WorldWideScience

Sample records for point pattern analysis

  1. Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Healthcare Facilities in Nanjing: Network Point Pattern Analysis and Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Ni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of urban service facilities is largely constrained by the road network. In this study, network point pattern analysis and correlation analysis were used to analyze the relationship between road network and healthcare facility distribution. The weighted network kernel density estimation method proposed in this study identifies significant differences between the outside and inside areas of the Ming city wall. The results of network K-function analysis show that private hospitals are more evenly distributed than public hospitals, and pharmacy stores tend to cluster around hospitals along the road network. After computing the correlation analysis between different categorized hospitals and street centrality, we find that the distribution of these hospitals correlates highly with the street centralities, and that the correlations are higher with private and small hospitals than with public and large hospitals. The comprehensive analysis results could help examine the reasonability of existing urban healthcare facility distribution and optimize the location of new healthcare facilities.

  2. Analysis of multi-species point patterns using multivariate log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Guan, Yongtao; Jalilian, Abdollah

    Multivariate log Gaussian Cox processes are flexible models for multivariate point patterns. However, they have so far only been applied in bivariate cases. In this paper we move beyond the bivariate case in order to model multi-species point patterns of tree locations. In particular we address t...... of the data. The selected number of common latent fields provides an index of complexity of the multivariate covariance structure. Hierarchical clustering is used to identify groups of species with similar patterns of dependence on the common latent fields.......Multivariate log Gaussian Cox processes are flexible models for multivariate point patterns. However, they have so far only been applied in bivariate cases. In this paper we move beyond the bivariate case in order to model multi-species point patterns of tree locations. In particular we address...... the problems of identifying parsimonious models and of extracting biologically relevant information from the fitted models. The latent multivariate Gaussian field is decomposed into components given in terms of random fields common to all species and components which are species specific. This allows...

  3. Mapping the order and pattern of brain structural MRI changes using change-point analysis in premanifest Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Faria, Andreia V; Younes, Laurent; Mori, Susumu; Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Hans; Paulsen, Jane S; Ross, Christopher A; Miller, Michael I

    2017-10-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that progressively affects motor, cognitive, and emotional functions. Structural MRI studies have demonstrated brain atrophy beginning many years prior to clinical onset ("premanifest" period), but the order and pattern of brain structural changes have not been fully characterized. In this study, we investigated brain regional volumes and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements in premanifest HD, and we aim to determine (1) the extent of MRI changes in a large number of structures across the brain by atlas-based analysis, and (2) the initiation points of structural MRI changes in these brain regions. We adopted a novel multivariate linear regression model to detect the inflection points at which the MRI changes begin (namely, "change-points"), with respect to the CAG-age product (CAP, an indicator of extent of exposure to the effects of CAG repeat expansion). We used approximately 300 T1-weighted and DTI data from premanifest HD and control subjects in the PREDICT-HD study, with atlas-based whole brain segmentation and change-point analysis. The results indicated a distinct topology of structural MRI changes: the change-points of the volumetric measurements suggested a central-to-peripheral pattern of atrophy from the striatum to the deep white matter; and the change points of DTI measurements indicated the earliest changes in mean diffusivity in the deep white matter and posterior white matter. While interpretation needs to be cautious given the cross-sectional nature of the data, these findings suggest a spatial and temporal pattern of spread of structural changes within the HD brain. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5035-5050, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Spatial distribution patterns of plague hosts : point pattern analysis of the burrows of great gerbils in Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, Liesbeth I; Laudisoit, Anne; Hughes, Nelika K; Addink, Elisabeth A; de Jong, Steven M; Heesterbeek, Hans A P; Reijniers, Jonas; Eagle, Sally; Dubyanskiy, Vladimir M; Begon, Mike

    AIM: The spatial structure of a population can strongly influence the dynamics of infectious diseases, yet rarely is the underlying structure quantified. A case in point is plague, an infectious zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague dynamics within the Central Asian desert

  5. Three-dimensional distribution of cortical synapses: a replicated point pattern-based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton-Sanchez, Laura; Bielza, Concha; Merchán-Pérez, Angel; Rodríguez, José-Rodrigo; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The biggest problem when analyzing the brain is that its synaptic connections are extremely complex. Generally, the billions of neurons making up the brain exchange information through two types of highly specialized structures: chemical synapses (the vast majority) and so-called gap junctions (a substrate of one class of electrical synapse). Here we are interested in exploring the three-dimensional spatial distribution of chemical synapses in the cerebral cortex. Recent research has showed that the three-dimensional spatial distribution of synapses in layer III of the neocortex can be modeled by a random sequential adsorption (RSA) point process, i.e., synapses are distributed in space almost randomly, with the only constraint that they cannot overlap. In this study we hypothesize that RSA processes can also explain the distribution of synapses in all cortical layers. We also investigate whether there are differences in both the synaptic density and spatial distribution of synapses between layers. Using combined focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), we obtained three-dimensional samples from the six layers of the rat somatosensory cortex and identified and reconstructed the synaptic junctions. A total volume of tissue of approximately 4500μm3 and around 4000 synapses from three different animals were analyzed. Different samples, layers and/or animals were aggregated and compared using RSA replicated spatial point processes. The results showed no significant differences in the synaptic distribution across the different rats used in the study. We found that RSA processes described the spatial distribution of synapses in all samples of each layer. We also found that the synaptic distribution in layers II to VI conforms to a common underlying RSA process with different densities per layer. Interestingly, the results showed that synapses in layer I had a slightly different spatial distribution from the other layers. PMID:25206325

  6. Spatial point pattern analysis of human settlements and geographical associations in eastern coastal China - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghao; Xiao, Rui; Shortridge, Ashton; Wu, Jiaping

    2014-03-10

    Understanding the spatial point pattern of human settlements and their geographical associations are important for understanding the drivers of land use and land cover change and the relationship between environmental and ecological processes on one hand and cultures and lifestyles on the other. In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach, Ripley's K function and Monte Carlo simulation were used to investigate human settlement point patterns. Remotely sensed tools and regression models were employed to identify the effects of geographical determinants on settlement locations in the Wen-Tai region of eastern coastal China. Results indicated that human settlements displayed regular-random-cluster patterns from small to big scale. Most settlements located on the coastal plain presented either regular or random patterns, while those in hilly areas exhibited a clustered pattern. Moreover, clustered settlements were preferentially located at higher elevations with steeper slopes and south facing aspects than random or regular settlements. Regression showed that influences of topographic factors (elevation, slope and aspect) on settlement locations were stronger across hilly regions. This study demonstrated a new approach to analyzing the spatial patterns of human settlements from a wide geographical prospective. We argue that the spatial point patterns of settlements, in addition to the characteristics of human settlements, such as area, density and shape, should be taken into consideration in the future, and land planners and decision makers should pay more attention to city planning and management. Conceptual and methodological bridges linking settlement patterns to regional and site-specific geographical characteristics will be a key to human settlement studies and planning.

  7. Spatial Point Pattern Analysis of Human Settlements and Geographical Associations in Eastern Coastal China — A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghao; Xiao, Rui; Shortridge, Ashton; Wu, Jiaping

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the spatial point pattern of human settlements and their geographical associations are important for understanding the drivers of land use and land cover change and the relationship between environmental and ecological processes on one hand and cultures and lifestyles on the other. In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach, Ripley’s K function and Monte Carlo simulation were used to investigate human settlement point patterns. Remotely sensed tools and regression models were employed to identify the effects of geographical determinants on settlement locations in the Wen-Tai region of eastern coastal China. Results indicated that human settlements displayed regular-random-cluster patterns from small to big scale. Most settlements located on the coastal plain presented either regular or random patterns, while those in hilly areas exhibited a clustered pattern. Moreover, clustered settlements were preferentially located at higher elevations with steeper slopes and south facing aspects than random or regular settlements. Regression showed that influences of topographic factors (elevation, slope and aspect) on settlement locations were stronger across hilly regions. This study demonstrated a new approach to analyzing the spatial patterns of human settlements from a wide geographical prospective. We argue that the spatial point patterns of settlements, in addition to the characteristics of human settlements, such as area, density and shape, should be taken into consideration in the future, and land planners and decision makers should pay more attention to city planning and management. Conceptual and methodological bridges linking settlement patterns to regional and site-specific geographical characteristics will be a key to human settlement studies and planning. PMID:24619117

  8. Spatial Point Pattern Analysis of Human Settlements and Geographical Associations in Eastern Coastal China — A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial point pattern of human settlements and their geographical associations are important for understanding the drivers of land use and land cover change and the relationship between environmental and ecological processes on one hand and cultures and lifestyles on the other. In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS approach, Ripley’s K function and Monte Carlo simulation were used to investigate human settlement point patterns. Remotely sensed tools and regression models were employed to identify the effects of geographical determinants on settlement locations in the Wen-Tai region of eastern coastal China. Results indicated that human settlements displayed regular-random-cluster patterns from small to big scale. Most settlements located on the coastal plain presented either regular or random patterns, while those in hilly areas exhibited a clustered pattern. Moreover, clustered settlements were preferentially located at higher elevations with steeper slopes and south facing aspects than random or regular settlements. Regression showed that influences of topographic factors (elevation, slope and aspect on settlement locations were stronger across hilly regions. This study demonstrated a new approach to analyzing the spatial patterns of human settlements from a wide geographical prospective. We argue that the spatial point patterns of settlements, in addition to the characteristics of human settlements, such as area, density and shape, should be taken into consideration in the future, and land planners and decision makers should pay more attention to city planning and management. Conceptual and methodological bridges linking settlement patterns to regional and site-specific geographical characteristics will be a key to human settlement studies and planning.

  9. Modelling point patterns with linear structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2009-01-01

    processes whose realizations contain such linear structures. Such a point process is constructed sequentially by placing one point at a time. The points are placed in such a way that new points are often placed close to previously placed points, and the points form roughly line shaped structures. We...... consider simulations of this model and compare with real data....

  10. Modelling point patterns with linear structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    processes whose realizations contain such linear structures. Such a point process is constructed sequentially by placing one point at a time. The points are placed in such a way that new points are often placed close to previously placed points, and the points form roughly line shaped structures. We...... consider simulations of this model and compare with real data....

  11. [Spatial point pattern analysis of main trees and flowering Fargesia qinlingensis in Abies fargesii forests in Mt Taibai of the Qinling Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo Chun; Song, Hua Dong; Li, Qi; Bu, Shu Hai

    2017-11-01

    In Abies fargesii forests of the giant panda's habitats in Mt. Taibai, the spatial distribution patterns and interspecific associations of main tree species and their spatial associations with the understory flowering Fargesia qinlingensis were analyzed at multiple scales by univariate and bivaria-te O-ring function in point pattern analysis. The results showed that in the A. fargesii forest, the number of A. fargesii was largest but its population structure was in decline. The population of Betula platyphylla was relatively young, with a stable population structure, while the population of B. albo-sinensis declined. The three populations showed aggregated distributions at small scales and gradually showed random distributions with increasing spatial scales. Spatial associations among tree species were mainly showed at small scales and gradually became not spatially associated with increasing scale. A. fargesii and B. platyphylla were positively associated with flowering F. qinlingensis at large and medium scales, whereas B. albo-sinensis showed negatively associated with flowering F. qinlingensis at large and medium scales. The interaction between trees and F. qinlingensis in the habitats of giant panda promoted the dynamic succession and development of forests, which changed the environment of giant panda's habitats in Qinling.

  12. Statistics for Locally Scaled Point Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokesová, Michaela; Hahn, Ute; Vedel Jensen, Eva B.

    2006-01-01

    scale factor. The main emphasis of the present paper is on analysis of such models. Statistical methods are developed for estimation of scaling function and template parameters as well as for model validation. The proposed methods are assessed by simulation and used in the analysis of a vegetation...

  13. Change point analysis and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop an analytical framework for studying processes such as continuous innovation and business development in high-tech SME clusters that transcends the traditional qualitative-quantitative divide. It integrates four existing and well-recognized approaches...... to studying events, processes and change, mamely change-point analysis, event-history analysis, critical-incident technique and sequence analysis....

  14. Parametric statistical change point analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jie

    2000-01-01

    This work is an in-depth study of the change point problem from a general point of view and a further examination of change point analysis of the most commonly used statistical models Change point problems are encountered in such disciplines as economics, finance, medicine, psychology, signal processing, and geology, to mention only several The exposition is clear and systematic, with a great deal of introductory material included Different models are presented in each chapter, including gamma and exponential models, rarely examined thus far in the literature Other models covered in detail are the multivariate normal, univariate normal, regression, and discrete models Extensive examples throughout the text emphasize key concepts and different methodologies are used, namely the likelihood ratio criterion, and the Bayesian and information criterion approaches A comprehensive bibliography and two indices complete the study

  15. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and propose diagnostic plots based on these residuals. The techniques apply to any Gibbs point process model, which may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on spatial covariates. Ou...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....

  16. On tests of randomness for spatial point patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doguwa, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    New tests of randomness for spatial point patterns are introduced. These test statistics are then compared in a power study with the existing alternatives. These results of the power study suggest that one of the tests proposed is extremely powerful against both aggregated and regular alternatives. (author). 9 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Optimal Point-to-Point Trajectory Tracking of Redundant Manipulators using Generalized Pattern Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Rein Myo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimal point-to-point trajectory planning for planar redundant manipulator is considered in this study. The main objective is to minimize the sum of the position error of the end-effector at each intermediate point along the trajectory so that the end-effector can track the prescribed trajectory accurately. An algorithm combining Genetic Algorithm and Pattern Search as a Generalized Pattern Search GPS is introduced to design the optimal trajectory. To verify the proposed algorithm, simulations for a 3-D-O-F planar manipulator with different end-effector trajectories have been carried out. A comparison between the Genetic Algorithm and the Generalized Pattern Search shows that The GPS gives excellent tracking performance.

  18. Network based approaches reveal clustering in protein point patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joshua; Barr, Valarie; Aldridge, Joshua; Samelson, Lawrence E.; Losert, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in super-resolution imaging have allowed for the sub-diffraction measurement of the spatial location of proteins on the surfaces of T-cells. The challenge is to connect these complex point patterns to the internal processes and interactions, both protein-protein and protein-membrane. We begin analyzing these patterns by forming a geometric network amongst the proteins and looking at network measures, such the degree distribution. This allows us to compare experimentally observed patterns to models. Specifically, we find that the experimental patterns differ from heterogeneous Poisson processes, highlighting an internal clustering structure. Further work will be to compare our results to simulated protein-protein interactions to determine clustering mechanisms.

  19. Point Cluster Analysis Using a 3D Voronoi Diagram with Applications in Point Cloud Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Ying

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D point analysis and visualization is one of the most effective methods of point cluster detection and segmentation in geospatial datasets. However, serious scattering and clotting characteristics interfere with the visual detection of 3D point clusters. To overcome this problem, this study proposes the use of 3D Voronoi diagrams to analyze and visualize 3D points instead of the original data item. The proposed algorithm computes the cluster of 3D points by applying a set of 3D Voronoi cells to describe and quantify 3D points. The decompositions of point cloud of 3D models are guided by the 3D Voronoi cell parameters. The parameter values are mapped from the Voronoi cells to 3D points to show the spatial pattern and relationships; thus, a 3D point cluster pattern can be highlighted and easily recognized. To capture different cluster patterns, continuous progressive clusters and segmentations are tested. The 3D spatial relationship is shown to facilitate cluster detection. Furthermore, the generated segmentations of real 3D data cases are exploited to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach in detecting different spatial clusters for continuous point cloud segmentation.

  20. Analysis of irregularly distributed points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    1996-01-01

    conditional modes are applied to this problem. The Kalman filter is described as a powerfull tool for modelling two-dimensional data. Motivated by the development of the reduced update Kalman filter we propose a reduced update Kalman smoother which offers considerable computa- tional savings. Kriging...... on hybridisation analysis, which comprise matching a grid to an arrayed set of DNA- clones spotted onto a hybridisation filter. The line process has proven to perform a satisfactorly modelling of shifted fields (subgrids) in the hybridisation grid, and a two-staged hierarchical grid matching scheme which...

  1. Music analysis and point-set compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    2015-01-01

    COSIATEC, SIATECCompress and Forth’s algorithm are point-set compression algorithms developed for discovering repeated patterns in music, such as themes and motives that would be of interest to a music analyst. To investigate their effectiveness and versatility, these algorithms were evaluated...... on three analytical tasks that depend on the discovery of repeated patterns: classifying folk song melodies into tune families, discovering themes and sections in polyphonic music, and discovering subject and countersubject entries in fugues. Each algorithm computes a compressed encoding of a point......-set representation of a musical object in the form of a list of compact patterns, each pattern being given with a set of vectors indicating its occurrences. However, the algorithms adopt different strategies in their attempts to discover encodings that maximize compression.The best-performing algorithm on the folk...

  2. Exploring Human Activity Patterns Using Taxicab Static Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jiang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the patterns of human activities within a geographical space by adopting the taxicab static points which refer to the locations with zero speed along the tracking trajectory. We report the findings from both aggregated and individual aspects. Results from the aggregated level indicate the following: (1 Human activities exhibit an obvious regularity in time, for example, there is a burst of activity during weekend nights and a lull during the week. (2 They show a remarkable spatial drifting pattern, which strengthens our understanding of the activities in any given place. (3 Activities are heterogeneous in space irrespective of their drifting with time. These aggregated results not only help in city planning, but also facilitate traffic control and management. On the other hand, investigations on an individual level suggest that (4 activities witnessed by one taxicab will have different temporal regularity to another, and (5 each regularity implies a high level of prediction with low entropy by applying the Lempel-Ziv algorithm.

  3. Computer aided fringe pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    The paper reviews the basic laws of fringe pattern interpretation. The different techniques that are currently utilized are presented using a common frame of reference stressing the fact that these techniques are different variations of the same basic principle. Digital and analog techniques are discussed. Currently available hardware is presented and the relationships between hardware and the operations of pattern fringe processing are pointed out. Examples are given to illustrate the ideas discussed in the paper.

  4. PATTER, Pattern Recognition Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, L.C. Jr.; Bender, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PATTER is an interactive program with extensive facilities for modeling analytical processes and solving complex data analysis problems using statistical methods, spectral analysis, and pattern recognition techniques. PATTER addresses the type of problem generally stated as follows: given a set of objects and a list of measurements made on these objects, is it possible to find or predict a property of the objects which is not directly measurable but is known to define some unknown relationship? When employed intelligently, PATTER will act upon a data set in such a way it becomes apparent if useful information, beyond that already discerned, is contained in the data. 2 - Method of solution: In order to solve the general problem, PATTER contains preprocessing techniques to produce new variables that are related to the values of the measurements which may reduce the number of variables and/or reveal useful information about the 'obscure' property; display techniques to represent the variable space in some way that can be easily projected onto a two- or three-dimensional plot for human observation to see if any significant clustering of points occurs; and learning techniques based on both unsupervised and supervised methods, to extract as much information from the data as possible so that the optimum solution can be found

  5. Point Information Gain and Multidimensional Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rychtáriková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the point information gain (PIG and derived quantities, i.e., point information gain entropy (PIE and point information gain entropy density (PIED, for the case of the Rényi entropy and simulate the behavior of PIG for typical distributions. We also use these methods for the analysis of multidimensional datasets. We demonstrate the main properties of PIE/PIED spectra for the real data with the examples of several images and discuss further possible utilizations in other fields of data processing.

  6. Spatial analysis of weed patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijting, S.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Spatial analysis, weed patterns, Mead’s test, space-time correlograms, 2-D correlograms, dispersal, Generalized Linear Models, heterogeneity, soil, Taylor’s power law. Weeds in agriculture occur in patches. This thesis is a contribution to the characterization of this patchiness, to its

  7. Interior point algorithms theory and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Yinyu

    2011-01-01

    The first comprehensive review of the theory and practice of one of today's most powerful optimization techniques. The explosive growth of research into and development of interior point algorithms over the past two decades has significantly improved the complexity of linear programming and yielded some of today's most sophisticated computing techniques. This book offers a comprehensive and thorough treatment of the theory, analysis, and implementation of this powerful computational tool. Interior Point Algorithms provides detailed coverage of all basic and advanced aspects of the subject.

  8. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb) recordings, change-point analysis (CPA), home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS), the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Results Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Conclusions Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores. PMID:23237274

  9. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustonen Anne-Mari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb recordings, change-point analysis (CPA, home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS, the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Results Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Conclusions Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores.

  10. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Lempiäinen, Terttu; Aspelund, Mikko; Hellstedt, Paavo; Ikonen, Katri; Itämies, Juhani; Vähä, Ville; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Asikainen, Juha; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Niemelä, Pekka; Aho, Jari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2012-12-13

    A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb) recordings, change-point analysis (CPA), home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS), the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores.

  11. Linear and quadratic models of point process systems: contributions of patterned input to output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, K A; Rosenberg, J R

    2012-08-01

    In the 1880's Volterra characterised a nonlinear system using a functional series connecting continuous input and continuous output. Norbert Wiener, in the 1940's, circumvented problems associated with the application of Volterra series to physical problems by deriving from it a new series of terms that are mutually uncorrelated with respect to Gaussian processes. Subsequently, Brillinger, in the 1970's, introduced a point-process analogue of Volterra's series connecting point-process inputs to the instantaneous rate of point-process output. We derive here a new series from this analogue in which its terms are mutually uncorrelated with respect to Poisson processes. This new series expresses how patterned input in a spike train, represented by third-order cross-cumulants, is converted into the instantaneous rate of an output point-process. Given experimental records of suitable duration, the contribution of arbitrary patterned input to an output process can, in principle, be determined. Solutions for linear and quadratic point-process models with one and two inputs and a single output are investigated. Our theoretical results are applied to isolated muscle spindle data in which the spike trains from the primary and secondary endings from the same muscle spindle are recorded in response to stimulation of one and then two static fusimotor axons in the absence and presence of a random length change imposed on the parent muscle. For a fixed mean rate of input spikes, the analysis of the experimental data makes explicit which patterns of two input spikes contribute to an output spike. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tipping point analysis of ocean acoustic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livina, Valerie N.; Brouwer, Albert; Harris, Peter; Wang, Lian; Sotirakopoulos, Kostas; Robinson, Stephen

    2018-02-01

    We apply tipping point analysis to a large record of ocean acoustic data to identify the main components of the acoustic dynamical system and study possible bifurcations and transitions of the system. The analysis is based on a statistical physics framework with stochastic modelling, where we represent the observed data as a composition of deterministic and stochastic components estimated from the data using time-series techniques. We analyse long-term and seasonal trends, system states and acoustic fluctuations to reconstruct a one-dimensional stochastic equation to approximate the acoustic dynamical system. We apply potential analysis to acoustic fluctuations and detect several changes in the system states in the past 14 years. These are most likely caused by climatic phenomena. We analyse trends in sound pressure level within different frequency bands and hypothesize a possible anthropogenic impact on the acoustic environment. The tipping point analysis framework provides insight into the structure of the acoustic data and helps identify its dynamic phenomena, correctly reproducing the probability distribution and scaling properties (power-law correlations) of the time series.

  13. Tipping point analysis of ocean acoustic noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Livina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We apply tipping point analysis to a large record of ocean acoustic data to identify the main components of the acoustic dynamical system and study possible bifurcations and transitions of the system. The analysis is based on a statistical physics framework with stochastic modelling, where we represent the observed data as a composition of deterministic and stochastic components estimated from the data using time-series techniques. We analyse long-term and seasonal trends, system states and acoustic fluctuations to reconstruct a one-dimensional stochastic equation to approximate the acoustic dynamical system. We apply potential analysis to acoustic fluctuations and detect several changes in the system states in the past 14 years. These are most likely caused by climatic phenomena. We analyse trends in sound pressure level within different frequency bands and hypothesize a possible anthropogenic impact on the acoustic environment. The tipping point analysis framework provides insight into the structure of the acoustic data and helps identify its dynamic phenomena, correctly reproducing the probability distribution and scaling properties (power-law correlations of the time series.

  14. Colocalization coefficients evaluating the distribution of molecular targets in microscopy methods based on pointed patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pastorek, Lukáš; Sobol, Margaryta; Hozák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 4 (2016), s. 391-406 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA ČR GA15-08738S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Grant - others:Human Frontier Science Program(FR) RGP0017/2013 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Colocalization * Quantitative analysis * Pointed patterns * Transmission electron microscopy * Manders' coefficients * Immunohistochemistry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.553, year: 2016

  15. Maximal translational equivalence classes of musical patterns in point-set representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Tom; Meredith, David

    2013-01-01

    Representing musical notes as points in pitch-time space causes repeated motives and themes to appear as translationally related patterns that often correspond to maximal translatable patterns (MTPs). However, an MTP is also often the union of a salient pattern with one or two temporally isolated...

  16. Music analysis and point-set compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    A musical analysis represents a particular way of understanding certain aspects of the structure of a piece of music. The quality of an analysis can be evaluated to some extent by the degree to which knowledge of it improves performance on tasks such as mistake spotting, memorising a piece...... as the minimum description length principle and relates closely to certain ideas in the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. Inspired by this general principle, the hypothesis explored in this paper is that the best ways of understanding (or explanations for) a piece of music are those that are represented...... by the shortest possible descriptions of the piece. With this in mind, two compression algorithms are presented, COSIATEC and SIATECCompress. Each of these algorithms takes as input an in extenso description of a piece of music as a set of points in pitch-time space representing notes. Each algorithm...

  17. Numerical analysis on pump turbine runaway points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, L; Liu, J T; Wang, L Q; Jiao, L; Li, Z F

    2012-01-01

    To research the character of pump turbine runaway points with different guide vane opening, a hydraulic model was established based on a pumped storage power station. The RNG k-ε model and SMPLEC algorithms was used to simulate the internal flow fields. The result of the simulation was compared with the test data and good correspondence was got between experimental data and CFD result. Based on this model, internal flow analysis was carried out. The result show that when the pump turbine ran at the runway speed, lots of vortexes appeared in the flow passage of the runner. These vortexes could always be observed even if the guide vane opening changes. That is an important way of energy loss in the runaway condition. Pressure on two sides of the runner blades were almost the same. So the runner power is very low. High speed induced large centrifugal force and the small guide vane opening gave the water velocity a large tangential component, then an obvious water ring could be observed between the runner blades and guide vanes in small guide vane opening condition. That ring disappeared when the opening bigger than 20°. These conclusions can provide a theory basis for the analysis and simulation of the pump turbine runaway points.

  18. A Studentized Permutation Test for the Comparison of Spatial Point Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Ute

    of empirical K-functions are compared by a permutation test using a studentized test statistic. The proposed test performs convincingly in terms of empirical level and power in a simulation study, even for point patterns where the K-function estimates on neighboring subsamples are not strictly exchangeable....... It also shows improved behavior compared to a test suggested by Diggle et al. (1991, 2000) for the comparison of groups of independently replicated point patterns. In an application to two point patterns from pathology that represent capillary positions in sections of healthy and tumorous tissue, our...

  19. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kusdiantara, Rudy, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Puspita, Dila, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A., E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y. [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  20. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab

  1. Bayesian analysis of Markov point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Kasper Klitgaard; Møller, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Recently Møller, Pettitt, Berthelsen and Reeves introduced a new MCMC methodology for drawing samples from a posterior distribution when the likelihood function is only specified up to a normalising constant. We illustrate the method in the setting of Bayesian inference for Markov point processes...... a partially ordered Markov point process as the auxiliary variable. As the method requires simulation from the "unknown" likelihood, perfect simulation algorithms for spatial point processes become useful....

  2. Movement Pattern Analysis Based on Sequence Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Chavoshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased affordability and deployment of advanced tracking technologies have led researchers from various domains to analyze the resulting spatio-temporal movement data sets for the purpose of knowledge discovery. Two different approaches can be considered in the analysis of moving objects: quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis. This research focuses on the latter and uses the qualitative trajectory calculus (QTC, a type of calculus that represents qualitative data on moving point objects (MPOs, and establishes a framework to analyze the relative movement of multiple MPOs. A visualization technique called sequence signature (SESI is used, which enables to map QTC patterns in a 2D indexed rasterized space in order to evaluate the similarity of relative movement patterns of multiple MPOs. The applicability of the proposed methodology is illustrated by means of two practical examples of interacting MPOs: cars on a highway and body parts of a samba dancer. The results show that the proposed method can be effectively used to analyze interactions of multiple MPOs in different domains.

  3. Impedance analysis of acupuncture points and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teplan, Michal; Kukucka, Marek; Ondrejkovicová, Alena

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of impedance characteristics of acupuncture points from acoustic to radio frequency range is addressed. Discernment and localization of acupuncture points in initial single subject study was unsuccessfully attempted by impedance map technique. Vector impedance analyses determined possible resonant zones in MHz region.

  4. Dynamics and Physiological Roles of Stochastic Firing Patterns Near Bifurcation Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing; Gu, Huaguang

    2017-06-01

    Different stochastic neural firing patterns or rhythms that appeared near polarization or depolarization resting states were observed in biological experiments on three nervous systems, and closely matched those simulated near bifurcation points between stable equilibrium point and limit cycle in a theoretical model with noise. The distinct dynamics of spike trains and interspike interval histogram (ISIH) of these stochastic rhythms were identified and found to build a relationship to the coexisting behaviors or fixed firing frequency of four different types of bifurcations. Furthermore, noise evokes coherence resonances near bifurcation points and plays important roles in enhancing information. The stochastic rhythms corresponding to Hopf bifurcation points with fixed firing frequency exhibited stronger coherence degree and a sharper peak in the power spectrum of the spike trains than those corresponding to saddle-node bifurcation points without fixed firing frequency. Moreover, the stochastic firing patterns changed to a depolarization resting state as the extracellular potassium concentration increased for the injured nerve fiber related to pathological pain or static blood pressure level increased for aortic depressor nerve fiber, and firing frequency decreased, which were different from the physiological viewpoint that firing frequency increased with increasing pressure level or potassium concentration. This shows that rhythms or firing patterns can reflect pressure or ion concentration information related to pathological pain information. Our results present the dynamics of stochastic firing patterns near bifurcation points, which are helpful for the identification of both dynamics and physiological roles of complex neural firing patterns or rhythms, and the roles of noise.

  5. Fingerprint Analysis with Marked Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Peter G. M.; Lauritzen, Steffen; Møller, Jesper

    We present a framework for fingerprint matching based on marked point process models. An efficient Monte Carlo algorithm is developed to calculate the marginal likelihood ratio for the hypothesis that two observed prints originate from the same finger against the hypothesis that they originate from...... different fingers. Our model achieves good performance on an NIST-FBI fingerprint database of 258 matched fingerprint pairs....

  6. Growth Curve Analysis and Change-Points Detection in Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2016-05-15

    The thesis consists of two coherent projects. The first project presents the results of evaluating salinity tolerance in barley using growth curve analysis where different growth trajectories are observed within barley families. The study of salinity tolerance in plants is crucial to understanding plant growth and productivity. Because fully-automated smarthouses with conveyor systems allow non-destructive and high-throughput phenotyping of large number of plants, it is now possible to apply advanced statistical tools to analyze daily measurements and to study salinity tolerance. To compare different growth patterns of barley variates, we use functional data analysis techniques to analyze the daily projected shoot areas. In particular, we apply the curve registration method to align all the curves from the same barley family in order to summarize the family-wise features. We also illustrate how to use statistical modeling to account for spatial variation in microclimate in smarthouses and for temporal variation across runs, which is crucial for identifying traits of the barley variates. In our analysis, we show that the concentrations of sodium and potassium in leaves are negatively correlated, and their interactions are associated with the degree of salinity tolerance. The second project studies change-points detection methods in extremes when multiple time series data are available. Motived by the scientific question of whether the chances to experience extreme weather are different in different seasons of a year, we develop a change-points detection model to study changes in extremes or in the tail of a distribution. Most of existing models identify seasons from multiple yearly time series assuming a season or a change-point location remains exactly the same across years. In this work, we propose a random effect model that allows the change-point to vary from year to year, following a given distribution. Both parametric and nonparametric methods are developed

  7. General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace. Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented. These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern, and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other.

  8. Fixed point theory, variational analysis, and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Mezel, Saleh Abdullah R; Ansari, Qamrul Hasan

    2015-01-01

    ""There is a real need for this book. It is useful for people who work in areas of nonlinear analysis, optimization theory, variational inequalities, and mathematical economics.""-Nan-Jing Huang, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China

  9. Rotation and scale change invariant point pattern relaxation matching by the Hopfield neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Nong; Zhang, Tianxu

    1997-12-01

    Relaxation matching is one of the most relevant methods for image matching. The original relaxation matching technique using point patterns is sensitive to rotations and scale changes. We improve the original point pattern relaxation matching technique to be invariant to rotations and scale changes. A method that makes the Hopfield neural network perform this matching process is discussed. An advantage of this is that the relaxation matching process can be performed in real time with the neural network's massively parallel capability to process information. Experimental results with large simulated images demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the method to perform point patten relaxation matching invariant to rotations and scale changes and the method to perform this matching by the Hopfield neural network. In addition, we show that the method presented can be tolerant to small random error.

  10. Pattern Analysis On Banking Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritpal Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Everyday refinement and development of technology has led to an increase in the competition between the Tech companies and their going out of way to crack the system andbreak down. Thus providing Data mining a strategically and security-wise important area for many business organizations including banking sector. It allows the analyzes of important information in the data warehouse and assists the banks to look for obscure patterns in a group and discover unknown relationship in the data.Banking systems needs to process ample amount of data on daily basis related to customer information their credit card details limit and collateral details transaction details risk profiles Anti Money Laundering related information trade finance data. Thousands of decisionsbased on the related data are taken in a bank daily. This paper analyzes the banking dataset in the weka environment for the detection of interesting patterns based on its applications ofcustomer acquisition customer retention management and marketing and management of risk fraudulence detections.

  11. Abnormal motor patterns in the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis: a cause for dystonic movements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, M L; Gutman, S R

    1994-01-01

    Until now, the equilibrium-point hypothesis (lambda model) of motor control has assumed nonintersecting force-length characteristics of the tonic stretch reflex for individual muscles. Limited data from animal experiments suggest, however, that such intersections may occur. We have assumed the possibility of intersection of the characteristics of the tonic stretch reflex and performed a computer simulation of movement trajectories and electromyographic patterns. The simulation has demonstrated, in particular, that a transient change in the slope of the characteristic of an agonist muscle may lead to temporary movement reversals, hesitations, oscillations, and multiple electromyographic bursts that are typical of movements of patients with dystonia. The movement patterns of three patients with idiopathic dystonia during attempts at fast single-joint movements (in the elbow, wrist, and ankle) were recorded and compared with the results of the computer simulation. This approach considers that motor disorders in dystonia result from faulty control patterns that may not correlate with any morphological or neurophysiological changes. It provides a basis for the high variability of dystonic movements. The uniqueness of abnormal motor patterns in dystonia, that precludes statistical analysis across patients, may result from subtle differences in the patterns of intersecting characteristics of the tonic stretch reflex. The applicability of our analysis to disordered multijoint movement patterns is discussed.

  12. Information resources and the correlation of response patterns between biological end points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malling, H.V. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wassom, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper focuses on the analysis of information for mutagenesis, a biological end point that is important in the overall process of assessing possible adverse health effects from chemical exposure. 17 refs.

  13. Passive Forensics for Region Duplication Image Forgery Based on Harris Feature Points and Local Binary Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the demand for identifying the authenticity of an image is much increased since advanced image editing software packages are widely used. Region duplication forgery is one of the most common and immediate tampering attacks which are frequently used. Several methods to expose this forgery have been developed to detect and locate the tampered region, while most methods do fail when the duplicated region undergoes rotation or flipping before being pasted. In this paper, an efficient method based on Harris feature points and local binary patterns is proposed. First, the image is filtered with a pixelwise adaptive Wiener method, and then dense Harris feature points are employed in order to obtain a sufficient number of feature points with approximately uniform distribution. Feature vectors for a circle patch around each feature point are extracted using local binary pattern operators, and the similar Harris points are matched based on their representation feature vectors using the BBF algorithm. Finally, RANSAC algorithm is employed to eliminate the possible erroneous matches. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively detect region duplication forgery, even when an image was distorted by rotation, flipping, blurring, AWGN, JPEG compression, and their mixed operations, especially resistant to the forgery with the flat area of little visual structures.

