dogs [with clinically suspected (N = 195) or diagnosed angiostrongylosis (N = 19)] were used for this evaluation......; sensitivity of the Angio Detect test was 97.1% (95%CI: 85.1%–99.9%). The Angio Detect test was negative for 177 of 179 samples that were negative by the Baermann-Wetzel test; specificity was 98.9% (95%CI: 96.0%–99.9%). In cross-reactivity testing, all 89 samples from dogs confirmed to be infected with other...... common nematodes (Dirofilaria immitis, D. repens, Crenosoma vulpis, hookworms, ascarids, or whipworms) were all negative for A. vasorum by the Angio Detect antigen test. Angio Detect provides a rapid and reliable method for diagnosis of A. vasorum in clinically suspected dogs at risk for infection...

  13. Preparation of kits for 99Tcm radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This publication details preparation under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) of thirteen widely used 99 Tc m radiopharmaceuticals and their quality assurance practices. The objective of this document is to present to those who intend to launch a kit preparation programme a set of preparation procedures and other relevant information gathered during kit production over a period of more than a decade, to serve as a good starting point. The manuals and monographs included in the document are based on the experience gained in two major centres. The publication of this material is intended to give a typical example, and not the only possible procedure for preparing the kits. Following the essentials of these kit preparation procedures, it is always possible to make alterations to the composition of the kits. The kits described here concern widely used 99 Tc m radiopharmaceuticals which do not require a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) camera. These examples of the ''first generation'' of kits are not very intricate to prepare. Although it is advisable to have only one agent for a given intended use, a few agents for each purpose, e.g. EHDP and MDP for bone imagining, have been included in the document so that the reader can have some flexibility in selecting a particular kit. 24 refs, 2 figs

  14. Over-the-counter human immunodeficiency virus self-test kits: time to explore their use for men who have sex with men in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri A. Lippman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing access and frequency of human immunodeficiency virus testing are critical to stemming the epidemic. In Brazil's concentrated epidemic, human immunodeficiency virus prevalence in the men who have sex with men/transgender population far exceeds that in the general population, but testing rates fall below what is needed to ensure early detection and treatment. Over-the-counter human immunodeficiency virus self-testing kits, now available in stores in the U.S., have enormous potential to increase testing access and frequency and to facilitate early detection and treatment. With the advent of human immunodeficiency virus self-testing upon us, it is timely to engage the scientific community, government, and civil society in a dialog around how to best utilize this technology in Brazil. We summarize recent research on over-the-counter testing among men who have sex with men, raise potential questions and challenges to using self-tests, suggest implementation strategies, and outline a research agenda moving forward.

  15. Exploit Kit traffic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Καπίρης, Σταμάτης; Kapiris, Stamatis

    2017-01-01

    Exploit kits have become one of the most widespread and destructive threat that Internet users face on a daily basis. Since the first actor, which has been categorized as exploit kit, namely MPack, appeared in 2006, we have seen a new era on exploit kit variants compromising popular websites, infecting hosts and delivering destructive malware, following an exponentially evolvement to date. With the growing threat landscape, large enterprises to domestic networks, have starte...

  16. Point-of-care test identifies diabetic ketoacidosis at triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naunheim, Rosanne; Jang, Timothy J; Banet, Gerald; Richmond, Alec; McGill, Janet

    2006-06-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common, life-threatening complication of diabetes. The diagnosis of DKA relies on signs and symptoms, plus laboratory findings of blood glucose (BG) of > 250 mg/dL, an anion gap (AG) of > or = 15 mmol/L, and carbon dioxide (CO2) of 250 mg/dL underwent testing for beta-OHB with the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL) at triage in a large urban hospital emergency department. The diagnosis of DKA was made by clinicians by using standard clinical criteria without knowledge of the beta-OHB test. A diagnosis of DKA was made in 57 of 160 subjects. The beta-OHB values correlated strongly with AG (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) and with CO2 (r = -0.69, p < 0.001), as well as with glucose (r = 0.31, p < 0.001). Cross-classification of DKA vs. beta-OHB yielded sensitivity of 98% (95% CI = 91% to 100%), specificity of 85% (95% CI = 78% to 91%), with a positive likelihood ratio of 6.7 (95% CI = 4.22 to 10.78), and negative likelihood ratio of 0.021 (95% CI = 0.003 to 0.144) at the manufacturer-suggested beta-OHB level of 1.5. The point-of-care test for beta-OHB was as sensitive as more established indicators of DKA. It is more useful than glucose alone for the diagnosis of DKA and offers immediate diagnosis of patients at triage.

  17. Synthetic positive controls for ELISA test kits for detection of IgA and IgM antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Galkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is the most informative and versatile method of serological diagnostics. The possibility of detecting by ELISA specific antibodies of different classes allow to differentiate primary infectious process and its remission, exacerbation and chronic disease (holding of differential diagnosis. This approach is implemented in the methodology for evaluation of patients for presence of humoral immune response against the causative agent of urogenital chlamydiosis. As with other infections immediately after Chlamydia trachomatis infection the specific IgM antibodies are formed, and subsequently basic projective antibodies of IgG class are synthesized. However, at exacerbation of chronic urogenital chlamydiosis specific IgA antibodies can be synthesized. That is why comprehensive evaluation of patients for presence of humoral immune response to Ch. trachomatis involves plasma testing of specific antibodies of all three classes. The essential problem in the production of ELISA diagnostic kits is obtaining of positive control. The classic version of positive control is human blood plasma containing specific antibodies. But specific IgM- and IgA-positive sera are deficit raw materials. This fact can significantly limit the production of diagnostic kits, especially in case of large-scale manufacture. We have suggested methodological approach to use of synthetic positive controls in indirect ELISA kits based on conjugate of normal human IgM (IgA and monoclonal antibodies against major outer membrane protein of Ch. trachomatis. It was found that it’s possible to realize such task by means of NHS ester-maleimide-mediated conjugation (by sulfosuccinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethylcyclohexane-1-carboxylate and reductive amination-mediated conjugation (by sodium periodate. It was found that synthetic positive controls obtained by different methods are characterized by higher titer compared to IgM- and IgA-positive high

  18. 4-Point beam tensile test on a soft adhesive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzik, Michal K.; Jumel, Julien; Shanahan, Martin E.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An adhesive butt joint with a soft bondline of variable thickness has been studied. ► We found that bondline thickness affects the stress state in soft bondlines. ► Fracture energy at crack onset is lowest for the thinnest of bondlines and becomes stable for thicker layers. ► Maximum stress decreases with increasing bondline thickness. ► We found that for optimal joint design, rate effects must be taken into account. - Abstract: An adhesive butt joint with a soft bondline has been studied. A series of experiments was conducted on test pieces constituted of aluminium adherends bonded with a low modulus epoxy adhesive, Scotch Weld™ 2216. The joint was subjected to four point bending, in tension/compression loading, under constant deflection rate, with the bondline being parallel to the applied load. The objective was to examine and evaluate crack nucleation for a range of adhesive layer thicknesses. Three criteria were used to evaluate joint efficiency. Firstly, force/stress at crack onset revealed that thinner bondlines were preferable to produce stronger and stiffer bonded structures. Secondly, fracture energy was derived, which, in the present configuration, is associated with the energy stored within the adhesive layer, rather than the substrates. This is one of originalities of the test proposed. Fracture energy data lead to the conclusion, that more energy is dissipated by the joints with lower effective rigidity, viz. thicker bondlines. Finally, we applied a criterion of non-linear, ‘pragmatic’ work of adhesion – similar to the J-integral approach. In terms of energy consumption, the third criterion yielded (quasi) independence of the adhesive thickness. From the data collected, we conclude that for optimal joint design, rate effects must be carefully taken into account

  19. Multicentre evaluation of commercial kit methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, J; Declerck, P J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the analytical performance of different commercial kits for determination of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity we distributed eight selected split samples to 11 European laboratories experienced with haemostasis testing. Three different laboratories were involved in...... of the plasma samples, which was PAI-1 depleted. The laboratories involved in the testing reported for this sample a mean value of 6.1 IU/ml.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......In order to study the analytical performance of different commercial kits for determination of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity we distributed eight selected split samples to 11 European laboratories experienced with haemostasis testing. Three different laboratories were involved...... in the production of data from each of the commercial kits tested. A considerable variation of PAI activity results reported from the laboratories testing the same commercial kits was observed. The range of reported results could in individual samples exceed the median value indicating an interlaboratory variation...

  20. Knowledge and use of unauthorized HIV self-test kits among men who have sex with men in Spain, following approval of an over-the-counter self-test in the U.S: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutentakis, Konstantinos; Rosales-Statkus, María Elena; Hoyos, Juan; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; Ruiz, Mónica; Agustí, Cristina; de la Fuente, Luis; Belza, María José

    2016-07-08

    Shortly after the approval of an over-the-counter HIV self-test in the US, we conducted a study to estimate the proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Spain who knew that unauthorized HIV self-tests could be purchased online, and the proportion that had already used these tests, as well as their socio-demographic and behavioural correlates. Between September 2012 and February 2013, MSM users of gay dating websites were invited to complete an online questionnaire. We calculated estimates of the knowledge and use of unauthorized HIV self-testing and assessed the associated factors by rare event logit regression models. Among 8620 participants, 4.2 % (95 % CI:3.8-4.6) knew they could buy an unauthorized HIV self-test kit online, and 12.7 % (95 % CI:12.0-13.4) thought that such a test might exist, although they had never seen one. Only 0.7 % (95 % CI:0.5-0.9) had ever self-tested. In the multivariable analysis, knowledge of online availability of self-tests was associated with being a non-Latin American foreigner, having at least two previous HIV tests, intending to test for HIV in the next year, and knowing about U.S. approval of self-testing. Ever-use of HIV self-testing was associated with being over 34 years of age, living outside Spain during the last 12 months, and knowing about U.S. approval of self-testing. Both knowledge and use of unauthorized HIV self-testing among MSM in Spain was very low among HIV negative or untested MSM in Spain. The recent approval in the United Kingdom and France might increase the number of MSM seeking such testing and possibly using unauthorized test kits not meeting quality standards.

  1. The universe of ANA testing: a case for point-of-care ANA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Konstantin N; Rubin, Robert L

    2017-12-01

    Testing for total antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a critical tool for diagnosis and management of autoimmune diseases at both the primary care and subspecialty settings. Repurposing of ANA from a test for lupus to a test for any autoimmune condition has driven the increase in ANA requests. Changes in ANA referral patterns include early or subclinical autoimmune disease detection in patients with low pre-test probability and use of negative ANA results to rule out underlying autoimmune disease. A positive result can lead to further diagnostic considerations. Currently, ANA tests are performed in centralized laboratories; an alternative would be ANA testing at the clinical point-of-care (POC). By virtue of its near real-time data collection capability, low cost, and ease of use, we believe the POC ANA has the potential to enable a new paradigm shift in autoimmune serology testing.

  2. A qualitative study of secondary distribution of HIV self-test kits by female sex workers in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Maman

    Full Text Available Promoting awareness of serostatus and frequent HIV testing is especially important among high risk populations such as female sex workers (FSW and their sexual partners. HIV self-testing is an approach that is gaining ground in sub-Saharan Africa as a strategy to increase knowledge of HIV status and promote safer sexual decisions. However, little is known about self-test distribution strategies that are optimal for increasing testing access among hard-to-reach and high risk individuals. We conducted a qualitative study with 18 FSW who participated in a larger study that provided them with five oral fluid-based self-tests, training on how to use the tests, and encouragement to offer the self-tests to their sexual partners using their discretion. Women demonstrated agency in the strategies they used to introduce self-tests to their partners and to avoid conflict with partners. They carefully considered with whom to share self-tests, often assessing the possibility for negative reactions from partners as part of their decision making process. When women faced negative reactions from partners, they drew on strategies they had used before to avoid conflict and physical harm from partners, such as not responding to angry partners and forgoing payment to leave angry partners quickly. Some women also used self-tests to make more informed sexual decisions with their partners.

  3. Avaliação do kit "TF-Test" para o diagnóstico das infecções por parasitas gastrintestinais em ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Lumina

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos padronizar o kit TF-Test para a quantificação de ovos de parasitas gastrintestinais de ovinos e compará-lo ao método de Gordon & Whitlock modificado (G&W. Vinte quatro cordeiros confinados foram infectados artificialmente com Haemonchus contortus, durante 12 semanas, até o abate, quando foram colhidas amostras fecais e realizada a identificação e contagem dos parasitas abomasais. Nestes animais, ovos de H. contortus foram detectados em 95,8% das amostras fecais por ambos os testes (P>;0,05. Os coeficientes de correlação (r entre a carga parasitária (CP e os valores de OPG obtidos pelos métodos de G&W e TF-Test foram, respectivamente, de r=0,52 e r=0,51 (dados não transformados e r=0,85 e r=0,87 (dados transformados em log. Outras 100 amostras fecais foram colhidas de ovinos naturalmente infectados. Nas amostras destes animais, os testes G&W e TF-Test propiciaram o diagnóstico de ovos de estrongilídeos em 85% e 86% das amostras, respectivamente (P>;0,05. Pelo TF-Test e pelo G&W, oocistos de Eimeria foram detectados em 33% e em 12% das amostras (P<0,001 e ovos de Strongyloides spp. em 15% e 5% das amostras, respectivamente (P<0,05. Ambos os testes foram precisos para o diagnóstico de estrongilídeos gastrintestinais, porém, o TF-Test foi superior para o diagnóstico de oocistos de Eimeria spp. e de ovos de Strongyloides spp., mas, por outro lado, subestimou o número de ovos de estrongilídeos presente nas amostras.

  4. Data package for the Turkey Point material interaction test capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogness, J.C.; Davis, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Objective of the Materials Interaction Test (MIT) is to obtain interaction information on candidate package storage materials and geologies under prototypic temperatures in gamma and low level neutron fields. Compatibility, structural properties, and chemical transformations will be studied. The multiple test samples are contained within test capsules connected end-to-end to form a test train. Only passive instrumentation has been used to monitor temperatures and record neutron fluence. The test train contains seven capsules: three to test compatibility, two for structural tests, and two for chemical transformation studies. The materials tested are potential candidates for the spent fuel package canister and repository geologies

  5. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 08-2-188 Chemical Point Detector Vapor Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-27

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 08-2-188 Chemical Point Detector Vapor Testing 5a. CONTRACT...NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Dugway Proving Ground West Desert Test Center (TEDT-DPW) Dugway, UT 84022-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  6. Evaluation of rapid diagnostic test kits for feline leukemia virus infection using samples from naturally infected cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayou Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Feline leukemia virus (FeLV is a potentially life-threatening oncogenic retrovirus. The p27 viral core protein is produced by the virus in infected feline cells, is found in the cytoplasm in several blood cells and can be free in the serum and plasma. ELISA or particle-based immunoassay are commonly used to detect the presence of the p27 core protein in samples obtained from blood. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of several in-clinic tests: the SNAP Feline Triple Test (IDEXX Laboratories, the WITNESS FeLV-FIV Test (Zoetis and the VetScan Feline FeLV/FIV Rapid Test (Abaxis. Methods The sample population (100 positive, 105 negative samples consisted of serum and plasma samples submitted to IDEXX’s worldwide reference laboratory for feline retrovirus testing. Virus isolation and reverse transcriptase PCR results were not available and so samples were judged to be positive or negative based on the results of the ViraCHEK FeLV (Zoetis microtiter plate assay. Results The percentage of samples positive and negative for FeLV p27 antigen using the three in-clinic tests compared with the ViraCHEK method were as follows: IDEXX Feline Triple (positive 98.0%, negative 100%; Zoetis WITNESS (positive 79.0%, negative 97.1%; Abaxis VetScan (positive 73.0%, negative 97.1%. Conclusions and relevance The SNAP Feline Triple Test demonstrated a high level of agreement for FeLV-positive and FeLV-negative samples when assessed in this model. Results of FeLV assays can vary among tests.

  7. Evaluation of rapid diagnostic test kits for feline leukemia virus infection using samples from naturally infected cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayou; O'Connor, Thomas; Beall, Melissa; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Lappin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a potentially life-threatening oncogenic retrovirus. The p27 viral core protein is produced by the virus in infected feline cells, is found in the cytoplasm in several blood cells and can be free in the serum and plasma. ELISA or particle-based immunoassay are commonly used to detect the presence of the p27 core protein in samples obtained from blood. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of several in-clinic tests: the SNAP Feline Triple Test (IDEXX Laboratories), the WITNESS FeLV-FIV Test (Zoetis) and the VetScan Feline FeLV/FIV Rapid Test (Abaxis). The sample population (100 positive, 105 negative samples) consisted of serum and plasma samples submitted to IDEXX's worldwide reference laboratory for feline retrovirus testing. Virus isolation and reverse transcriptase PCR results were not available and so samples were judged to be positive or negative based on the results of the ViraCHEK FeLV (Zoetis) microtiter plate assay. The percentage of samples positive and negative for FeLV p27 antigen using the three in-clinic tests compared with the ViraCHEK method were as follows: IDEXX Feline Triple (positive 98.0%, negative 100%); Zoetis WITNESS (positive 79.0%, negative 97.1%); Abaxis VetScan (positive 73.0%, negative 97.1%). The SNAP Feline Triple Test demonstrated a high level of agreement for FeLV-positive and FeLV-negative samples when assessed in this model. Results of FeLV assays can vary among tests.

  8. Performance of 4 Point-of-Care Screening Tests for Feline Leukemia Virus and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J K; Crawford, P Cynda; Tucker, S J

    2017-03-01

    More than 3 million cats in the United States are infected with FeLV or FIV. The cornerstone of control is identification and segregation of infected cats. To compare test performance with well-characterized clinical samples of currently available FeLV antigen/FIV antibody combination test kits. Surplus serum and plasma from diagnostic samples submitted by animal shelters, diagnostic laboratories, veterinary clinics, and cat research colonies. None of the cats had been vaccinated against FIV. The final sample set included 146 FeLV+, 154 FeLV-, 94 FIV+, and 97 FIV- samples. Prospective, blind comparison to a gold standard: Samples were evaluated in 4 different point-of-care tests by ELISA antigen plate tests (FeLV) and virus isolation (FIV) as the reference standards. All test results were visually read by 2 blinded observers. Sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for FeLV were SNAP ® (100%/100%), WITNESS ® (89.0%/95.5%), Anigen ® (91.8%/95.5%), and VetScan ® (85.6%/85.7%). Sensitivity and specificity for FIV were SNAP ® (97.9%/99.0%), WITNESS ® (94.7%/100%), Anigen ® (96.8%/99.0%), and VetScan ® (91.5%/99.0%). The SNAP ® test had the best performance for FeLV, but there were no significant differences for FIV. In typical cat populations with seroprevalence of 1-5%, a majority of positive results reported by most point-of-care test devices would be false-positives. This could result in unnecessary segregation or even euthanasia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Cardiac c-Kit Biology Revealed by Inducible Transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Natalie A; Firouzi, Fareheh; Broughton, Kathleen M; Ilves, Kelli; Nguyen, Kristine P; Payne, Christina R; Sacchi, Veronica; Monsanto, Megan M; Casillas, Alexandria R; Khalafalla, Farid G; Wang, Bingyan J; Ebeid, David E; Alvarez, Roberto; Dembitsky, Walter P; Bailey, Barbara A; van Berlo, Jop; Sussman, Mark A

    2018-06-22

    , upregulating c-Kit expression in response to pathological stress. c-Kit myocardial biology is more complex and varied than previously appreciated or documented, demonstrating validity in multiple points of coexisting yet heretofore seemingly irreconcilable published findings. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. The limitations of point of care testing for pandemic influenza: what clinicians and public health professionals need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchette, Todd F; Bastien, Nathalie; Berry, Jody; Booth, Tim F; Chernesky, Max; Couillard, Michel; Drews, Steven; Ebsworth, Anthony; Fearon, Margaret; Fonseca, Kevin; Fox, Julie; Gagnon, Jean-Nicolas; Guercio, Steven; Horsman, Greg; Jorowski, Cathy; Kuschak, Theodore; Li, Yan; Majury, Anna; Petric, Martin; Ratnam, Sam; Smieja, Marek; Van Caeseele, Paul

    2009-01-01

    As the world prepares for the next influenza pandemic, governments have made significant funding commitments to vaccine development and antiviral stockpiling. While these are essential components to pandemic response, rapid and accurate diagnostic testing remains an often neglected cornerstone of pandemic influenza preparedness. Clinicians and Public Health Practitioners need to understand the benefits and drawbacks of different influenza tests in both seasonal and pandemic settings. Culture has been the traditional gold standard for influenza diagnosis but requires from 1-10 days to generate a positive result, compared to nucleic acid detection methods such as real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Although the currently available rapid antigen detection kits can generate results in less than 30 minutes, their sensitivity is suboptimal and they are not recommended for the detection of novel influenza viruses. Until point-of-care (POC) tests are improved, PILPN recommends that the best option for pandemic influenza preparation is the enhancement of nucleic acid-based testing capabilities across Canada.

  11. Estradiol RIA kit in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, W.; Lisse, K.; Bienert, R.; Flentje, H.; Koerner, H.; Wilken, T.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Buch. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1985-01-01

    First clinical experience with a estradiol RIA kit developed in the Central Institute for Isotope- and Radiation Research is reported. The kit was used for the daily control of estradiol level in patients, which were treated within the program for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. The time of incubation could be shortened by means of a double antibody technique and by use of a precipitation mixture to 2 h. The intraassay variation is 9.2%, the interassay variation is 15.1%, the recovery rate is 94%. The sensitivity of the test (B 0 -3SD) is about 120 pmol/l. The estradiol RIA kit satisfies clinical requirements. (author)

  12. Two critical tests for the Critical Point earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanis, A.; Vallianatos, F.

    2003-04-01

    release rate) event(s). Again, the absence of a concrete case history complicates anyone’s ability to make solid inferences. In conclusion, our observations can be considered to be critical tests of the critical point / stress transfer earthquake model. If the expected earthquakes occur, then it is possible that we have a powerful tool. If not, we should contemplate the possibility that this approach has limited predictive capacity and is unsafe in evaluating seismic hazard. The answer is pending and the question is open for discussion.

  13. Testing of the rectangular pivot-point bellows for the PPPL tokamak fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haughian, J.; Lou, K.; Greer, J.; Fong, M.; Scalise, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    The Neutral Beam Pivot Point Bellows (PPB) is installed in the duct which connects the Neutral Beam Enclosure to the Torus. This bellows, located at the pivot point, must fit the severely limited space available at the pivot-point location. Consequently, it has to be made rectangular in cross section with a large inside area for beam access. This leads to small convolutions with high stress concentrations. The function of the bellows is to permit change in the angular positioning of the neutral beam line with respect to the Tokamak, to isolate the Neutral Beam Line from the deflection of the Torus during bake out, and to allow for all misalignments. Internally the bellows will have a vacuum along with such gases such as hydrogen or deuterium. Tests parameters are described

  14. Multi-point probe for testing electrical properties and a method of producing a multi-point probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A multi-point probe for testing electrical properties of a number of specific locations of a test sample comprises a supporting body defining a first surface, a first multitude of conductive probe arms (101-101'''), each of the probe arms defining a proximal end and a distal end. The probe arms...... of contact with the supporting body, and a maximum thickness perpendicular to its perpendicular bisector and its line of contact with the supporting body. Each of the probe arms has a specific area or point of contact (111-111''') at its distal end for contacting a specific location among the number...... of specific locations of the test sample. At least one of the probe arms has an extension defining a pointing distal end providing its specific area or point of contact located offset relative to its perpendicular bisector....

  15. Advantage of using a home-made ELISA kit for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection over commercially imported kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, M; Talebkhan, Y; Khalili, G; Mahboudi, F; Massarrat, S; Zamaninia, L; Oghalaei, A

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate a home-made ELISA kit for detection of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and comparison of its immunologic criteria with those of foreign commercial kits. A home-made IgG ELISA kit was developed using soluble antigenic fractions of Hp proteins. Confirmed sera were tested and serological criteria were evaluated through assessment of 199 serum samples. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity values of home-made kit were 92, 92 and 90.4%, respectively. These immunologic criteria for Trinity kit were 95.2, 95.2 and 95% in comparison with IBL kit (91.3, 92.2 and 88.5%), BIOHIT kit (72.4, 41.6 and 94.1%) and HelicoBlot2.1 (94.2, 93.4 and 100%). Kappa agreement assessment demonstrated that two of the imported ELISA kits had fair to moderate agreement with the home-made kit while the other one had a poor agreement value. Apart from comparable values between the home-made kit and the most efficient imported kit (Trinity) there was significant cost benefit. Therefore, we recommend the home-made kit as a suitable substitution for detection of Hp infection in the Iranian population.

  16. Advantage of using a home-made elisa kit for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection over commercially imported kits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate a home-made ELISA kit for detection of Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection and comparison of its immunologic criteria with those of foreign commercial kits. Methods: A home-made IgG ELISA kit was developed using soluble antigenic fractions of Hp proteins. Confirmed sera were tested and serological criteria were evaluated through assessment of 199 serum samples. Results: The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity values of home-made kit were 92, 92 and 90.4%, respectively. These immunologic criteria for Trinity kit were 95.2, 95.2 and 95% in comparison with IBL kit (91.3, 92.2 and 88.5%, BIOHIT kit (72.4, 41.6 and 94.1% and HelicoBlot2.1 (94.2, 93.4 and 100%. Kappa agreement assessment demonstrated that two of the imported ELISA kits had fair to moderate agreement with the home-made kit while the other one had a poor agreement value. Conclusions: Apart from comparable values between the home-made kit and the most efficient imported kit (Trinity there was significant cost benefit. Therefore, we recommend the home-made kit as a suitable substitution for detection of Hp infection in the Iranian population.

  17. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Koretz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA from high school GPA and both college admissions and high school tests in mathematics and English. In both systems, the choice of tests had only trivial effects on the aggregate prediction of FGPA. Adding either test to an equation that included the other had only trivial effects on prediction. Although the findings suggest that the choice of test might advantage or disadvantage different students, it had no substantial effect on the over- and underprediction of FGPA for students classified by race-ethnicity or poverty.

  18. Piloting an HIV self-test kit voucher program to raise serostatus awareness of high-risk African Americans, Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, Robert W; Young, Sean D; Bristow, Claire C; Wilson, Greg; Rodriguez, Jeffrey; Ortiz, Jose; Mathew, Rhea; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-11-26

    Up to half of all new HIV cases in Los Angeles may be caused by the 20-30% of men who have sex with men (MSM) with unrecognized HIV infection. Racial/ethnic minority MSM are at particularly high risk for being sero-unaware and due to stigma and poor healthcare access might benefit from novel private, self-testing methods, such as the recently FDA-approved OraQuick® In-Home HIV Test. From July-November 2013, we undertook a pilot study to examine the feasibility of a voucher program for free OraQuick® tests targeting African American MSM in Los Angeles. We determined feasibility based on: (1) the establishment of a voucher redemption and third-party payment system, (2) the willingness of community-based organizations (CBOs) to disseminate vouchers, and (3) the collection of user demographics, test and linkage-to-care results with an anonymous telephone survey. We partnered with Walgreens® to create a voucher and third-party reimbursement system for free OraQuick® tests. Voucher distribution was divided into two periods. In total, 641 vouchers were supplied to CBOs: 274 (42.7%) went to clients and of those 53 (19.3%) were redeemed. Fifty (18.2%) of the 274 clients were surveyed: 44 (88%) were African American, 39 (78%) reported being likely to repeat voucher use, 44 (88%) reported reviewing pre-test information, and 37 (74%) the post-test information. Three (6%) of 50 survey respondents reported newly testing HIV-positive of whom all (100%) reported seeking medical care. Two withheld their results, both of whom also sought medical care. Developing and partnering with a commercial pharmacy to institute a voucher system to facilitate HIV self-testing with linkage-to-care was feasible. Our findings suggest the voucher program was associated with increasing the identification of new cases of HIV infection with high rates of linkage to care. Expanded research and evaluation of voucher programs for HIV self-test kits among high-risk groups is warranted.

  19. Test and acceptance from the AE point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    The power industry has undergone the transition from utilizing construction engineers for startup activities to utilizing test engineers who are responsible for the preparation or execution of a formal test program. This has come about because testing has been given sufficient importance to justify those participating within the industry to establish it as a specialty phase apart from engineering/design and construction. Presently testing is being conducted by those organizations that have either engineered and/or constructed the unit which may be a position of conflict in regards to unbiased test. The tester (third party) concept promotes the repetition, independence, and expertise of a test organization responsible to the utility for certifying that each system has been tested to the design criteria established by others. A move to this concept should result in better generating stations with higher availability because it has been completely tested by an organization with this sole contractual responsibility. The AE, NSSS, and utility would all benefit with possibly no additional costs incurred

  20. An improved 99mTc-Aprotinin kit formulation: quality control analysis of cold kit shelf life and radiotracer stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, D.R.; Tsopelas, C.

    2005-01-01

    Aprotinin is a small protein that inhibits serine proteases and has been shown to bind to amyloid fibrils of varying chemical composition in-vitro. 99 mTc-aprotinin has demonstrated potential for imaging cardiac and pleuropulmonary AL amyloidosis and other forms of amyloidosis present as deposits in joints, the tongue or intestines and other sites excluding the kidneys and liver. Radiolabelling of aprotinin was previously achieved by addition of 99 mTc-pertech-netate to an alkaline mixture of Trasylol (aprotinin injection) and stannous chloride, followed by a necessary filtration step after 20-30 minutes. We have developed a modified cold kit formulation, utilising pharmaceutical starting materials, that provides a more convenient and efficient radiolabelling procedure where filtration is not required prior to injection. The shelf life of the cold kits was validated after storage in a freezer. The reducing agent used was stannous-pyrophosphate (PYP) and the alkaline buffer was a phosphate-glycine mixture (pH 10.5). Quality control testing of the cold kits was performed after 0, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months storage by assessing the % RCP of 99 mTc-apro-tinin by ITLC-SG. Radiotracer stability was examined in the same way 25, 85 and 265 minutes post reconstitution (pr) via a three strip system employing acetone, saline and ammonia:ethanol:water mixture (1:2:5). A rapid quality control cartridge method was also investigated. Radiolabelling of the cold kits yielded RCP > 95% at 25 mins pr and all other time points, from a formulation that avoided a filtration step. The impurities were quantified as TcO., ( 99 mTc-PYP (< 0.7%) by paper methods. The improved Tc-aprotinin kit formulation has greater convenience and efficiency in the clinical setting

  1. Data package for the Turkey Point material interaction test capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogness, J.C.; Davis, R.B.

    1980-02-01

    Objective of the test is to obtain interaction information on candidate package storage materials and geologies under prototypic temperatures in gamma and low-level neutron fields. This document provides a fabrication record of the experiment

  2. BOOK REVIEW - DOC, PATIENTS' OUTCOME IS IN YOUR HAND. IMPROVE YOUR CLINICAL SKILL WITH DERMATOLOGY CLINICAL SKILL TEST KIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROHNA RIDZWAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author has condensed her almost 30 years of working experience to present dermatology in a uniqueand interesting manner in this book. Unlike a textbook, the reader is guided on common as well as commonly misdiagnosed skin conditions including adverse drug reactions and occupational dermatoses by a series of quizzes which are different from the usual multiple choice type of questions. Responses are scored accordingto their implications on the respondent; for example, the answer will denote that the respondent is either a safe doctor, wasteful of resources or may cause harm to the patient.It will be advantageous for the reader to know basic dermatology but the author has considered readers who may be unfamiliar with the terms by first testing the reader on his knowledge of common dermatological terminologies. The correct answers are given. Useful tips are also provided to differentiate and recognise the skin lesions. With more than 300 coloured images of a wide range of skin conditions collected from local patients, the reader will be able to actively challenge himself in privacy and at his own pace. This book is simple and fun as a learning tool and will be very useful for housemen, postgraduate medical trainees and primary healthcare providers who want to assess their skills in dermatology.

  3. Point of care testing of fecal calprotectin as a substitute for routine laboratory analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejl, Julie; Theede, Klaus; Møllgren, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Fecal calprotectin (FC) is widely used to monitor the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to tailor medical treatment to disease activity. Laboratory testing of fecal samples may have a turnaround time of 1–2 weeks, whereas FC home testing allows results within hours...... and thus enables a rapid response to clinical deterioration. Design and methods Fifty-five stool samples were analyzed by the IBDoc® Calprotectin Home Testing kit and the BÜHLMANN fCAL® turbo assay on a Roche Cobas 6000 c501. The correlation between the assays was assessed using Spearman's Rho correlation...... coefficient and the intermediate imprecision of both assays was calculated. Results We found a strong correlation coefficient of 0.887 between FC measured on IBDoc® and the laboratory assay BÜHLMANN fCAL® turbo. The coefficients of variation (CVs) at three different FC levels were in the range 2...

  4. Recent tests of the equilibrium-point hypothesis (lambda model).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, A G; Ostry, D J; Levin, M F; Gribble, P L; Mitnitski, A B

    1998-07-01

    The lambda model of the equilibrium-point hypothesis (Feldman & Levin, 1995) is an approach to motor control which, like physics, is based on a logical system coordinating empirical data. The model has gone through an interesting period. On one hand, several nontrivial predictions of the model have been successfully verified in recent studies. In addition, the explanatory and predictive capacity of the model has been enhanced by its extension to multimuscle and multijoint systems. On the other hand, claims have recently appeared suggesting that the model should be abandoned. The present paper focuses on these claims and concludes that they are unfounded. Much of the experimental data that have been used to reject the model are actually consistent with it.

  5. Comparison of ring compression testing to three point bend testing for unirradiated ZIRLO cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-04-01

    Safe shipment and storage of nuclear reactor discharged fuel requires an understanding of how the fuel may perform under the various conditions that can be encountered. One specific focus of concern is performance during a shipment drop accident. Tests at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are being performed to characterize the properties of fuel clad relative to a mechanical accident condition such as a container drop. Unirradiated ZIRLO tubing samples have been charged with a range of hydride levels to simulate actual fuel rod levels. Samples of the hydrogen charged tubes were exposed to a radial hydride growth treatment (RHGT) consisting of heating to 400°C, applying initial hoop stresses of 90 to 170 MPa with controlled cooling and producing hydride precipitates. Initial samples have been tested using both a) ring compression test (RCT) which is shown to be sensitive to radial hydride and b) three-point bend tests which are less sensitive to radial hydride effects. Hydrides are generated in Zirconium based fuel cladding as a result of coolant (water) oxidation of the clad, hydrogen release, and a portion of the released (nascent) hydrogen absorbed into the clad and eventually exceeding the hydrogen solubility limit. The orientation of the hydrides relative to the subsequent normal and accident strains has a significant impact on the failure susceptability. In this study the impacts of stress, temperature and hydrogen levels are evaluated in reference to the propensity for hydride reorientation from the circumferential to the radial orientation. In addition the effects of radial hydrides on the Quasi Ductile Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT) were measured. The results suggest that a) the severity of the radial hydride impact is related to the hydrogen level-peak temperature combination (for example at a peak drying temperature of 400°C; 800 PPM hydrogen has less of an impact/ less radial hydride fraction than 200 PPM hydrogen for the same thermal

  6. An experiment to test in-field pointing for Elisa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Christina; Broll, Bernhard; Fitzsimons, Ewan; Johann, Ulrich; Jonke, Wouter; Lucarelli, Stefano; Nikolov, Susanne; Voert, Martijn; Weise, Dennis; Witvoet, Gert

    2017-11-01

    The evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA) Mission is being developed to detect and characterise gravitational waves by measuring pathlength changes between free flying inertial test masses over a baseline of order 1 Gm. Here the observed astrophysical events and objects lie in a frequency range between 30 μHz and 1 Hz (the LISA measurement band, LMB).

  7. Production of sestamibi kit for nuclear imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Hakim; Zakaria, Ahmad; Yaacob, Hadzri; Ramli, Jamaluddin [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan (Malaysia). School of Medical Sciences

    1997-12-01

    One of the research projects undertaken during the implementation of the IAEA Technical Assistance Cooperation Program in our department was inhouse production of sestamibi (MIBI) kit to be labelled with Tc99m pertechnetate for myocardial studies and for malignant tumor imaging. 100 mg raw materials of sestamibi was supplied by IAEA and the kit was prepared based on Janoki recipe. Using 6 mg MIBI, 192 mg glycine, 3.6 mg stannous chloride, 62.4 mg Na sub 4 Po sub 4 and 24 mg cysteine we have prepared 24 vials of MIBI kit under sterile condition and stored in the freezer at -70 degree C. The sterility of the kit was confirmed by microbiological test using cultured method. The stability test was done by labelling the kit with Tc-99m pertechnetate at day 1, 3, 7, 30 and 60 days after kit preparation. Using two system butanone and saline with ITLC the labelling efficiency of Tc-99m (MIBI) was found to be more than 90% in each case. The labelling efficiency was found to maintain at 90% up to 24 hours post reconstitution at room temperature. Biodistribution study was carried out by administering Tc-99m (MIBI) to mice intravenously at the dosage of IOO {mu} Ci per 20 gm body weight. The mice were sacrificed at 3 hours and 24 hours after the dose administration. Blood, heart, lung, intestine, kidney and stomach samples were obtained, weighed and measured for radioactivity using gamma well counter. The data showed that after 3 hours about 60% of the injected dose accumulated in the intestine which was in agreement with IAEA standard. At 24 hours the amount in the heart still remained about 25% of the 3 hour uptake. In house production of MIBI kit is easy, fast and cost effective. The data suggested that the quality of our kit was good enough to be used for further animal research and clinical trials.

  8. Comparação de kits ELISA® comerciais para anticorpos no soro e leite com um teste coproparasitológico em bovinos naturalmente infectados por Fasciola hepatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia das C. Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fasciolose é uma enfermidade causada por um trematoda que acomete o fígado principalmente de ruminantes domésticos, podendo parasitar o homem e seu diagnóstico é realizado rotineiramente por exames coproparasitológicos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar kits comerciais de ELISA para anticorpos no soro e leite com um teste coproprarasitológico em bovinos naturalmente infectados por Fasciola hepatica. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes (92 sangue (92 e leite (43 de bovinos provenientes de propriedades de gado leiteiro do município de Jerônimo Monteiro, sul do Estado do Espírito Santo. As amostras de fezes coletadas foram processadas pela técnica de sedimentação fecal para ovos de F. hepatica, utilizada como padrão ouro para as análises. Amostras de sangue e de leite foram processadas segundo a orientação do fabricante dos respectivos Kits ELISA comerciais testados. Utilizou-se o c² de McNemar para comparação estatística e calcularam-se a sensibilidade e especificidade, valores preditivos e kappa. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as frequências de positividade pelo uso dos kits ELISA comerciais de soro e de leite diferiram significativamente (p<0,0001 em relação ao exame coproparasitológico. A sensibilidade dos Kits foi de 100%, porém possuíram baixa especificidade, 42,85 e 30% para o soro e leite respectivamente. O coeficiente de kappa mostrou concordância sofrível para os testes de soro (0,33 e de leite (0,21. Os valores preditivos positivos dos kits para soro e leite foram, respectivamente, 44,61 e 38,23% e, os valores preditivos negativos de 100% para ambos os testes. Apesar da maior sensibilidade dos kits ELISA comerciais e, destes apresentarem diferença em relação ao exame coproparasitológico na detecção dos animais positivos para F. hepatica, a escolha de um teste diagnóstico deve considerar o custo benefício. Quando se trata da presença de parasitismo em rebanhos, o tratamento é aplicado

  9. Iodobell in vivo kits for labelling with 123I or 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koernyei, J.; Horvath, M.; Pszota, A.; Lakatos, M.; Szirtes, L.

    1988-01-01

    Iodobell in vivo kits provide an easy and fast method for 'on the spot' radioiodination with 123 I (or 131 I). Until now three kits have been developed in the Institute of Isotopes Budapest, the heptadecanoic acid, the hippurate and the MIBG kits. From these, the heptadecanoic acid kit is being tested in humans in Hungary, the other two are under the registration procedure. The Iodobell in vivo kits may contribute to the application of 123 I radioisotope in Hungary. (orig.)

  10. Effect of point-of-care susceptibility testing in general practice on appropriate prescription of antibiotics for patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anne; Cordoba, Gloria; Møller Sørensen, Tina

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of adding point-of-care (POC) susceptibility testing to POC culture on appropriate use of antibiotics as well as clinical and microbiological cure for patients with suspected uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) in general practice. DESIGN: Open......, individually randomised controlled trial. SETTING: General practice. PARTICIPANTS: Women with suspected uncomplicated UTI, including elderly patients above 65, patients with recurrent UTI and patients with diabetes. The sample size calculation predicted 600 patients were needed. INTERVENTIONS: Flexicult SSI......-Urinary Kit was used for POC culture and susceptibility testing and ID Flexicult was used for POC culture only. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome: appropriate antibiotic prescribing on the day after consultation defined as either (1) patient with UTI: to prescribe a first-line antibiotic to which...

  11. Personalized Thematic Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontrager, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Teaching Spanish at the K-5 level is a passion of mine, and the author would like to share some of the practical applications that she finds most rewarding and effective. She has found enthusiastic response to the creation of detailed language learning kits that are rooted in storytelling, but expanded to include home-made board games,…

  12. World Disarmament Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woito, Robert, Ed.

    This kit presents a comprehensive introduction for students to arms control and disarmament issues. Included are copies of published and unpublished articles for each topic. Section I provides a self-survey to enable students to assess their own attitudes, values, and knowledge. The survey poses questions for which students select one of several…

  13. Screening of antibiotics residues and development a new kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhaoui, Faycel

    2009-01-01

    The first part of the work was to detect antibiotic residues in animal nutriment: chicken, fish, eggs and milk, by methods of screening: First Test and Delvotest. The second part covered the development of a new kit for the detection of antibiotics residues for honey and competitor kit First Test and saving time and money.

  14. Entropy Based Test Point Evaluation and Selection Method for Analog Circuit Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By simplifying tolerance problem and treating faulty voltages on different test points as independent variables, integer-coded table technique is proposed to simplify the test point selection process. Usually, simplifying tolerance problem may induce a wrong solution while the independence assumption will result in over conservative result. To address these problems, the tolerance problem is thoroughly considered in this paper, and dependency relationship between different test points is considered at the same time. A heuristic graph search method is proposed to facilitate the test point selection process. First, the information theoretic concept of entropy is used to evaluate the optimality of test point. The entropy is calculated by using the ambiguous sets and faulty voltage distribution, determined by component tolerance. Second, the selected optimal test point is used to expand current graph node by using dependence relationship between the test point and graph node. Simulated results indicate that the proposed method more accurately finds the optimal set of test points than other methods; therefore, it is a good solution to minimize the size of the test point set. To simplify and clarify the proposed method, only catastrophic and some specific parametric faults are discussed in this paper.

  15. IODOBELL in vivo kits for in situ labelling with iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koernyei, Jozsef; Lakatos, Mihaly; Kecskes, Ferenc; Mahunka, Imre; Mikecz, Pal; Ando, Laszlo

    1988-01-01

    A system of in vivo kits called IODOBELL was developed in the Institute of Isotopes, Budapest. The production of hepatodecanoic acid for cardiology, iodo-hippuranic acid for kidney diagnostics and a special pharmaceutical, IODOBELL-MIGB for the indication of feochromocitoma and neuroblastoma is reported. The heptadecanoic acid kit is under human examination, the other two are to be tested in the near future. IODOBELL kits contribute to the wider use of 123 I in Hungary. (author) 6 refs

  16. 49 CFR 173.161 - Chemical kits and first aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical kits and first aid kits. 173.161 Section... Class 7 § 173.161 Chemical kits and first aid kits. (a) Chemical kits and First aid kits must conform to... 10 kg. (b) Chemical kits and First aid kits are excepted from the specification packaging...

  17. Build an Emergency Preparedness Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition to the items listed above, a vehicle kit should include: -fire extinguisher. -booster cables and tow rope. -compass and road maps. -shovel. -tire repair kit and pump. -extra clothing to keep dry. - ...

  18. ISS Expedition 08 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 08 from 10/2003-04/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  19. Testing the renormalisation group theory of cooperative transitions at the lambda point of helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, J. A.; Li, Q.; Chui, T. C. P.; Marek, D.

    1988-01-01

    The status of high resolution tests of the renormalization group theory of cooperative phase transitions performed near the lambda point of helium is described. The prospects for performing improved tests in space are discussed.

  20. Personal Computer-less (PC-less) Microcontroller Training Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somantri, Y.; Wahyudin, D.; Fushilat, I.

    2018-02-01

    The need of microcontroller training kit is necessary for practical work of students of electrical engineering education. However, to use available training kit not only costly but also does not meet the need of laboratory requirements. An affordable and portable microcontroller kit could answer such problem. This paper explains the design and development of Personal Computer Less (PC-Less) Microcontroller Training Kit. It was developed based on Lattepanda processor and Arduino microcontroller as target. The training kit equipped with advanced input-output interfaces that adopted the concept of low cost and low power system. The preliminary usability testing proved this device can be used as a tool for microcontroller programming and industrial automation training. By adopting the concept of portability, the device could be operated in the rural area which electricity and computer infrastructure are limited. Furthermore, the training kit is suitable for student of electrical engineering student from university and vocational high school.

  1. Low knowledge and anecdotal use of unauthorized online HIV self-test kits among attendees at a street-based HIV rapid testing programme in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, M José; Figueroa, Carmen; Rosales-Statkus, M Elena; Ruiz, Mónica; Vallejo, Fernando; de la Fuente, Luis

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentage of potential users who know that unauthorized HIV self-tests can be purchased online and the percentage of those who have already used them, and to determine socio-demographic and behavioural correlates. A self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect data from attendees at a street-based HIV testing programme. Logistic regression for rare events was performed. Of the 3340 participants, 5.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5-6.0%) had knowledge of self-tests being sold online and 7.5% (95% CI 6.6-8.5%) thought they existed but had never seen them; only 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-0.9%) had ever used one. Knowing that self-tests are sold online (odds ratio (OR) 3.6, 95% CI 2.4-5.4) and using them (OR 7.3, 95% CI 2.2-23.8) were associated with having undergone more than two previous HIV tests. Use was also associated with being neither Spanish nor Latin American (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-12.0) and with having a university degree (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). At the time of the study, the impact on the population of issues related to the use of unauthorized tests was very low. However, media coverage following the approval of self-testing in the USA might have changed the situation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200-MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched uranium oxycarbide fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technology readiness level, licensing approach, and costs of the test reactor point design.

  3. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200-MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched uranium oxycarbide fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technology readiness level, licensing approach, and costs of the test reactor point design.

  4. The characterization of four gene expression analysis in circulating tumor cells made by Multiplex-PCR from the AdnaTest kit on the lab-on-a-chip Agilent DNA 1000 platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škereňová, Markéta; Mikulová, Veronika; Čapoun, Otakar; Zima, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, on-a-chip capillary electrophoresis is a routine method for the detection of PCR fragments. The Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer was one of the first commercial devices in this field. Our project was designed to study the characteristics of Agilent DNA 1000 kit in PCR fragment analysis as a part of circulating tumour cell (CTC) detection technique. Despite the common use of this kit a complex analysis of the results from a long-term project is still missing. A commercially available Agilent DNA 1000 kit was used as a final step in the CTC detection (AdnaTest) for the determination of the presence of PCR fragments generated by Multiplex PCR. Data from 30 prostate cancer patients obtained during two years of research were analyzed to determine the trueness and precision of the PCR fragment size determination. Additional experiments were performed to demonstrate the precision (repeatability, reproducibility) and robustness of PCR fragment concentration determination. The trueness and precision of the size determination was below 3% and 2% respectively. The repeatability of the concentration determination was below 15%. The difference in concentration determination increases when Multiplex-PCR/storage step is added between the two measurements of one sample. The characteristics established in our study are in concordance with the manufacturer's specifications established for a ladder as a sample. However, the concentration determination may vary depending on chip preparation, sample storage and concentration. The 15% variation of concentration determination repeatability was shown to be partly proportional and can be suppressed by proper normalization.

  5. A Studentized Permutation Test for the Comparison of Spatial Point Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Ute

    of empirical K-functions are compared by a permutation test using a studentized test statistic. The proposed test performs convincingly in terms of empirical level and power in a simulation study, even for point patterns where the K-function estimates on neighboring subsamples are not strictly exchangeable....... It also shows improved behavior compared to a test suggested by Diggle et al. (1991, 2000) for the comparison of groups of independently replicated point patterns. In an application to two point patterns from pathology that represent capillary positions in sections of healthy and tumorous tissue, our...

  6. Evaluation of a new rapid diagnostic kit (FemExam) for bacterial vaginosis in patients with vaginal discharge syndrome in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, Beryl; Morison, Linda; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten; Gooding, Euphemia; Awasana, Akum Aveika; Demba, Edward; Mayaud, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in resource-poor primary health care settings is often overlooked; there is a need for a cheap, rapid, objective point-of-care diagnostic test. The goal was to determine the prevalence of BV and to evaluate the performance of a new commercial diagnostic test kit

  7. Factors associated with use and non-use of the Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) kit for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Response to a 2012 outreach screening program: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Nancy P; Green, Beverly B

    2015-06-11

    The one-sample fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is gaining popularity for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening of average-risk people. However, uptake and annual use remain suboptimal. In 2013, we mailed questionnaires to three groups of nonHispanic White, Black, and Latino Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) members ages 52-76 who received FIT kits in 2010-2012: Continuers did the FIT all 3 years; Converts in 2012, but not 2010 or 2011; and Nonusers in none of the 3 years. The questionnaires covered social influences, perceived CRC risk, reasons for using (Continuers, Converts) or avoiding using (Nonusers) the FIT, and recommendations for improving the kit. Continuers (n = 607, response rate 67.5%), Converts (n = 317, response rate 35.6%), and Nonusers (n = 215, response rate 21.1%) did not differ in perceived risk or family history of CRC, but Nonusers were less likely than Continuers and Converts to know someone who had polyps or CRC. Continuers, Converts, and Nonusers did not differ in social network encouragement of CRC screening, but did differ in believing that it was very important that they be screened (88.3%, 68.4%, 47.7%) and that their medical team thought it very important that they be screened (88.6%, 79.9%, 53.9%). Approximately half of Continuers and Converts completed the FIT to please their doctor. Converts were less likely than Continuers to use the FIT to "make sure they were OK" (53.7% vs. 72.6%) or "protect their health" (46.1% vs. 76.4%). Nearly half of Converts completed the FIT out of guilt. Approximately half of FIT kit users suggested adding a disposable glove, extra paper, and wider-mouth tube to the kit. Nonusers' reasons for not using the FIT included discomfort, disgust, or embarrassment (59.6%); thinking it unnecessary (32.9%); fatalism/fear (15.5%); and thinking it too difficult to use (14.5%), but screening at all. Nonusers and irregular users of the FIT are less intrinsically motivated to get CRC screening than

  8. Comparative studies of commercially available T4-RIA-kits. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.A.E.; Lipke, P.

    1978-01-01

    The investigation of the tested commercially available T 4 -RIA-Kits have shown that: The separation of hypo-, eu- and hyperthyroid values is better with kits a) and f) than with b), c), d) and e), though all kits give acceptable values under routine operating conditions, kit b) takes less time and work than the other tested kits, depending on the kit used, the time needed for 100 determinations varies between 1,5 and 4 hr. A general recommendation for one of the tested T 4 -RIA-Kits cannot be made since the choice of a kit depends not only on the criteria discussed but also on local circumstances. (orig.) [de

  9. [Consistency study of PowerPlex 21 kit and Goldeneye 20A kit and forensic application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, He; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Qing-Xia; Jiao, Zhang-Ping

    2014-06-01

    To ensure the consistency of genotype results for PowerPlex 21 kit and Goldeneye 20A kit. The STR loci were amplified in DNA samples from 205 unrelated individuals in Beijing Han population. And consistency of 19 overlap STR loci typing were observed. The genetic polymorphism of D1S1656 locus was obtained. All 19 overlap loci typing showed consistent. The proportion of peak height of heterozygous loci in two kits showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The observed heterozygosis of D1S1656 was 0.878. The discrimination power was 0.949. The excluding probability of paternity of triplet was 0.751. The excluding probability of paternity of diploid was 0.506. The polymorphism information content was 0.810. PowerPlex 21 kit and Goldeneye 20A kit present a good consistency. The primer design is reasonable. The polymorphism of D1S1656 is good. The two kits can be used for human genetic analysis, paternity test, and individual identification in forensic practice.

  10. Rapid Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Syphilis in High-Risk Populations, Manaus, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sabid?, Meritxell; Benzaken, Adele S.; de Andrade Rodrigues, ?nio Jos?; Mayaud, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    : We assessed the acceptability and operational suitability of a rapid point-of-care syphilis test and identified barriers to testing among high-risk groups and healthcare professionals in a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil. Use of this test could considerably alleviate the impact of syphilis in hard-to-reach populations in the Amazon region of Brazil.

  11. The Sun-Earth saddle point: characterization and opportunities to test general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topputo, Francesco; Dei Tos, Diogene A.; Rasotto, Mirco; Nakamiya, Masaki

    2018-04-01

    The saddle points are locations where the net gravitational accelerations balance. These regions are gathering more attention within the astrophysics community. Regions about the saddle points present clean, close-to-zero background acceleration environments where possible deviations from General Relativity can be tested and quantified. Their location suggests that flying through a saddle point can be accomplished by leveraging highly nonlinear orbits. In this paper, the geometrical and dynamical properties of the Sun-Earth saddle point are characterized. A systematic approach is devised to find ballistic orbits that experience one or multiple passages through this point. A parametric analysis is performed to consider spacecraft initially on L_{1,2} Lagrange point orbits. Sun-Earth saddle point ballistic fly-through trajectories are evaluated and classified for potential use. Results indicate an abundance of short-duration, regular solutions with a variety of characteristics.

  12. Tracing the Base: A Topographic Test for Collusive Basing-Point Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Iwan; Schinkel, Maarten Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Basing-point pricing is known to have been abused by geographically dispersed firms in order to eliminate competition on transportation costs. This paper develops a topographic test for collusive basing-point pricing. The method uses transaction data (prices, quantities) and customer project site

  13. Tracing the base: A topographic test for collusive basing-point pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, I.; Schinkel, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Basing-point pricing is known to have been abused by geographically dispersed firms in order to eliminate competition on transportation costs. This paper develops a topographic test for collusive basing-point pricing. The method uses transaction data (prices, quantities) and customer project site

  14. Mobile Probing Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Probing Kit is a low tech and low cost methodology for obtaining inspiration and insights into user needs, requirements and ideas in the early phases of a system's development process. The methodology is developed to identify user needs, requirements and ideas among knowledge workers...... characterized as being highly nomadic and thus potential users of mobile and ubiquitous technologies. The methodology has been applied in the 1ST MAGNET Beyond project in order to obtain user needs and requirements in the process of developing pilot services. We report on the initial findings from applying...

  15. Evaluation of point-of-care tests for detecting microalbuminuria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of point-of-care tests for detecting microalbuminuria in diabetic patients. ... creatinine (modified Jaffe) and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). Results: Linear regression analysis demonstrated a good correlation for the HemoCue® ...

  16. Coastal Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics Imager Pointing Line-of-Sight Solution Development and Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A stable pointing line of sight solution is developed and tested in support of the Coastal Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics Imager for the GEOstationary Coastal and Air...

  17. Point of Maintenance Ruggedized Operational Device Evaluation and Observation Test Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorman, Megan

    2002-01-01

    .... The Ruggedized Operational Device Evaluation and Observation (RODEO) test examined hardware packaging, software user interface, and environmental factors associated with the usability of potential Point of Maintenance (POMx) electronic tools...

  18. Education Payload Operation - Kit D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Kit D (EPO-Kit D) includes education items that will be used to support the live International Space Station (ISS) education downlinks and Education Payload Operation (EPO) demonstrations onboard the ISS. The main objective of EPO-Kit D supports the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goal of attracting students to study and seek careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  19. The Predominance Of Integrative Tests Over Discrete Point Tests In Evaluating The Medical Students' General English Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam Heydarpour Meymeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Multiple choice tests are the most common type of tests used in evaluating the general English knowledge of the students in most medical universities, however the efficacy of these tests are not examined precisely. Wecompare and examine the integrative tests and discrete point tests as measures of the English language knowledge of medical students.Methods: Three tests were given to 60 undergraduate physiotherapy and Audiology students in their second year of study (after passing their general English course. They were divided into 2 groups.The first test for both groups was an integrative test, writing. The second test was a multiple - choice test 0.(prepositions for group one and a multiple - choice test of tensesfor group two. The same items which were mostfi-equently used wrongly in thefirst test were used in the items of the second test. A third test, a TOEFL, was given to the subjects in order to estimate the correlation between this test and tests one and two.Results: The students performed better in the second test, discrete point test rather than the first which was an integrative test. The same grammatical mistakes in the composition were used correctly in the multiple choice tests by the students.Conclusion:Our findings show that student perform better in non-productive rather than productive test. Since being competent English language user is an expected outcome of university language courses it seems warranted to switch to integrative tests as a measure of English language competency.Keywords: INTEGRATIVE TESTS, ENGLISH LANGUAGE FOR MEDICINE, ACADEMIC ENGLISH

  20. Microgripper construction kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengenbach, Ulrich K.; Hofmann, Andreas; Engelhardt, Friedhelm; Scharnowell, Rudolf; Koehler, Bernd

    2001-10-01

    A large number of microgrippers has been developed in industry and academia. Although the importance of hybrid integration techniques and hence the demand for assembly tools grows continuously a large part of these developments has not yet been used in industrial production. The first grippers developed for microassembly were basically vacuum grippers and downscaled tweezers. Due to increasingly complex assembly tasks more and more functionality such as sensing or additional functions such as adhesive dispensing has been integrated into gripper systems over the last years. Most of these gripper systems are incompatible since there exists no standard interface to the assembly machine and no standard for the internal modules and interfaces. Thus these tools are not easily interchangeable between assembly machines and not easily adaptable to assembly tasks. In order to alleviate this situation a construction kit for modular microgrippers is being developed. It is composed of modules with well defined interfaces that can be combined to build task specific grippers. An abstract model of a microgripper is proposed as a tool to structure the development of the construction kit. The modular concept is illustrated with prototypes.

  1. Fatigue crack behaviour: comparing three-point bend test and wedge splitting test data on vibrated concrete using Paris' law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Thienpont, T.; De Corte, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 39 (2017), s. 110-117 ISSN 1971-8993 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fatigue crack behaviour * Tree-point bending test * Wedge splitting test * Self-compacting concrete Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis

  2. Clinical Evaluation of 2 Point-of-Care Lateral Flow Tests for the Diagnosis of Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Kiragga, Agnes; Mbazira, Joshua Kimeze; Kambugu, Fred; Jett-Goheen, Mary; Ratanshi, Rosalind Parkes; Gaydos, Charlotte; Manabe, Yukari C

    2016-10-01

    A diagnostic performance study comparing the only Food and Drug Administration-approved, point-of-care (POC) treponemal test (Syphilis Health Check) and the World Health Organization pre-qualified SD Bioline POC treponemal test against a treponemal hemagglutination test (TPHA) and a sequential algorithm of nontreponemal rapid plasma reagin and TPHA found both POC tests had >85% sensitivity compared with the TPHA and >85% sensitivity and >95% specificity compared with the rapid plasma reagin and TPHA standards.

  3. Personal radiotoxicological (first aid) kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gachalyi, Andras; Gyulai, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the spread of nuclear industrial activities, and the widespread use of radioactive materials and products the possibility of radionuclide contamination of humans and animals has significantly increased. During nuclear tests or reactor accidents, a large amount of radioactive materials may enter the environment which can contaminate the living environment (air, water, vegetation, soil), for a long period. This contamination may enter living organisms by inhalation, intake and ingestion, causing severe biological damage. As an example the Chernobyl reactor accident can be mentioned, where there was no possibility for the decorporation of isotopes, as there were no products available such as the 'RADISTOP'. To achieve appropriate decorporating (and decontaminating) treatment which is effective, it is highly recommendable to use a personal Radiotoxicological First Aid Kit (PRK) within the shortest possible time after internal contamination. This unit provides effective treatment to decorporate the most common incorporated fission products. (author)

  4. Developing Save Your Food Kit (Sayofu Kit) to Support Inquiry, Improve Student Learning Outcomes at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin and Public Awareness on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astutik, J.

    2017-02-01

    Food additives are materials that can not be separated from the lives of students and the community. Based on the preliminary questionnaire, it indicates the lack of kit supporting material additives in some schools and communities. The research objectives of this development are (1) to develop Kit experiment (SAYOFU KIT) and supplementary books to improve student learning outcomes in the classroom and public awareness on food additives (2) to describe the feasibility and potential effectiveness of SAYOFU KIT developed (3) to analyze the practice of SAYOFU KIT and benefits for students and the community. This development study uses 4-D models Thiagarajan, et al (1974). Through some stages, they are: defining, designing, developing and disseminating which involes the students and community. The developed SAYOFU KIT includes additives sample kit, borax test kit, curcumin test kit, formaldehyde test kit, modification heater to the identification of dyes and dye test paper. The study is conducted at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin, and TKIT Al Uswah. The products are validated by experts and education practitioners. Qualitative data processing uses descriptive method, whereas quantitative data by using the N-gain. The average yield of expert validation of SAYOFU KIT with supplementary books 76.50% teacher’s book and 76.30% student’s book are eligible. The average yield of 96.81% validation of educational practitioners criteria, piloting a small group of 83.15%, and 82.89% field trials are very decent. The average yield on the student questionnaire responses SAYOFU kit and supplementary book is 87.6% with the criteria very well worth it. N-Gain 0:56 cognitive achievement with the criteria enough. The results of the public poll showed 95% feel the benefits SAYOFU kits for testing food. Based from description indicates that SAYOFU Kit developed feasible, practical, useful to support inquiry learning and improve student learning outcomes as well as public awareness of

  5. Point-of-care hemoglobin testing for postmortem diagnosis of anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Joo-Young; Park, Ji Hye; Choi, Byung Ha; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Park, Jong-Tae

    2018-03-01

    An autopsy involves examination of a body using invasive methods such as dissection, and includes various tests using samples procured during dissection. During medicolegal autopsies, the blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration is commonly measured using the AVOXimeter® 4000 as a point-of-care test. When evaluating the body following hypovolemic shock, characteristics such as reduced livor mortis or an anemic appearance of the viscera can be identified, but these observations arequite subjective. Thus, a more objective test is required for the postmortem diagnosis of anemia. In the present study, the AVOXimeter® 4000 was used to investigate the utility of point-of-care hemoglobin testing. Hemoglobin tests were performed in 93 autopsy cases. The AVOXimeter® 4000 and the BC-2800 Auto Hematology Analyzer were used to test identical samples in 29 of these cases. The results of hemoglobin tests performed with these two devices were statistically similar (r = 0.969). The results of hemoglobin tests using postmortem blood were compared with antemortem test results from medical records from 31 cases, and these results were similar. In 13 of 17 cases of death from internal hemorrhage, hemoglobin levels were lower in the cardiac blood than in blood from the affected body cavity, likely due to compensatory changes induced by antemortem hemorrhage. It is concluded that blood hemoglobin testing may be useful as a point-of-care test for diagnosing postmortem anemia.

  6. The testing of the Rectangular Pivot-point bellows for the PPPL Tokamak fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haughian, J.; Fong, M.; Greer, J.; Lou, K.; Scalise, D.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Neutral Beam Pivot Point Bellows (PPB) is installed in the duct which connects the Neutral Beam Enclosure to the Torus. This bellows, located at the pivot point, must fit the severely limited space available at the pivot-point location. Consequently, it has to be made rectangular in cross section with a large inside area for beam access. This leads to small convolutions with high stress concentrations. The function of the bellows is to permit change in the angular positioning of the neutral beam line with respect to the Tokamak, to isolate the Neutral Beam Line from the deflection of the Torus during bake out, and to allow for all misalignments. Internally the bellows will have a vacuum along with such gases such as hydrogen or deuterium. Externally, air or nitrogen gas will be present. It is constructed of Inconel 718 convolutions welded together to provide a clear rectangular opening of 23.4 by 32.2 inches, joined to a 625 Inconel flange at each end

  7. Cost-effectiveness of point-of-care testing for dehydration in the pediatric ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Rachel E; Santucci, Karen; Hsiao, Allen; Chen, Lei

    2016-08-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and subsequent dehydration account for a large proportion of pediatric emergency department (PED) visits. Point-of-care (POC) testing has been used in conjunction with clinical assessment to determine the degree of dehydration. Despite the wide acceptance of POC testing, little formal cost-effective analysis of POC testing in the PED exists. We aim to examine the cost-effectiveness of using POC electrolyte testing vs traditional serum chemistry testing in the PED for children with AGE. This was a cost-effective analysis using data from a randomized control trial of children with AGE. A decision analysis model was constructed to calculate cost-savings from the point of view of the payer and the provider. We used parameters obtained from the trial, including cost of testing, admission rates, cost of admission, and length of stay. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the stability of our model. Using the data set of 225 subjects, POC testing results in a cost savings of $303.30 per patient compared with traditional serum testing from the point of the view of the payer. From the point-of-view of the provider, POC testing results in consistent mean savings of $36.32 ($8.29-$64.35) per patient. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated the stability of the model and consistent savings. This decision analysis provides evidence that POC testing in children with gastroenteritis-related moderate dehydration results in significant cost savings from the points of view of payers and providers compared to traditional serum chemistry testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation among High School Senior Students' Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group of…

  9. Transillumination test: A bedside aid for differentiating meningocele from myelomeningocele: Point of care testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakash Pandita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transillumination test is a bedside and simple technique to illuminate the body cavity by transmission of light through the cavity. Transillumination test is used in a variety of conditions like hydrocele, Hydrocephalus, pneumoperitonium and pneumothorax in neonatology. We describe use of transillumination for differentiating meningocele and myelomeningocele.

  10. Eficiência dos testes COPAN (Microplate e Single na detecção de resíduos de antimicrobianos no leite Efficacy of COPAN (Microplate and Single kits in detection of antimicrobials residues in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G.M.S.C. Tenório

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência dos testes microbiológicos COPAN (Microplate e Single para detecção de resíduos de 13 antimicrobianos inoculados em leite isento de resíduos. Foram utilizadas quatro concentrações, sendo a primeira equivalente à metade do limite de detecção declarado pelo fabricante (C1; a segunda equivalente ao limite máximo de resíduos (LMR estabelecido pela legislação brasileira (C2; a terceira equivalente ao limite de detecção declarado pelo fabricante (C3; e a quarta equivalente ao dobro do limite de detecção declarado pelo fabricante (C4. Os testes apresentaram 100% de sensibilidade na detecção de amoxicilina, ampicilina, cloxacilina, penicilina, tilosina, sulfadiazina, sulfametoxazol, e 96,7% na detecção de oxacilina para as concentrações informadas pelo fabricante como limite de detecção. Em relação às concentrações estabelecidas pela legislação brasileira, verificou-se que os testes foram capazes de detectá-las para a maioria dos antimicrobianos avaliados. Os testes não se mostraram eficientes na detecção das concentrações estabelecidas pela legislação para eritromicina, oxitetraciclina, tetraciclina, trimetoprim e gentamicina (Microplate.The efficacy of the microbiological kits COPAN (Microplate and Single for detection of antimicrobials residues was tested. Thirteen drugs were inoculated into milk without residues at four concentration levels: C1 - half of the detection threshold declared by the manufacturer, C2 - the maximum residues threshold established by the Brazilian legislation, C3 - the detection threshold declared by the manufacturer, and C4 - two fold the detection threshold declared by the manufacturer. The tests showed 100% efficient in detection of amoxicillin, cloxacillin, penicillin, tilosin, sulfadiazine, and sulfa methoxazol; and 96.7% for oxacillin considering the concentration stated by the manufacturer as threshold level. Regarding the concentrations established by

  11. Dumpster Optics: teaching and learning optics without a kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Judy; Magnani, Nancy; Robinson, Kathleen

    2016-09-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and renewed emphasis on STEM education in the U.S. have resulted in the development of many educational kits for teaching science in general and optics in particular. Many teachers do not have funding to purchase kits and practical experience has shown that even costly kits can have poorly written and misleading instructions and may include experiments that would not work in a classroom. Dumpster Optics lessons are designed to use inexpensive, commonly found materials. All lessons have been field-tested with students. We will describe the development of the lessons, provide examples of field testing experiences and outline possible future activities.

  12. The complete linkage disequilibrium test: a test that points to causative mutations underlying quantitative traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uleberg Eivind

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically, SNP that are in complete linkage disequilibrium with the causative SNP cannot be distinguished from the causative SNP. The Complete Linkage Disequilibrium (CLD test presented here tests whether a SNP is in complete LD with the causative mutation or not. The performance of the CLD test is evaluated in 1000 simulated datasets. Methods The CLD test consists of two steps i.e. analysis I and analysis II. Analysis I consists of an association analysis of the investigated region. The log-likelihood values from analysis I are next ranked in descending order and in analysis II the CLD test evaluates differences in log-likelihood ratios between the best and second best markers. Under the null-hypothesis distribution, the best SNP is in greater LD with the QTL than the second best, while under the alternative-CLD-hypothesis, the best SNP is alike-in-state with the QTL. To find a significance threshold, the test was also performed on data excluding the causative SNP. The 5th, 10th and 50th highest TCLD value from 1000 replicated analyses were used to control the type-I-error rate of the test at p = 0.005, p = 0.01 and p = 0.05, respectively. Results In a situation where the QTL explained 48% of the phenotypic variance analysis I detected a QTL in 994 replicates (p = 0.001, where 972 were positioned in the correct QTL position. When the causative SNP was excluded from the analysis, 714 replicates detected evidence of a QTL (p = 0.001. In analysis II, the CLD test confirmed 280 causative SNP from 1000 simulations (p = 0.05, i.e. power was 28%. When the effect of the QTL was reduced by doubling the error variance, the power of the test reduced relatively little to 23%. When sequence data were used, the power of the test reduced to 16%. All SNP that were confirmed by the CLD test were positioned in the correct QTL position. Conclusions The CLD test can provide evidence for a causative SNP, but its power may be low in situations

  13. Radiology seminars using teaching kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, T.G.

    1989-01-01

    Clinco-radiological seminars are an effective method of teaching medical students. However, in busy departments it is often difficult to provide enough radiologists for small group instruction. This can be facilitated by the use of prepared teaching kits. Each kit contains a set of duplicated films and a syllabus which gives a short clinical history for each patient and a series of questions to be used to direct the discussion. Each diagnostic problem is chosen to demonstrate core material. We have been using these teaching kits for organ system teaching in the preclerkship year. Teaching kits offer several advantages. They make it easier to recruit seminar leaders through efficient use of their time. The use of duplicated films and a syllabus ensures that all students cover the same material. The syllabus can be used to generate examination questions for reinforcement of important concepts. The kits are also available to students to review alone and can be readily updated as required

  14. A Laboratory-Based Evaluation of Four Rapid Point-of-Care Tests for Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causer, Louise M.; Kaldor, John M.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Donovan, Basil; Karapanagiotidis, Theo; Leslie, David E.; Robertson, Peter W.; McNulty, Anna M.; Anderson, David; Wand, Handan; Conway, Damian P.; Denham, Ian; Ryan, Claire; Guy, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Syphilis point-of-care tests may reduce morbidity and ongoing transmission by increasing the proportion of people rapidly treated. Syphilis stage and co-infection with HIV may influence test performance. We evaluated four commercially available syphilis point-of-care devices in a head-to-head comparison using sera from laboratories in Australia. Methods Point-of-care tests were evaluated using sera stored at Sydney and Melbourne laboratories. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by standard methods, comparing point-of-care results to treponemal immunoassay (IA) reference test results. Additional analyses by clinical syphilis stage, HIV status, and non-treponemal antibody titre were performed. Non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals (CI) were considered statistically significant differences in estimates. Results In total 1203 specimens were tested (736 IA-reactive, 467 IA-nonreactive). Point-of-care test sensitivities were: Determine 97.3%(95%CI:95.8–98.3), Onsite 92.5%(90.3–94.3), DPP 89.8%(87.3–91.9) and Bioline 87.8%(85.1–90.0). Specificities were: Determine 96.4%(94.1–97.8), Onsite 92.5%(90.3–94.3), DPP 98.3%(96.5–99.2), and Bioline 98.5%(96.8–99.3). Sensitivity of the Determine test was 100% for primary and 100% for secondary syphilis. The three other tests had reduced sensitivity among primary (80.4–90.2%) compared to secondary syphilis (94.3–98.6%). No significant differences in sensitivity were observed by HIV status. Test sensitivities were significantly higher among high-RPR titre (RPR≥8) (range: 94.6–99.5%) than RPR non-reactive infections (range: 76.3–92.9%). Conclusions The Determine test had the highest sensitivity overall. All tests were most sensitive among high-RPR titre infections. Point-of-care tests have a role in syphilis control programs however in developed countries with established laboratory infrastructures, the lower sensitivities of some tests observed in primary syphilis suggest these would

  15. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc. Methods: Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Results: Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Conclusion: Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. Impact of the study: This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing. Keywords: Epoc, Capillary, Transport, Blood gas, Point of care

  16. Hypothesis testing of a change point during cognitive decline among Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ming; Xiong, Chengjie; Grundman, Michael

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we present a statistical hypothesis test for detecting a change point over the course of cognitive decline among Alzheimer's disease patients. The model under the null hypothesis assumes a constant rate of cognitive decline over time and the model under the alternative hypothesis is a general bilinear model with an unknown change point. When the change point is unknown, however, the null distribution of the test statistics is not analytically tractable and has to be simulated by parametric bootstrap. When the alternative hypothesis that a change point exists is accepted, we propose an estimate of its location based on the Akaike's Information Criterion. We applied our method to a data set from the Neuropsychological Database Initiative by implementing our hypothesis testing method to analyze Mini Mental Status Exam scores based on a random-slope and random-intercept model with a bilinear fixed effect. Our result shows that despite large amount of missing data, accelerated decline did occur for MMSE among AD patients. Our finding supports the clinical belief of the existence of a change point during cognitive decline among AD patients and suggests the use of change point models for the longitudinal modeling of cognitive decline in AD research.

  17. Preparation and quality control of ECD kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassin, T.; Dadokh, M.; Almalki, R.

    2005-05-01

    ECD Kit for brain imaging after labeling with technetium 99m was prepared according to an optimum conditions, Each vial contains 1 mg of ECD and 0.155 mg of stannous chloride anhydrous SnCl 2 , 24 mg of Mannitol and 0.5 mg of Na 2 Ca EDTA, The prepared kit showed high quality satisfying the requirements of international pharmacopoeias from the points of physical, chemical, radiochemical and biological purities, and its validity for human injection. And the labeling yield exceeded 95 % with average value of about 97.63 ± 0.89% for 2mCi /2ml radioactivity , This study also showed that each vial content can be labeled with maximum activity of 99m Tc of about 50 mCi (Authors)

  18. RNI Point-of-care test (POCT: esperança ou ilusão? Point-of-care test (POCT INR: hope or illusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Maria Sant'Ana Dusse

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Na última década, foram desenvolvidos os testes point-of-care visando à geração rápida de resultados de exames. Na área da hemostasia, a razão normatizada internacional, o RNI point-of-care test (RNI-POCT, constitui o principal exame dessa nova proposta. Esse teste tem grande potencial de benefício em situações em que o resultado rápido da RNI influencia a tomada de decisão clínica, como no acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo, antes de procedimentos cirúrgicos e durante cirurgias cardíacas, além de permitir que o próprio paciente faça a monitoração da anticoagulação oral. Entretanto, a precisão e a acurácia da RNI-POCT ainda precisam ser aprimoradas para aumentar a eficácia e a eficiência do teste. A RDC/ANVISA Nº 302 deixa claro que os testes POCT devem ser supervisionados pelo responsável técnico do Laboratório Clínico nas fases pré-analítica, analítica e pós-analítica. Na prática, o laboratório não participa da execução desses testes e liberação dos resultados, não sendo, portanto, o mais indicado para garantir a qualidade dos mesmos. Os clínicos, especialmente aqueles envolvidos com a anticoagulação oral de pacientes, têm grande expectativa na incorporação da RNI-POCT na prática diária, apesar das limitações desse método. Esses profissionais mostram-se dispostos a treinar o paciente para realizar o teste, mas legalmente não são os responsáveis pela qualidade do mesmo e não estão preparados para a manutenção dos equipamentos. A definição do responsável pelo RNI-POCT precisa ser reavaliada pelos órgãos competentes, de forma a garantir que seja cumprida, e constitui etapa essencial para assegurar a qualidade do teste e, consequentemente, sua maior utilização.In the last decade, point-of-care tests were developed to provide rapid generation of test results. These tests have increasingly broad applications. In the area of hemostasis, the international normalized ratio

  19. Adhesion strength of Ni film on Ti substrate characterized by three-point bend test, peel test and theoretic calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, F.Z.; Liu, P.; Jia, S.G.; Tian, B.H.; Su, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Electroplating was employed to fabricate the Ni film on the Ti substrate. Adhesion strength of Ni film on Ti substrate was determined using the three-point bend technique that was proposed in standard mechanics test. The experimental results demonstrate that the interface fracture energies obviously increase with the roughness of Ti substrates, and are independence with the thickness of Ni films. Moreover, the adhesion strength of Ni film on Ti substrate was also measured by peel test, and was evaluated by Miedema model of experiential electron theory. The intrinsic interface fracture energy measured by three-point bend test is reasonable agreement with that obtained by theoretical calculation of Miedema model, and is roughly comparable to that by peel test

  20. Testing to fulfill HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) requirements: principles and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, I A

    1997-12-01

    On-farm HACCP (hazard analysis critical control points) monitoring requires cost-effective, yet accurate and reproducible tests that can determine the status of cows, milk, and the dairy environment. Tests need to be field-validated, and their limitations need to be established so that appropriate screening strategies can be initiated and test results can be rationally interpreted. For infections and residues of low prevalence, tests or testing strategies that are highly specific help to minimize false-positive results and excessive costs to the dairy industry. The determination of the numbers of samples to be tested in HACCP monitoring programs depends on the specific purpose of the test and the likely prevalence of the agent or residue at the critical control point. The absence of positive samples from a herd test should not be interpreted as freedom from a particular agent or residue unless the entire herd has been tested with a test that is 100% sensitive. The current lack of field-validated tests for most of the chemical and infectious agents of concern makes it difficult to ensure that the stated goals of HACCP programs are consistently achieved.

  1. A New Method for Blood NT-proBNP Determination Based on a Near-infrared Point of Care Testing Device with High Sensitivity and Wide Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Guang; Shu, Yao Gen; Gao, Ju; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Li Peng; Wang, Meng; Cao, Yu Xi; Zeng, Yi

    2017-06-01

    To develop a rapid, highly sensitive, and quantitative method for the detection of NT-proBNP levels based on a near-infrared point-of-care diagnostic (POCT) device with wide scope. The lateral flow assay (LFA) strip of NT-proBNP was first prepared to achieve rapid detection. Then, the antibody pairs for NT-proBNP were screened and labeled with the near-infrared fluorescent dye Dylight-800. The capture antibody was fixed on a nitrocellulose membrane by a scribing device. Serial dilutions of serum samples were prepared using NT-proBNP-free serum series. The prepared test strips, combined with a near-infrared POCT device, were validated by known concentrations of clinical samples. The POCT device gave the output of the ratio of the intensity of the fluorescence signal of the detection line to that of the quality control line. The relationship between the ratio value and the concentration of the specimen was plotted as a work curve. The results of 62 clinical specimens obtained from our method were compared in parallel with those obtained from the Roche E411 kit. Based on the log-log plot, the new method demonstrated that there was a good linear relationship between the ratio value and NT-proBNP concentrations ranging from 20 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL. The results of the 62 clinical specimens measured by our method showed a good linear correlation with those measured by the Roche E411 kit. The new LFA detection method of NT-proBNP levels based on the near-infrared POCT device was rapid and highly sensitive with wide scope and was thus suitable for rapid and early clinical diagnosis of cardiac impairment. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. Test sensitivity is important for detecting variability in pointing comprehension in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongrácz, Péter; Gácsi, Márta; Hegedüs, Dorottya; Péter, András; Miklósi, Adám

    2013-09-01

    Several articles have been recently published on dogs' (Canis familiaris) performance in two-way object choice experiments in which subjects had to find hidden food by utilizing human pointing. The interpretation of results has led to a vivid theoretical debate about the cognitive background of human gestural signal understanding in dogs, despite the fact that many important details of the testing method have not yet been standardized. We report three experiments that aim to reveal how some procedural differences influence adult companion dogs' performance in these tests. Utilizing a large sample in Experiment 1, we provide evidence that neither the keeping conditions (garden/house) nor the location of the testing (outdoor/indoor) affect a dogs' performance. In Experiment 2, we compare dogs' performance using three different types of pointing gestures. Dogs' performance varied between momentary distal and momentary cross-pointing but "low" and "high" performer dogs chose uniformly better than chance level if they responded to sustained pointing gestures with reinforcement (food reward and a clicking sound; "clicker pointing"). In Experiment 3, we show that single features of the aforementioned "clicker pointing" method can slightly improve dogs' success rate if they were added one by one to the momentary distal pointing method. These results provide evidence that although companion dogs show a robust performance at different testing locations regardless of their keeping conditions, the exact execution of the human gesture and additional reinforcement techniques have substantial effect on the outcomes. Consequently, researchers should standardize their methodology before engaging in debates on the comparative aspects of socio-cognitive skills because the procedures they utilize may differ in sensitivity for detecting differences.

  3. The use of point load test for Dubai weak calcareous sandstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Farouk Elhakim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Intact rock is typically described according to its uniaxial compressive strength (UCS. The UCS is needed in the design of geotechnical engineering problems including stability of rock slopes and design of shallow and deep foundations resting on and/or in rocks. Accordingly, a correct measurement/evaluation of the UCS is essential to a safe and economic design. Typically, the UCS is measured using the unconfined compression tests performed on cylindrical intact specimens with a minimum length to width ratio of 2. In several cases, especially for weak and very weak rocks, it is not possible to extract intact specimens with the needed minimum dimensions. Thus, alternative tests (e.g. point load test, Schmidt hammer are used to measure rock strength. The UCS is computed based on the results of these tests through empirical correlations. The literature includes a plethora of these correlations that vary widely in estimating rock strength. Thus, it is paramount to validate these correlations to check their suitability for estimating rock strength for a specific location and geology. A review of the available correlations used to estimate the UCS from the point load test results is performed and summarized herein. Results of UCS, point load strength index and Young's modulus are gathered for calcareous sandstone specimens extracted from the Dubai area. A correlation for estimating the UCS from the point load strength index is proposed. Furthermore, the Young's modulus is correlated to the UCS.

  4. A New Test Unit for Disintegration End-Point Determination of Orodispersible Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ariana; Kok, Si Ling; Khong, Yuet Mei; Chan, Sui Yung; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    No standard time or pharmacopoeia disintegration test method for orodispersible films (ODFs) exists. The USP disintegration test for tablets and capsules poses significant challenges for end-point determination when used for ODFs. We tested a newly developed disintegration test unit (DTU) against the USP disintegration test. The DTU is an accessory to the USP disintegration apparatus. It holds the ODF in a horizontal position, allowing top-view of the ODF during testing. A Gauge R&R study was conducted to assign relative contributions of the total variability from the operator, sample or the experimental set-up. Precision was compared using commercial ODF products in different media. Agreement between the two measurement methods was analysed. The DTU showed improved repeatability and reproducibility compared to the USP disintegration system with tighter standard deviations regardless of operator or medium. There is good agreement between the two methods, with the USP disintegration test giving generally longer disintegration times possibly due to difficulty in end-point determination. The DTU provided clear end-point determination and is suitable for quality control of ODFs during product developmental stage or manufacturing. This may facilitate the development of a standardized methodology for disintegration time determination of ODFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Challenges and Opportunities of Centrifugal Microfluidics for Extreme Point-of-Care Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issac J. Michael

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The advantages offered by centrifugal microfluidic systems have encouraged its rapid adaptation in the fields of in vitro diagnostics, clinical chemistry, immunoassays, and nucleic acid tests. Centrifugal microfluidic devices are currently used in both clinical and point-of-care settings. Recent studies have shown that this new diagnostic platform could be potentially used in extreme point-of-care settings like remote villages in the Indian subcontinent and in Africa. Several technological inventions have decentralized diagnostics in developing countries; however, very few microfluidic technologies have been successful in meeting the demand. By identifying the finest difference between the point-of-care testing and extreme point-of-care infrastructure, this review captures the evolving diagnostic needs of developing countries paired with infrastructural challenges with technological hurdles to healthcare delivery in extreme point-of-care settings. In particular, the requirements for making centrifugal diagnostic devices viable in developing countries are discussed based on a detailed analysis of the demands in different clinical settings including the distinctive needs of extreme point-of-care settings.

  6. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Edwards, Rachel; Chairez, Janette; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc). Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory) was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics) was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer) for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing.

  7. Pathologic Stimulus Determines Lineage Commitment of Cardiac C-kit+ Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongming; Zhu, Wuqiang; Bender, Ingrid; Gong, Wuming; Kwak, Il-Youp; Yellamilli, Amritha; Hodges, Thomas J; Nemoto, Natsumi; Zhang, Jianyi; Garry, Daniel J; van Berlo, Jop H

    2017-12-12

    Although cardiac c-kit + cells are being tested in clinical trials, the circumstances that determine lineage differentiation of c-kit + cells in vivo are unknown. Recent findings suggest that endogenous cardiac c-kit + cells rarely contribute cardiomyocytes to the adult heart. We assessed whether various pathological stimuli differentially affect the eventual cell fates of c-kit + cells. We used single-cell sequencing and genetic lineage tracing of c-kit + cells to determine whether various pathological stimuli would result in different fates of c-kit + cells. Single-cell sequencing of cardiac CD45 - c-kit + cells showed innate heterogeneity, indicative of the existence of vascular and mesenchymal c-kit + cells in normal hearts. Cardiac pressure overload resulted in a modest increase in c-kit-derived cardiomyocytes, with significant increases in the numbers of endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity did not increase c-kit-derived endothelial cell fates but instead induced cardiomyocyte differentiation. Mechanistically, doxorubicin-induced DNA damage in c-kit + cells resulted in expression of p53. Inhibition of p53 blocked cardiomyocyte differentiation in response to doxorubicin, whereas stabilization of p53 was sufficient to increase c-kit-derived cardiomyocyte differentiation. These results demonstrate that different pathological stimuli induce different cell fates of c-kit + cells in vivo. Although the overall rate of cardiomyocyte formation from c-kit + cells is still below clinically relevant levels, we show that p53 is central to the ability of c-kit + cells to adopt cardiomyocyte fates, which could lead to the development of strategies to preferentially generate cardiomyocytes from c-kit + cells. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Signal transduction by normal isoforms and W mutant variants of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, A D; Ellis, C; Lyman, S D; Anderson, D M; Williams, D E; Bernstein, A; Pawson, T

    1991-09-01

    Germline mutations at the Dominant White Spotting (W) and Steel (Sl) loci have provided conclusive genetic evidence that c-kit mediated signal transduction pathways are essential for normal mouse development. We have analysed the interactions of normal and mutant W/c-kit gene products with cytoplasmic signalling proteins, using transient c-kit expression assays in COS cells. In addition to the previously identified c-kit gene product (Kit+), a second normal Kit isoform (KitA+) containing an in-frame insertion, Gly-Asn-Asn-Lys, within the extracellular domain, was detected in murine mast cell cultures and mid-gestation placenta. Both Kit+ and KitA+ isoforms showed increased autophosphorylation and enhanced association with phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3' kinase and PLC gamma 1, when stimulated with recombinant soluble Steel factor. No association or increase in phosphorylation of GAP and two GAP-associated proteins, p62 and p190, was observed. The two isoforms had distinct activities in the absence of exogenous soluble Steel factor; Kit+, but not KitA+, showed constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation that was accompanied by a low constitutive level of association with PI-3' kinase and PLC gamma 1. Introduction of the point substitutions associated with W37 (Glu582----Lys) or W41 (Val831----Met) mutant alleles into c-kit expression constructs abolished (W37) or reduced (W41) the Steel factor-induced association of the Kit receptor with signalling proteins in a manner proportional to the overall severity of the corresponding W mutant phenotype. These data suggest a diversity of normal Kit signalling pathways and indicate that W mutant phenotypes result from primary defects in the Kit receptor that affect its interaction with cytoplasmic signalling proteins.

  9. Development of PAOT tool kit for work improvements in clinical nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Moon-Hee

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an action checklist for educational training of clinical nurses. The study used qualitative and quantitative methods. Questionnaire items were extracted through in-depth interviews and a questionnaire survey. PASW version 19 and AMOS version 19 were used for data analyses. Reliability and validity were tested with both exploratory and confirmative factor analysis. The levels of the indicators related to goodness-of-fit were acceptable. Thus, a model kit of work improvements in clinical nursing was developed. It comprises 5 domains (16 action points): health promotion (5 action points), work management (3 action points), ergonomic work methods (3 action points), managerial policies and mutual support among staff members (3 action points), and welfare in the work area (2 action points).

  10. Development of an Intelligent Maximum Power Point Tracker Using an Advanced PV System Test Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Amoiridis, Anastasios; Beres, Remus Narcis

    2013-01-01

    The performance of photovoltaic systems is often reduced by the presence of partial shadows. The system efficiency and availability can be improved by a maximum power point tracking algorithm that is able to detect partial shadow conditions and to optimize the power output. This work proposes...... an intelligent maximum power point tracking method that monitors the maximum power point voltage and triggers a current-voltage sweep only when a partial shadow is detected, therefore minimizing power loss due to repeated current-voltage sweeps. The proposed system is validated on an advanced, flexible...... photovoltaic inverter system test platform that is able to reproduce realistic partial shadow conditions, both in simulation and on hardware test system....

  11. Simple, rapid, and affordable point-of-care test for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastoor, Rob; Hatta, Mochammad; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a point-of-care test for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever in the format of an immunochromatographic lateral flow assay. The flow assay for typhoid fever is based on the detection of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi lipopolysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. The

  12. Acoustic monitoring systems tests at Indian Point Unit 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Rao, G.V.; Craig, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the results of a program to test acoustic monitoring systems on Indian Point Unit No. 1 under actual plant operating conditions, less the reactor core. The two types of systems evaluated were the monitoring of acoustic emissions generated by growing flaws and the monitoring of acoustic signals from leaks

  13. The role of point-of-care blood testing for ketones in the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    estimated that the annual cost of treating DKA in the USA exceeds. 1 billion ... If urinary ketones are positive, patients are referred for further management – often ... To evaluate a hand-held electrochemical (point-of-care testing; POCT) ketone monitor and compare it with the gold-standard ..... renal failure may be present.

  14. Pharmacists' views on and experiences with bowel cancer screening kits in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Nataly; Basdew, Kamlika; Kammona, Ala; Shen, Amy; Taylor, Caragh; McIntosh, Timothy R; Barnes, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    To explore the views of New Zealand pharmacists on bowel cancer screening, particularly with regards to faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) kits, self-perceived knowledge on FOBT kits and barriers, motivators and experiences with selling and counselling consumers with respect to FOBT kits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted face to face or by telephone with 20 community pharmacists in the Auckland region. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and data were coded and analysed using NVivo software to identify key themes. Participant pharmacists believed that they were well placed to provide advice on FOBT kits to consumers. Barriers to selling the kits included cost and perceived lack of test sensitivity of the kits, poor consumer demand, pharmacists' lack of training and information, and a belief that selling FOBT kits was outside the pharmacists' scope of practice. Motivators to selling the kits included customer convenience, ease of use, confidence in the kits and embracing new roles for pharmacists. Pharmacists were concerned that use of the kits may increase the burden on the public health system through customer anxiety over test results; however, they agreed that there was a need for bowel cancer screening and awareness and that people concerned about bowel cancer should make visiting their general practitioner a priority. Pharmacists' views were mixed. Pharmacists' training and competence with respect to the provision of bowel cancer kits, and how a bowel cancer screening service can be developed to optimise public health outcomes, need to be addressed. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Evaluating Diagnostic Point-of-Care Tests in Resource-Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Paul K; Hyle, Emily P; Noubary, Farzad; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Wilson, Douglas; Bishai, William; Rodriguez, William; Bassett, Ingrid V

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic point-of-care (POC) testing is intended to minimize the time to obtain a test result, thereby allowing clinicians and patients to make an expeditious clinical decision. As POC tests expand into resource-limited settings (RLS), the benefits must outweigh the costs. To optimize POC testing in RLS, diagnostic POC tests need rigorous evaluations focused on relevant clinical outcomes and operational costs, which differ from evaluations of conventional diagnostic tests. Here, we reviewed published studies on POC testing in RLS, and found no clearly defined metric for the clinical utility of POC testing. Therefore, we propose a framework for evaluating POC tests, and suggest and define the term “test efficacy” to describe a diagnostic test’s capacity to support a clinical decision within its operational context. We also proposed revised criteria for an ideal diagnostic POC test in resource-limited settings. Through systematic evaluations, comparisons between centralized diagnostic testing and novel POC technologies can be more formalized, and health officials can better determine which POC technologies represent valuable additions to their clinical programs. PMID:24332389

  16. Liquid oxygen liquid acquisition device bubble point tests with high pressure lox at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurns, J. M.; Hartwig, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    When transferring propellant in space, it is most efficient to transfer single phase liquid from a propellant tank to an engine. In earth's gravity field or under acceleration, propellant transfer is fairly simple. However, in low gravity, withdrawing single-phase fluid becomes a challenge. A variety of propellant management devices (PMDs) are used to ensure single-phase flow. One type of PMD, a liquid acquisition device (LAD) takes advantage of capillary flow and surface tension to acquire liquid. The present work reports on testing with liquid oxygen (LOX) at elevated pressures (and thus temperatures) (maximum pressure 1724 kPa and maximum temperature 122 K) as part of NASA's continuing cryogenic LAD development program. These tests evaluate LAD performance for LOX stored in higher pressure vessels that may be used in propellant systems using pressure fed engines. Test data shows a significant drop in LAD bubble point values at higher liquid temperatures, consistent with lower liquid surface tension at those temperatures. Test data also indicates that there are no first order effects of helium solubility in LOX on LAD bubble point prediction. Test results here extend the range of data for LOX fluid conditions, and provide insight into factors affecting predicting LAD bubble point pressures.