  14. Spiking Neurons for Analysis of Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2008-01-01

    Artificial neural networks comprising spiking neurons of a novel type have been conceived as improved pattern-analysis and pattern-recognition computational systems. These neurons are represented by a mathematical model denoted the state-variable model (SVM), which among other things, exploits a computational parallelism inherent in spiking-neuron geometry. Networks of SVM neurons offer advantages of speed and computational efficiency, relative to traditional artificial neural networks. The SVM also overcomes some of the limitations of prior spiking-neuron models. There are numerous potential pattern-recognition, tracking, and data-reduction (data preprocessing) applications for these SVM neural networks on Earth and in exploration of remote planets. Spiking neurons imitate biological neurons more closely than do the neurons of traditional artificial neural networks. A spiking neuron includes a central cell body (soma) surrounded by a tree-like interconnection network (dendrites). Spiking neurons are so named because they generate trains of output pulses (spikes) in response to inputs received from sensors or from other neurons. They gain their speed advantage over traditional neural networks by using the timing of individual spikes for computation, whereas traditional artificial neurons use averages of activity levels over time. Moreover, spiking neurons use the delays inherent in dendritic processing in order to efficiently encode the information content of incoming signals. Because traditional artificial neurons fail to capture this encoding, they have less processing capability, and so it is necessary to use more gates when implementing traditional artificial neurons in electronic circuitry. Such higher-order functions as dynamic tasking are effected by use of pools (collections) of spiking neurons interconnected by spike-transmitting fibers. The SVM includes adaptive thresholds and submodels of transport of ions (in imitation of such transport in biological

  15. Seeking a fingerprint: analysis of point processes in actigraphy recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Ochab, Jeremi K.; Oleś, Katarzyna; Beldzik, Ewa; Chialvo, Dante R.; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Fąfrowicz, Magdalena; Marek, Tadeusz; Nowak, Maciej A.; Ogińska, Halszka; Szwed, Jerzy; Tyburczyk, Jacek

    2016-05-01

    Motor activity of humans displays complex temporal fluctuations which can be characterised by scale-invariant statistics, thus demonstrating that structure and fluctuations of such kinetics remain similar over a broad range of time scales. Previous studies on humans regularly deprived of sleep or suffering from sleep disorders predicted a change in the invariant scale parameters with respect to those for healthy subjects. In this study we investigate the signal patterns from actigraphy recordings by means of characteristic measures of fractional point processes. We analyse spontaneous locomotor activity of healthy individuals recorded during a week of regular sleep and a week of chronic partial sleep deprivation. Behavioural symptoms of lack of sleep can be evaluated by analysing statistics of duration times during active and resting states, and alteration of behavioural organisation can be assessed by analysis of power laws detected in the event count distribution, distribution of waiting times between consecutive movements and detrended fluctuation analysis of recorded time series. We claim that among different measures characterising complexity of the actigraphy recordings and their variations implied by chronic sleep distress, the exponents characterising slopes of survival functions in resting states are the most effective biomarkers distinguishing between healthy and sleep-deprived groups.

  16. Evidence of Territoriality and Species Interactions from Spatial Point-Pattern Analyses of Subarctic-Nesting Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthew E.; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying spatial patterns of bird nests and nest fate provides insights into processes influencing a species’ distribution. At Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, recent declines in breeding Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) has coincided with increasing populations of nesting lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross’s geese (Chen rossii). We conducted a spatial analysis of point patterns using Canada goose nest locations and nest fate, and lesser snow goose nest locations at two study areas in northern Manitoba with different densities and temporal durations of sympatric nesting Canada and lesser snow geese. Specifically, we assessed (1) whether Canada geese exhibited territoriality and at what scale and nest density; and (2) whether spatial patterns of Canada goose nest fate were associated with the density of nesting lesser snow geese as predicted by the protective-association hypothesis. Between 2001 and 2007, our data suggest that Canada geese were territorial at the scale of nearest neighbors, but were aggregated when considering overall density of conspecifics at slightly broader spatial scales. The spatial distribution of nest fates indicated that lesser snow goose nest proximity and density likely influence Canada goose nest fate. Our analyses of spatial point patterns suggested that continued changes in the distribution and abundance of breeding lesser snow geese on the Hudson Bay Lowlands may have impacts on the reproductive performance of Canada geese, and subsequently the spatial distribution of Canada goose nests. PMID:24312520

  17. Improving the Pattern Reproducibility of Multiple-Point-Based Prior Models Using Frequency Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordua, Knud Skou; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Some multiple-point-based sampling algorithms, such as the snesim algorithm, rely on sequential simulation. The conditional probability distributions that are used for the simulation are based on statistics of multiple-point data events obtained from a training image. During the simulation, data...... events with zero probability in the training image statistics may occur. This is handled by pruning the set of conditioning data until an event with non-zero probability is found. The resulting probability distribution sampled by such algorithms is a pruned mixture model. The pruning strategy leads...... to a probability distribution that lacks some of the information provided by the multiple-point statistics from the training image, which reduces the reproducibility of the training image patterns in the outcome realizations. When pruned mixture models are used as prior models for inverse problems, local re...

  18. Identifying clinical course patterns in SMS data using cluster analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Kongsted, Alice

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recently, there has been interest in using the short message service (SMS or text messaging), to gather frequent information on the clinical course of individual patients. One possible role for identifying clinical course patterns is to assist in exploring clinically important...... showed that clinical course patterns can be identified by cluster analysis using all SMS time points as cluster variables. This method is simple, intuitive and does not require a high level of statistical skill. However, there are alternative ways of managing SMS data and many different methods...

  19. Temporal fringe pattern analysis with parallel computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuck Wah Ng; Kar Tien Ang; Argentini, Gianluca

    2005-01-01

    Temporal fringe pattern analysis is invaluable in transient phenomena studies but necessitates long processing times. Here we describe a parallel computing strategy based on the single-program multiple-data model and hyperthreading processor technology to reduce the execution time. In a two-node cluster workstation configuration we found that execution periods were reduced by 1.6 times when four virtual processors were used. To allow even lower execution times with an increasing number of processors, the time allocated for data transfer, data read, and waiting should be minimized. Parallel computing is found here to present a feasible approach to reduce execution times in temporal fringe pattern analysis

  20. Analysis of Stress Updates in the Material-point Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Andersen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The material-point method (MPM) is a new numerical method for analysis of large strain engineering problems. The MPM applies a dual formulation, where the state of the problem (mass, stress, strain, velocity etc.) is tracked using a finite set of material points while the governing equations...... are solved on a background computational grid. Several references state, that one of the main advantages of the material-point method is the easy application of complicated material behaviour as the constitutive response is updated individually for each material point. However, as discussed here, the MPM way...

  1. Neural avalanches at the critical point between replay and non-replay of spatiotemporal patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Scarpetta

    Full Text Available We model spontaneous cortical activity with a network of coupled spiking units, in which multiple spatio-temporal patterns are stored as dynamical attractors. We introduce an order parameter, which measures the overlap (similarity between the activity of the network and the stored patterns. We find that, depending on the excitability of the network, different working regimes are possible. For high excitability, the dynamical attractors are stable, and a collective activity that replays one of the stored patterns emerges spontaneously, while for low excitability, no replay is induced. Between these two regimes, there is a critical region in which the dynamical attractors are unstable, and intermittent short replays are induced by noise. At the critical spiking threshold, the order parameter goes from zero to one, and its fluctuations are maximized, as expected for a phase transition (and as observed in recent experimental results in the brain. Notably, in this critical region, the avalanche size and duration distributions follow power laws. Critical exponents are consistent with a scaling relationship observed recently in neural avalanches measurements. In conclusion, our simple model suggests that avalanche power laws in cortical spontaneous activity may be the effect of a network at the critical point between the replay and non-replay of spatio-temporal patterns.

  2. Investigating Spatial Patterns of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry Point Targets and Landslide Occurrences in the Arno River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI has been widely used for landslide studies in recent years. This paper investigated the spatial patterns of PSI point targets and landslide occurrences in the Arno River basin in Central Italy. The main purpose is to analyze whether spatial patterns of Persistent Scatterers (PS can be recognized as indicators of landslide occurrences throughout the whole basin. The bivariate K-function was employed to assess spatial relationships between PS and landslides. The PSI point targets were acquired from almost 4 years (from March 2003 to January 2007 of RADARSAT-1 images. The landslide inventory was collected from 15 years (from 1992–2007 of surveying and mapping data, mainly including remote sensing data, topographic maps and field investigations. The proposed approach is able to assess spatial patterns between a variety of PS and landslides, in particular, to understand if PSI point targets are spatially clustered (spatial attraction or randomly distributed (spatial independency on various types of landslides across the basin. Additionally, the degree and scale distances of PS clustering on a variety of landslides can be characterized. The results rejected the null hypothesis that PSI point targets appear to cluster similarly on four types of landslides (slides, flows, falls and creeps in the Arno River basin. Significant influence of PS velocities and acquisition orbits can be noticed on detecting landslides with different states of activities. Despite that the assessment may be influenced by the quality of landslide inventory and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images, the proposed approach is expected to provide guidelines for studies trying to detect and investigate landslide occurrences at a regional scale through spatial statistical analysis of PS, for which an advanced understanding of the impact of scale distances on landslide clustering is fundamentally needed.

  3. Spatiotemporal patterns of non-point source nitrogen loss in an agricultural catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-feng Xu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-point source nitrogen loss poses a risk to sustainable aquatic ecosystems. However, non-point sources, as well as impaired river segments with high nitrogen concentrations, are difficult to monitor and regulate because of their diffusive nature, budget constraints, and resource deficiencies. For the purpose of catchment management, the Bayesian maximum entropy approach and spatial regression models have been used to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of non-point source nitrogen loss. In this study, a total of 18 sampling sites were selected along the river network in the Hujiashan Catchment. Over the time period of 2008–2012, water samples were collected 116 times at each site and analyzed for non-point source nitrogen loss. The morphometric variables and soil drainage of different land cover types were studied and considered potential factors affecting nitrogen loss. The results revealed that, compared with the approach using the Euclidean distance, the Bayesian maximum entropy approach using the river distance led to an appreciable 10.1% reduction in the estimation error, and more than 53.3% and 44.7% of the river network in the dry and wet seasons, respectively, had a probability of non-point source nitrogen impairment. The proportion of the impaired river segments exhibited an overall decreasing trend in the study catchment from 2008 to 2012, and the reduction in the wet seasons was greater than that in the dry seasons. High nitrogen concentrations were primarily found in the downstream reaches and river segments close to the residential lands. Croplands and residential lands were the dominant factors affecting non-point source nitrogen loss, and explained up to 70.7% of total nitrogen in the dry seasons and 54.7% in the wet seasons. A thorough understanding of the location of impaired river segments and the dominant factors affecting total nitrogen concentration would have considerable importance for catchment management.

  4. Geometric anisotropic spatial point pattern analysis and Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Toftaker, Håkon

    . In particular we study Cox process models with an elliptical pair correlation function, including shot noise Cox processes and log Gaussian Cox processes, and we develop estimation procedures using summary statistics and Bayesian methods. Our methodology is illustrated on real and synthetic datasets of spatial...

  5. Quantitative texture analysis of electrodeposited line patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Free-standing line patterns of Cu and Ni were manufactured by electrochemical deposition into lithographically prepared patterns. Electrodeposition was carried out on top of a highly oriented Au-layer physically vapor deposited on glass. Quantitative texture analysis carried out by means of x......-ray diffraction for both the substrate layer and the electrodeposits yielded experimental evidence for epitaxy between Cu and Au. An orientation relation between film and substrate was discussed with respect to various concepts of epitaxy. While the conventional mode of epitaxy fails for the Cu...

  6. RECOG-ORNL, Pattern Recognition Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, C.L.; Larson, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    Description of program or function: RECOG-ORNL, a general-purpose pattern recognition code, is a modification of the RECOG program, written at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. RECOG-ORNL contains techniques for preprocessing, analyzing, and displaying data, and for unsupervised and supervised learning. Data preprocessing routines transform the data into useful representations by auto-calling, selecting important variables, and/or adding products or transformations of the variables of the data set. Data analysis routines use correlations to evaluate the data and interrelationships among the data. Display routines plot the multidimensional patterns in two dimensions or plot histograms, patterns, or one variable versus another. Unsupervised learning techniques search for classes contained inherently in the data. Supervised learning techniques use known information about some of the data to generate predicted properties for an unknown set

  7. Properties Analysis on Travel Intensity of Land Use Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantization of the relationship between travel intensity and land use patterns is still a critical problem in urban transportation planning. Achieved researches on land use patterns are restricted to macrodata such as population and area, which failed to provide detail travel information for transportation planners. There is still problem on how to reflect the relationship between transport and land use accurately. This paper presents a study that is reflective of such an effort. A data extraction method is developed to get the travel origin and destination (OD between traffic zones based on the mobile data of 100,000 residents in Beijing. Then Point of Interests (POIs data in typical traffic zones was analyzed combined with construction area investigation. Based on the analysis of travel OD and POI data, the average travel intensity of each land use pattern is quantified. Research results could provide a quantitative basis for the optimization of urban transportation planning.

  8. Pattern recognition in menstrual bleeding diaries by statistical cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Jens

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to empirically identify a treatment-independent statistical method to describe clinically relevant bleeding patterns by using bleeding diaries of clinical studies on various sex hormone containing drugs. Methods We used the four cluster analysis methods single, average and complete linkage as well as the method of Ward for the pattern recognition in menstrual bleeding diaries. The optimal number of clusters was determined using the semi-partial R2, the cubic cluster criterion, the pseudo-F- and the pseudo-t2-statistic. Finally, the interpretability of the results from a gynecological point of view was assessed. Results The method of Ward yielded distinct clusters of the bleeding diaries. The other methods successively chained the observations into one cluster. The optimal number of distinctive bleeding patterns was six. We found two desirable and four undesirable bleeding patterns. Cyclic and non cyclic bleeding patterns were well separated. Conclusion Using this cluster analysis with the method of Ward medications and devices having an impact on bleeding can be easily compared and categorized.

  9. Point-Mass Model for Nano-Patterning Using Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Won Kang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Micro-cantilevers are frequently used as scanning probes and sensors in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS. Usually micro-cantilever based sensors operate by detecting changes in cantilever vibration modes (e.g., bending or torsional vibration frequency or surface stresses - when a target analyte is adsorbed on the surface. The catalyst for chemical reactions (i.e., for a specific analyte can be deposited on micro-cantilevers by using Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN technique. In this study, we simulate the vibration mode in nano-patterning processes by using a Point-Mass Model (or Lumped Parameter Model. The results from the simulations are used to derive the stability of writing and reading mode for a particular driving frequency during the DPN process. In addition, we analyze the sensitivity of the tip-sample interaction forces in fluid (ink solution by utilizing the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT contact theory.

  10. Infrared interference patterns for new capabilities in laser end point detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heason, D J; Spencer, A G

    2003-01-01

    Standard laser interferometry is used in dry etch fabrication of semiconductor and MEMS devices to measure etch depth, rate and to detect the process end point. However, many wafer materials, such as silicon are absorbing at probing wavelengths in the visible, severely limiting the amount of information that can be obtained using this technique. At infrared (IR) wavelengths around 1500 nm and above, silicon is highly transparent. In this paper we describe an instrument that can be used to monitor etch depth throughout a thru-wafer etch. The provision of this information could eliminate the requirement of an 'etch stop' layer and improve the performance of fabricated devices. We have added a further new capability by using tuneable lasers to scan through wavelengths in the near IR to generate an interference pattern. Fitting a theoretical curve to this interference pattern gives in situ measurement of film thickness. Whereas conventional interferometry would only allow etch depth to be monitored in real time, we can use a pre-etch thickness measurement to terminate the etch on a remaining thickness of film material. This paper discusses the capabilities of, and the opportunities offered by, this new technique and gives examples of applications in MEMS and waveguides

  11. Stability Analysis of Periodic Systems by Truncated Point Mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttalu, R. S.; Flashner, H.

    1996-01-01

    An approach is presented deriving analytical stability and bifurcation conditions for systems with periodically varying coefficients. The method is based on a point mapping(period to period mapping) representation of the system's dynamics. An algorithm is employed to obtain an analytical expression for the point mapping and its dependence on the system's parameters. The algorithm is devised to derive the coefficients of a multinominal expansion of the point mapping up to an arbitrary order in terms of the state variables and of the parameters. Analytical stability and bifurcation condition are then formulated and expressed as functional relations between the parameters. To demonstrate the application of the method, the parametric stability of Mathieu's equation and of a two-degree of freedom system are investigated. The results obtained by the proposed approach are compared to those obtained by perturbation analysis and by direct integration which we considered to the "exact solution". It is shown that, unlike perturbation analysis, the proposed method provides very accurate solution even for large valuesof the parameters. If an expansion of the point mapping in terms of a small parameter is performed the method is equivalent to perturbation analysis. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the method can be easily applied to multiple-degree-of-freedom systems using the same framework. This feature is an important advantage since most of the existing analysis methods apply mainly to single-degree-of-freedom systems and their extension to higher dimensions is difficult and computationally cumbersome.

  12. Point of Care Testing Services Delivery: Policy Analysis using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Biomedical Sciences ... The service providers (hospital management) and the testing personnel are faced with the task of trying to explain these problems. Objective of the study: To critically do a policy analysis of the problems of point of care testing with the aim of identifying the causes of these problems and ...

  13. Voxel-Based Neighborhood for Spatial Shape Pattern Classification of Lidar Point Clouds with Supervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Plaza-Leiva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving the effectiveness of spatial shape features classification from 3D lidar data is very relevant because it is largely used as a fundamental step towards higher level scene understanding challenges of autonomous vehicles and terrestrial robots. In this sense, computing neighborhood for points in dense scans becomes a costly process for both training and classification. This paper proposes a new general framework for implementing and comparing different supervised learning classifiers with a simple voxel-based neighborhood computation where points in each non-overlapping voxel in a regular grid are assigned to the same class by considering features within a support region defined by the voxel itself. The contribution provides offline training and online classification procedures as well as five alternative feature vector definitions based on principal component analysis for scatter, tubular and planar shapes. Moreover, the feasibility of this approach is evaluated by implementing a neural network (NN method previously proposed by the authors as well as three other supervised learning classifiers found in scene processing methods: support vector machines (SVM, Gaussian processes (GP, and Gaussian mixture models (GMM. A comparative performance analysis is presented using real point clouds from both natural and urban environments and two different 3D rangefinders (a tilting Hokuyo UTM-30LX and a Riegl. Classification performance metrics and processing time measurements confirm the benefits of the NN classifier and the feasibility of voxel-based neighborhood.

  14. Voxel-Based Neighborhood for Spatial Shape Pattern Classification of Lidar Point Clouds with Supervised Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Leiva, Victoria; Gomez-Ruiz, Jose Antonio; Mandow, Anthony; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2017-03-15

    Improving the effectiveness of spatial shape features classification from 3D lidar data is very relevant because it is largely used as a fundamental step towards higher level scene understanding challenges of autonomous vehicles and terrestrial robots. In this sense, computing neighborhood for points in dense scans becomes a costly process for both training and classification. This paper proposes a new general framework for implementing and comparing different supervised learning classifiers with a simple voxel-based neighborhood computation where points in each non-overlapping voxel in a regular grid are assigned to the same class by considering features within a support region defined by the voxel itself. The contribution provides offline training and online classification procedures as well as five alternative feature vector definitions based on principal component analysis for scatter, tubular and planar shapes. Moreover, the feasibility of this approach is evaluated by implementing a neural network (NN) method previously proposed by the authors as well as three other supervised learning classifiers found in scene processing methods: support vector machines (SVM), Gaussian processes (GP), and Gaussian mixture models (GMM). A comparative performance analysis is presented using real point clouds from both natural and urban environments and two different 3D rangefinders (a tilting Hokuyo UTM-30LX and a Riegl). Classification performance metrics and processing time measurements confirm the benefits of the NN classifier and the feasibility of voxel-based neighborhood.

  15. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern. The cu...

  16. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernandez-de-las-Penas, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern....... The current study investigated whether the overall spontaneous FM pain pattern can be reproduced by local and referred pain from active MTPs located in different muscles....

  17. Laban Movement Analysis towards Behavior Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luís; Dias, Jorge

    This work presents a study about the use of Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) as a robust tool to describe human basic behavior patterns, to be applied in human-machine interaction. LMA is a language used to describe and annotate dancing movements and is divided in components [1]: Body, Space, Shape and Effort. Despite its general framework is widely used in physical and mental therapy [2], it has found little application in the engineering domain. Rett J. [3] proposed to implement LMA using Bayesian Networks. However LMA component models have not yet been fully implemented. A study on how to approach behavior using LMA is presented. Behavior is a complex feature and movement chain, but we believe that most basic behavior primitives can be discretized in simple features. Correctly identifying Laban parameters and the movements the authors feel that good patterns can be found within a specific set of basic behavior semantics.

  18. Scattering analysis of point processes and random measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanisch, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    In the present paper scattering analysis of point processes and random measures is studied. Known formulae which connect the scattering intensity with the pair distribution function of the studied structures are proved in a rigorous manner with tools of the theory of point processes and random measures. For some special fibre processes the scattering intensity is computed. For a class of random measures, namely for 'grain-germ-models', a new formula is proved which yields the pair distribution function of the 'grain-germ-model' in terms of the pair distribution function of the underlying point process (the 'germs') and of the mean structure factor and the mean squared structure factor of the particles (the 'grains'). (author)

  19. Visualized study on specific points on demand curves and flow patterns in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junfeng; Huang Yanping; Wang Yanlin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Specific points on the demand curve and flow patterns are visually studied. → Bubbly, churn, and annular flows were observed. → Onset of flow instability and bubbly-churn transition occurs at the same time. → The evolution of specific points and flow pattern transitions were examined. - Abstract: A simultaneous visualization and measurement study on some specific points on demand curves, such as onset of nucleate boiling (ONB), onset of significant void (OSV), onset of flow instability (OFI), and two-phase flow patterns in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel, having a width of 40 mm and a gap of 3 mm, was carried out. New experimental approaches were adopted to identify OSV and OFI in a narrow rectangular channel. Under experimental conditions, the ONB could be predicted well by the Sato and Matsumura model. The OSV model of Bowring can reasonably predict the OSV if the single-side heated condition is considered. The OFI was close to the saturated boiling point and could be described accurately by Kennedy's correlation. The two-phase flow patterns observed in this experiment could be classified into bubbly, churn, and annular flow. Slug flow was never observed. The OFI always occurred when the bubbles at the channel exit began to coalesce, which corresponded to the beginning of the bubbly-churn transition in flow patterns. Finally, the evolution of specific points and flow pattern transitions were examined in a single-side heated narrow rectangular channel.

  20. Similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Pelillo, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    This accessible text/reference presents a coherent overview of the emerging field of non-Euclidean similarity learning. The book presents a broad range of perspectives on similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition methods, from purely theoretical challenges to practical, real-world applications. The coverage includes both supervised and unsupervised learning paradigms, as well as generative and discriminative models. Topics and features: explores the origination and causes of non-Euclidean (dis)similarity measures, and how they influence the performance of traditional classification alg

  1. Process for structural geologic analysis of topography and point data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Jay R.; Eliason, Valerie L. C.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative method of geologic structural analysis of digital terrain data is described for implementation on a computer. Assuming selected valley segments are controlled by the underlying geologic structure, topographic lows in the terrain data, defining valley bottoms, are detected, filtered and accumulated into a series line segments defining contiguous valleys. The line segments are then vectorized to produce vector segments, defining valley segments, which may be indicative of the underlying geologic structure. Coplanar analysis is performed on vector segment pairs to determine which vectors produce planes which represent underlying geologic structure. Point data such as fracture phenomena which can be related to fracture planes in 3-dimensional space can be analyzed to define common plane orientation and locations. The vectors, points, and planes are displayed in various formats for interpretation.

  2. Advanced morphological analysis of patterns of thin anodic porous alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toccafondi, C. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Nanophysics, Via Morego 30, Genova I 16163 (Italy); Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Nanostructures, Via Morego 30, Genova I 16163 (Italy); Stępniowski, W.J. [Department of Advanced Materials and Technologies, Faculty of Advanced Technologies and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Leoncini, M. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Nanostructures, Via Morego 30, Genova I 16163 (Italy); Salerno, M., E-mail: marco.salerno@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Department of Nanophysics, Via Morego 30, Genova I 16163 (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Different conditions of fabrication of thin anodic porous alumina on glass substrates have been explored, obtaining two sets of samples with varying pore density and porosity, respectively. The patterns of pores have been imaged by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by innovative methods. The regularity ratio has been extracted from radial profiles of the fast Fourier transforms of the images. Additionally, the Minkowski measures have been calculated. It was first observed that the regularity ratio averaged across all directions is properly corrected by the coefficient previously determined in the literature. Furthermore, the angularly averaged regularity ratio for the thin porous alumina made during short single-step anodizations is lower than that of hexagonal patterns of pores as for thick porous alumina from aluminum electropolishing and two-step anodization. Therefore, the regularity ratio represents a reliable measure of pattern order. At the same time, the lower angular spread of the regularity ratio shows that disordered porous alumina is more isotropic. Within each set, when changing either pore density or porosity, both regularity and isotropy remain rather constant, showing consistent fabrication quality of the experimental patterns. Minor deviations are tentatively discussed with the aid of the Minkowski measures, and the slight decrease in both regularity and isotropy for the final data-points of the porosity set is ascribed to excess pore opening and consequent pore merging. - Highlights: • Thin porous alumina is partly self-ordered and pattern analysis is required. • Regularity ratio is often misused: we fix the averaging and consider its spread. • We also apply the mathematical tool of Minkowski measures, new in this field. • Regularity ratio shows pattern isotropy and Minkowski helps in assessment. • General agreement with perfect artificial patterns confirms the good manufacturing.

  3. Recurrence analysis of ant activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Marcel Neves

    Full Text Available In this study, we used recurrence quantification analysis (RQA and recurrence plots (RPs to compare the movement activity of individual workers of three ant species, as well as a gregarious beetle species. RQA and RPs quantify the number and duration of recurrences of a dynamical system, including a detailed quantification of signals that could be stochastic, deterministic, or both. First, we found substantial differences between the activity dynamics of beetles and ants, with the results suggesting that the beetles have quasi-periodic dynamics and the ants do not. Second, workers from different ant species varied with respect to their dynamics, presenting degrees of predictability as well as stochastic signals. Finally, differences were found among minor and major caste of the same (dimorphic ant species. Our results underscore the potential of RQA and RPs in the analysis of complex behavioral patterns, as well as in general inferences on animal behavior and other biological phenomena.

  4. Spectrography analysis of stainless steel by the point to point technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bona, A.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the determination of the elements Ni, Cr, Mn, Si, Mo, Nb, Cu, Co and V in stainless steel by emission spectrographic analysis using high voltage spark sources is presented. The 'point-to-point' technique is employed. The experimental parameters were optimized taking account a compromise between the detection sensitivity and the precision of the measurement. The parameters investigated were the high voltage capacitance, the inductance, the analytical and auxiliary gaps, the period of pre burn spark and the time of exposure. The edge shape of the counter electrodes and the type of polishing and diameter variation of the stailess steel eletrodes were evaluated in preliminary assays. In addition the degradation of the chemical power of the developer was also investigated. Counter electrodes of graphite, copper, aluminium and iron were employed and the counter electrode itself was used as an internal standard. In the case of graphite counter electrodes the iron lines were employed as internal standard. The relative errors were the criteria for evaluation of these experiments. The National Bureau of Standards - Certified reference stainless steel standards and the Eletrometal Acos Finos S.A. samples (certified by the supplier) were employed for drawing in the calibration systems and analytical curves. The best results were obtained using the convencional graphite counter electrodes. The inaccuracy and the imprecision of the proposed method varied from 2% to 15% and from 1% to 9% respectively. This present technique was compared to others instrumental techniques such as inductively coupled plasma, X-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis. The advantages and disadvantages for each case were discussed. (author) [pt

  5. Insights into mortality patterns and causes of death through a process point of view model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James J; Li, Ting; Sharrow, David J

    2017-02-01

    Process point of view (POV) models of mortality, such as the Strehler-Mildvan and stochastic vitality models, represent death in terms of the loss of survival capacity through challenges and dissipation. Drawing on hallmarks of aging, we link these concepts to candidate biological mechanisms through a framework that defines death as challenges to vitality where distal factors defined the age-evolution of vitality and proximal factors define the probability distribution of challenges. To illustrate the process POV, we hypothesize that the immune system is a mortality nexus, characterized by two vitality streams: increasing vitality representing immune system development and immunosenescence representing vitality dissipation. Proximal challenges define three mortality partitions: juvenile and adult extrinsic mortalities and intrinsic adult mortality. Model parameters, generated from Swedish mortality data (1751-2010), exhibit biologically meaningful correspondences to economic, health and cause-of-death patterns. The model characterizes the twentieth century epidemiological transition mainly as a reduction in extrinsic mortality resulting from a shift from high magnitude disease challenges on individuals at all vitality levels to low magnitude stress challenges on low vitality individuals. Of secondary importance, intrinsic mortality was described by a gradual reduction in the rate of loss of vitality presumably resulting from reduction in the rate of immunosenescence. Extensions and limitations of a distal/proximal framework for characterizing more explicit causes of death, e.g. the young adult mortality hump or cancer in old age are discussed.

  6. Gene expression pattern at different time points following ALA-PDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verwanger, T.; Sanovic, R.; Ruhdorfer, S.; Aberger, F.; Frischauf, A.; Krammer, B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The photo sensitizer protoporphyrin IX, endogenously accumulated from the precursor aminolevulinic acid (ALA), is a successful agent in photodynamic tumor therapy. In spite of encouraging clinical results, the basic mechanisms leading to cell death are not fully understood. We therefore set out to analyze the alteration of the gene expression pattern in the squamous cell carcinoma cell line A-431 at different time points after photodynamic treatment with endogenous protoporphyrin IX by cDNA-array technique. Cells were incubated for 16 hours with 100 μg/ml ALA and irradiated with a fluence of 3.5 J/cm 2 resulting in 50 % survival until 8 hours post treatment. RNA was isolated at 1.5, 3, 5 and 8 hours post treatment as well as of 3 controls (untreated, light only and dark), radioactively labelled by reverse transcription with 33P-dCTP and hybridized onto macroarray PCR filters containing PCR products of 2135 genes, which were selected for relevance in tumors, stress response and signal transduction. Verification of observed expression changes was carried out by real time PCR. We found a strong induction of expression of immediate early genes like c-fos as well as decreased expression of genes involved in proliferation like myc and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). (author)

  7. Screw compressor analysis from a vibration point-of-view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübel, D.; Žitek, P.

    2017-09-01

    Vibrations are a very typical feature of all compressors and are given great attention in the industry. The reason for this interest is primarily the negative influence that it can have on both the operating staff and the entire machine's service life. The purpose of this work is to describe the methodology of screw compressor analysis from a vibration point-of-view. This analysis is an essential part of the design of vibro-diagnostics of screw compressors with regard to their service life.

  8. Crime Pattern Analysis: A Spatial Frequent Pattern Mining Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    econometrics. A companion to theoretical econometrics, pages 310-330, 1988. [5] L. Anselin, J. Cohen, D. Cook, W. Gorr, and G. Tita . Spatial analyses...52] G. Mohler, M. Short, P. Brantingham, F. Schoenberg, and G. Tita . Self-exciting point process modeling of crime. Journal of the American...Systems, 9:462, 2010. [69] M. Short, P. Brantingham, A. Bertozzi, and G. Tita . Dissipation and displacement of hotspots in reaction-diffusion models

  9. Truncation in diffraction pattern analysis. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delhez, R.; Keijser, T.H. de; Mittemeijer, E.J.; Langford, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation of the concept of a line profile is provoked by truncation of the range of intensity measurement in practice. The measured truncated line profile can be considered either as part of the total intensity distribution which peaks at or near the reciprocal-lattice points (approach 1), or as part of a component line profile which is confined to a single reciprocal-lattice point (approach 2). Some false conceptions in line-profile analysis can then be avoided and recipes can be developed for the extrapolation of the tails of the truncated line profile. Fourier analysis of line profiles, according to the first approach, implies a Fourier series development of the total intensity distribution defined within [l - 1/2, l + 1/2] (l indicates the node considered in reciprocal space); the second approach implies a Fourier transformation of the component line profile defined within [ - ∞, + ∞]. Exact descriptions of size broadening are provided by both approaches, whereas combined size and strain broadening can only be evaluated adequately within the first approach. Straightforward methods are given for obtaining truncation-corrected values for the average crystallite size. (orig.)

  10. Integrated modeling and analysis methodology for precision pointing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Homero L.

    2002-07-01

    Space-based optical systems that perform tasks such as laser communications, Earth imaging, and astronomical observations require precise line-of-sight (LOS) pointing. A general approach is described for integrated modeling and analysis of these types of systems within the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The approach can be applied during all stages of program development, from early conceptual design studies to hardware implementation phases. The main objective is to predict the dynamic pointing performance subject to anticipated disturbances and noise sources. Secondary objectives include assessing the control stability, levying subsystem requirements, supporting pointing error budgets, and performing trade studies. The integrated model resides in Simulink, and several MATLAB graphical user interfaces (GUI"s) allow the user to configure the model, select analysis options, run analyses, and process the results. A convenient parameter naming and storage scheme, as well as model conditioning and reduction tools and run-time enhancements, are incorporated into the framework. This enables the proposed architecture to accommodate models of realistic complexity.

  11. Point Cloud Analysis for Conservation and Enhancement of Modernist Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzani, M.; Maietti, F.; Mugayar Kühl, B.

    2017-02-01

    Documentation of cultural assets through improved acquisition processes for advanced 3D modelling is one of the main challenges to be faced in order to address, through digital representation, advanced analysis on shape, appearance and conservation condition of cultural heritage. 3D modelling can originate new avenues in the way tangible cultural heritage is studied, visualized, curated, displayed and monitored, improving key features such as analysis and visualization of material degradation and state of conservation. An applied research focused on the analysis of surface specifications and material properties by means of 3D laser scanner survey has been developed within the project of Digital Preservation of FAUUSP building, Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. The integrated 3D survey has been performed by the DIAPReM Center of the Department of Architecture of the University of Ferrara in cooperation with the FAUUSP. The 3D survey has allowed the realization of a point cloud model of the external surfaces, as the basis to investigate in detail the formal characteristics, geometric textures and surface features. The digital geometric model was also the basis for processing the intensity values acquired by laser scanning instrument; this method of analysis was an essential integration to the macroscopic investigations in order to manage additional information related to surface characteristics displayable on the point cloud.

  12. Bayesian change-point analysis reveals developmental change in a classic theory of mind task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sara T; Leslie, Alan M; Gallistel, C R; Hood, Bruce M

    2016-12-01

    Although learning and development reflect changes situated in an individual brain, most discussions of behavioral change are based on the evidence of group averages. Our reliance on group-averaged data creates a dilemma. On the one hand, we need to use traditional inferential statistics. On the other hand, group averages are highly ambiguous when we need to understand change in the individual; the average pattern of change may characterize all, some, or none of the individuals in the group. Here we present a new method for statistically characterizing developmental change in each individual child we study. Using false-belief tasks, fifty-two children in two cohorts were repeatedly tested for varying lengths of time between 3 and 5 years of age. Using a novel Bayesian change point analysis, we determined both the presence and-just as importantly-the absence of change in individual longitudinal cumulative records. Whenever the analysis supports a change conclusion, it identifies in that child's record the most likely point at which change occurred. Results show striking variability in patterns of change and stability across individual children. We then group the individuals by their various patterns of change or no change. The resulting patterns provide scarce support for sudden changes in competence and shed new light on the concepts of "passing" and "failing" in developmental studies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gradient pattern analysis applied to galaxy morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, R. R.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Sautter, R. A.; Barchi, P. H.; Stalder, D. H.; Moura, T. C.; Rembold, S. B.; Morell, D. R. F.; Ferreira, N. C.