  17. Impact of HbA1c Testing at Point of Care on Diabetes Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Oliver; Crocker, J. Benjamin; Weng, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a highly prevalent disease also implicated in the development of several other serious complications like cardiovascular or renal disease. HbA1c testing is a vital step for effective diabetes management, however, given the low compliance to testing frequency and, commonly, a subsequent delay in the corresponding treatment modification, HbA1c at the point of care (POC) offers an opportunity for improvement of diabetes care. In this review, based on data from 1999 to 2016, we summarize the evidence supporting a further implementation of HbA1c testing at POC, discuss its limitations and propose recommendations for further development. PMID:27898388

  18. The Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Point-of-Care Test in Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Nicole L; Valenzuela, Felipe; Perez, Victor L; Galor, Anat

    2016-04-01

    Dry eye is a common, multifactorial disease currently diagnosed by a combination of symptoms and signs. However, the subjective symptoms of dry eye poorly correlate to the current gold standard for diagnostic tests, reflecting the need to develop better objective tests for the diagnosis of dry eye. This review considers the role of ocular surface matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in dry eye and the implications of a novel point-of-care test that measures MMP-9 levels, InflammaDry (RPS, Sarasota, FL) on choosing appropriate therapeutic treatments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Determination of triiodothyronine using RIA-Mat T3 kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Masao

    1975-01-01

    A RIA-Mat T 3 kit was used for an in vitro measurement of triiodothyronine in serum. A resin strip was utilized to absorb free triiodothyronine after the serum was incubated with antibody against triiodothyronine. This test was easy to manipulate and the reproducibility test with same sera, dilution test, and recovery test were also satisfactory. The normal range of triiodothyronine determined with this test kit was 119 +- 40 ng/dl using 50 test sera. Ninety sera with various thyroid diseases were also determined. (auth.)

  20. Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.

  1. Environmental Technology Verification Report for Abraxis Ecologenia® 17β-Estradiol (E2) Microplate Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Test Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    This verification test was conducted according to procedures specifiedin the Test/QA Planfor Verification of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Test Kis for the Quantitative Determination of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) in Aqueous Phase Samples. Deviations to the...

  2. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification on Crude DNA as a Point-of-Care Test for the Diagnosis of Mycoplasma-Related Vaginitis During Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yichao; Zhang, Bumei; Sun, Yan; Liu, Yunde; Gu, Yajun

    2017-12-20

    Mycoplasma-related vaginitis gradually has been growing as a threat in adults-genitourinary infection contributes to funisitis, spontaneous abortion, and low birth weight. Until now, use of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), or Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) has been reported by some researchers. However, previous studies focused on purified DNA as the template for LAMP assay, which is usually extracted via commercial kit. We developed a LAMP assay for rapid detection of UU, MH, and MG genital mycoplasmas using a simple boiling method for DNA extraction, in a cohort of pregnant women with mycoplasma-related vaginitis. We monitored amplicons with the naked eye using SYBR Green I. The cohort in our study showed a prevalence of 22.6% in pregnant women, as detected by UU-LAMP assay. Compared to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test with purified DNA, the sensitivity of the UU-LAMP in clinical specimens with crude DNA was 87.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.6%->99.9). For crude DNA specimens, UU-LAMP was more sensitive and reliable than PCR, with a higher agreement rate (96.8%) and Youden index value (0.88). As a point-of-care test, LAMP is a useful, specific, and efficient way to detect genital mycoplasmas in resource-limited settings, especially for crude DNA. © American Society for Clinical Pathology 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. The fractography analysis of IN718 alloy after three-point flexure fatigue test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belan Juraj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the high cycle fatigue (HCF properties of IN718 superalloy with given chemical composition were investigated at three-point flexure fatigue test at room temperature. INCONEL alloy 718 is nickel-chromium-iron hardenable alloy and due to its unique combination of mechanical properties (high-strength; corrosion-resistant and so on used for production of heat resistant parts of aero jet engine mostly. Mechanical properties of this alloy are strongly dependent on microstructure and on presence of structural features such are principal strengthening phase gamma double prime, gamma prime and due to its morphology less desired delta phases. The mentioned phases precipitate at various temperature ranges and Nb content as well. The three-point flexure fatigue test was performed on ZWICK/ROELL Amsler 150 HFP 5100 test equipment with approximate loading frequency f=150 Hz. The S – N (Stress – Number of cycles curve was obtained after testing. With the help of scanning electron microscope (SEM, fractography analyses were performed to disclose the fracture features of specimens in different life ranges. The brief comparison of three-point flexure and push-pull fatigue loading modes and its influence on fatigue life is discussed as well.

  4. Compounding diagnostic delays: a qualitative study of point-of-care testing in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Nora; Davids, Malika; Blankvoort, Nadine; Pai, Nitika Pant; Dheda, Keertan; Pai, Madhukar

    2015-04-01

    Successful point-of-care (POC) testing (completion of test-and-treat cycle in one patient encounter) has immense potential to reduce diagnostic and treatment delays, and improve patient and public health outcomes. We explored what tests are done and how in public/private, rural/urban hospitals and clinics in South Africa and whether they can ensure successful POC testing. This qualitative research study examined POC testing across major diseases in Cape Town, Durban and Eastern Cape. We conducted 101 semi-structured interviews and seven focus group discussions with doctors, nurses, community health workers, patients, laboratory technicians, policymakers, hospital managers and diagnostic manufacturers. In South Africa, diagnostics are characterised by a centralised system. Most tests conducted on the spot can be made to work successfully as POC tests. The majority of public/private clinics and smaller hospitals send samples via couriers to centralised laboratories and retrieve results the same way, via internet, fax or phone. The main challenge to POC testing lies in transporting samples and results, while delays risk patient loss from diagnostic/treatment pathways. Strategies to deal with associated delays create new problems, such as artificially prolonged turnaround times, strains on human resources and quality of testing, compounding additional diagnostic and treatment delays. For POC testing to succeed, particular characteristics of diagnostic ecosystems and adaptations of professional practices to overcome associated challenges must be taken into account. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A silent allele in the locus D5S818 contained within the PowerPlex®21 PCR Amplification Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Tai, Yunchun; Qiu, Pingming; Du, Weian; Liu, Chao

    2015-11-01

    Three paternity tests cases were found with a single locus mismatch at the locus D5S818 with PowerPlex®21 PCR Amplification Kit (Promega). Forward and reverse primers were redesigned to type the samples again and to evaluate if there were alleles dropped out. The results showed the existence of a silent allele 12 in all the three families, due to a point mutation that changed cytosine to adenine at 90 nucleotides upstream from the 5' end of the AGAT repeat sequences in all the six individuals. A single locus mismatch due to a silent allele may occur in any locus using any kit. Therefore, we recommend using multiple kits to confirm the results in paternity testing cases with mismatches, especially when there is a single locus mismatch with homozygote involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Systematic Review of Point of Care Testing for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Herbst de Cortina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Systematic review of point of care (POC diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV. Methods. Literature search on PubMed for articles from January 2010 to August 2015, including original research in English on POC diagnostics for sexually transmitted CT, NG, and/or TV. Results. We identified 33 publications with original research on POC diagnostics for CT, NG, and/or TV. Thirteen articles evaluated test performance, yielding at least one test for each infection with sensitivity and specificity ≥90%. Each infection also had currently available tests with sensitivities <60%. Three articles analyzed cost effectiveness, and five publications discussed acceptability and feasibility. POC testing was acceptable to both providers and patients and was also demonstrated to be cost effective. Fourteen proof of concept articles introduced new tests. Conclusions. Highly sensitive and specific POC tests are available for CT, NG, and TV, but improvement is possible. Future research should focus on acceptability, feasibility, and cost of POC testing. While pregnant women specifically have not been studied, the results available in nonpregnant populations are encouraging for the ability to test and treat women in antenatal care to prevent adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes.

  7. Point-of-care testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea: implications for clinical practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Natoli

    Full Text Available Point-of-care (POC testing for chlamydia (CT and gonorrhoea (NG offers a new approach to the diagnosis and management of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs in remote Australian communities and other similar settings. Diagnosis of STIs in remote communities is typically symptom driven, and for those who are asymptomatic, treatment is generally delayed until specimens can be transported to the reference laboratory, results returned and the patient recalled. The objective of this study was to explore the clinical implications of using CT/NG POC tests in routine clinical care in remote settings.In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposively selected group of 18 key informants with a range of sexual health and laboratory expertise.Participants highlighted the potential impact POC testing would have on different stages of the current STI management pathway in remote Aboriginal communities and how the pathway would change. They identified implications for offering a POC test, specimen collection, conducting the POC test, syndromic management of STIs, pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosis and management, interpretation and delivery of POC results, provision of treatment, contact tracing, management of client flow and wait time, and re-testing at 3 months after infection.The introduction of POC testing to improve STI service delivery requires careful consideration of both its advantages and limitations. The findings of this study will inform protocols for the implementation of CT/NG POC testing, and also STI testing and management guidelines.

  8. Point-of-Care Testing for Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea: Implications for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoli, Lisa; Maher, Lisa; Shephard, Mark; Hengel, Belinda; Tangey, Annie; Badman, Steven G.; Ward, James; Guy, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Point-of-care (POC) testing for chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhoea (NG) offers a new approach to the diagnosis and management of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in remote Australian communities and other similar settings. Diagnosis of STIs in remote communities is typically symptom driven, and for those who are asymptomatic, treatment is generally delayed until specimens can be transported to the reference laboratory, results returned and the patient recalled. The objective of this study was to explore the clinical implications of using CT/NG POC tests in routine clinical care in remote settings. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposively selected group of 18 key informants with a range of sexual health and laboratory expertise. Results Participants highlighted the potential impact POC testing would have on different stages of the current STI management pathway in remote Aboriginal communities and how the pathway would change. They identified implications for offering a POC test, specimen collection, conducting the POC test, syndromic management of STIs, pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosis and management, interpretation and delivery of POC results, provision of treatment, contact tracing, management of client flow and wait time, and re-testing at 3 months after infection. Conclusions The introduction of POC testing to improve STI service delivery requires careful consideration of both its advantages and limitations. The findings of this study will inform protocols for the implementation of CT/NG POC testing, and also STI testing and management guidelines. PMID:24956111

  9. Standard test method for determination of breaking strength of ceramic tiles by three-point loading

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of breaking strength of ceramic tiles by three-point loading. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. Test and evaluation of the Fort St. Vrain dew point moisture monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, G.A.; Del Bene, J.V. Jr.; Gitterman, M.; Hastings, G.A.; Hawkins, W.M.; Hinz, R.F.; McCue, D.E.; Swanson, L.L.; Vavrina, J.; Zwetzig, G.B.

    1975-01-01

    Descriptions are given of the Fort St. Vrain Dew Point Moisture Monitor (DPMM) System; the bases for the DPMM system response time requirements for safety related functions at the required reactor operating conditions; the results and evaluation of recent testing which measured the performance of the current system at simulated operating conditions; predicted response times for reactor power operation from 0 to 100 percent and a modification to provide improved response times for low-load and plant start-up conditions

  11. New RIA kit for determination of progesterone in cow milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byszewska-Szpocinska, E.; Markiewicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    The determination of progesterone concentration in whole and fat-free milk 19-24 days after conception enables to distinguish fertile and non-fertile insemination, which is important in cattle breeding. The aim of this work was to develop a simple and quick radioimmunoassay test for the determination of progesterone in cow milk. Two types of solid-phase tubes coated with specific polyclonal anti-progesterone antibody from ORION Diagnostica and BIOSOURCE International, two different progesterone derivatives viz. progesterone-3- carboxymethyl oxime (CMO) and progesterone-11α-hemisuccinate (HS) conjugated to 125 I-histamine and the HPLC system with Lichrospher RP-18 column along with 65% acetonitrile/water as eluent to purify the tracers were used to carry out this work. Progesterone-3CMO- 125 I-histamine had a retention time of 13.2 min and progesterone-11α-hemisuccinate- 125 I-histamine had a retention time of 7.8 min. Two kinds of kits (kit I and kit II) were prepared, first with progesterone-3CMO- 125 I-histamine as the tracer and coated tubes from Progesterone Veterinary RIA kit of ORION Diagnostica and the second with progesterone-11αHS- 125 I-histamine as the tracer and coated tubes from Progesterone Veterinary RIA kit from BIOSOURCE International. Progesterone from Sigma and selected fat-free cow's milk without progesterone as zero progesterone milk matrix were used for standard preparation. The optimal assay procedure was as follows: 50μL standards, controls and fat-free milk samples were pipetted into coated tubes followed by addition of 500μL of diluted tracer. The tubes were incubated for 2h in case of kit I and 3h for kit II at RT. After the incubation, the tubes were decanted and counted. The assay range was 0 to 270 nmol/L for kit I and 0 to 300 nmol/L for kit II. The sensitivity of the kit with ORION coated tubes was better (0.8 nmol/L) than that of BIOSOURCE tubes which was 1.5 nmol/L. Validation of these assays in terms of specificity, accuracy

  12. Routine use of point-of-care tests: usefulness and application in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, O; Greub, G

    2010-08-01

    Point-of-care (POC) tests offer potentially substantial benefits for the management of infectious diseases, mainly by shortening the time to result and by making the test available at the bedside or at remote care centres. Commercial POC tests are already widely available for the diagnosis of bacterial and viral infections and for parasitic diseases, including malaria. Infectious diseases specialists and clinical microbiologists should be aware of the indications and limitations of each rapid test, so that they can use them appropriately and correctly interpret their results. The clinical applications and performance of the most relevant and commonly used POC tests are reviewed. Some of these tests exhibit insufficient sensitivity, and should therefore be coupled to confirmatory tests when the results are negative (e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes rapid antigen detection test), whereas the results of others need to be confirmed when positive (e.g. malaria). New molecular-based tests exhibit better sensitivity and specificity than former immunochromatographic assays (e.g. Streptococcus agalactiae detection). In the coming years, further evolution of POC tests may lead to new diagnostic approaches, such as panel testing, targeting not just a single pathogen, but all possible agents suspected in a specific clinical setting. To reach this goal, the development of serology-based and/or molecular-based microarrays/multiplexed tests will be needed. The availability of modern technology and new microfluidic devices will provide clinical microbiologists with the opportunity to be back at the bedside, proposing a large variety of POC tests that will allow quicker diagnosis and improved patient care.

  13. Cholesterol Point-of-Care Testing for Community Pharmacies: A Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Lauren; Tran, Deanna

    2017-08-01

    To summarize the literature on cholesterol point-of-care tests (POCTs). This article would serve as a resource to assist community pharmacists in developing cholesterol point-of-care (POC) pharmacy services. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE Ovid, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane database using the following medical subject headings (MeSH) terms: point-of-care test, cholesterol, blood chemical analysis, rapid testing, collaborative practice, community pharmacy, and ambulatory care. Additional resources including device manufacturer web sites were summarized to supplement the current literature. All human research articles, review articles, meta-analyses, and abstracts published in English through September 1, 2014, were considered. A total of 36 articles were applicable for review. Information was divided into the following categories to be summarized: devices, pharmacists' impact, and operational cost for the pharmacy. The current literature suggests that POCTs in community pharmacies assist with patient outcomes by providing screenings and referring patients with dyslipidemia for further evaluation. The majority of studies on cholesterol POC devices focused on accuracy, revealing the need for further studies to develop best practices and practice models with successful reimbursement. Accuracy, device specifications, required supplies, and patient preference should be considered when selecting a POC device for purchase.

  14. A Novel Complementary Method for the Point-Scan Nondestructive Tests Based on Lamb Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Gorgin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel area-scan damage identification method based on Lamb waves which can be used as a complementary method for point-scan nondestructive techniques. The proposed technique is able to identify the most probable locations of damages prior to point-scan test which lead to decreasing the time and cost of inspection. The test-piece surface was partitioned with some smaller areas and the damage probability presence of each area was evaluated. A0 mode of Lamb wave was generated and collected using a mobile handmade transducer set at each area. Subsequently, a damage presence probability index (DPPI based on the energy of captured responses was defined for each area. The area with the highest DPPI value highlights the most probable locations of damages in test-piece. Point-scan nondestructive methods can then be used once these areas are found to identify the damage in detail. The approach was validated by predicting the most probable locations of representative damages including through-thickness hole and crack in aluminum plates. The obtained experimental results demonstrated the high potential of developed method in defining the most probable locations of damages in structures.

  15. Mechanical failure of anodized aluminum under three and four-point bending tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargui, M.; Bensalah, W.; Elleuch, K.; Ayedi, H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the flexural behavior of anodic oxide layers formed on aluminum. • Three and four-point bending tests were used as techniques. • Changing the beam configuration will change the flexural response. - Abstract: In this work, three and four-point bending tests were adopted as methods for characterizing anodized aluminum beams in a sulfuric acid bath. The failure behavior of sandwich beams having aluminum oxide face sheets and aluminum core were tested. In so doing, many configurations were adopted by anodizing aluminum beams on one and both sides to investigate faces in place of tension and compression. Bending tests showed different behaviors. When the oxide was only on the top side of the beam (working in compression) a slight sudden decrease of the load was observed. This fact was absent on beams with oxide layers working in tensile. The bending behavior of sandwich beams was similar to those with oxide on top sides but with much higher loads. The mechanical failure of the oxide was mainly caused by its failure when it is placed in compression beneath the loading rollers. Finally, a morphological study of the aluminum oxide layers after bending tests was conducted by optical microscopy

  16. Orthopaedic nurses' knowledge and interrater reliability of neurovascular assessments with 2-point discrimination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Jennifer; Raley Noble, Deana; Kim, Son Chae

    2013-01-01

    : This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of education on knowledge and interrater reliability of neurovascular assessments with 2-point discrimination (2-PD) test among pediatric orthopaedic nurses. : A pre- and posttest study was done among 60 nurses attending 2-hour educational sessions. Neurovascular assessments with 2-PD test were performed on 64 casted pediatric patients by the nurses and 5 nurse experts before and after the educational sessions. : The mean neurovascular assessment knowledge score was improved at posteducation compared with the preeducation (p < .001). The 2-PD test interrater reliability also improved from Cohen's kappa value of 0.24-0.48 at posteducation. : The 2-hour educational session may be effective in improving nurses' knowledge and the interrater reliability of neurovascular assessment with 2-PD test.

  17. Computerized portable microwave hyperthermia quality assurance kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, A.Y.; Neyzari, A.

    1985-01-01

    A computerized quality assurance kit to provide precise measurement and calibration of microwave power and temperature, as well as capabilities to map SAR (Specific absorption rate) distribution in phantoms; and survey of hazardous microwave leakage has been designed. The kit is also capable of performing corelation studies on the relationship between SAR and net microwave power delivered at various anatomical sites. The kit consists of a portable microcomputer, a time-multiplexed A/D converter, a 4-channel dual directional microwave power monitor, a 4-channel thin-wire thermocouple thermometry system, an electronic thermal calibrator, a microwave leakage hazard survey meter, and a dynamic phantom tank for dosimetric analysis. Comparative performance studies were made against NBS-traceable power and temperature standards, non-perturbing optical temperature sensors, and established power and temperature measurement devices. The test results indicate that this instrument is providing its user with measurement accuracy of 0.1 0 C in temperature, 10% accuracy in power. The thin-wire thermocouple, with computer assisted error compensation, performs equally well in a strong microwave field in comparison with non-perturbing optical temperature sensors

  18. Quality assurance for HIV point-of-care testing and treatment monitoring assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Paul; Denny, Thomas N.; Hurlston, Mackenzie; Ball, Terry B.; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Boeras, Debrah I.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, UNAIDS launched the 90-90-90 targets aimed at increasing the number of people infected with HIV to become aware of their status, access antiretroviral therapies and ultimately be virally suppressed. To achieve these goals, countries may need to scale up point-of-care (POC) testing in addition to strengthening central laboratory services. While decentralising testing increases patient access to diagnostics, it presents many challenges with regard to training and assuring the quality of tests and testing. To ensure synergies, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine held a series of consultations with countries with an interest in quality assurance and their implementing partners, and agreed on an external quality assessment (EQA) programme to ensure reliable results so that the results lead to the best possible care for HIV patients. As a result of the consultations, EQA International was established, bringing together EQA providers and implementers to develop a strategic plan for countries to establish national POC EQA programmes and to estimate the cost of setting up and maintaining the programme. With the dramatic increase in the number of proficiency testing panels required for thousands of POC testing sites across Africa, it is important to facilitate technology transfer from global EQA providers to a network of regional EQA centres in Africa for regional proficiency testing panel production. EQA International will continue to identify robust and cost-effective EQA technologies for quality POC testing, integrating novel technologies to support sustainable country-owned EQA programmes in Africa. PMID:28879133

  19. HIV Point-of-Care Testing in Canadian Settings: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichiello, Alexa; Swab, Michelle; Chongo, Meck; Marshall, Zack; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Maybank, Allison; Hot, Aurélie; Schwandt, Michael; Gaudry, Sonia; Hurley, Oliver; Asghari, Shabnam

    2017-01-01

    HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) was approved for use in Canada in 2005 and provides important public health benefits by providing rapid screening results rather than sending a blood sample to a laboratory and waiting on test results. Access to test results soon after testing (or during the same visit) is believed to increase the likelihood that individuals will receive their results and improve access to confirmatory testing and linkages to care. This paper reviews the literature on the utilization of HIV POCT across Canadian provinces. We searched OVID Medline, Embase, EBM Reviews, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and 20 electronic grey literature databases. All empirical studies investigating HIV POCT programs in Canada published in French or English were included. Searches of academic databases identified a total of 6,091 records. After removing duplicates and screening for eligibility, 27 records were included. Ten studies are peer-reviewed articles, and 17 are grey literature reports. HIV POCT in Canada is both feasible and accepted by Canadians. It is preferred to conventional HIV testing (ranging from 81.1 to 97%), and users are highly satisfied with the testing process (ranging between 96 and 100%). The majority of studies demonstrate that HIV POCT is feasible, preferred, and accepted by diverse populations in Canada. Losses to follow-up and linkage rates are also good. However, more research is needed to understand how best to scale up HIV POCT in contexts that currently have very limited or no access to testing.

  20. Evidence-based point-of-care tests and device designs for disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T Keith; Mecozzi, Daniel M; Sumner, Stephanie; Kost, Gerald J

    2010-01-01

    To define pathogen tests and device specifications needed for emerging point-of-care (POC) technologies used in disasters. Surveys included multiple-choice and ranking questions. Multiple-choice questions were analyzed with the chi2 test for goodness-of-fit and the binomial distribution test. Rankings were scored and compared using analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparison test. Disaster care experts on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Disaster Medicine and the Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, and the readers of the POC Journal. Vibrio cholera and Staphylococcus aureus were top-ranked pathogens for testing in disaster settings. Respondents felt that disaster response teams should be equipped with pandemic infectious disease tests for novel 2009 H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza (disaster care, p disaster settings, respondents preferred self-contained test cassettes (disaster care, p disaster care, p disaster care scenarios, in which Vibrio cholera, methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli ranked the highest. POC testing should incorporate setting-specific design criteria such as safe disposable cassettes and direct blood sampling at the site of care.

  1. Two-point paraxial traveltime formula for inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic media: Tests of accuracy

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin; Psencik, Ivan; Cerveny, Vlastislav; Iversen, Einar; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    On several simple models of isotropic and anisotropic media, we have studied the accuracy of the two-point paraxial traveltime formula designed for the approximate calculation of the traveltime between points S' and R' located in the vicinity of points S and R on a reference ray. The reference ray may be situated in a 3D inhomogeneous isotropic or anisotropic medium with or without smooth curved interfaces. The twopoint paraxial traveltime formula has the form of the Taylor expansion of the two-point traveltime with respect to spatial Cartesian coordinates up to quadratic terms at points S and R on the reference ray. The constant term and the coefficients of the linear and quadratic terms are determined from quantities obtained from ray tracing and linear dynamic ray tracing along the reference ray. The use of linear dynamic ray tracing allows the evaluation of the quadratic terms in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media and, as shown by examples, it extends the region of accurate results around the reference ray between S and R (and even outside this interval) obtained with the linear terms only. Although the formula may be used for very general 3D models, we concentrated on simple 2D models of smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic (~8% and ~20% anisotropy) media only. On tests, in which we estimated twopoint traveltimes between a shifted source and a system of shifted receivers, we found that the formula may yield more accurate results than the numerical solution of an eikonal-based differential equation. The tests also indicated that the accuracy of the formula depends primarily on the length and the curvature of the reference ray and only weakly depends on anisotropy. The greater is the curvature of the reference ray, the narrower its vicinity, in which the formula yields accurate results.

  2. Two-point paraxial traveltime formula for inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic media: Tests of accuracy

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2013-09-01

    On several simple models of isotropic and anisotropic media, we have studied the accuracy of the two-point paraxial traveltime formula designed for the approximate calculation of the traveltime between points S\\' and R\\' located in the vicinity of points S and R on a reference ray. The reference ray may be situated in a 3D inhomogeneous isotropic or anisotropic medium with or without smooth curved interfaces. The twopoint paraxial traveltime formula has the form of the Taylor expansion of the two-point traveltime with respect to spatial Cartesian coordinates up to quadratic terms at points S and R on the reference ray. The constant term and the coefficients of the linear and quadratic terms are determined from quantities obtained from ray tracing and linear dynamic ray tracing along the reference ray. The use of linear dynamic ray tracing allows the evaluation of the quadratic terms in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media and, as shown by examples, it extends the region of accurate results around the reference ray between S and R (and even outside this interval) obtained with the linear terms only. Although the formula may be used for very general 3D models, we concentrated on simple 2D models of smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic (~8% and ~20% anisotropy) media only. On tests, in which we estimated twopoint traveltimes between a shifted source and a system of shifted receivers, we found that the formula may yield more accurate results than the numerical solution of an eikonal-based differential equation. The tests also indicated that the accuracy of the formula depends primarily on the length and the curvature of the reference ray and only weakly depends on anisotropy. The greater is the curvature of the reference ray, the narrower its vicinity, in which the formula yields accurate results.

  3. Point-of-care testing in an organ procurement organization donor management setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, K A; Markham, L E; Flaigle, S P; Nelson, P W; Shield, C F; Muruve, N A; Aeder, M I; Murillo, D; Bryan, C F

    2003-01-01

    Our organ procurement organization (OPO) evaluated the clinical and financial efficacy of point-of-care testing (POCT) in management of our deceased organ donors. Before we implemented point-of care testing with the i-STAT into routine clinical donor management, we compared the i-STAT result with the result from the respective donor hospital lab (DHL) for certain analytes on 15 consecutive donors in our OPO from 26 March to 14 May 2001. The financial impact was studied by reviewing 77 donors from July 2001 to March 2002. There was a strong correlation for each analyte between the POC and DHL test results with r-values as follows: pH 0.86; PCO2 = 0.96; PO2 = 0.98; sodium = 0.98; potassium = 0.95; chloride = 0.94; BUN = 0.98; glucose = 0.92; haematocrit = 0.87 and creatinine = 0.95. Since our OPO coordinators began using i-STAT in their routine clinical management of organ donors, they can now more quickly maximize oxygenation and fluid management of the donor and make extra-renal placement calls sooner. Finally, since we are no longer being billed for the testing performed on the i-STAT, average financial savings to our OPO are US dollars 733 per case. Point-of-care testing in management of our OPO donors provides a result that is equivalent to that of the donor hospital lab, has quicker turn-around time than the donor hospital laboratory, allowing more immediate clinical management decisions to be made so that extra-renal offers may begin sooner.

  4. More Than Just Accuracy: A Novel Method to Incorporate Multiple Test Attributes in Evaluating Diagnostic Tests Including Point of Care Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Weigl, Bernhard; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Ide, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Current frameworks for evaluating diagnostic tests are constrained by a focus on diagnostic accuracy, and assume that all aspects of the testing process and test attributes are discrete and equally important. Determining the balance between the benefits and harms associated with new or existing tests has been overlooked. Yet, this is critically important information for stakeholders involved in developing, testing, and implementing tests. This is particularly important for point of care tests (POCTs) where tradeoffs exist between numerous aspects of the testing process and test attributes. We developed a new model that multiple stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, patients, researchers, test developers, industry, regulators, and health care funders) can use to visualize the multiple attributes of tests, the interactions that occur between these attributes, and their impacts on health outcomes. We use multiple examples to illustrate interactions between test attributes (test availability, test experience, and test results) and outcomes, including several POCTs. The model could be used to prioritize research and development efforts, and inform regulatory submissions for new diagnostics. It could potentially provide a way to incorporate the relative weights that various subgroups or clinical settings might place on different test attributes. Our model provides a novel way that multiple stakeholders can use to visualize test attributes, their interactions, and impacts on individual and population outcomes. We anticipate that this will facilitate more informed decision making around diagnostic tests.

  5. Development of a didactic electrophoresis kit for the practical teaching of Molecular Biology in basic and higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Silva Xavier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The advances in the biotechnology area imposes a new reality, creating products that are present in our daily lives, affecting directly or indirectly the population. Applications related to DNA technologies in the industry, agriculture and medicine have social, ethical and ecological implications, in addition to the human health consequences. So, it is necessary that the public is informed of progress in this area of knowledge. In order to create an alternative method to stimulate students in scientific careers and improve the learning of biotechnology and molecular biology, we developed a junior research project with high school students of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of the Espírito Santo (Brazil, which aimed the construction of a teaching kit of electrophoresis. Electrophoresis is a technique widely used in molecular biology laboratories, which is applied to separate molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. In this technique, electrically charged molecules are exposed to an electric field and then they move towards the oppositely charged pole, being deposited in specific points of the matrix used. The kit built in this work consists of a source of 70 V, and accessories and reagents that are readily available and present low cost and low risk to the health of users. The use of the kit allowed for electrophoretic assays with nucleic acids and food dyes. The kit also contains a printed material that addresses issues about DNA technology and the device user’s guide with suggestions of experiences to simulate paternity test, virus identification and others. The application of the teaching kit in practical classes with students and teachers of basic education showed that the activity was effective in reducing the number of errors in answers contained in a questionnaire related to the electrophoresis. Moreover, biology teachers evaluated the printed material of the didactic kit and 75% of them classified the

  6. Qualidade do solo avaliada pelo "Soil Quality Kit Test" em dois experimentos de longa duração no Rio Grande do Sul Soil Quality Evaluated by "Soil Quality Kit" in two long-term soil management experiments in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Jorge Carneiro Amado

    2007-02-01

    agregados, N-NO3- + N-NO2- e respiração do solo foram os mais eficientes em discriminar a QS. O KQS foi eficiente em avaliar a QS dos tratamentos nas duas áreas experimentais. Os níveis mais elevados de QS foram alcançados nos tratamentos com plantio direto e consórcio de gramíneas e leguminosas tropicais, devido à cobertura do solo e às elevadas adições de C e N via resíduos culturais.The soil quality (SQ evaluation is an important part of agricultural planning. It allows the identification and improvement of high-yielding management systems with characteristics of environment preservation. This study was carried out in two long-term soil management experiments (10 and 15 years in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Soil Quality Kit (SQK developed by the Soil Quality Institute - ARS - USDA, compared to traditional soil science methods. Twelve treatments of cropping and tillage systems in a range of different tillage intensities, biomass input amounts and urea-N fertilization (0 to 144 kg ha-1 were evaluated. A native vegetation field close to each experimental area was sampled as reference treatment. The following SQ indicators: water infiltration, soil respiration, soil density, N-NO3- + N-NO2-, water aggregate stability and pH were evaluated. The correlation between the SQK and soil science methods was generally high. The highest correlation was observed with pH (r = 0.98 and the lowest for infiltration (r = 0.42. The soil management treatments were theoretically classified by crescent SQ order. The carbon pool index (CPI was obtained dividing soil organic carbon stock of each treatment by native vegetation soil organic carbon 0 to 5 cm deep. The CPI reproduces the SQ classification efficiently. Aggregate stability, soil respiration and N-NO3- + N-NO2- were the most efficient indicators at discriminating SQ. The Soil Quality Test Kit was an efficient tool to evaluate the soil quality in

  7. School-based diagnosis and treatment of malaria by teachers using rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy: experiences and perceptions of users and implementers of the Learner Treatment Kit, southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphwatiwa, Treza; Witek-McManus, Stefan; Mtali, Austin; Okello, George; Nguluwe, Paul; Chatsika, Hard; Roschnik, Natalie; Halliday, Katherine E; Brooker, Simon J; Mathanga, Don P

    2017-08-07

    Training teachers to diagnose uncomplicated malaria using malaria rapid diagnostic tests and treat with artemisinin-based combination therapy has the potential to improve the access of primary school children (6-14 years) to prompt and efficient treatment for malaria, but little is known about the acceptability of such an intervention. This qualitative study explored experiences and perceptions of users and implementers of a programme of school-based malaria case management via a first-aid kit-the Learner Treatment Kit (LTK)-implemented as part of a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Zomba district, Malawi. From 29 primary schools where teachers were trained to test and treat school children for malaria using the LTK, six schools were purposively selected on the basis of relative intervention usage (low, medium or high); school size and geographical location. In total eight focus group discussions were held with school children, parents and guardians, and teachers; and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with key stakeholders at the school, district and national levels. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using a thematic analysis approach. The LTK was widely perceived by respondents to be a worthwhile intervention, with the opinion that trained teachers were trusted providers of malaria testing and treatment to school children. Benefits of the programme included a perception of improved access to malaria treatment for school children; decreased school absenteeism; and that the programme supported broader national health and education policies. Potential barriers to successful implementation expressed included increased teacher workloads, a feeling of inadequate supervision from health workers, lack of incentives and concerns for the sustainability of the programme regarding the supply of drugs and commodities. Training teachers to test for and treat uncomplicated malaria in schools was well received by both users and implementers alike, and

  8. Point-of-Care HIV Testing and Linkage in an Urban Cohort in the Southern US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Zinski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Southern states experience the highest rates of HIV and AIDS in the US, and point-of-care (POC testing outside of primary care may contribute to status awareness in medically underserved populations in this region. To evaluate POC screening and linkage to care at an urban south site, analyses were performed on a dataset of 3,651 individuals from an integrated rapid-result HIV testing and linkage program to describe this test-seeking cohort and determine trends associated with screening, results, and linkage to care. Four percent of the population had positive results. We observed significant differences by test result for age, race and gender, reported risk behaviors, test location, and motivation for screening. The overall linkage rate was 86%, and we found significant differences for clients who were linked to HIV care versus persons whose linkage could not be confirmed with respect to race and gender, location, and motivation. The linkage rate for POC testing that included a comprehensive intake visit and colocated primary care services for in-state residents was 97%. Additional research on integrated POC screening and linkage methodologies that provide intake services at time of testing is essential for increasing status awareness and improving linkage to HIV care in the US.

  9. The laboratory information float, time-based competition, and point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, B A

    1994-01-01

    A new term, the laboratory information float, should be substituted for turnaround-time when evaluating the performance of the clinical laboratory because it includes the time necessary to make test results both available (ready to use) and accessible (easy to use) to clinicians ordering tests. The laboratory information float can be greatly reduced simply by telescoping the analytic phase of laboratory testing into the preanalytic phase. Significant costs are incurred by such a change, some of which can be reduced by developing a mobile clinical laboratory (sometimes referred to as a "lab-on-a-slab" or "rolling thunder") to transport the analytic devices directly to patient care units. The mobile clinical laboratory should be equipped with an integrated personal computer that can communicate continuously with the host laboratory information system and achieve some semblance of continuous flow processing despite test performance in point-of-care venues. Equipping clinicians with palmtop computers will allow the mobile clinician to access test results and order tests on the run. Such devices can be easily configured to operate in a passive mode, accessing relevant information automatically instead of forcing clinicians to query the laboratory information system periodically for the test results necessary to render care to their patients. The laboratory information float of the year 2,000 will surely be measured in minutes through the judicious deployment of relevant technology such as mobile clinical laboratories and palmtop computers.

  10. The introduction of syphilis point of care tests in resource limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael; Mabey, David Cw

    2017-04-01

    Syphilis remains an important and preventable cause of stillbirth and neonatal mortality. About 1 million women with active syphilis become pregnant each year. Without treatment, 25% of them will deliver a stillborn baby and 33% a low birth weight baby with an increased chance of dying in the first month of life. Adverse pregnancy outcomes due to syphilis can be prevented by screening pregnant women, and treating those who test positive with a single dose of penicillin before 28 weeks' gestation. Areas covered: This manuscript covers the impact of syphilis on pregnancy outcome, the diagnosis of syphilis, with a special focus on point of care (POC) tests, and challenges to the introduction of POC tests, and their potential impact on the control and prevention of syphilis in resource limited settings. Expert commentary: POC tests for syphilis are available which meet the ASSURED criteria, and could make syphilis screening accessible to all women anywhere in the world who attend an antenatal clinic. High quality dual POC tests for HIV and syphilis could ensure that well-funded programmes for the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV can contribute towards increased coverage of antenatal syphilis screening, and prevent more than 300,000 adverse pregnancy outcomes due to syphilis annually. Alongside investment to increase availability of syphilis POC tests, operational research is needed to understand how best to improve screening of pregnant women and to translate test availability into improved pregnancy outcomes.

  11. 10 CFR Appendix V to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan... the final energy consumption value to a whole number as follows: (i) A fractional number at or above...

  12. Comparative evaluation of the CerTest VIASURE flu A, B & RSV real time RT-PCR detection kit on the BD MAX system versus a routine in-house assay for detection of influenza A and B virus during the 2016/17 influenza season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Bek-Thomsen, Malene; Andersen, Signe Dalsgaard

    2018-01-01

    laboratory technician "hands on" time but also the laboratory turnaround time is of interest. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the performance of the VIASURE Flu A, B & RSV Real Time RT-PCR Detection Kit (CerTest Biotec) for detecting Influenza A and B viruses. STUDY DESIGN: During the 2016/17 influenza season 532...

  13. Microbiological point of care testing before antibiotic prescribing in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Steffen; Thomsen, Reimar W.; Bro, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Point-of-care testing (POCT) in primary care may improve rational antibiotic prescribing. We examined use of POCT in Denmark, including patient- and general practitioner (GP)-related predictors. METHODS: We linked nationwide health care databases to assess POCT use (C-reactive protein...... (CRP), group A streptococcal (GAS) antigen swabs, bacteriological cultures, and urine test strips) per 1,000 overall GP consultations, 2004-2013. We computed odds ratios (OR) of POCT in patients prescribed antibiotics according to patient and GP age and sex, GP practice type, location, and workload....... RESULTS: The overall use of POCT in Denmark increased by 45.8% during 2004-2013, from 147.2 per 1,000 overall consultations to 214.8. CRP tests increased by 132%, bacteriological cultures by 101.7% while GAS swabs decreased by 8.6%. POCT preceded 28% of antibiotic prescriptions in 2004 increasing to 44...

  14. Preparation of albumin radioimmunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Suoshu; Wang Yanzhen; Wang Zhenshan

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the preparation of Albumin (Alb) radioimmunoassay kit and its preliminary clinical application. The kit is mainly applied to the measurement of Alb concentration in human urine, adopting second antibody-PEG method. The measurement range is (1-50 μg/ml). The curve obtained with a serially diluted urine sample of high Alb concentration was a straight line. Recovery, detectability, intra- and inter-batch variation coefficients were 95.7%-103.6%, 0.1 μg/ml, 5.8% and 6.4% respectively. The kit was tried out clinically for measuring Alb in urine samples in about 1200 normal individuals and 600 various patients of related renal diseases. The preliminary clinical results show that Alb RIA is conducive to the early diagnosis of kidney function abnormalities

  15. Putting to point the production process of iodine-131 by dry distillation (Preoperational tests)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanis M, J.

    2002-12-01

    With the purpose of putting to point the process of production of 131 I, one of the objectives of carrying out the realization of operational tests of the production process of iodine-131, it was of verifying the operation of each one of the following components: heating systems, vacuum system, mechanical system and peripheral equipment that are part of the production process of iodine-131, another of the objectives, was settling down the optimal parameters that were applied in each process during the obtaining of iodine-131, it is necessary to point out that this objective is very important, since the components of the equipment are new and its behavior during the process is different to the equipment where its were carried out the experimental studies. (Author)

  16. Usefulness of CA 130 kit based on IRMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Takashi; Kimura, Yoshiko; Ata, Mariko; Miyagawa, Naoko; Iio, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Immunoradiometric assay for CA 130 was fundamentally and clinically evaluated using a commercially available D-7111 kit. Incubation time was 4 hr with the present CA 133 kit as compared with 16 - 24 hr with conventional CA 125 kit. Laboratory performance of CA 130 kit was satisfactory for standard curve, reproducibility, and recovery test. There was well correlation between the present CA 130 kit and CA 125 kit (r = 0.931). The concentration of CA 130 in the serum was significantly higher in healthy women than men (17.3 +- 10.5 U/ml vs 9.6 +- 5.1 U/ml). Serum CA 130 levels tended to decrease with aging, regardless of sex. These levels were changeable with menstrual cycle ; i.e., these were significantly higher during menstrual phase (24.2 +- 9.0 U/ml) and significantly lower during ovulatory phase (10.9 +- 2.4 U/ml) and during menopause (12.1 +- 3.4 U/ml). Cut off serum CA 130 levels were defined as 20 U/ml for men and 38 U/ml for women. Positive rate for CA 130 was the highest in cases of ovarian cancer (80 %), followed by endometrial cancer (50 %), pancreatic cancer (47 %), benign ovarian tumor (44 %), and lung cancer (39 %). (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Development of RIA kits for tumor-markers monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprarop, P.

    1997-01-01

    All reagents for tumor markers assays are imported from various manufacturers mainly CIS bio international. The average cost of these reagents is ranged from 80-150 bath/test (2-4 dollars test). The screening test for cancers could not be done especially in other regions of Thailand whose budgets and resources are so limited. If the reagents are made locally, many laboratories can perform the tests and use as primary diagnosis, screening or monitor the course of the disease following treatment. In addition, these reagents could help clinicians and give complementary information on the tumor status to improve quality of life in Thailand. Research objectives include: 1. Development of IRMA reagent kits suitable for diagnosing staging and monitoring prostrate and breast cancer. 2. Transfer of technology and reagent kits to relevant laboratories in Thailand. 3. Routine distribution of the reagents kits to the end users

  18. A Novel Quantum Dots-Based Point of Care Test for Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Li, Ding; He, Rong; Guo, Qin; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Xueqing; Huang, Peng; Cui, Daxiang

    2010-05-01

    One-step lateral flow test is recommended as the first line screening of syphilis for primary healthcare settings in developing countries. However, it generally shows low sensitivity. We describe here the development of a novel fluorescent POC (Point Of Care) test method to be used for screening for syphilis. The method was designed to combine the rapidness of lateral flow test and sensitiveness of fluorescent method. 50 syphilis-positive specimens and 50 healthy specimens conformed by Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) were tested with Quantum Dot-labeled and colloidal gold-labeled lateral flow test strips, respectively. The results showed that both sensitivity and specificity of the quantum dots-based method reached up to 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91-100%), while those of the colloidal gold-based method were 82% (95% CI, 68-91%) and 100% (95% CI, 91-100%), respectively. In addition, the naked-eye detection limit of quantum dot-based method could achieve 2 ng/ml of anti-TP47 polyclonal antibodies purified by affinity chromatography with TP47 antigen, which was tenfold higher than that of colloidal gold-based method. In conclusion, the quantum dots were found to be suitable for labels of lateral flow test strip. Its ease of use, sensitiveness and low cost make it well-suited for population-based on-the-site syphilis screening.

  19. Quality assurance for HIV point-of-care testing and treatment monitoring assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne F.A. Meyers

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, UNAIDS launched the 90-90-90 targets aimed at increasing the number of peopleinfected with HIV to become aware of their status, access antiretroviral therapies and ultimatelybe virally suppressed. To achieve these goals, countries may need to scale up point-of-care (POC testing in addition to strengthening central laboratory services. While decentralisingtesting increases patient access to diagnostics, it presents many challenges with regard totraining and assuring the quality of tests and testing. To ensure synergies, the London Schoolof Hygiene & Tropical Medicine held a series of consultations with countries with an interestin quality assurance and their implementing partners, and agreed on an external qualityassessment (EQA programme to ensure reliable results so that the results lead to the bestpossible care for HIV patients. As a result of the consultations, EQA International wasestablished, bringing together EQA providers and implementers to develop a strategic planfor countries to establish national POC EQA programmes and to estimate the cost of setting upand maintaining the programme. With the dramatic increase in the number of proficiencytesting panels required for thousands of POC testing sites across Africa, it is important tofacilitate technology transfer from global EQA providers to a network of regional EQA centresin Africa for regional proficiency testing panel production. EQA International will continue toidentify robust and cost-effective EQA technologies for quality POC testing, integrating noveltechnologies to support sustainable country-owned EQA programmes in Africa.

  20. Quality Assurance and Quality Control in Point-of-Care Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ashleigh W; Behling-Kelly, Erica

    2016-03-01

    With advancements in the standard of care in veterinary medicine and instrument technology, performing in-house laboratory work on a variety of point-of-care instruments, ranging from glucometers to benchtop chemistry analyzers, has become increasingly commonplace. However, the ability of an instrument to perform a test does not guarantee that those results are accurate. Ensuring that your in-clinic laboratory is providing reliable data requires a comprehensive plan that encompasses both common sense practices aimed at preventing errors at each stage of the testing process, as well as standard operating procedures to validate and monitor analyzer performance. These 2 arms of the plan are known as quality assurance and quality control. Although these concepts are typically out of the comfort zone for veterinarians, just as the thought of business management may deter some veterinarians from practice ownership, it is not beyond the capabilities of veterinarians to learn, understand, and incorporate them into their practice. The objectives of this article are to convey the importance of quality assurance and quality control, walk you through the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology guidelines on this topic, and provide direction to additional resources for further education on this topic, all with the focus on point-of-care testing in the in-clinic laboratory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A point-of-care chemistry test for reduction of turnaround and clinical decision time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eui Jung; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Kim, Seong Chun; Cho, Jin Seong; Lee, Seung Chul; Park, Ju Ok; Cha, Won Chul

    2011-06-01

    Our study compared clinical decision time between patients managed with a point-of-care chemistry test (POCT) and patients managed with the traditional central laboratory test (CLT). This was a randomized controlled multicenter trial in the emergency departments (EDs) of 5 academic teaching hospitals. We randomly assigned patients to POCT or CLT stratified by the Emergency Severity Index. A POCT chemistry analyzer (Piccolo; Abaxis, Inc, Union City, Calif), which is able to test liver panel, renal panel, pancreas enzymes, lipid panel, electrolytes, and blood gases, was set up in each ED. Primary and secondary end point was turnaround time and door-to-clinical-decision time. The total 2323 patients were randomly assigned to the POCT group (n = 1167) or to the CLT group (n = 1156). All of the basic characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. The turnaround time (median, interquartile range [IQR]) of the POCT group was shorter than that of the CLT group (14, 12-19 versus 55, 45-69 minutes; P CLT group (46, 33-61 versus 86, 68-107 minutes; P CLT group (P CLT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Noninferiority of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosis by a point-of-care rapid test vs the laboratory fluorescent spot test demonstrated by copper inhibition in normal human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J Kevin; Dewi, Mewahyu; Subekti, Decy; Elyazar, Iqbal; Satyagraha, Ari W

    2015-06-01

    Tens of millions of patients diagnosed with vivax malaria cannot safely receive primaquine therapy against repeated attacks caused by activation of dormant liver stages called hypnozoites. Most of these patients lack access to screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, a highly prevalent disorder causing serious acute hemolytic anemia with primaquine therapy. We optimized CuCl inhibition of G6PD in normal red blood cells (RBCs) to assess G6PD diagnostic technologies suited to point of care in the impoverished rural tropics. The most widely applied technology for G6PD screening-the fluorescent spot test (FST)-is impractical in that setting. We evaluated a new point-of-care G6PD screening kit (CareStart G6PD, CSG) against FST using graded CuCl treatments to simulate variable hemizygous states, and varying proportions of CuCl-treated RBC suspensions to simulate variable heterozygous states of G6PD deficiency. In experiments double-blinded to CuCl treatment, technicians reading FST and CSG test (n = 269) classified results as positive or negative for deficiency. At G6PD activity ≤40% of normal (n = 112), CSG test was not inferior to FST in detecting G6PD deficiency (P = 0.003), with 96% vs 90% (P = 0.19) sensitivity and 75% and 87% (P = 0.01) specificity, respectively. The CSG test costs less, requires no specialized equipment, laboratory skills, or cold chain for successful application, and performs as well as the FST standard of care for G6PD screening. Such a device may vastly expand access to primaquine therapy and aid in mitigating the very substantial burden of morbidity and mortality imposed by the hypnozoite reservoir of vivax malaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A European multicientre study on the comparison of HBV viral loads between VERIS HBV assay and Roche COBAS® TAQMAN® HBV test, Abbott RealTime HBV assay, Siemens VERSANT HBV assay, and Qiagen artus HBV RG kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Patrick; Delgado, Rafael; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Izopet, Jacques; Lombardi, Alessandra; Marcos, MaAngeles; Sauné, Karine; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pérez-Rivilla, Alfredo; Ramble, John; Trimoulet, Pascale; Vila, Jordi; Whittaker, Duncan; Artus, Alain; Rhodes, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Hepatitis B viral load testing is essential to treatment and monitoring decisions in patients with chronic Hepatitis B. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HBV Assay (Veris) for use on the fully automated DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System. 1 OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical performance of the Veris HBV Assay at multiple EU laboratories STUDY DESIGN: Method comparison was performed with a total of 344 plasma specimens from HBV infected patients tested with Veris and COBAS ® TaqMan ® HBV Test (Cobas), 207 specimens tested with Veris and RealTime HBV Assay (RealTime), 86 specimens tested with Veris and VERSANT ® HBV Assay (Versant), and 74 specimens tested with Veris and artus ® HBV RG PCR kit (artus). Bland-Altman analysis showed average bias of -0.46 log 10 IU/mL between Veris and Cobas, -0.46 log 10 IU/mL between Veris and RealTime, -0.36 log 10 IU/mL between Veris and Versant, and -0.12 log 10 IU/mL between Veris and artus. Bias was consistent across the assay range. Patient monitoring results using Veris demonstrated similar viral load trends over time to Cobas, RealTime, and artus. The VERIS HBV Assay demonstrated comparable clinical performance, with varying degrees of negative bias, compared to other currently marketed assays for HBV DNA monitoring. This negative bias should be taken into consideration if switching monitoring methods to Veris. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Adhesion study of low-k/Si system using 4-point bending and nanoscratch test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damayanti, M.; Widodo, J.; Sritharan, T.; Mhaisalkar, S.G.; Lu, W.; Gan, Z.H.; Zeng, K.Y.; Hsia, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical vapour deposited (CVD) low-k films using tri-methyl-silane (3MS) and tetra-methyl cyclo-tetra-siloxanes (TMCTS) precursors were studied. A 4-point bend test (4PBT) was performed to assess the adhesion property of the low-k films to Si substrates and the results were compared with that of simpler method, nanoscratch test (NST), as a quality control tool despite its drawbacks. Adhesion energy, G c , of the low-k/Si interface as measured by 4PBT and critical scratch load, P c , as obtained by NST display a linear relationship with hardness and modulus of the low-k film. The lowering of G c as the hardness of the film decreases can be explained by the effects of the C introduction into the Si-O networks found in these films. Lower carbon content for higher hardness films is thought to cause them to be more 'silica-like', and thus, exhibit better adhesion with the Si substrate. Two failure modes were observed for specimens under 4PBT. On one hand, films with low hardness ( c ( 2 ) with an adhesive separation of low-k from the Si substrate. On the other hand, films of high hardness (>5 GPa) display interfacial energies in excess of 10 J/m 2 with delamination of epoxy from the Si substrate, thus, indicating excellent adhesion between the low-k films and Si substrate. For the low hardness films, good correlation exists between P c and G c . However, the two data points of the high hardness films that gave the two highest P c and G c values do not lie on the correlation line drawn for the low hardness film data points due to different factors governing the failure in both tests and a change in the 4PBT failure mechanism

  5. Rapid point-of-care breath test for biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Phillips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported volatile organic compounds (VOCs in breath as biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms, apparently resulting from increased oxidative stress and cytochrome p450 induction. We evaluated a six-minute point-of-care breath test for VOC biomarkers in women screened for breast cancer at centers in the USA and the Netherlands. METHODS: 244 women had a screening mammogram (93/37 normal/abnormal or a breast biopsy (cancer/no cancer 35/79. A mobile point-of-care system collected and concentrated breath and air VOCs for analysis with gas chromatography and surface acoustic wave detection. Chromatograms were segmented into a time series of alveolar gradients (breath minus room air. Segmental alveolar gradients were ranked as candidate biomarkers by C-statistic value (area under curve [AUC] of receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve. Multivariate predictive algorithms were constructed employing significant biomarkers identified with multiple Monte Carlo simulations and cross validated with a leave-one-out (LOO procedure. RESULTS: Performance of breath biomarker algorithms was determined in three groups: breast cancer on biopsy versus normal screening mammograms (81.8% sensitivity, 70.0% specificity, accuracy 79% (73% on LOO [C-statistic value], negative predictive value 99.9%; normal versus abnormal screening mammograms (86.5% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, accuracy 83%, 62% on LOO; and cancer versus no cancer on breast biopsy (75.8% sensitivity, 74.0% specificity, accuracy 78%, 67% on LOO. CONCLUSIONS: A pilot study of a six-minute point-of-care breath test for volatile biomarkers accurately identified women with breast cancer and with abnormal mammograms. Breath testing could potentially reduce the number of needless mammograms without loss of diagnostic sensitivity.

  6. Point-Counterpoint: The FDA Has a Role in Regulation of Laboratory-Developed Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Angela M; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-04-01

    Since the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released its draft guidance on the regulation of laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) in October 2014, there has been a flurry of responses from commercial and hospital-based laboratory directors, clinicians, professional organizations, and diagnostic companies. The FDA defines an LDT as an "in vitrodiagnostic device that is intended for clinical use and is designed, manufactured, and used within a single laboratory." The draft guidance outlines a risk-based approach, with oversight of high-risk and moderate-risk tests being phased in over 9 years. High-risk tests would be regulated first and require premarket approval. Subsequently, moderate-risk tests would require a 510(k) premarket submission to the FDA and low-risk tests would need only to be registered. Oversight discretion would be exercised for LDTs focused on rare diseases (defined as fewer than 4,000 tests, not cases, per year nationally) and unmet clinical needs (defined as those tests for which there is no alternative FDA-cleared or -approved test). There was an open comment period followed by a public hearing in early January of 2015, and we are currently awaiting the final decision regarding the regulation of LDTs. Given that LDTs have been developed by many laboratories and are essential for the diagnosis and monitoring of an array of infectious diseases, changes in their regulation will have far-reaching implications for clinical microbiology laboratories. In this Point-Counterpoint, Angela Caliendo discusses the potential benefits of the FDA guidance for LDTs whereas Kim Hanson discusses the concerns associated with implementing the guidance and why these regulations may not improve clinical care. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. A Novel Molecular Test to Diagnose Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis at the Point of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Saldarriaga, Omar A.; Tartaglino, Lilian; Gacek, Rosana; Temple, Elissa; Sparks, Hayley; Melby, Peter C.; Travi, Bruno L.

    2015-01-01

    Dogs are the principal reservoir hosts of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) but current serological methods are not sensitive enough to detect all subclinically infected animals, which is crucial to VL control programs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have greater sensitivity but require expensive equipment and trained personnel, impairing its implementation in endemic areas. We developed a diagnostic test that uses isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) to detect Leishmania infantum. This method was coupled with lateral flow (LF) reading with the naked eye to be adapted as a point-of-care test. The L. infantum RPA-LF had an analytical sensitivity similar to real time-PCR, detecting DNA of 0.1 parasites spiked in dog blood, which was equivalent to 40 parasites/mL. There was no cross amplification with dog or human DNA or with Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania amazonensis, or Trypanosoma cruzi. The test also amplified Leishmania donovani strains (N = 7). In a group of clinically normal dogs (N = 30), RPA-LF detected more subclinical infections than rK39 strip test, a standard serological method (50% versus 13.3% positivity, respectively; P = 0.005). Also, RPA-LF detected L. infantum in noninvasive mucosal samples of dogs with a sensitivity comparable to blood samples. This novel molecular test may have a positive impact in leishmaniasis control programs. PMID:26240156

  8. Performance evaluation of the microINR® point-of-care INR-testing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, J; van Zyl, M C; Raubenheimer, J

    2018-04-01

    Point-of-care International Normalised Ratio (INR) testing is used frequently. We evaluated the microINR ® POC system for accuracy, precision and measurement repeatability, and investigated instrument and test chip variability and error rates. Venous blood INRs of 210 patients on warfarin were obtained with Thromborel ® S on the Sysmex CS-2100i ® analyser and compared with capillary blood microINR ® values. Precision was assessed using control materials. Measurement repeatability was calculated on 51 duplicate finger-prick INRs. Triplicate finger-prick INRs using three different instruments (30 patients) and three different test chip lots (29 patients) were used to evaluate instrument and test chip variability. Linear regression analysis of microINR ® and Sysmex CS2100i ® values showed a correlation coefficient of 0.96 (P < .0001) and a positive proportional bias of 4.4%. Dosage concordance was 93.8% and clinical agreement 95.7%. All acceptance criteria based on ISO standard 17593:2007 system accuracy requirements were met. Control material coefficients of variation (CV) varied from 6.2% to 16.7%. The capillary blood measurement repeatability CV was 7.5%. No significant instrument (P = .93) or test chip (P = .81) variability was found, and the error rate was low (2.8%). The microINR ® instrument is accurate and precise for monitoring warfarin therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Using information Theory in Optimal Test Point Selection for Health Management in NASA's Exploration Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Ali Farhang; Tumer, Irem

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we will present a new methodology that measures the "worth" of deploying an additional testing instrument (sensor) in terms of the amount of information that can be retrieved from such measurement. This quantity is obtained using a probabilistic model of RLV's that has been partially developed in the NASA Ames Research Center. A number of correlated attributes are identified and used to obtain the worth of deploying a sensor in a given test point from an information-theoretic viewpoint. Once the information-theoretic worth of sensors is formulated and incorporated into our general model for IHM performance, the problem can be formulated as a constrained optimization problem where reliability and operational safety of the system as a whole is considered. Although this research is conducted specifically for RLV's, the proposed methodology in its generic form can be easily extended to other domains of systems health monitoring.

  10. Active Parenting Now: Program Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Michael H.

    Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

  11. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  12. Architectural Environment: A Resource Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. Speed Art Museum, Louisville, KY.

    There are many ways to approach the investigation of architecture. One can look at structural form, climate and topography, the aesthetics of style and decoration, building function, historical factors, cultural meanings, or technology and techniques associated with construction. This resource kit touches upon a few of these approaches, ranging…

  13. Work and Family Resource Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This kit is designed to help employers understand the range of family needs emerging in the workplace and the numerous options for a company response. An introduction discusses the need for child care services, dependent care problems, and how employers respond and benefit. Sections address the following: selecting the right option in relation to…

  14. Tracking the progress of HIV: the impact of point-of-care tests on antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid SD

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Steven D Reid, Sarah J Fidler, Graham S Cooke Department of Infectious Diseases, St Mary's Hospital, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: It is now around 30 years since the discovery of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. More than 70 million people have been infected in that time and around 35 million have died. The majority of those currently living with HIV/AIDS are in low- and middle-income countries, with sub-Saharan Africa bearing a disproportionate burden of the global disease. In high-income countries, the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART has drastically reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV. Patients on ART are now predicted to have near-normal life expectancy and the role of treatment is increasingly recognized in preventing new infections. In low- and middle-income countries, treatment is now more widely available and around half of those who need ART are currently receiving it. Early diagnosis of HIV is essential if ART is to be optimally implemented. Lab-based diagnostics for screening, diagnosis, treatment initiation, and the monitoring of treatment efficacy are critical in managing the disease and reducing the number of new infections each year. The introduction of point-of-care HIV rapid tests has transformed the epidemic, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. For the first time, these point-of-care tests allow for the rapid identification of infected individuals outside the laboratory who can undergo counseling and treatment and, in the case of pregnant women, allow the timely initiation of ART to reduce the risk of vertical transmission. Although survival is markedly improved with ART even in the absence of laboratory monitoring, long-term management of people living with HIV on ART, and their partners, is essential to ensure successful viral suppression. The burden of disease in many resource-poor settings with high HIV prevalence has challenged the ability of local laboratories

  15. Evaluation of a pharmacist-managed lipid clinic that uses point-of-care lipid testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrald, Katherine R; Dixon, Dave L; Barnette, Debra J; Williams, Virginia G

    2010-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a significant, modifiable risk factor for developing coronary heart disease. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal achievement has improved overall, but many high-risk patients remain above the desired LDL-C goals. Published data have demonstrated the ability of pharmacist-managed lipid clinics to improve lipid management in a variety of clinical settings. This observational analysis aimed to report the impact of a newly developed hospital-based, outpatient lipid clinic by the use of point-of-care testing on LDL-C goal attainment. A retrospective, observational analysis was conducted from February 2007 to December 2008. The primary outcome measure was the change in the proportion of patients who achieved their LDL-C goal at the end of the observation period compared with baseline. A total of 81 patients met study inclusion criteria. Mean duration of follow-up was 9.0 ± 4.9 (SD) months. At the end of the observation period, 82.9% of patients achieved their LDL-C goal compared with 55.3% at baseline (P used point-of-care testing to obtain lipid results for making therapy adjustments during the face-to-face visit. Copyright © 2010 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. SiC-CMC-Zircaloy-4 Nuclear Fuel Cladding Performance during 4-Point Tubular Bend Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IJ van Rooyen; WR Lloyd; TL Trowbridge; SR Novascone; KM Wendt; SM Bragg-Sitton

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE NE) established the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to develop technologies and other solutions to improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development Pathway in the LWRS program encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. Recent investigations of potential options for “accident tolerant” nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) cladding. One of the proposed SiC-based fuel cladding designs being investigated incorporates a SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) as a structural material supplementing an internal Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) liner tube, referred to as the hybrid clad design. Characterization of the advanced cladding designs will include a number of out-of-pile (nonnuclear) tests, followed by in-pile irradiation testing of the most promising designs. One of the out-of-pile characterization tests provides measurement of the mechanical properties of the cladding tube using four point bend testing. Although the material properties of the different subsystems (materials) will be determined separately, in this paper we present results of 4-point bending tests performed on fully assembled hybrid cladding tube mock-ups, an assembled Zr-4 cladding tube mock-up as a standard and initial testing results on bare SiC-CMC sleeves to assist in defining design parameters. The hybrid mock-up samples incorporated SiC-CMC sleeves fabricated with 7 polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) cycles. To provide comparative information; both 1- and 2-ply braided SiC-CMC sleeves were used in this development study. Preliminary stress simulations were performed using the BISON nuclear fuel performance code to show the stress distribution differences for varying lengths between loading points

  17. Detection of cut-off point for rapid automized naming test in good readers and dyslexics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.

  18. Four-Point Bending Strength Testing of Pultruded Fiberglass Composite Wind Turbine Blade Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musial, W.; Bourne, B; Hughes, S; Zuteck, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    The ultimate strength of the PS Enterprises pultruded blade section was experimentally determined under four-point bending at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Thirteen 8-foot long full-scale blade segments were individually tested to determine their maximum moment carrying capability. Three airfoil-bending configurations were tested: high- and low-pressure skin buckling, and low pressure skin buckling with foam interior reinforcement. Maximum strain was recorded for each sample on the compressive and tensile surfaces of each test blade. Test data are compared to the results of three analytical buckling prediction methods. Based on deviations from the linear strain versus load curve, data indicate a post-buckling region. High-pressure side buckling occurred sooner than low-pressure side buckling. The buckling analyses were conservative for both configurations, but high-pressure side buckling in particular was substantially under-predicted. Both high- and low-pressure buckling configurations had very similar failure loads. These results suggests that a redundant load path may be providing strength to the section in the post-buckling region, making the onset of panel buckling a poor predictor of ultimate strength for the PS Enterprises pultrusion

  19. Point-of-care testing in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers: current technology and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Jeremy R; Ni, Melody Z; Markar, Sheraz R; Hanna, George B

    2015-04-14

    Point-of-care (POC) tests enable rapid results and are well established in medical practice. Recent advances in analytical techniques have led to a new generation of POC devices that will alter gastrointestinal diagnostic pathways. This review aims to identify current and new technologies for the POC diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancer. A structured search of the Embase and Medline databases was performed. Papers reporting diagnostic tests for gastrointestinal cancer available as a POC device or containing a description of feasibility for POC application were included. Studies recovered were heterogeneous and therefore results are presented as a narrative review. Six diagnostic methods were identified (fecal occult blood, fecal proteins, volatile organic compounds, pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2, tumour markers and DNA analysis). Fecal occult blood testing has a reported sensitivity of 66%-85% and specificity greater than 95%. The others are at a range of development and clinical application. POC devices have a proven role in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancer. Barriers to their implementation exist and the transition from experimental to clinical medicine is currently slow. New technologies demonstrate potential to provide accurate POC tests and an ability to diagnose gastrointestinal cancer at an early stage with improved clinical outcome and survival.

  20. Tumor markers kits development for use in radioimmunometric assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.

    1997-01-01

    The immunoassays such as RIA and IRMA are now widely used through the world for the quantitation of a variety of substances in the biological fluid for their high sensibility and specificity which required simple equipments. These techniques are also very used in Algeria for an effective amelioration of public heath The assays kits of RIA/IRMA of thyroid hormones are the most used, followed by peptidic hormones, steroids hormones and IRMA Tumor Markers (T.M) kits. In spite of the important demand, of tumor markers kits for the diagnosis and follow up of cancers their use are always insufficient due to the high cost. The research contract programme proposed by IAEA on the theme 'The Developments of IRMA Tumor Markers Kits' of prostate specific Antigen (PSA) and Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen (TPS) will allowed us to produce locally with best quality-price, the main reagents for PSA and TPS IRMA assays kits for diagnosis and follow up the prostate and breast cancers which are very spready in the country. This report include the following points: Generalities on the use of tumor markers in Algeria, programme for the Development of the PSA IRMA assay (schedule of protocols applied for each reagents; annual planning for assessing the programme activities) and conclusion

  1. Reducing patient identification errors related to glucose point-of-care testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Alreja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patient identification (ID errors in point-of-care testing (POCT can cause test results to be transferred to the wrong patient′s chart or prevent results from being transmitted and reported. Despite the implementation of patient barcoding and ongoing operator training at our institution, patient ID errors still occur with glucose POCT. The aim of this study was to develop a solution to reduce identification errors with POCT. Materials and Methods: Glucose POCT was performed by approximately 2,400 clinical operators throughout our health system. Patients are identified by scanning in wristband barcodes or by manual data entry using portable glucose meters. Meters are docked to upload data to a database server which then transmits data to any medical record matching the financial number of the test result. With a new model, meters connect to an interface manager where the patient ID (a nine-digit account number is checked against patient registration data from admission, discharge, and transfer (ADT feeds and only matched results are transferred to the patient′s electronic medical record. With the new process, the patient ID is checked prior to testing, and testing is prevented until ID errors are resolved. Results: When averaged over a period of a month, ID errors were reduced to 3 errors/month (0.015% in comparison with 61.5 errors/month (0.319% before implementing the new meters. Conclusion: Patient ID errors may occur with glucose POCT despite patient barcoding. The verification of patient identification should ideally take place at the bedside before testing occurs so that the errors can be addressed in real time. The introduction of an ADT feed directly to glucose meters reduced patient ID errors in POCT.

  2. Towards a point-of-care strip test to diagnose sickle cell anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan Bond

    Full Text Available A rapid test to identify patients with sickle cell disease could have important benefits in low-resource settings. Sickle cell anemia (SCA affects about 300,000 newborns each year, the majority of whom are born in sub-Saharan Africa. Low-cost therapies are available to treat SCA, but most countries in sub-Saharan Africa lack robust neonatal screening programs needed to identify patients in need of treatment. To address this need, we developed and evaluated a competitive lateral flow assay that identifies patients with SCA (genotype HbSS in 15 minutes using undiluted whole blood. A small volume of blood (0.5 μL- 3 μL is mixed with antibody-coated blue latex beads in a tube and applied to the strip. Strips are then placed in a well of running buffer and allowed to run for 10 minutes. Laboratory evaluation with samples containing different proportions of hemoglobin A (HbA and hemoglobin S (HbS indicated that the test should enable identification of SCA patients but not persons with sickle cell trait (SCT. We evaluated the test using 41 samples from individuals with SCA, SCT, and normal blood. With visual inspection or quantitative analysis, we found a 98% accuracy when differentiating SCA from normal and SCT samples as a group (90% sensitivity and 100% specificity for identifying SCA. This work demonstrates important steps towards making a lateral flow test for hemoglobinopathies more appropriate for point-of-care use; further work is needed before the test is appropriate for clinical use.

  3. Uji Stabilitas Kit Cair Tetrofosmin pada Berbagai Kondisi Penyimpanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunilda Yunilda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetrofosmin radiopharmaceutical compound that is being developed by PTRR BATAN for use as myocardial perfusion imaging agent and cancer diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine. The aim of this study is observe the stability of this liquid kits after stored in various condition to determine its expire date various condition. The stability test was done of 1 hour, 3 hours, 5 hours and 7 hours after labeling. The radiochemical was determined its radiochemical purity has to be ≥ 90 %. Analysis of radiochemical purity was carried out by separation method which using Sep-Pak C18 cartride. Storage condition of tetrofosmin kit was carried out at various temperatures as in the deep freezer (-800C, freezer (-180C, refrigerator (2-60C and cool box (2-60C. The result showed that the liquid tetrofosmin kits stored in deep freezer, freezer, refrigerator were stable up to 23 months, 8 weeks and 4 days respectively. Simulation of stability  test after stored in a cool box was done by observing the temperature of cool box, and the result showed that the temperature in the cool box was constant as in refrigerator for up to 24 hours. Tetrofosmin which has been labeled with technetium-99m can with stand up 7 hours. It is concluded that expiry date of liquid tetrofosmin kit related with storage temperature, the lower the temperature the longer the expiry date of the kits.

  4. A miniaturised image based fluorescence detection system for point-of-care-testing of cocaine abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Rafał; Krüger, Jan; Moynihan, Shane

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we describe a miniaturised image-based fluorescence detection system and demonstrate its viability as a highly sensitive tool for point-of-care-analysis of drugs of abuse in human sweat with a focus on monitor individuals for drugs of abuse. Investigations of miniaturised and low power optoelectronic configurations and methodologies for real-time image analysis were successfully carried out. The miniaturised fluorescence detection system was validated against a reference detection system under controlled laboratory conditions by analysing spiked sweat samples in dip stick and then strip with sample pad. As a result of the validation studies, a 1 ng mL-1 limit of detection of cocaine in sweat and full agreement of test results with the reference detection system can be reported. Results of the investigations open the way towards a detection system that integrates a hand-held fluorescence reader and a wearable skinpatch, and which can collect and in situ analyse sweat for the presence of cocaine at any point for up to tenths hours.

  5. Reliable four-point flexion test and model for die-to-wafer direct bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, T., E-mail: toshiyuki.tabata@cea.fr; Sanchez, L.; Fournel, F.; Moriceau, H. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-07

    For many years, wafer-to-wafer (W2W) direct bonding has been very developed particularly in terms of bonding energy measurement and bonding mechanism comprehension. Nowadays, die-to-wafer (D2W) direct bonding has gained significant attention, for instance, in photonics and microelectro-mechanics, which supposes controlled and reliable fabrication processes. So, whatever the stuck materials may be, it is not obvious whether bonded D2W structures have the same bonding strength as bonded W2W ones, because of possible edge effects of dies. For that reason, it has been strongly required to develop a bonding energy measurement technique which is suitable for D2W structures. In this paper, both D2W- and W2W-type standard SiO{sub 2}-to-SiO{sub 2} direct bonding samples are fabricated from the same full-wafer bonding. Modifications of the four-point flexion test (4PT) technique and applications for measuring D2W direct bonding energies are reported. Thus, the comparison between the modified 4PT and the double-cantilever beam techniques is drawn, also considering possible impacts of the conditions of measures such as the water stress corrosion at the debonding interface and the friction error at the loading contact points. Finally, reliability of a modified technique and a new model established for measuring D2W direct bonding energies is demonstrated.

  6. OLED Hybrid Integrated Polymer Microfluidic Biosensing for Point of Care Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Acharya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a microfluidic platform with external hybrid integration of an organic light emitting diode (OLED as an excitation source. This device can be used as a simple and cost effective biosensing element. The device is capable of rapid in-situ detection of biological elements such as sensing of interaction of antigen with fluorescent tagged antibody conjugates. These portable microfluidic systems have great potential for use an OLED in a single chip with very high accuracy and sensitivity for various point-of-care (POC diagnosis and lab on a chip (LOC applications, as the miniaturization of the biosensor is essential for handling smaller sample volumes in order to achieve high throughput. The biosensing element was successfully tested to detect anti-sheep IgG conjugates tagged to Alexafluor using a fluorescence based immunoassay method.

  7. Review of Commercially Available Microfluidic Materials and Fabricating Techniques for Point of Care Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luck EREKU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades silicon and MEMs technology had been the mainstay of early microfluidic devices. However, recent times have brought into focus the need for low cost and readily available materials capable of achieving the expected microfluidics physical and chemical requirements. Also what mentioning is the rapid improvement in microfabrication technology over the years, which has significantly aided new and cheaper ways to produce microfluidic Point-Of-Care-Testing devices commercially or for research purposes. This review article discusses the usefulness of a wide range of available materials and their unique properties suitability in microfluidic applications. Likewise, advantages and drawbacks of manufacturing procedures and outputs of different fabrication methods are also brought into focus.

  8. Feasibility study of point cloud data from test deposition holes for deformation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrea, D.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Derron, M.-H.

    2014-02-01

    The present document reports the observations and analyses made at the University of Lausanne (UNIL) on the point cloud datasets from the test deposition holes of the ONKALO facility (Olkiluoto, Finland). This study has revealed that an artificial distortion due to the acquisition procedure affects part of the data (up to 6 mm shift). This distortion occurs when the incidence angle gets too high and recommendations are proposed to avoid it during future acquisitions. Another issue is the influence of the surface condition on range measurement, i.e. wet versus dry, or dark versus light colored. No obvious ground deformation was observed on the data provided for this study. But, because of the distortion mentioned previously, a quite important amplitude deformation would be required to be detected in some parts of the holes on the present data. We think that changing slightly the scanning strategy in the field for future acquisitions should make possible to detect sub-mm deformations. (orig.)

  9. Advances in paper-based sample pretreatment for point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui Hua; Yang, Hui; Choi, Jane Ru; Gong, Yan; Feng, Shang Sheng; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Huang, Qing Sheng; Shi, Jun Ling; Mei, Qi Bing; Xu, Feng

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, paper-based point-of-care testing (POCT) has been widely used in medical diagnostics, food safety and environmental monitoring. However, a high-cost, time-consuming and equipment-dependent sample pretreatment technique is generally required for raw sample processing, which are impractical for low-resource and disease-endemic areas. Therefore, there is an escalating demand for a cost-effective, simple and portable pretreatment technique, to be coupled with the commonly used paper-based assay (e.g. lateral flow assay) in POCT. In this review, we focus on the importance of using paper as a platform for sample pretreatment. We firstly discuss the beneficial use of paper for sample pretreatment, including sample collection and storage, separation, extraction, and concentration. We highlight the working principle and fabrication of each sample pretreatment device, the existing challenges and the future perspectives for developing paper-based sample pretreatment technique.

  10. Nearshore Tests of the Tidal Compensation System for Point-Absorbing Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Castellucci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The power production of the linear generator wave energy converter developed at Uppsala University is affected by variations of mean sea level. The reason is that these variations change the distance between the point absorber located on the surface and the linear generator located on the seabed. This shifts the average position of the translator with respect to the center of the stator, thereby reducing the generator output power. A device mounted on the point absorber that compensates for tides of small range by regulating the length of the connection line between the buoy at the surface and the linear generator has been constructed and tested. This paper describes the electro-mechanical, measurement, communication and control systems installed on the buoy and shows the results obtained before its connection to the generator. The adjustment of the line was achieved through a linear actuator, which shortens the line during low tides and vice versa. The motor that drives the mechanical device was activated remotely via SMS. The measurement system that was mounted on the buoy consisted of current and voltage sensors, accelerometers, strain gauges and inductive and laser sensors. The data collected were transferred via Internet to a Dropbox server. As described within the paper, after the calibration of the sensors, the buoy was assembled and tested in the waters of Lysekil harbor, a few kilometers from the Uppsala University research site. Moreover, the performance of the sensors, the motion of the mechanical device, the power consumption, the current control strategy and the communication system are discussed.

  11. Point-of-Care Hemoglobin/Hematocrit Testing: Comparison of Methodology and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew; Bert, Arthur; Singh, Arun; Sweeney, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Point-of-care (POC) testing allows rapid assessment of hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) values. This study compared 3 POC testing devices--the Radical-7 pulse oximeter (Radical-7, Neuchȃtel, Switzerland), the i-STAT (Abbott Point of Care, Princeton, NJ), and the GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory, Bedford, MA)--to the hospital reference device, the UniCel DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA) in cardiac surgery patients. Prospective study. Tertiary care cardiovascular center. Twenty-four consecutive elective adult cardiac surgery patients. Hgb and Hct values were measured using 3 POC devices (the Radical-7, i-STAT, and GEM 4000) and a reference laboratory device (UniCel DxH 800). Data were collected simultaneously before surgery, after heparin administration, after heparin reversal with protamine, and after sternal closure. Data were analyzed using bias analyses. POC testing data were compared with that of the reference laboratory device. Hgb levels ranged from 6.8 to 15.1 g/dL, and Hct levels ranged from 20.1% to 43.8%. The overall mean bias was lowest with the i-STAT (Hct, 0.22%; Hgb 0.05 g/dL) compared with the GEM 4000 (Hct, 2.15%; Hgb, 0.63 g/dL) and the Radical-7 (Hgb 1.16 g/dL). The range of data for the i-STAT and Radical-7 was larger than that with the GEM 4000, and the pattern or slopes changed significantly with the i-STAT and Radical-7, whereas that of the GEM 4000 remained relatively stable. The GEM 4000 demonstrated a consistent overestimation of laboratory data, which tended to improve after bypass and at lower Hct/Hgb levels. The i-STAT bias changed from overestimation to underestimation, the latter in the post-cardiopulmonary bypass period and at lower Hct/Hgb levels. By contrast, the Radical-7 biases increased during the surgical procedure and in the lower ranges of Hgb. Important clinical differences and limitations were found among the 3 POC testing devices that should caution clinicians from relying on these data as sole determinants of

  12. Barriers to Point-of-Care Testing in India: Results from Qualitative Research across Different Settings, Users and Major Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Nora; Ganesh, Gayatri; Patil, Mamata; Yellappa, Vijayashree; Pant Pai, Nitika; Vadnais, Caroline; Pai, Madhukar

    2015-01-01

    Background Successful point-of-care testing, namely ensuring the completion of the test and treat cycle in the same encounter, has immense potential to reduce diagnostic and treatment delays, and impact patient outcomes. However, having rapid tests is not enough, as many barriers may prevent their successful implementation in point-of-care testing programs. Qualitative research on diagnostic practices may help identify such barriers across different points of care in health systems. Methods In this exploratory qualitative study, we conducted 78 semi-structured interviews and 13 focus group discussions in an urban and rural area of Karnataka, India, with healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, specialists, traditional healers, and informal providers), patients, community health workers, test manufacturers, laboratory technicians, program managers and policy-makers. Participants were purposively sampled to represent settings of hospitals, peripheral labs, clinics, communities and homes, in both the public and private sectors. Results In the Indian context, the onus is on the patient to ensure successful point-of-care testing across homes, clinics, labs and hospitals, amidst uncoordinated providers with divergent and often competing practices, in settings lacking material, money and human resources. We identified three overarching themes affecting point-of-care testing: the main theme is ‘relationships’ among providers and between providers and patients, influenced by the cross-cutting theme of ‘infrastructure’. Challenges with both result in ‘modified practices’ often favouring empirical (symptomatic) treatment over treatment guided by testing. Conclusions Even if tests can be conducted on the spot and infrastructure challenges have been resolved, relationships among providers and between patients and providers are crucial for successful point-of-care testing. Furthermore, these barriers do not act in isolation, but are interlinked and need to be examined

  13. Barriers to Point-of-Care Testing in India: Results from Qualitative Research across Different Settings, Users and Major Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Engel

    Full Text Available Successful point-of-care testing, namely ensuring the completion of the test and treat cycle in the same encounter, has immense potential to reduce diagnostic and treatment delays, and impact patient outcomes. However, having rapid tests is not enough, as many barriers may prevent their successful implementation in point-of-care testing programs. Qualitative research on diagnostic practices may help identify such barriers across different points of care in health systems.In this exploratory qualitative study, we conducted 78 semi-structured interviews and 13 focus group discussions in an urban and rural area of Karnataka, India, with healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, specialists, traditional healers, and informal providers, patients, community health workers, test manufacturers, laboratory technicians, program managers and policy-makers. Participants were purposively sampled to represent settings of hospitals, peripheral labs, clinics, communities and homes, in both the public and private sectors.In the Indian context, the onus is on the patient to ensure successful point-of-care testing across homes, clinics, labs and hospitals, amidst uncoordinated providers with divergent and often competing practices, in settings lacking material, money and human resources. We identified three overarching themes affecting point-of-care testing: the main theme is 'relationships' among providers and between providers and patients, influenced by the cross-cutting theme of 'infrastructure'. Challenges with both result in 'modified practices' often favouring empirical (symptomatic treatment over treatment guided by testing.Even if tests can be conducted on the spot and infrastructure challenges have been resolved, relationships among providers and between patients and providers are crucial for successful point-of-care testing. Furthermore, these barriers do not act in isolation, but are interlinked and need to be examined as such. Also, a test alone has only

  14. Scrub typhus point-of-care testing: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Saraswati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing scrub typhus clinically is difficult, hence laboratory tests play a very important role in diagnosis. As performing sophisticated laboratory tests in resource-limited settings is not feasible, accurate point-of-care testing (POCT for scrub typhus diagnosis would be invaluable for patient diagnosis and management. Here we summarise the existing evidence on the accuracy of scrub typhus POCTs to inform clinical practitioners in resource-limited settings of their diagnostic value.Studies on POCTs which can be feasibly deployed in primary health care or outpatient settings were included. Thirty-one studies were identified through PubMed and manual searches of reference lists. The quality of the studies was assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2. About half (n = 14/31 of the included studies were of moderate quality. Meta-analysis showed the pooled sensitivity and specificity of commercially available immunochromatographic tests (ICTs were 66.0% (95% CI 0.37-0.86 and 92.0% (95% CI 0.83-0.97, respectively. There was a significant and high degree of heterogeneity between the studies (I2 value = 97.48%, 95% CI 96.71-98.24 for sensitivity and I2 value = 98.17%, 95% CI 97.67-98.67 for specificity. Significant heterogeneity was observed for total number of samples between studies (p = 0.01, study design (whether using case-control design or not, p = 0.01, blinding during index test interpretation (p = 0.02, and QUADAS-2 score (p = 0.01.There was significant heterogeneity between the scrub typhus POCT diagnostic accuracy studies examined. Overall, the commercially available scrub typhus ICTs demonstrated better performance when 'ruling in' the diagnosis. There is a need for standardised methods and reporting of diagnostic accuracy to decrease between-study heterogeneity and increase comparability among study results, as well as development of an affordable and accurate antigen-based POCT to tackle the

  15. CERN’s FMC Kit

    CERN Document Server

    Cattin, M; Serrano, J; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the renovation of controls and data acquisition electronics for accelerators the BE-CO-HT section at CERN has designed a kit based on carriers and mezzanines following the VITA FPGAMezzanine Card (FMC) standard. Carriers exist in VME64x and PCIe form factors, with a PXIe carrier underway. Mezzanines include an Analog to Digital Converter, a Time to Digital Converter, a fine delay generator and a Digital Input/Output. All of the designs are licensed under the CERN Open Hardware Licence and commercialised by companies. This paper discusses the benefits of this carrier mezzanine strategy and of the Open Hardware based commercial paradigm. It also explains the design of each layer of the FMC kit, from the hardware to the gateware and the Linux device driver. In addition, several tools to help designers developing gateware for mezzanines and new concepts such as the Self-Describing Bus (SDB) and the fmcbus are presented. Lastly, some of the plans for the future of the FMC kit and Open Hardware Re...

  16. A critical appraisal of a further three new commercial digoxin radioimmunoassay kits with reference to cross-reacting substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.G.; Wachter, C.

    1979-01-01

    A further 3 digoxin radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits have been evaluated for performance and cross-reaction with digitoxin, spironolactone, canrenone and furosemide (Lasix-Hoechst). Effects of serum protein concentrations have also been tested. The kits tested were from the following manufacturers: A) Diagnostic Products Corporation Digoxin RIA Kit. B) Byk-Mallinckrodt SPAC Digoxin Kit. C) Boehringer-Mannheim Digoxin RIA Kit. All kits used a 125 I-labelled tracer. Kit A used a conventional liquid phase system using double-antibody separation for bound and free drug. Kits B and C used a solid-phase antibody coated tube method. All kits showed a lower cross-reaction to digitoxin than quoted by the manufacturer. Cross-reaction to spironolactone (Aldactone - Boehringer-Mannheim) was less than 1.50 nmol/l at a serum concentration of 125 mg/l Aldactone in all 3 kits. The cross-reaction to canrenone was somewhat higher, 5.2 nmol/l 'digoxin' being measured in one kit at a serum canrenone concentration of 125 mg/l. There was no cross-reaction with furosemide in any kit, even at a serum concentration of 5 g/l. The coated-tube assays were affected by serum albumin and globulin concentration changes, one kit showing a difference of over 50% binding in the range 1-20% albumin. The double-antibody kit did not show dependence on the concentration of these proteins. All kits measured digoxin with good reproducibility in the range 0.40-10.0 nmol/l. (orig.) [de

  17. Laser-induced fluorescence detection platform for point-of-care testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Marcel; Hilbig, Urs; Schubert, Markus B.; Gauglitz, Günter

    2017-08-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) devices for continuous low-cost monitoring of critical patient parameters require miniaturized and integrated setups for performing quick high-sensitivity analyses, away from central clinical laboratories. This work presents a novel and promising laser-induced fluorescence platform for measurements in direct optical test formats that leads towards such powerful POCT devices based on fluorescence-labeled immunoassays. Ultimate sensitivity of thin film photodetectors, integrated with microfluidics, and a comprehensive optimization of all system components aim at low-level signal detection in the targeted biosensor application. The setup acquires fluorescence signals from the volume of a microfluidic channel. An innovative sandwiching process forms a flow channel in the microfluidic chips by embedding laser-cut double-sided adhesive tapes. The custom fit of amorphous silicon based photodiode arrays to the geometry of the flow channel enables miniaturization, fully adequate for POCT devices. A free-beam laser excitation with line focus provides excellent alignment stability, allows for easy and reliable swapping of the disposable microfluidic chips, and therewith greatly improves the ease of use of the resulting integrated device. As a proof-of-concept of this novel in-volume measurement approach, the limit of detection for the dye DY636-COOH in pure water as a model fluorophore is examined and found to be 26 nmol l-1 .

  18. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for in vitro diagnostic testing at the point of care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Haley; Schechinger, Monika; Garza, Javier; Locke, Andrea; Coté, Gerard

    2017-06-01

    Point-of-care (POC) device development is a growing field that aims to develop low-cost, rapid, sensitive in-vitro diagnostic testing platforms that are portable, self-contained, and can be used anywhere - from modern clinics to remote and low resource areas. In this review, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is discussed as a solution to facilitating the translation of bioanalytical sensing to the POC. The potential for SERS to meet the widely accepted "ASSURED" (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User-friendly, Rapid, Equipment-free, and Deliverable) criterion provided by the World Health Organization is discussed based on recent advances in SERS in vitro assay development. As SERS provides attractive characteristics for multiplexed sensing at low concentration limits with a high degree of specificity, it holds great promise for enhancing current efforts in rapid diagnostic testing. In outlining the progression of SERS techniques over the past years combined with recent developments in smart nanomaterials, high-throughput microfluidics, and low-cost paper diagnostics, an extensive number of new possibilities show potential for translating SERS biosensors to the POC.

  19. Three-Point Bending Tests of Zirconia Core/Veneer Ceramics for Dental Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Marrelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The mechanical strength and the surface hardness of commercially available yttrium-doped zirconia were investigated. Furthermore, a comparative study of eight different ceramic veneers, to be used for the production of two-layered all-ceramic restorative systems, was carried out. Materials and Methods. Four types of zirconia specimens were analyzed, according to a standard ISO procedure (ISO 6872. Besides, two-layered zirconia-veneer specimens were prepared for three-point bending tests. Results. A strong effect of the surface roughness on the mechanical strength of zirconia specimens was observed. Finally, a comparative study of eight commercially available veneering ceramics shows different modes of failure between the selected veneers. Conclusion. The results indicate that close attention should be paid to the preparation of zirconia-based crowns and bridges by CAD/CAM process, because surface roughness has an important effect on the mechanical strength of the material. Finally, the results of the mechanical tests on two-layered specimens represent an important support to the choice of the veneering ceramic.

  20. Evaluation of mechanical properties of Dy123 bulk superconductors by 3-point bending tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, K.; Hatakeyama, Y.; Sato, T.; Kasaba, K.; Shoji, Y.; Murakami, A.; Teshima, H.; Hirano, H.

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the mechanical properties, such as Young's modulus and strength, of Dy123 bulk superconductors and those with 10 wt.% Ag 2 O, we performed 3-point bending tests at room (RT) and liquid nitrogen temperatures (LNT) using specimens cut from the bulks. The Young's modulus and the bending strength increased with decrease in temperature. In the tests loading in the direction of c-axis and ones perpendicular to it, Young's moduli were almost comparable at both RT and LNT. Although the strengths for both orientations were also comparable at LNT, those at RT were different. Young's moduli loaded in the direction of c-axis for Ag 2 O added bulk specimens, 127 GPa in average at RT, were almost comparable to those without Ag 2 O, and 134 GPa at LNT, were slightly lower than those without Ag 2 O. On the other hand, the strengths at both RT and LNT were enhanced by 20% by the Ag addition. The mechanical properties of Dy123 bulks without Ag 2 O were compared with those of Y123 bulks obtained previously. The Young's modulus for loading in the direction of c-axis was slightly lower, and the strength was comparable to those in Y123 bulks, respectively

  1. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS for in vitro diagnostic testing at the point of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marks Haley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Point-of-care (POC device development is a growing field that aims to develop low-cost, rapid, sensitive in-vitro diagnostic testing platforms that are portable, self-contained, and can be used anywhere – from modern clinics to remote and low resource areas. In this review, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS is discussed as a solution to facilitating the translation of bioanalytical sensing to the POC. The potential for SERS to meet the widely accepted “ASSURED” (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User-friendly, Rapid, Equipment-free, and Deliverable criterion provided by the World Health Organization is discussed based on recent advances in SERS in vitro assay development. As SERS provides attractive characteristics for multiplexed sensing at low concentration limits with a high degree of specificity, it holds great promise for enhancing current efforts in rapid diagnostic testing. In outlining the progression of SERS techniques over the past years combined with recent developments in smart nanomaterials, high-throughput microfluidics, and low-cost paper diagnostics, an extensive number of new possibilities show potential for translating SERS biosensors to the POC.