    2018-06-01

    Gradient pattern analysis (GPA) is a well-established technique for measuring gradient bilateral asymmetries of a square numerical lattice. This paper introduces an improved version of GPA designed for galaxy morphometry. We show the performance of the new method on a selected sample of 54 896 objects from the SDSS-DR7 in common with Galaxy Zoo 1 catalogue. The results suggest that the second gradient moment, G2, has the potential to dramatically improve over more conventional morphometric parameters. It separates early- from late-type galaxies better (˜ 90 per cent) than the CAS system (C˜ 79 per cent, A˜ 50 per cent, S˜ 43 per cent) and a benchmark test shows that it is applicable to hundreds of thousands of galaxies using typical processing systems.

  14. Generation and Analysis of Constrained Random Sampling Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Random sampling is a technique for signal acquisition which is gaining popularity in practical signal processing systems. Nowadays, event-driven analog-to-digital converters make random sampling feasible in practical applications. A process of random sampling is defined by a sampling pattern, which...... indicates signal sampling points in time. Practical random sampling patterns are constrained by ADC characteristics and application requirements. In this paper, we introduce statistical methods which evaluate random sampling pattern generators with emphasis on practical applications. Furthermore, we propose...... algorithm generates random sampling patterns dedicated for event-driven-ADCs better than existed sampling pattern generators. Finally, implementation issues of random sampling patterns are discussed....

  15. Shape measurement system for single point incremental forming (SPIF) manufacts by using trinocular vision and random pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, Francesco; Bini, Ruggero; Lunardelli, Massimo; Bosetti, Paolo; Bruschi, Stefania; De Cecco, Mariolino

    2012-01-01

    Many contemporary works show the interest of the scientific community in measuring the shape of artefacts made by single point incremental forming. In this paper, we will present an algorithm able to detect feature points with a random pattern, check the compatibility of associations exploiting multi-stereo constraints and reject outliers and perform a 3D reconstruction by dense random patterns. The algorithm is suitable for a real-time application, in fact it needs just three images and a synchronous relatively fast processing. The proposed method has been tested on a simple geometry and results have been compared with a coordinate measurement machine acquisition. (paper)

  16. Percolation analysis for cosmic web with discrete points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajun; Cheng, Dalong; Chu, Ming-Chung

    2018-01-01

    Percolation analysis has long been used to quantify the connectivity of the cosmic web. Most of the previous work is based on density fields on grids. By smoothing into fields, we lose information about galaxy properties like shape or luminosity. The lack of mathematical modeling also limits our understanding for the percolation analysis. To overcome these difficulties, we have studied percolation analysis based on discrete points. Using a friends-of-friends (FoF) algorithm, we generate the S -b b relation, between the fractional mass of the largest connected group (S ) and the FoF linking length (b b ). We propose a new model, the probability cloud cluster expansion theory to relate the S -b b relation with correlation functions. We show that the S -b b relation reflects a combination of all orders of correlation functions. Using N-body simulation, we find that the S -b b relation is robust against redshift distortion and incompleteness in observation. From the Bolshoi simulation, with halo abundance matching (HAM), we have generated a mock galaxy catalog. Good matching of the projected two-point correlation function with observation is confirmed. However, comparing the mock catalog with the latest galaxy catalog from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release (DR)12, we have found significant differences in their S -b b relations. This indicates that the mock galaxy catalog cannot accurately retain higher-order correlation functions than the two-point correlation function, which reveals the limit of the HAM method. As a new measurement, the S -b b relation is applicable to a wide range of data types, fast to compute, and robust against redshift distortion and incompleteness and contains information of all orders of correlation functions.

  17. Classification of Phase Transitions by Microcanonical Inflection-Point Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Kai; Bachmann, Michael

    2018-05-01

    By means of the principle of minimal sensitivity we generalize the microcanonical inflection-point analysis method by probing derivatives of the microcanonical entropy for signals of transitions in complex systems. A strategy of systematically identifying and locating independent and dependent phase transitions of any order is proposed. The power of the generalized method is demonstrated in applications to the ferromagnetic Ising model and a coarse-grained model for polymer adsorption onto a substrate. The results shed new light on the intrinsic phase structure of systems with cooperative behavior.

  18. Relatively Inexact Proximal Point Algorithm and Linear Convergence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram U. Verma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a notion of relatively maximal (m-relaxed monotonicity, the approximation solvability of a general class of inclusion problems is discussed, while generalizing Rockafellar's theorem (1976 on linear convergence using the proximal point algorithm in a real Hilbert space setting. Convergence analysis, based on this new model, is simpler and compact than that of the celebrated technique of Rockafellar in which the Lipschitz continuity at 0 of the inverse of the set-valued mapping is applied. Furthermore, it can be used to generalize the Yosida approximation, which, in turn, can be applied to first-order evolution equations as well as evolution inclusions.

  19. Analysis on Single Point Vulnerabilities of Plant Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Moon Goo; Lee, Eun Chan; Bae, Yeon Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a system that controls pumps, valves, dampers, etc. in nuclear power plants with an OPR-1000 design. When there is a failure or spurious actuation of the critical components in the PCS, it can result in unexpected plant trips or transients. From this viewpoint, single point vulnerabilities are evaluated in detail using failure mode effect analyses (FMEA) and fault tree analyses (FTA). This evaluation demonstrates that the PCS has many vulnerable components and the analysis results are provided for OPR-1000 plants for reliability improvements that can reduce their vulnerabilities

  20. Analysis on Single Point Vulnerabilities of Plant Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Moon Goo; Lee, Eun Chan; Bae, Yeon Kyoung [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a system that controls pumps, valves, dampers, etc. in nuclear power plants with an OPR-1000 design. When there is a failure or spurious actuation of the critical components in the PCS, it can result in unexpected plant trips or transients. From this viewpoint, single point vulnerabilities are evaluated in detail using failure mode effect analyses (FMEA) and fault tree analyses (FTA). This evaluation demonstrates that the PCS has many vulnerable components and the analysis results are provided for OPR-1000 plants for reliability improvements that can reduce their vulnerabilities.

  1. Analysis of a simple pendulum driven at its suspension point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, S; Findley, T

    2005-01-01

    To familiarize undergraduate students with the dynamics of a damped driven harmonic oscillator, a simple pendulum was set up and driven at its suspension point under different damping conditions. From the time domain analysis, the decay constant was estimated and used to predict the frequency response. The simple pendulum was then driven at a series of frequencies near the resonance. By measuring the maximum amplitude at each driving frequency, the frequency response was determined. With one free parameter, which was determined under the first damping condition, the predicted frequency responses showed good agreement with the measured frequency responses under all damping conditions

  2. Use of point-of-sale data to track usage patterns of residential pesticides: methodology development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chism Bill

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residential-use pesticides have been shown to be a major source of pesticide exposure to people in the United States. However, little is understood about the exposures to household pesticides and the resultant health effects. One reason that little is known about home-use pesticide exposure is the lack of comprehensive data on exposures to pesticides in the home. One method to help ascertain the amount of pesticides present in the home is use of point-of-sale data collected from marketing companies that track product sales to obtain the volume of pesticides sold for home-use. This provides a measure of volume of home-use pesticide. Methods We have constructed a searchable database containing sales data for home-use permethrin-containing pesticides sold by retail stores in the United States from January 1997 through December 2002 in an attempt to develop a tracking method for pesticide. This pilot project was conducted to determine if point-of-sale data would be effective in helping track the purchase of home-use permethrin containing pesticides and if it would stand as a good model for tracking sales of other home-use pesticides. Results There are several limitations associated with this tracking method, including the availability of sales data, market coverage, and geographic resolution. As a result, a fraction of sales data potentially available for reporting is represented in this database. However, the database is sensitive to the number and type of merchants reporting permethrin sales. Further, analysis of the sale of individual products included in the database indicates that year to year variability has a greater impact on reported permethrin sales than the amount sold by each type of merchant. Conclusion We conclude that, while nothing could completely replace a detailed exposure assessment to estimate exposures to home-use pesticides, a point-of-sale database is a useful tool in tracking the purchase of these types

  3. Use of point-of-sale data to track usage patterns of residential pesticides: methodology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekarian, Nyree; Payne-Sturges, Devon; Edmondson, Stuart; Chism, Bill; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2006-05-25

    Residential-use pesticides have been shown to be a major source of pesticide exposure to people in the United States. However, little is understood about the exposures to household pesticides and the resultant health effects. One reason that little is known about home-use pesticide exposure is the lack of comprehensive data on exposures to pesticides in the home. One method to help ascertain the amount of pesticides present in the home is use of point-of-sale data collected from marketing companies that track product sales to obtain the volume of pesticides sold for home-use. This provides a measure of volume of home-use pesticide. We have constructed a searchable database containing sales data for home-use permethrin-containing pesticides sold by retail stores in the United States from January 1997 through December 2002 in an attempt to develop a tracking method for pesticide. This pilot project was conducted to determine if point-of-sale data would be effective in helping track the purchase of home-use permethrin containing pesticides and if it would stand as a good model for tracking sales of other home-use pesticides. There are several limitations associated with this tracking method, including the availability of sales data, market coverage, and geographic resolution. As a result, a fraction of sales data potentially available for reporting is represented in this database. However, the database is sensitive to the number and type of merchants reporting permethrin sales. Further, analysis of the sale of individual products included in the database indicates that year to year variability has a greater impact on reported permethrin sales than the amount sold by each type of merchant. We conclude that, while nothing could completely replace a detailed exposure assessment to estimate exposures to home-use pesticides, a point-of-sale database is a useful tool in tracking the purchase of these types of pesticides to 1) detect anomalous trends in regional and seasonal

  4. System of pattern analysis of PIXE spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murozono, K; Iwasaki, S; Inoue, J; Ishii, K; Kitamura, M [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sera, K; Futatsugawa, S

    1996-07-01

    We have developed an analysis system based on the pattern analysis method. By testing the system, several difficulties of the present method have been identified. We found the following solutions for them: pre-selection of candidate elements in a sample and the use of a proper absorber. The pre-selection of the candidate elements will not be a serious drawback in the industrial PIXE, because it will be easy to pre-process the spectra for a few samples in the beginning of the mass processing of samples of the same kind. On the other hand, reduction of the efficiency due to the use of funny filter is significant only in the lower energy region, where we usually do not suffer from insufficient yields of lighter elements in common samples. The selection of the most suitable filter requires PIXE user to be deeply experienced. In particular, it is not easy to choose the best filter to suppress the yield of peak of an abundant element as the absorption edge filter. It will be important task to find a set of suitable combination of representative samples and corresponding filters. Furthermore, the peak profile model should be improved from the simple Gaussian approximation to more realistic ones with exponential tail, flat component below the peak and escape peaks, etc. It is also necessary to develop a theoretical approach for the background shape of the bremsstrahlung. (J.P.N.)

  5. Geospatial Analysis of Grey Wolf Movement Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, D.

    2017-12-01

    The grey wolf is a top predator that lives across a diverse habitat, ranging from Europe to North America. They often hunt in packs, preferring caribou, deer and elk as prey. Currently, many gray wolves live in Denali National Park and Preserve. In this study, several wolf packs were studied in three distinct regions of Denali. The purpose of my research was to investigate the links between wolf habitat, movement patterns, and prey thresholds. These are needed for projecting future population, growth and distribution of wolves in the studied region. I also investigated the effect wolves have on the ecological structure of the communities they inhabit. In the study I carried out a quantitative analysis of wolf population trends and daily distance movement by utilizing an analysis of variance (ANOVA) in the program JmpPro12 (SAS Institute, Crary, NC) to assess regional differences in pack size, wolf density, average daily distance moved. I found a clear link between the wolf habitat and prey thresholds; the habitat directly influences the types of prey available. However there was no link between the daily distance movement, the wolf habitat and prey density.

  6. An introduction to nonlinear analysis and fixed point theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, Hemant Kumar

    2018-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the theory of nonlinear analysis, providing an overview of topics such as geometry of Banach spaces, differential calculus in Banach spaces, monotone operators, and fixed point theorems. It also discusses degree theory, nonlinear matrix equations, control theory, differential and integral equations, and inclusions. The book presents surjectivity theorems, variational inequalities, stochastic game theory and mathematical biology, along with a large number of applications of these theories in various other disciplines. Nonlinear analysis is characterised by its applications in numerous interdisciplinary fields, ranging from engineering to space science, hydromechanics to astrophysics, chemistry to biology, theoretical mechanics to biomechanics and economics to stochastic game theory. Organised into ten chapters, the book shows the elegance of the subject and its deep-rooted concepts and techniques, which provide the tools for developing more realistic and accurate models for ...

  7. Tipping point analysis of a large ocean ambient sound record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livina, Valerie N.; Harris, Peter; Brower, Albert; Wang, Lian; Sotirakopoulos, Kostas; Robinson, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    We study a long (2003-2015) high-resolution (250Hz) sound pressure record provided by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) from the hydro-acoustic station Cape Leeuwin (Australia). We transform the hydrophone waveforms into five bands of 10-min-average sound pressure levels (including the third-octave band) and apply tipping point analysis techniques [1-3]. We report the results of the analysis of fluctuations and trends in the data and discuss the BigData challenges in processing this record, including handling data segments of large size and possible HPC solutions. References: [1] Livina et al, GRL 2007, [2] Livina et al, Climate of the Past 2010, [3] Livina et al, Chaos 2015.

  8. Uncertainty analysis of point by point sampling complex surfaces using touch probe CMMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barini, Emanuele; Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a study concerning point by point scanning of complex surfaces using tactile CMMs. A four factors-two level full factorial experiment was carried out, involving measurements on a complex surface configuration item comprising a sphere, a cylinder and a cone, combined in a singl...

  9. Throughput analysis of point-to-multi-point hybric FSO/RF network

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer; Gebali, Fayez; Yang, Hong-Chuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents and analyzes a point-to-multi-point (P2MP) network that uses a number of free-space optical (FSO) links for data transmission from the central node to the different remote nodes. A common backup radio-frequency (RF) link is used

  10. 21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Control Point (HACCP) plan. 123.6 Section 123.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Provisions § 123.6 Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (a) Hazard... fish or fishery product being processed in the absence of those controls. (b) The HACCP plan. Every...

  11. Analysis of tree stand horizontal structure using random point field methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Sekretenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the model approach to analyze the horizontal structure of forest stands. The main types of models of random point fields and statistical procedures that can be used to analyze spatial patterns of trees of uneven and even-aged stands are described. We show how modern methods of spatial statistics can be used to address one of the objectives of forestry – to clarify the laws of natural thinning of forest stand and the corresponding changes in its spatial structure over time. Studying natural forest thinning, we describe the consecutive stages of modeling: selection of the appropriate parametric model, parameter estimation and generation of point patterns in accordance with the selected model, the selection of statistical functions to describe the horizontal structure of forest stands and testing of statistical hypotheses. We show the possibilities of a specialized software package, spatstat, which is designed to meet the challenges of spatial statistics and provides software support for modern methods of analysis of spatial data. We show that a model of stand thinning that does not consider inter-tree interaction can project the size distribution of the trees properly, but the spatial pattern of the modeled stand is not quite consistent with observed data. Using data of three even-aged pine forest stands of 25, 55, and 90-years old, we demonstrate that the spatial point process models are useful for combining measurements in the forest stands of different ages to study the forest stand natural thinning.

  12. Single Point Vulnerability Analysis of Automatic Seismic Trip System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seo Bin; Chung, Soon Il; Lee, Yong Suk [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Pil [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Single Point Vulnerability (SPV) analysis is a process used to identify individual equipment whose failure alone will result in a reactor trip, turbine generator failure, or power reduction of more than 50%. Automatic Seismic Trip System (ASTS) is a newly installed system to ensure the safety of plant when earthquake occurs. Since this system directly shuts down the reactor, the failure or malfunction of its system component can cause a reactor trip more frequently than other systems. Therefore, an SPV analysis of ASTS is necessary to maintain its essential performance. To analyze SPV for ASTS, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and fault tree analysis (FTA) was performed. In this study, FMEA and FTA methods were performed to select SPV equipment of ASTS. D/O, D/I, A/I card, seismic sensor, and trip relay had an effect on the reactor trip but their single failure will not cause reactor trip. In conclusion, ASTS is excluded as SPV. These results can be utilized as the basis data for ways to enhance facility reliability such as design modification and improvement of preventive maintenance procedure.

  13. Single Point Vulnerability Analysis of Automatic Seismic Trip System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seo Bin; Chung, Soon Il; Lee, Yong Suk; Choi, Byung Pil

    2016-01-01

    Single Point Vulnerability (SPV) analysis is a process used to identify individual equipment whose failure alone will result in a reactor trip, turbine generator failure, or power reduction of more than 50%. Automatic Seismic Trip System (ASTS) is a newly installed system to ensure the safety of plant when earthquake occurs. Since this system directly shuts down the reactor, the failure or malfunction of its system component can cause a reactor trip more frequently than other systems. Therefore, an SPV analysis of ASTS is necessary to maintain its essential performance. To analyze SPV for ASTS, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and fault tree analysis (FTA) was performed. In this study, FMEA and FTA methods were performed to select SPV equipment of ASTS. D/O, D/I, A/I card, seismic sensor, and trip relay had an effect on the reactor trip but their single failure will not cause reactor trip. In conclusion, ASTS is excluded as SPV. These results can be utilized as the basis data for ways to enhance facility reliability such as design modification and improvement of preventive maintenance procedure

  14. Spatially explicit spectral analysis of point clouds and geospatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of spatially explicit analyses of high-resolution spatially distributed data (imagery and point clouds) for the purposes of characterising spatial heterogeneity in geophysical phenomena necessitates the development of custom analytical and computational tools. In recent years, such analyses have become the basis of, for example, automated texture characterisation and segmentation, roughness and grain size calculation, and feature detection and classification, from a variety of data types. In this work, much use has been made of statistical descriptors of localised spatial variations in amplitude variance (roughness), however the horizontal scale (wavelength) and spacing of roughness elements is rarely considered. This is despite the fact that the ratio of characteristic vertical to horizontal scales is not constant and can yield important information about physical scaling relationships. Spectral analysis is a hitherto under-utilised but powerful means to acquire statistical information about relevant amplitude and wavelength scales, simultaneously and with computational efficiency. Further, quantifying spatially distributed data in the frequency domain lends itself to the development of stochastic models for probing the underlying mechanisms which govern the spatial distribution of geological and geophysical phenomena. The software packagePySESA (Python program for Spatially Explicit Spectral Analysis) has been developed for generic analyses of spatially distributed data in both the spatial and frequency domains. Developed predominantly in Python, it accesses libraries written in Cython and C++ for efficiency. It is open source and modular, therefore readily incorporated into, and combined with, other data analysis tools and frameworks with particular utility for supporting research in the fields of geomorphology, geophysics, hydrography, photogrammetry and remote sensing. The analytical and computational structure of the toolbox is

  15. Spatially explicit spectral analysis of point clouds and geospatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of spatially explicit analyses of high-resolution spatially distributed data (imagery and point clouds) for the purposes of characterising spatial heterogeneity in geophysical phenomena necessitates the development of custom analytical and computational tools. In recent years, such analyses have become the basis of, for example, automated texture characterisation and segmentation, roughness and grain size calculation, and feature detection and classification, from a variety of data types. In this work, much use has been made of statistical descriptors of localised spatial variations in amplitude variance (roughness), however the horizontal scale (wavelength) and spacing of roughness elements is rarely considered. This is despite the fact that the ratio of characteristic vertical to horizontal scales is not constant and can yield important information about physical scaling relationships. Spectral analysis is a hitherto under-utilised but powerful means to acquire statistical information about relevant amplitude and wavelength scales, simultaneously and with computational efficiency. Further, quantifying spatially distributed data in the frequency domain lends itself to the development of stochastic models for probing the underlying mechanisms which govern the spatial distribution of geological and geophysical phenomena. The software package PySESA (Python program for Spatially Explicit Spectral Analysis) has been developed for generic analyses of spatially distributed data in both the spatial and frequency domains. Developed predominantly in Python, it accesses libraries written in Cython and C++ for efficiency. It is open source and modular, therefore readily incorporated into, and combined with, other data analysis tools and frameworks with particular utility for supporting research in the fields of geomorphology, geophysics, hydrography, photogrammetry and remote sensing. The analytical and computational structure of the toolbox is described

  16. Pointing towards visuospatial patterns in short-term memory: differential effects on familiarity- and recollection-based judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Spataro, Pietro; Marques, Valeria R S; Longobardi, Emiddia

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that pointing toward to-be-remembered visuospatial patterns enhances short-term memory (STM) when the presentation of pointing and no-pointing trials is mixed (Chum et al., 2007; Dodd & Shumborski, 2009; Rossi-Arnaud et al., 2012). By contrast, when presentation is blocked, pointing has inhibitory effects on memory (Dodd & Shumborski, 2009; Rossi-Arnaud et al., 2012). In the present study, we demonstrated that pointing has different effects on short-term recollection- and familiarity-based judgments, depending on the length of the visuospatial patterns (5- vs. 7-item arrays) and the interval between the encoding and test phases (2 vs. 5 s). More specifically, pointing decreased the accuracy of recollection-based judgments for 5-item arrays, but not for 7-item arrays (this negative effect did not interact with interval length). In contrast, pointing facilitated familiarity-based judgments when the interval between the study and test phases was 5 s, but not when it was 2 s (this positive effect did not interact with pattern length). We proposed that the negative effects might be accounted for by the simultaneous recruitment of attention resources in the planning and execution of pointing movements. As a consequence, executive resources are diverted from the primary memory task, resulting in a less efficient use of attention-demanding retrieval strategies, like chunking. By contrast, the positive effects on familiarity judgments might reflect the unitization of the to-be-remembered items into a single shape. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. An equilibrium-point model of electromyographic patterns during single-joint movements based on experimentally reconstructed control signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, M L; Goodman, S R

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work has been to develop a model of electromyographic (EMG) patterns during single-joint movements based on a version of the equilibrium-point hypothesis, a method for experimental reconstruction of the joint compliant characteristics, the dual-strategy hypothesis, and a kinematic model of movement trajectory. EMG patterns are considered emergent properties of hypothetical control patterns that are equally affected by the control signals and peripheral feedback reflecting actual movement trajectory. A computer model generated the EMG patterns based on simulated movement kinematics and hypothetical control signals derived from the reconstructed joint compliant characteristics. The model predictions have been compared to published recordings of movement kinematics and EMG patterns in a variety of movement conditions, including movements over different distances, at different speeds, against different-known inertial loads, and in conditions of possible unexpected decrease in the inertial load. Changes in task parameters within the model led to simulated EMG patterns qualitatively similar to the experimentally recorded EMG patterns. The model's predictive power compares it favourably to the existing models of the EMG patterns. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A study of grout flow pattern analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. Y.; Hyun, S.

    2013-01-01

    A new disposal unit, designated as Salt Disposal Unit no. 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt nuclear waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System plan. The unit is cylindrical disposal vault of 380 ft diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has about 30 million gallons of capacity. Primary objective was to develop the computational model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as function of elevation of grout discharge port, and slurry rheology. A Bingham plastic model was basically used to represent the grout flow behavior. A two-phase modeling approach was taken to achieve the objective. This approach assumes that the air-grout interface determines the shape of the accumulation mound. The results of this study were used to develop the design guidelines for the discharge ports of the Saltstone feed materials in the SDU6 facility. The focusing areas of the modeling study are to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor under the baseline modeling conditions, to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation of discharge port, discharge pipe diameter, and grout properties, and to determine the changes in grout density as it is related to grout drop height. An axi-symmetric two-phase modeling method was used for computational efficiency. Based on the nominal design and operating conditions, a transient computational approach was taken to compute flow fields mainly driven by pumping inertia and natural gravity. Detailed solution methodology and analysis results are discussed here

  19. Accuracy of multi-point boundary crossing time analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vogt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent multi-spacecraft studies of solar wind discontinuity crossings using the timing (boundary plane triangulation method gave boundary parameter estimates that are significantly different from those of the well-established single-spacecraft minimum variance analysis (MVA technique. A large survey of directional discontinuities in Cluster data turned out to be particularly inconsistent in the sense that multi-point timing analyses did not identify any rotational discontinuities (RDs whereas the MVA results of the individual spacecraft suggested that RDs form the majority of events. To make multi-spacecraft studies of discontinuity crossings more conclusive, the present report addresses the accuracy of the timing approach to boundary parameter estimation. Our error analysis is based on the reciprocal vector formalism and takes into account uncertainties both in crossing times and in the spacecraft positions. A rigorous error estimation scheme is presented for the general case of correlated crossing time errors and arbitrary spacecraft configurations. Crossing time error covariances are determined through cross correlation analyses of the residuals. The principal influence of the spacecraft array geometry on the accuracy of the timing method is illustrated using error formulas for the simplified case of mutually uncorrelated and identical errors at different spacecraft. The full error analysis procedure is demonstrated for a solar wind discontinuity as observed by the Cluster FGM instrument.

  20. Material-Point-Method Analysis of Collapsing Slopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Andersen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    To understand the dynamic evolution of landslides and predict their physical extent, a computational model is required that is capable of analysing complex material behaviour as well as large strains and deformations. Here, a model is presented based on the so-called generalised-interpolation mat......To understand the dynamic evolution of landslides and predict their physical extent, a computational model is required that is capable of analysing complex material behaviour as well as large strains and deformations. Here, a model is presented based on the so-called generalised......, a deformed material description is introduced, based on time integration of the deformation gradient and utilising Gauss quadrature over the volume associated with each material point. The method has been implemented in a Fortran code and employed for the analysis of a landslide that took place during...

  1. A critical analysis of the tender points in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, R Norman; Revivo, Gadi; Song, Sharon; Nampiaparampil, Devi; Golden, Gary; Kirincic, Marie; Houle, Timothy T

    2007-03-01

    To pilot methodologies designed to critically assess the American College of Rheumatology's (ACR) diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia. Prospective, psychophysical testing. An urban teaching hospital. Twenty-five patients with fibromyalgia and 31 healthy controls (convenience sample). Pressure pain threshold was determined at the 18 ACR tender points and five sham points using an algometer (dolorimeter). The patients "algometric total scores" (sums of the patients' average pain thresholds at the 18 tender points) were derived, as well as pain thresholds across sham points. The "algometric total score" could differentiate patients with fibromyalgia from normals with an accuracy of 85.7% (P pain across sham points than across ACR tender points, sham points also could be used for diagnosis (85.7%; Ps tested vs other painful conditions. The points specified by the ACR were only modestly superior to sham points in making the diagnosis. Most importantly, this pilot suggests single points, smaller groups of points, or sham points may be as effective in diagnosing fibromyalgia as the use of all 18 points, and suggests methodologies to definitively test that hypothesis.

  2. Evaluating the change of directional patterns for fingerprints with missing singular points under rotation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dorasamy, Kribashnee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming small inter-class variation when fingerprints have missing singular points (SPs) is one of the current challenges faced in fingerprint classification, since class information is scarce. Grouping the orientation fields to form Directional...

  3. Analysis of Multicomponent Adsorption Close to a Dew Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    We develop the potential theory of multicomponent adsorption close to a dew point. The approach is based on an asymptotic adsorption equation (AAE) which is valid in a vicinity of the dew point. By this equation the thickness of the liquid film is expressed through thermodynamic characteristics...... and the direct calculations, even if the mixture is not close to a dew point.Key Words: adsorption; potential theory; multicomponent; dew point....

  4. An optoelectronic system for fringe pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Ahmadshahi, M.

    A system capable of retrieving and processing information recorded in fringe patterns is reported. The principal components are described as well as the architecture in which they are assembled. An example of application is given.

  5. Software patterns, knowledge maps, and domain analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fayad, Mohamed E; Hegde, Srikanth GK; Basia, Anshu; Vakil, Ashka

    2014-01-01

    Preface AcknowledgmentsAuthors INTRODUCTIONAn Overview of Knowledge MapsIntroduction: Key Concepts-Software Stable Models, Knowledge Maps, Pattern Language, Goals, Capabilities (Enduring Business Themes + Business Objects) The Motivation The Problem The Objectives Overview of Software Stability Concepts Overview of Knowledge Maps Pattern Languages versus Knowledge Maps: A Brief ComparisonThe Solution Knowledge Maps Methodology or Concurrent Software Development ModelWhy Knowledge Maps? Research Methodology Undertaken Research Verification and Validation The Stratification of This Book Summary

  6. Throughput analysis of point-to-multi-point hybric FSO/RF network

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2017-07-31

    This paper presents and analyzes a point-to-multi-point (P2MP) network that uses a number of free-space optical (FSO) links for data transmission from the central node to the different remote nodes. A common backup radio-frequency (RF) link is used by the central node for data transmission to any remote node in case of the failure of any one of FSO links. We develop a cross-layer Markov chain model to study the throughput from central node to a tagged remote node. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the proposed P2MP hybrid FSO/RF network with that of a P2MP FSO-only network and show that the P2MP Hybrid FSO/RF network achieves considerable performance improvement over the P2MP FSO-only network.

  7. Unsaturated Zone Flow Patterns and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Ahlers

    2001-10-17

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents the development of an expected-case model for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport that will be described in terms of the representativeness of models of the natural system. The expected-case model will provide an evaluation of the effectiveness of the natural barriers, assess the impact of conservatism in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), and support the development of further models and analyses for public confidence building. The present models used in ''Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation'' (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) 2000 [1532461]) underestimate the natural-barrier performance because of conservative assumptions and parameters and do not adequately address uncertainty and alternative models. The development of an expected case model for the UZ natural barrier addresses issues regarding flow-pattern analysis and modeling that had previously been treated conservatively. This is in line with the Repository Safety Strategy (RSS) philosophy of treating conservatively those aspects of the UZ flow and transport system that are not important for achieving regulatory dose (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153246], Section 1.1.1). The development of an expected case model for the UZ also provides defense-in-depth in areas requiring further analysis of uncertainty and alternative models. In general, the value of the conservative case is to provide a more easily defensible TSPA for behavior of UZ flow and transport processes at Yucca Mountain. This AMR has been prepared in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (Bechtel SAIC Company (BSC) 2001 [155051], Section 1.3 - Work Package 4301213UMG). The work scope is to examine the data and current models of flow and transport in the Yucca Mountain UZ to identify models and analyses

  8. Unsaturated Zone Flow Patterns and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, C.

    2001-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents the development of an expected-case model for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport that will be described in terms of the representativeness of models of the natural system. The expected-case model will provide an evaluation of the effectiveness of the natural barriers, assess the impact of conservatism in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), and support the development of further models and analyses for public confidence building. The present models used in ''Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation'' (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M and O) 2000 [1532461]) underestimate the natural-barrier performance because of conservative assumptions and parameters and do not adequately address uncertainty and alternative models. The development of an expected case model for the UZ natural barrier addresses issues regarding flow-pattern analysis and modeling that had previously been treated conservatively. This is in line with the Repository Safety Strategy (RSS) philosophy of treating conservatively those aspects of the UZ flow and transport system that are not important for achieving regulatory dose (CRWMS M and O 2000 [153246], Section 1.1.1). The development of an expected case model for the UZ also provides defense-in-depth in areas requiring further analysis of uncertainty and alternative models. In general, the value of the conservative case is to provide a more easily defensible TSPA for behavior of UZ flow and transport processes at Yucca Mountain. This AMR has been prepared in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (Bechtel SAIC Company (BSC) 2001 [155051], Section 1.3 - Work Package 4301213UMG). The work scope is to examine the data and current models of flow and transport in the Yucca Mountain UZ to identify models and analyses where conservatism may be

  9. Variation in the location of the shoe sole flexion point influences plantar loading patterns during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaard, B.C.; Vanwanseele, B.; Holtkamp, F.; van der Horst, H.E.; Elders, P.J.M.; Menz, H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several footwear design characteristics are known to have detrimental effects on the foot. However, one characteristic that has received relatively little attention is the point where the sole flexes in the sagittal plane. Several footwear assessment forms assume that this should ideally

  10. Variation in the location of the shoe sole flexion point influences plantar loading patterns during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van der Horst; H.B. Menz; ing., M.Sc F.C. Holtkamp; P. Elders; B. Vanwanseele; B. van der Zwaard

    2014-01-01

    Background Several footwear design characteristics are known to have detrimental effects on the foot. However, one characteristic that has received relatively little attention is the point where the sole flexes in the sagittal plane. Several footwear assessment forms assume that this should ideally

  11. [The point-digital interpretation and the choice of the dermatoglyphic patterns on human fingers for diagnostics of consanguineous relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagin, V N; Rakitin, V A; Fomina, E E

    The objective of the present study was the development of the point-digital model for the scaless interpretation of the dermatoglyphic papillary patterns on human fingers that would allow to comprehensively describe, in digital terms, the main characteristics of the traits and perform the quantitative assessment of the frequency of their inheritance. A specially developed computer program, D.glyphic. 7-14 was used to mark the dermatoglyphic patterns on the fingerprints obtained from 30 familial triplets (father + mother + child).The values of all the studied traits for kinship diagnostics were found by calculating the ratios of the sums of differences between the traits in the parent-parent pairs to those in the respective parent-child pairs. The algorithms for the point marking of the traits and reading out the digital information about them have been developed. The traditional dermatoglyphic patterns were selected and the novel ones applied for the use in the framework of the point-digital model for the interpretation of the for diagnostics of consanguineous relationship. The present experimental study has demonstrated the high level of inheritance of the selected traits and the possibility to develop the algorithms and computation techniques for the calculation of consanguineous relationship coefficients based on these traits.

  12. Using pattern analysis methods to do fast detection of manufacturing pattern failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Evan; Wang, Jessie; Sun, Mason; Wang, Jeff; Zhang, Yifan; Sweis, Jason; Lai, Ya-Chieh; Ding, Hua

    2016-03-01

    At the advanced technology node, logic design has become extremely complex and is getting more challenging as the pattern geometry size decreases. The small sizes of layout patterns are becoming very sensitive to process variations. Meanwhile, the high pressure of yield ramp is always there due to time-to-market competition. The company that achieves patterning maturity earlier than others will have a great advantage and a better chance to realize maximum profit margins. For debugging silicon failures, DFT diagnostics can identify which nets or cells caused the yield loss. But normally, a long time period is needed with many resources to identify which failures are due to one common layout pattern or structure. This paper will present a new yield diagnostic flow, based on preliminary EFA results, to show how pattern analysis can more efficiently detect pattern related systematic defects. Increased visibility on design pattern related failures also allows more precise yield loss estimation.

  13. Automated pattern recognition system for noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sides, W.H. Jr.; Piety, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    A pattern recognition system was developed at ORNL for on-line monitoring of noise signals from sensors in a nuclear power plant. The system continuousy measures the power spectral density (PSD) values of the signals and the statistical characteristics of the PSDs in unattended operation. Through statistical comparison of current with past PSDs (pattern recognition), the system detects changes in the noise signals. Because the noise signals contain information about the current operational condition of the plant, a change in these signals could indicate a change, either normal or abnormal, in the operational condition

  14. An equilibrium-point model for fast, single-joint movement: I. Emergence of strategy-dependent EMG patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, M L; Gottlieb, G L

    1991-09-01

    We describe a model for the regulation of fast, single-joint movements, based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Limb movement follows constant rate shifts of independently regulated neuromuscular variables. The independently regulated variables are tentatively identified as thresholds of a length sensitive reflex for each of the participating muscles. We use the model to predict EMG patterns associated with changes in the conditions of movement execution, specifically, changes in movement times, velocities, amplitudes, and moments of limb inertia. The approach provides a theoretical neural framework for the dual-strategy hypothesis, which considers certain movements to be results of one of two basic, speed-sensitive or speed-insensitive strategies. This model is advanced as an alternative to pattern-imposing models based on explicit regulation of timing and amplitudes of signals that are explicitly manifest in the EMG patterns.

  15. Response of spatial point pattern of halostachys caspica population to ground water depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, P.; Wang, M.; Jiang, P.; Li, M.; Chu, G.

    2017-01-01

    We subjected Halostachys caspica populations to three groundwater depths: shallow ( 4.5 m) in the sample plots, at the diluvial fan of the South Junggar Basin. Both the spatial pattern and spatial association of the population among all three groundwater depths and four growth stages were studied to investigate the impact of groundwater depth on the formation and persistence mechanism of the spatial pattern of Halostachys caspica populations. In this study, Ripley's K function was utilized to characterize spatial patterns and intraspecific associations of H. caspica in three 1-ha plots, as well as to study their relationship with groundwater depth. The seedling supplement severely decreased with increasing groundwater depth, and the population structure changed noticeably due to increased amount of dead standing plants. Different growth stages of the H. caspica population all had aggregated distributions at small scale in the three groundwater depth areas. With increasing scales, the aggregation intensity weakened in all growth stages. Distribution was aggregated at 50 m scales in both the shallow and middle groundwater depth areas, while the deep groundwater depth area followed a random distribution. (author)

  16. Pressure Points in Reading Comprehension: A Quantile Multiple Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how selected pressure points or areas of vulnerability are related to individual differences in reading comprehension and whether the importance of these pressure points varies as a function of the level of children's reading comprehension. A sample of 245 third-grade children were given an assessment battery…

  17. Analysis of Facebook content demand patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Kihl, Maria; Larsson, Robin; Unnervik, Niclas; Haberkamm, Jolina; Arvidsson, Åke; Aurelius, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Data volumes in communication networks increase rapidly. Further, usage of social network applications is very wide spread among users, and among these applications, Facebook is the most popular. In this paper, we analyse user demands patterns and content popularity of Facebook generated traffic. The data comes from residential users in two metropolitan access networks in Sweden, and we analyse more than 17 million images downloaded by almost 16,000 Facebook users. We show that the distributi...

  18. Pattern recognition methods for acoustic emission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, P.G.; Harrington, T.P.; Hutton, P.H.

    1979-07-01

    Models have been developed that relate the rate of acoustic emissions to structural integrity. The implementation of these techniques in the field has been hindered by the noisy environment in which the data must be taken. Acoustic emissions from noncritical sources are recorded in addition to those produced by critical sources, such as flaws. A technique is discussed for prescreening acoustic events and filtering out those that are produced by noncritical sources. The methodology that was investigated is pattern recognition. Three different pattern recognition techniques were applied to a data set that consisted of acoustic emissions caused by crack growth and acoustic signals caused by extraneous noise sources. Examination of the acoustic emission data presented has uncovered several features of the data that can provide a reasonable filter. Two of the most valuable features are the frequency of maximum response and the autocorrelation coefficient at Lag 13. When these two features and several others were combined with a least squares decision algorithm, 90% of the acoustic emissions in the data set were correctly classified. It appears possible to design filters that eliminate extraneous noise sources from flaw-growth acoustic emissions using pattern recognition techniques

  19. Material-Point Method Analysis of Bending in Elastic Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Mikkel; Andersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test different types of spatial interpolation for the material-point method. The interpolations include quadratic elements and cubic splines. A brief introduction to the material-point method is given. Simple liner-elastic problems are tested, including the classical...... cantilevered beam problem. As shown in the paper, the use of negative shape functions is not consistent with the material-point method in its current form, necessitating other types of interpolation such as cubic splines in order to obtain smoother representations of field quantities. It is shown...

  20. Fast Change Point Detection for Electricity Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkeley, UC; Gu, William; Choi, Jaesik; Gu, Ming; Simon, Horst; Wu, Kesheng

    2013-08-25

    Electricity is a vital part of our daily life; therefore it is important to avoid irregularities such as the California Electricity Crisis of 2000 and 2001. In this work, we seek to predict anomalies using advanced machine learning algorithms. These algorithms are effective, but computationally expensive, especially if we plan to apply them on hourly electricity market data covering a number of years. To address this challenge, we significantly accelerate the computation of the Gaussian Process (GP) for time series data. In the context of a Change Point Detection (CPD) algorithm, we reduce its computational complexity from O($n^{5}$) to O($n^{2}$). Our efficient algorithm makes it possible to compute the Change Points using the hourly price data from the California Electricity Crisis. By comparing the detected Change Points with known events, we show that the Change Point Detection algorithm is indeed effective in detecting signals preceding major events.

  1. Role of endothelial permeability hotspots and endothelial mitosis in determining age-related patterns of macromolecule uptake by the rabbit aortic wall near branch points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooi, K Yean; Comerford, Andrew; Cremers, Stephanie J; Weinberg, Peter D

    2016-07-01

    Transport of macromolecules between plasma and the arterial wall plays a key role in atherogenesis. Scattered hotspots of elevated endothelial permeability to macromolecules occur in the aorta; a fraction of them are associated with dividing cells. Hotspots occur particularly frequently downstream of branch points, where lesions develop in young rabbits and children. However, the pattern of lesions varies with age, and can be explained by similar variation in the pattern of macromolecule uptake. We investigated whether patterns of hotspots and mitosis also change with age. Evans' Blue dye-labeled albumin was injected intravenously into immature or mature rabbits and its subsequent distribution in the aortic wall around intercostal branch ostia examined by confocal microscopy and automated image analysis. Mitosis was detected by immunofluorescence after adding 5-bromo-2-deoxiuridine to drinking water. Hotspots were most frequent downstream of branches in immature rabbits, but a novel distribution was observed in mature rabbits. Neither pattern was explained by mitosis. Hotspot uptake correlated spatially with the much greater non-hotspot uptake (p hotspots were considered. The pattern of hotspots changes with age. The data are consistent with there being a continuum of local permeabilities rather than two distinct mechanisms. The distribution of the dye, which binds to elastin and collagen, was similar to that of non-binding tracers and to lesions apart from a paucity at the lateral margins of branches that can be explained by lower levels of fibrous proteins in those regions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. 21 CFR 120.8 - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.8 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (a) HACCP plan. Each...

  3. Vents Pattern Analysis at Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Alfonso; Tusa, Giuseppina; Coltelli, Mauro; Proietti, Cristina; Branca, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Mount Etna is a composite stratovolcano located along the Ionian coast of eastern Sicily. It is characterized by basaltic eruptions, both effusive and explosive, occurred during a complex eruptive history over the last 500 ka. Flank eruptions occur at an interval of decades, mostly concentrated along the NE, S and W rift zones. A vent clustering at various scales is a common feature in many volcanic settings. In order to identify the clusters within the studied area, a spatial point pattern analysis is undertaken using vent positions, both known and reconstructed. It reveals both clustering and spatial regularity in the Etna region at different distances. The visual inspection of the vent spatial distribution suggests a clustering on the rift zones of Etna volcano. To confirm this evidence, a coarse analysis is performed by the application of Ξ2- and t-test simple statistics. Then, a refined analysis is performed by using the Ripley K-function (Ripley, 1976), whose estimator K(d), knowing the area of the study region and the number of vents, allow us to calculate the distance among two different location of events. The above estimator can be easier transformed by using the Besag L-function (Besag, 1977); the peaks of positive L(d)=[K(d)/π]1/2 -d values indicate clustering while troughs of negative values stand for regularity for their corresponding distances d (L(d)=0 indicates complete spatial randomness). Spatial pattern of flank vents is investigated in order to model the spatial distribution of likely eruptive vents for the next event, basically in terms of relative probabilities. For this, a Gaussian kernel technique is used, and the L(d) function is adopted to generate an optimal smoothing bandwidth based on the clustering behaviour of the Etna volcano. A total of 154 vents (among which 36 are reconstructed), related to Etna flank activity of the last 4.0 ka, is used to model future vent opening. The investigated region covers an area of 850 km2, divided

  4. Dynamical Networks for Smog Pattern Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zong, Linqi; Gong, Xinyi; Zhu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Smog, as a form of air pollution, poses as a serious problem to the environment, health, and economy of the world[1-4] . Previous studies on smog mostly focused on the components and the effects of smog [5-10]. However, as the smog happens with increased frequency and duration, the smog pattern which is critical for smog forecast and control, is rarely investigated, mainly due to the complexity of the components, the causes, and the spreading processes of smog. Here we report the first analys...

  5. Spectroscopic vector analysis for fast pattern quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Younghoon; Ryu, Sungyoon; Lee, Chihoon; Yang, Yusin

    2018-03-01

    In semiconductor industry, fast and effective measurement of pattern variation has been key challenge for assuring massproduct quality. Pattern measurement techniques such as conventional CD-SEMs or Optical CDs have been extensively used, but these techniques are increasingly limited in terms of measurement throughput and time spent in modeling. In this paper we propose time effective pattern monitoring method through the direct spectrum-based approach. In this technique, a wavelength band sensitive to a specific pattern change is selected from spectroscopic ellipsometry signal scattered by pattern to be measured, and the amplitude and phase variation in the wavelength band are analyzed as a measurement index of the pattern change. This pattern change measurement technique is applied to several process steps and verified its applicability. Due to its fast and simple analysis, the methods can be adapted to the massive process variation monitoring maximizing measurement throughput.

  6. An Analysis of Interaction Patterns in the Focus Group Interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavora Peter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the analysis of a focus group interview of a moderator and a group of undergraduate students on the topic of self-regulation of learning. The purpose of the investigation was to identify interaction patterns that appeared in the talk of participants and the moderator. In the stream of communication two rudimentary interaction patterns were recognized. The first pattern was named the Catalogue. It consists of a sequence of turns of participants who respond to a request of the moderator and who provide their answers, one by one, without reacting on the content of the previous partner(s talk. The other interaction pattern was called the Domino. In this pattern participants respond to each other. The Catalogue pattern prevailed in the interview. Alongside with identification of patterns of interaction the study demonstrated the functions of the common ground and its accomplishment in the talk of the moderator and participants.

  7. Risk-analysis of global climate tipping points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frieler, Katja; Meinshausen, Malte; Braun, N [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research e.V., Potsdam (Germany). PRIMAP Research Group; and others

    2012-09-15

    There are many elements of the Earth system that are expected to change gradually with increasing global warming. Changes might prove to be reversible after global warming returns to lower levels. But there are others that have the potential of showing a threshold behavior. This means that these changes would imply a transition between qualitatively disparate states which can be triggered by only small shifts in background climate (2). These changes are often expected not to be reversible by returning to the current level of warming. The reason for that is, that many of them are characterized by self-amplifying processes that could lead to a new internally stable state which is qualitatively different from before. There are different elements of the climate system that are already identified as potential tipping elements. This group contains the mass losses of the Greenland and the West-Antarctic Ice Sheet, the decline of the Arctic summer sea ice, different monsoon systems, the degradation of coral reefs, the dieback of the Amazon rainforest, the thawing of the permafrost regions as well as the release of methane hydrates (3). Crucially, these tipping elements have regional to global scale effects on human society, biodiversity and/or ecosystem services. Several examples may have a discernable effect on global climate through a large-scale positive feedback. This means they would further amplify the human induced climate change. These tipping elements pose risks comparable to risks found in other fields of human activity: high-impact events that have at least a few percent chance to occur classify as high-risk events. In many of these examples adaptation options are limited and prevention of occurrence may be a more viable strategy. Therefore, a better understanding of the processes driving tipping points is essential. There might be other tipping elements even more critical but not yet identified. These may also lie within our socio-economic systems that are

  8. Analysis of hygienic critical control points in boar semen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Ammon, C; Rüdiger, K; Jung, M; Grobbel, M

    2015-02-01

    The present study addresses the microbiological results of a quality control audit in artificial insemination (AI) boar studs in Germany and Austria. The raw and processed semen of 344 boars in 24 AI boar studs were analyzed. Bacteria were found in 26% (88 of 344) of the extended ejaculates and 66.7% (18 of 24) of the boar studs. The bacterial species found in the AI dose were not cultured from the respective raw semen in 95.5% (84 of 88) of the positive samples. These data, together with the fact that in most cases all the samples from one stud were contaminated with identical bacteria (species and resistance profile), indicate contamination during processing. Microbiological investigations of the equipment and the laboratory environment during semen processing in 21 AI boar studs revealed nine hygienic critical control points (HCCP), which were addressed after the first audit. On the basis of the analysis of the contamination rates of the ejaculate samples, improvements in the hygiene status were already present in the second audit (P = 0.0343, F-test). Significant differences were observed for heating cabinets (improvement, P = 0.0388) and manual operating elements (improvement, P = 0.0002). The odds ratio of finding contaminated ejaculates in the first and second audit was 1.68 (with the 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.04 to 2.69). Furthermore, an overall good hygienic status was shown for extenders, the inner face of dilution tank lids, dyes, and ultrapure water treatment plants. Among the nine HCCP considered, the most heavily contaminated samples, as assessed by the median scores throughout all the studs, were found in the sinks and/or drains. High numbers (>10(3) colony-forming units/cm(2)) of bacteria were found in the heating cabinets, ejaculate transfer, manual operating elements, and laboratory surfaces. In conclusion, the present study emphasizes the need for both training of the laboratory staff in monitoring HCCP in routine semen

  9. The chaotic points and XRD analysis of Hg-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, Oe [Anatuerkler Educational Consultancy and Trading Company, Orhan Veli Kanik Cad., 6/1, Kavacik 34810 Beykoz, Istanbul (Turkey); Oezdemir, Z Gueven [Physics Department, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa Campus, Esenler 34210, Istanbul (Turkey); Keskin, S S [Department of Environmental Eng., University of Marmara, Ziverbey, 34722, Istanbul (Turkey); Onbasli, Ue, E-mail: ozdenaslan@yahoo.co [Physics Department, University of Marmara, Ridvan Pasa Cad. 3. Sok. 85/12 Goztepe, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-03-01

    In this article, high T{sub c} mercury based cuprate superconductors with different oxygen doping rates have been examined by means of magnetic susceptibility (magnetization) versus temperature data and X-ray diffraction pattern analysis. The under, optimally and over oxygen doping procedures have been defined from the magnetic susceptibility versus temperature data of the superconducting sample by extracting the Meissner critical transition temperature, T{sub c} and the paramagnetic Meissner temperature, T{sub PME}, so called as the critical quantum chaos points. Moreover, the optimally oxygen doped samples have been investigated under both a.c. and d.c. magnetic fields. The related a.c. data for virgin(uncut) and cut samples with optimal doping have been obtained under a.c. magnetic field of 1 Gauss. For the cut sample with the rectangular shape, the chaotic points have been found to occur at 122 and 140 K, respectively. The Meissner critical temperature of 140 K is the new world record for the high temperature oxide superconductors under normal atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the crystallographic lattice parameters of superconducting samples have a crucial importance in calculating Josephson penetration depth determined by the XRD patterns. From the XRD data obtained for under and optimally doped samples, the crystal symmetries have been found in tetragonal structure.

  10. Printing line/space patterns on nonplanar substrates using a digital micromirror device-based point-array scanning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hung-Fei; Kao, Guan-Hsuan; Zhu, Liang-Xiu; Hung, Kuo-Shu; Lin, Yu-Hsin

    2018-02-01

    This study used a digital micromirror device (DMD) to produce point-array patterns and employed a self-developed optical system to define line-and-space patterns on nonplanar substrates. First, field tracing was employed to analyze the aerial images of the lithographic system, which comprised an optical system and the DMD. Multiobjective particle swarm optimization was then applied to determine the spot overlapping rate used. The objective functions were set to minimize linewidth and maximize image log slope, through which the dose of the exposure agent could be effectively controlled and the quality of the nonplanar lithography could be enhanced. Laser beams with 405-nm wavelength were employed as the light source. Silicon substrates coated with photoresist were placed on a nonplanar translation stage. The DMD was used to produce lithographic patterns, during which the parameters were analyzed and optimized. The optimal delay time-sequence combinations were used to scan images of the patterns. Finally, an exposure linewidth of less than 10 μm was successfully achieved using the nonplanar lithographic process.

  11. Material-Point Analysis of Large-Strain Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren

    The aim of this thesis is to apply and improve the material-point method for modelling of geotechnical problems. One of the geotechnical phenomena that is a subject of active research is the study of landslides. A large amount of research is focused on determining when slopes become unstable. Hence......, it is possible to predict if a certain slope is stable using commercial finite element or finite difference software such as PLAXIS, ABAQUS or FLAC. However, the dynamics during a landslide are less explored. The material-point method (MPM) is a novel numerical method aimed at analysing problems involving...... materials subjected to large strains in a dynamical time–space domain. This thesis explores the material-point method with the specific aim of improving the performance for geotechnical problems. Large-strain geotechnical problems such as landslides pose a major challenge to model numerically. Employing...

  12. Material-point Method Analysis of Bending in Elastic Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Mikkel; Andersen, Lars

    The aim of this paper is to test different types of spatial interpolation for the materialpoint method. The interpolations include quadratic elements and cubic splines. A brief introduction to the material-point method is given. Simple liner-elastic problems are tested, including the classical...... cantilevered beam problem. As shown in the paper, the use of negative shape functions is not consistent with the material-point method in its current form, necessitating other types of interpolation such as cubic splines in order to obtain smoother representations of field quantities. It is shown...

  13. Washing and chilling as critical control points in pork slaughter hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, D J; Pearce, R A; Sheridan, J J; Blair, I S; McDowell, D A; Harrington, D

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the effects of preslaughter washing, pre-evisceration washing, final carcass washing and chilling on final carcass quality and to evaluate these operations as possible critical control points (CCPs) within a pork slaughter hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system. This study estimated bacterial numbers (total viable counts) and the incidence of Salmonella at three surface locations (ham, belly and neck) on 60 animals/carcasses processed through a small commercial pork abattoir (80 pigs d(-1)). Significant reductions (P HACCP in pork slaughter plants. This research will provide a sound scientific basis on which to develop and implement effective HACCP in pork abattoirs.

  14. Point processes statistics of stable isotopes: analysing water uptake patterns in a mixed stand of Aleppo pine and Holm oak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Comas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding inter- and intra-specific competition for water is crucial in drought-prone environments. However, little is known about the spatial interdependencies for water uptake among individuals in mixed stands. The aim of this work was to compare water uptake patterns during a drought episode in two common Mediterranean tree species, Quercus ilex L. and Pinus halepensis Mill., using the isotope composition of xylem water (δ18O, δ2H as hydrological marker. Area of study: The study was performed in a mixed stand, sampling a total of 33 oaks and 78 pines (plot area= 888 m2. We tested the hypothesis that both species uptake water differentially along the soil profile, thus showing different levels of tree-to-tree interdependency, depending on whether neighbouring trees belong to one species or the other. Material and Methods: We used pair-correlation functions to study intra-specific point-tree configurations and the bivariate pair correlation function to analyse the inter-specific spatial configuration. Moreover, the isotopic composition of xylem water was analysed as a mark point pattern. Main results: Values for Q. ilex (δ18O = –5.3 ± 0.2‰, δ2H = –54.3 ± 0.7‰ were significantly lower than for P. halepensis (δ18O = –1.2 ± 0.2‰, δ2H = –25.1 ± 0.8‰, pointing to a greater contribution of deeper soil layers for water uptake by Q. ilex. Research highlights: Point-process analyses revealed spatial intra-specific dependencies among neighbouring pines, showing neither oak-oak nor oak-pine interactions. This supports niche segregation for water uptake between the two species.

  15. Analysis of Spatial Interpolation in the Material-Point Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Andersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    are obtained using quadratic elements. It is shown that for more complex problems, the use of partially negative shape functions is inconsistent with the material-point method in its current form, necessitating other types of interpolation such as cubic splines in order to obtain smoother representations...

  16. Describing Old Czech Declension Patterns for Automatic Text Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jínová, P.; Lehečka, Boris; Oliva jr., Karel

    -, č. 13 (2014), s. 7-17 ISSN 1579-8372 Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : Old Czech morphology * declension patterns * automatic text analysis * i-stems * ja-stems Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  17. Two dimensional Fourier transform methods for fringe pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Bhat, G.

    An overview of the use of FFTs for fringe pattern analysis is presented, with emphasis on fringe patterns containing displacement information. The techniques are illustrated via analysis of the displacement and strain distributions in the direction perpendicular to the loading, in a disk under diametral compression. The experimental strain distribution is compared to the theoretical, and the agreement is found to be excellent in regions where the elasticity solution models well the actual problem.

  18. Hierarchical spatial point process analysis for a plant community with high biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illian, Janine B.; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    A complex multivariate spatial point pattern of a plant community with high biodiversity is modelled using a hierarchical multivariate point process model. In the model, interactions between plants with different post-fire regeneration strategies are of key interest. We consider initially a maxim...

  19. Data analysis and pattern recognition in multiple databases

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, Animesh; Pedrycz, Witold

    2014-01-01

    Pattern recognition in data is a well known classical problem that falls under the ambit of data analysis. As we need to handle different data, the nature of patterns, their recognition and the types of data analyses are bound to change. Since the number of data collection channels increases in the recent time and becomes more diversified, many real-world data mining tasks can easily acquire multiple databases from various sources. In these cases, data mining becomes more challenging for several essential reasons. We may encounter sensitive data originating from different sources - those cannot be amalgamated. Even if we are allowed to place different data together, we are certainly not able to analyse them when local identities of patterns are required to be retained. Thus, pattern recognition in multiple databases gives rise to a suite of new, challenging problems different from those encountered before. Association rule mining, global pattern discovery, and mining patterns of select items provide different...

  20. Unified analysis of preconditioning methods for saddle point matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2015), s. 233-253 ISSN 1070-5325 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : saddle point problems * preconditioning * spectral properties Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.431, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nla.1947/pdf

  1. Pattern theory the stochastic analysis of real-world signals

    CERN Document Server

    Mumford, David

    2010-01-01

    Pattern theory is a distinctive approach to the analysis of all forms of real-world signals. At its core is the design of a large variety of probabilistic models whose samples reproduce the look and feel of the real signals, their patterns, and their variability. Bayesian statistical inference then allows you to apply these models in the analysis of new signals. This book treats the mathematical tools, the models themselves, and the computational algorithms for applying statistics to analyze six representative classes of signals of increasing complexity. The book covers patterns in text, sound

  2. Foot strike patterns of runners at the 15-km point during an elite-level half marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Takeshi; Kraemer, William J

    2007-08-01

    There are various recommendations by many coaches regarding foot landing techniques in distance running that are meant to improve running performance and prevent injuries. Several studies have investigated the kinematic and kinetic differences between rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), and forefoot strike (FFS) patterns at foot landing and their effects on running efficiency on a treadmill and over ground conditions. However, little is known about the actual condition of the foot strike pattern during an actual road race at the elite level of competition. The purpose of the present study was to document actual foot strike patterns during a half marathon in which elite international level runners, including Olympians, compete. Four hundred fifteen runners were filmed by 2 120-Hz video cameras in the height of 0.15 m placed at the 15.0-km point and obtained sagittal foot landing and taking off images for 283 runners. Rearfoot strike was observed in 74.9% of all analyzed runners, MFS in 23.7%, and FFS in 1.4%. The percentage of MFS was higher in the faster runners group, when all runners were ranked and divided into 50 runner groups at the 15.0-km point of the competition. In the top 50, which included up to the 69th place runner in actual order who passed the 15-km point at 45 minutes, 53 second (this speed represents 5.45 m x s(-1), or 15 minutes, 17 seconds per 5 km), RFS, MFS, and FFS were 62.0, 36.0, and 2.0%, respectively. Contact time (CT) clearly increased for the slower runners, or the placement order increased (r = 0.71, p strike was observed in 42% of all runners. The percentage of INV for MFS was higher than for RFS and FFS (62.5, 32.0, and 50%, respectively). The CT with INV for MFS + FFS was significantly shorter than the CT with and without INV for RFS. Furthermore, the CT with INV was significantly shorter than push-off time without INV for RFS. The findings of this study indicate that foot strike patterns are related to running speed. The

  3. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu-Liang; Shu, Long; Zheng, Pei-Fen; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Lun

    2017-05-01

    The analysis of dietary patterns has recently drawn considerable attention as a method of investigating the association between the overall whole diet and the risk of colorectal cancer. However, the results have yielded conflicting findings. Here, we carried out a meta-analysis to identify the association between dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 40 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The highest category of 'healthy' dietary pattern compared with the lowest category was apparently associated with a decreased risk for colorectal cancer [odds ratio (OR)=0.75; confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.83; Pcolorectal cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest category of a 'western-style' dietary pattern (OR=1.40; CI: 1.26-1.56; Pcolorectal cancer in the highest compared with the lowest category of 'alcohol-consumption' pattern (OR=1.44; CI: 1.13-1.82; P=0.003). The results of this meta-analysis indicate that a 'healthy' dietary pattern may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas 'western-style' and 'alcohol-consumption' patterns may increase the risk of colorectal cancer.

  4. Multivariate analysis of 2-DE protein patterns - Practical approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Jacobsen, Susanne; Grove, H.

    2007-01-01

    Practical approaches to the use of multivariate data analysis of 2-DE protein patterns are demonstrated by three independent strategies for the image analysis and the multivariate analysis on the same set of 2-DE data. Four wheat varieties were selected on the basis of their baking quality. Two...... of the varieties were of strong baking quality and hard wheat kernel and two were of weak baking quality and soft kernel. Gliadins at different stages of grain development were analyzed by the application of multivariate data analysis on images of 2-DEs. Patterns related to the wheat varieties, harvest times...

  5. 3D Facial Pattern Analysis for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    et al. (2001) proposed a two-level Garbor wavelet network (GWN) to detect eight facial features. In Bhuiyan et al. (2003) six facial features are...Toyama, K., Krüger, V., 2001. Hierarchical Wavelet Networks for Facial Feature Localization. ICCV’01 Workshop on Recognition, Analysis and... pathological  (red) and normal structure (blue) (b)  signed distance map (negative distance indicates the  pathological  shape is inside) (c) raw

  6. A note on the statistical analysis of point judgment matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Kabera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Analytic Hierarchy Process is a multicriteria decision making technique developed by Saaty in the 1970s. The core of the approach is the pairwise comparison of objects according to a single criterion using a 9-point ratio scale and the estimation of weights associated with these objects based on the resultant judgment matrix. In the present paper some statistical approaches to extracting the weights of objects from a judgment matrix are reviewed and new ideas which are rooted in the traditional method of paired comparisons are introduced.

  7. Analysis of error patterns in clinical radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklis, Roger; Meier, Tim; Barrett, Patricia; Weinhous, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Until very recently, prescription errors and adverse treatment events have rarely been studied or reported systematically in oncology. We wished to understand the spectrum and severity of radiotherapy errors that take place on a day-to-day basis in a high-volume academic practice and to understand the resource needs and quality assurance challenges placed on a department by rapid upswings in contract-based clinical volumes requiring additional operating hours, procedures, and personnel. The goal was to define clinical benchmarks for operating safety and to detect error-prone treatment processes that might function as 'early warning' signs. Methods: A multi-tiered prospective and retrospective system for clinical error detection and classification was developed, with formal analysis of the antecedents and consequences of all deviations from prescribed treatment delivery, no matter how trivial. A department-wide record-and-verify system was operational during this period and was used as one method of treatment verification and error detection. Brachytherapy discrepancies were analyzed separately. Results: During the analysis year, over 2000 patients were treated with over 93,000 individual fields. A total of 59 errors affecting a total of 170 individual treated fields were reported or detected during this period. After review, all of these errors were classified as Level 1 (minor discrepancy with essentially no potential for negative clinical implications). This total treatment delivery error rate (170/93, 332 or 0.18%) is significantly better than corresponding error rates reported for other hospital and oncology treatment services, perhaps reflecting the relatively sophisticated error avoidance and detection procedures used in modern clinical radiation oncology. Error rates were independent of linac model and manufacturer, time of day (normal operating hours versus late evening or early morning) or clinical machine volumes. There was some relationship to

  8. Super-Relaxed ( -Proximal Point Algorithms, Relaxed ( -Proximal Point Algorithms, Linear Convergence Analysis, and Nonlinear Variational Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal RaviP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We glance at recent advances to the general theory of maximal (set-valued monotone mappings and their role demonstrated to examine the convex programming and closely related field of nonlinear variational inequalities. We focus mostly on applications of the super-relaxed ( -proximal point algorithm to the context of solving a class of nonlinear variational inclusion problems, based on the notion of maximal ( -monotonicity. Investigations highlighted in this communication are greatly influenced by the celebrated work of Rockafellar (1976, while others have played a significant part as well in generalizing the proximal point algorithm considered by Rockafellar (1976 to the case of the relaxed proximal point algorithm by Eckstein and Bertsekas (1992. Even for the linear convergence analysis for the overrelaxed (or super-relaxed ( -proximal point algorithm, the fundamental model for Rockafellar's case does the job. Furthermore, we attempt to explore possibilities of generalizing the Yosida regularization/approximation in light of maximal ( -monotonicity, and then applying to first-order evolution equations/inclusions.

  9. Low dose response analysis through a cytogenetic end-point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojtor, I.; Koeteles, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of low doses were studied on human lymphocytes of various individuals. The frequency of micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked cultured lymphocytes was taken as end-point. The probability distribution of radiation-induced increment was statistically proved and identified as to be asymmetric when the blood samples had been irradiated with doses of 0.01-0.05 Gy of X-rays, similarly to that in unirradiated control population. On the contrary, at or above 1 Gy the corresponding normal curve could be accepted only reflecting an approximately symmetrical scatter of the increments about their mean value. It was found that the slope as well as the closeness of correlation of the variables considerably changed when lower and lower dose ranges had been selected. Below approximately 0.2 Gy even an unrelatedness was found betwen the absorbed dose and the increment

  10. Framework for adaptive multiscale analysis of nonhomogeneous point processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgason, Hannes; Bartroff, Jay; Abry, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    We develop the methodology for hypothesis testing and model selection in nonhomogeneous Poisson processes, with an eye toward the application of modeling and variability detection in heart beat data. Modeling the process' non-constant rate function using templates of simple basis functions, we develop the generalized likelihood ratio statistic for a given template and a multiple testing scheme to model-select from a family of templates. A dynamic programming algorithm inspired by network flows is used to compute the maximum likelihood template in a multiscale manner. In a numerical example, the proposed procedure is nearly as powerful as the super-optimal procedures that know the true template size and true partition, respectively. Extensions to general history-dependent point processes is discussed.

  11. Description and Analysis Pattern for Theses and Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirous Alidousti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissertations and theses that are generated in course of research at PhD and Masters levels are considered to be important scientific documents in every country. Data description and analysis of such documents collected together, could automatically - especially when compared with data from other resources - provide new information that is very valuable. Nevertheless, no comprehensive, integrated pattern exists for such description and analysis. The present paper offers the findings of a research conducted for devising an information analysis pattern for dissertations and theses. It also puts forward information categories derived from such documents that could be described and analyzed.

  12. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS FROM AN ACCOUNTING POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ungureanu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the developments which tend to relax the relationship between financial analysis and accounting, property information provided by the latter irreplaceable render its use for diagnostic approaches financial foundation. An efficient information system can provide relevant indicators to users based on accurate and real information and financial analysis results are based on a diagnosis of return and risk. The aim of this article is to present primarily the origin and evolution of the relationship between financial analysis and accounting, and the fundamental role which accounting holds, through the information it produces, into analysts’ work. The used research method is the bibliographic one, being studied timely books and articles of the domain. Literature does not provide concrete answers to this problem, resolutions being expected especially from practitioners.

  13. Analysis of Arbitrary Reflector Antennas Applying the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction Together with the Master Points Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Algar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient approach for the analysis of surface conformed reflector antennas fed arbitrarily is presented. The near field in a large number of sampling points in the aperture of the reflector is obtained applying the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD. A new technique named Master Points has been developed to reduce the complexity of the ray-tracing computations. The combination of both GTD and Master Points reduces the time requirements of this kind of analysis. To validate the new approach, several reflectors and the effects on the radiation pattern caused by shifting the feed and introducing different obstacles have been considered concerning both simple and complex geometries. The results of these analyses have been compared with the Method of Moments (MoM results.

  14. Cognitive approaches for patterns analysis and security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiela, Marek R.; Ogiela, Lidia

    2017-08-01

    In this paper will be presented new opportunities for developing innovative solutions for semantic pattern classification and visual cryptography, which will base on cognitive and bio-inspired approaches. Such techniques can be used for evaluation of the meaning of analyzed patterns or encrypted information, and allow to involve such meaning into the classification task or encryption process. It also allows using some crypto-biometric solutions to extend personalized cryptography methodologies based on visual pattern analysis. In particular application of cognitive information systems for semantic analysis of different patterns will be presented, and also a novel application of such systems for visual secret sharing will be described. Visual shares for divided information can be created based on threshold procedure, which may be dependent on personal abilities to recognize some image details visible on divided images.

  15. EFFECTS OF HETEROGENIETY ON SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS OF WILD PISTACHIO TREES IN ZAGROS WOODLANDS, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erfanifard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation heterogeneity biases second-order summary statistics, e.g., Ripley's K-function, applied for spatial pattern analysis in ecology. Second-order investigation based on Ripley's K-function and related statistics (i.e., L- and pair correlation function g is widely used in ecology to develop hypothesis on underlying processes by characterizing spatial patterns of vegetation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate effects of underlying heterogeneity of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf. trees on the second-order summary statistics of point pattern analysis in a part of Zagros woodlands, Iran. The spatial distribution of 431 wild pistachio trees was accurately mapped in a 40 ha stand in the Wild Pistachio & Almond Research Site, Fars province, Iran. Three commonly used second-order summary statistics (i.e., K-, L-, and g-functions were applied to analyse their spatial pattern. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test showed that the observed pattern significantly followed an inhomogeneous Poisson process null model in the study region. The results also showed that heterogeneous pattern of wild pistachio trees biased the homogeneous form of K-, L-, and g-functions, demonstrating a stronger aggregation of the trees at the scales of 0–50 m than actually existed and an aggregation at scales of 150–200 m, while regularly distributed. Consequently, we showed that heterogeneity of point patterns may bias the results of homogeneous second-order summary statistics and we also suggested applying inhomogeneous summary statistics with related null models for spatial pattern analysis of heterogeneous vegetations.

  16. Effects of Heterogeniety on Spatial Pattern Analysis of Wild Pistachio Trees in Zagros Woodlands, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Rezayan, F.

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation heterogeneity biases second-order summary statistics, e.g., Ripley's K-function, applied for spatial pattern analysis in ecology. Second-order investigation based on Ripley's K-function and related statistics (i.e., L- and pair correlation function g) is widely used in ecology to develop hypothesis on underlying processes by characterizing spatial patterns of vegetation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate effects of underlying heterogeneity of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) trees on the second-order summary statistics of point pattern analysis in a part of Zagros woodlands, Iran. The spatial distribution of 431 wild pistachio trees was accurately mapped in a 40 ha stand in the Wild Pistachio & Almond Research Site, Fars province, Iran. Three commonly used second-order summary statistics (i.e., K-, L-, and g-functions) were applied to analyse their spatial pattern. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test showed that the observed pattern significantly followed an inhomogeneous Poisson process null model in the study region. The results also showed that heterogeneous pattern of wild pistachio trees biased the homogeneous form of K-, L-, and g-functions, demonstrating a stronger aggregation of the trees at the scales of 0-50 m than actually existed and an aggregation at scales of 150-200 m, while regularly distributed. Consequently, we showed that heterogeneity of point patterns may bias the results of homogeneous second-order summary statistics and we also suggested applying inhomogeneous summary statistics with related null models for spatial pattern analysis of heterogeneous vegetations.

  17. Multi-spatial analysis of aeolian dune-field patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Ryan C.; McDonald, George D.; Hayes, Alex G.

    2015-07-01

    Aeolian dune-fields are composed of different spatial scales of bedform patterns that respond to changes in environmental boundary conditions over a wide range of time scales. This study examines how variations in spatial scales of dune and ripple patterns found within dune fields are used in environmental reconstructions on Earth, Mars and Titan. Within a single bedform type, different spatial scales of bedforms emerge as a pattern evolves from an initial state into a well-organized pattern, such as with the transition from protodunes to dunes. Additionally, different types of bedforms, such as ripples, coarse-grained ripples and dunes, coexist at different spatial scales within a dune-field. Analysis of dune-field patterns at the intersection of different scales and types of bedforms at different stages of development provides a more comprehensive record of sediment supply and wind regime than analysis of a single scale and type of bedform. Interpretations of environmental conditions from any scale of bedform, however, are limited to environmental signals associated with the response time of that bedform. Large-scale dune-field patterns integrate signals over long-term climate cycles and reveal little about short-term variations in wind or sediment supply. Wind ripples respond instantly to changing conditions, but reveal little about longer-term variations in wind or sediment supply. Recognizing the response time scales across different spatial scales of bedforms maximizes environmental interpretations from dune-field patterns.