  2. Cardiorespiratory optimal point during exercise testing as a predictor of all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Plínio S; Araújo, Claudio Gil S

    2017-04-01

    The cardiorespiratory optimal point (COP) is a novel index, calculated as the minimum oxygen ventilatory equivalent (VE/VO 2 ) obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). In this study we demonstrate the prognostic value of COP both independently and in combination with maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) in community-dwelling adults. Maximal cycle ergometer CPET was performed in 3331 adults (66% men) aged 40-85 years, healthy (18%) or with chronic disease (81%). COP cut-off values of 30 were selected based on the log-rank test. Risk discrimination was assessed using COP as an independent predictor and combined with VO 2 max. Median follow-up was 6.4 years (7.1% mortality). Subjects with COP >30 demonstrated increased mortality compared to those with COP 30 of 3.72 (95% CI 1.98-6.98; p30, either independently or in combination with low VO 2 max, is a good predictor of all-cause mortality in community-dwelling adults (healthy or with chronic disease). COP is a submaximal prognostic index that is simple to obtain and adds to CPET assessment, especially for adults unable or unwilling to achieve maximal exercise. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Proof pressure tests of the PCPVs at Hinkley Point B and Hunterston B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eadie, D.McD.; Bell, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    The two PCPVs at Hinkley Point B were pressure tested in August 1973 and April 1974. The first vessel at Hunterston B was tested in December, 1973, and the second early in 1975. The vessels were pressurised up to 709 psig and, at various stages of pressurisation, readings were taken of external deflections, internal corner deflections and concrete strains. Surveys were taken of external concrete cracks and of crack gauges embedded in the concrete near the re-entrant corners. The external vessel deflections were measured optically using telescopes, targets and invar tapes. In some cases a recent design of manometric equipment was used to monitor the vertical deflections of the top slab during pressurisation and at proof pressure when access to the vessel was not possible for safety reasons. Internal concrete strains were measured using vibrating wire strain gauges. A brief description is given of the various measuring devices used. Deflection readings were also taken of some penetration primary closures. Summaries of the various recorded readings are given and compared with the design analyses. (author)

  4. Development, testing and installation of prestressing of the PCPV's at Hinkley Point B and Hunterston B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.J.; Eadie, D.McD.

    1976-01-01

    In order to keep the walls of the PCPVs at Hinkley Point B and Hunterston B as thin as possible it was desirable to have a prestressing system which permitted close spacing of the tendons and anchorages. A seven strand tendon system was adopted in which the strands are individually anchored by the well-established wedge and barrel system. The seven anchorages bear on to a square plate which transmits the anchorage load to the concrete via a cast steel trumpet. These seven strand anchorages are arranged in groups of four and precast into a steel box as an anchorage unit with an ultimate tendon load of about 1050 tonnes. The development leading up to the adoption of this prestressing system and anchorage arrangement is described. Full size proving tests were carried out on the four tendon anchorage box unit, together with an alternative arrangement using a square helix of bonded reinforcement. Information is given on the friction tests carried out on the completed vessel, prestressing of the PCPVs and the corrosion prevention methods adopted. (author)

  5. The use of upconverting phosphors in point-of-care (POC) testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanke, Hans J.; Zuiderwijk, Michel; Wiesmeijer, Karien C.; Breedveld, Robert N.; Abrams, William R.; de Dood, Claudia J.; Tjon Kon Fat, Elisa M.; Corstjens, Paul L. A. M.

    2014-03-01

    Point-of-care (POC) testing is increasingly applied as a cost effective alternative to many diagnostic tests. Key in POC testing is to create sufficient assay sensitivity with relatively low cost reagents and equipment. For this purpose we have employed a unique reporter, upconverting phosphor (UCP) particles, in combination with lateral flow (LF) assays. UCPs, submicron ceramic particles doped with rare earth ions (lanthanides), convert infrared to visible light and do not suffer from autofluorescence which limits conventional fluorescence based assays. Low cost handheld readers and microfluidics were evaluated in various applications. Designed assays are well suited for applications outside diagnostic laboratories, in resource poor settings, and can even be used by patients at home. Using two distinctly different UCP-LF assay formats, we focussed on assays for infectious diseases based on the detection of pathogen-specific antibodies and/or antigens including nucleic acids to demonstrate active infection with HIV. Only minor adaptation of the standard UCP-LF assay format is needed to render the format suitable for applications involving low affinity capture antibodies (e.g. in the detection of neurotoxin, botulism), capture of small molecules (e.g. detection of melatonin, a key hormone in chronopharmacology) or the use of dry UCP reagents (e.g. detection of protein based fruit-ripening markers, of economic interest in agriculture). Finally, we anticipate on developments in healthcare (personalized medicine) by discussing the potential of one of the UCP-LF assay formats to measure serum trough levels of immunodrugs (e.g. infliximab or adalimumab) in patients treated for inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. Emerging point of care tests for influenza: innovation or status quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayo, Adeoluwa; Ellis, Joanna; Linden Phillips, Luan; Simpson, Sue; Ward, Derek J

    2012-07-01

    Point of care tests (POCTs) for influenza potentially offer earlier diagnosis, enabling specific treatment, infection control measures and greater patient convenience and satisfaction. Current POCTs have limited sensitivity, some cannot distinguish influenza types, none differentiate subtypes and are relatively expensive.  To identify and characterise influenza POCTs expected to be available for clinical use in the U.K. by mid-2013, highlighting those with potential benefits over existing tests. Potential developers of influenza POCTs were identified through known manufacturers' websites, Medical Technology trade associations, the EuroScan International Network, an expert advisory group and by searching relevant online sources. Identified companies were asked to provide standard information on relevant technologies. Fifty-six companies were identified, and 29 (52%) responded, identifying 57 potentially relevant technologies. Of these, 40 (70%) were already available or had undetermined status and 5 (9%) were excluded as time to results took over 60 minutes. Of the remaining 12 emerging POCTs, 10 (83%) reportedly enabled differentiation of influenza types and eight differentiation of A subtypes. Nasopharyngeal swabs were the most commonly acceptable sample type; the sample volume ranging from 80 μl to 1.4 ml. Most identified emerging influenza POCTs offered differentiation of influenza type and subtype. Tests claiming this capability include several incorporating reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays; though, these also had the longest time to result. However, whilst some identified POCTs exhibit high sensitivity and specificity, most lack published clinical data for assessment, and the overall costs of these technologies remains largely unknown. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Clinical performance of a new point-of-care cardiac troponin I test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Michael; Geier, Felicitas; Blaschke, Sabine; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Khellaf, Mehdi; Mair, Johannes; Pariente, David; Scharnhorst, Volkher; Semjonow, Veronique; Hausfater, Pierre

    2018-04-09

    We evaluated the clinical performance of the Minicare cardiac troponin-I (cTnI), a new point-of-care (POC) cTnI test for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a prospective, multicentre study (ISRCTN77371338). Of 474 patients (≥18 years) admitted to an emergency department (ED) or chest pain unit (CPU) with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS; ≤12 h from symptom onset), 465 were eligible. Minicare cTnI was tested immediately, 3 h and 6 h after presentation. AMI diagnoses were adjudicated independently based on current guidelines. The diagnostic performance of the Minicare cTnI test at 3 h was similar for whole blood and in plasma: sensitivity 0.92 vs. 0.90; specificity 0.91 vs. 0.90; positive predictive value (PPV) 0.68 vs. 0.66; negative predictive value (NPV) 0.98 vs. 0.98; positive likelihood ratio (LR+) 10.18 vs. 9.41; negative likelihood ratio (LR-) 0.09 vs. 0.11. The optimal diagnostic performance was obtained at 3 h using cut-offs cTnI >43 ng/L plus cTnI change from admission ≥18.5 ng/L: sensitivity 0.90, specificity 0.96, PPV 0.81, NPV 0.98, and LR+ 21.54. The area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for cTnI whole blood baseline value and absolute change after 3 h curve was 0.93. These data support the clinical usefulness of Minicare cTnI within a 0 h/3 h-blood sampling protocol supported by current guidelines for the evaluation of suspected ACS.

  8. Care model design for E-health : Integration of point-of-care testing at Dutch general practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, Bart; van Kuijk, Kees; Simonse, W.L.

    2018-01-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT)—laboratory tests performed with new mobile devices and online technologies outside of the central laboratory—is rapidly outpacing the traditional laboratory test market, growing at a rate of 12 to 15% each year. POCT impacts the diagnostic process of care providers by

  9. Universal Point of Care Testing for Lynch Syndrome in Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Michael J; Petros, Firas G; Rao, Priya; Mork, Maureen E; Xiao, Lianchun; Broaddus, Russell R; Matin, Surena F

    2018-01-01

    Patients with Lynch syndrome are at risk for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. We sought to identify the incidence and most reliable means of point of care screening for Lynch syndrome in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma. A total of 115 consecutive patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma without a history of Lynch syndrome were universally screened during followup from January 2013 through July 2016. We evaluated patient and family history using AMS (Amsterdam criteria) I and II, and tumor immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair proteins and microsatellite instability. Patients who were positive for AMS I/II, microsatellite instability or immunohistochemistry were classified as potentially having Lynch syndrome and referred for clinical genetic analysis and counseling. Patients with known Lynch syndrome served as positive controls. Of the 115 patients 16 (13.9%) screened positive for potential Lynch syndrome. Of these patients 7.0% met AMS II criteria, 11.3% had loss of at least 1 mismatch repair protein and 6.0% had high microsatellite instability. All 16 patients were referred for germline testing, 9 completed genetic analysis and counseling, and 6 were confirmed to have Lynch syndrome. All 7 patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma who had a known history of Lynch syndrome were positive for AMS II criteria and at least a single mismatch repair protein loss while 5 of 6 had high microsatellite instability. We identified 13.9% of upper tract urothelial carcinoma cases as potential Lynch syndrome and 5.2% as confirmed Lynch syndrome at the point of care. These findings have important implications for universal screening of upper tract urothelial carcinoma, representing one of the highest rates of undiagnosed genetic disease in a urological cancer. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Multiplex Suspension Array Large-Panel Kits for Profiling Cytokines and Chemokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran H.; Krishnan, V.V.; Ziman, Melanie; Janatpour, Kim; Wun, Ted; Luciw, Paul A.; Tuscano, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiplex analysis allows measurements of a large number of analytes simultaneously in each sample. Based on the Luminex multiplex technology (xMAP), kits for measuring multiple cytokines and chemokines (immunomodulators) are commercially available and are useful in investigations on inflammatory diseases. This study evaluated four multiplex kits (Bio-Plex, LINCOplex, Fluorokine, and Beadlyte) that contained 27, 29, 20 and 22 analytes each, respectively, for the analysis of immunomodulators in plasma of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who underwent treatment with antibody against CD20 (rituximab), a B-cell reductive therapy. Methods Multiplex kits were tested on serial plasma samples obtained from six RA patients at baseline and multiple time points (3, 6, and 9 months) post-treatment with rituximab. The RA patients included in this study had previously failed therapy with disease modifying anti-arthritis drugs (DMARD) and treatment with anti-TNFα antibody (infliximab). Results Computer modeling and hierarchical cluster analysis of the multiplex data allowed a comparison of the performance of multiplex assay kits and revealed profiles of immunomodulators in the RA patients. Conclusions In plasma of RA patients who appeared to have benefited from rituximab treatment the profile of significantly elevated immunomodulators by at least two of the three kits (BioPlex, LINCOplex, Beadlyte), is as follows: IL-12p70, Eotaxin, IL-4, TNFα, Il-9, IL-1β, IFNγ, IL-10, IL-6, and IL-13. Immunomodulator profiling by multiplex analysis may provide useful plasma biomarkers for monitoring response to B-cell reductive therapy in RA patients. PMID:18823005

  11. Determination of stannous tin in radiopharmaceutical cold kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrant, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Two methods for determining stannous tin in 'cold kits', used for the preparation of Tc-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals, have been developed. Both are based on the direct titration of the Sn2 in solution. In the first method titration is with N-bromosuccinimide. Of the materials commonly used as cold kits only albumin has been found to interfere with the determination. The second method is a standard iodometric titration in which starch is used as indicator. None of the materials tested interfere with this procedure. The N-bromosuccinimide method is the method of choice as the re-agent, a solid, can be used without prior standardization. Iodine solution must be standardized daily. The paper describes in detail the methods used and gives examples of kits in which the Sn2 levels have been determined using the described procedures

  12. Performance of immunoassay kits for site characterization and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, L.C.; Palausky, A.; Counts, R.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting efforts to identify, validate and implement the use of effective, low-cost alternatives to currently used analytical methods for environmental management. As part of that program, we have evaluated the performances of a number of immunoassay (IA) kits with specificities for environmental contaminants of concern to the DOE. The studies were done in the laboratory using both spiked and field test samples. The analyte specificity and manufacturers of the kits evaluated were the following: mercury, BioNebraska; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), EnSys and Millipore; petroleum fuel hydrocarbons, Millipore and Ohmicron; and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Ohmicron and Millipore. The kits were used in either a semiquantitative or quantitative format according to the preference of the manufacturers

  13. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  14. A Monte Carlo-adjusted goodness-of-fit test for parametric models describing spatial point patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Dao, Ngocanh; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the goodness-of-fit (GOF) for intricate parametric spatial point process models is important for many application fields. When the probability density of the statistic of the GOF test is intractable, a commonly used procedure is the Monte

  15. [Guidelines for the management of point-of care testing nonconformities according to the EN ISO 22870].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlbert, C; Annaix, V; Szymanowicz, A; Vassault, A; Guimont, M C; Pernet, P

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, guidelines are proposed to fulfill the requirements of EN ISO 22870 standard regarding the management of point-of-care testing (POCT) nonconformities. In the first part, the main nonconformities that may affect POCT are given, the means for resolution and the control of adverse events are proposed. In the second part, we propose recommendations in case of unavailability of a point-of-care testing device from the occurring of the adverse event, to the restarting of the device.

  16. Design, implementation and evaluation of a training programme for school teachers in the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests as part of a basic first aid kit in southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek-McManus, Stefan; Mathanga, Don P; Verney, Allison; Mtali, Austin; Ali, Doreen; Sande, John; Mwenda, Reuben; Ndau, Saidi; Mazinga, Charles; Phondiwa, Emmanuel; Chimuna, Tiyese; Melody, David; Roschnik, Natalie; Brooker, Simon J; Halliday, Katherine E

    2015-09-17

    With increasing levels of enrolment, primary schools present a pragmatic opportunity to improve the access of school children to timely diagnosis and treatment of malaria, increasingly recognised as a major health problem within this age group. The expanded use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) by community health workers (CHWs) has raised the prospect of whether teachers can provide similar services for school children. We describe and evaluate the training of primary school teachers to use a first aid kit containing malaria RDTs and ACT for the diagnosis and treament of uncomplicated malaria in school children in southern Malawi. We outline the development of the intervention as: (1) conception and design, (2) pilot training, (3) final training, and (4) 7-month follow up. The training materials were piloted at a four-day workshop in July 2013 following their design at national stakeholders meetings. The evaluation of the pilot training and materials were assessed in relation to increased knowledge and skill sets using checklist evaluations and questionnaires, the results of which informed the design of a final seven-day training programme held in December 2013. A follow up of trained teachers was carried out in July 2014 following 7 months of routine implementation. A total of 15 teachers were evaluated at four stages: pilot training, two weeks following pilot, final training and seven months following final training. A total of 15 and 92 teachers were trained at the pilot and final training respectively. An average of 93 % of the total steps required to use RDTs were completed correctly at the final training, declining to 87 % after 7 months. All teachers were observed correctly undertaking safe blood collection and handling, accurate RDT interpretation, and correct dispensing of ACT. The most commonly observed errors were a failure to wait 20 minutes before reading the test result, and adding an incorrect volume

  17. Stress analysis of neutral beam pivot point bellows for tokamak fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Benda, B.J.; Tiong, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    The neutral beam pivot point bellows serves as an airtight flexible linkage between the torus duct and the neutral beam transition duct in Princeton University's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. The bellows considered here is basically rectangular in cross section with rounded corners; a unique shape. Its overall external dimensions are about 28 in. (about 711 mm) X about 35 in. (about 889 mm). The bellows is formed from 18 convolutions and is of the nested ripple type. It is about 11 in. (about 43.3 mm) in length, composed of Inconel 718, and each leaf has a thickness of 0.034 in. (.86 mm). The bellows is subjected to a series of design loading conditions -- vacuum, vacuum + 2 psi (.12 MPa), vacuum + stroke (10,000 cycles), vacuum + temperature increase + extension, extension to a stress of 120 ksi (838 MPa), and a series of rotational loading conditions induced in the bellows by alignment of the neutral beam injector. A stress analysis of the bellows was performed by the finite element method -- locations and magnitude of maximum stresses were calculated for all of the design loading conditions to check with allowable values and help guide placement of strain gauges during proof testing. A typical center convolution and end convolution were analyzed. Loading conditions were separated into symmetric and antisymmetric cases about the planes of symmetry of the cross-section. Iterative linear analyses were performed, i.e. compressive loading conditions led to predicted overlap of the leaves from linear analysis and restraints were added to prevent such overlap. This effect was found to be substantial in stress predicition and necessary to be taken into account. A total of eleven loading conditions and seven models were analyzed. The results showed peak stresses to be within allowable limits and the number of allowable cycles to be greater than the design condition

  18. Molecular Alterations of KIT Oncogene in Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Gomes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common and devastating primary brain tumours. Despite therapeutic advances, the majority of gliomas do not respond either to chemo or radiotherapy. KIT, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK, is frequently involved in tumourigenic processes. Currently, KIT constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. In the present study we assessed the frequency of KIT overexpression in gliomas and investigated the genetic mechanisms underlying KIT overexpression. KIT (CD117 immunohistochemistry was performed in a series of 179 gliomas of various grades. KIT activating gene mutations (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17 and gene amplification analysis, as defined by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR were performed in CD117 positive cases. Tumour cell immunopositivity was detected in 15.6% (28/179 of cases, namely in 25% (1/4 of pilocytic astrocytomas, 25% (5/20 of diffuse astrocytomas, 20% (1/5 of anaplastic astrocytomas, 19.5% (15/77 of glioblastomas and one third (3/9 of anaplastic oligoastrocytomas. Only 5.7% (2/35 of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas showed CD117 immunoreactivity. No association was found between tumour CD117 overexpression and patient survival. In addition, we also observed CD117 overexpression in endothelial cells, which varied from 0–22.2% of cases, being more frequent in high-grade lesions. No KIT activating mutations were identified. Interestingly, CISH and/or qRT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of KIT gene amplification in 6 glioblastomas and 2 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, corresponding to 33% (8/24 of CD117 positive cases. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that KIT gene amplification rather than gene mutation is a common genetic mechanism underlying KIT expression in subset of malignant gliomas. Further studies are warranted to determine whether glioma patients exhibiting KIT overexpression and KIT gene amplification may benefit from therapy with anti-KIT RTK

  19. Nanobody-Based Apolipoprotein E Immunosensor for Point-of-Care Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; Yan, Junrong; Wu, Dan; Wei, Qin; Wan, Yakun

    2017-09-22

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers can reflect the neurochemical indicators used to estimate the risk in clinical nephrology. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is an early biomarker for AD in clinical diagnosis. In this research, through bactrian camel immunization, lymphocyte isolation, RNA extraction, and library construction, ApoE-specific Nbs with high affinity were successfully separated from an immune phage display nanobody library. Herein, a colorimetric immunosensor was developed for the point-of-care testing of ApoE by layer-by-layer nanoassembly techniques and novel nanobodies (Nbs). Using highly oriented Nbs as the capture and detection antibodies, an on-site immunosensor was developed by detecting the mean gray value of fade color due to the glutaraldehyde@3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane oxidation by H 2 O 2 . The detection limit of AopE is 0.42 pg/mL, and the clinical analysis achieves a good performance. The novel easily operated immunosensor may have potential application in the clinical diagnosis and real-time monitoring for AD.

  20. Testing hypotheses and the advancement of science: recent attempts to falsify the equilibrium point hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Anatol G; Latash, Mark L

    2005-02-01

    Criticisms of the equilibrium point (EP) hypothesis have recently appeared that are based on misunderstandings of some of its central notions. Starting from such interpretations of the hypothesis, incorrect predictions are made and tested. When the incorrect predictions prove false, the hypothesis is claimed to be falsified. In particular, the hypothesis has been rejected based on the wrong assumptions that it conflicts with empirically defined joint stiffness values or that it is incompatible with violations of equifinality under certain velocity-dependent perturbations. Typically, such attempts use notions describing the control of movements of artificial systems in place of physiologically relevant ones. While appreciating constructive criticisms of the EP hypothesis, we feel that incorrect interpretations have to be clarified by reiterating what the EP hypothesis does and does not predict. We conclude that the recent claims of falsifying the EP hypothesis and the calls for its replacement by EMG-force control hypothesis are unsubstantiated. The EP hypothesis goes far beyond the EMG-force control view. In particular, the former offers a resolution for the famous posture-movement paradox while the latter fails to resolve it.

  1. Flight-Test Evaluation of Kinematic Precise Point Positioning of Small UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason N. Gross

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental analysis of Global Positioning System (GPS flight data collected onboard a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV is conducted in order to demonstrate that postprocessed kinematic Precise Point Positioning (PPP solutions with precisions approximately 6 cm 3D Residual Sum of Squares (RSOS can be obtained on SUAVs that have short duration flights with limited observational periods (i.e., only ~≤5 minutes of data. This is a significant result for the UAV flight testing community because an important and relevant benefit of the PPP technique over traditional Differential GPS (DGPS techniques, such as Real-Time Kinematic (RTK, is that there is no requirement for maintaining a short baseline separation to a differential GNSS reference station. Because SUAVs are an attractive platform for applications such as aerial surveying, precision agriculture, and remote sensing, this paper offers an experimental evaluation of kinematic PPP estimation strategies using SUAV platform data. In particular, an analysis is presented in which the position solutions that are obtained from postprocessing recorded UAV flight data with various PPP software and strategies are compared to solutions that were obtained using traditional double-differenced ambiguity fixed carrier-phase Differential GPS (CP-DGPS. This offers valuable insight to assist designers of SUAV navigation systems whose applications require precise positioning.

  2. Life shocks and crime: a test of the "turning point" hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira

    2011-08-01

    Other researchers have posited that important events in men's lives-such as employment, marriage, and parenthood-strengthen their social ties and lead them to refrain from crime. A challenge in empirically testing this hypothesis has been the issue of self-selection into life transitions. This study contributes to this literature by estimating the effects of an exogenous life shock on crime. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, augmented with information from hospital medical records, to estimate the effects of the birth of a child with a severe health problem on the likelihood that the infant's father engages in illegal activities. We conduct a number of auxiliary analyses to examine exogeneity assumptions. We find that having an infant born with a severe health condition increases the likelihood that the father is convicted of a crime in the three-year period following the birth of the child, and at least part of the effect appears to operate through work and changes in parental relationships. These results provide evidence that life events can cause crime and, as such, support the "turning point" hypothesis.

  3. Distance-based microfluidic quantitative detection methods for point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Li, Jiuxing; Song, Yanling; Zhou, Leiji; Zhu, Zhi; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2016-04-07

    Equipment-free devices with quantitative readout are of great significance to point-of-care testing (POCT), which provides real-time readout to users and is especially important in low-resource settings. Among various equipment-free approaches, distance-based visual quantitative detection methods rely on reading the visual signal length for corresponding target concentrations, thus eliminating the need for sophisticated instruments. The distance-based methods are low-cost, user-friendly and can be integrated into portable analytical devices. Moreover, such methods enable quantitative detection of various targets by the naked eye. In this review, we first introduce the concept and history of distance-based visual quantitative detection methods. Then, we summarize the main methods for translation of molecular signals to distance-based readout and discuss different microfluidic platforms (glass, PDMS, paper and thread) in terms of applications in biomedical diagnostics, food safety monitoring, and environmental analysis. Finally, the potential and future perspectives are discussed.

  4. Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, T M; Malmkvist, J

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effects of nest box climate on early mink kit mortality and growth. We hypothesised that litters in warm nest boxes experience less hypothermia-induced mortality and higher growth rates during the 1st week of life. This study included data from 749, 1-year-old breeding dams with access to nesting materials. Kits were weighed on days 1 and 7, dead kits were collected daily from birth until day 7 after birth, and nest climate was measured continuously from days 1 to 6. We tested the influences of the following daily temperature (T) and humidity (H) parameters on the number of live-born kit deaths and kit growth: T mean, T min, T max, T var (fluctuation) and H mean. The nest microclimate experienced by the kits was buffered against the ambient climate, with higher temperatures and reduced climate fluctuation. Most (77.0%) live-born kit deaths in the 1st week occurred on days 0 and 1. Seven of 15 climate parameters on days 1 to 3 had significant effects on live-born kit mortality. However, conflicting effects among days, marginal effects and late effects indicated that climate was not the primary cause of kit mortality. Five of 30 climate parameters had significant effects on kit growth. Few and conflicting effects indicated that the climate effect on growth was negligible. One exception was that large nest temperature fluctuations on day 1 were associated with reduced deaths of live-born kit (P<0.001) and increased kit growth (P=0.003). Litter size affected kit vitality; larger total litter size at birth was associated with greater risks of kit death (P<0.001) and reduced growth (P<0.001). The number of living kits in litters had the opposite effect, as kits in large liveborn litters had a reduced risk of death (P<0.001) and those with large mean litter size on days 1 to 7 had increased growth (P=0.026). Nest box temperature had little effect on early kit survival and growth, which could be due to dams' additional maternal behaviour. Therefore, we

  5. Disposable collection kit for rapid and reliable collection of saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Tezuka, Yuki; Takeda, Kazunori; Shetty, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    To describe and evaluate disposable saliva collection kit for rapid, reliable, and reproducible collection of saliva samples. The saliva collection kit comprised of a saliva absorbent swab and an extractor unit was used to retrieve whole saliva samples from 10 subjects. The accuracy and precision of the extracted volumes (3, 10, and 30 μl) were compared to similar volumes drawn from control samples obtained by passive drool. Additionally, the impact of kit collection method on subsequent immunoassay results was verified by assessing salivary cortisol levels in the samples and comparing them to controls. The recovered volumes for the whole saliva samples were 3.85 ± 0.28, 10.79 ± 0.95, and 31.18 ± 1.72 μl, respectively (CV = 8.76%) and 2.91 ± 0.19, 9.75 ± 0.43, and 29.64 ± 0.91 μl, respectively, (CV = 6.36%) for the controls. There was a close correspondence between the salivary cortisol levels from the saliva samples obtained by the collection kit and the controls (R(2)  > 0.96). The disposable saliva collection kit allows accurate and repeatable collection of fixed amounts of whole saliva and does not interfere with subsequent measurements of salivary cortisol. The simple collection process, lack of elaborate specimen recovery steps, and the short turnaround time (<3 min) should render the kit attractive to test subjects and researchers alike. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Optical sensing of anticoagulation status: Towards point-of-care coagulation testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M Tshikudi

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant overdose is associated with major bleeding complications. Rapid coagulation sensing may ensure safe and accurate anticoagulant dosing and reduce bleeding risk. Here, we report the novel use of Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR for measuring anticoagulation and haemodilution status in whole blood. In the LSR approach, blood from 12 patients and 4 swine was placed in disposable cartridges and time-varying intensity fluctuations of laser speckle patterns were measured to quantify the viscoelastic modulus during clotting. Coagulation parameters, mainly clotting time, clot progression rate (α-angle and maximum clot stiffness (MA were derived from the clot viscoelasticity trace and compared with standard Thromboelastography (TEG. To demonstrate the capability for anticoagulation sensing in patients, blood samples from 12 patients treated with warfarin anticoagulant were analyzed. LSR clotting time correlated with prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time (r = 0.57-0.77, p<0.04 and all LSR parameters demonstrated good correlation with TEG (r = 0.61-0.87, p<0.04. To further evaluate the dose-dependent sensitivity of LSR parameters, swine blood was spiked with varying concentrations of heparin, argatroban and rivaroxaban or serially diluted with saline. We observed that anticoagulant treatments prolonged LSR clotting time in a dose-dependent manner that correlated closely with TEG (r = 0.99, p<0.01. LSR angle was unaltered by anticoagulation whereas TEG angle presented dose-dependent diminution likely linked to the mechanical manipulation of the clot. In both LSR and TEG, MA was largely unaffected by anticoagulation, and LSR presented a higher sensitivity to increased haemodilution in comparison to TEG (p<0.01. Our results establish that LSR rapidly and accurately measures the response of various anticoagulants, opening the opportunity for routine anticoagulation monitoring at the point-of-care or for patient self-testing.

  7. Construction of effective disposable biosensors for point of care testing of nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Tiago; Rodrigues, Patrícia R; Gonçalves, Ana Luisa; Moura, José J G; Jubete, Elena; Añorga, Larraitz; Piknova, Barbora; Schechter, Alan N; Silveira, Célia M; Almeida, M Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we aim to demonstrate, as a proof-of-concept, the feasibility of the mass production of effective point of care tests for nitrite quantification in environmental, food and clinical samples. Following our previous work on the development of third generation electrochemical biosensors based on the ammonia forming nitrite reductase (ccNiR), herein we reduced the size of the electrodes' system to a miniaturized format, solved the problem of oxygen interference and performed simple quantification assays in real samples. In particular, carbon paste screen printed electrodes (SPE) were coated with a ccNiR/carbon ink composite homogenized in organic solvents and cured at low temperatures. The biocompatibility of these chemical and thermal treatments was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry showing that the catalytic performance was higher with the combination acetone and a 40°C curing temperature. The successful incorporation of the protein in the carbon ink/solvent composite, while remaining catalytically competent, attests for ccNiR's robustness and suitability for application in screen printed based biosensors. Because the direct electrochemical reduction of molecular oxygen occurs when electroanalytical measurements are performed at the negative potentials required to activate ccNiR (ca.-0.4V vs Ag/AgCl), an oxygen scavenging system based on the coupling of glucose oxidase and catalase activities was successfully used. This enabled the quantification of nitrite in different samples (milk, water, plasma and urine) in a straightforward way and with small error (1-6%). The sensitivity of the biosensor towards nitrite reduction under optimized conditions was 0.55 A M(-1) cm(-2) with a linear response range 0.7-370 μM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516 is located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 516 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Septic Systems and Discharge Points, and is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (sm b ullet) CAS 03-59-01, Bldg 3C-36 Septic System (sm b ullet) CAS 03-59-02, Bldg 3C-45 Septic System (sm b ullet) CAS 06-51-01, Sump and Piping (sm b ullet) CAS 06-51-02, Clay Pipe and Debris (sm b ullet) CAS 06-51-03, Clean Out Box and Piping (sm b ullet) CAS 22-19-04, Vehicle Decontamination Area The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 06-51-02 and 22-19-04 is no further action. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-impacted septic tank contents, septic tanks, distribution/clean out boxes, and piping. CAU 516 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 516 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 516 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 516 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 186 tons of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH-impacted soil and debris, as well as 89 tons of construction debris, were generated and managed and disposed of appropriately. Waste minimization techniques, such as field screening of soil samples and the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure work

  9. Prevalence of interfering substances with point-of-care glucose testing in a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, John H; Mason, Debra; Barnes, Deborah L; Kollins, Jerry

    2009-01-15

    This study determined the prevalence of interfering substances with a glucometer using the glucose dehydrogenase pyrroloquinolinequinone method of point-of-care glucose testing (POCGT) and identified the percentage of patients with orders for an insulin product during the interference time interval. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all inpatients with biochemically-identified interfering substances over a 12-month period. The interfering substance report identified all patients with serum uric acid concentrations greater than 10 mg/dL, hematocrit less than 20% or greater than 55%, serum total bilirubin concentrations greater than 20 mg/dL, serum acetaminophen concentrations greater than 8 mg/dL, and serum triglyceride concentrations greater than 5000 mg/dL. Of 6885 hospital admissions during the 12-month study period, 84 patients (1.2%) were identified as having interfering substances. Interfering substances were identified an average mean +/- S.D. of 4.88 +/- 15.56 days following hospital admission. Two patients had interfering substances identified in the emergency department before hospital admission. Five patients (four with total bilirubin and one with uric acid) had initial concentrations below the interference threshold. These concentrations increased during hospitalization to high enough levels to cause interference with POCGT. Since the average length of stay for the identified patients was 10.49 days, an average of 17% of the hospital stay was impacted by an interfering substance. Substances remained at interfering concentrations until the time of discharge in 30% of the patients. Over a 12-month period, interfering substance were identified in1.2% of patients admitted to a hospital. Thirty-six percent of those patients had an active order for an insulin product during the interference time interval.

  10. Kit with track detectors aiming at didactic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, M.F.; Koskinas, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The kit intends to improve the possibilities in performing experiments of Nuclear Physics in Modern Physics Laboratories of Physics Course introducing the solid state nuclear track detectors. In these materials the passage of heavily ionizing nuclear particles creates paths (tracks) that may be revealed and made visible in an optical microscope. By the help of the kit several experiments and/or demonstrations may be performed. The kit contains solid state nuclear track detectors unirradiated and irradiated, irradiated etched and uneteched sheets; an alpha source of 241 Am and an instrution text with photomicrographs. To use the kit the laboratory must have an ordinary optical microscope. (author) [pt

  11. Comparing patient and healthcare worker experiences during a dengue outbreak in Singapore: understanding the patient journey and the introduction of a point-of-care test (POCT) toward better care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qinghui; Hildon, Zoe J-L; Singh, Shweta; Jing, Jin; Thein, Tun Linn; Coker, Richard; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M; Leo, Yee Sin

    2017-07-19

    In the aftermath of an upsurge in the number of dengue cases in 2013 and 2014, the SD BIOLINE Dengue Duo rapid diagnostic Point-of-Care Test (POCT) kit was introduced in Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore in June 2013. It is known that the success of POCT usage is contingent on its implementation within the health system. We evaluated health services delivery and the Dengue Duo rapid diagnostic test kit application in Singapore from healthcare workers' perspectives and patient experiences of dengue at surge times. Focus group discussions were conducted with dengue patients, from before and after the POCT implementation period. In-depth interviews with semi-structured components with healthcare workers were carried out. A patient centred process mapping technique was used for evaluation, which mapped the patient's journey and was mirrored from the healthcare worker's perspective. Patients and healthcare workers confirmed a wide range of symptoms in adults, making it challenging to determine diagnosis. There were multiple routes to help seeking, and no 'typical patient journey', with patients either presenting directly to the hospital emergency department, or being referred there by a primary care provider. Patients groups diagnosed before and after POCT implementation expressed some differences between speed of diagnoses and attitudes of doctors, yet shared negative feelings about waiting times and a lack of communication and poor information delivery. However, the POCT did not in its current implementation do much to help waiting times. Healthcare workers expressed that public perceptions of dengue in recent years was a major factor in changing patient management, and that the POCT kit was helpful in improving the speed and accuracy of diagnoses. Health service delivery for dengue patients in Singapore was overall perceived to be of an acceptable clinical standard, which was enhanced by the introduction of the POCT. However, improvements can be focused on Adapting

  12. KIT polymorphisms and mutations determine responses of neoplastic mast cells to bafetinib (INNO-406).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Barbara; Hadzijusufovic, Emir; Blatt, Katharina; Gleixner, Karoline V; Pickl, Winfried F; Thaiwong, Tuddow; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; Willmann, Michael; Valent, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Advanced systemic mastocytosis (SM) is characterized by uncontrolled growth of neoplastic mast cells (MC) and drug resistance. The tyrosine kinase receptor KIT is often mutated and activated and thus contributes to malignant growth of MC. Therefore, KIT-targeting drugs are currently tested for their ability to block growth of malignant MC. We determined the effects of the multikinase inhibitor INNO-406 (bafetinib) on primary neoplastic MC, the canine mastocytoma cell line C2, the human MC leukemia cell line HMC-1.1 bearing the KIT mutant V560G, and HMC-1.2 cells harboring KIT V560G and KIT D816V. INNO-406 was found to inhibit proliferation in HMC-1.1 cells (IC(50): 30-40 nM), but not in HMC-1.2 cells or primary neoplastic cells in patients with KIT D816V-positive SM. In canines, growth-inhibitory effects of INNO-406 were seen in C2 cells (IC(50): 50-100 nM) exhibiting a KIT exon 11 internal tandem-duplication and in primary neoplastic MC harboring wild-type exon 11, whereas no effects were seen in MC exhibiting a polymorphism at amino acid 581 in exon 11. INNO-406 was found to block KIT phosphorylation and expression in HMC-1.1 cells and C2 cells, but not in HMC-1.2 cells, whereas Lyn-phosphorylation was blocked by INNO-406 in all types of MC. In neoplastic MC, the major target of INNO-406 appears to be KIT. Drug responses may depend on the presence and type of KIT mutation. In human MC, the KIT D816V mutant introduces resistance, and in canine mastocytomas, an exon 11 polymorphism may be indicative of resistance against INNO-406.

  13. Effect of planecta and ROSE™ on the frequency characteristics of blood pressure-transducer kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shigeki; Kawakubo, Yoshifumi; Mori, Satoshi; Tachihara, Keiichi; Toyoguchi, Izumi; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    Pressure-transducer kits have frequency characteristics such as natural frequency and damping coefficient, which affect the monitoring accuracy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of planecta ports and a damping device (ROSE™, Argon Medical Devices, TX, USA) on the frequency characteristics of pressure-transducer kits. The FloTrac sensor kit (Edwards Lifesciences, CA, USA) and the DTXplus transducer kit (Argon Medical Devices) were prepared with planecta ports, and their frequency characteristics were tested with or without ROSE™. The natural frequency and damping coefficient of each kit were obtained using frequency characteristics analysis software and evaluated by plotting them on the Gardner's chart. By inserting a planecta port, the natural frequency markedly decreased in both the FloTrac sensor kit (from 40 to 22 Hz) and the DTXplus transducer kit (from 35 to 22 Hz). In both kits with one planecta port, the damping coefficient markedly increased by insertion of ROSE™ from 0.2 to 0.5, optimising frequency characteristics. In both kits with two planecta ports, however, the natural frequency decreased from 22 to 12 Hz. The damping coefficient increased from 0.2 to 0.8 by insertion of ROSE™; however, optimisation was not achieved even by ROSE™ insertion. Planecta ports decrease the natural frequency of the kit. ROSE™ is useful to optimise the frequency characteristics in the kits without or with one planecta port. However, optimisation is difficult with two or more planecta ports, even with the ROSE™ device.

  14. High speed cinematography of the initial break-point of latex condoms during the air burst test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stube, R; Voeller, B; Davidhazy, A

    1990-06-01

    High speed cinematography of latex condoms inflated to burst under standard (ISO) conditions reveals that rupture of the condom typically is initiated at a small focal point on the shank of the condom and then rapidly propagates throughout the condom's surface, often ending with partial or full severance of the condom at its point of attachment to the air burst instrument. This sequence of events is the reverse of that sometimes hypothesized to occur, where initiation of burst was considered to begin at the attachment point and to constitute a testing method artifact. This hypothesis of breakage at the attachment point, if true, would diminish the value of the air burst test as a standard for assessing manufacturing quality control as well as for condom strength measurements and comparisons.

  15. Test-retest reliability of myofascial trigger point detection in hip and thigh areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, E; Finestone, A S; Moran, U; Damri, E; Kalichman, L

    2017-10-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrP's) are a primary source of pain in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Nevertheless, they are frequently underdiagnosed. Reliable MTrP palpation is the necessary for their diagnosis and treatment. The few studies that have looked for intra-tester reliability of MTrPs detection in upper body, provide preliminary evidence that MTrP palpation is reliable. Reliability tests for MTrP palpation on the lower limb have not yet been performed. To evaluate inter- and intra-tester reliability of MTrP recognition in hip and thigh muscles. Reliability study. 21 patients (15 males and 6 females, mean age 21.1 years) referred to the physical therapy clinic, 10 with knee or hip pain and 11 with pain in an upper limb, low back, shin or ankle. Two experienced physical therapists performed the examinations, blinded to the subjects' identity, medical condition and results of the previous MTrP evaluation. Each subject was evaluated four times, twice by each examiner in a random order. Dichotomous findings included a palpable taut band, tenderness, referred pain, and relevance of referred pain to patient's complaint. Based on these, diagnosis of latent MTrP's or active MTrP's was established. The evaluation was performed on both legs and included a total of 16 locations in the following muscles: rectus femoris (proximal), vastus medialis (middle and distal), vastus lateralis (middle and distal) and gluteus medius (anterior, posterior and distal). Inter- and intra-tester reliability (Cohen's kappa (κ)) values for single sites ranged from -0.25 to 0.77. Median intra-tester reliability was 0.45 and 0.46 for latent and active MTrP's, and median inter-tester reliability was 0.51 and 0.64 for latent and active MTrPs, respectively. The examination of the distal vastus medialis was most reliable for latent and active MTrP's (intra-tester k = 0.27-0.77, inter-tester k = 0.77 and intra-tester k = 0.53-0.72, inter-tester k = 0.72, correspondingly

  16. Feasibility of fractionating Myoview cold kits for cost reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penglis, S.; Tsopelas, C.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Myoview is a freeze-dried ethylene diphosphine ligand that upon reconstitution with 99 Tc m -pertechnetate yields a preparation containing the lipophilic cationic myocardial imaging agent 99 Tc m -tetrofosmin (Tf). The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of fractionating Myoview kits to reduce the cost of the kit, currently A$350 per vial. Myoview vials were reconstituted with N 2 -flushed saline and split into 4 or 5 aliquots of 0.5 ml, then stored at -80 deg C in N 2 -filled vials for up to 3 months. 99 Tc m -Tf was prepared by the addition of varying volumes of 99 Tc m -pertechnetate (1.1 GBq.ml- 1 ) to give a final ligand concentration of 14.4 μg.ml- 1 , followed by a 15 min incubation at room temperature. Radiochemical purity (RCP) was examined at 0, 1, 2 and 3 months post-fractionation. At each time point, RCP was determined at 0,1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h post-reconstitution. RCP was measured using the thin layer chromatography method according to the manufacturer's instructions. Over the 3 month evaluation period, RCP was maintained at 96.4 ± 1.7% (n = 48) over 24 h at room temperature. Animal biodistribution studies were used to validate the final product from the full cold kit to that from the fractionated kits. In conclusion, these results show that Myoview kits can be successfully fractionated and stored for up to 3 months. The subsequent 99 Tc m -Tf can be used to provide significant cost reductions, especially when only 1 patient dose is required

  17. Gene expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumors is distinguished by KIT genotype and anatomic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonescu, Cristina R; Viale, Agnes; Sarran, Lisa; Tschernyavsky, Sylvia J; Gonen, Mithat; Segal, Neil H; Maki, Robert G; Socci, Nicholas D; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Besmer, Peter

    2004-05-15

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are specific KIT expressing and KIT-signaling driven mesenchymal tumors of the human digestive tract, many of which have KIT-activating mutations. Previous studies have found a relatively homogeneous gene expression profile in GIST, as compared with other histological types of sarcomas. Transcriptional heterogeneity within clinically or molecularly defined subsets of GISTs has not been previously reported. We tested the hypothesis that the gene expression profile in GISTs might be related to KIT genotype and possibly to other clinicopathological factors. An HG-U133A Affymetrix chip (22,000 genes) platform was used to determine the variability of gene expression in 28 KIT-expressing GIST samples from 24 patients. A control group of six intra-abdominal leiomyosarcomas was also included for comparison. Statistical analyses (t tests) were performed to identify discriminatory gene lists among various GIST subgroups. The levels of expression of various GIST subsets were also linked to a modified version of the growth factor/KIT signaling pathway to analyze differences at various steps in signal transduction. Genes involved in KIT signaling were differentially expressed among wild-type and mutant GISTs. High gene expression of potential drug targets, such as VEGF, MCSF, and BCL2 in the wild-type group, and Mesothelin in exon 9 GISTs were found. There was a striking difference in gene expression between stomach and small bowel GISTs. This finding was validated in four separate tumors, two gastric and two intestinal, from a patient with familial GIST with a germ-line KIT W557R substitution. GISTs have heterogeneous gene expression depending on KIT genotype and tumor location, which is seen at both the genomic level and the KIT signaling pathway in particular. These findings may explain their variable clinical behavior and response to therapy.

  18. A fiber-optic polarimetric demonstration kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftimov, T; Dimitrova, T L; Ivanov, G

    2012-01-01

    A simple and multifunctional fiber-optic polarimetric kit on the basis of highly birefringent single-mode fibers is presented. The fiber-optic polarimetric kit allows us to perform the following laboratory exercises: (i) fiber excitation and the measurement of numerical aperture, (ii) polarization preservation and (iii) obtain polarization-sensitive fiberized interferometers.

  19. Building Use Policies. SPEC Kit 144.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Patrick

    This Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) flyer/kit addresses some of the needs of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) members regarding library building use and the aesthetics and well-being of the materials and people in the building. The kit draws upon documents gathered as part of a 1986 Quick-SPEC survey that dealt with food and…

  20. Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit (TALK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna R. Gillespie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit, (TALK, is an annual weekend retreat designed for teens interested in promoting and marketing 4-H in their communities. TALK organizers felt teens would benefit from an intensive weekend retreat focused on communication. TALK produces a network of educated and excited 4-H teens that are available to help with 4-H promotion and marketing. Participants arrive on Friday evening for team building activities, on Saturday they participate in one of the workshops offered and on Sunday morning each workshop group has the opportunity to share their completed projects and what they learned. At the conclusion of the retreat, teens are designated "County 4-H Ambassadors" and certificates of completion, professional business cards and polo shirts are presented. The TALK teen participants return home to share what they learned with their local county 4-H staff and help promote and market 4-H in their communities.

  1. The value of molecular expression of KIT and KIT ligand analysed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry as a prognostic indicator for canine cutaneous mast cell tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Casagrande, T A; de Oliveira Barros, L M; Fukumasu, H; Cogliati, B; Chaible, L M; Dagli, M L Z; Matera, J M

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the correlation between KIT gene expression determined by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the rate of tumour recurrence and tumour-related deaths in dogs affected with mast cell tumour (MCT). Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to compare tumour recurrence and tumour-related death between patients. The log-rank test was used to check for significant differences between curves. KIT-I, KIT-II and KIT-III staining patterns were observed in 9 (11.11%), 50 (61.73%) and 22 (27.16%) tumours, respectively. Tumour recurrence rates and tumour-related deaths were not associated with KIT staining patterns (P = 0278, P > 0.05), KIT (P = 0.289, P > 0.05) or KIT ligand (P = 0.106, P > 0.05) gene expression. Despite the lack of association between KIT staining pattern and patient survival time, the results suggest a correlation between aberrant KIT localization and increased proliferative activity of MCTs. RT-PCR seems to be a sensible method for quantitative detection of KIT gene expression in canine MCT, although expressions levels are not correlated with prognosis. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Point of care testing of phospholipase A2 group IIA for serological diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nathan J.; Chapman, Robert; Lin, Yiyang; Mmesi, Jonas; Bentham, Andrew; Tyreman, Matthew; Abraham, Sonya; Stevens, Molly M.