  18. An improved Pattern Search based algorithm to solve the Dynamic Economic Dispatch problem with valve-point effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsumait, J.S.; Qasem, M.; Sykulski, J.K.; Al-Othman, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an improved algorithm based on Pattern Search method (PS) to solve the Dynamic Economic Dispatch is proposed. The algorithm maintains the essential unit ramp rate constraint, along with all other necessary constraints, not only for the time horizon of operation (24 h), but it preserves these constraints through the transaction period to the next time horizon (next day) in order to avoid the discontinuity of the power system operation. The Dynamic Economic and Emission Dispatch problem (DEED) is also considered. The load balance constraints, operating limits, valve-point loading and network losses are included in the models of both DED and DEED. The numerical results clarify the significance of the improved algorithm and verify its performance.

  19. Numerical analysis of a neural network with hierarchically organized patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacci, Silvia; Wiecko, Cristina; Parga, Nestor

    1988-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the retrieval behaviour of an associative memory model where the memorized patterns are stored hierarchically is performed. It is found that the model is able to categorize errors. For a finite number of categories, these are retrieved correctly even when the stored patterns are not. Instead, when they are allowed to increase with the number of neurons, their retrieval quality deteriorates above a critical category capacity. (Author)

  20. Thermomagnetic instabilities in a vertical layer of ferrofluid: nonlinear analysis away from a critical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Pinkee; Suslov, Sergey A, E-mail: ssuslov@swin.edu.au [Department of Mathematics H38, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    A finite amplitude instability has been analysed to discover the exact mechanism leading to the appearance of stationary magnetoconvection patterns in a vertical layer of a non-conducting ferrofluid heated from the side and placed in an external magnetic field perpendicular to the walls. The physical results have been obtained using a version of a weakly nonlinear analysis that is based on the disturbance amplitude expansion. It enables a low-dimensional reduction of a full nonlinear problem in supercritical regimes away from a bifurcation point. The details of the reduction are given in comparison with traditional small-parameter expansions. It is also demonstrated that Squire’s transformation can be introduced for higher-order nonlinear terms thus reducing the full three-dimensional problem to its equivalent two-dimensional counterpart and enabling significant computational savings. The full three-dimensional instability patterns are subsequently recovered using the inverse transforms The analysed stationary thermomagnetic instability is shown to occur as a result of a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. (paper)

  1. Thermomagnetic instabilities in a vertical layer of ferrofluid: nonlinear analysis away from a critical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Pinkee; Suslov, Sergey A

    2016-01-01

    A finite amplitude instability has been analysed to discover the exact mechanism leading to the appearance of stationary magnetoconvection patterns in a vertical layer of a non-conducting ferrofluid heated from the side and placed in an external magnetic field perpendicular to the walls. The physical results have been obtained using a version of a weakly nonlinear analysis that is based on the disturbance amplitude expansion. It enables a low-dimensional reduction of a full nonlinear problem in supercritical regimes away from a bifurcation point. The details of the reduction are given in comparison with traditional small-parameter expansions. It is also demonstrated that Squire’s transformation can be introduced for higher-order nonlinear terms thus reducing the full three-dimensional problem to its equivalent two-dimensional counterpart and enabling significant computational savings. The full three-dimensional instability patterns are subsequently recovered using the inverse transforms The analysed stationary thermomagnetic instability is shown to occur as a result of a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. (paper)

  2. Human detection and motion analysis at security points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, I. Burak; Lv, Tiehan; Wolf, Wayne H.

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents a real-time video surveillance system for the recognition of specific human activities. Specifically, the proposed automatic motion analysis is used as an on-line alarm system to detect abnormal situations in a campus environment. A smart multi-camera system developed at Princeton University is extended for use in smart environments in which the camera detects the presence of multiple persons as well as their gestures and their interaction in real-time.

  3. Study of landscape patterns of variation and optimization based on non-point source pollution control in an estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengzhen; Chen, Haiying; Chen, Qinghui; Wu, Haiyan

    2014-10-15

    Appropriate increases in the "sink" of a landscape can reduce the risk of non-point source pollution (NPSP) to the sea at relatively lower costs and at a higher efficiency. Based on high-resolution remote sensing image data taken between 2003 and 2008, we analyzed the "source" and "sink" landscape pattern variations of nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants in the Jiulongjiang estuary region. The contribution to the sea and distribution of each pollutant in the region was calculated using the LCI and mGLCI models. The results indicated that an increased amount of pollutants was contributed to the sea, and the "source" area of the nitrogen NPSP in the study area increased by 32.75 km(2). We also propose a landscape pattern optimization to reduce pollution in the Jiulongjiang estuary in 2008 through the conversion of cultivated land with slopes greater than 15° and paddy fields near rivers, and an increase in mangrove areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fatigue-Induced Changes in Movement Pattern and Muscle Activity During Ballet Releve on Demi-Pointe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, Wan-Chin; Chen, Yi-An; Hsue, Bih-Jen

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue in ballet dancers may lead to injury, particularly in the lower extremities. However, few studies have investigated the effects of fatigue on ballet dancers' performance and movement patterns. Thus, the current study examines the effect of fatigue on the balance, movement pattern, and muscle activities of the lower extremities in ballet dancers. Twenty healthy, female ballet dancers performed releve on demi-pointe before and after fatigue. The trajectory of the whole body movement and the muscle activities of the major lower extremity muscles were recorded continuously during task performance. The results show that fatigue increases the medial-lateral center of mass (COM) displacement and hip and trunk motion, but decreases the COM velocity and ankle motion. Moreover, fatigue reduces the activities of the hamstrings and tibialis anterior, but increases that of the soleus. Finally, greater proximal hip and trunk motions are applied to compensate for the effects of fatigue, leading to a greater COM movement. Overall, the present findings show that fatigue results in impaired movement control and may therefore increase the risk of dance injury.

  5. Automated extraction and analysis of rock discontinuity characteristics from 3D point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchetti, Matteo; Villa, Alberto; Agliardi, Federico; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2016-04-01

    A reliable characterization of fractured rock masses requires an exhaustive geometrical description of discontinuities, including orientation, spacing, and size. These are required to describe discontinuum rock mass structure, perform Discrete Fracture Network and DEM modelling, or provide input for rock mass classification or equivalent continuum estimate of rock mass properties. Although several advanced methodologies have been developed in the last decades, a complete characterization of discontinuity geometry in practice is still challenging, due to scale-dependent variability of fracture patterns and difficult accessibility to large outcrops. Recent advances in remote survey techniques, such as terrestrial laser scanning and digital photogrammetry, allow a fast and accurate acquisition of dense 3D point clouds, which promoted the development of several semi-automatic approaches to extract discontinuity features. Nevertheless, these often need user supervision on algorithm parameters which can be difficult to assess. To overcome this problem, we developed an original Matlab tool, allowing fast, fully automatic extraction and analysis of discontinuity features with no requirements on point cloud accuracy, density and homogeneity. The tool consists of a set of algorithms which: (i) process raw 3D point clouds, (ii) automatically characterize discontinuity sets, (iii) identify individual discontinuity surfaces, and (iv) analyse their spacing and persistence. The tool operates in either a supervised or unsupervised mode, starting from an automatic preliminary exploration data analysis. The identification and geometrical characterization of discontinuity features is divided in steps. First, coplanar surfaces are identified in the whole point cloud using K-Nearest Neighbor and Principal Component Analysis algorithms optimized on point cloud accuracy and specified typical facet size. Then, discontinuity set orientation is calculated using Kernel Density Estimation and

  6. Data and statistical methods for analysis of trends and patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.; Gentillon, C.D.; Wilson, G.E.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes topics considered at a working meeting on data and statistical methods for analysis of trends and patterns in US commercial nuclear power plants. This meeting was sponsored by the Office of Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Three data sets are briefly described: Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS), Licensee Event Report (LER) data, and Performance Indicator data. Two types of study are emphasized: screening studies, to see if any trends or patterns appear to be present; and detailed studies, which are more concerned with checking the analysis assumptions, modeling any patterns that are present, and searching for causes. A prescription is given for a screening study, and ideas are suggested for a detailed study, when the data take of any of three forms: counts of events per time, counts of events per demand, and non-event data

  7. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shengfeng; An, Wei; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    The codon usage patterns of rhizobia have received increasing attention. However, little information is available regarding the conserved features of the codon usage patterns in a typical rhizobial genus. The codon usage patterns of six completely sequenced strains belonging to the genus Rhizobium were analysed as model rhizobia in the present study. The relative neutrality plot showed that selection pressure played a role in codon usage in the genus Rhizobium. Spearman's rank correlation analysis combined with correspondence analysis (COA) showed that the codon adaptation index and the effective number of codons (ENC) had strong correlation with the first axis of the COA, which indicated the important role of gene expression level and the ENC in the codon usage patterns in this genus. The relative synonymous codon usage of Cys codons had the strongest correlation with the second axis of the COA. Accordingly, the usage of Cys codons was another important factor that shaped the codon usage patterns in Rhizobium genomes and was a conserved feature of the genus. Moreover, the comparison of codon usage between highly and lowly expressed genes showed that 20 unique preferred codons were shared among Rhizobium genomes, revealing another conserved feature of the genus. This is the first report of the codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

  8. Reactor noise analysis by statistical pattern recognition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howington, L.C.; Gonzalez, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    A multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis is presented. The basis of the system is a transformation for decoupling correlated variables and algorithms for inferring probability density functions. The system is adaptable to a variety of statistical properties of the data, and it has learning, tracking, updating, and data compacting capabilities. System design emphasizes control of the false-alarm rate. Its abilities to learn normal patterns, to recognize deviations from these patterns, and to reduce the dimensionality of data with minimum error were evaluated by experiments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Flux Isotope Reactor. Power perturbations of less than 0.1 percent of the mean value in selected frequency ranges were detected by the pattern recognition system

  9. Modeling activity patterns of wildlife using time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jindong; Hull, Vanessa; Ouyang, Zhiyun; He, Liang; Connor, Thomas; Yang, Hongbo; Huang, Jinyan; Zhou, Shiqiang; Zhang, Zejun; Zhou, Caiquan; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Jianguo

    2017-04-01

    The study of wildlife activity patterns is an effective approach to understanding fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes. However, traditional statistical approaches used to conduct quantitative analysis have thus far had limited success in revealing underlying mechanisms driving activity patterns. Here, we combine wavelet analysis, a type of frequency-based time-series analysis, with high-resolution activity data from accelerometers embedded in GPS collars to explore the effects of internal states (e.g., pregnancy) and external factors (e.g., seasonal dynamics of resources and weather) on activity patterns of the endangered giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ). Giant pandas exhibited higher frequency cycles during the winter when resources (e.g., water and forage) were relatively poor, as well as during spring, which includes the giant panda's mating season. During the summer and autumn when resources were abundant, pandas exhibited a regular activity pattern with activity peaks every 24 hr. A pregnant individual showed distinct differences in her activity pattern from other giant pandas for several months following parturition. These results indicate that animals adjust activity cycles to adapt to seasonal variation of the resources and unique physiological periods. Wavelet coherency analysis also verified the synchronization of giant panda activity level with air temperature and solar radiation at the 24-hr band. Our study also shows that wavelet analysis is an effective tool for analyzing high-resolution activity pattern data and its relationship to internal and external states, an approach that has the potential to inform wildlife conservation and management across species.

  10. Standard hazard analysis, critical control point and hotel management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujačić Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a dynamic category which is continuously evolving in the world. Specificities that have to be respected in the execution in relation to the food industry are connected with the fact that the main differences which exist regarding the food serving procedure in catering, numerous complex recipes and production technologies, staff fluctuation, old equipment. For an effective and permanent implementation, the HACCP concept is very important for building a serious base. In this case, the base is represented by the people handling the food. This paper presents international ISO standards, the concept of HACCP and the importance of its application in the tourism and hospitality industry. The concept of HACCP is a food safety management system through the analysis and control of biological, chemical and physical hazards in the entire process, from raw material production, procurement, handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of the application of HACCP concept in tourism and hotel management as a recognizable international standard.

  11. Dietary patterns and depression risk: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Lv, Mei-Rong; Wei, Yan-Jin; Sun, Ling; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Zhang, Huai-Guo; Li, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Although some studies have reported potential associations of dietary patterns with depression risk, a consistent perspective hasn't been estimated to date. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the relation between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. A literature research was conducted searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to September 2016. In total, 21 studies from ten countries met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present meta-analysis. A dietary pattern characterized by a high intakes of fruit, vegetables, whole grain, fish, olive oil, low-fat dairy and antioxidants and low intakes of animal foods was apparently associated with a decreased risk of depression. A dietary pattern characterized by a high consumption of red and/or processed meat, refined grains, sweets, high-fat dairy products, butter, potatoes and high-fat gravy, and low intakes of fruits and vegetables is associated with an increased risk of depression. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that healthy pattern may decrease the risk of depression, whereas western-style may increase the risk of depression. However, more randomized controlled trails and cohort studies are urgently required to confirm this findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Visibility Analysis in a Point Cloud Based on the Medial Axis Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.; Ledoux, H.; Biljecki, F.

    2015-01-01

    Visibility analysis is an important application of 3D GIS data. Current approaches require 3D city models that are often derived from detailed aerial point clouds. We present an approach to visibility analysis that does not require a city model but works directly on the point cloud. Our approach is

  13. Microbiological analysis of critical points in the chicken industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Luis Cansian

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on identifying microbial contamination in the scalding asepsis and cooling processes as well as in fresh sausages obtained. Salmonella was identified in two scald water samples but was absent in the water from chiller and in the final product, which might be explained in terms of chlorine addition and temperature reduction. The analysis revealed that MPN of Escherichia coli was in the range of O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar a contaminação microbiana no processo de escaldagem, assepsia e resfriamento do frango (chiller, e em linguiças de frango produzidas a partir destes. As amostras foram coletadas em um frigorífico de aves, em sete datas e analisadas em triplicata. A presença de Salmonella foi detectada em duas amostras da água de escaldagem não estando mais presente na água do chiller e nem no produto final. Isto se deve à redução de temperatura da água e adição de cloro. O NMP de coliformes fecais variou entre < 1 a 11/ml na água de escaldagem e < 1 a 64/ml na água do chiller, que embora em padrões aceitáveis, mostram tendência de acréscimo no chiller, devido principalmente ao processo de evisceração. As contagens de Aeromonas variaram de 5 a 3,5x10¹UFC/ml na água de escaldagem e 9 a 3,7x10²UFC/ml na água do chiller. Este acréscimo se deve, provavelmente, por Aeromonas ser psicrófila e também devido a retirada das víceras. As análises de linguiça de frango mostraram acréscimo nas contagens de Aeromonas, apresentando até 2,5x10³UFC/g. Esta tendência de aumento de crescimento no produto final, aliado a capacidade de causar infecções de Aeromonas demonstram a necessidade de incluir a análise destas nas avaliações microbiológicas de alimentos.

  14. Hidden pattern discovery on epileptic EEG with 1-D local binary patterns and epileptic seizures detection by grey relational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yılmaz

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to detect epilepsy seizures by using Electroencephalography (EEG), which is one of the most common methods for the diagnosis of epilepsy, based on 1-Dimension Local Binary Pattern (1D-LBP) and grey relational analysis (GRA) methods. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate and validate a novel approach, which is a computer-based quantitative EEG analyzing method and based on grey systems, aimed to help decision-maker. In this study, 1D-LBP, which utilizes all data points, was employed for extracting features in raw EEG signals, Fisher score (FS) was employed to select the representative features, which can also be determined as hidden patterns. Additionally, GRA is performed to classify EEG signals through these Fisher scored features. The experimental results of the proposed approach, which was employed in a public dataset for validation, showed that it has a high accuracy in identifying epileptic EEG signals. For various combinations of epileptic EEG, such as A-E, B-E, C-E, D-E, and A-D clusters, 100, 96, 100, 99.00 and 100% were achieved, respectively. Also, this work presents an attempt to develop a new general-purpose hidden pattern determination scheme, which can be utilized for different categories of time-varying signals.

  15. Investigating Convergence Patterns for Numerical Methods Using Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the patterns that arise in the convergence of numerical methods, particularly those in the errors involved in successive iterations, using data analysis and curve fitting methods. In particular, the results obtained are used to convey a deeper level of understanding of the concepts of linear, quadratic, and cubic…

  16. Patterns of Intergenerational Occupational Movements: A Smallest-Space Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    1974-01-01

    Data collected by the smallest-space analysis technique indicates a pattern of occupational inheritance from father to son and the tendency of sons to choose work offering their fathers' vocational experiences, which supports the hypothesis that attributes of fathers' occupations are related to values transmitted to sons and reflected in their…

  17. Image processing and pattern recognition algorithms for evaluation of crossed immunoelectrophoretic patterns (crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis analysis manager; CREAM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, I; Poulsen, L K; Hagerup, M

    1987-01-01

    points along the precipitation curve in the curve-fitting process. The system has been tested on crossed immunoelectrophoretic patterns as well as crossed radioimmunoelectrophoretic patterns and it has been shown that the system can recognize the same precipitation curves on different immunoplates...

  18. The Purification Method of Matching Points Based on Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The traditional purification method of matching points usually uses a small number of the points as initial input. Though it can meet most of the requirements of point constraints, the iterative purification solution is easy to fall into local extreme, which results in the missing of correct matching points. To solve this problem, we introduce the principal component analysis method to use the whole point set as initial input. And thorough mismatching points step eliminating and robust solving, more accurate global optimal solution, which intends to reduce the omission rate of correct matching points and thus reaches better purification effect, can be obtained. Experimental results show that this method can obtain the global optimal solution under a certain original false matching rate, and can decrease or avoid the omission of correct matching points.

  19. Application of pattern recognition techniques to crime analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.F.; Cox, L.A. Jr.; Chappell, G.A.

    1976-08-15

    The initial goal was to evaluate the capabilities of current pattern recognition techniques when applied to existing computerized crime data. Performance was to be evaluated both in terms of the system's capability to predict crimes and to optimize police manpower allocation. A relation was sought to predict the crime's susceptibility to solution, based on knowledge of the crime type, location, time, etc. The preliminary results of this work are discussed. They indicate that automatic crime analysis involving pattern recognition techniques is feasible, and that efforts to determine optimum variables and techniques are warranted. 47 figures (RWR)

  20. Multitemporal spatial pattern analysis of Tulum's tropical coastal landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Forero, Sandra Carolina; López-Caloca, Alejandra; Silván-Cárdenas, José Luis

    2011-11-01

    The tropical coastal landscape of Tulum in Quintana Roo, Mexico has a high ecological, economical, social and cultural value, it provides environmental and tourism services at global, national, regional and local levels. The landscape of the area is heterogeneous and presents random fragmentation patterns. In recent years, tourist services of the region has been increased promoting an accelerate expansion of hotels, transportation and recreation infrastructure altering the complex landscape. It is important to understand the environmental dynamics through temporal changes on the spatial patterns and to propose a better management of this ecological area to the authorities. This paper addresses a multi-temporal analysis of land cover changes from 1993 to 2000 in Tulum using Thematic Mapper data acquired by Landsat-5. Two independent methodologies were applied for the analysis of changes in the landscape and for the definition of fragmentation patterns. First, an Iteratively Multivariate Alteration Detection (IR-MAD) algorithm was used to detect and localize land cover change/no-change areas. Second, the post-classification change detection evaluated using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. Landscape metrics were calculated from the results of IR-MAD and SVM. The analysis of the metrics indicated, among other things, a higher fragmentation pattern along roadways.

  1. Analysis of metabolomic patterns in thoroughbreds before and after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jun Jang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Evaluation of exercise effects in racehorses is important in horseracing industry and animal health care. In this study, we compared metabolic patterns between before and after exercise to screen metabolic biomarkers for exercise effects in thoroughbreds. Methods The concentration of metabolites in muscle, plasma, and urine was measured by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy analysis and the relative metabolite levels in the three samples were compared between before and after exercise. Subsequently, multivariate data analysis based on the metabolic profiles was performed using orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA and variable important plots and t-test was used for basic statistical analysis. Results From 1H NMR spectroscopy analysis, 35, 25, and 34 metabolites were detected in the muscle, plasma, and urine. Aspartate, betaine, choline, cysteine, ethanol, and threonine were increased over 2-fold in the muscle; propionate and trimethylamine were increased over 2-fold in the plasma; and alanine, glycerol, inosine, lactate, and pyruvate were increased over 2-fold whereas acetoacetate, arginine, citrulline, creatine, glutamine, glutarate, hippurate, lysine, methionine, phenylacetylglycine, taurine, trigonelline, trimethylamine, and trimethylamine N-oxide were decreased below 0.5-fold in the urine. The OPLS-DA showed clear separation of the metabolic patterns before and after exercise in the muscle, plasma, and urine. Statistical analysis showed that after exercise, acetoacetate, arginine, glutamine, hippurate, phenylacetylglycine trimethylamine, trimethylamine N-oxide, and trigonelline were significantly decreased and alanine, glycerol, inosine, lactate, and pyruvate were significantly increased in the urine (p<0.05. Conclusion In conclusion, we analyzed integrated metabolic patterns in the muscle, plasma, and urine before and after exercise in racehorses. We found changed patterns of metabolites in

  2. Multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.C.; Howington, L.C.; Sides, W.H. Jr.; Kryter, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    A multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis was developed. The basis of the system is a transformation for decoupling correlated variables and algorithms for inferring probability density functions. The system is adaptable to a variety of statistical properties of the data, and it has learning, tracking, and updating capabilities. System design emphasizes control of the false-alarm rate. The ability of the system to learn normal patterns of reactor behavior and to recognize deviations from these patterns was evaluated by experiments at the ORNL High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Power perturbations of less than 0.1 percent of the mean value in selected frequency ranges were detected by the system

  3. Multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.C.; Howington, L.C.; Sides, W.H. Jr.; Kryter, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    A multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis was developed. The basis of the system is a transformation for decoupling correlated variables and algorithms for inferring probability density functions. The system is adaptable to a variety of statistical properties of the data, and it has learning, tracking, and updating capabilities. System design emphasizes control of the false-alarm rate. The ability of the system to learn normal patterns of reactor behavior and to recognize deviations from these patterns was evaluated by experiments at the ORNL High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Power perturbations of less than 0.1 percent of the mean value in selected frequency ranges were detected by the system. 19 references

  4. Rainfall Patterns Analysis over Ampangan Muda, Kedah from 2007 - 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooi Tan, Kok

    2018-04-01

    The scientific knowledge about climate change and climate variability over Malaysia pertaining to the extreme water-related disaster such as drought and flood. A deficit or increment in precipitation occurred over the past century becomes a useful tool to understand the climate change in Malaysia. The purpose of this work is to examine the rainfall patterns over Ampangan Muda, Kedah. Daily rainfall data is acquired from Malaysian Meteorological Department to analyse the temporal and trends of the monthly and annual rainfall over the study area from 2007 to 2016. The obtained results show that the temporal and patterns of the rainfall over Ampangan Muda, Kedah is largely affected by the regional phenomena such as monsoon, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the Madden-Julian Oscillation. In addition, backward trajectories analysis is also used to identify the patterns for long-range of synoptic circulation over the region.

  5. Dual keel Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagala, Tom; Class, Brian F.; Bauer, Frank H.; Lebair, Deborah A.

    1988-01-01

    A Space Station attached Payload Pointing System (PPS) has been designed and analyzed. The PPS is responsible for maintaining fixed payload pointing in the presence of disturbance applied to the Space Station. The payload considered in this analysis is the Solar Optical Telescope. System performance is evaluated via digital time simulations by applying various disturbance forces to the Space Station. The PPS meets the Space Station articulated pointing requirement for all disturbances except Shuttle docking and some centrifuge cases.

  6. A Social Network Analysis of Tourist Movement Patterns in Blogs: Korean Backpackers in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Chung Chung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Given recent developments in information and communication technology, the number of individual tourists enjoying free travel without the advice of travel agencies is increasing. Therefore, such tourists can visit more tourist destinations and create more complex movement patterns than mass tourists. These tourist movement patterns are a key factor in understanding tourist behavior and they contain various information that is important for tourism marketers. In this vein, this study aims to investigate tourist movement patterns in Europe. We acquired 122 data points from posts on the NAVER blog, which is the most famous social media platform in Korea. These data were transformed into matrix data for social network analysis and analyzed for centrality. The results suggest that Korean backpackers in Europe tend to enter Europe through London and Paris. Venezia and Firenze are also key cities.

  7. Spatial Point Data Analysis of Geolocated Tweets in the First Day of Eid Al-Fitr 2017 in Java Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    Eid Al-Fitr is a worldwide Muslim feast day, which in Indonesia generally accompanied by tradition of going home (mudik). The demographic patterns at the time of the holiday are generally shifted, in which some urban residents will travel to their hometowns. The impact of this shifting is that there is a quite massive mobility of the population, which is generally accompanied by traffic congestion. The presence of location sensors on smartphone devices, open the opportunity to map the movement of the population in realtime or near-realtime. Especially now that social media applications have been integrated with the capability to include location information. One of the popular social media applications in Indonesia is Twitter, which provides microblogging facilities to its users. This study aims to analyze the pattern of Geolocated Tweets data uploaded by Twitter users on the first day of Eid Al-Fitr (1 Syawal 1438H). Geolocated Tweets data mining is done by using Streaming API (Application Programming Interface) and Python programming language. There are 13,224 Geolocated Tweets points obtained at the location of the study. Various point data analysis techniques applied to the data have been collected, such as density analysis, pattern analysis, and proximity analysis. In general, active Twitter users are dominated by residents in major cities, such as Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, Yogyakarta, Surakarta and Semarang. The results of the analysis can be used to determine whether the Geolocated Tweets data mined by the Streaming API method can be used to represent the movement of the population when mudik.

  8. Homotopy analysis solutions of point kinetics equations with one delayed precursor group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qian; Luo Lei; Chen Zhiyun; Li Haofeng

    2010-01-01

    Homotopy analysis method is proposed to obtain series solutions of nonlinear differential equations. Homotopy analysis method was applied for the point kinetics equations with one delayed precursor group. Analytic solutions were obtained using homotopy analysis method, and the algorithm was analysed. The results show that the algorithm computation time and precision agree with the engineering requirements. (authors)

  9. Integrating single-point vibrometer and full-field electronic speckle pattern interferometer to evaluate a micro-speaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chi; Chen, Yu-Chi; Chien, Chih-Jen; Wang, An-Bang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2011-04-01

    A testing system contains an advanced vibrometer/interferometer device (AVID) and a high-speed electronic speckle pattern interferometer (ESPI) was developed. AVID is a laser Doppler vibrometer that can be used to detect single-point linear and angular velocity with DC to 20 MHz bandwidth and with nanometer resolution. In swept frequency mode, frequency response from mHz to MHz of the structure of interest can be measured. The ESPI experimental setup can be used to measure full-field out-of-plane displacement. A 5-1 phase shifting method and a correlation algorithm were used to analyze the phase difference between the reference signal and the speckle signal scattered from the sample surface. In order to show the efficiency and effectiveness of AVID and ESPI, we designed a micro-speaker composed of a plate with fixed boundaries and two piezo-actuators attached to the sides of the plate. The AVID was used to measure the vibration of one of the piezo-actuators and the ESPI was adopted to measure the two-dimensional out-of-plane displacement of the plate. A microphone was used to measure the acoustic response created by the micro-speaker. Driving signal includes random signal, sinusoidal signal, amplitude modulated high-frequency carrier signal, etc. Angular response induced by amplitude modulated high-frequency carrier signal was found to be significantly narrower than the frequency responses created by other types of driving signals. The validity of our newly developed NDE system are detailed by comparing the relationship between the vibration signal of the micro-speaker and the acoustic field generated.

  10. Preferred chewing side-dependent two-point discrimination and cortical activation pattern of tactile tongue sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Akiko; Ono, Takashi; Miyamoto, Jun J; Honda, Ei-ichi; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Moriyama, Keiji

    2009-10-12

    Although tactile feedback from the tongue should contribute to habitual chewing, it is unclear how the sensation of the tongue and its projection to the central nervous system differ with regard to the preferred chewing side (PCS). The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) whether the sensory threshold of the tongue differed according to the side and (2) whether the pattern of hemispheric cortical activation by tactile tongue stimulation differed, with special attention to the PCS. Twelve healthy adults participated in the study. The PCS was determined with a mandibular kinesiograph. In the behavioral study, the mean thresholds for two-point discrimination (TPD) in the anterior, canine and posterior regions on both sides of the tongue, and those between PCS and non-PCS in each region were statistically compared. In the functional magnetic resonance imaging study, tactile stimulation was delivered to either side of the tongue with acrylic balls via a mandibular splint. The runs were measured with a T2*-weighted gradient echo-type echo planar imaging sequence in a 1.5T scanner. Activated voxel numbers in the bilateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1) were statistically compared. The threshold of TPD increased in the order of the anterior, canine and posterior regions. Moreover, this threshold was significantly smaller on the PCS than on the non-PCS in both the canine and posterior regions. Moreover, the number of activated voxels in S1 contralateral to the PCS was significantly greater than that in S1 contralateral to the non-PCS. The present study shows that the PCS is associated with asymmetric tactile sensation and cortical activation of the tongue. The sensory acuity of the tongue on the PCS may play an important role in functional coupling between the jaw and tongue to maximize the efficiency of chewing.

  11. Analysis of Usage Patterns in Large Multimedia Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Bhattarai, Bibek

    User behavior in a website is a critical indicator of the web site's usability and success. Therefore an understanding of usage patterns is essential to website design optimization. In this context, large multimedia websites pose a significant challenge for comprehension of the complex and diverse user behaviors they sustain. This is due to the complexity of analyzing and understanding user-data interactions in media-rich contexts. In this chapter we present a novel multi-perspective approach for usability analysis of large media rich websites. Our research combines multimedia web content analysis with elements of web-log analysis and visualization/visual mining of web usage metadata. Multimedia content analysis allows direct estimation of the information-cues presented to a user by the web content. Analysis of web logs and usage-metadata, such as location, type, and frequency of interactions provides a complimentary perspective on the site's usage. The entire set of information is leveraged through powerful visualization and interactive querying techniques to provide analysis of usage patterns, measure of design quality, as well as the ability to rapidly identify problems in the web-site design. Experiments on media rich sites including the SkyServer - a large multimedia web-based astronomy information repository demonstrate the efficacy and promise of the proposed approach.

  12. Seafood safety: economics of hazard analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) programmes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cato, James C

    1998-01-01

    .... This document on economic issues associated with seafood safety was prepared to complement the work of the Service in seafood technology, plant sanitation and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) implementation...

  13. Ergodic Capacity Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Cheng, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A unified capacity analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for nonzero boresight pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/ direct detection as well as heterodyne detection) is addressed

  14. SOA Modeling Patterns for Service Oriented Discovery and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Learn the essential tools for developing a sound service-oriented architecture. SOA Modeling Patterns for Service-Oriented Discovery and Analysis introduces a universal, easy-to-use, and nimble SOA modeling language to facilitate the service identification and examination life cycle stage. This business and technological vocabulary will benefit your service development endeavors and foster organizational software asset reuse and consolidation, and reduction of expenditure. Whether you are a developer, business architect, technical architect, modeler, business analyst, team leader, or manager,

  15. Fringe pattern analysis for optical metrology theory, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this book is to present the basic theoretical principles and practical applications for the classical interferometric techniques and the most advanced methods in the field of modern fringe pattern analysis applied to optical metrology. A major novelty of this work is the presentation of a unified theoretical framework based on the Fourier description of phase shifting interferometry using the Frequency Transfer Function (FTF) along with the theory of Stochastic Process for the straightforward analysis and synthesis of phase shifting algorithms with desired properties such

  16. Spatial point process analysis for a plant community with high biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illian, Janine; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    A complex multivariate spatial point pattern for a plant community with high biodiversity is modelled using a hierarchical multivariate point process model. In the model, interactions between plants with different post-fire regeneration strategies are of key interest. We consider initially...... a maximum likelihood approach to inference where problems arise due to unknown interaction radii for the plants. We next demonstrate that a Bayesian approach provides a flexible framework for incorporating prior information concerning the interaction radii. From an ecological perspective, we are able both...

  17. Change Analysis in Structural Laser Scanning Point Clouds: The Baseline Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yueqian; Lindenbergh, Roderik; Wang, Jinhu

    2016-12-24

    A method is introduced for detecting changes from point clouds that avoids registration. For many applications, changes are detected between two scans of the same scene obtained at different times. Traditionally, these scans are aligned to a common coordinate system having the disadvantage that this registration step introduces additional errors. In addition, registration requires stable targets or features. To avoid these issues, we propose a change detection method based on so-called baselines. Baselines connect feature points within one scan. To analyze changes, baselines connecting corresponding points in two scans are compared. As feature points either targets or virtual points corresponding to some reconstructable feature in the scene are used. The new method is implemented on two scans sampling a masonry laboratory building before and after seismic testing, that resulted in damages in the order of several centimeters. The centres of the bricks of the laboratory building are automatically extracted to serve as virtual points. Baselines connecting virtual points and/or target points are extracted and compared with respect to a suitable structural coordinate system. Changes detected from the baseline analysis are compared to a traditional cloud to cloud change analysis demonstrating the potential of the new method for structural analysis.

  18. Change Analysis in Structural Laser Scanning Point Clouds: The Baseline Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqian Shen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A method is introduced for detecting changes from point clouds that avoids registration. For many applications, changes are detected between two scans of the same scene obtained at different times. Traditionally, these scans are aligned to a common coordinate system having the disadvantage that this registration step introduces additional errors. In addition, registration requires stable targets or features. To avoid these issues, we propose a change detection method based on so-called baselines. Baselines connect feature points within one scan. To analyze changes, baselines connecting corresponding points in two scans are compared. As feature points either targets or virtual points corresponding to some reconstructable feature in the scene are used. The new method is implemented on two scans sampling a masonry laboratory building before and after seismic testing, that resulted in damages in the order of several centimeters. The centres of the bricks of the laboratory building are automatically extracted to serve as virtual points. Baselines connecting virtual points and/or target points are extracted and compared with respect to a suitable structural coordinate system. Changes detected from the baseline analysis are compared to a traditional cloud to cloud change analysis demonstrating the potential of the new method for structural analysis.

  19. Modelling aggregation on the large scale and regularity on the small scale in spatial point pattern datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavancier, Frédéric; Møller, Jesper

    We consider a dependent thinning of a regular point process with the aim of obtaining aggregation on the large scale and regularity on the small scale in the resulting target point process of retained points. Various parametric models for the underlying processes are suggested and the properties...

  20. Analysis of relationship between registration performance of point cloud statistical model and generation method of corresponding points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, Naoto; Watanabe, Wataru; Hontani, Hidekata

    2010-01-01

    Most of the time when we construct statistical point cloud model, we need to calculate the corresponding points. Constructed statistical model will not be the same if we use different types of method to calculate the corresponding points. This article proposes the effect to statistical model of human organ made by different types of method to calculate the corresponding points. We validated the performance of statistical model by registering a surface of an organ in a 3D medical image. We compare two methods to calculate corresponding points. The first, the 'Generalized Multi-Dimensional Scaling (GMDS)', determines the corresponding points by the shapes of two curved surfaces. The second approach, the 'Entropy-based Particle system', chooses corresponding points by calculating a number of curved surfaces statistically. By these methods we construct the statistical models and using these models we conducted registration with the medical image. For the estimation, we use non-parametric belief propagation and this method estimates not only the position of the organ but also the probability density of the organ position. We evaluate how the two different types of method that calculates corresponding points affects the statistical model by change in probability density of each points. (author)

  1. Fractal Analysis of Radiologists Visual Scanning Pattern in Screening Mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamudun, Folami T [ORNL; Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Hudson, Kathy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Morin-Ducote, Garnetta [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Several investigators have investigated radiologists visual scanning patterns with respect to features such as total time examining a case, time to initially hit true lesions, number of hits, etc. The purpose of this study was to examine the complexity of the radiologists visual scanning pattern when viewing 4-view mammographic cases, as they typically do in clinical practice. Gaze data were collected from 10 readers (3 breast imaging experts and 7 radiology residents) while reviewing 100 screening mammograms (24 normal, 26 benign, 50 malignant). The radiologists scanpaths across the 4 mammographic views were mapped to a single 2-D image plane. Then, fractal analysis was applied on the derived scanpaths using the box counting method. For each case, the complexity of each radiologist s scanpath was estimated using fractal dimension. The association between gaze complexity, case pathology, case density, and radiologist experience was evaluated using 3 factor fixed effects ANOVA. ANOVA showed that case pathology, breast density, and experience level are all independent predictors of the visual scanning pattern complexity. Visual scanning patterns are significantly different for benign and malignant cases than for normal cases as well as when breast parenchyma density changes.

  2. Patterns of regional development in Serbia: A multivariate statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čoček Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to examine patterns of regional development in Serbia and to identify underlying geographical factors of these patterns. Principal component analysis is used to reveal the basic dimensions of regional differentiation. Its results are described in the context of findings from thematically similar research on Central European countries. An area's position in the national settlement system hierarchy has been identified as the strongest determinant of regional differentiation in Serbia. Other strong patterns seem to be connected with macro-geographical position. Success in economic development is most apparent in regions near the metropolitan area of Belgrade, and the general development level, along with a predisposition for agriculture, exhibits a strong north-south polarization. Specific attention is directed at demographic development, which is characterized by a west-east gradient. Central patterns of regional differentiation are similar to those uncovered in previous Central European research. Regional policy in Serbia should, therefore, try to learn from experience within this region to cope with processes and problems that are often quite similar. .

  3. Profile agreement indices in Rietveld and pattern-fitting analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.J.; Fischer, R.X.

    1990-01-01

    Two definitions of profile agreement indices are now in common use for estimating the degree of fit in Rietveld refinement and in structure-independent pattern-fitting methods of powder diffraction analysis. In the original program written by Rietveld, the background was subtracted and the 'non-peak' regions of the pattern were removed from further consideration in a preliminary data-reduction stage prior to structure refinement. However, the agreement indices used in many of the more recent programs retain the background counts in the observed step intensities and include all portions of the pattern in the sums. These latter definitions are strongly dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio and on the relative amount of 'background-only' regions and do not, therefore, provide a sound basis for comparing the degree of fit of peak profile and crystal structure model refinements in the general case. The extent of this dependence is illustrated quantitatively using conventional and synchrotron X-ray and constant-wavelength and time-of-flight neutron data sets with different inherent background levels and peak densities. The unweighted background-corrected peak-only profile agreement index R' p =Σ i vertical strokeY io -Y ic vertical stroke/Σ i vertical strokeY io -Y ib vertical stroke (and, to a lesser extent, its weighted equivalent) is recommended as the most appropriate criterion of fit for comparative work between diffraction patterns of all kinds. (orig.)

  4. A Stylistic Analysis of Linguistic Patterns in Chichamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchamad Sholakhuddin Al Fajri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to carry out a detailed and systematic stylistic analysis of linguistic patterns in Purple Hibiscus Novel by Chichamanda Ngozi Adichie. It particularly analyses a specific extract of the novel in terms of narration and point of view, conversational analysis, speech and thought presentations and mind style, and how these linguistic devices and patterns are employed by the author to shape characters’ personalities and relationships between them in the reader’s mind. The result appears to suggest that the author successfully represents the protagonist, Kambili as an obedient and a salient daughter who respects deeply his father, while her father, Eugene, is constructed as a strict father and religious who imposes an absolute control on his daughter.

  5. A DATA-MINING BASED METHOD FOR THE GAIT PATTERN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rudek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method developed for the gait classification based on the analysis of the trajectory of the pressure centres (CoP extracted from the contact points of the feet with the ground during walking. The data acquirement is performed ba means of a walkway with embedded tactile sensors. The proposed method includes capturing procedures, standardization of data, creation of an organized repository (data warehouse, and development of a process mining. A graphical analysis is applied to looking at the footprint signature patterns. The aim is to obtain a visual interpretation of the grouping by situating it into the normal walking patterns or deviations associated with an individual way of walking. The method consists of data classification automation which divides them into healthy and non-healthy subjects in order to assist in rehabilitation treatments for the people with related mobility problems.

  6. Simultaneous colour visualizations of multiple ALS point cloud attributes for land cover and vegetation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlinszky, András; Schroiff, Anke; Otepka, Johannes; Mandlburger, Gottfried; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    LIDAR point clouds hold valuable information for land cover and vegetation analysis, not only in the spatial distribution of the points but also in their various attributes. However, LIDAR point clouds are rarely used for visual interpretation, since for most users, the point cloud is difficult to interpret compared to passive optical imagery. Meanwhile, point cloud viewing software is available allowing interactive 3D interpretation, but typically only one attribute at a time. This results in a large number of points with the same colour, crowding the scene and often obscuring detail. We developed a scheme for mapping information from multiple LIDAR point attributes to the Red, Green, and Blue channels of a widely used LIDAR data format, which are otherwise mostly used to add information from imagery to create "photorealistic" point clouds. The possible combinations of parameters are therefore represented in a wide range of colours, but relative differences in individual parameter values of points can be well understood. The visualization was implemented in OPALS software, using a simple and robust batch script, and is viewer independent since the information is stored in the point cloud data file itself. In our case, the following colour channel assignment delivered best results: Echo amplitude in the Red, echo width in the Green and normalized height above a Digital Terrain Model in the Blue channel. With correct parameter scaling (but completely without point classification), points belonging to asphalt and bare soil are dark red, low grassland and crop vegetation are bright red to yellow, shrubs and low trees are green and high trees are blue. Depending on roof material and DTM quality, buildings are shown from red through purple to dark blue. Erroneously high or low points, or points with incorrect amplitude or echo width usually have colours contrasting from terrain or vegetation. This allows efficient visual interpretation of the point cloud in planar

  7. Definition of distance for nonlinear time series analysis of marked point process data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwayama, Koji, E-mail: koji@sat.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Institute for Food and Agriculture, Ryukoku Univeristy, 1-5 Yokotani, Seta Oe-cho, Otsu-Shi, Shiga 520-2194 (Japan); Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2017-01-30

    Marked point process data are time series of discrete events accompanied with some values, such as economic trades, earthquakes, and lightnings. A distance for marked point process data allows us to apply nonlinear time series analysis to such data. We propose a distance for marked point process data which can be calculated much faster than the existing distance when the number of marks is small. Furthermore, under some assumptions, the Kullback–Leibler divergences between posterior distributions for neighbors defined by this distance are small. We performed some numerical simulations showing that analysis based on the proposed distance is effective. - Highlights: • A new distance for marked point process data is proposed. • The distance can be computed fast enough for a small number of marks. • The method to optimize parameter values of the distance is also proposed. • Numerical simulations indicate that the analysis based on the distance is effective.

  8. Second-order analysis of inhomogeneous spatial point processes with proportional intensity functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yongtao; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Beale, Colin M.

    2008-01-01

    of the intensity functions. The first approach is based on nonparametric kernel-smoothing, whereas the second approach uses a conditional likelihood estimation approach to fit a parametric model for the pair correlation function. A great advantage of the proposed methods is that they do not require the often...... to two spatial point patterns regarding the spatial distributions of birds in the U.K.'s Peak District in 1990 and 2004....

  9. What makes a pattern? Matching decoding methods to data in multivariate pattern analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A Kragel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research in neuroscience faces the challenge of integrating information across different spatial scales of brain function. A promising technique for harnessing information at a range of spatial scales is multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data. While the prevalence of MVPA has increased dramatically in recent years, its typical implementations for classification of mental states utilize only a subset of the information encoded in local fMRI signals. We review published studies employing multivariate pattern classification since the technique’s introduction, which reveal an extensive focus on the improved detection power that linear classifiers provide over traditional analysis techniques. We demonstrate using simulations and a searchlight approach, however, that nonlinear classifiers are capable of extracting distinct information about interactions within a local region. We conclude that for spatially localized analyses, such as searchlight and region of interest, multiple classification approaches should be compared in order to match fMRI analyses to the properties of local circuits.

  10. Accident patterns for construction-related workers: a cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chia-Wen; Tyan, Yaw-Yauan

    2012-01-01

    The construction industry has been identified as one of the most hazardous industries. The risk of constructionrelated workers is far greater than that in a manufacturing based industry. However, some steps can be taken to reduce worker risk through effective injury prevention strategies. In this article, k-means clustering methodology is employed in specifying the factors related to different worker types and in identifying the patterns of industrial occupational accidents. Accident reports during the period 1998 to 2008 are extracted from case reports of the Northern Region Inspection Office of the Council of Labor Affairs of Taiwan. The results show that the cluster analysis can indicate some patterns of occupational injuries in the construction industry. Inspection plans should be proposed according to the type of construction-related workers. The findings provide a direction for more effective inspection strategies and injury prevention programs.

  11. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  12. Dynamic analysis and pattern visualization of forest fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, António M; Tenreiro Machado, J A

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses forest fires in the perspective of dynamical systems. Forest fires exhibit complex correlations in size, space and time, revealing features often present in complex systems, such as the absence of a characteristic length-scale, or the emergence of long range correlations and persistent memory. This study addresses a public domain forest fires catalogue, containing information of events for Portugal, during the period from 1980 up to 2012. The data is analysed in an annual basis, modelling the occurrences as sequences of Dirac impulses with amplitude proportional to the burnt area. First, we consider mutual information to correlate annual patterns. We use visualization trees, generated by hierarchical clustering algorithms, in order to compare and to extract relationships among the data. Second, we adopt the Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) visualization tool. MDS generates maps where each object corresponds to a point. Objects that are perceived to be similar to each other are placed on the map forming clusters. The results are analysed in order to extract relationships among the data and to identify forest fire patterns.

  13. Environmental protection standards - from the point of view of systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K

    1978-11-01

    A project of the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Laxenburg castle near Vienna is reviewed where standards for environmental protection are interpreted from the point of view of systems analysis. Some examples are given to show how results are influenced not only by technical and economic factors but also by psychological and political factors.

  14. Environmental protection standards - from the point of view of systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1978-01-01

    A project of the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Laxenburg castle near Vienna is reviewed where standards for environmental protection are interpreted from the point of view of systems analysis. Some examples are given to show how results are influenced not only by technical and economic factors but also by psychological and political factors. (orig.) [de

  15. Datum Feature Extraction and Deformation Analysis Method Based on Normal Vector of Point Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Wang, J.; Jin, F.; Liang, Z.; Yang, Y.

    2018-04-01

    In order to solve the problem lacking applicable analysis method in the application of three-dimensional laser scanning technology to the field of deformation monitoring, an efficient method extracting datum feature and analysing deformation based on normal vector of point cloud was proposed. Firstly, the kd-tree is used to establish the topological relation. Datum points are detected by tracking the normal vector of point cloud determined by the normal vector of local planar. Then, the cubic B-spline curve fitting is performed on the datum points. Finally, datum elevation and the inclination angle of the radial point are calculated according to the fitted curve and then the deformation information was analyzed. The proposed approach was verified on real large-scale tank data set captured with terrestrial laser scanner in a chemical plant. The results show that the method could obtain the entire information of the monitor object quickly and comprehensively, and reflect accurately the datum feature deformation.

  16. Allergen Sensitization Pattern by Sex: A Cluster Analysis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Paik, Seung Hwan; Doh, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun-Sun; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Soyun

    2017-12-01

    Allergens tend to sensitize simultaneously. Etiology of this phenomenon has been suggested to be allergen cross-reactivity or concurrent exposure. However, little is known about specific allergen sensitization patterns. To investigate the allergen sensitization characteristics according to gender. Multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST) is widely used as a screening tool for detecting allergen sensitization in dermatologic clinics. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with MAST results between 2008 and 2014 in our Department of Dermatology. A cluster analysis was performed to elucidate the allergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E cluster pattern. The results of MAST (39 allergen-specific IgEs) from 4,360 cases were analyzed. By cluster analysis, 39items were grouped into 8 clusters. Each cluster had characteristic features. When compared with female, the male group tended to be sensitized more frequently to all tested allergens, except for fungus allergens cluster. The cluster and comparative analysis results demonstrate that the allergen sensitization is clustered, manifesting allergen similarity or co-exposure. Only the fungus cluster allergens tend to sensitize female group more frequently than male group.

  17. Flux balance analysis of ammonia assimilation network in E. coli predicts preferred regulation point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Lai, Luhua; Ouyang, Qi; Tang, Chao

    2011-01-25

    Nitrogen assimilation is a critical biological process for the synthesis of biomolecules in Escherichia coli. The central ammonium assimilation network in E. coli converts carbon skeleton α-ketoglutarate and ammonium into glutamate and glutamine, which further serve as nitrogen donors for nitrogen metabolism in the cell. This reaction network involves three enzymes: glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT). In minimal media, E. coli tries to maintain an optimal growth rate by regulating the activity of the enzymes to match the availability of the external ammonia. The molecular mechanism and the strategy of the regulation in this network have been the research topics for many investigators. In this paper, we develop a flux balance model for the nitrogen metabolism, taking into account of the cellular composition and biosynthetic requirements for nitrogen. The model agrees well with known experimental results. Specifically, it reproduces all the (15)N isotope labeling experiments in the wild type and the two mutant (ΔGDH and ΔGOGAT) strains of E. coli. Furthermore, the predicted catalytic activities of GDH, GS and GOGAT in different ammonium concentrations and growth rates for the wild type, ΔGDH and ΔGOGAT strains agree well with the enzyme concentrations obtained from western blots. Based on this flux balance model, we show that GS is the preferred regulation point among the three enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation network. Our analysis reveals the pattern of regulation in this central and highly regulated network, thus providing insights into the regulation strategy adopted by the bacteria. Our model and methods may also be useful in future investigations in this and other networks.

  18. Screening of point mutations by multiple SSCP analysis in the dystrophin gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasa, A.; Baiget, M.; Gallano, P. [Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    1994-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, X-linked neuromuscular disorder. The population frequency of DMD is one in approximately 3500 boys, of which one third is thought to be a new mutant. The DMD gene is the largest known to date, spanning over 2,3 Mb in band Xp21.2; 79 exons are transcribed into a 14 Kb mRNA coding for a protein of 427 kD which has been named dystrophin. It has been shown that about 65% of affected boys have a gene deletion with a wide variation in localization and size. The remaining affected individuals who have no detectable deletions or duplications would probably carry more subtle mutations that are difficult to detect. These mutations occur in several different exons and seem to be unique to single patients. Their identification represents a formidable goal because of the large size and complexity of the dystrophin gene. SSCP is a very efficient method for the detection of point mutations if the parameters that affect the separation of the strands are optimized for a particular DNA fragment. The multiple SSCP allows the simultaneous study of several exons, and implies the use of different conditions because no single set of conditions will be optimal for all fragments. Seventy-eight DMD patients with no deletion or duplication in the dystrophin gene were selected for the multiple SSCP analysis. Genomic DNA from these patients was amplified using the primers described for the diagnosis procedure (muscle promoter and exons 3, 8, 12, 16, 17, 19, 32, 45, 48 and 51). We have observed different mobility shifts in bands corresponding to exons 8, 12, 43 and 51. In exons 17 and 45, altered electrophoretic patterns were found in different samples identifying polymorphisms already described.

  19. Flux balance analysis of ammonia assimilation network in E. coli predicts preferred regulation point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    Full Text Available Nitrogen assimilation is a critical biological process for the synthesis of biomolecules in Escherichia coli. The central ammonium assimilation network in E. coli converts carbon skeleton α-ketoglutarate and ammonium into glutamate and glutamine, which further serve as nitrogen donors for nitrogen metabolism in the cell. This reaction network involves three enzymes: glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, glutamine synthetase (GS and glutamate synthase (GOGAT. In minimal media, E. coli tries to maintain an optimal growth rate by regulating the activity of the enzymes to match the availability of the external ammonia. The molecular mechanism and the strategy of the regulation in this network have been the research topics for many investigators. In this paper, we develop a flux balance model for the nitrogen metabolism, taking into account of the cellular composition and biosynthetic requirements for nitrogen. The model agrees well with known experimental results. Specifically, it reproduces all the (15N isotope labeling experiments in the wild type and the two mutant (ΔGDH and ΔGOGAT strains of E. coli. Furthermore, the predicted catalytic activities of GDH, GS and GOGAT in different ammonium concentrations and growth rates for the wild type, ΔGDH and ΔGOGAT strains agree well with the enzyme concentrations obtained from western blots. Based on this flux balance model, we show that GS is the preferred regulation point among the three enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation network. Our analysis reveals the pattern of regulation in this central and highly regulated network, thus providing insights into the regulation strategy adopted by the bacteria. Our model and methods may also be useful in future investigations in this and other networks.

  20. Analysis of point source size on measurement accuracy of lateral point-spread function of confocal Raman microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shihang; Zhang, Li; Hu, Yao; Ding, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Confocal Raman Microscopy (CRM) has matured to become one of the most powerful instruments in analytical science because of its molecular sensitivity and high spatial resolution. Compared with conventional Raman Microscopy, CRM can perform three dimensions mapping of tiny samples and has the advantage of high spatial resolution thanking to the unique pinhole. With the wide application of the instrument, there is a growing requirement for the evaluation of the imaging performance of the system. Point-spread function (PSF) is an important approach to the evaluation of imaging capability of an optical instrument. Among a variety of measurement methods of PSF, the point source method has been widely used because it is easy to operate and the measurement results are approximate to the true PSF. In the point source method, the point source size has a significant impact on the final measurement accuracy. In this paper, the influence of the point source sizes on the measurement accuracy of PSF is analyzed and verified experimentally. A theoretical model of the lateral PSF for CRM is established and the effect of point source size on full-width at half maximum of lateral PSF is simulated. For long-term preservation and measurement convenience, PSF measurement phantom using polydimethylsiloxane resin, doped with different sizes of polystyrene microspheres is designed. The PSF of CRM with different sizes of microspheres are measured and the results are compared with the simulation results. The results provide a guide for measuring the PSF of the CRM.

  1. Adaptive Human aware Navigation based on Motion Pattern Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Søren; Svenstrup, Mikael; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Respecting people’s social spaces is an important prerequisite for acceptable and natural robot navigation in human environments. In this paper, we describe an adaptive system for mobile robot navigation based on estimates of whether a person seeks to interact with the robot or not. The estimates...... are based on run-time motion pattern analysis compared to stored experience in a database. Using a potential field centered around the person, the robot positions itself at the most appropriate place relative to the person and the interaction status. The system is validated through qualitative tests...

  2. Multivoxel Pattern Analysis for fMRI Data: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhak Mahmoudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI exploits blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD contrasts to map neural activity associated with a variety of brain functions including sensory processing, motor control, and cognitive and emotional functions. The general linear model (GLM approach is used to reveal task-related brain areas by searching for linear correlations between the fMRI time course and a reference model. One of the limitations of the GLM approach is the assumption that the covariance across neighbouring voxels is not informative about the cognitive function under examination. Multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA represents a promising technique that is currently exploited to investigate the information contained in distributed patterns of neural activity to infer the functional role of brain areas and networks. MVPA is considered as a supervised classification problem where a classifier attempts to capture the relationships between spatial pattern of fMRI activity and experimental conditions. In this paper , we review MVPA and describe the mathematical basis of the classification algorithms used for decoding fMRI signals, such as support vector machines (SVMs. In addition, we describe the workflow of processing steps required for MVPA such as feature selection, dimensionality reduction, cross-validation, and classifier performance estimation based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves.

  3. Multivoxel Pattern Analysis for fMRI Data: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takerkart, Sylvain; Regragui, Fakhita; Boussaoud, Driss; Brovelli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) exploits blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrasts to map neural activity associated with a variety of brain functions including sensory processing, motor control, and cognitive and emotional functions. The general linear model (GLM) approach is used to reveal task-related brain areas by searching for linear correlations between the fMRI time course and a reference model. One of the limitations of the GLM approach is the assumption that the covariance across neighbouring voxels is not informative about the cognitive function under examination. Multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) represents a promising technique that is currently exploited to investigate the information contained in distributed patterns of neural activity to infer the functional role of brain areas and networks. MVPA is considered as a supervised classification problem where a classifier attempts to capture the relationships between spatial pattern of fMRI activity and experimental conditions. In this paper , we review MVPA and describe the mathematical basis of the classification algorithms used for decoding fMRI signals, such as support vector machines (SVMs). In addition, we describe the workflow of processing steps required for MVPA such as feature selection, dimensionality reduction, cross-validation, and classifier performance estimation based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. PMID:23401720

  4. Analysis of Stomatal Patterning in Selected Mutants of MAPK Pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Felemban, Abrar

    2016-05-01

    Stomata are cellular valves in plants that play an essential role in the regulation of gas exchange and are distributed in the epidermis of aerial organs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, stomatal production and development are coordinated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway, which modulates a variety of other processes, including cell proliferation, regulation of cytokinesis, programed cell death, and response to abiotic and biotic stress. The environment also plays a role in stomatal development, by influencing the frequency at which stomata develop in leaves. This thesis presents an analysis of stomatal development in Arabidopsis mutants in two MAPK pathways: MEKK1-MKK1/MKK2-MPK4, and MAP3K17/18-MKK3. Obtained results demonstrate the effect of stress conditions on stomatal development and specify the involvement of analysed MAPK in stomatal patterning. First, both analysed pathways modulate stomatal patterning in Arabidopsis cotyledons. Second, plant growth-promoting bacteria tested enhance stomatal density and affect guard cell morphology. Third, the sucrose or mannitol treatment increases defects in stomatal patterning. Finally, salt stress or high temperature can suppress stomatal defects in mutants of the MEKK1-MKK1/MKK2-MPK4 pathway.

  5. Nonlinear bending and collapse analysis of a poked cylinder and other point-loaded cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobel, L.H.

    1983-06-01

    This paper analyzes the geometrically nonlinear bending and collapse behavior of an elastic, simply supported cylindrical shell subjected to an inward-directed point load applied at midlength. The large displacement analysis results for this thin (R/t = 638) poked cylinder were obtained from the STAGSC-1 finite element computer program. STAGSC-1 results are also presented for two other point-loaded shell problems: a pinched cylinder (R/t = 100), and a venetian blind (R/t = 250)

  6. Numerical analysis of sandwich beam with corrugated core under three-point bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenbeck, Leszek [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Mathematics Piotrowo Street No. 5, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Grygorowicz, Magdalena; Paczos, Piotr [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Applied Mechanics Jana Pawla IIStreet No. 24, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    The strength problem of sandwich beam with corrugated core under three-point bending is presented.The beam are made of steel and formed by three mutually orthogonal corrugated layers. The finite element analysis (FEA) of the sandwich beam is performed with the use of the FEM system - ABAQUS. The relationship between the applied load and deflection in three-point bending is considered.

  7. Analysis of the flight dynamics of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) off-sun scientific pointing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitone, D. S.; Klein, J. R.; Twambly, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    Algorithms are presented which were created and implemented by the Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) attitude operations team to support large-angle spacecraft pointing at scientific objectives. The mission objective of the post-repair SMM satellite was to study solar phenomena. However, because the scientific instruments, such as the Coronagraph/Polarimeter (CP) and the Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS), were able to view objects other than the Sun, attitude operations support for attitude pointing at large angles from the nominal solar-pointing attitudes was required. Subsequently, attitude support for SMM was provided for scientific objectives such as Comet Halley, Supernova 1987A, Cygnus X-1, and the Crab Nebula. In addition, the analysis was extended to include the reverse problem, computing the right ascension and declination of a body given the off-Sun angles. This analysis led to the computation of the orbits of seven new solar comets seen in the field-of-view (FOV) of the CP. The activities necessary to meet these large-angle attitude-pointing sequences, such as slew sequence planning, viewing-period prediction, and tracking-bias computation are described. Analysis is presented for the computation of maneuvers and pointing parameters relative to the SMM-unique, Sun-centered reference frame. Finally, science data and independent attitude solutions are used to evaluate the larg-angle pointing performance.

  8. [Applications of 2D and 3D landscape pattern indices in landscape pattern analysis of mountainous area at county level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Qi, Wei; Li, Le; Sun, Yao; Qin, Tian-Tian; Wang, Na-Na

    2012-05-01

    Landscape pattern indices are the commonly used tools for the quantitative analysis of landscape pattern. However, the traditional 2D landscape pattern indices neglect the effects of terrain on landscape, existing definite limitations in quantitatively describing the landscape patterns in mountains areas. Taking the Qixia City, a typical mountainous and hilly region in Shandong Province of East China, as a case, this paper compared the differences between 2D and 3D landscape pattern indices in quantitatively describing the landscape patterns and their dynamic changes in mountainous areas. On the basis of terrain structure analysis, a set of landscape pattern indices were selected, including area and density (class area and mean patch size), edge and shape (edge density, landscape shape index, and fractal dimension of mean patch), diversity (Shannon's diversity index and evenness index) , and gathering and spread (contagion index). There existed obvious differences between the 3D class area, mean patch area, and edge density and the corresponding 2D indices, but no significant differences between the 3D landscape shape index, fractal dimension of mean patch, and Shannon' s diversity index and evenness index and the corresponding 2D indices. The 3D contagion index and 2D contagion index had no difference. Because the 3D landscape pattern indices were calculated by using patch surface area and surface perimeter whereas the 2D landscape pattern indices were calculated by adopting patch projective area and projective perimeter, the 3D landscape pattern indices could be relative accurate and efficient in describing the landscape area, density and borderline, in mountainous areas. However, there were no distinct differences in describing landscape shape, diversity, and gathering and spread between the 3D and 2D landscape pattern indices. Generally, by introducing 3D landscape pattern indices to topographic pattern, the description of landscape pattern and its dynamic

  9. GPU-based implementation of an accelerated SR-NLUT based on N-point one-dimensional sub-principal fringe patterns in computer-generated holograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Min Choi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An accelerated spatial redundancy-based novel-look-up-table (A-SR-NLUT method based on a new concept of the N-point one-dimensional sub-principal fringe pattern (N-point1-D sub-PFP is implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU for fast calculation of computer-generated holograms (CGHs of three-dimensional (3-Dobjects. Since the proposed method can generate the N-point two-dimensional (2-D PFPs for CGH calculation from the pre-stored N-point 1-D PFPs, the loading time of the N-point PFPs on the GPU can be dramatically reduced, which results in a great increase of the computational speed of the proposed method. Experimental results confirm that the average calculation time for one-object point has been reduced by 49.6% and 55.4% compared to those of the conventional 2-D SR-NLUT methods for each case of the 2-point and 3-point SR maps, respectively.

  10. Analysis of abnormally thickened endometrial patterns on transvaginal sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Sook; Cho, Hyeun Cha

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether the transvaginal sonographic appearance of the thickened endometrium can help to predict the underlying endometrial pathologic process. The sonogram reports of fall 41 pre- and 21 postmenopausal women who underwent transvaginal sonogram were retrospectively analyzed. The women undergoing estrogen replacement therapy, tamoxifen therapy or having abnormal cervical cytology were excluded from this study. The analysis of sonographic and histologic results was performed in all patients. Three distinct sonographic patterns were encountered. Type I consisted of heterogeneous endometrial thickening with internal hypoechoic areas (normal [n=4], polyp [n=1] and cancer [n=4] in premenopausal women and cancer [n=4] in postmenopausal women). Type II consisted of echogenic endometrial thickening with or without tiny cysts (normal[n=5], and hyperplasia [n=7] in premenopausal women and normal [n=4], polyp [n=2], and hyperplasia [n=1] in postmenopausal women). Type III consisted of localized well defined endoluminal lesion (normal [n=1], polyp [n=14], hyperplasia [n=1], cancer [n=1], and submucosal mass [n=3] in premenopausal women and normal [n=4], polyp [n=2],submucosal mass [n=3], and hematoma [n=1] in postmenopausal women). The measurement of the endometrial thickness combined with analysis of sonographic echo patterns may be helpful in prediction and differentiation of endometrial disease in pre- and postmenopausal women. Also it can contribute to avoiding unnecessary D and C.

  11. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S; Mniszewski, Susan M; Del Valle, Sara Y; Hyman, James M

    2014-12-01

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule's regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity's regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. We use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.

  12. A Monte Carlo-adjusted goodness-of-fit test for parametric models describing spatial point patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Dao, Ngocanh; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the goodness-of-fit (GOF) for intricate parametric spatial point process models is important for many application fields. When the probability density of the statistic of the GOF test is intractable, a commonly used procedure is the Monte

  13. Sedentary behaviour profiling of office workers: a sensitivity analysis of sedentary cut-points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, Simone Theresa; Essink, Gerard B.; Tönis, Thijs; van Velsen, Lex Stefan; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring sedentary behaviour and physical activity with wearable sensors provides detailed information on activity patterns and can serve health interventions. At the basis of activity analysis stands the ability to distinguish sedentary from active time. As there is no consensus regarding the

  14. STRUCTURE LINE DETECTION FROM LIDAR POINT CLOUDS USING TOPOLOGICAL ELEVATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Y. Lo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Airborne LIDAR point clouds, which have considerable points on object surfaces, are essential to building modeling. In the last two decades, studies have developed different approaches to identify structure lines using two main approaches, data-driven and modeldriven. These studies have shown that automatic modeling processes depend on certain considerations, such as used thresholds, initial value, designed formulas, and predefined cues. Following the development of laser scanning systems, scanning rates have increased and can provide point clouds with higher point density. Therefore, this study proposes using topological elevation analysis (TEA to detect structure lines instead of threshold-dependent concepts and predefined constraints. This analysis contains two parts: data pre-processing and structure line detection. To preserve the original elevation information, a pseudo-grid for generating digital surface models is produced during the first part. The highest point in each grid is set as the elevation value, and its original threedimensional position is preserved. In the second part, using TEA, the structure lines are identified based on the topology of local elevation changes in two directions. Because structure lines can contain certain geometric properties, their locations have small relieves in the radial direction and steep elevation changes in the circular direction. Following the proposed approach, TEA can be used to determine 3D line information without selecting thresholds. For validation, the TEA results are compared with those of the region growing approach. The results indicate that the proposed method can produce structure lines using dense point clouds.

  15. Effect of Electroacupuncture at The Zusanli Point (Stomach-36) on Dorsal Random Pattern Skin Flap Survival in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ren; Cai, Le-Yi; Lin, Ding-Sheng; Cao, Bin; Li, Zhi-Jie

    2017-10-01

    Random skin flaps are commonly used for wound repair and reconstruction. Electroacupuncture at The Zusanli point could enhance microcirculation and blood perfusion in random skin flaps. To determine whether electroacupuncture at The Zusanli point can improve the survival of random skin flaps in a rat model. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (no electroacupuncture), Group A (electroacupuncture at a nonacupoint near The Zusanli point), and Group B (electroacupuncture at The Zusanli point). McFarlane flaps were established. On postoperative Day 2, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase were detected. The flap survival rate was evaluated, inflammation was examined in hematoxylin and eosin-stained slices, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured immunohistochemically on Day 7. The mean survival area of the flaps in Group B was significantly larger than that in the control group and Group A. Superoxide dismutase activity and VEGF expression level were significantly higher in Group B than those in the control group and Group A, whereas MDA and inflammation levels in Group B were significantly lower than those in the other 2 groups. Electroacupuncture at The Zusanli point can effectively improve the random flap survival.

  16. Cross-View Neuroimage Pattern Analysis for Alzheimer's Disease Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidong eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The research on staging of pre-symptomatic and prodromal phase of neurological disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD, is essential for prevention of dementia. New strategies for AD staging with a focus on early detection, are demanded to optimize potential efficacy of disease-modifying therapies that can halt or slow the disease progression. Recently, neuroimaging are increasingly used as additional research-based markers to detect AD onset and predict conversion of MCI and normal control (NC to AD. Researchers have proposed a variety of neuroimaging biomarkers to characterize the patterns of the pathology of AD and MCI, and suggested that multi-view neuroimaging biomarkers could lead to better performance than single-view biomarkers in AD staging. However, it is still unclear what leads to such synergy and how to preserve or maximize. In an attempt to answer these questions, we proposed a cross-view pattern analysis framework for investigating the synergy between different neuroimaging biomarkers. We quantitatively analyzed 9 types of biomarkers derived from FDG-PET and T1-MRI, and evaluated their performance in a task of classifying AD, MCI and NC subjects obtained from the ADNI baseline cohort. The experiment results showed that these biomarkers could depict the pathology of AD from different perspectives, and output distinct patterns that are significantly associated with the disease progression. Most importantly, we found that these features could be separated into clusters, each depicting a particular aspect; and the inter-cluster features could always achieve better performance than the intra-cluster features in AD staging.

  17. Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) history and conceptual overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulebak, Karen L; Schlosser, Wayne

    2002-06-01

    The concept of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a system that enables the production of safe meat and poultry products through the thorough analysis of production processes, identification of all hazards that are likely to occur in the production establishment, the identification of critical points in the process at which these hazards may be introduced into product and therefore should be controlled, the establishment of critical limits for control at those points, the verification of these prescribed steps, and the methods by which the processing establishment and the regulatory authority can monitor how well process control through the HACCP plan is working. The history of the development of HACCP is reviewed, and examples of practical applications of HACCP are described.

  18. The study and analysis of point-to-point vibration isolation and its utility to seismic base isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehboob, M.; Qureshi, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents systematic approach to regarding the piece wise vibration isolation generally termed as point-to-point vibration isolation system, and its broad spectrum-utilities to an economic seismic base isolation. Transfer of curves for coulomb damped i.e. softening damper flexible mountings are presented and the utility has been proved equally good for both rigidly and elastically coupled damping. It is clearly shown that the very closest solutions are easily obtainable for both slipping and sticking nature of phases of the motion. This eliminates the conventional and conceptual approximations based on the linearization of the damping. This new concept will not endanger-super-structure if mounted on such isolation systems. (author)

  19. Study on characteristic points of boiling curve by using wavelet analysis and genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Huiming; Su Guanghui; Qiu Suizheng; Yang Xingbo

    2009-01-01

    Based on the wavelet analysis theory of signal singularity detection,the critical heat flux (CHF) and minimum film boiling starting point (q min ) of boiling curves can be detected and analyzed by using the wavelet multi-resolution analysis. To predict the CHF in engineering, empirical relations were obtained based on genetic algorithm. The results of wavelet detection and genetic algorithm prediction are consistent with experimental data very well. (authors)

  20. One-point fluctuation analysis of the high-energy neutrino sky

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyereisen, Michael R.; Tamborra, Irene; Ando, Shin'ichiro

    2017-01-01

    We perform the first one-point fluctuation analysis of the high-energy neutrino sky. This method reveals itself to be especially suited to contemporary neutrino data, as it allows to study the properties of the astrophysical components of the high-energy flux detected by the IceCube telescope, even...