    2016-02-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) was examined as a point of care marker for determining disease activity in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic (PsA) arthritis. Serum concentration and activity of sPLA2-IIA were measured using in-house antibodies and a novel point of care lateral flow device assay in patients diagnosed with varying severities of RA (n = 30) and PsA (n = 25) and found to correlate strongly with C-reactive protein (CRP). Levels of all markers were elevated in patients with active RA over those with inactive RA as well as both active and inactive PsA, indicating that sPLA2-IIA can be used as an analogue to CRP for RA diagnosis at point of care.Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) was examined as a point of care marker for determining disease activity in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic (PsA) arthritis. Serum concentration and activity of sPLA2-IIA were measured using in-house antibodies and a novel point of care lateral flow device assay in patients diagnosed with varying severities of RA (n = 30) and PsA (n = 25) and found to correlate strongly with C-reactive protein (CRP). Levels of all markers were elevated in patients with active RA over those with inactive RA as well as both active and inactive PsA, indicating that sPLA2-IIA can be used as an analogue to CRP for RA diagnosis at point of care. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08423g

  3. Testing of Track Point Resolution of Gas Electron Multiplier with Pion Beam at CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Adak, R P; Das, S; Dubey, A K; Ganti, M S; Saini, J; Singaraju, R

    2015-01-01

    A muon detection system using segmented and instrumented absorber has been designed for high-energy heavy-ion collision experiments to be held at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. The muon detector system is mounted downstream of a Silicon Tracking System. The reconstructed tracks from the STS are to be matched to the hits in the GEM detector. For reconstructing track in the GEM Detector, track point resolution is an important issue. We report her first time the track point resolution of the GEM detector.

  4. [Effect evaluation of three ELISA kits in detection of fasciolasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Lin; Chen, Mu-Xin; Chen, Shao-Hong; Chu, Yan-Hong; Cai, Yu-Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Chen, Jia-Xu

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of 3 ELISA kits on detection of human fasciolasis. Twenty-six serum samples from patients with fasciolasis, 180 serum samples from patients with other parasitic diseases as well as 26 serum samples from healthy people were detected by ELISA kits which using soluble antigen of Fasciola gigantica, Fasciola hepatica (Fg-ELISA and Fh-ELISA) as well as IgG antigen ELISA detection kits made by DRG company in Germany. The effects of the 3 kits were evaluated. The sensitivities of Fg-ELISA, Fh-ELISA, and DRG-ELISA were 100.0%, 80.8% (95% CI: 65.7%-95.9%) and 100.0%, respectively; the specificities of the three were 87.9% (95% CI: 83.5%-92.4%), 85.0%(95% CI: 80.1%-89.9%) and 83.5% (95% CI: 78.4%-88.6%), respectively, and Youden indexes of them were 0.88, 0.66 and 0.84, respectively. The detection rate of Fg-ELISA (100%) was significantly higher than that of Fh-ELISA (80.8%) (P DRG-ELISA for clinical sample tests as well as massive screening in fasciolasis endemic areas in southwest China.

  5. [Comparison and evaluation of the Binax EIA and Biotest EIA urinary antigen kits for detection of Legionella pneumophila antigen in urine samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastawicki, Waldemar; Rokosz, Natalia; Jagielski, Marek

    2011-01-01

    The Binax and the Biotest urinary antigen kits for detection of L. pneumophila antigen were compared by testing of selected 67 urine samples obtained from EWGLI as reference samples in External Quality Assessment Scheme. Thirty nine were positive with the Binax kit (100% of sensitivity), and 33 were positive with the Biotest (84.6% of sensitivity). The test specificities were 100% for the both kits. It was concluded that the Binax kit was more suitable for the routine diagnosis of Legionella infections than the Biotest kit.

  6. Pharmaceutics, Drug Delivery and Pharmaceutical Technology: A New Test Unit for Disintegration End-Point Determination of Orodispersible Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ariana; Kok, Si Ling; Khong, Yuetmei; Chan, Sui Yung; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    No standard time or pharmacopoeia disintegration test method for orodispersible films (ODFs) exists. The USP disintegration test for tablets and capsules poses significant challenges for end-point determination when used for ODFs. We tested a newly developed disintegration test unit (DTU) against the USP disintegration test. The DTU is an accessory to the USP disintegration apparatus. It holds the ODF in a horizontal position, allowing top-view of the ODF during testing. A Gauge R&R study was conducted to assign relative contributions of the total variability from the operator, sample or the experimental set-up. Precision was compared using commercial ODF products in different media. Agreement between the two measurement methods was analysed. The DTU showed improved repeatability and reproducibility compared to the USP disintegration system with tighter standard deviations regardless of operator or medium. There is good agreement between the two methods, with the USP disintegration test giving generally longer disintegration times possibly due to difficulty in end-point determination. The DTU provided clear end-point determination and is suitable for quality control of ODFs during product developmental stage or manufacturing. This may facilitate the development of a standardized methodology for disintegration time determination of ODFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3893-3903, 2015. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of point-of-care tests for hepatitis C virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnaaz Sultan Khuroo

    Full Text Available Point-of-care tests provide a plausible diagnostic strategy for hepatitis C infection in economically impoverished areas. However, their utility depends upon the overall performance of individual tests.A literature search was conducted using the metasearch engine Mettā, a query interface for retrieving articles from five leading medical databases. Studies were included if they employed point-of-care tests to detect antibodies of hepatitis C virus and compared the results with reference tests. Two reviewers performed a quality assessment of the studies and extracted data for estimating test accuracy.Thirty studies that had evaluated 30 tests fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The overall pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood-ratio, negative likelihood-ratio and diagnostic odds ratio for all tests were 97.4% (95% CI: 95.9-98.4, 99.5% (99.2-99.7, 80.17 (55.35-116.14, 0.03 (0.02-0.04, and 3032.85 (1595.86-5763.78, respectively. This suggested a high pooled accuracy for all studies. We found substantial heterogeneity between studies, but none of the subgroups investigated could account for the heterogeneity. Genotype diversity of HCV had no or minimal influence on test performance. Of the seven tests evaluated in the meta-regression model, OraQuick had the highest test sensitivity and specificity and showed better performance than a third generation enzyme immunoassay in seroconversion panels. The next highest test sensitivities and specificities were from TriDot and SDBioline, followed by Genedia and Chembio. The Spot and Multiplo tests produced poor test sensitivities but high test specificities. Nine of the remaining 23 tests produced poor test sensitivities and specificities and/or showed poor performances in seroconversion panels, while 14 tests had high test performances with diagnostic odds ratios ranging from 590.70 to 28822.20.Performances varied widely among individual point-of-care tests for diagnosis of hepatitis C virus

  8. A simple field kit for the determination of drug susceptibility in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Dinh, P; Magloire, R; Chin, W

    1983-05-01

    A field kit has been developed which greatly simplifies the performance of the 48-hour in vitro test for drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. The kit uses an easily reconstituted lyophilized culture medium, and requires only a fingerprick blood sample. In parallel tests with 13 isolates of P. falciparum in Haiti, the new technique had a success rate equal to that of the previously described method, with comparable results in terms of parasite susceptibility in vitro to chloroquine and pyrimethamine.

  9. Point-of-Care Testing for Anemia, Diabetes, and Hypertension: A Pharmacy-Based Model in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, Enrique M; Vodicka, Elisabeth; La Rosa, Sayda; Valderrama, Maria; Garcia, Patricia J

    Prevention and control of chronic diseases is a high priority for many low- and middle-income countries. This study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of training pharmacy workers to provide point-of-care testing for 3 chronic diseases-hypertension, diabetes, and anemia-to improve disease detection and awareness through private pharmacies. We developed a multiphase training curriculum for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians to build capacity for identification of risk factors, patient education, point-of-care testing, and referral for abnormal results. We conducted a pre-post evaluation with participants and evaluated results using Student t test for proportions. We conducted point-of-care testing with pharmacy clients and evaluated acceptability by patient characteristics (age, gender, and type of patient) using multiple logistic regression. In total, 72 pharmacy workers (66%) completed the full training curriculum. Pretest scores indicated that pharmacists had more knowledge and skills in chronic disease risk factors, patient education, and testing than pharmacy technicians. All participants improved their knowledge and skills after the training, and post-test scores indicated that pharmacy technicians achieved the same level of competency as pharmacists (P anemia than a traditional health center. Fast service was very important: 41% ranked faster results and 30% ranked faster attention as the most important factor for receiving diagnostic testing in the pharmacy. We found that it is both feasible for pharmacies and acceptable to clients to train pharmacy workers to provide point-of-care testing for anemia, diabetes, and hypertension. This innovative approach holds potential to increase early detection of risk factors and bolster disease prevention and management efforts in Peru and other low- and middle-income settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Low-cost indigenous radiopharmaceutical kits manufacturing capability: a successful work accomplished in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, Y.; Noronha, O.P.D.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine Unit at Black Lion Hospital is the only Nuclear Medicine service giving center in the country. We have been importing Radiopharmaceutical-kits for 10 subsequent years costly, with frequent irregularities, only limited Numbers of kits mainly for Liver, Brain, Thyroid and Kidney imagings. Most of the Nuclear Medicine (NM) diagnostic procedures were not undertaken at our unit, because of unavailability of vital Radiopharmaceutical-kits (Rp-kits) in the country since they were not manufactured in the country. In order to solve this long stranding problem of the country persistent efforts were made. The success in Rp-kits manufacturing indigenously has the advantage of disseminating the NM Technology with in the country also. With the continuous efforts made 7 Aqueous-Rp-kits were manufactured successfully in our unit viza-viz: 1) 99m Tc-s-colloid-for Liver imaging. 2) 99m Tc-DTPA-for Brain + Renal imaging. 3) 99m Tc-MDP-for Bone imaging, 4) 99m Tc-Tin (11) pyrophosphate for in-vivo R,B,C, labelling: (For the study of Blood-Pool and Myocardial Infarction), 5) 99m Tc-Tin(11) Gluconate for Brain + Kidney Static imaging. 6) 99m Tc-Tin(11) Phytate for Liver imaging. 7) 99m Tc-TBI for Myocardial perfusion study. Their physico-chemical behaving patterns were studied and the chemical and biological quality control procedures were conducted upon the indigenously produced kits at the National Drug Quality Control center and they were found to be sterile, apyrogenic and non-toxic. The efficiency of the kits was tested in many patients in our unit and found to be effective and reliable. Aqueous kits produced were observed to be as effective and reliable as their lyophilized counterparts with respect to their physico-chemical properties and biospecificity (organ specificity) but possessing short shelf lives unlike lyophilized kits. (author)

  11. Equation of Motion of a Mass Point in Gravitational Field and Classical Tests of Gauge Theory of Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ning; Zhang Dahua

    2007-01-01

    A systematic method is developed to study the classical motion of a mass point in gravitational gauge field. First, by using Mathematica, a spherical symmetric solution of the field equation of gravitational gauge field is obtained, which is just the traditional Schwarzschild solution. Combining the principle of gauge covariance and Newton's second law of motion, the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field is deduced. Based on the spherical symmetric solution of the field equation and the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field, we can discuss classical tests of gauge theory of gravity, including the deflection of light by the sun, the precession of the perihelia of the orbits of the inner planets and the time delay of radar echoes passing the sun. It is found that the theoretical predictions of these classical tests given by gauge theory of gravity are completely the same as those given by general relativity.

  12. Effects of School-Based Point-of-Testing Counselling on Health Status Variables among Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary W.; Chrisman, Matthew S.; Hughes, Kelly; Taylor, Chris; Kim, Yeonsoo; McAllister, Tiffany L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Rural areas may suffer from a lack of access to health care and programmes to promote behaviours such as healthy eating and physical activity. Point-of-testing counselling is a method of promoting a healthy lifestyle during an individual's most "teachable moment". Design/Setting: This longitudinal study examined the effects of…

  13. Variation in Point-of-Care Testing of HbA1c in Diabetes Care in General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Nexøe, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Point-of-care testing (POCT) of HbA1c may result in improved diabetic control, better patient outcomes, and enhanced clinical efficiency with fewer patient visits and subsequent reductions in costs. In 2008, the Danish regulators created a framework agreement regarding a new fee-for-s...

  14. Point-of-care testing of HbA1c in diabetes care and preventable hospital admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Rose Olsen, Kim; Skovsgaard, Christian

    Background: Point-of-care testing (POCT) of HbA1c may result in improved diabetic control, better patient outcomes and enhanced clinical efficiency with fewer patient visits and subsequent reductions in hospitalizations and costs. In 2008, the Danish regulators agreed to create a new tariff for t...

  15. Variation in point-of-care testing of HbA1c in diabetes care general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Point-of-care testing (POCT) for HbA1c may result in improved diabetic control, better patient outcomes and enhanced clinical efficiency with fewer patient visits and subsequent reductions in costs. In 2008, the Danish regulators agreed to create a new fee for the remuneration...

  16. A test of alternative estimators for volume at time 1 from remeasured point samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis A. Roesch; Edwin J. Green; Charles T. Scott

    1993-01-01

    Two estimators for volume at time 1 for use with permanent horizontal point samples are evaluated. One estimator, used traditionally, uses only the trees sampled at time 1, while the second estimator, originally presented by Roesch and coauthors (F.A. Roesch, Jr., E.J. Green, and C.T. Scott. 1989. For. Sci. 35(2):281-293). takes advantage of additional sample...

  17. A 'same day' TSH radioimmunoassay kit with acceptable precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.G.; Muenchen Univ.

    1980-01-01

    A new 'same-day' TSH-RIA kit has been tested against an 'in-house' TSH-RIA, using incubation schemes of 4, 22 and 23 h. The kit standards were made up in human TSH-free serum and the method used a preincubation step and separation of bound and free antigen using a double antibody method. The correlation between the 'in-house' method and the kit was very good. The results in sera from TRH-test patients, and also from a recovery test with MRC 68/38 in human serum covering the range 0-50 mU/l were good. A comparison of the new kit was made with its precedessor which had protein based standards highlighted the need for standards in human TSH-free serum seen by the poor correlation (r = 0.619, n = 93). (orig.) [de

  18. ELISA Cut-off Point for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis; a Comparison with Serum Agglutination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a world-wide disease, which has a diverse clinical manifestation, and its diagnosis has to be proven by laboratory data. Serum agglutination test (SAT is the most-widely used test for diagnosing brucellosis. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA can also determine specific antibody classes against brucella. It is a sensitive, simple and rapid test, which could be an acceptable alternative to SAT with fewer limitations, however, like any other new test it should be further evaluated and standardized for various populations. This study was planned to determine an optimal cut-off point, for ELISA which would offer maximum sensitivity and specificity for the test when compared to SAT.Methods: Four hundred and seven patients with fever and other compatible symptoms of brucellosis were enrolled in the study. Serum agglutination test, 2-Mercaptoethanol test, and ELISA were performed on their sera. Results: The cut-off point of 53 IU/ml of ELISA-IgG yielded the maximal sensitivity and specificity comparing to the other levels of ELISA-IgG, and was considered the best cut off-point of ELISA-IgG to diagnose acute brucellosis. At this cut-off, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 84.09%, 85.38%, 62.20, 94.90, 5.75, 0.18, respectively.Conclusion: The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG is 53 IU/ml, which yields the maximal sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute brucellosis.

  19. Results with commercial radioassay kits compared with microbiological assay of folate in serum and whole-blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGown, E.L.; Lewis, C.M.; Dong, M.H.; Sauberlich, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    Results with three commercial folate radioassay kits [Bio-Rad, New England Nuclear (NEN), and RIA Products] were compared with those by microbiological assay for more than 200 samples of human serum and whole blood. All but one kit (NEN) compared favorably with the microbiological assay for serum samples, although there were notable diagnostic discrepancies. Two kits (NEN and Bio-Rad) were tested on whole-blood samples; both yielded values significantly higher than those by microbiological assay. The frequency distributions of erythrocyte folate data differed strikingly between the two kits; the NEN method yielded a much narrower range of normal values than did either the Bio-Rad or the microbiological assay. Radioassay kits appear to be suitable diagnostic agents for serum folate, if the behavior of a particular kit is investigated thoroughly before its routine use. However, the diagnostic value of radioassays of erythrocyte folate needs to be validated

  20. KIT safety management. Annual report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The KIT Safety Management Service Unit (KSM) guarantees radiological and conventional technical safety and security of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and controls the implementation and observation of legal environmental protection requirements. KSM is responsible for - licensing procedures, - industrial safety organization, - control of environmental protection measures, - planning and implementation of emergency preparedness and response, - operation of radiological laboratories and measurement stations, - extensive radiation protection support and the - the execution of security tasks in and for all organizational units of KIT. Moreover, KSM is in charge of wastewater and environmental monitoring for all facilities and nuclear installations all over the KIT campus. KSM is headed by the Safety Commissioner of KIT, who is appointed by the Presidential Committee. Within his scope of procedure for KIT, the Safety Commissioner controls the implementation of and compliance with safety-relevant requirements. The KIT Safety Management is certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001, its industrial safety management is certified by the VBG as ''AMS-Arbeitsschutz mit System'' and, hence, fulfills the requirements of NLF / ISO-OSH 2001. KSM laboratories are accredited according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025. To the extent possible, KSM is committed to maintaining competence in radiation protection and to supporting research and teaching activities. The present reports lists the individual tasks of the KIT Safety Management and informs about the results achieved in 2012. Status figures in principle reflect the status at the end of the year 2012. The processes described cover the areas of competence of KSM.

  1. Formulation of MIBI Kit as a heart imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widyastuti; A, Hanafiah; Yunilda; A, Laksmi; Setyowati, Sri; Y Veronika

    1999-01-01

    9 9 m Tc labelled 2-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile(MIBI) has been known as an imaging agent for myocardial perfusion. This radiopharmaceutical preparation gives the same satisfactory result as Thallium- 2 10TI, and presumably could replace 2 01TI because of same advantages. MIBI kit was formulated from MIBI ligand produced by RPC-BATAN which has been characterized and tested for quality. The formula used in this research referred to the formula of imported product(Cardiolite, MIBI kit produced by Dupont), and the quality control testing was performed by comparing some parameters to the imported product. The parameters used for QC testing were radiochemical purity, biodistribution in nice and heart imaging in human volunteer using gamma camera. The result of the experiment showed that the radiochemical purity was 95 % in average, biodistribution in heart to liver gave the ratio of 0.67, 1.5, and 2.53 respectively at 10, 30 and 60 minutes after injection. The result of clinical testing in some volunteers gave contrast images as good as given by Cardiolite. The optimum condition of freeze drying has been found, and the kit can be used for more than 6 months

  2. Optimization and Validation of kit of detection Antibiotics on Honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Malek

    2013-01-01

    According to the Codex Alimentarius and the European Commission Directive each food has a maximum residual antibiotic (MRLs) however, for honey is still no limit set. Among the main methods that guarantee the detection of antibiotic residues include the Premi Test which is a qualitative method for the detection of antibiotics in honey, but it remains a non-specific method for this matrix and long enough (three hours of incubation). Through this work, we were able to develop and optimize a new kit called Honey test. This kit is able to detect the presence of antibiotic residues in honey by a bacterial strain radio-resistant called D.ra. The duration of treatment is only 30 minutes, requiring incubation at 37 Degree C and treatment with UV at 366 nm. This work will be the subject of a national patent.

  3. Rapid and point-of-care tests for the diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Charlotte A; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Pai, Nitika Pant; Kelly, Helen; Coltart, Cordelia; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2017-12-01

    Trichomonasvaginalis (TV) is a highly prevalent parasitic infection worldwide. It is associated with many adverse reproductive health outcomes. Many infections are asymptomatic and syndromic management leads to underdetection of TV. Traditional methods of TV detection such as wet preparation are insensitive. New rapid, point-of-care (POC) tests can enhance the diagnosis of trichomoniasis. The authors reviewed the literature and discuss older POC tests for TV detection, as well as the OSOM lateral flow test, the AmpliVue test, the Solana test and the GeneXpert test as well as the limitations of wet preparation and culture for detection of TV. The OSOM test is easy to perform, compared with other POC tests, and is Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-waived, equipment-free, has sensitivities of 83%-86% compared with nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and can be performed in 15 min. The AmpliVue and the Solana tests are not CLIA waived and require small pieces of equipment. They are molecular amplified assays and can be completed in TV test for women and men is a moderately complex test, requires a small platform and can be performed in women and one is available for detection of TV in men. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Fundamental and clinical evaluation of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in pancreatitis by radioimmunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Soichiro; Nakamura, Takayuki; Ihara, Kenichi; Isogawa, Shin; Hirayama, Akio

    1987-01-01

    Plasma vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) concentrations of normal individuals and patients with pancreatitis were studied using a VIP RIA kit. The inter-assay and intra-assay variation of this kit were between 2.1 and 9.4 %. The VIP levels increased in the acute phase of acute pancreatitis and patients with chronic pancreatitis. The VIP concentration increased during the first 30 min of glucose tolerance test, but this increase was much smaller than that in insulin. These results suggest that this kit is useful for physiologic and pathologic changes in the VIP level. (author)

  5. Use of monoclonal immunoradiometric assays for sensitive TSH measurements: evaluation of four commercially obtainable kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smitz, J.; Schiettecatte, J.; Stierteghem, A.C. van; Jonckheer, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Four commerically available monoclonal immunoradiometric methods for the assay of TSH are tested. These four kits are: RIA-GNOST TSH code 0CPL of Behring, SUCROSEP TSH IRMA of Boots, TSH-IRMA-CT-100 of Medgenix, TSH-RIA bead II Ultrasensitive of Abbott. The accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility of the four kits are compared. The methods are also clinically evaluated. The authors concluded that the kits of Abbott, Behring and Boots are suitable for use in the routine laboratory. 4 refs.; 4 figs.; 7 tabs

  6. Association of KIT exon 9 mutations with nongastric primary site and aggressive behavior: KIT mutation analysis and clinical correlates of 120 gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonescu, Cristina R; Sommer, Gunhild; Sarran, Lisa; Tschernyavsky, Sylvia J; Riedel, Elyn; Woodruff, James M; Robson, Mark; Maki, Robert; Brennan, Murray F; Ladanyi, Marc; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Besmer, Peter

    2003-08-15

    Activating mutations of the KIT juxtamembrane region are the most common genetic events in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and have been noted as independent prognostic factors. The impact of KIT mutation in other regions, such as the extracellular or kinase domains, is not well-defined and fewer than 30 cases have been published to date. One hundred twenty GISTs, confirmed by KIT immunoreactivity, were evaluated for the presence of KIT exon 9, 11, 13, and 17 mutations. The relation between the presence/type of KIT mutation and clinicopathological factors was analyzed using Fisher's exact test and log-rank test. Forty-four % of the tumors were located in the stomach, 47% in the small bowel, 6% in the rectum, and 3% in the retroperitoneum. Overall, KIT mutations were detected in 78% of patients as follows: 67% in exon 11, 11% in exon 9, and none in exon 13 or 17. The types of KIT exon 11 mutations were heterogeneous and clustered in the classic "hot spot" at the 5' end of exon 11. Seven % of cases showed internal tandem duplications (ITD) at the 3' end of exon 11, in a region that we designate as a second hot spot for KIT mutations. Interestingly, these cases were associated with: female predominance, stomach location, occurrence in older patients, and favorable outcome. There were significant associations between exon 9 mutations and large tumor size (P < 0.001) and extragastric location (P = 0.02). Ten of these 13 patients with more than 1-year follow-up have developed recurrent disease. Most KIT-expressing GISTs show KIT mutations that are preferentially located within the classic hot spot of exon 11. In addition, we found an association between a second hot spot at the 3'end of exon 11, characterized by ITDs, and a subgroup of clinically indolent gastric GISTs in older females. KIT exon 9 mutations seem to define a distinct subset of GISTs, located predominantly in the small bowel and associated with an unfavorable clinical course.

  7. The Southern Divide: Testing morphological differences among bifacial points from southern and southeastern Brazil using geometric morphometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Okumura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bifacial points have been used to characterize the “Umbu” tradition in southern and southeastern Brazil. This archaeological tradition has been related to sites dated from the late Pleistocene-early Holocene boundary to near historical times. Such a huge temporal range and vast territory have suggested the existence of greater diversity within this tradition that has been ignored thus far due to the lack of systematic regional studies of such points. Through geometric morphometric analysis, this article aims to test the hypothesis that there are substantial differences in the Holocene bifacial points associated with the Umbu tradition in southeastern Brazil. Five landmarks were digitized in standardized photographs from 658 points from the states of São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. The results show that points made by groups from southeastern Brazil (São Paulo state present a very distinct morphology (size and shape in comparison to  those made by the southern groups (Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. This would indicate a regional identity shared only by some groups from São Paulo (at least regarding the projectile points. It is possible that Umbu tradition presents a more restricted range, both in chronological and spatial terms, than the one proposed so far.

  8. Keratoconus Progression in Patients With Allergy and Elevated Surface Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Point-of-Care Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, Cosimo; Traversi, Claudio; Mellace, Pierfrancesco; Bagaglia, Simone A; Zuccarini, Silvio; Mencucci, Rita; Jacob, Soosan

    2017-10-04

    To assess keratoconus (KC) progression in patients with allergies who also tested positive to surface matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) point-of-care test. Prospective comparative study including 100 stage I-II keratoconic patients, mean age 16.7±4.6 years. All patients underwent an anamnestic questionnaire for concomitant allergic diseases and were screened with the MMP-9 point-of-care test. Patients were divided into two groups: patients KC with allergies (KC AL) and patients KC without allergies (KC NAL). Severity of allergy was established by papillary subtarsal response grade and KC progression assessed by Scheimpflug corneal tomography, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) measurement in a 12-month follow-up. The KC AL group included 52 patients and the KC NAL group 48. In the KC AL group, 42/52 of patients (81%) were positive to MMP-9 point-of-care test versus two positive patients in the KC NAL group (4%). The KC AL group data showed a statistically significant decrease of average CDVA, from 0.155±0.11 to 0.301±0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (Paverage. The KC NAL group revealed a slight KC progression without statistically significant changes. Pearson correlation test showed a high correlation between Kmax worsening and severity of PSR in the KC AL group. The study demonstrated a statistically significant progression of KC in patients with concomitant allergies, positive to MMP-9 point-of-care test versus negative. A high correlation between severity of allergy and KC progression was documented.

  9. Assessment of six commercial plasma small RNA isolation kits using qRT-PCR and electrophoretic separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meerson, Ari; Ploug, Thorkil

    2016-01-01

    of specific miRNAs in different samples varied considerably between the tested extraction methods. Of all kits tested, the QIAGEN miRNeasy kits (Mini and Serum/Plasma kits) and the Macherey-Nagel NucleoSpin kit produced the highest RNA yields. The QIAGEN Exo kit produced lesser yields than what could...... be extracted from the UC fraction using the QIAGEN miRNeasy kits and the Macherey-Nagel NucleoSpin kit. Bioanalyzer results showed an average correlation of R2¼0.8 with endogenous miRNA qRT-PCR results, for sample concentrations >40 pg/ml. The levels of the endogenous miRNAs measured in the two volunteer...... samples were compared with those in a larger group of subjects (n¼10) and found to be typical. Our comparison favors the use of the QIAGEN Serum/Plasma kit and the Macherey-Nagel NucleoSpin kit for plasma miRNA applications. Furthermore, extraction of miRNAs from the UC fraction results in higher yield...

  10. Structural and textural characteristics of slate and its response to the point load test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mladenovič

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available From the geomechanical point of view slate is considered to be one of more trying rock varieties. The results of research have shown close relationship between structural, textural and mineralogical characteristics on the one hand, and its strength and resistance to point loads on the other hand. Its weakened zones are the result of anisotropy. They develop mainly due to dynamo-metamorphosis of the primary mudstone, resulting in the formation of the secondary slaty cleavage, with a pronounced preferred orientation of the hyllosilicates. Low strength is the consequence of the weak Van der Waals chemical bond between individual packets of the internal crystal structure of the sheet minerals, particularly sericite. Bedding and microfolds with a crenulated structure and partial preferred orientation of sheet minerals, as well as directions that are weakened with sigmoidal shear deformations as the predecessors of microfaults, also result in significant but less problematicanisotropy. Thin lepidoblastic lamina, in apparently massive sandy metasiltstone beds in the slate represent discontinuities, which have a decisive influence on the reduction of their strength.

  11. Nurse-delivered universal point-of-care testing for HIV in an open-access returning traveller clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, R; Ashraf, A N; Yates, T A; Spriggs, K; Malinnag, M; Durward-Brown, E; Phillips, D; Mewse, E; Daniel, A; Armstrong, M; Kidd, I M; Waite, J; Wilks, P; Burns, F; Bailey, R; Brown, M

    2012-09-01

    Early diagnosis of HIV infection reduces morbidity and mortality associated with late presentation. Despite UK guidelines, the HIV testing rate has not increased. We have introduced universal HIV screening in an open-access returning traveller clinic. Data were prospectively recorded for all patients attending the open-access returning traveller clinic between August 2008 and December 2010. HIV testing was offered to all patients from May 2009; initially testing with laboratory samples (phase 1) and subsequently a point-of-care test (POCT) (phase 2). A total of 4965 patients attended the clinic; 1342 in phase 0, 792 in phase 1 and 2831 in phase 2. Testing rates for HIV increased significantly from 2% (38 of 1342) in phase 0 to 23.1% (183 of 792) in phase 1 and further increased to 44.5% (1261 of 2831) during phase 2 (P travelling to the Middle East and Europe were less likely to accept an HIV test with POCT. A nurse-delivered universal point-of-care HIV testing service has been successfully introduced and sustained in an acute medical clinic in a low-prevalence country. Caution is required in communicating reactive results in low-prevalence settings where there may be alternative diagnoses or a low population prevalence of HIV infection. © 2012 British HIV Association.

  12. Potential point of care tests (POCTs) for maternal health in Peru, perspectives of pregnant women and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M; Najarro, Lizzete; Zevallos, Mercedes; García, Patricia J

    2014-01-16

    Globally, no qualitative studies have explored the perspectives of women and their partners about the integration of technology - and specifically diagnostic testing technologies - into antenatal care. The study objective was to describe the demand side for pregnancy-related diagnostic tests from the perspective of Peruvian consumers, including female and male community members, by engaging participants about their awareness of and care-seeking for pregnancy-related diagnostic tests and their preferred characteristics and testing conditions for pregnancy-related point-of-care diagnostic tests (POCTs). Sixty-seven mothers and fathers of children under one from the peri-urban coast and the peri-urban and rural highlands and jungle of Peru participated in ten focus groups. Participants think that pregnancy-related diagnostic tests are important and they and their fellow community members are committed to ensuring that pregnant women receive the tests they need. Participants expressed clear demands for pregnancy-related POCTs, including important characteristics for the tests themselves (certification, rapid, reliable results) and for test implementation (well-trained, personable good communicators as test administrators at well-equipped, convenient testing sites). Participants emphasized the importance of short waiting times and explained that many people have some ability to pay for POCTs, particularly if they are innovative, rapid or multiplex. Engaging future POCT users as consumers who are able to make key decisions about the development and implementation of pregnancy-related POCTs is valuable and informative.

  13. A safety-critical java technology compatibility kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan E.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2014-01-01

    In order to claim conformance with a given Java Specification Request (JSR), a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents development of test cases and tools for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) specification. In previous...... work we have shown how the Java Modeling Language (JML) is applied to specify conformance constraints for SCJ, and how JML-related tools may assist in generating and executing tests. Here we extend this work with a layout for concrete test cases including checking of results in a simplified version...

  14. Concentrator optical characterization using computer mathematical modelling and point source testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, E. W.; John, S. L.; Trentelman, G. F.

    1984-01-01

    The optical characteristics of a paraboloidal solar concentrator are analyzed using the intercept factor curve (a format for image data) to describe the results of a mathematical model and to represent reduced data from experimental testing. This procedure makes it possible not only to test an assembled concentrator, but also to evaluate single optical panels or to conduct non-solar tests of an assembled concentrator. The use of three-dimensional ray tracing computer programs to calculate the mathematical model is described. These ray tracing programs can include any type of optical configuration from simple paraboloids to array of spherical facets and can be adapted to microcomputers or larger computers, which can graphically display real-time comparison of calculated and measured data.

  15. NT-proBNP on Cobas h 232 in point-of-care testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gils, Charlotte; Ramanathan, R.; Breindahl, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background. NT-proBNP may be useful for ruling out heart failure in primary health care. In this study we examined the analytical quality of NT-proBNP in primary health care on the Cobas h 232 point-of-care instrument compared with measurements performed in a hospital laboratory. Materials...... and methods. Blood samples requested for NT-proBNP were collected in primary health care (n = 95) and in a hospital laboratory (n = 107). NT-proBNP was measured on-site on Cobas h 232 instruments both in primary health care centres and at the hospital laboratory and all samples were also analyzed...... with a comparison method at the hospital. Precision, trueness, accuracy, and lot-variation were determined at different concentration levels and evaluated according to acceptance criteria. Furthermore user-friendliness was assessed by questionnaires. Results. For Cobas h 232 repeatability CV was 8...

  16. Extended Gate Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors for Point-Of-Care Testing of Uric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Weihua; Reed, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    An enzyme-free redox potential sensor using off-chip extended-gate field effect transistor (EGFET) with a ferrocenyl-alkanethiol modified gold electrode has been used to quantify uric acid concentration in human serum and urine. Hexacyanoferrate (II) and (III) ions are used as redox reagent. The potentiometric sensor measures the interface potential on the ferrocene immobilized gold electrode, which is modulated by the redox reaction between uric acid and hexacyanoferrate ions. The device shows a near Nernstian response to uric acid and is highly specific to uric acid in human serum and urine. The interference that comes from glucose, bilirubin, ascorbic acid, and hemoglobin is negligible in the normal concentration range of these interferents. The sensor also exhibits excellent long term reliability and is regenerative. This extended gate field effect transistor based sensor is promising for point-of-care detection of uric acid due to the small size, low cost, and low sample volume consumption.

  17. Nucleic-acid testing, new platforms and nanotechnology for point-of-decision diagnosis of animal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Fernando; Fonseca, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Accurate disease diagnosis in animals is crucial for animal well-being but also for preventing zoonosis transmission to humans. In particular, livestock diseases may constitute severe threats to humans due to the particularly high physical contact and exposure and, also, be the cause of important economic losses, even in non-endemic countries, where they often arise in the form of rapid and devastating epidemics. Rapid diagnostic tests have been used for a long time in field situations, particularly during outbreaks. However, they mostly rely on serological approaches, which may confirm the exposure to a particular pathogen but may be inappropriate for point-of-decision (point-of-care) settings when emergency responses supported on early and accurate diagnosis are required. Moreover, they often exhibit modest sensitivity and hence significantly depend on later result confirmation in central or reference laboratories. The impressive advances observed in recent years in materials sciences and in nanotechnology, as well as in nucleic-acid synthesis and engineering, have led to an outburst of new in-the-bench and prototype tests for nucleic-acid testing towards point-of-care diagnosis of genetic and infectious diseases. Manufacturing, commercial, regulatory, and technical nature issues for field applicability more likely have hindered their wider entrance into veterinary medicine and practice than have fundamental science gaps. This chapter begins by outlining the current situation, requirements, difficulties, and perspectives of point-of-care tests for diagnosing diseases of veterinary interest. Nucleic-acid testing, particularly for the point of care, is addressed subsequently. A range of valuable signal transduction mechanisms commonly employed in proof-of-concept schemes and techniques born on the analytical chemistry laboratories are also described. As the essential core of this chapter, sections dedicated to the principles and applications of microfluidics, lab

  18. Testing the consistency of three-point halo clustering in Fourier and configuration space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, K.; Gaztañaga, E.; Scoccimarro, R.; Crocce, M.

    2018-05-01

    We compare reduced three-point correlations Q of matter, haloes (as proxies for galaxies) and their cross-correlations, measured in a total simulated volume of ˜100 (h-1 Gpc)3, to predictions from leading order perturbation theory on a large range of scales in configuration space. Predictions for haloes are based on the non-local bias model, employing linear (b1) and non-linear (c2, g2) bias parameters, which have been constrained previously from the bispectrum in Fourier space. We also study predictions from two other bias models, one local (g2 = 0) and one in which c2 and g2 are determined by b1 via approximately universal relations. Overall, measurements and predictions agree when Q is derived for triangles with (r1r2r3)1/3 ≳60 h-1 Mpc, where r1 - 3 are the sizes of the triangle legs. Predictions for Qmatter, based on the linear power spectrum, show significant deviations from the measurements at the BAO scale (given our small measurement errors), which strongly decrease when adding a damping term or using the non-linear power spectrum, as expected. Predictions for Qhalo agree best with measurements at large scales when considering non-local contributions. The universal bias model works well for haloes and might therefore be also useful for tightening constraints on b1 from Q in galaxy surveys. Such constraints are independent of the amplitude of matter density fluctuation (σ8) and hence break the degeneracy between b1 and σ8, present in galaxy two-point correlations.

  19. Detection of progression of glaucomatous visual field damage using the point-wise method with the binomial test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakawa, Ayako; Murata, Hiroshi; Hirasawa, Hiroyo; Mayama, Chihiro; Asaoka, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    To compare the performance of newly proposed point-wise linear regression (PLR) with the binomial test (binomial PLR) against mean deviation (MD) trend analysis and permutation analyses of PLR (PoPLR), in detecting global visual field (VF) progression in glaucoma. 15 VFs (Humphrey Field Analyzer, SITA standard, 24-2) were collected from 96 eyes of 59 open angle glaucoma patients (6.0 ± 1.5 [mean ± standard deviation] years). Using the total deviation of each point on the 2(nd) to 16(th) VFs (VF2-16), linear regression analysis was carried out. The numbers of VF test points with a significant trend at various probability levels (pbinomial test (one-side). A VF series was defined as "significant" if the median p-value from the binomial test was binomial PLR method (0.14 to 0.86) was significantly higher than MD trend analysis (0.04 to 0.89) and PoPLR (0.09 to 0.93). The PIS of the proposed method (0.0 to 0.17) was significantly lower than the MD approach (0.0 to 0.67) and PoPLR (0.07 to 0.33). The PBNS of the three approaches were not significantly different. The binomial BLR method gives more consistent results than MD trend analysis and PoPLR, hence it will be helpful as a tool to 'flag' possible VF deterioration.

  20. The social role of C-reactive protein point-of-care testing to guide antibiotic prescription in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenssgen, Marco J; Charoenboon, Nutcha; Althaus, Thomas; Greer, Rachel C; Intralawan, Daranee; Lubell, Yoel

    2018-04-01

    New and affordable point-of-care testing (POCT) solutions are hoped to guide antibiotic prescription and to help limit antimicrobial resistance (AMR)-especially in low- and middle-income countries where resource constraints often prevent extensive diagnostic testing. Anthropological and sociological research has illuminated the role and impact of rapid point-of-care malaria testing. This paper expands our knowledge about the social implications of non-malarial POCT, using the case study of a C-reactive-protein point-of-care testing (CRP POCT) clinical trial with febrile patients at primary-care-level health centres in Chiang Rai province, northern Thailand. We investigate the social role of CRP POCT through its interactions with (a) the healthcare workers who use it, (b) the patients whose routine care is affected by the test, and (c) the existing patient-health system linkages that might resonate or interfere with CRP POCT. We conduct a thematic analysis of data from 58 purposively sampled pre- and post-intervention patients and healthcare workers in August 2016 and May 2017. We find widespread positive attitudes towards the test among patients and healthcare workers. Patients' views are influenced by an understanding of CRP POCT as a comprehensive blood test that provides specific diagnosis and that corresponds to notions of good care. Healthcare workers use the test to support their negotiations with patients but also to legitimise ethical decisions in an increasingly restrictive antibiotic policy environment. We hypothesise that CRP POCT could entail greater patient adherence to recommended antibiotic treatment, but it could also encourage riskier health behaviour and entail potentially adverse equity implications for patients across generations and socioeconomic strata. Our empirical findings inform the clinical literature on increasingly propagated point-of-care biomarker tests to guide antibiotic prescriptions, and we contribute to the anthropological and

  1. Rapid prototyping of centrifugal microfluidic modules for point of care blood testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, Phophi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present modular centrifugal microfluidic devices that enable a series of blood tests to be performed towards a full blood count. The modular approach allows for rapid prototyping of device components in a generic format to complete different...

  2. Analysis of KIT expression and KIT exon 11 mutations in canine oral malignant melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Mori, T; Sakai, H; Murakami, M; Yanai, T; Hoshino, Y; Maruo, K

    2011-09-01

    KIT, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, is one of the specific targets for anti-cancer therapy. In humans, its expression and mutations have been identified in malignant melanomas and therapies using molecular-targeted agents have been promising in these tumours. As human malignant melanoma, canine malignant melanoma is a fatal disease with metastases and the poor response has been observed with all standard protocols. In our study, KIT expression and exon 11 mutations in dogs with histologically confirmed malignant oral melanomas were evaluated. Although 20 of 39 cases were positive for KIT protein, there was no significant difference between KIT expression and overall survival. Moreover, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of KIT exon 11 in 17 samples did not detect any mutations and proved disappointing. For several reasons, however, KIT expression and mutations of various exons including exon 11 should be investigated in more cases. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Hematopoietic Kit Deficiency, rather than Lack of Mast Cells, Protects Mice from Obesity and Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Dario A; Muralidhar, Sathya; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Herzig, Stephan; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2015-05-05

    Obesity, insulin resistance, and related pathologies are associated with immune-mediated chronic inflammation. Kit mutant mice are protected from diet-induced obesity and associated co-morbidities, and this phenotype has previously been attributed to their lack of mast cells. We performed a comprehensive metabolic analysis of Kit-dependent Kit(W/Wv) and Kit-independent Cpa3(Cre/+) mast-cell-deficient mouse strains, employing diet-induced or genetic (Lep(Ob/Ob) background) models of obesity. Our results show that mast cell deficiency, in the absence of Kit mutations, plays no role in the regulation of weight gain or insulin resistance. Moreover, we provide evidence that the metabolic phenotype observed in Kit mutant mice, while independent of mast cells, is immune regulated. Our data underscore the value of definitive mast cell deficiency models to conclusively test the involvement of this enigmatic cell in immune-mediated pathologies and identify Kit as a key hematopoietic factor in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Examination of optimum test conditions for a 3-point bending and cutting test to evaluate sound emission of wafer during deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Carsanba

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate optimum test conditions of acoustical-mechanical measurement of wafer analysed by Acoustic Envelope Detector attached to the Texture Analyser. Force-displacement and acoustic signals were simultaneously recorded applying two different methods (3-point bending and cutting test. In order to study acoustical-mechanical behaviour of wafers, the parameters “maximum sound pressure”, “total count peaks” and “mean sound value” were used and optimal test conditions of microphone position and test speed were examined. With a microphone position of 45° angle and 1 cm distance and at a low test speed of 0.5 mm/s wafers of different quality could be distinguished best. The angle of microphone did not have significant effect on acoustic results and the number of peaks of the force and acoustic signal decreased with increasing distance and test speed.

  5. Comparison of Three Screening Test Kits for G6PD Enzyme Deficiency: Implications for Its Use in the Radical Cure of Vivax Malaria in Remote and Resource-Poor Areas in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fe Esperanza Espino

    Full Text Available We evaluated a battery of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase diagnostic point-of-care tests (PoC to assess the most suitable product in terms of performance and operational characteristics for remote areas.Samples were collected in Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines and tested for G6PD deficiency with a fluorescent spot test (FST; Procedure 203, Trinity Biotech, Ireland, the semiquantitative WST8/1-methoxy PMS (WST; Dojindo, Japan and the Carestart G6PD Rapid Diagnostic Test (CSG; AccessBio, USA. Results were compared to spectrophotometry (Procedure 345, Trinity Biotech, Ireland. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each test with cut-off activities of 10%, 20%, 30% and 60% of the adjusted male median.The adjusted male median was 270.5 IU/10(12 RBC. FST and WST were tested on 621 capillary blood samples, the CSG was tested on venous and capillary blood on 302 samples. At 30% G6PD activity, sensitivity for the FST was between 87.7% (95%CI: 76.8% to 93.9% and 96.5% (95%CI: 87.9% to 99.5% depending on definition of intermediate results; the WST was 84.2% (95%CI: 72.1% to 92.5%; and the CSG was between 68.8% (95%CI: 41.3% to 89.0% and 93.8% (95%CI: 69.8% to 99.8% when the test was performed on capillary or venous blood respectively. Sensitivity of FST and CSG (tested with venous blood were comparable (p>0.05. The analysis of venous blood samples by the CSG yielded significantly higher results than FST and CSG performed on capillary blood (p<0.05. Sensitivity of the CSG varied depending on source of blood used (p<0.05.The operational characteristics of the CSG were superior to all other test formats. Performance and operational characteristics of the CSG performed on venous blood suggest the test to be a good alternative to the FST.

  6. Conversion of fracture toughness testing values from small scale three point bending test specimens to small scale yielding state (SSY) by elastic-plastic stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, K.

    1993-07-01

    The report describes the work performed for achieving readiness to calculate fracture toughness dependence on dimension effects and loading conditions in fracture test specimens and real structures. In the report two- and three-dimensional computer codes developed and calculational methods applied are described. One of the main goals is to converse fracture toughness from small scale three point bending test specimens to case of a depth crack in plane strain i.e. to small scale yielding state (SSY) by numerical elastic-plastic stress analysis. Thickness effect of a test specimens and effect of a crack depth are separately investigated. Tests of three point bending specimens with and without sidegrooves and curved crack front are numerically simulated and experimental and computed results are compared. J-integral is calculated along crack front and also from force-deflection dependence of the beam. For the analyses the computing system was thoroughly automatized. Measuring capacity of three point bending test specimens was tried to evaluate. (orig.) (7 refs., 54 figs.)