  1. Multiscale change-point analysis of inhomogeneous Poisson processes using unbalanced wavelet decompositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.H.; Di Bucchianico, A.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Peletier, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a continuous wavelet analysis of count data with timevarying intensities. The objective is to extract intervals with significant intensities from background intervals. This includes the precise starting point of the significant interval, its exact duration and the (average) level of

  2. Chopped or long roughage: what do calves prefer? Using cross point analysis of double demand functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.; Bak Jensen, M.; Engel, B.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to quantify calves'(Bos taurus) preference for long versus chopped hay and straw, and hay versus straw, using cross point analysis of double demand functions, in a context where energy intake was not a limiting factor. Nine calves, fed milk replacer and concentrate, were

  3. An Exploratory Study: A Kinesic Analysis of Academic Library Public Service Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Edward

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of body movements of individuals at reference and circulation public service points in four academic libraries indicated that both receptive and nonreceptive nonverbal behaviors were used by all levels of library employees, and these behaviors influenced patron interaction. (Author/LS)

  4. Microchip capillary electrophoresis for point-of-care analysis of lithium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwe, E.X.; Luttge, R.; Vermes, I.; Berg, van den A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a promising method for chemical analysis of complex samples such as whole blood. We evaluated the method for point-of-care testing of lithium. Methods: Chemical separation was performed on standard glass microchip CE devices with a conductivity

  5. Electromyographic Pattern Analysis and Classification for a Robotic Prosthetic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. José H. Erazo Macias

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the statistical analysis and pattern classification of electromyographic signals from the biceps of a person with amputation below the humerus. Such signals collected from an amputation simulator are synergistically generated to produce discrete elbow movements. The purpose of this study is to utilise these signals to control an electrically driven prosthetic or orthotic elbow with minimum extra mental effort on the part of the subject. The results show very good separability of classes of movements when a learning pattern classification scheme is used, and a superposition of any composite motion to the three basic primitive motions—humeral rotation in and out, flexion and extension, and pronation and supination. Since no synergy was detected for the wrist movement, different inputs have to be provided for a grip. In addition, the method described is not limited by the location of the electrodes. For amputees with shorter stumps, synergistic signals could be obtained from the shoulder muscles. However, the presentation in this paper is limited to biceps signal classification only.

  6. Pattern Recognition of Gene Expression with Singular Spectrum Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hassani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila segmentation as a model organism is one of the most highly studied. Among many maternal segmentation coordinate genes, bicoid protein pattern plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis, since this gradient determines most aspects of head and thorax development. Despite the fact that several models have been proposed to describe the bicoid gradient, due to its association with considerable error, each can only partially explain bicoid characteristics. In this paper, a modified version of singular spectrum analysis is examined for filtering and extracting the bicoid gene expression signal. The results with strong evidence indicate that the proposed technique is able to remove noise more effectively and can be considered as a promising method for filtering gene expression measurements for other applications.

  7. Transcriptome analysis reveals novel patterning and pigmentation genes underlying Heliconius butterfly wing pattern variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hines Heather M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heliconius butterfly wing pattern diversity offers a unique opportunity to investigate how natural genetic variation can drive the evolution of complex adaptive phenotypes. Positional cloning and candidate gene studies have identified a handful of regulatory and pigmentation genes implicated in Heliconius wing pattern variation, but little is known about the greater developmental networks within which these genes interact to pattern a wing. Here we took a large-scale transcriptomic approach to identify the network of genes involved in Heliconius wing pattern development and variation. This included applying over 140 transcriptome microarrays to assay gene expression in dissected wing pattern elements across a range of developmental stages and wing pattern morphs of Heliconius erato. Results We identified a number of putative early prepattern genes with color-pattern related expression domains. We also identified 51 genes differentially expressed in association with natural color pattern variation. Of these, the previously identified color pattern “switch gene” optix was recovered as the first transcript to show color-specific differential expression. Most differentially expressed genes were transcribed late in pupal development and have roles in cuticle formation or pigment synthesis. These include previously undescribed transporter genes associated with ommochrome pigmentation. Furthermore, we observed upregulation of melanin-repressing genes such as ebony and Dat1 in non-melanic patterns. Conclusions This study identifies many new genes implicated in butterfly wing pattern development and provides a glimpse into the number and types of genes affected by variation in genes that drive color pattern evolution.

  8. Nonlinear consider covariance analysis using a sigma-point filter formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The research reported here extends the mathematical formulation of nonlinear, sigma-point estimators to enable consider covariance analysis for dynamical systems. This paper presents a novel sigma-point consider filter algorithm, for consider-parameterized nonlinear estimation, following the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) variation on the sigma-point filter formulation, which requires no partial derivatives of dynamics models or measurement models with respect to the parameter list. It is shown that, consistent with the attributes of sigma-point estimators, a consider-parameterized sigma-point estimator can be developed entirely without requiring the derivation of any partial-derivative matrices related to the dynamical system, the measurements, or the considered parameters, which appears to be an advantage over the formulation of a linear-theory sequential consider estimator. It is also demonstrated that a consider covariance analysis performed with this 'partial-derivative-free' formulation yields equivalent results to the linear-theory consider filter, for purely linear problems.

  9. Identification of 'Point A' as the prevalent source of error in cephalometric analysis of lateral radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogger, P; Sacher, C; Weber, S; Millesi, G; Seemann, R

    2018-04-10

    Deviations in measuring dentofacial components in a lateral X-ray represent a major hurdle in the subsequent treatment of dysgnathic patients. In a retrospective study, we investigated the most prevalent source of error in the following commonly used cephalometric measurements: the angles Sella-Nasion-Point A (SNA), Sella-Nasion-Point B (SNB) and Point A-Nasion-Point B (ANB); the Wits appraisal; the anteroposterior dysplasia indicator (APDI); and the overbite depth indicator (ODI). Preoperative lateral radiographic images of patients with dentofacial deformities were collected and the landmarks digitally traced by three independent raters. Cephalometric analysis was automatically performed based on 1116 tracings. Error analysis identified the x-coordinate of Point A as the prevalent source of error in all investigated measurements, except SNB, in which it is not incorporated. In SNB, the y-coordinate of Nasion predominated error variance. SNB showed lowest inter-rater variation. In addition, our observations confirmed previous studies showing that landmark identification variance follows characteristic error envelopes in the highest number of tracings analysed up to now. Variance orthogonal to defining planes was of relevance, while variance parallel to planes was not. Taking these findings into account, orthognathic surgeons as well as orthodontists would be able to perform cephalometry more accurately and accomplish better therapeutic results. Copyright © 2018 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Analysis and research on cleaning points of HVAC systems in public places].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaolan; Han, Xu; Chen, Dongqing; Jin, Xin; Dai, Zizhu

    2010-03-01

    To analyze cleaning points of HVAC systems, and to provides scientific base for regulating the cleaning of HVAC systems. Based on the survey results on the cleaning situation of HVAC systems around China for the past three years, we analyzes the cleaning points of HVAC systems from various aspects, such as the major health risk factors of HVAC systems, the formulation strategy of the cleaning of HVAC systems, cleaning methods and acceptance points of the air ducts and the parts of HVAC systems, the onsite protection and individual protection, the waste treatment and the cleaning of the removed equipment, inspection of the cleaning results, video record, and the final acceptance of the cleaning. The analysis of the major health risk factors of HVAC systems and the formulation strategy of the cleaning of HVAC systems is given. The specific methods for cleaning the air ducts, machine units, air ports, coil pipes and the water cooling towers of HVAC systems, the acceptance points of HVAC systems and the requirements of the report on the final acceptance of the cleaning of HVAC systems are proposed. By the analysis of the points of the cleaning of HVAC systems and proposal of corresponding measures, this study provides the base for the scientific and regular launch of the cleaning of HVAC systems, a novel technology service, and lays a foundation for the revision of the existing cleaning regulations, which may generate technical and social benefits to some extent.

  11. Analysis of spatial relationships in three dimensions: tools for the study of nerve cell patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raven Mary A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple technologies have been brought to bear on understanding the three-dimensional morphology of individual neurons and glia within the brain, but little progress has been made on understanding the rules controlling cellular patterning. We describe new matlab-based software tools, now available to the scientific community, permitting the calculation of spatial statistics associated with 3D point patterns. The analyses are largely derived from the Delaunay tessellation of the field, including the nearest neighbor and Voronoi domain analyses, and from the spatial autocorrelogram. Results Our tools enable the analysis of the spatial relationship between neurons within the central nervous system in 3D, and permit the modeling of these fields based on lattice-like simulations, and on simulations of minimal-distance spacing rules. Here we demonstrate the utility of our analysis methods to discriminate between two different simulated neuronal populations. Conclusion Together, these tools can be used to reveal the presence of nerve cell patterning and to model its foundation, in turn informing on the potential developmental mechanisms that govern its establishment. Furthermore, in conjunction with analyses of dendritic morphology, they can be used to determine the degree of dendritic coverage within a volume of tissue exhibited by mature nerve cells.

  12. Dosimetric analysis at ICRU reference points in HDR-brachytherapy of cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, H T; Haverkamp, U; Micke, O; Prott, F J; Müller, R P

    2000-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry in bladder and rectum as well as determining doses on suggested reference points following the ICRU report 38 contribute to quality assurance in HDR-brachytherapy of cervical carcinoma, especially to minimize side effects. In order to gain information regarding the radiation exposure at ICRU reference points in rectum, bladder, ureter and regional lymph nodes those were calculated (digitalisation) by means of orthogonal radiographs of 11 applications in patients with cervical carcinoma, who received primary radiotherapy. In addition, the doses at the ICRU rectum reference point was compared to the results of in vivo measurements in the rectum. The in vivo measurements were by factor 1.5 below the doses determined for the ICRU rectum reference point (4.05 +/- 0.68 Gy versus 6.11 +/- 1.63 Gy). Reasons for this were: calibration errors, non-orthogonal radiographs, movement of applicator and probe in the time span between X-ray and application, missing connection of probe and anterior rectal wall. The standard deviation of calculations at ICRU reference points was on average +/- 30%. Possible reasons for the relatively large standard deviation were difficulties in defining the points, identifying them on radiographs and the different locations of the applicators. Although 3 D CT, US or MR based treatment planning using dose volume histogram analysis is more and more established, this simple procedure of marking and digitising the ICRU reference points lengthened treatment planning only by 5 to 10 minutes. The advantages of in vivo dosimetry are easy practicability and the possibility to determine rectum doses during radiation. The advantages of computer-aided planning at ICRU reference points are that calculations are available before radiation and that they can still be taken into account for treatment planning. Both methods should be applied in HDR-brachytherapy of cervical carcinoma.

  13. IMAGE-PLANE ANALYSIS OF n-POINT-MASS LENS CRITICAL CURVES AND CAUSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danek, Kamil; Heyrovský, David, E-mail: kamil.danek@utf.mff.cuni.cz, E-mail: heyrovsky@utf.mff.cuni.cz [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-06-10

    The interpretation of gravitational microlensing events caused by planetary systems or multiple stars is based on the n-point-mass lens model. The first planets detected by microlensing were well described by the two-point-mass model of a star with one planet. By the end of 2014, four events involving three-point-mass lenses had been announced. Two of the lenses were stars with two planetary companions each; two were binary stars with a planet orbiting one component. While the two-point-mass model is well understood, the same cannot be said for lenses with three or more components. Even the range of possible critical-curve topologies and caustic geometries of the three-point-mass lens remains unknown. In this paper we provide new tools for mapping the critical-curve topology and caustic cusp number in the parameter space of n-point-mass lenses. We perform our analysis in the image plane of the lens. We show that all contours of the Jacobian are critical curves of re-scaled versions of the lens configuration. Utilizing this property further, we introduce the cusp curve to identify cusp-image positions on all contours simultaneously. In order to track cusp-number changes in caustic metamorphoses, we define the morph curve, which pinpoints the positions of metamorphosis-point images along the cusp curve. We demonstrate the usage of both curves on simple two- and three-point-mass lens examples. For the three simplest caustic metamorphoses we illustrate the local structure of the image and source planes.

  14. Automated analysis of art object surfaces using time-averaged digital speckle pattern interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukomski, Michal; Krzemien, Leszek

    2013-05-01

    Technical development and practical evaluation of a laboratory built, out-of-plane digital speckle pattern interferometer (DSPI) are reported. The instrument was used for non-invasive, non-contact detection and characterization of early-stage damage, like fracturing and layer separation, of painted objects of art. A fully automated algorithm was developed for recording and analysis of vibrating objects utilizing continuous-wave laser light. The algorithm uses direct, numerical fitting or Hilbert transformation for an independent, quantitative evaluation of the Bessel function at every point of the investigated surface. The procedure does not require phase modulation and thus can be implemented within any, even the simplest, DSPI apparatus. The proposed deformation analysis is fast and computationally inexpensive. Diagnosis of physical state of the surface of a panel painting attributed to Nicolaus Haberschrack (a late-mediaeval painter active in Krakow) from the collection of the National Museum in Krakow is presented as an example of an in situ application of the developed methodology. It has allowed the effectiveness of the deformation analysis to be evaluated for the surface of a real painting (heterogeneous colour and texture) in a conservation studio where vibration level was considerably higher than in the laboratory. It has been established that the methodology, which offers automatic analysis of the interferometric fringe patterns, has a considerable potential to facilitate and render more precise the condition surveys of works of art.

  15. Meta-Analysis of Effect Sizes Reported at Multiple Time Points Using General Linear Mixed Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musekiwa, Alfred; Manda, Samuel O. M.; Mwambi, Henry G.; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies combines effect sizes measured at pre-determined time points. The most common approach involves performing separate univariate meta-analyses at individual time points. This simplistic approach ignores dependence between longitudinal effect sizes, which might result in less precise parameter estimates. In this paper, we show how to conduct a meta-analysis of longitudinal effect sizes where we contrast different covariance structures for dependence between effect sizes, both within and between studies. We propose new combinations of covariance structures for the dependence between effect size and utilize a practical example involving meta-analysis of 17 trials comparing postoperative treatments for a type of cancer, where survival is measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post randomization. Although the results from this particular data set show the benefit of accounting for within-study serial correlation between effect sizes, simulations are required to confirm these results. PMID:27798661

  16. Comparative analysis among several methods used to solve the point kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Anderson L.; Goncalves, Alessandro da C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this work consists on the methodology development for comparison of several methods for the kinetics equations points solution. The evaluated methods are: the finite differences method, the stiffness confinement method, improved stiffness confinement method and the piecewise constant approximations method. These methods were implemented and compared through a systematic analysis that consists basically of confronting which one of the methods consume smaller computational time with higher precision. It was calculated the relative which function is to combine both criteria in order to reach the goal. Through the analyses of the performance factor it is possible to choose the best method for the solution of point kinetics equations. (author)

  17. Comparative analysis among several methods used to solve the point kinetic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Anderson L.; Goncalves, Alessandro da C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; E-mails: alupo@if.ufrj.br; agoncalves@con.ufrj.br; aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br; fernando@con.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of this work consists on the methodology development for comparison of several methods for the kinetics equations points solution. The evaluated methods are: the finite differences method, the stiffness confinement method, improved stiffness confinement method and the piecewise constant approximations method. These methods were implemented and compared through a systematic analysis that consists basically of confronting which one of the methods consume smaller computational time with higher precision. It was calculated the relative which function is to combine both criteria in order to reach the goal. Through the analyses of the performance factor it is possible to choose the best method for the solution of point kinetics equations. (author)

  18. Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) for an ultrasound food processing operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Hoarau, Nicolas

    2004-05-01

    Emerging technologies, such as ultrasound (US), used for food and drink production often cause hazards for product safety. Classical quality control methods are inadequate to control these hazards. Hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP) is the most secure and cost-effective method for controlling possible product contamination or cross-contamination, due to physical or chemical hazard during production. The following case study on the application of HACCP to an US food-processing operation demonstrates how the hazards at the critical control points of the process are effectively controlled through the implementation of HACCP.

  19. An analysis of correlation between occlusion classification and skeletal pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinhua; Cai Bin; Wang Dawei; Wu Liping

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between dental relationship and skeletal pattern of individuals. Methods: 194 cases were selected and classified by angle classification, incisor relationship and skeletal pattern respectively. The correlation of angle classification and incisor relationship to skeletal pattern was analyzed with SPSS 10.0. Results: The values of correlation index (Kappa) were 0.379 and 0.494 respectively. Conclusion: The incisor relationship is more consistent with skeletal pattern than angle classification

  20. Qualitative analysis fingertip patterns in ABO blood group

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. KShirsagar

    2013-01-01

    The inheritance of the dermatoglyphic patterns is polygenic. The genetic basis of the blood group is well established. The correlation between the dermatoglyphic patterns and the ABO blood group is studied by some workers in different populations. In the present study, the correlation between dermatoglyphics and ABO blood group is studied in the Marathwada Region of Maharashtra. The qualitative data included fingertip patterns and three indices. It was observed that, the Arch pattern is more ...

  1. Costochondral ossification pattern. Analysis by 3-dimensional CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Hailong; Nakatani, Kimiko

    2005-01-01

    We reviewed about an ossification pattern of costal cartilage with using three dimensional images made from computed tomography. We analyzed ossification of 16 costal cartilages in each case. We classified ossification pattern into eight groups by its configuration in one hundred cases. The sexual specificity of ossification pattern was revealed, and we can determinate sex in 82%. It was also revealed that ossification grows with increasing age. Finally, the knowledge of costochondral ossification pattern must help in case of reading chest radiographs. (author)

  2. Trend analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal temperature series in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaila, Jamaludin; Yusop, Zulkifli

    2017-06-01

    Most of the trend analysis that has been conducted has not considered the existence of a change point in the time series analysis. If these occurred, then the trend analysis will not be able to detect an obvious increasing or decreasing trend over certain parts of the time series. Furthermore, the lack of discussion on the possible factors that influenced either the decreasing or the increasing trend in the series needs to be addressed in any trend analysis. Hence, this study proposes to investigate the trends, and change point detection of mean, maximum and minimum temperature series, both annually and seasonally in Peninsular Malaysia and determine the possible factors that could contribute to the significance trends. In this study, Pettitt and sequential Mann-Kendall (SQ-MK) tests were used to examine the occurrence of any abrupt climate changes in the independent series. The analyses of the abrupt changes in temperature series suggested that most of the change points in Peninsular Malaysia were detected during the years 1996, 1997 and 1998. These detection points captured by Pettitt and SQ-MK tests are possibly related to climatic factors, such as El Niño and La Niña events. The findings also showed that the majority of the significant change points that exist in the series are related to the significant trend of the stations. Significant increasing trends of annual and seasonal mean, maximum and minimum temperatures in Peninsular Malaysia were found with a range of 2-5 °C/100 years during the last 32 years. It was observed that the magnitudes of the increasing trend in minimum temperatures were larger than the maximum temperatures for most of the studied stations, particularly at the urban stations. These increases are suspected to be linked with the effect of urban heat island other than El Niño event.

  3. Analysis of Architecture Pattern Usage in Legacy System Architecture Documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, Neil B.; Avgeriou, Paris

    2008-01-01

    Architecture patterns are an important tool in architectural design. However, while many architecture patterns have been identified, there is little in-depth understanding of their actual use in software architectures. For instance, there is no overview of how many patterns are used per system or

  4. Assessment of hygiene standards and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points implementation on passenger ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchtouri, Varavara; Malissiova, Eleni; Zisis, Panagiotis; Paparizou, Evina; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The level of hygiene on ferries can have impact on travellers' health. The aim of this study was to assess the hygiene standards of ferries in Greece and to investigate whether Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) implementation contributes to the hygiene status and particularly food safety aboard passenger ships. Hygiene inspections on 17 ferries in Greece were performed using a standardized inspection form, with a 135-point scale. Thirty-four water and 17 food samples were collected and analysed. About 65% (11/17) of ferries were scored with >100 points. Ferries with HACCP received higher scores during inspection compared to those without HACCP (p value food samples, only one was found positive for Salmonella spp. Implementation of management systems including HACCP principles can help to raise the level of hygiene aboard passenger ships.

  5. Analysis of payload bay magnetic fields due to dc power multipoint and single point ground configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of magnetic fields in the Orbiter Payload Bay resulting from the present grounding configuration (structure return) was presented and the amount of improvement that would result from installing wire returns for the three dc power buses was determined. Ac and dc magnetic fields at five points in a cross-section of the bay are calculated for both grounding configurations. Y and Z components of the field at each point are derived in terms of a constant coefficient and the current amplitude of each bus. The dc loads assumed are 100 Amperes for each bus. The ac noise current used is a spectrum 6 db higher than the Orbiter equipment limit for narrowband conducted emissions. It was concluded that installing return wiring to provide a single point ground for the dc Buses in the Payload Bay would reduce the ac and dc magnetic field intensity by approximately 30 db.

  6. Pasteurised milk and implementation of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B Murdiati

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of pasteurisation is to destroy pathogen bacteria without affecting the taste, flavor, and nutritional value. A study on the implementation of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point in producing pasteurized milk was carried out in four processing unit of pasteurised milk, one in Jakarta, two in Bandung and one in Bogor. The critical control points in the production line were identified. Milk samples were collected from the critical points and were analysed for the total number of microbes. Antibiotic residues were detected on raw milks. The study indicated that one unit in Bandung dan one unit in Jakarta produced pasteurized milk with lower number of microbes than the other units, due to better management and control applied along the chain of production. Penisilin residues was detected in raw milk used by unit in Bogor. Six critical points and the hazard might arise in those points were identified, as well as how to prevent the hazards. Quality assurance system such as HACCP would be able to produce high quality and safety of pasteurised milk, and should be implemented gradually.

  7. System implementation of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) in a nitrogen production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrantes Salazar, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    System of hazard analysis and critical control points are deployed in a production plant of liquid nitrogen. The fact that the nitrogen has become a complement to food packaging to increase shelf life, or provide a surface that protect it from manipulation, has been the main objective. Analysis of critical control points for the nitrogen production plant has been the adapted methodology. The knowledge of both the standard and the production process, as well as the on site verification process, have been necessary. In addition, all materials and/or processing units that are found in contact with the raw material or the product under study were evaluated. Such a way that the intrinsic risks of each were detected, from the physical, chemical and biological points of view according to the origin or pollution source. For each found risk was evaluated the probability of occurrence according to the frequency and gravity of it, with these variables determined was achieved the definition of the type of risk detected. In the cases that was presented a greater risk or critical, these were subjected decision tree; with which is concluded the non determination of critical control points. However, for each one of them were established the maximum permitted limits. To generate each of the results it has literature or scientific reference of reliable provenance, where is indicated properly the support of the evaluated matter. In a general way, the material matrix and the process matrix are found without critical control points; so that the project is concluded in the analysis, and it has to generate without the monitoring system and verification. To increase this project is suggested in order to cover the packaging system of gaseous nitrogen, due to it was delimited to liquid nitrogen. Furthermore, the liquid nitrogen is a 100% automated and closed process so the introduction of contaminants is very reduced, unlike the gaseous nitrogen process. (author) [es

  8. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Juan; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis. Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC) and the International Patent Classification (IPC), respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012) and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year) and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012) was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones. The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and discover new

  9. Four points function fitted and first derivative procedure for determining the end points in potentiometric titration curves: statistical analysis and method comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholeif, S A

    2001-06-01

    A new method that belongs to the differential category for determining the end points from potentiometric titration curves is presented. It uses a preprocess to find first derivative values by fitting four data points in and around the region of inflection to a non-linear function, and then locate the end point, usually as a maximum or minimum, using an inverse parabolic interpolation procedure that has an analytical solution. The behavior and accuracy of the sigmoid and cumulative non-linear functions used are investigated against three factors. A statistical evaluation of the new method using linear least-squares method validation and multifactor data analysis are covered. The new method is generally applied to symmetrical and unsymmetrical potentiometric titration curves, and the end point is calculated using numerical procedures only. It outperforms the "parent" regular differential method in almost all factors levels and gives accurate results comparable to the true or estimated true end points. Calculated end points from selected experimental titration curves compatible with the equivalence point category of methods, such as Gran or Fortuin, are also compared with the new method.

  10. Visualizing nD Point Clouds as Topological Landscape Profiles to Guide Local Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oesterling, Patrick [Univ. of Leipzig (Germany). Computer Science Dept.; Heine, Christian [Univ. of Leipzig (Germany). Computer Science Dept.; Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Computer Science; Weber, Gunther H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Scheuermann, Gerik [Univ. of Leipzig (Germany). Computer Science Dept.

    2012-05-04

    Analyzing high-dimensional point clouds is a classical challenge in visual analytics. Traditional techniques, such as projections or axis-based techniques, suffer from projection artifacts, occlusion, and visual complexity.We propose to split data analysis into two parts to address these shortcomings. First, a structural overview phase abstracts data by its density distribution. This phase performs topological analysis to support accurate and non-overlapping presentation of the high-dimensional cluster structure as a topological landscape profile. Utilizing a landscape metaphor, it presents clusters and their nesting as hills whose height, width, and shape reflect cluster coherence, size, and stability, respectively. A second local analysis phase utilizes this global structural knowledge to select individual clusters or point sets for further, localized data analysis. Focusing on structural entities significantly reduces visual clutter in established geometric visualizations and permits a clearer, more thorough data analysis. In conclusion, this analysis complements the global topological perspective and enables the user to study subspaces or geometric properties, such as shape.

  11. Distributional patterns of cecropia (Cecropiaceae: a panbiogeographic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Rosselli Pilar

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A panbiogeographic analysis of the distributional patterns of 60 species of Cecropia was carried out. Based on the distributional ranges of 36 species, we found eight generalized tracks for Cecropia species. whereas distributional patterns of 24 species were uninformative for the analysis. The major concentration of species of Cecropia is in the Neotropical Andean region. where there are three generalized tracks and two nodes. The northern Andes in Colombia and Ecuador are richer than the Central Andes in Perú. they contain two generalized tracks; one to the west and another to the east, formed by individual tracks of eight species each. There are four generalized tracks outside the Andean region: two in the Amazonian region in Guayana-Pará and in Manaus. one in Roraima. one in Serra do Mar in the Atlantic forest of Brazil and one in Central America. Speciation in Cecropia may be related to the Andean first uplift.Con base en la distribución de 60 especies del género Cecropia, se hizo un análisis panbiogeográfico. Se construyeron 8 trazos generalizados con base en el patrón de distribución de 36 especies; la distribución de las demás especies no aportaba información para la definición de los trazos. La región andina tiene la mayor concentración de especies de Cecropia representada por la presencia de tres trazos generalizados y dos nodos; los dos trazos con mayor número de especies se localizan en su parte norte, en Colombia y Ecuador y el otro en los Andes centrales en Perú. Se encontraron además, cuatro trazos extrandinos: dos en la región amazónica, en Pará-Guayana y en Manaus, uno en Roraima, uno en Serra do Mar en la Selva Atlánfíca del Brasil y uno en Centro América. La especiación en Cecropia parece estar relacionada con el primer levantamiento de los Andes.

  12. Fuzzy Risk Analysis for a Production System Based on the Nagel Point of a Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Akyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ordering and ranking fuzzy numbers and their comparisons play a significant role in decision-making problems such as social and economic systems, forecasting, optimization, and risk analysis problems. In this paper, a new method for ordering triangular fuzzy numbers using the Nagel point of a triangle is presented. With the aid of the proposed method, reasonable properties of ordering fuzzy numbers are verified. Certain comparative examples are given to illustrate the advantages of the new method. Many papers have been devoted to studies on fuzzy ranking methods, but some of these studies have certain shortcomings. The proposed method overcomes the drawbacks of the existing methods in the literature. The suggested method can order triangular fuzzy numbers as well as crisp numbers and fuzzy numbers with the same centroid point. An application to the fuzzy risk analysis problem is given, based on the suggested ordering approach.

  13. A Deep Learning Prediction Model Based on Extreme-Point Symmetric Mode Decomposition and Cluster Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guohui; Zhang, Songling; Yang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Aiming at the irregularity of nonlinear signal and its predicting difficulty, a deep learning prediction model based on extreme-point symmetric mode decomposition (ESMD) and clustering analysis is proposed. Firstly, the original data is decomposed by ESMD to obtain the finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and residuals. Secondly, the fuzzy c-means is used to cluster the decomposed components, and then the deep belief network (DBN) is used to predict it. Finally, the reconstructed ...

  14. PREMOR: a point reactor exposure model computer code for survey analysis of power plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1979-10-01

    The PREMOR computer code was written to exploit a simple, two-group point nuclear reactor power plant model for survey analysis. Up to thirteen actinides, fourteen fission products, and one lumped absorber nuclide density are followed over a reactor history. Successive feed batches are accounted for with provision for from one to twenty batches resident. The effect of exposure of each of the batches to the same neutron flux is determined

  15. PREMOR: a point reactor exposure model computer code for survey analysis of power plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1979-10-01

    The PREMOR computer code was written to exploit a simple, two-group point nuclear reactor power plant model for survey analysis. Up to thirteen actinides, fourteen fission products, and one lumped absorber nuclide density are followed over a reactor history. Successive feed batches are accounted for with provision for from one to twenty batches resident. The effect of exposure of each of the batches to the same neutron flux is determined.

  16. Levels and Patterns in the Analysis of the Organizational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Aida Cimpeanu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and analysis of the component elements of the organizational culture helps us greatly understand the respective culture, establish the main guidelines of the company values and understand the behaviours and attitudes of the employees. M. Thevenet indentifies two levels at which the culture manifests itself: the external level – the outside culture (which refers to local, regional or national culture, and the inner level –the internal culture (including organizational culture, professional culture, the culture of a group. Starting from this assumption, one can identify the main components of the organizational culture: founders, the organization’s history, values, beliefs and symbols, the way of thinking, the standards of behaviour etc. Some of these are visible, forming a cultural foundation surface, while others create a less visible foundation of culture – the hidden level. Kotter and Heskett agree that these two levels of analysis are very connected and influence each other. Considering their importance, other authors identify three, four or more levels of culture (Denison, Hofstede, Shein, bringing forth first the values then the rituals, heroes and symbols. Different models of culture analysis help us explain the elements of culture and understand its importance by providing for the researchers a starting point in explaining specific aspects related to the organizational culture and the organizational behaviour. By understanding the organizational culture, the members of an organization are able to shape their behaviour, can recognize their rights and obligations inside the company and the style of internal communication. They can determine the style of clothing and the dominant attitude inside the company, the way in which the management defines and implements its decisions and the staff policy.

  17. A new similarity index for nonlinear signal analysis based on local extrema patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknazar, Hamid; Motie Nasrabadi, Ali; Shamsollahi, Mohammad Bagher

    2018-02-01

    Common similarity measures of time domain signals such as cross-correlation and Symbolic Aggregate approximation (SAX) are not appropriate for nonlinear signal analysis. This is because of the high sensitivity of nonlinear systems to initial points. Therefore, a similarity measure for nonlinear signal analysis must be invariant to initial points and quantify the similarity by considering the main dynamics of signals. The statistical behavior of local extrema (SBLE) method was previously proposed to address this problem. The SBLE similarity index uses quantized amplitudes of local extrema to quantify the dynamical similarity of signals by considering patterns of sequential local extrema. By adding time information of local extrema as well as fuzzifying quantized values, this work proposes a new similarity index for nonlinear and long-term signal analysis, which extends the SBLE method. These new features provide more information about signals and reduce noise sensitivity by fuzzifying them. A number of practical tests were performed to demonstrate the ability of the method in nonlinear signal clustering and classification on synthetic data. In addition, epileptic seizure detection based on electroencephalography (EEG) signal processing was done by the proposed similarity to feature the potentials of the method as a real-world application tool.

  18. Analysis method of beam pointing stability based on optical transmission matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanchuan; Huang, PingXian; Li, Xiaotong; Cen, Zhaofen

    2016-10-01

    Quite a lot of factors will make effects on beam pointing stability of an optical system, Among them, the element tolerance is one of the most important and common factors. In some large laser systems, it will make final micro beams spot on the image plane deviate obviously. So it is essential for us to achieve effective and accurate analysis theoretically on element tolerance. In order to make the analysis of beam pointing stability convenient and theoretical, we consider transmission of a single chief ray rather than beams approximately to stand for the whole spot deviation. According to optical matrix, we also simplify this complex process of light transmission to multiplication of many matrices. So that we can set up element tolerance model, namely having mathematical expression to illustrate spot deviation in an optical system with element tolerance. In this way, we can realize quantitative analysis of beam pointing stability theoretically. In second half of the paper, we design an experiment to get the spot deviation in a multipass optical system caused by element tolerance, then we adjust the tolerance step by step and compare the results with the datum got from tolerance model, finally prove the correction of tolerance model successfully.

  19. Accelerated fluctuation analysis by graphic cards and complex pattern formation in financial markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preis, Tobias; Virnau, Peter; Paul, Wolfgang; Schneider, Johannes J

    2009-01-01

    The compute unified device architecture is an almost conventional programming approach for managing computations on a graphics processing unit (GPU) as a data-parallel computing device. With a maximum number of 240 cores in combination with a high memory bandwidth, a recent GPU offers resources for computational physics. We apply this technology to methods of fluctuation analysis, which includes determination of the scaling behavior of a stochastic process and the equilibrium autocorrelation function. Additionally, the recently introduced pattern formation conformity (Preis T et al 2008 Europhys. Lett. 82 68005), which quantifies pattern-based complex short-time correlations of a time series, is calculated on a GPU and analyzed in detail. Results are obtained up to 84 times faster than on a current central processing unit core. When we apply this method to high-frequency time series of the German BUND future, we find significant pattern-based correlations on short time scales. Furthermore, an anti-persistent behavior can be found on short time scales. Additionally, we compare the recent GPU generation, which provides a theoretical peak performance of up to roughly 10 12 floating point operations per second with the previous one.

  20. Quantitative analysis of crystalline pharmaceuticals in tablets by pattern-fitting procedure using X-ray diffraction pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehira, Rieko; Momose, Yasunori; Yamamura, Shigeo

    2010-10-15

    A pattern-fitting procedure using an X-ray diffraction pattern was applied to the quantitative analysis of binary system of crystalline pharmaceuticals in tablets. Orthorhombic crystals of isoniazid (INH) and mannitol (MAN) were used for the analysis. Tablets were prepared under various compression pressures using a direct compression method with various compositions of INH and MAN. Assuming that X-ray diffraction pattern of INH-MAN system consists of diffraction intensities from respective crystals, observed diffraction intensities were fitted to analytic expression based on X-ray diffraction theory and separated into two intensities from INH and MAN crystals by a nonlinear least-squares procedure. After separation, the contents of INH were determined by using the optimized normalization constants for INH and MAN. The correction parameter including all the factors that are beyond experimental control was required for quantitative analysis without calibration curve. The pattern-fitting procedure made it possible to determine crystalline phases in the range of 10-90% (w/w) of the INH contents. Further, certain characteristics of the crystals in the tablets, such as the preferred orientation, size of crystallite, and lattice disorder were determined simultaneously. This method can be adopted to analyze compounds whose crystal structures are known. It is a potentially powerful tool for the quantitative phase analysis and characterization of crystals in tablets and powders using X-ray diffraction patterns. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A morphometric analysis of vegetation patterns in dryland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke; Dekker, Stefan C.; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Punyasena, Surangi W.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2017-02-01

    Vegetation in dryland ecosystems often forms remarkable spatial patterns. These range from regular bands of vegetation alternating with bare ground, to vegetated spots and labyrinths, to regular gaps of bare ground within an otherwise continuous expanse of vegetation. It has been suggested that spotted vegetation patterns could indicate that collapse into a bare ground state is imminent, and the morphology of spatial vegetation patterns, therefore, represents a potentially valuable source of information on the proximity of regime shifts in dryland ecosystems. In this paper, we have developed quantitative methods to characterize the morphology of spatial patterns in dryland vegetation. Our approach is based on algorithmic techniques that have been used to classify pollen grains on the basis of textural patterning, and involves constructing feature vectors to quantify the shapes formed by vegetation patterns. We have analysed images of patterned vegetation produced by a computational model and a small set of satellite images from South Kordofan (South Sudan), which illustrates that our methods are applicable to both simulated and real-world data. Our approach provides a means of quantifying patterns that are frequently described using qualitative terminology, and could be used to classify vegetation patterns in large-scale satellite surveys of dryland ecosystems.

  2. Analysis of different vibration patterns to guide blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá-Gil, Juan V; Bazuelo-Ruiz, Bruno; Moro-Pérez, David; Mollà-Domenech, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The literature indicates the best vibration positions and frequencies on the human body where tactile information is transmitted. However, there is a lack of knowledge about how to combine tactile stimuli for navigation. The aim of this study is to compare different vibration patterns outputted to blind people and to determine the most intuitive vibration patterns to indicate direction for navigation purposes through a tactile belt. The vibration patterns that stimulate the front side of the waist are preferred for indicating direction. Vibration patterns applied on the back side of the waist could be suitable for sending messages such as stop.