  7. Explanatory chapter: how plasmid preparation kits work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Laura

    2013-01-01

    To isolate plasmid DNA from bacteria using a commercial plasmid miniprep kit (if interested, compare this protocol with Isolation of plasmid DNA from bacteria). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Novel Field Deployable Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    could enhance the success of the RPA method in the field, including 1) isolation of DNA from clinical samples using a mini (portable) extractor at...the POC or FTA Whatman filter paper specially designed to improve DNA preservation and purification at POC. Aim 1: To optimize the analytical...sensitivity and specificity of the genus- and complex-specific RPA-LF tests using Leishmania isolates and clinical samples from collaborating study sites. We

  9. Evaluation of the InnoTyper® 21 genotyping kit in multi-ethnic populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ristow, Peter Gustav; Barnes, Nicole; Murphy, Gina Pineda

    2017-01-01

    We report the findings of the evaluation of the InnoTyper® 21 genotyping kit for the use of human identification (HID) and paternity testing in South Africa. This novel forensic kit evaluates 20 retrotransposable elements (AC4027, MLS26, ALU79712, NBC216, NBC106, RG148, NBC13, AC2265, MLS09, AC11...

  10. [New image of home nursing created by point of care testing (POCT) - examination of issues in the introduction of POCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Kiyomi

    2014-12-01

    With the rising number of patients who rely on medical care, it is necessary to use evolving health care technology appropriately, to control health care costs, and to enhance the well-being of patients in the home care setting. Point of care testing (POCT)is instrumental system for such demands for home care; however, this term remains relatively unknown in Japan. For this research, I conducted a qualitative analysis of factors based on stories obtained through group interviews of 11 experienced home visiting nurses who work at three home-visit nursing stations for the purpose of clarifying issues in the introduction of POCT. The results of the research identified five categories and 16 subcategories for issues in the introduction of POCT. The identified categories are expected to be useful for the spread of POCT in the future. Key words: Point of care testing, Home care nursing.

  11. A novel kit for rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae O1.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, J A; Huq, A; Tamplin, M L; Siebeling, R J; Colwell, R R

    1994-01-01

    We report on the development and testing of a novel, rapid, colorimetric immunodiagnostic kit, Cholera SMART, for direct detection of the presence of Vibrio cholerae O1 in clinical specimens. Unlike conventional culture methods requiring several days to complete, the Cholera SMART kit can be used directly in the field by untrained or minimally skilled personnel to detect V. cholerae O1 in less than 15 min, without cumbersome laboratory equipment. A total of 120 clinical and environmental bact...

  12. Successful Integration of Hepatitis C Virus Point-of-Care Tests into the Denver Metro Health Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jewett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC recommends testing and linkage to care for persons most likely infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV, including persons with human immunodeficiency virus. We explored facilitators and barriers to integrating HCV point-of-care (POC testing into standard operations at an urban STD clinic. Methods. The OraQuick HCV rapid antibody test was integrated at the Denver Metro Health Clinic (DMHC. All clients with at least one risk factor were offered the POC test. Research staff conducted interviews with clients (three HCV positive and nine HCV negative. Focus groups were conducted with triage staff, providers, and linkage-to-care counselors. Results. Clients were pleased with the ease of use and rapid return of results from the HCV POC test. Integrating the test into this setting required more time but was not overly burdensome. While counseling messages were clear to staff, clients retained little knowledge of hepatitis C infection or factors related to risk. Barriers to integrating the HCV POC test into clinic operations were loss to follow-up and access to care. Conclusion. DMHC successfully integrated HCV POC testing and piloted a HCV linkage-to-care program. Providing testing opportunities at STD clinics could increase identification of persons with HCV infection.

  13. Feasibility of using microbiology diagnostic tests of moderate or high complexity at the point - of - care in a delivery suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J W; Milner, P J; Edwards, E H; Daniels, J P; Khan, K S

    2012-07-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) is one of the fastest growing sectors of laboratory diagnostics. Most tests in routine use are haematology or biochemistry tests that are of low complexity. Microbiology POCT has been constrained by a lack of tests that are both accurate and of low complexity. We describe our experience of the practical issues around using more complex POCT for detection of Group B streptococci (GBS) in swabs from labouring women. We evaluated two tests for their feasibility in POCT: an optical immune assay (Biostar OIA Strep B, Inverness Medical, Princetown, NJ) and a PCR (IDI-Strep B, Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA), which have been categorised as being of moderate and high complexity, respectively. A total of 12 unqualified midwifery assistants (MA) were trained to undertake testing on the delivery suite. A systematic approach to the introduction and management of POC testing was used. Modelling showed that the probability of test results being available within a clinically useful timescale was high. However, in the clinical setting, we found it impossible to maintain reliable availability of trained testers. Implementation of more complex POC testing is technically feasible, but it is expensive, and may be difficult to achieve in a busy delivery suite.

  14. Predicting the outcome of oral food challenges with hen's egg through skin test end-point titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, S; Businco, A Di Rienzo; Alessandri, C; Panetta, V; Restani, P; Matricardi, P M

    2009-08-01

    Oral food challenge (OFC) is the diagnostic 'gold standard' of food allergies but it is laborious and time consuming. Attempts to predict a positive OFC through specific IgE assays or conventional skin tests so far gave suboptimal results. To test whether skin test with titration curves predict with enough confidence the outcome of an oral food challenge. Children (n=47; mean age 6.2 +/- 4.2 years) with suspected and diagnosed allergic reactions to hen's egg (HE) were examined through clinical history, physical examination, oral food challenge, conventional and end-point titrated skin tests with HE white extract and determination of serum specific IgE against HE white. Predictive decision points for a positive outcome of food challenges were calculated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for HE white using IgE concentration, weal size and end-point titration (EPT). OFC was positive (Sampson's score >or=3) in 20/47 children (42.5%). The area under the ROC curve obtained with the EPT method was significantly bigger than the one obtained by measuring IgE-specific antibodies (0.99 vs. 0.83, P<0.05) and weal size (0.99 vs. 0.88, P<0.05). The extract's dilution that successfully discriminated a positive from a negative OFC (sensitivity 95%, specificity 100%) was 1 : 256, corresponding to a concentration of 5.9 microg/mL of ovotransferrin, 22.2 microg/mL of ovalbumin, and 1.4 microg/mL of lysozyme. EPT is a promising approach to optimize the use of skin prick tests and to predict the outcome of OFC with HE in children. Further studies are needed to test whether this encouraging finding can be extended to other populations and food allergens.

  15. International definition of a point-of-care test in family practice: a modified e-Delphi procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schols, Angel M R; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Hopstaken, Rogier; Price, Christopher P; Kusters, Ron; Cals, Jochen W L

    2018-01-29

    The use of point-of-care tests (POCTs) in family practice is increasing, and the term POCT is often used in medical literature and clinical practice. Yet, no widely supported definition by several professional fields exists. To reach consensus on an international definition of a POCT in family practice. We performed a modified international e-Delphi procedure of four rounds among expert panel members from different professional backgrounds-family practitioners, laboratory specialists, policymakers, researchers and manufacturers. Of 27 panel members from seven different countries, 26 participated in all rounds. Most panel members were active in POCT research or policymaking and 70% worked in family medicine. After choosing important components, structuring of answers and feedback, the following definition was chosen as the best or second best definition by 81% of panel members: a point-of-care test in family practice is a test to support clinical decision making, which is performed by a qualified member of the practice staff nearby the patient and on any part of the patient's body or its derivatives, during or very close to the time of consultation, to help the patient and physician to decide upon the best suited approach, and of which the results should be known at the time of the clinical decision making. The definition emerging from this study can inform family practitioners, laboratory specialists, policymakers and manufacturers on the most widely supported and recognized definition and could act as a clear starting point for the organization and execution of professional point-of-care testing in family practice worldwide. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Good quality of oral anticoagulation treatment in general practice using international normalised ratio point of care testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Tina Heidi; Lind, Bent

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oral anticoagulation treatment (OACT) with warfarin is common in general practice. Increasingly, international normalised ratio (INR) point of care testing (POCT) is being used to manage patients. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the quality of OACT with warfarin...... practices using INR POCT in the management of patients in warfarin treatment provided good quality of care. Sampling interval and diagnostic coding were significantly correlated with treatment quality....

  17. Assessment of RFID Read Accuracy for ISS Water Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences Directorate/Medical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch (SD4) is assessing the benefits Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for tracking items flown onboard the International Space Station (ISS). As an initial study, the Avionic Systems Division Electromagnetic Systems Branch (EV4) is collaborating with SD4 to affix RFID tags to a water kit supplied by SD4 and studying the read success rate of the tagged items. The tagged water kit inside a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB) was inventoried using three different RFID technologies, including the Johnson Space Center Building 14 Wireless Habitat Test Bed RFID portal, an RFID hand-held reader being targeted for use on board the ISS, and an RFID enclosure designed and prototyped by EV4.

  18. Deoxyriboside determination and cytofluorometric test in rats at different points of time after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, S.N.; Bazanova, N.V.; Prokudina, E.A.; Safronova, V.G.; Yagunov, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    Whole-body X- or γ-irradiation with doses ranging from 200 to 400 rad is easily identifiable in rats within the succeeding days by determining the deoxyriboside level in blood and urine because of the almost linear correlation between the change of concentration and the dose level in the range under consideration. Within 4 weeks postirradiation the dose received may also be determined by measuring the intensity of ultraviolet fluorescence of the peripheral blood leukocytes. Subsequently, only a qualitative distinction between exposed and unexposed animals was still possible by means of this test up to the end of the investigation period. (author)

  19. A Novel Field Deployable Point of Care Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    additional collaborations with Colombia (CIDEIM, Cali) and Brazil (FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro ), which allowed us to evaluate the test on strains covering a wide...Medical Branch (UTMB), Galveston, Texas. 9 4Laboratório de Pesquisa em Leishmaniose, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro , 10 Brazil.5U.S. Naval Medical...SBS + 8 Bahia MHOM/BR/2001/LTCP13183 + 9 Acre MHOM/BR/2002/NMT- RBO037 + 10 Bahia MHOM/BR/2001/NMT- LTCP14369-P + 11 Rio de Janeiro

  20. Non-Linear Numerical Modeling and Experimental Testing of a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Ferri, Francesco; Beatty, S.

    2014-01-01

    the calculation of the non-linear hydrostatic restoring moment by a cubic polynomial function fit to laboratory test results. Moreover, moments due to viscous drag are evaluated on the oscillating hemisphere considering the horizontal and vertical drag force components. The influence on the motions of this non.......e. H/λ≤0.02. For steep waves, H/λ≥0.04 however, the relative velocities between the body and the waves increase thus requiring inclusion of the non-linear hydrostatic restoring moment to effectively predict the dynamics of the wave energy converter. For operation of the device with a passively damping...

  1. A New Method to Stabilize c-kit Expression in Reparative Cardiac Mesenchymal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Wysoczynski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapy improves cardiac function. Few cells have been investigated more extensively or consistently shown to be more effective than c-kit sorted cells; however, c-kit expression is easily lost during passage. Here, our primary goal was to develop an improved method to isolate c-kitpos cells and maintain c-kit expression after passaging. Cardiac mesenchymal cells (CMCs from wild-type mice were selected by polystyrene adherence properties. CMCs adhering within the first hours are referred to as rapidly adherent (RA; CMCs adhering subsequently are dubbed slowly adherent (SA. Both RA and SA CMCs were c-kit sorted. SA CMCs maintained significantly higher c-kit expression than RA cells; SA CMCs also had higher expression endothelial markers. We subsequently tested the relative efficacy of SA versus RA CMCs in the setting of post-infarct adoptive transfer. Two days after coronary occlusion, vehicle, RA CMCs, or SA CMCs were delivered percutaneously with echocardiographic guidance. SA CMCs, but not RA CMCs, significantly improved cardiac function compared to vehicle treatment. Although the mechanism remains to be elucidated, the more pronounced endothelial phenotype of the SA CMCs coupled with the finding of increased vascular density suggest a potential pro-vasculogenic action. This new method of isolating CMCs better preserves c-kit expression during passage. SA CMCs, but not RA CMCs, were effective in reducing cardiac dysfunction. Although c-kit expression was maintained, it is unclear whether maintenance of c-kit expression per se was responsible for improved function, or whether the differential adherence property itself confers a reparative phenotype independently of c-kit.

  2. Evaluation of three high abundance protein depletion kits for umbilical cord serum proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Jing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High abundance protein depletion is a major challenge in the study of serum/plasma proteomics. Prior to this study, most commercially available kits for depletion of highly abundant proteins had only been tested and evaluated in adult serum/plasma, while the depletion efficiency on umbilical cord serum/plasma had not been clarified. Structural differences between some adult and fetal proteins (such as albumin make it likely that depletion approaches for adult and umbilical cord serum/plasma will be variable. Therefore, the primary purposes of the present study are to investigate the efficiencies of several commonly-used commercial kits during high abundance protein depletion from umbilical cord serum and to determine which kit yields the most effective and reproducible results for further proteomics research on umbilical cord serum. Results The immunoaffinity based kits (PROTIA-Sigma and 5185-Agilent displayed higher depletion efficiency than the immobilized dye based kit (PROTBA-Sigma in umbilical cord serum samples. Both the PROTIA-Sigma and 5185-Agilent kit maintained high depletion efficiency when used three consecutive times. Depletion by the PROTIA-Sigma Kit improved 2DE gel quality by reducing smeared bands produced by the presence of high abundance proteins and increasing the intensity of other protein spots. During image analysis using the identical detection parameters, 411 ± 18 spots were detected in crude serum gels, while 757 ± 43 spots were detected in depleted serum gels. Eight spots unique to depleted serum gels were identified by MALDI- TOF/TOF MS, seven of which were low abundance proteins. Conclusions The immunoaffinity based kits exceeded the immobilized dye based kit in high abundance protein depletion of umbilical cord serum samples and dramatically improved 2DE gel quality for detection of trace biomarkers.

  3. 46 CFR 184.710 - First-aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First-aid kits. 184.710 Section 184.710 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit approved under approval series 160.041 or a kit with equivalent contents...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood samples... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...

  5. Modelling of pavement materials on steel decks using the five-point bending test: Thermo mechanical evolution and fatigue damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, L; Houel, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the modelling of wearing courses on steel orthotropic decks such as the Millau viaduct in France. This is of great importance when dealing with durability: due to the softness of such a support, the pavement is subjected to considerable strains that may generate top-down cracks in the layer at right angles of the orthotropic plate stiffeners and shear cracks at the interface between pavement and steel. Therefore, a five-point bending fatigue test was developed and improved since 2003 at the ENTPE laboratory, to test different asphalt concrete mixes. This study aims at modelling the mechanical behavior of the wearing course throughout the fatigue test by a finite element method (Comsol Multiphysics software). Each material - steel, sealing sheet, asphalt concrete layer - is considered and modelled. The modelling of asphalt concrete is complex since it is a heterogeneous material, a viscoelastic medium and it thermosensitive. The actual characteristics of the asphalt concrete (thermo physical parameter and viscoelastic complex modulus) are determined experimentally on cylindrical cores. Moreover, a damage law based on Miner's damage is included in the model. The modelling of the fatigue test leads to encouraging results. Finally, results from the model are compared to the experimental data obtained from the five-point bending fatigue test device. The experimental data are very consistent with the numerical simulation.

  6. Natural Circulation High Pressure Loop Dynamics Around Operating Point, Tests and Modelling With Retran 02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masriera, N.A; Doval, A.S; Mazufri, C.M

    2000-01-01

    The Natural Circulation High Pressure Loop (CAPCN) reproduces in scale all the one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic phenomena occurring in the primary loop of CAREM-25 reactor.It plays an important role in the qualification process of calculating computer codes.This facility demanded to develop several technological solutions in order to achieve the measuring and control quality required by that process.This engineering and experimental development allowed completing the first stage of dynamic tests during 1998.The trends of recorded data were systematically evaluated in terms of the deviations of main variables in response to different perturbations.By this analysis a group of eight transients was selected, providing a Minimum Representative Set (MRS) of dynamic tests, allowing the evaluation of all dynamic phenomena.Each of these transients was simulated with RETRAN-02, using a spreadsheet to facilitate the consistent elaboration and modification of input files.Comparing measured data and computer simulations, it may be concluded that it is possible to reproduce the dynamic response of all the transients with a level of approximation quite homogeneous and generally acceptable.It is possible to identify the detailed physical models that fit better the dynamic phenomena, and which of the limitations of RETRAN code are more relevant

  7. Rapid point-of-care CD4 testing at mobile HIV testing sites to increase linkage to care: an evaluation of a pilot program in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Bruce A; Schnippel, Kathryn; Ndibongo, Buyiswa; Xulu, Thembisile; Brennan, Alana; Long, Lawrence; Fox, Matthew P; Rosen, Sydney

    2012-10-01

    A mobile HIV counseling and testing (HCT) program around Johannesburg piloted the integration of point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing, using the Pima analyzer, to improve linkages to HIV care. We report results from this pilot program for patients testing positive (n = 508) from May to October 2010. We analyzed 3 primary outcomes: assignment to testing group (offered POC CD4 or not), successful follow-up (by telephone), and completed the referral visit for HIV care within 8 weeks after HIV testing if successfully followed up. Proportions for each outcome were calculated, and relative risks were estimated using a modified Poisson approach. Three hundred eleven patients were offered the POC CD4 test, and 197 patients were not offered the test. No differences in patient characteristics were observed between the 2 groups. Approximately 62.7% of patients were successfully followed up 8 weeks after HIV testing, with no differences observed between testing groups. Among those followed up, 54.4% reported completing their referral visit. Patients offered the POC CD4 test were more likely to complete the referral visit for further HIV care (relative risk 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 1.57). In this mobile HCT setting, patients offered POC CD4 testing as part of the HCT services were more likely to visit a referral clinic after testing, suggesting that rapid CD4 testing technology may improve linkage to HIV care. Future research can evaluate options for adjusting HCT services if POC CD4 testing was included permanently and the cost-effectiveness of the POC CD4 testing compared with other approaches for improving linkage of care.

  8. Quality control of radioimmunoassay kits of pituitary hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caso Pena, R.; Arranz Calzado, C.

    1997-01-01

    The present work describe the quality control procedures carried out on three RIA-Kits by the Isotopes Centre of Cuba, The subject matter of study were ;: were: LH-RIA-Kit, FSH-RIA-Kit and Prolactin- RIA -Kit. The controls have included the characterization of the 125 I labelled hormones the specific antibodies, the 2 nd antibodies, the standards curves and the control serum. For the validation of these Kits were used reference standards from the WHO (World Health Organizations) and Kits from CIS company (France) based on the IRMA assays technologies . The results obtained allow us encourage the reliability of RIA-Kits

  9. VENTILATION BEHAVIOR IN TRAINED AND UNTRAINED MEN DURING INCREMENTAL TEST: EVIDENCE OF ONE METABOLIC TRANSITION POINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio O. Pires

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe and compare the ventilation behavior during an incremental test utilizing three mathematical models and to compare the feature of ventilation curve fitted by the best mathematical model between aerobically trained (TR and untrained (UT men. Thirty five subjects underwent a treadmill test with 1 km·h-1 increases every minute until exhaustion. Ventilation averages of 20 seconds were plotted against time and fitted by: bi-segmental regression model (2SRM; three-segmental regression model (3SRM; and growth exponential model (GEM. Residual sum of squares (RSS and mean square error (MSE were calculated for each model. The correlations between peak VO2 (VO2PEAK, peak speed (SpeedPEAK, ventilatory threshold identified by the best model (VT2SRM and the first derivative calculated for workloads below (moderate intensity and above (heavy intensity VT2SRM were calculated. The RSS and MSE for GEM were significantly higher (p < 0.01 than for 2SRM and 3SRM in pooled data and in UT, but no significant difference was observed among the mathematical models in TR. In the pooled data, the first derivative of moderate intensities showed significant negative correlations with VT2SRM (r = -0.58; p < 0.01 and SpeedPEAK (r = -0.46; p < 0.05 while the first derivative of heavy intensities showed significant negative correlation with VT2SRM (r = -0. 43; p < 0.05. In UT group the first derivative of moderate intensities showed significant negative correlations with VT2SRM (r = -0.65; p < 0.05 and SpeedPEAK (r = -0.61; p < 0.05, while the first derivative of heavy intensities showed significant negative correlation with VT2SRM (r= -0.73; p< 0.01, SpeedPEAK (r = -0.73; p < 0.01 and VO2PEAK (r = -0.61; p < 0.05 in TR group. The ventilation behavior during incremental treadmill test tends to show only one threshold. UT subjects showed a slower ventilation increase during moderate intensities while TR subjects showed a slower ventilation increase

  10. "Hook-like effect" causes false-negative point-of-care urine pregnancy testing in emergency patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffey, Richard T; Trent, Caleb J; Bavolek, Rebecca A; Keeperman, Jacob B; Sampson, Christopher; Poirier, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Failure to detect pregnancy in the emergency department (ED) can have important consequences. Urine human chorionic gonadotropin (uhCG) point-of-care (POC) assays are valued for rapidly detecting early pregnancy with high sensitivity. However, under certain conditions, POC uhCG tests can fail to detect pregnancy. In investigating a series of late first-trimester false-negative pregnancy tests in our ED, a novel and distinct causative phenomenon was recently elucidated in our institution. We discuss uhCG POC tests, review our false-negative rate, and describe mechanisms for false negatives and potential remedies. The false-negative POC uhCG rate is very low, but in the setting of a large volume of tests, the numbers are worth consideration. In positive uhCG POC tests, free and fixed antibodies bind hCG to form a "sandwich"; hCG is present in several variant forms that change in their concentrations at different stages of pregnancy. When in excess, intact hCG can saturate the antibodies, preventing sandwich formation (hook effect phenomenon). Some assays may include an antibody that does not recognize certain variants present in later stages of pregnancy. When this variant is in excess, it can bind one antibody avidly and the other not at all, resulting in a false-negative test (hook-like phenomenon). In both situations, dilution is key to an accurate test. Manufacturers should consider that uhCG tests are routinely used at many stages of pregnancy. Characterizing uhCG variants recognized by their tests and eliminating lot-to-lot variability may help improve uhCG test performance. Clinicians need to be aware of and familiarize themselves with the limitations of the specific type of uhCG POC tests used in their practice, recognizing that under certain circumstances, false-negative tests can occur. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Planetary Load Sharing in Three-Point Mounted Wind Turbine Gearboxes: A Design and Test Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Zhiwei [Romax InSight, Nottingham, (United Kingdom); Lucas, Doug [The Timken Company, Jackson Township, OH (United States)

    2017-04-06

    This work compares the planetary load-sharing characteristics of wind turbine gearboxes supported by cylindrical roller bearings (CRBs) and preloaded tapered roller bearings (TRBs) when subjected to rotor moments. Planetary bearing loads were measured in field-representative dynamometer tests and compared to loads predicted by finite-element models. Preloaded TRBs significantly improved load sharing. In pure torque conditions, the upwind planet bearing load in the gearbox with preloaded TRBs was only 14% more than the assumed load compared to 47% more for the gearbox with CRBs. Consequently, the predicted fatigue life of the complete set of planetary bearings for the gearbox with preloaded TRBs is 3.5 times greater than that of the gearbox with CRBs.

  12. Criteria required for an acceptable point-of-care test for UTI detection: Obtaining consensus using the Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Nichola-Jane M; Pattison, Sally H; Kearney, Paddy; Stafford, Bob; Gormley, Gerard J; Crockard, Martin A; Gilpin, Deirdre F; Tunney, Michael M; Hughes, Carmel M

    2018-01-01

    Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections, second only to respiratory tract infections and particularly prevalent within primary care. Conventional detection of UTIs is culture, however, return of results can take between 24 and 72 hours. The introduction of a point of care (POC) test would allow for more timely identification of UTIs, facilitating improved, targeted treatment. This study aimed to obtain consensus on the criteria required for a POC UTI test, to meet patient need within primary care. Criteria for consideration were compiled by the research team. These criteria were validated through a two-round Delphi process, utilising an expert panel of healthcare professionals from across Europe and United States of America. Using web-based questionnaires, panellists recorded their level of agreement with each criterion based on a 5-point Likert Scale, with space for comments. Using median response, interquartile range and comments provided, criteria were accepted/rejected/revised depending on pre-agreed cut-off scores. The first round questionnaire presented thirty-three criteria to the panel, of which 22 were accepted. Consensus was not achieved for the remaining 11 criteria. Following response review, one criterion was removed, while after revision, the remaining 10 criteria entered the second round. Of these, four were subsequently accepted, resulting in 26 criteria considered appropriate for a POC test to detect urinary infections. This study generated an approved set of criteria for a POC test to detect urinary infections. Criteria acceptance and comments provided by the healthcare professionals also supports the development of a multiplex point of care UTI test.

  13. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change of two simplified 3-point balance measures in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Miau; Huang, Yi-Jing; Huang, Chien-Yu; Lin, Gong-Hong; Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Lee, Shih-Chieh; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-10-01

    The 3-point Berg Balance Scale (BBS-3P) and 3-point Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS-3P) were simplified from the BBS and PASS to overcome the complex scoring systems. The BBS-3P and PASS-3P were more feasible in busy clinical practice and showed similarly sound validity and responsiveness to the original measures. However, the reliability of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P is unknown limiting their utility and the interpretability of scores. We aimed to examine the test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P in patients with stroke. Cross-sectional study. The rehabilitation departments of a medical center and a community hospital. A total of 51 chronic stroke patients (64.7% male). Both balance measures were administered twice 7 days apart. The test-retest reliability of both the BBS-3P and PASS-3P were examined by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). The MDC and its percentage over the total score (MDC%) of each measure was calculated for examining the random measurement errors. The ICC values of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P were 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. The MDC% (MDC) of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P were 9.1% (5.1 points) and 8.4% (3.0 points), respectively, indicating that both measures had small and acceptable random measurement errors. Our results showed that both the BBS-3P and the PASS-3P had good test-retest reliability, with small and acceptable random measurement error. These two simplified 3-level balance measures can provide reliable results over time. Our findings support the repeated administration of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P to monitor the balance of patients with stroke. The MDC values can help clinicians and researchers interpret the change scores more precisely.

  14. Uptake of Community-Based Peer Administered HIV Point-of-Care Testing: Findings from the PROUD Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lazarus

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWID in Ottawa is estimated at about 10%. The successful integration of peers into outreach efforts and wider access to HIV point-of-care testing (POCT create opportunities to explore the role of peers in providing HIV testing. The PROUD study, in partnership with Ottawa Public Health (OPH, sought to develop a model for community-based peer-administered HIV POCT.PROUD draws on community-based participatory research methods to better understand the HIV risk environment of people who use drugs in Ottawa. From March-October 2013, 593 people who reported injecting drugs or smoking crack cocaine were enrolled through street-based recruitment. Trained peer or medical student researchers administered a quantitative survey and offered an HIV POCT (bioLytical INSTI test to participants who did not self-report as HIV positive.550 (92.7% of the 593 participants were offered a POCT, of which 458 (83.3% consented to testing. Of those participants, 74 (16.2% had never been tested for HIV. There was no difference in uptake between testing offered by a peer versus a non-peer interviewer (OR = 1.05; 95% CI = 0.67-1.66. Despite testing those at high risk for HIV, only one new reactive test was identified.The findings from PROUD demonstrate high uptake of community-based HIV POCT. Peers were able to successfully provide HIV POCT and reach participants who had not previously been tested for HIV. Community-based and peer testing models provide important insights on ways to scale-up HIV prevention and testing among people who use drugs.

  15. Quality control of radioimmunoassay kits of pituitary hormones; Control de calidad de kits de radioinmunoanalisis de hormonas hipofisiarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caso Pena, R [Centro de Isotopos, La Habana (Cuba); Arranz Calzado, C [Instituto Nacional de Endocrinologia, La Habana (Cuba)

    1998-12-31

    The present work describe the quality control procedures carried out on three RIA-Kits by the Isotopes Centre of Cuba, The subject matter of study were ;: were: LH-RIA-Kit, FSH-RIA-Kit and Prolactin- RIA -Kit. The controls have included the characterization of the {sup 125}I labelled hormones the specific antibodies, the 2 nd antibodies, the standards curves and the control serum. For the validation of these Kits were used reference standards from the WHO (World Health Organizations) and Kits from CIS company (France) based on the IRMA assays technologies . The results obtained allow us encourage the reliability of RIA-Kits

  16. End points in discharge cleaning on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, D.; Dylla, H.F.; Bell, M.G.; Blanchard, W.R.; Bush, C.E.; Gettelfinger, G.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Janos, A.C.; Jobes, F.C.

    1989-07-01

    It has been found necessary to perform a series of first-wall conditioning steps prior to successful high power plasma operation in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This series begins with glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and is followed by pulse discharge cleaning (PDC). During machine conditioning, the production of impurities is monitored by a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). PDC is made in two distinct modes: Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), where the plasma current is kept low (15--50 kA) and of short duration (50 ms) by means of a relatively high prefill pressure and aggressive PDC, where lower prefill pressure and higher toroidal field result in higher current (200--400 kA) limited by disruptions at q(a) /approx/ 3 at /approx/ 250 ms. At a constant repetition rate of 12 discharges/minute, the production rate of H/sub 2/O, CO, or other impurities has been found to be an unreliable measure of progress in cleaning. However, the ability to produce aggressive PDC with substantial limiter heating, but without the production of x-rays from runaway electrons, is an indication that TDC is no longer necessary after /approx/ 10/sup 5/ pulses. During aggressive PDC, the uncooled limiters are heated by the plasma from the bakeout temperature of 150/degree/C to about 250/degree/C over a period of three to eight hours. This limiter heating is important to enhance the rate at which H/sub 2/O is removed from the graphite limiter. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. End points in discharge cleaning on TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Dylla, H.F.; Bell, M.G.

    1989-07-01

    It has been found necessary to perform a series of first-wall conditioning steps prior to successful high power plasma operation in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This series begins with glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and is followed by pulse discharge cleaning (PDC). During machine conditioning, the production of impurities is monitored by a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). PDC is made in two distinct modes: Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), where the plasma current is kept low (15--50 kA) and of short duration (50 ms) by means of a relatively high prefill pressure and aggressive PDC, where lower prefill pressure and higher toroidal field result in higher current (200--400 kA) limited by disruptions at q(a) approx 3 at approx 250 ms. At a constant repetition rate of 12 discharges/minute, the production rate of H 2 O, CO, or other impurities has been found to be an unreliable measure of progress in cleaning. However, the ability to produce aggressive PDC with substantial limiter heating, but without the production of x-rays from runaway electrons, is an indication that TDC is no longer necessary after approx 10 5 pulses. During aggressive PDC, the uncooled limiters are heated by the plasma from the bakeout temperature of 150 degree C to about 250 degree C over a period of three to eight hours. This limiter heating is important to enhance the rate at which H 2 O is removed from the graphite limiter. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. An effective means for damage detection of bridges using the contact-point response of a moving test vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Qian, Yao; Wu, Yuntian; Yang, Y. B.

    2018-04-01

    To further the technique of indirect measurement, the contact-point response of a moving test vehicle is adopted for the damage detection of bridges. First, the contact-point response of the vehicle moving over the bridge is derived both analytically and in central difference form (for field use). Then, the instantaneous amplitude squared (IAS) of the driving component of the contact-point response is calculated by the Hilbert transform, making use of its narrow-band feature. The IAS peaks serve as the key parameter for damage detection. In the numerical simulation, a damage (crack) is modeled by a hinge-spring unit. The feasibility of the proposed method to detect the location and severity of a damage or multi damages of the bridge is verified. Also, the effects of surface roughness, vehicle speed, measurement noise and random traffic are studied. In the presence of ongoing traffic, the damages of the bridge are identified from the repeated or invariant IAS peaks generated for different traffic flows by the same test vehicle over the bridge.

  19. Kit W-sh Mutation Prevents Cancellous Bone Loss during Calcium Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotinun, Sutada; Suwanwela, Jaijam; Poolthong, Suchit; Baron, Roland

    2018-01-01

    Calcium is essential for normal bone growth and development. Inadequate calcium intake increases the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Kit ligand/c-Kit signaling plays an important role in regulating bone homeostasis. Mice with c-Kit mutations are osteopenic. The present study aimed to investigate whether impairment of or reduction in c-Kit signaling affects bone turnover during calcium deprivation. Three-week-old male WBB6F1/J-Kit W /Kit W-v /J (W/W v ) mice with c-Kit point mutation, Kit W-sh /HNihrJaeBsmJ (W sh /W sh ) mice with an inversion mutation in the regulatory elements upstream of the c-Kit promoter region, and their wild-type controls (WT) were fed either a normal (0.6% calcium) or a low calcium diet (0.02% calcium) for 3 weeks. μCT analysis indicated that both mutants fed normal calcium diet had significantly decreased cortical thickness and cancellous bone volume compared to WT. The low calcium diet resulted in a comparable reduction in cortical bone volume and cortical thickness in the W/W v and W sh /W sh mice, and their corresponding controls. As expected, the low calcium diet induced cancellous bone loss in the W/W v mice. In contrast, W sh /W sh cancellous bone did not respond to this diet. This c-Kit mutation prevented cancellous bone loss by antagonizing the low calcium diet-induced increase in osteoblast and osteoclast numbers in the W sh /W sh mice. Gene expression profiling showed that calcium deficiency increased Osx, Ocn, Alp, type I collagen, c-Fms, M-CSF, and RANKL/OPG mRNA expression in controls; however, the W sh mutation suppressed these effects. Our findings indicate that although calcium restriction increased bone turnover, leading to osteopenia, the decreased c-Kit expression levels in the W sh /W sh mice prevented the low calcium diet-induced increase in cancellous bone turnover and bone loss but not the cortical bone loss.

  20. Feasibility of fractionating MIBI cold kits for cost reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penglis, S.; Tsopelas, C. [Royal Adelaide Hospital. SA (Australia)

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Recently {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI become the first 99mTc-labelled myocardial perfusion imaging agent commercially available in Australia. After labelling each vial is sufficient for three to four patient doses. However, it becomes very expensive when only a single patient dose is required (up to $350 per dose). Our goal in this study was to subdivide the MIBI kit into fractions to establish the stability of these split kits. If successful, this would reduce the expense and make the product more cost-effective. After dissolving the Iyophilised ingredients of a MIBI vial with 5 mL of N2-purged normal saline, 1 mL aliquots of the resultant solution were dispensed into N2-filled vials under aseptic conditions. The vials were then stored frozen at -70 deg C. 99mTc-MIBI was prepared by the addition of 2 GBq of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate in I mL of normal saline to the fractionated kit, followed by heating at 100 deg C for 10 minutes at 0, 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-fractionation. The product was allowed to cool before testing for radiochemical purity (RCP) for up to six hours post-labelling. The RCP of each vial was determined using aluminium oxide coated aluminium TLC strips (Merck) run in 100% ethanol. Over the eight-week evaluation period RCP was maintained at 94.2 + 1.3% over six hours (n = 16), which is greater than the minimum recommended RCP (90%) for patient use. These results show that fractionation of MIBI cold kits and sub-frozen storage under an N{sub 2} atmosphere provides a stable and economical multidose product. Using this method the cost of a single patient dose can be reduced considerably from $350, even allowing for the labour involved in the fractionation

  1. Feasibility of fractionating MIBI cold kits for cost reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penglis, S.; Tsopelas, C.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Recently 99m Tc-MIBI become the first 99mTc-labelled myocardial perfusion imaging agent commercially available in Australia. After labelling each vial is sufficient for three to four patient doses. However, it becomes very expensive when only a single patient dose is required (up to $350 per dose). Our goal in this study was to subdivide the MIBI kit into fractions to establish the stability of these split kits. If successful, this would reduce the expense and make the product more cost-effective. After dissolving the Iyophilised ingredients of a MIBI vial with 5 mL of N2-purged normal saline, 1 mL aliquots of the resultant solution were dispensed into N2-filled vials under aseptic conditions. The vials were then stored frozen at -70 deg C. 99mTc-MIBI was prepared by the addition of 2 GBq of 99m Tc-pertechnetate in I mL of normal saline to the fractionated kit, followed by heating at 100 deg C for 10 minutes at 0, 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-fractionation. The product was allowed to cool before testing for radiochemical purity (RCP) for up to six hours post-labelling. The RCP of each vial was determined using aluminium oxide coated aluminium TLC strips (Merck) run in 100% ethanol. Over the eight-week evaluation period RCP was maintained at 94.2 + 1.3% over six hours (n = 16), which is greater than the minimum recommended RCP (90%) for patient use. These results show that fractionation of MIBI cold kits and sub-frozen storage under an N 2 atmosphere provides a stable and economical multidose product. Using this method the cost of a single patient dose can be reduced considerably from $350, even allowing for the labour involved in the fractionation

  2. A escolha do teste estatístico - um tutorial em forma de apresentação em PowerPoint A PowerPoint®-based guide to assist in choosing the suitable statistical test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Normando

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A seleção de métodos apropriados para a análise estatística pode parecer complexa, principalmente para estudantes de pós-graduação e pesquisadores no início da carreira científica. Por outro lado, a apresentação em PowerPoint é uma ferramenta comum para estudantes e pesquisadores. Assim, um tutorial de Bioestatística desenvolvido em uma apresentação em PowerPoint poderia estreitar a distância entre ortodontistas e a Bioestatística. Esse guia proporciona informações úteis e objetivas a respeito de vários métodos estatísticos empregando exemplos relacionados à Odontologia e, mais especificamente, à Ortodontia. Esse tutorial deve ser empregado, principalmente, para o usuário obter algumas respostas a questões comuns relacionadas ao teste mais apropriado para executar comparações entre grupos, examinar correlações e regressões ou analisar o erro do método. Também pode ser obtido auxílio para checar a distribuição dos dados (normal ou anormal e a escolha do gráfico mais adequado para a apresentação dos resultados. Esse guia* pode ainda ser de bastante utilidade para revisores de periódicos examinarem, de forma rápida, a adequabilidade do método estatístico apresentado em um artigo submetido à publicação.Selecting appropriate methods for statistical analysis may be difficult, especially for the students and others in the early phases of the research career. On the other hand, PowerPoint presentation is a very common tool to researchers and dental students, so a statistical guide based on PowerPoint could narrow the gap between orthodontist and the Biostatistics. This guide provides objective and useful information about several statistical methods using examples related to the dental field. A Power-Point presentation is employed to assist the user to find answers to common questions regarding Biostatistics, such as the most appropriate statistical test to compare groups, to make correlations and

  3. The Fluid Dynamics Demo Kit: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Karen; Underhill, Patrick; Prestridge, Kathy

    2012-11-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a fluid dynamics demonstration/experiment kit that can be used by professors and graduate students at high school outreach events. The demonstrations in the kit will be easy to use and true crowd pleasers in order to inspire understanding and pique curiosity about the physics of flow. The kits will be inexpensive, containing readily available materials so that teachers can duplicate the demonstrations and experiments. The kits will be left with the teachers as a gift from the American Physics Society. The experiments and demonstrations cover the concepts of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, Bernoulli's equation, frictional losses and the ideal gas law. For each experiment, the teachers will receive presentation material, access to instructional videos, plus a worksheet that can be used in a high school physics classroom. This kit has been developed through the efforts of the APS-DFD Mentoring and Outreach Committee and has received funding from the APS-DFD. Work funded by the APS-DFD.

  4. Total 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Determination by an Entry Level Triple Quadrupole Instrument: Comparison between Two Commercial Kits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Gervasoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. 25-hydroxyvitamin D2/D3 (25-OHD2/D3 determination is a reliable biomarker for vitamin D status. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was recently proposed as a reference method for vitamin D status evaluation. The aim of this work is to compare two commercial kits (Chromsystems and PerkinElmer for 25-OHD2/D3 determination by our entry level LC-MS/MS. Design and Methods. Chromsystems kit adds an online trap column to an HPLC column and provides atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, isotopically labeled internal standard, and 4 calibrator points. PerkinElmer kit uses a solvent extraction and protein precipitation method. This kit can be used with or without derivatization with, respectively, electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. For each analyte, there are isotopically labeled internal standards and 7 deuterated calibrator points. Results. Performance characteristics are acceptable for both methods. Mean bias between methods calculated on 70 samples was 1.9 ng/mL. Linear regression analysis gave an of 0.94. 25-OHD2 is detectable only with PerkinElmer kit in derivatized assay option. Conclusion. Both methods are suitable for routine. Chromsystems kit minimizes manual sample preparation, requiring only protein precipitation, but, with our system, 25-OHD2 is not detectable. PerkinElmer kit without derivatization does not guarantee acceptable performance with our LC-MS/MS system, as sample is not purified online. Derivatization provides sufficient sensitivity for 25-OHD2 detection.

  5. Simple Approaches to Minimally-Instrumented, Microfluidic-Based Point-of-Care Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Michael G.; Song, Jinzhao; Liu, Changchun; Bau, Haim H.

    2018-01-01

    Designs and applications of microfluidics-based devices for molecular diagnostics (Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests, NAATs) in infectious disease testing are reviewed, with emphasis on minimally instrumented, point-of-care (POC) tests for resource-limited settings. Microfluidic cartridges (‘chips’) that combine solid-phase nucleic acid extraction; isothermal enzymatic nucleic acid amplification; pre-stored, paraffin-encapsulated lyophilized reagents; and real-time or endpoint optical detection are described. These chips can be used with a companion module for separating plasma from blood through a combined sedimentation-filtration effect. Three reporter types: Fluorescence, colorimetric dyes, and bioluminescence; and a new paradigm for end-point detection based on a diffusion-reaction column are compared. Multiplexing (parallel amplification and detection of multiple targets) is demonstrated. Low-cost detection and added functionality (data analysis, control, communication) can be realized using a cellphone platform with the chip. Some related and similar-purposed approaches by others are surveyed. PMID:29495424

  6. Simple Approaches to Minimally-Instrumented, Microfluidic-Based Point-of-Care Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Mauk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Designs and applications of microfluidics-based devices for molecular diagnostics (Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests, NAATs in infectious disease testing are reviewed, with emphasis on minimally instrumented, point-of-care (POC tests for resource-limited settings. Microfluidic cartridges (‘chips’ that combine solid-phase nucleic acid extraction; isothermal enzymatic nucleic acid amplification; pre-stored, paraffin-encapsulated lyophilized reagents; and real-time or endpoint optical detection are described. These chips can be used with a companion module for separating plasma from blood through a combined sedimentation-filtration effect. Three reporter types: Fluorescence, colorimetric dyes, and bioluminescence; and a new paradigm for end-point detection based on a diffusion-reaction column are compared. Multiplexing (parallel amplification and detection of multiple targets is demonstrated. Low-cost detection and added functionality (data analysis, control, communication can be realized using a cellphone platform with the chip. Some related and similar-purposed approaches by others are surveyed.

  7. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell email = campbek@nv.doe.gov

    2002-01-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides selected corrective action alternatives and proposes the closure methodology for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262, Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point. CAU 262 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Remediation of CAU 262 is required under the FFACO. CAU 262 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 262 are located in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex. Individual CASs are located in the vicinity of the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD); and Test Cell C compounds. CAU 262 includes the following CASs as provided in the FFACO (1996); CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage Tank; CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B; CAS 25-04-07, Septic System; CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield; CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield; and CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well. Figures 2, 3, and 4 show the locations of the R-MAD, the E-MAD, and the Test Cell C CASs, respectively. The facilities within CAU 262 supported nuclear rocket reactor engine testing. Activities associated with the program were performed between 1958 and 1973. However, several other projects used the facilities after 1973. A significant quantity of radioactive and sanitary waste was produced during routine operations. Most of the radioactive waste was managed by disposal in the posted leachfields. Sanitary wastes were disposed in sanitary leachfields. Septic tanks, present at sanitary leachfields (i.e., CAS 25-02-06,2504-06 [Septic Systems A and B], 25-04-07, 25-05-05,25-05-12) allowed solids to settle out of suspension prior to entering the leachfield. Posted leachfields do not contain septic tanks. All CASs located in CAU 262 are

  8. Good quality of oral anticoagulation treatment in general practice using international normalised ratio point of care testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Tina Heidi; Lind, Bent

    2015-01-01

    collected retrospectively for a period of six months. For each patient, time in therapeutic range (TTR) was calculated and correlated with practice and patient characteristics using multilevel linear regression models. RESULTS: We identified 447 patients in warfarin treatment in the 20 practices using POCT......INTRODUCTION: Oral anticoagulation treatment (OACT) with warfarin is common in general practice. Increasingly, international normalised ratio (INR) point of care testing (POCT) is being used to manage patients. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the quality of OACT with warfarin...

  9. Good quality of oral anticoagulation treatment in general practice using international normalised ratio point of care testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Tina Heidi; Lind, Bent

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oral anticoagulation treatment (OACT)with warfarin is common in general practice. Increasingly,international normalised ratio (INR) point of care testing(POCT) is being used to manage patients. The aim of thisstudy was to describe and analyse the quality of OACT withwarfarin...... in the management of patients in warfarintreatment provided good quality of care. Sampling intervaland diagnostic coding were significantly correlated withtreatment quality. FUNDING: The study received financial support from theSarah Krabbe Foundation, the General Practitioners’ Educationand Development Foundation...

  10. Evaluation of a culture-based pathogen identification kit for bacterial causes of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viora, L; Graham, E M; Mellor, D J; Reynolds, K; Simoes, P B A; Geraghty, T E

    2014-07-26

    Accurate identification of mastitis-causing bacteria supports effective management and can be used to implement selective use of antimicrobials for treatment. The objectives of this study were to compare the results from a culture-based mastitis pathogen detection test kit ('VetoRapid', Vétoquinol) with standard laboratory culture and to evaluate the potential suitability of the test kit to inform a selective treatment programme. Overall 231 quarter milk samples from five UK dairy farms were collected. The sensitivity and specificity of the test kit for the identification of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus uberis and Enterococcus spp. ranged from 17 per cent to 84 per cent and 92 per cent to 98 per cent, respectively. In total, 23 of 68 clinical samples were assigned as meeting the requirement for antimicrobial treatment (Gram-positive organism cultured) according to standard culture results, with the test kit results having sensitivity and specificity of 91 per cent and 78 per cent, respectively. Several occurrences of misidentification are reported, including S. aureus being misidentified as coagulase-negative staphylococci and vice versa. The test kit provides rapid preliminary identification of five common causes of bovine mastitis under UK field conditions and is likely to be suitable for informing selective treatment of clinical mastitis caused by Gram-positive organisms. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Shuttle Kit Freezer Refrigeration Unit Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The refrigerated food/medical sample storage compartment as a kit to the space shuttle orbiter is examined. To maintain the -10 F in the freezer kit, an active refrigeration unit is required, and an air cooled Stirling Cycle refrigerator was selected. The freezer kit contains two subsystems, the refrigeration unit, and the storage volume. The freezer must provide two basic capabilities in one unit. One requirement is to store 215 lbs of food which is consumed in a 30-day period by 7 people. The other requirement is to store 128.3 lbs of medical samples consisting of both urine and feces. The unit can be mounted on the lower deck of the shuttle cabin, and will occupy four standard payload module compartments on the forward bulkhead. The freezer contains four storage compartments.

  12. Results from 15years of quality surveillance for a National Indigenous Point-of-Care Testing Program for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Mark; Shephard, Anne; McAteer, Bridgit; Regnier, Tamika; Barancek, Kristina

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes is a major health problem for Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Point-of-care testing for haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been the cornerstone of a long-standing program (QAAMS) to manage glycaemic control in Indigenous people with diabetes and recently, to diagnose diabetes. The QAAMS quality management framework includes monthly testing of quality control (QC) and external quality assurance (EQA) samples. Key performance indicators of quality include imprecision (coefficient of variation [CV%]) and percentage acceptable results. This paper reports on the past 15years of quality testing in QAAMS and examines the performance of HbA1c POC testing at the 6.5% cut-off recommended for diagnosis. The total number of HbA1c EQA results submitted from 2002 to 2016 was 29,093. The median imprecision for EQA testing by QAAMS device operators averaged 2.81% (SD 0.50; range 2.2 to 3.9%) from 2002 to 2016 and 2.44% (SD 0.22; range 2.2 to 2.9%) from 2009 to 2016. No significant difference was observed between the median imprecision achieved in QAAMS and by Australasian laboratories from 2002 to 2016 (p=0.05; two-tailed paired t-test) and from 2009 to 2016 (p=0.17; two-tailed paired t-test). For QC testing from 2009 to 2016, imprecision averaged 2.5% and 3.0% for the two levels of QC tested. Percentage acceptable results averaged 90% for QA testing from 2002 to 2016 and 96% for QC testing from 2009 to 2016. The DCA Vantage was able to measure a patient and an EQA sample with an HbA1c value close to 6.5% both accurately and precisely. HbA1c POC testing in QAAMS has remained analytically sound, matched the quality achieved by Australasian laboratories and met profession-derived analytical goals for 15years. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of die quench forming on sheet thinning and 3-point bend testing of AA7075-T6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Samuel; Omer, Kaab; Rahmaan, Taamjeed; Butcher, Clifford; Worswick, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Lab-scaled AA7075 aluminum side impact beams were manufactured using the die quenching technique in which the sheet was solutionized and then quenched in-die during forming to a super saturated solid state. Sheet thinning measurements were taken at various locations throughout the length of the part and the effect of lubricant on surface scoring and material pick-up on the die was evaluated. The as-formed beams were subjected to a T6 aging treatment and then tested in three-point bending. Simulations were performed of the forming and mechanical testing experiments using the LS-DYNA finite element code. The thinning and mechanical response was predicted well.

  14. The need for standardisation of methodology and components in commercial radioimmunoassay kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.G.; Marschner, I.; Scriba, P.C.

    1977-01-01

    The problems arising from increasing use of commercial kits in radioimmunoassay (RIA) and related fields are discussed. The problems arising in various RIAs differ according to the substance under test. The quality of individual components is often good, although methodology is often not optimal and contains short-cuts, which although commercially attractive, can lead to erroneous values and poor sensitivity and precision. Minor modification of methodology often leads to major improvements in sensitivity and precision, and this has been demonstrated in the case of three digoxin kits employing antibody-coated tube techniques and in four kits for thyrotropin (TSH) using different techniques. It has also been noted that in many imported quality control sera from the USA no values have been ascribed to European kits for the components listed, thus reducing these sera to the function of precision control. The deductions from this study are that a standardisation of kit components and assay methods is desirable in order to allow comparison of results between laboratories using different kits. (orig.) [de

  15. Need for standardization of methodology and components in commercial radioimmunoassay kits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, W G; Marschner, I; Scriba, P C [Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Medizinische Klinik Innenstadt

    1977-01-01

    The problems arising from increasing use of commercial kits in radioimmunoassay (RIA) and related fields are discussed. The problems arising in various RIAs differ according to the substance under test. The quality of individual components is often good, although methodology is often not optimal and contains short-cuts, which although commercially attractive, can lead to erroneous values and poor sensitivity and precision. Minor modification of methodology often leads to major improvements in sensitivity and precision, and this has been demonstrated in the case of three digoxin kits employing antibody-coated tube techniques and in four kits for thyrotropin (TSH) using different techniques. It has also been noted that in many imported quality control sera from the USA no values have been ascribed to European kits for the components listed, thus reducing these sera to the function of precision control. The deductions from this study are that a standardization of kit components and assay methods is desirable in order to allow comparison of results between laboratories using different kits.

  16. The need for standardization of methodology and components in commercial radioimmunoassay kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.G.; Marschner, I.; Scriba, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    The problems arising from the increasing use of commercial kits in radioimmunoassay (RIA) and related fields are discussed. These problems differ according to the substance under test. The quality of individual reagents is often good, but the methodology is often not optimal and may contain short-cuts which, although commercially attractive, can lead to erroneous values and poor sensitivity and precision. Minor modifications in the methodology often lead to big improvements in sensitivity and precision. This has been demonstrated in three digoxin kits employing antibody-coated tube techniques and in four kits for thyrotropin (TSH) using different techniques. It has also been noted that with many quality-control sera imported from the USA no values are ascribed to European kits for the components listed, thus reducing these sera to the function of precision control. The study underlines the need to standardize kit components and assay methods to enable the results obtained by different laboratories with different kits to be compared. (author)

  17. Tool Kit Helps Digitize Tide Gauge Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Albin; Pons, Frédéric; Moron, Vincent

    2005-09-01

    The Numérisation des Niveaux d'Eau (NUNIEAU) is an integrated and automated MATLAB computer program tool kit for digitizing, transforming, and validating paper records of sea level variations, called marigrams (Figure 1a), that can cut in half the time required to digitize paper records. This tool kit developed in 2004 by F. Pons is currently obtainable by request from the developer, but will be available online on the IMPLIT (Impact des événements extremes sur les hydro-systèmes du litoral méditerranéen français) Web site in early 2006.

  18. A Monte Carlo-adjusted goodness-of-fit test for parametric models describing spatial point patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Dao, Ngocanh

    2014-04-03

    Assessing the goodness-of-fit (GOF) for intricate parametric spatial point process models is important for many application fields. When the probability density of the statistic of the GOF test is intractable, a commonly used procedure is the Monte Carlo GOF test. Additionally, if the data comprise a single dataset, a popular version of the test plugs a parameter estimate in the hypothesized parametric model to generate data for theMonte Carlo GOF test. In this case, the test is invalid because the resulting empirical level does not reach the nominal level. In this article, we propose a method consisting of nested Monte Carlo simulations which has the following advantages: the bias of the resulting empirical level of the test is eliminated, hence the empirical levels can always reach the nominal level, and information about inhomogeneity of the data can be provided.We theoretically justify our testing procedure using Taylor expansions and demonstrate that it is correctly sized through various simulation studies. In our first data application, we discover, in agreement with Illian et al., that Phlebocarya filifolia plants near Perth, Australia, can follow a homogeneous Poisson clustered process that provides insight into the propagation mechanism of these plants. In our second data application, we find, in contrast to Diggle, that a pairwise interaction model provides a good fit to the micro-anatomy data of amacrine cells designed for analyzing the developmental growth of immature retina cells in rabbits. This article has supplementary material online. © 2013 American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and Interface Foundation of North America.

  19. Present status on numerical algorithms and benchmark tests for point kinetics and quasi-static approximate kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Takeharu

    1976-12-01

    Review studies have been made on algorithms of numerical analysis and benchmark tests on point kinetics and quasistatic approximate kinetics computer codes to perform efficiently benchmark tests on space-dependent neutron kinetics codes. Point kinetics methods have now been improved since they can be directly applied to the factorization procedures. Methods based on Pade rational function give numerically stable solutions and methods on matrix-splitting are interested in the fact that they are applicable to the direct integration methods. An improved quasistatic (IQ) approximation is the best and the most practical method; it is numerically shown that the IQ method has a high stability and precision and the computation time which is about one tenth of that of the direct method. IQ method is applicable to thermal reactors as well as fast reactors and especially fitted for fast reactors to which many time steps are necessary. Two-dimensional diffusion kinetics codes are most practicable though there exist also three-dimensional diffusion kinetics code as well as two-dimensional transport kinetics code. On developing a space-dependent kinetics code, in any case, it is desirable to improve the method so as to have a high computing speed for solving static diffusion and transport equations. (auth.)

  20. Interlamellar cracking of thermal barrier coatings with TGOs by non-standard four-point bending tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P.F. [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Li, X.D. [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Aircraft Strength Research Institute of China, Xi' an, 710065 (China); Shang, F.L., E-mail: shangfl@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Li, C.J. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2011-09-25

    Highlights: {yields} A non-standard modified four-point bending specimen is adopted for delamination test. {yields} Typical failure mode of the TBC system with TGO layer is demonstrated. {yields} Fracture toughness of 8YSZ on a cold-sprayed MCrAlY coating is evaluated theoretically. - Abstract: This work concerns the failure mode and fracture toughness of plasma-sprayed 8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) deposited on a cold-sprayed MCrAlY bond coat (BC) after thermal oxidation. Upon high-temperature exposure, a thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer was formed along the interface between the BC layer and YSZ ceramic coating layer through oxidation of the bond coat. By utilizing a non-standard modified four-point bending specimen, in conjunction with fractured surface examinations by scanning electron microscope and energy disperse spectroscope, the failure mode of this thermal barrier coating (TBC) system has been checked experimentally. It is shown that delamination cracks firstly initiate at the YSZ/BC interface edge, and then propagate along a wavy path near the interface, not only through the TBC but also within the TGO and along the interlamellar interfaces. Through a theoretical analysis of the bending specimen, the fracture toughness of this TBC system, in terms of strain energy release rate, has been determined from the load-displacement curves which were recorded during the tests.

  1. KIT safety management. Annual report 2012; KIT-Sicherheitsmanagement. Jahresbericht 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Gerhard (ed.)

    2013-07-01

    The KIT Safety Management Service Unit (KSM) guarantees radiological and conventional technical safety and security of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and controls the implementation and observation of legal environmental protection requirements. KSM is responsible for - licensing procedures, - industrial safety organization, - control of environmental protection measures, - planning and implementation of emergency preparedness and response, - operation of radiological laboratories and measurement stations, - extensive radiation protection support and the - the execution of security tasks in and for all organizational units of KIT. Moreover, KSM is in charge of wastewater and environmental monitoring for all facilities and nuclear installations all over the KIT campus. KSM is headed by the Safety Commissioner of KIT, who is appointed by the Presidential Committee. Within his scope of procedure for KIT, the Safety Commissioner controls the implementation of and compliance with safety-relevant requirements. The KIT Safety Management is certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001, its industrial safety management is certified by the VBG as ''AMS-Arbeitsschutz mit System'' and, hence, fulfills the requirements of NLF / ISO-OSH 2001. KSM laboratories are accredited according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025. To the extent possible, KSM is committed to maintaining competence in radiation protection and to supporting research and teaching activities. The present reports lists the individual tasks of the KIT Safety Management and informs about the results achieved in 2012. Status figures in principle reflect the status at the end of the year 2012. The processes described cover the areas of competence of KSM.

  2. Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Point-Of-Care CD4 Testing on the HIV Epidemic in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Heffernan

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnostic tools have been shown to improve linkage of patients to care. In the context of infectious diseases, assessing the impact and cost-effectiveness of such tools at the population level, accounting for both direct and indirect effects, is key to informing adoption of these tools. Point-of-care (POC CD4 testing has been shown to be highly effective in increasing the proportion of HIV positive patients who initiate ART. We assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of introducing POC CD4 testing at the population level in South Africa in a range of care contexts, using a dynamic compartmental model of HIV transmission, calibrated to the South African HIV epidemic. We performed a meta-analysis to quantify the differences between POC and laboratory CD4 testing on the proportion linking to care following CD4 testing. Cumulative infections averted and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs were estimated over one and three years. We estimated that POC CD4 testing introduced in the current South African care context can prevent 1.7% (95% CI: 0.4% - 4.3% of new HIV infections over 1 year. In that context, POC CD4 testing was cost-effective 99.8% of the time after 1 year with a median estimated ICER of US$4,468/DALY averted. In healthcare contexts with expanded HIV testing and improved retention in care, POC CD4 testing only became cost-effective after 3 years. The results were similar when, in addition, ART was offered irrespective of CD4 count, and CD4 testing was used for clinical assessment. Our findings suggest that even if ART is expanded to all HIV positive individuals and HIV testing efforts are increased in the near future, POC CD4 testing is a cost-effective tool, even within a short time horizon. Our study also illustrates the importance of evaluating the potential impact of such diagnostic technologies at the population level, so that indirect benefits and costs can be incorporated into estimations of cost-effectiveness.

  3. Point -of -care testing (POCT) in molecular diagnostics: Performance evaluation of GeneXpert HCV RNA test in diagnosing and monitoring of HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ekta; Agarwala, Pragya; Kumar, Guresh; Maiwall, Rakhi; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Molecular testing at the point-of-care may turn out to be game changer for HCV diagnosis and treatment monitoring, through increased sensitivity, reduced turnaround time, and ease of performance. One such assay GeneXpert ® has recently been released. Comparative analysis between performances of GeneXpert ® and Abbott HCV-RNA was done. 174 HCV infected patients were recruited and, one time plasma samples from 154 patients and repeated samples from 20 patients, obtained at specific treatment time-points (0, 4, 12 and 24) weeks were serially re-tested on Xpert ® . Genotype 3 was the commonest, seen in 80 (66%) of the cases, genotype 1 in 34 (28.3%), genotype 4 in 4 (3.3%) and genotypes 2 and 5 in 1 (0.8%) each. Median HCV RNA load was 4.69 log 10 (range: 0-6.98log 10 ) IU/ml. Overall a very good correlation was seen between the two assays (R 2 =0.985), concordance of the results between the assays was seen in 138 samples (89.6%). High and low positive standards were tested ten times on Xpert ® to evaluate the precision and the coefficient of variation was 0.01 for HPC and 0.07 for the LPC. Monitoring of patients on two different regimes of treatment, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin and sofosbuvir plus ribavirin was done by both the systems at baseline, 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Perfect correlation between the assays in the course of therapy at different treatment time- point in genotypes 3 and 1 was seen. The study demonstrates excellent performance of the Xpert ® HCV assay in viral load assessment and in treatment course monitoring consistency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy consumption reduction in existing HVAC-R systems via a power law controlling kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnola, C.F.; Vargas, J.V.C.; Buiar, C.L.; Ordonez, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative solution for reducing energy consumption in heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC-R) systems. For that, an existing typical commercial refrigeration system was equipped with a novel control system based on a power law, using a frequency inverter and a programmable logic controller (PLC). Hence, it was possible to compare the operation and energy consumption of the system with the power law control and with the on-off system, quantifying the obtained gains. The experimental unit consisted of a cooling chamber, an enclosing chamber (antechamber), and a vapor compression refrigeration system, i.e., an example of a practical commercial cooling system. A set of graphs shows the experimental measurements performed with the two systems. In this way, the measured temperatures in some selected points of the two systems, as well as the consumption in kWh for a period of 6 h and 10 min were compared in the tests. The main conclusions of this work are: i) The system operating with the power law control with respect to the conventional on-off control, showed energy consumption savings of up to 31% in a test period of 6 h and 10 min, and ii) The system compressor cycling frequency in the system operating with the power law control is smaller than with the traditional on-off system. Therefore, the study shows that the developed power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system with immediate significant energy savings with no need for HVAC-R hardware changes. - Highlights: • An energy consumption reduction strategy for HVAC-R systems is presented. • Power law and on-off control actions are experimentally compared. • Energy savings of 31% were obtained with power law control. • Compressor cycling frequency is smaller with power law control. • Power law control kit has potential to be installed in any existing system

  5. Cost-effectiveness of point-of-care C-reactive protein testing to inform antibiotic prescribing decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong, Raymond; Jit, Mark; Smith, Richard D; Butler, Christopher C; Melbye, Hasse; Mölstad, Sigvard; Coast, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Background Point-of-care C-reactive protein (POCCRP) is a biomarker of inflammation that offers clinicians a rapid POC test to guide antibiotic prescribing decisions for acute cough and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). However, evidence that POCCRP is cost-effective is limited, particularly outside experimental settings. Aim To assess the cost-effectiveness of POCCRP as a diagnostic tool for acute cough and LRTI from the perspective of the health service. Design and setting Observational study of the presentation, management, and outcomes of patients with acute cough and LRTI in primary care settings in Norway and Sweden. Method Using hierarchical regression, data were analysed in terms of the effect on antibiotic use, cost, and patient outcomes (symptom severity after 7 and 14 days, time to recovery, and EQ-5D), while controlling for patient characteristics (self-reported symptom severity, comorbidities, and health-related quality of life) at first attendance. Results POCCRP testing is associated with non-significant positive reductions in antibiotic prescribing (P = 0.078) and increased cost (P = 0.092). Despite the uncertainty, POCCRP testing is also associated with a cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gain of €9391. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of €30 000 per QALY gained, there is a 70% probability of CRP being cost-effective. Conclusion POCCRP testing is likely to provide a cost-effective diagnostic intervention both in terms of reducing antibiotic prescribing and in terms of QALYs gained. PMID:23834883

  6. Field Testing of an In-well Point Velocity Probe for the Rapid Characterization of Groundwater Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorno, T.; Devlin, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Reliable estimates of groundwater velocity is essential in order to best implement in-situ monitoring and remediation technologies. The In-well Point Velocity Probe (IWPVP) is an inexpensive, reusable tool developed for rapid measurement of groundwater velocity at the centimeter-scale in monitoring wells. IWPVP measurements of groundwater speed are based on a small-scale tracer test conducted as ambient groundwater passes through the well screen and the body of the probe. Horizontal flow direction can be determined from the difference in tracer mass passing detectors placed in four funnel-and-channel pathways through the probe, arranged in a cross pattern. The design viability of the IWPVP was confirmed using a two-dimensional numerical model in Comsol Multiphysics, followed by a series of laboratory tank experiments in which IWPVP measurements were calibrated to quantify seepage velocities in both fine and medium sand. Lab results showed that the IWPVP was capable of measuring the seepage velocity in less than 20 minutes per test, when the seepage velocity was in the range of 0.5 to 4.0 m/d. Further, the IWPVP estimated the groundwater speed with a precision of ± 7%, and an accuracy of ± 14%, on average. The horizontal flow direction was determined with an accuracy of ± 15°, on average. Recently, a pilot field test of the IWPVP was conducted in the Borden aquifer, C.F.B. Borden, Ontario, Canada. A total of approximately 44 IWPVP tests were conducted within two 2-inch groundwater monitoring wells comprising a 5 ft. section of #8 commercial well screen. Again, all tests were completed in under 20 minutes. The velocities estimated from IWPVP data were compared to 21 Point Velocity Probe (PVP) tests, as well as Darcy-based estimates of groundwater velocity. Preliminary data analysis shows strong agreement between the IWPVP and PVP estimates of groundwater velocity. Further, both the IWPVP and PVP estimates of groundwater velocity appear to be reasonable when

  7. Analytical Validation of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test for Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W.; Boisen, Matthew L.; Millett, Molly M.; Nelson, Diana S.; Oottamasathien, Darin; Hartnett, Jessica N.; Jones, Abigal B.; Goba, Augustine; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohamed; Bornholdt, Zachary A.; Fusco, Marnie L.; Abelson, Dafna M.; Oda, Shunichiro; Brown, Bethany L.; Pham, Ha; Rowland, Megan M.; Agans, Krystle N.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Heinrich, Megan L.; Kulakosky, Peter C.; Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Schieffelin, John S.; Kargbo, Brima; Gbetuwa, Momoh; Gevao, Sahr M.; Wilson, Russell B.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Pitts, Kelly R.; Khan, Sheik Humarr; Grant, Donald S.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Branco, Luis M.; Garry, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe viral illness caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). The 2013–2016 EVD outbreak in West Africa is the largest recorded, with >11 000 deaths. Development of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test (ReEBOV RDT) was expedited to provide a point-of-care test for suspected EVD cases. Methods. Recombinant EBOV viral protein 40 antigen was used to derive polyclonal antibodies for RDT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay development. ReEBOV RDT limits of detection (LOD), specificity, and interference were analytically validated on the basis of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance. Results. The ReEBOV RDT specificity estimate was 95% for donor serum panels and 97% for donor whole-blood specimens. The RDT demonstrated sensitivity to 3 species of Ebolavirus (Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Bundibugyo ebolavirus) associated with human disease, with no cross-reactivity by pathogens associated with non-EBOV febrile illness, including malaria parasites. Interference testing exhibited no reactivity by medications in common use. The LOD for antigen was 4.7 ng/test in serum and 9.4 ng/test in whole blood. Quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction testing of nonhuman primate samples determined the range to be equivalent to 3.0 × 105–9.0 × 108 genomes/mL. Conclusions. The analytical validation presented here contributed to the ReEBOV RDT being the first antigen-based assay to receive FDA and World Health Organization emergency use authorization for this EVD outbreak, in February 2015. PMID:27587634

  8. Potential for Pharmacy-Public Health Collaborations Using Pharmacy-Based Point-of-Care Testing Services for Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, Paul O; Klepser, Michael E; Adams, Alex J; Jacobs, David M; Percival, Kelly M; Tallman, Gregory B

    Health care professionals must continually identify collaborative ways to combat antibiotic resistance while improving community health and health care delivery. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA)-waived point-of-care (POC) testing (POCT) services for infectious disease conducted in community pharmacies provide a means for pharmacists to collaborate with prescribers and/or public health officials combating antibiotic resistance while improving community health and health care delivery. To provide a comprehensive literature review that explores the potential for pharmacists to collaborate with public health professionals and prescribers using pharmacy-based CLIA-waived POCT services for infectious diseases. Comprehensive literature review. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for manuscripts and meeting abstracts for the following key words: infectious disease, community pharmacy, rapid diagnostic tests, rapid assay, and POC tests. All relevant manuscripts and meeting abstracts utilizing POCT in community pharmacies for infectious disease were reviewed. Information regarding the most contemporary evidence regarding CLIA-waived POC infectious diseases tests for infectious diseases and their use in community pharmacies was synthesized to highlight and identify opportunities to develop future collaborations using community pharmacy-based models for such services. Evidence demonstrates that pharmacists in collaboration with other health care professionals can leverage their knowledge and accessibility to provide CLIA-waived POCT services for infectious diseases. Testing for influenza may augment health departments' surveillance efforts, help promote rationale antiviral use, and avoid unnecessary antimicrobial therapy. Services for human immunodeficiency virus infection raise infection status awareness, increase access to health care, and facilitate linkage to appropriate care. Testing for group A streptococcal pharyngitis may curb inappropriate

  9. Analytical Validation of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test for Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W; Boisen, Matthew L; Millett, Molly M; Nelson, Diana S; Oottamasathien, Darin; Hartnett, Jessica N; Jones, Abigal B; Goba, Augustine; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohamed; Bornholdt, Zachary A; Fusco, Marnie L; Abelson, Dafna M; Oda, Shunichiro; Brown, Bethany L; Pham, Ha; Rowland, Megan M; Agans, Krystle N; Geisbert, Joan B; Heinrich, Megan L; Kulakosky, Peter C; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Schieffelin, John S; Kargbo, Brima; Gbetuwa, Momoh; Gevao, Sahr M; Wilson, Russell B; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Pitts, Kelly R; Khan, Sheik Humarr; Grant, Donald S; Geisbert, Thomas W; Branco, Luis M; Garry, Robert F

    2016-10-15

     Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe viral illness caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). The 2013-2016 EVD outbreak in West Africa is the largest recorded, with >11 000 deaths. Development of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test (ReEBOV RDT) was expedited to provide a point-of-care test for suspected EVD cases.  Recombinant EBOV viral protein 40 antigen was used to derive polyclonal antibodies for RDT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay development. ReEBOV RDT limits of detection (LOD), specificity, and interference were analytically validated on the basis of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance.  The ReEBOV RDT specificity estimate was 95% for donor serum panels and 97% for donor whole-blood specimens. The RDT demonstrated sensitivity to 3 species of Ebolavirus (Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Bundibugyo ebolavirus) associated with human disease, with no cross-reactivity by pathogens associated with non-EBOV febrile illness, including malaria parasites. Interference testing exhibited no reactivity by medications in common use. The LOD for antigen was 4.7 ng/test in serum and 9.4 ng/test in whole blood. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing of nonhuman primate samples determined the range to be equivalent to 3.0 × 10 5 -9.0 × 10 8 genomes/mL.  The analytical validation presented here contributed to the ReEBOV RDT being the first antigen-based assay to receive FDA and World Health Organization emergency use authorization for this EVD outbreak, in February 2015. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Optimization of an Optical Inspection System Based on the Taguchi Method for Quantitative Analysis of Point-of-Care Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsien Yeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an optical inspection system for detecting a commercial point-of-care testing product and a new detection model covering from qualitative to quantitative analysis. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG strips (cut-off value of the hCG commercial product is 25 mIU/mL were the detection target in our study. We used a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS sensor to detect the colors of the test line and control line in the specific strips and to reduce the observation errors by the naked eye. To achieve better linearity between the grayscale and the concentration, and to decrease the standard deviation (increase the signal to noise ratio, S/N, the Taguchi method was used to find the optimal parameters for the optical inspection system. The pregnancy test used the principles of the lateral flow immunoassay, and the colors of the test and control line were caused by the gold nanoparticles. Because of the sandwich immunoassay model, the color of the gold nanoparticles in the test line was darkened by increasing the hCG concentration. As the results reveal, the S/N increased from 43.48 dB to 53.38 dB, and the hCG concentration detection increased from 6.25 to 50 mIU/mL with a standard deviation of less than 10%. With the optimal parameters to decrease the detection limit and to increase the linearity determined by the Taguchi method, the optical inspection system can be applied to various commercial rapid tests for the detection of ketamine, troponin I, and fatty acid binding protein (FABP.

  11. Cellphone-based hand-held microplate reader for point-of-care ELISA testing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Brandon; Cortazar, Bingen; Tseng, Derek; Ozkan, Haydar; Feng, Steve; Wei, Qingshan; Chan, Raymond Y.; Burbano, Jordi; Farooqui, Qamar; Lewinski, Michael; Di Carlo, Dino; Garner, Omai B.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-03-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a microplate format has been a gold standard first-line clinical test for diagnosis of various diseases including infectious diseases. However, this technology requires a relatively large and expensive multi-well scanning spectrophotometer to read and quantify the signal from each well, hindering its implementation in resource-limited-settings. Here, we demonstrate a cost-effective and handheld smartphone-based colorimetric microplate reader for rapid digitization and quantification of immunoserology-related ELISA tests in a conventional 96-well plate format at the point of care (POC). This device consists of a bundle of 96 optical fibers to collect the transmitted light from each well of the microplate and direct all the transmission signals from the wells onto the camera of the mobile-phone. Captured images are then transmitted to a remote server through a custom-designed app, and both quantitative and qualitative diagnostic results are returned back to the user within ~1 minute per 96-well plate by using a machine learning algorithm. We tested this mobile-phone based micro-plate reader in a clinical microbiology lab using FDA-approved mumps IgG, measles IgG, and herpes simplex virus IgG (HSV-1 and HSV-2) ELISA tests on 1138 remnant patient samples (roughly 50% training and 50% testing), and achieved an overall accuracy of ~99% or higher for each ELISA test. This handheld and cost-effective platform could be immediately useful for large-scale vaccination monitoring in low-infrastructure settings, and also for other high-throughput disease screening applications at POC.

  12. Megakaryocytes compensate for Kit insufficiency in murine arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunin, Pierre; Penke, Loka R; Thon, Jonathan N; Monach, Paul A; Jones, Tatiana; Chang, Margaret H; Chen, Mary M; Melki, Imene; Lacroix, Steve; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Ware, Jerry; Gurish, Michael F; Italiano, Joseph E; Boilard, Eric; Nigrovic, Peter A

    2017-05-01

    The growth factor receptor Kit is involved in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic development. Mice bearing Kit defects lack mast cells; however, strains bearing different Kit alleles exhibit diverse phenotypes. Herein, we investigated factors underlying differential sensitivity to IgG-mediated arthritis in 2 mast cell-deficient murine lines: KitWsh/Wsh, which develops robust arthritis, and KitW/Wv, which does not. Reciprocal bone marrow transplantation between KitW/Wv and KitWsh/Wsh mice revealed that arthritis resistance reflects a hematopoietic defect in addition to mast cell deficiency. In KitW/Wv mice, restoration of susceptibility to IgG-mediated arthritis was neutrophil independent but required IL-1 and the platelet/megakaryocyte markers NF-E2 and glycoprotein VI. In KitW/Wv mice, platelets were present in numbers similar to those in WT animals and functionally intact, and transfer of WT platelets did not restore arthritis susceptibility. These data implicated a platelet-independent role for the megakaryocyte, a Kit-dependent lineage that is selectively deficient in KitW/Wv mice. Megakaryocytes secreted IL-1 directly and as a component of circulating microparticles, which activated synovial fibroblasts in an IL-1-dependent manner. Transfer of WT but not IL-1-deficient megakaryocytes restored arthritis susceptibility to KitW/Wv mice. These findings identify functional redundancy among Kit-dependent hematopoietic lineages and establish an unanticipated capacity of megakaryocytes to mediate IL-1-driven systemic inflammatory disease.

  13. Press kit kicks off new branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Tom

    2004-01-01

    A smartly produced press kit resulted in unprecedented news coverage when Denver's Porter Adventist Hospital recently unveiled plans for an extensive 80 million dollars redevelopment. A news conference was held to announce this plan, along with the opening of the hospital's new emergency department. The overall effort is part of the new branding strategy of the 75-year-old hospital.

  14. Teen PACK: Population Awareness Campaign Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This packet of instructional materials is designed to teach teenagers about the effects of overpopulation on the world and on the individual. Information is presented in three related booklets. The first of the three parts of the "Teen Population Awareness Campaign Kit," illustrates overpopulation through profiles of teens living in…

  15. Development of MIBI kit for heart imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, S.B.; Ab-Wahid, M.

    1998-01-01

    99m Tc-isonitriles have been shown to be a very promising substitute for Thallium-201 ( 201 TI) for myocardial perfusion imaging. In this study, the lyophilized kit of Methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) was prepared and labeled with 99m Tc. Several factors affecting the labeling yield such as the kit's stannous content, boiling time during labeling, and the volume of 99m Tc used during reconstitution were also investigated. The radiochemical purity (RCP) determination of the labeled product was analyzed by HPLC, solvent-extraction, TLC and ITLC-SG chromatographic methods in various systems. Animal biodistribution study performed in rats indicated the 99m Tc-MIBI accumulation in the myocardial is up to 3 hours with little or no redistribution. Toxicity studies performed indicate no clinical signs of abnormality in mice at injected dose equivalent in amount of 100 times the human dose in proportion to body weight. Stability studies of the labeled complex performed at room temperature showed no change in radiochemical purity (> 95%) 6 hours post-preparation. Compatibility and comparative studies were done using both MINT and commercially available MIBI kits and 99m Tc generator eluates. From the results obtained the MINT produced MIBI kits were found to be comparable in quality to that of commercials. (author)

  16. Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

  17. Antenatal syphilis screening using point-of-care testing in Sub-Saharan African countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kuznik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes for the infant. Most syphilis infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where coverage of antenatal screening for syphilis is inadequate. Recently introduced point-of-care syphilis tests have high accuracy and demonstrate potential to increase coverage of antenatal screening. However, country-specific cost-effectiveness data for these tests are limited. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of antenatal syphilis screening for 43 countries in SSA and estimate the impact of universal screening on stillbirths, neonatal deaths, congenital syphilis, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted.The decision analytic model reflected the perspective of the national health care system and was based on the sensitivity (86% and specificity (99% reported for the immunochromatographic strip (ICS test. Clinical outcomes of infants born to syphilis-infected mothers on the end points of stillbirth, neonatal death, and congenital syphilis were obtained from published sources. Treatment was assumed to consist of three injections of benzathine penicillin. Country-specific inputs included the antenatal prevalence of syphilis, annual number of live births, proportion of women with at least one antenatal care visit, per capita gross national income, and estimated hourly nurse wages. In all 43 sub-Saharan African countries analyzed, syphilis screening is highly cost-effective, with an average cost/DALY averted of US$11 (range: US$2-US$48. Screening remains highly cost-effective even if the average prevalence falls from the current rate of 3.1% (range: 0.6%-14.0% to 0.038% (range: 0.002%-0.113%. Universal antenatal screening of pregnant women in clinics may reduce the annual number of stillbirths by up to 64,000, neonatal deaths by up to 25,000, and annual incidence of congenital syphilis by up to 32,000, and avert up to 2.6 million

  18. A multi-center field study of two point-of-care tests for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric B Chesnais

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis uses point-of-care tests for circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA to map endemic areas and for monitoring and evaluating the success of mass drug administration (MDA programs. We compared the performance of the reference BinaxNOW Filariasis card test (ICT, introduced in 1997 with the Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS, introduced in 2013 in 5 endemic study sites in Africa.The tests were compared prior to MDA in two study sites (Congo and Côte d'Ivoire and in three sites that had received MDA (DRC and 2 sites in Liberia. Data were analyzed with regard to % positivity, % agreement, and heterogeneity. Models evaluated potential effects of age, gender, and blood microfilaria (Mf counts in individuals and effects of endemicity and history of MDA at the village level as potential factors linked to higher sensitivity of the FTS. Lastly, we assessed relationships between CFA scores and Mf in pre- and post-MDA settings.Paired test results were available for 3,682 individuals. Antigenemia rates were 8% and 22% higher by FTS than by ICT in pre-MDA and in post-MDA sites, respectively. FTS/ICT ratios were higher in areas with low infection rates. The probability of having microfilaremia was much higher in persons with CFA scores >1 in untreated areas. However, this was not true in post-MDA settings.This study has provided extensive new information on the performance of the FTS compared to ICT in Africa and it has confirmed the increased sensitivity of FTS reported in prior studies. Variability in FTS/ICT was related in part to endemicity level, history of MDA, and perhaps to the medications used for MDA. These results suggest that FTS should be superior to ICT for mapping, for transmission assessment surveys, and for post-MDA surveillance.

  19. Evaluating Laboratory Performance on Point-of-Care Glucose Testing with Six Sigma Metric for 151 Institutions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yang; Wang, Wei; He, Falin; Zhong, Kun; Wang, Zhiguo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to use Six Sigma(SM) (Motorola Trademark Holdings, Libertyville, IL) techniques to analyze the quality of point-of-care (POC) glucose testing measurements quantitatively and to provide suggestions for improvement. In total, 151 laboratories in China were included in this investigation in 2014. Bias and coefficient of variation were collected from an external quality assessment and an internal quality control program, respectively, for POC glucose testing organized by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories. The σ values and the Quality Goal Index were used to evaluate the performance of POC glucose meters. There were 27, 30, 57, and 37 participants in the groups using Optium Xceed™ (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA), Accu-Chek(®) Performa (Roche, Basel, Switzerland), One Touch Ultra(®) (Abbott), and "other" meters, respectively. The median of the absolute value of percentage difference varied among different lots and different groups. Among all the groups, the Abbott One Touch Ultra group had the smallest median of absolute value of percentage difference except for lot 201411, whereas the "other" group had the largest median in all five lots. More than 85% of participate laboratories satisfied the total allowable error (TEa) requirement in International Organization for Standardization standard 15197:2013, and 85.43% (129/151) of laboratories obtained intralaboratory coefficient of variations less than 1/3TEa. However, Six Sigma techniques suggested that 41.72% (63/151) to 65.56% (99/151) of the laboratories needed to improve their POC glucose testing performance, in either precision, trueness, or both. Laboratories should pay more attention on the practice of POC glucose testing and take actions to improve their performance. Only in this way can POC glucose testing really function well in clinical practice.

  20. A simple and inexpensive point-of-care test for hepatitis B surface antigen detection: serological and molecular evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, R G; Gutierrez, J A; Navarro-Cazarez, N; Giang, K; Adler, D; Tran, B; Locarnini, S; Hammond, R; Bowden, S

    2014-12-01

    Early identification of chronic hepatitis B is important for optimal disease management and prevention of transmission. Cost and lack of access to commercial hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) immunoassays can compromise the effectiveness of HBV screening in resource-limited settings and among marginalized populations. High-quality point-of-care (POC) testing may improve HBV diagnosis in these situations. Currently available POC HBsAg assays are often limited in sensitivity. We evaluated the NanoSign(®) HBs POC chromatographic immunoassay for its ability to detect HBsAg of different genotypes and with substitutions in the 'a' determinant. Thirty-seven serum samples from patients with HBV infection, covering HBV genotypes A-G, were assessed for HBsAg titre with the Roche Elecsys HBsAg II quantification assay and with the POC assay. The POC assay reliably detected HBsAg at a concentration of at least 50 IU/mL for all genotypes, and at lower concentrations for some genotypes. Eight samples with substitutions in the HBV 'a' determinant were reliably detected after a 1/100 dilution. The POC strips were used to screen serum samples from 297 individuals at risk for HBV in local clinical settings (health fairs and outreach events) in parallel with commercial laboratory HBsAg testing (Quest Diagnostics EIA). POC testing was 73.7% sensitive and 97.8% specific for detection of HBsAg. Although the POC test demonstrated high sensitivity over a range of genotypes, false negatives were frequent in a clinical setting. Nevertheless, the POC assay offers advantages for testing in both developed and resource-limited countries due to its low cost (0.50$) and immediately available results. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Developing teaching kit on the use of micro-hydro generator in remote area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Made Megawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at: (1 identifying the criteria of teaching kit feasibility for the advantages of micro-hydro generator in remote area; and (2 identifying the effectiveness of teaching kit implementation on the use of micro-hydro generator in remote area in order to improve the students’ concept mastery on SMP Negeri 1 Rampi South Sulawesi. The study was a research and development that adapted the 4D model, which consisted of define, design, develop, and disseminate. The teaching kit that had been developed was a syllabus, lesson plans, student’s worksheet, and assessment instrument. For the data gathering, the researcher implemented the non-test technique, in the form of product validation sheet, student’s worksheet readability questionnaire sheet, teaching implementation sheet, and test technique, in the form of concept mastery test item sheet. The results of the study show that: (1 the teaching kit on the use of micro-hydro generator in remote area that has been developed falls into the “Very Good” category for syllabus, lesson plan, and student’s worksheet; and (2 the implementation of the teaching kit on the use of micro-hydro generator in remote area has been effective to improve the students’ concept mastery in SMP Negeri 1 Rampi South Sulawesi.

  2. Estimation of the strength of Nubian sandstone formation from point load test index and other simple parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein Abdul Karim M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the correlation of the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS and the point load test (PLT index Is(50, bulk density, water absorption and the RQD properties of the Sudanese Nubian sandstone formation. The UCS being is the rock property needed in engineering practice but its determination is tedious, time consuming and expensive. Alternatively, the UCS may be indirectly evaluated through establishing relationships with rock parameters which are easier, cheaper and more convenient to determine in the laboratory or in the field. An extensive laboratory testing was executed to determine the above rock properties for many NSF samples taken from Khartoum State and other areas. Statistical analysis was performed on the test data and a reliable linear regression equation has been developed with a UCS to PLT Is(50 conversion factor of 10.18 and may be applied to estimate the strength of the Sudanese sandstone formation. The developed correlation is in good agreement with few of the many methods published for similar rock types which indicates that large errors may result in from applying an inappropriate UCS prediction method. Thus, it is important to establish separate correlations or validate published correlations to check their suitability for a specific rock types and local geologies. Useful correlation relationships of reasonable accuracy were also established for rough estimation of the UCS from the bulk density, water absorption and the RQD properties of the Nubian sandstone formation.

  3. Syphilis screening among 27,150 pregnant women in South Chinese rural areas using point-of-care tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Gang Yang

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and correlates of syphilis among pregnant women in rural areas of South China.Point-of-care syphilis testing was provided at 71 health facilities in less developed, rural areas of Guangdong Province. Positive samples were confirmed at a local referral center by toluidine red unheated serum tests (TRUST and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA tests.Altogether 27,150 pregnant women in rural Guangdong were screened for syphilis. 106 (0.39% syphilis cases were diagnosed, of which 78 (73.6% received treatment for syphilis. Multivariate analysis revealed that older pregnant women (31-35 years old, aOR 2.7, 95% CI 0.99-7.32; older than 35 years old, aOR 5.9, 95% CI 2.13-16.34 and those with a history of adverse pregnant outcomes (aOR 3.64, 95% CI 2.30-5.76 were more likely to be infected with syphilis.A high prevalence of syphilis exists among pregnant women living in rural areas of South China. Enhanced integration of syphilis screening with other routine women's health services (OB GYN, family planning may be useful for controlling China's syphilis epidemic.

  4. The clinical situation of point-of-care testing and its future development at the emergency department in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Waiian; Chen, Lianxiang; Yu, Ping; Wei, Bohua; Wang, Cuicui; Ying, Yilin; Jiang, Jie; Tong, Jianjing; Zhu, Dingliang; Ye, Jing; Lu, Yiming

    2014-12-01

    We assessed the efficiency of point-of-care (POC) tests in the emergency department (ED) by comparing them with the international standard. We recorded the turnaround times (TATs) for processing laboratory biomarkers to assess laboratory efficiency from 17 EDs in national/regional hospitals. We also compared patient components between national and regional hospitals. Although the 17 enrolled hospitals expanded their EDs, they contained only five POC machines among them. The P50 (P25, P75) of the TATs for POC tests was 47 min (39, 55.5 min) for cardiac troponin T, which was much longer than the international standard (30 min). The TATs of other cardiac biomarkers were also longer than 30 min. The low efficiency of TATs for POC tests was a common feature in both regional and national hospitals (p > 0.05). Myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 61% of investigated ED patients who visited national hospitals, which is more frequently than those diagnosed at regional hospitals (46%, p administrative management of EDs. This issue should be addressed in the next version of the medical reform policy. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  5. Care Model Design for E-Health: Integration of Point-of-Care Testing at Dutch General Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Verhees

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Point-of-care testing (POCT—laboratory tests performed with new mobile devices and online technologies outside of the central laboratory—is rapidly outpacing the traditional laboratory test market, growing at a rate of 12 to 15% each year. POCT impacts the diagnostic process of care providers by yielding high efficiency benefits in terms of turnaround time and related quality improvements in the reduction of errors. However, the implementation of this disruptive eHealth technology requires the integration and transformation of diagnostic services across the boundaries of healthcare organizations. Research has revealed both advantages and barriers of POCT implementations, yet to date, there is no business model for the integration of POCT within general practice. The aim of this article is to contribute with a design for a care model that enables the integration of POCT in primary healthcare. In this research, we used a design modelling toolkit for data collection at five general practices. Through an iterative design process, we modelled the actors and value transactions, and designed an optimized care model for the dynamic integration of POCTs into the GP’s network of care delivery. The care model design will have a direct bearing on improving the integration of POCT through the connectivity and norm guidelines between the general practice, the POC technology, and the diagnostic centre.

  6. Care Model Design for E-Health: Integration of Point-of-Care Testing at Dutch General Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhees, Bart; van Kuijk, Kees; Simonse, Lianne

    2017-12-21

    Point-of-care testing (POCT)-laboratory tests performed with new mobile devices and online technologies outside of the central laboratory-is rapidly outpacing the traditional laboratory test market, growing at a rate of 12 to 15% each year. POCT impacts the diagnostic process of care providers by yielding high efficiency benefits in terms of turnaround time and related quality improvements in the reduction of errors. However, the implementation of this disruptive eHealth technology requires the integration and transformation of diagnostic services across the boundaries of healthcare organizations. Research has revealed both advantages and barriers of POCT implementations, yet to date, there is no business model for the integration of POCT within general practice. The aim of this article is to contribute with a design for a care model that enables the integration of POCT in primary healthcare. In this research, we used a design modelling toolkit for data collection at five general practices. Through an iterative design process, we modelled the actors and value transactions, and designed an optimized care model for the dynamic integration of POCTs into the GP's network of care delivery. The care model design will have a direct bearing on improving the integration of POCT through the connectivity and norm guidelines between the general practice, the POC technology, and the diagnostic centre.

  7. Identification of a common single nucleotide polymorphism at the primer binding site of D2S1360 that causes heterozygote peak imbalance when using the Investigator HDplex Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Shota; Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Nishimura, Kazuma; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Saito, Kazuyuki

    2017-11-01

    Phenomena known as null alleles and peak imbalance can occur because of mutations in the primer binding sites used for DNA typing. In these cases, an accurate statistical evaluation of DNA typing is difficult. The estimated likelihood ratio is incorrectly calculated because of the null allele and allele dropout caused by mutation-induced peak imbalance. Although a number of studies have attempted to uncover examples of these phenomena, few reports are available on the human identification kit manufactured by Qiagen. In this study, 196 Japanese individuals who were heterozygous at D2S1360 were genotyped using an Investigator HDplex Kit with optimal amounts of DNA. A peak imbalance was frequently observed at the D2S1360 locus. We performed a sequencing analysis of the area surrounding the D2S1360 repeat motif to identify the cause for peak imbalance. A point mutation (G>A transition) 136 nucleotides upstream from the D2S1360 repeat motif was discovered in a number of samples. The allele frequency of the mutation was 0.0566 in the Japanese population. Therefore, human identification or kinship testing using the Investigator HDplex Kit requires caution because of the higher frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the primer binding site of D2S1360 locus in the Japanese population.

  8. The application of quality risk management to the bacterial endotoxins test: use of hazard analysis and critical control points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annalaura, Carducci; Giulia, Davini; Stefano, Ceccanti

    2013-01-01

    Risk analysis is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to manage production processes, validation activities, training, and other activities. Several methods of risk analysis are available (for example, failure mode and effects analysis, fault tree analysis), and one or more should be chosen and adapted to the specific field where they will be applied. Among the methods available, hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a methodology that has been applied since the 1960s, and whose areas of application have expanded over time from food to the pharmaceutical industry. It can be easily and successfully applied to several processes because its main feature is the identification, assessment, and control of hazards. It can be also integrated with other tools, such as fishbone diagram and flowcharting. The aim of this article is to show how HACCP can be used to manage an analytical process, propose how to conduct the necessary steps, and provide data templates necessary to document and useful to follow current good manufacturing practices. In the quality control process, risk analysis is a useful tool for enhancing the uniformity of technical choices and their documented rationale. Accordingly, it allows for more effective and economical laboratory management, is capable of increasing the reliability of analytical results, and enables auditors and authorities to better understand choices that have been made. The aim of this article is to show how hazard analysis and critical control points can be used to manage bacterial endotoxins tes