  3. Analysis of different vibration patterns to guide blind people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan V. Durá-Gil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates the best vibration positions and frequencies on the human body where tactile information is transmitted. However, there is a lack of knowledge about how to combine tactile stimuli for navigation. The aim of this study is to compare different vibration patterns outputted to blind people and to determine the most intuitive vibration patterns to indicate direction for navigation purposes through a tactile belt. The vibration patterns that stimulate the front side of the waist are preferred for indicating direction. Vibration patterns applied on the back side of the waist could be suitable for sending messages such as stop.

  4. Methodologies for analysis of patterning in the mouse RPE sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Dalal, Nupur; Chrenek, Micah A.; Gardner, Christopher; Ziesel, Alison; Jiang, Yi; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2015-01-01

    -analyzed results were compared. Whether tallied manually or automatically with software, the resulting cell measurements were in close agreement. We compared normal with diseased RPE cells during aging with quantitative cell size and shape metrics. Subtle differences between the RPE sheet characteristics of young and old mice were identified. The IRBP−/− mouse RPE sheet did not differ from C57BL/6J (wild type, WT), suggesting that IRBP does not play a direct role in maintaining the health of the RPE cell, while the slow loss of photoreceptor (PhR) cells previously established in this knockout does support a role in the maintenance of PhR cells. Rd8 mice exhibited several measurable changes in patterns of RPE cells compared to WT, suggesting a slow degeneration of the RPE sheet that had not been previously noticed in rd8. Conclusions An optimized dissection method and a series of programs were used to establish a rapid and hands-off analysis. The software-aided, high-sampling-size approach performed as well as trained human scorers, but was considerably faster and easier. This method allows tens to hundreds of thousands of cells to be analyzed, each with 23 metrics. With this combination of dissection and image analysis of the RPE sheet, we can now analyze cell-to-cell interactions of immediate neighbors. In the future, we may be able to observe interactions of second, third, or higher ring neighbors and analyze tension in sheets, which might be expected to deviate from normal near large bumps in the RPE sheet caused by druse or when large frank holes in the RPE sheet are observed in geographic atrophy. This method and software can be readily applied to other aspects of vision science, neuroscience, and epithelial biology where patterns may exist in a sheet or surface of cells. PMID:25593512

  5. An Analysis on change of household electricity demand pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, In Gang [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    The object of this study is to analyze the behavioral pattern change of household electricity demand. Through the cross section analysis using materials from the energy total research report, the change in income elasticity of household electricity demand was studied. In this study, two methodologies were used. Firstly, it was shown that the effect of an income variable was very significant with a positive value in simultaneous equations model using exponential equations of electrical appliances holding. Cross section income effect showed a various distribution according to the season or income level. Overall, it was calculated at 0.111 when the appliances are fixed and 0.432 when even appliances are changed. Secondly, using a choice convenient correction model, it is resulted that lambda, the choice convenient correction factor, has a positive value and is statistically significant. In 1996, income elasticity of electricity demand for households with air-conditioning was 0.305 and for households without air-conditioning was 0.172. Income elasticity of households with air-conditioning is increasing as time goes by while income elasticity of households without air-conditioning is decreasing. (author). 32 refs., 35 tabs.

  6. Topological analysis of long-chain branching patterns in polyolefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonchev, D; Markel, E; Dekmezian, A

    2001-01-01

    Patterns in molecular topology and complexity for long-chain branching are quantitatively described. The Wiener number, the topological complexity index, and a new index of 3-starness are used to quantify polymer structure. General formulas for these indices were derived for the cases of 3-arm star, H-shaped, and B-arm comb polymers. The factors affecting complexity in monodisperse polymer systems are ranked as follows: number of arms > arm length > arm central position approximately equal to arm clustering > total molecular weight approximately equal to backbone molecular weight. Topological indices change rapidly and then plateau as the molecular weight of branches on a polyolefin backbone increases from 0 to 5 kD. Complexity calculations relate 2-arm or 3-arm comb structures to the corresponding 3-arm stars of equivalent complexity but much higher molecular weight. In a subsequent paper, we report the application of topological analysis for developing structure/property relationships for monodisperse polymers. While the focus of the present work is on the description of monodisperse, well-defined architectures, the methods may be extended to the description of polydisperse systems.

  7. Developments In Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry For Automotive Vibration Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jeremy C.; Buckberry, Clive H.; Jones, Julian D. C.; Pannell, Chris N.

    1989-01-01

    The incorporation of monomode fibre optics into an argon ion powered Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometer (ESPI) is reported. The system, consisting of an optics assembly linked to the laser and a CCD camera transceiver, flexibly connected by 40m of monomode fibre optic cable to the optics, has been used to analyse the modal behaviour of structures up to 5m X 3m X 2m in size. Phase modulation of the reference beam in order to operate in a heterodyne mode has been implemented using a piezo-electric crystal operating on the monomode fibre. A new mode of operation - sequential time-average subtraction - and the results of a new processing algorithm are also reported. Their implementation enables speckle free, time-average vibration maps to be generated in real-time on large, unstable structures. Example results for a four cylinder power unit, a vehicle body shell component and an engine oil pan are included. In all cases the analysis was conducted in a general workshop environment without the need for vibration isolation facilities.

  8. [Accidents in equestrian sports : Analysis of injury mechanisms and patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, C; Schulte-Sutum, A; Zeckey, C; Winkelmann, M; Krettek, C; Mommsen, P

    2017-02-01

    Equestrian sports are one of the most popular forms of sport in Germany, while also being one of the most accident-prone sports. Furthermore, riding accidents are frequently associated with a high degree of severity of injuries and mortality. Nevertheless, there are insufficient data regarding incidences, demographics, mechanisms of accidents, injury severity and patterns and outcome of injured persons in amateur equestrian sports. Accordingly, it was the aim of the present study to retrospectively analyze these aspects. A total of 503 patients were treated in the emergency room of the Hannover Medical School because of an accident during recreational horse riding between 2006 and 2011. The female gender was predominantly affected with 89.5 %. The mean age of the patients was 26.2 ± 14.9 years and women (24.5 ± 12.5 years) were on average younger than men (40.2 ± 23.9 years). A special risk group was girls and young women aged between 10 and 39 years. The overall injury severity was measured using the injury severity score (ISS). Based on the total population, head injuries were the most common location of injuries with 17.3 % followed by injuries to the upper extremities with 15.2 % and the thoracic and lumbar spine with 10.9 %. The three most common injury locations after falling from a horse were the head (17.5 %), the upper extremities (17.4 %), the thoracic and lumbar spine (12.9 %). The most frequent injuries while handling horses were foot injuries (17.2 %), followed by head (16.6 %) and mid-facial injuries (15.0 %). With respect to the mechanism of injury accidents while riding were predominant (74 %), while accidents when handling horses accounted for only 26 %. The median ISS was 9.8 points. The proportion of multiple trauma patients (ISS > 16) was 18.1 %. Based on the total sample, the average in-hospital patient stay was 5.3 ± 5.4 days with a significantly higher proportion of hospitalized patients in the

  9. Portable Dew Point Mass Spectrometry System for Real-Time Gas and Moisture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, C.; Gillespie, Stacey; Ratzel, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    A portable instrument incorporates both mass spectrometry and dew point measurement to provide real-time, quantitative gas measurements of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide, along with real-time, quantitative moisture analysis. The Portable Dew Point Mass Spectrometry (PDP-MS) system comprises a single quadrupole mass spectrometer and a high vacuum system consisting of a turbopump and a diaphragm-backing pump. A capacitive membrane dew point sensor was placed upstream of the MS, but still within the pressure-flow control pneumatic region. Pressure-flow control was achieved with an upstream precision metering valve, a capacitance diaphragm gauge, and a downstream mass flow controller. User configurable LabVIEW software was developed to provide real-time concentration data for the MS, dew point monitor, and sample delivery system pressure control, pressure and flow monitoring, and recording. The system has been designed to include in situ, NIST-traceable calibration. Certain sample tubing retains sufficient water that even if the sample is dry, the sample tube will desorb water to an amount resulting in moisture concentration errors up to 500 ppm for as long as 10 minutes. It was determined that Bev-A-Line IV was the best sample line to use. As a result of this issue, it is prudent to add a high-level humidity sensor to PDP-MS so such events can be prevented in the future.

  10. [Evaluation of a new blood gas analysis system: RapidPoint 500(®)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Thierry; Cabrolier, Nadège; Bardonnet, Karine; Davani, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    We present here evaluation of a new blood gas analysis system, RapidPoint 500(®) (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics). The aim of this research was to compare the ergonomics and analytical performances of this analyser with those of the RapidLab 1265 for the following parameters: pH, partial oxygen pressure, partial carbon dioxide pressure, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, lactate and the CO-oximetry parameters: hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, reduced hemoglobin, neonatal bilirubin; as well as with the Dimension Vista 500 results for chloride and glucose. The Valtec protocol, recommended by the French Society of Clinical Biology (SFBC), was used to analyze the study results. The experiment was carried out over a period of one month in the Department of medical biochemistry. One hundred sixty five samples from adult patients admitted to the ER or hospitalized in intensive care were tested. The RapidPoint 500(®) was highly satisfactory from an ergonomic point of view. Intra-and inter- assay coefficients of variation (CV) with the three control levels were below those recommended by the SFBC for all parameters, and the comparative study gave coefficients of determination higher than 0.91. Taken together, the RapidPoint 500(®) appears fully satisfactory in terms of ergonomics and analytical performance.

  11. Preliminary analysis of the nestedness patterns of Montane forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that the species ordering is significantly non-random. The discussion and conclusions focus on the nested subset patterns exhibited by 14 species and, to a lesser extent, 'idiosyncratic' species and islands. Factors that may have contributed to this pattern include selective extinction and colonisation; however, ...

  12. Analysis of time-varying psoriasis lesion image patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2004-01-01

    The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed.......The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed....

  13. Pattern of abdominal wall herniae in females: a retrospective analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gender differences are expected to influence the pattern and outcome of management of abdominal wall hernias. Some of these are left to speculations with few published articles on hernias in females. Objectives: To describe the clinical pattern of abdominal wall hernias in females. Method: A 5 year ...

  14. Binary pattern analysis for 3D facial action unit detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandbach, Georgia; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose new binary pattern features for use in the problem of 3D facial action unit (AU) detection. Two representations of 3D facial geometries are employed, the depth map and the Azimuthal Projection Distance Image (APDI). To these the traditional Local Binary Pattern is applied,

  15. Individual Differences in Consumer Buying Patterns: A Behavioral Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Paulo R.; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of…

  16. Proposition for Improvement of Economics Situation with Use of Analysis of Break Even Point

    OpenAIRE

    Starečková, Alena

    2015-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá realizací Break-even-point analýzy v podniku, analýzou nákladů a návrhem na zlepšení finanční situace podniku zejména z pohledu nákladů. V první části práce jsou vymezeny pojmy a vzorce týkajících se Break-even-point analýzy a problematiky nákladů. Ve druhé části pak na konkrétním podniku bude provedena analýza bodu zvratu a následné návrhy na zlepšení stávajícího stavu. Bachelor work is dealing with realization of break even point analysis of company, analysis o...

  17. A new three-dimensional nonscanning laser imaging system based on the illumination pattern of a point-light-source array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenze; Ma, Yayun; Han, Shaokun; Wang, Yulin; Liu, Fei; Zhai, Yu

    2018-06-01

    One of the most important goals of research on three-dimensional nonscanning laser imaging systems is the improvement of the illumination system. In this paper, a new three-dimensional nonscanning laser imaging system based on the illumination pattern of a point-light-source array is proposed. This array is obtained using a fiber array connected to a laser array with each unit laser having independent control circuits. This system uses a point-to-point imaging process, which is realized using the exact corresponding optical relationship between the point-light-source array and a linear-mode avalanche photodiode array detector. The complete working process of this system is explained in detail, and the mathematical model of this system containing four equations is established. A simulated contrast experiment and two real contrast experiments which use the simplified setup without a laser array are performed. The final results demonstrate that unlike a conventional three-dimensional nonscanning laser imaging system, the proposed system meets all the requirements of an eligible illumination system. Finally, the imaging performance of this system is analyzed under defocusing situations, and analytical results show that the system has good defocusing robustness and can be easily adjusted in real applications.

  18. A Monte Carlo-adjusted goodness-of-fit test for parametric models describing spatial point patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Dao, Ngocanh

    2014-04-03

    Assessing the goodness-of-fit (GOF) for intricate parametric spatial point process models is important for many application fields. When the probability density of the statistic of the GOF test is intractable, a commonly used procedure is the Monte Carlo GOF test. Additionally, if the data comprise a single dataset, a popular version of the test plugs a parameter estimate in the hypothesized parametric model to generate data for theMonte Carlo GOF test. In this case, the test is invalid because the resulting empirical level does not reach the nominal level. In this article, we propose a method consisting of nested Monte Carlo simulations which has the following advantages: the bias of the resulting empirical level of the test is eliminated, hence the empirical levels can always reach the nominal level, and information about inhomogeneity of the data can be provided.We theoretically justify our testing procedure using Taylor expansions and demonstrate that it is correctly sized through various simulation studies. In our first data application, we discover, in agreement with Illian et al., that Phlebocarya filifolia plants near Perth, Australia, can follow a homogeneous Poisson clustered process that provides insight into the propagation mechanism of these plants. In our second data application, we find, in contrast to Diggle, that a pairwise interaction model provides a good fit to the micro-anatomy data of amacrine cells designed for analyzing the developmental growth of immature retina cells in rabbits. This article has supplementary material online. © 2013 American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and Interface Foundation of North America.

  19. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS TO THE PASTA PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulexis Meneses Linares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to combine the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP methodologies for the determination of risks that the food production represents to the human health and the ecosystem. The environmental performance of the production of pastas in the “Marta Abreu” Pasta Factory of Cienfuegos is assessed, where the critical control points determined by the biological dangers (mushrooms and plagues and the physical dangers (wood, paper, thread and ferromagnetic particles were the raw materials: flour, semolina and its mixtures, and the disposition and extraction of them. Resources are the most affected damage category due to the consumption of fossil fuels.

  20. Using thermal analysis techniques for identifying the flash point temperatures of some lubricant and base oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksam Abdelkhalik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The flash point (FP temperatures of some lubricant and base oils were measured according to ASTM D92 and ASTM D93. In addition, the thermal stability of the oils was studied using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA under nitrogen atmosphere. The DSC results showed that the FP temperatures, for each oil, were found during the first decomposition step and the temperature at the peak of the first decomposition step was usually higher than FP temperatures. The TGA results indicated that the temperature at which 17.5% weigh loss take placed (T17.5% was nearly identical with the FP temperature (±10 °C that was measured according to ASTM D92. The deviation percentage between FP and T17.5% was in the range from −0.8% to 3.6%. Keywords: Flash point, TGA, DSC

  1. Search for neutrino point sources with an all-sky autocorrelation analysis in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcati, Andrea; Bernhard, Anna; Coenders, Stefan [TU, Munich (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a cubic kilometre scale neutrino telescope located in the Antarctic ice. Its full-sky field of view gives unique opportunities to study the neutrino emission from the Galactic and extragalactic sky. Recently, IceCube found the first signal of astrophysical neutrinos with energies up to the PeV scale, but the origin of these particles still remains unresolved. Given the observed flux, the absence of observations of bright point-sources is explainable with the presence of numerous weak sources. This scenario can be tested using autocorrelation methods. We present here the sensitivities and discovery potentials of a two-point angular correlation analysis performed on seven years of IceCube data, taken between 2008 and 2015. The test is applied on the northern and southern skies separately, using the neutrino energy information to improve the effectiveness of the method.

  2. A systematic analysis of the Braitenberg vehicle 2b for point-like stimulus sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rañó, Iñaki

    2012-01-01

    Braitenberg vehicles have been used experimentally for decades in robotics with limited empirical understanding. This paper presents the first mathematical model of the vehicle 2b, displaying so-called aggression behaviour, and analyses the possible trajectories for point-like smooth stimulus sources. This sensory-motor steering control mechanism is used to implement biologically grounded target approach, target-seeking or obstacle-avoidance behaviour. However, the analysis of the resulting model reveals that complex and unexpected trajectories can result even for point-like stimuli. We also prove how the implementation of the controller and the vehicle morphology interact to affect the behaviour of the vehicle. This work provides a better understanding of Braitenberg vehicle 2b, explains experimental results and paves the way for a formally grounded application on robotics as well as for a new way of understanding target seeking in biology. (paper)

  3. Second-order analysis of structured inhomogeneous spatio-temporal point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    Statistical methodology for spatio-temporal point processes is in its infancy. We consider second-order analysis based on pair correlation functions and K-functions for first general inhomogeneous spatio-temporal point processes and second inhomogeneous spatio-temporal Cox processes. Assuming...... spatio-temporal separability of the intensity function, we clarify different meanings of second-order spatio-temporal separability. One is second-order spatio-temporal independence and relates e.g. to log-Gaussian Cox processes with an additive covariance structure of the underlying spatio......-temporal Gaussian process. Another concerns shot-noise Cox processes with a separable spatio-temporal covariance density. We propose diagnostic procedures for checking hypotheses of second-order spatio-temporal separability, which we apply on simulated and real data (the UK 2001 epidemic foot and mouth disease data)....

  4. Manual versus Automated Narrative Analysis of Agrammatic Production Patterns: The Northwestern Narrative Language Analysis and Computerized Language Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chien-Ju; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the outcomes of the manually coded Northwestern Narrative Language Analysis (NNLA) system, which was developed for characterizing agrammatic production patterns, and the automated Computerized Language Analysis (CLAN) system, which has recently been adopted to analyze speech samples of individuals…

  5. Facial soft tissue analysis among various vertical facial patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeelani, W.; Fida, M.; Shaikh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The emergence of soft tissue paradigm in orthodontics has made various soft tissue parameters an integral part of the orthodontic problem list. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare various facial soft tissue parameters on lateral cephalograms among patients with short, average and long facial patterns. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on the lateral cephalograms of 180 adult subjects divided into three equal groups, i.e., short, average and long face according to the vertical facial pattern. Incisal display at rest, nose height, upper and lower lip lengths, degree of lip procumbency and the nasolabial angle were measured for each individual. The gender differences for these soft tissue parameters were determined using Mann-Whitney U test while the comparison among different facial patterns was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Significant differences in the incisal display at rest, total nasal height, lip procumbency, the nasolabial angle and the upper and lower lip lengths were found among the three vertical facial patterns. A significant positive correlation of nose and lip dimensions was found with the underlying skeletal pattern. Similarly, the incisal display at rest, upper and lower lip procumbency and the nasolabial angle were significantly correlated with the lower anterior facial height. Conclusion: Short facial pattern is associated with minimal incisal display, recumbent upper and lower lips and acute nasolabial angle while the long facial pattern is associated with excessive incisal display, procumbent upper and lower lips and obtuse nasolabial angle. (author)

  6. Point defect characterization in HAADF-STEM images using multivariate statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarahan, Michael C.; Chi, Miaofang; Masiel, Daniel J.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of point defects is demonstrated through the use of multivariate statistical analysis. This analysis consists of principal component analysis for dimensional estimation and reduction, followed by independent component analysis to obtain physically meaningful, statistically independent factor images. Results from these analyses are presented in the form of factor images and scores. Factor images show characteristic intensity variations corresponding to physical structure changes, while scores relate how much those variations are present in the original data. The application of this technique is demonstrated on a set of experimental images of dislocation cores along a low-angle tilt grain boundary in strontium titanate. A relationship between chemical composition and lattice strain is highlighted in the analysis results, with picometer-scale shifts in several columns measurable from compositional changes in a separate column. -- Research Highlights: → Multivariate analysis of HAADF-STEM images. → Distinct structural variations among SrTiO 3 dislocation cores. → Picometer atomic column shifts correlated with atomic column population changes.

  7. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc. Methods: Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Results: Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Conclusion: Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. Impact of the study: This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing. Keywords: Epoc, Capillary, Transport, Blood gas, Point of care

  8. New York Household Travel Patterns: A Comparison Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Reuscher, Tim [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    In 1969, the U. S. Department of Transportation began collecting detailed data on personal travel to address various transportation planning issues. These issues range from assessing transportation investment programs to developing new technologies to alleviate congestion. This 1969 survey was the birth of the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. Longer-distance travel was collected in 1977 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed to the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and collected both daily and longer-distance trips in one survey. In addition to the number of sample households that the national NPTS/NHTS survey allotted to New York State (NYS), the state procured an additional sample of households in both the 1995 and 2001 surveys. In the 1995 survey, NYS procured an addition sample of more than 9,000 households, increasing the final NY NPTS sample size to a total of 11,004 households. Again in 2001, NYS procured 12,000 additional sample households, increasing the final New York NHTS sample size to a total of 13,423 households with usable data. These additional sample households allowed NYS to address transportation planning issues pertinent to geographic areas significantly smaller than for what the national NPTS and NHTS data are intended. Specifically, these larger sample sizes enable detailed analysis of twelve individual Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs). Furthermore, they allowed NYS to address trends in travel behavior over time. In this report, travel data for the entire NYS were compared to those of the rest of the country with respect to personal travel behavior and key travel determinants. The influence of New York City (NYC) data on the comparisons of the state of New York to the rest of the country was also examined. Moreover, the analysis examined the relationship between population density and travel patterns, and the similarities and differences among New

  9. [Analysis of dietary pattern and diabetes mellitus influencing factors identified by classification tree model in adults of Fujian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F L; Ye, Y; Yan, Y S

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To find out the dietary patterns and explore the relationship between environmental factors (especially dietary patterns) and diabetes mellitus in the adults of Fujian. Methods: Multi-stage sampling method were used to survey residents aged ≥18 years by questionnaire, physical examination and laboratory detection in 10 disease surveillance points in Fujian. Factor analysis was used to identify the dietary patterns, while logistic regression model was applied to analyze relationship between dietary patterns and diabetes mellitus, and classification tree model was adopted to identify the influencing factors for diabetes mellitus. Results: There were four dietary patterns in the population, including meat, plant, high-quality protein, and fried food and beverages patterns. The result of logistic analysis showed that plant pattern, which has higher factor loading of fresh fruit-vegetables and cereal-tubers, was a protective factor for non-diabetes mellitus. The risk of diabetes mellitus in the population at T2 and T3 levels of factor score were 0.727 (95 %CI: 0.561-0.943) times and 0.736 (95 %CI : 0.573-0.944) times higher, respectively, than those whose factor score was in lowest quartile. Thirteen influencing factors and eleven group at high-risk for diabetes mellitus were identified by classification tree model. The influencing factors were dyslipidemia, age, family history of diabetes, hypertension, physical activity, career, sex, sedentary time, abdominal adiposity, BMI, marital status, sleep time and high-quality protein pattern. Conclusion: There is a close association between dietary patterns and diabetes mellitus. It is necessary to promote healthy and reasonable diet, strengthen the monitoring and control of blood lipids, blood pressure and body weight, and have good lifestyle for the prevention and control of diabetes mellitus.

  10. Distorted Pattern Recognition and Analysis with the Help of IEf Graph Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sedziwy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for distorted pattern recognition is presented. lt's generalization of M Flasinski results (Pattern Recognition, 27, 1-16, 1992. A new formalism allows to make both qualitative and quantitive distortion analysis. It also enlarges parser flexibility by extending the set of patterns which may be recognized.

  11. A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Roberto; Minelli, Liliana; Bertarelli, Gaia; Bacci, Silvia

    2016-10-12

    Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with the glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by "a posteriori" methods. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risks estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs), for a first-percentile increase in dietary pattern score, were combined by a dose-response meta-analysis. Twelve observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified a "Healthy pattern" and a "Western pattern". The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.08-1.65). In addition, the "Carbohydrate pattern", which was analyzed in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.35-2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western ( p = 0.011) pattern, the Carbohydrate ( p = 0.005) pattern, and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small number of studies included in the meta-analysis suggests that further investigation is necessary to support these findings.

  12. Electricity demand forecasting using regression, scenarios and pattern analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to forecast national electricity demand patterns for a period of twenty years: total annual consumption and understanding seasonal effects. No constraint on the supply of electricity was assumed...

  13. Bibliometric Analysis of Publication Output Patterns of Faculty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is set out to analyse publication research output patterns of the faculty members of Agriculture and Veterinary Complex of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria ... Faculty of Agriculture (FOA), National Agricultural Extension and Research ...

  14. Analysis of Long Bone and Vertebral Failure Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-14

    and alter the injury pattern. Classified on an anatomical, kinesiologic , £s and pathologic basis, the vertebral body fracture patterns may...814. Boyde, A. (1972) Scanning electron microscope studies of bone. In Bourne, G.H. (ed): The Biochemistry and Physiology of Bone. New York...Eyring, E.J. (1969) The biochemistry and physiology of intervertebral disk. Clin. Orthop. Rel, Res. 67: 16-18. Fick, R. (1904) Handbuch der Anatomie

  15. Analysis of Roanoke Region Weather Patterns Under Global Teleconnections

    OpenAIRE

    LaRocque, Eric John

    2006-01-01

    This work attempts to relate global teleconnections, through physical phenomena such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Artic Oscillation (AO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Pacific North American (PNA) pattern to synoptic-scale weather patterns and precipitation in the Roanoke, Virginia region. The first chapter describes the behavior of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) by implementing non-homogeneous and homogeneous Markov Chain models on a monthly time series o...

  16. Breed differences in dogs sensitivity to human points: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorey, Nicole R; Udell, Monique A R; Wynne, Clive D L

    2009-07-01

    The last decade has seen a substantial increase in research on the behavioral and cognitive abilities of pet dogs, Canis familiaris. The most commonly used experimental paradigm is the object-choice task in which a dog is given a choice of two containers and guided to the reinforced object by human pointing gestures. We review here studies of this type and attempt a meta-analysis of the available data. In the meta-analysis breeds of dogs were grouped into the eight categories of the American Kennel Club, and into four clusters identified by Parker and Ostrander [Parker, H.G., Ostrander, E.A., 2005. Canine genomics and genetics: running with the pack. PLoS Genet. 1, 507-513] on the basis of a genetic analysis. No differences in performance between breeds categorized in either fashion were identified. Rather, all dog breeds appear to be similarly and highly successful in following human points to locate desired food. We suggest this result could be due to the paucity of data available in published studies, and the restricted range of breeds tested.

  17. Benefits analysis of Soft Open Points for electrical distribution network operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wanyu; Wu, Jianzhong; Jenkins, Nick; Wang, Chengshan; Green, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An analysis framework was developed to quantify the operational benefits. • The framework considers both network reconfiguration and SOP control. • Benefits were analyzed through both quantitative and sensitivity analysis. - Abstract: Soft Open Points (SOPs) are power electronic devices installed in place of normally-open points in electrical power distribution networks. They are able to provide active power flow control, reactive power compensation and voltage regulation under normal network operating conditions, as well as fast fault isolation and supply restoration under abnormal conditions. A steady state analysis framework was developed to quantify the operational benefits of a distribution network with SOPs under normal network operating conditions. A generic power injection model was developed and used to determine the optimal SOP operation using an improved Powell’s Direct Set method. Physical limits and power losses of the SOP device (based on back to back voltage-source converters) were considered in the model. Distribution network reconfiguration algorithms, with and without SOPs, were developed and used to identify the benefits of using SOPs. Test results on a 33-bus distribution network compared the benefits of using SOPs, traditional network reconfiguration and the combination of both. The results showed that using only one SOP achieved a similar improvement in network operation compared to the case of using network reconfiguration with all branches equipped with remotely controlled switches. A combination of SOP control and network reconfiguration provided the optimal network operation.

  18. Point Analysis in Java applied to histological images of the perforant pathway: a user's account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorcioni, Ruggero; Wright, Susan N; Patrick Card, J; Ascoli, Giorgio A; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2008-01-01

    The freeware Java tool Point Analysis in Java (PAJ), created to perform 3D point analysis, was tested in an independent laboratory setting. The input data consisted of images of the hippocampal perforant pathway from serial immunocytochemical localizations of the rat brain in multiple views at different resolutions. The low magnification set (x2 objective) comprised the entire perforant pathway, while the high magnification set (x100 objective) allowed the identification of individual fibers. A preliminary stereological study revealed a striking linear relationship between the fiber count at high magnification and the optical density at low magnification. PAJ enabled fast analysis for down-sampled data sets and a friendly interface with automated plot drawings. Noted strengths included the multi-platform support as well as the free availability of the source code, conducive to a broad user base and maximum flexibility for ad hoc requirements. PAJ has great potential to extend its usability by (a) improving its graphical user interface, (b) increasing its input size limit, (c) improving response time for large data sets, and (d) potentially being integrated with other Java graphical tools such as ImageJ.

  19. The Melting Point of Palladium Using Miniature Fixed Points of Different Ceramic Materials: Part II—Analysis of Melting Curves and Long-Term Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, F.; Huang, K.

    2016-12-01

    Fifteen miniature fixed-point cells made of three different ceramic crucible materials (Al2O3, ZrO2, and Al2O3(86 %)+ZrO2(14 %)) were filled with pure palladium and used to calibrate type B thermocouples (Pt30 %Rh/Pt6 %Rh). A critical point by using miniature fixed points with small amounts of fixed-point material is the analysis of the melting curves, which are characterized by significant slopes during the melting process compared to flat melting plateaus obtainable using conventional fixed-point cells. The method of the extrapolated starting point temperature using straight line approximation of the melting plateau was applied to analyze the melting curves. This method allowed an unambiguous determination of an electromotive force (emf) assignable as melting temperature. The strict consideration of two constraints resulted in a unique, repeatable and objective method to determine the emf at the melting temperature within an uncertainty of about 0.1 μ V. The lifetime and long-term stability of the miniature fixed points was investigated by performing more than 100 melt/freeze cycles for each crucible of the different ceramic materials. No failure of the crucibles occurred indicating an excellent mechanical stability of the investigated miniature cells. The consequent limitation of heating rates to values below {± }3.5 K min^{-1} above 1100° C and the carefully and completely filled crucibles (the liquid palladium occupies the whole volume of the crucible) are the reasons for successfully preventing the crucibles from breaking. The thermal stability of the melting temperature of palladium was excellent when using the crucibles made of Al2O3(86 %)+ZrO2(14 %) and ZrO2. Emf drifts over the total duration of the long-term investigation were below a temperature equivalent of about 0.1 K-0.2 K.

  20. Dual time point 18FDG-PET/CT versus single time point 18FDG-PET/CT for the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules - A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Yinzhong; Lei, Junqiang; Tian, Jinhui; Zhai, Yanan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is one of the most common cancer types in the world. An accurate diagnosis of lung cancer is crucial for early treatment and management. Purpose: To perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dual time point 18F-fluorodexyglucose position emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) and single time point 18FDG-PET/CT in the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules. Material and Methods: PubMed (1966-2011.11), EMBASE (1974-2011.11), Web of Science (1972-2011.11), Cochrane Library (-2011.11), and four Chinese databases; CBM (1978-2011.11), CNKI (1994-2011.11), VIP (1989-2011.11), and Wanfang Database (1994-2011.11) were searched. Summary sensitivity, summary specificity, summary diagnostic odds ratios (DOR), and summary positive likelihood ratios (LR+) and negative likelihood ratios (LR-) were obtained using Meta-Disc software. Summary receiver-operating characteristic (SROC) curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dual time point 18FDG-PET/CT and single time point 18FDG-PET/CT. Results: The inclusion criteria were fulfilled by eight articles, with a total of 415 patients and 430 pulmonary nodules. Compared with the gold standard (pathology or clinical follow-up), the summary sensitivity of dual time point 18FDG-PET/CT was 79% (95%CI, 74.0 - 84.0%), and its summary specificity was 73% (95%CI, 65.0-79.0%); the summary LR+ was 2.61 (95%CI, 1.96-3.47), and the summary LR- was 0.29 (95%CI, 0.21 - 0.41); the summary DOR was 10.25 (95%CI, 5.79 - 18.14), and the area under the SROC curve (AUC) was 0.8244. The summary sensitivity for single time point 18FDG-PET/CT was 77% (95%CI, 71.9 - 82.3%), and its summary specificity was 59% (95%CI, 50.6 - 66.2%); the summary LR+ was 1.97 (95%CI, 1.32 - 2.93), and the summary LR- was 0.37 (95%CI, 0.29 - 0.49); the summary DOR was 6.39 (95%CI, 3.39 - 12.05), and the AUC was 0.8220. Conclusion: The results indicate that dual time point 18FDG-PET/CT and single

  1. An Investigation of Three-point Shooting through an Analysis of NBA Player Tracking Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sliz, Bradley A.

    2017-01-01

    I address the difficult challenge of measuring the relative influence of competing basketball game strategies, and I apply my analysis to plays resulting in three-point shots. I use a glut of SportVU player tracking data from over 600 NBA games to derive custom position-based features that capture tangible game strategies from game-play data, such as teamwork, player matchups, and on-ball defender distances. Then, I demonstrate statistical methods for measuring the relative importance of any ...

  2. [Incorporation of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP) in food legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Rey, Liliana C; Villamil Jiménez, Luis C; Romero Prada, Jaime R

    2004-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP), recommended by different international organizations as the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Office of Epizootics (OIE) and the International Convention for Vegetables Protection (ICPV) amongst others, contributes to ensuring the innocuity of food along the agro-alimentary chain and requires of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) for its implementation, GMP's which are legislated in most countries. Since 1997, Colombia has set rules and legislation for application of HACCP system in agreement with international standards. This paper discusses the potential and difficulties of the legislation enforcement and suggests some policy implications towards food safety.

  3. Farmer cooperatives in the food economy of Western Europe: an analysis from the Marketing point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an analysis of farmer cooperatives in Western Europe from the marketing point of view. The analysis is restricted to marketing and processing cooperatives. First some basic characteristics of farmer cooperatives are discussed from a systems point of view. Afterwards

  4. Some points of the X-ray pattern of acute viral primary pneumonia caused by acute respiratory disease viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, V.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis is made of the results of the X-ray studies as well as of the virological and serological tests in 225 out-patients consulted in the first days of their complaints. A predominance of the viral (70.2%) over the viral-bacterial primary pneumonia is established. The acute viral primary pneumonia are caused mostly by single influenza viruses and more rarely - by single respiratory viruses; in the cases of combined influenza viruses influenza-influenza viruses prevail over the influenza-respiratory ones. The morphological changes in pneumonia due to isolated single influenza viruses involve mostly the interstitium and are projected on X-ray as patchy and stripped densities. The inflamatory changes in pneumonia caused by combined influenza viruses affect both ihe interstitium and the broncho-alveolar substrate of the lungs; they are manifested in two roentgenologic forms: creeping (migrating) and fusing (confluent). In viral-bacterial pneumonia the changes affect mostly the lobe. The right lung and the lower parts of the both lungs are affected in most cases. 5 figs., 21 refs

  5. Miniaturization for Point-of-Care Analysis: Platform Technology for Almost Every Biomedical Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Soeren; Sartorius, Dorian; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Bier, Frank F

    2012-10-01

    Platform technologies for the changing need of diagnostics are one of the main challenges in medical device technology. From one point-of-view the demand for new and more versatile diagnostic is increasing due to a deeper knowledge of biomarkers and their combination with diseases. From another point-of-view a decentralization of diagnostics will occur since decisions can be made faster resulting in higher success of therapy. Hence, new types of technologies have to be established which enables a multiparameter analysis at the point-of-care. Within this review-like article a system called Fraunhofer ivD-platform is introduced. It consists of a credit-card sized cartridge with integrated reagents, sensors and pumps and a read-out/processing unit. Within the cartridge the assay runs fully automated within 15-20 minutes. Due to the open design of the platform different analyses such as antibody, serological or DNA-assays can be performed. Specific examples of these three different assay types are given to show the broad applicability of the system.

  6. Change-Point and Trend Analysis on Annual Maximum Discharge in Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, F.; Villarini, G.; Smith, J. A.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2008-12-01

    Annual maximum discharge records from 36 stations representing different hydro-climatic regimes in the continental United States with at least 100 years of records are used to investigate the presence of temporal trends and abrupt changes in mean and variance. Change point analysis is performed by means of two non- parametric (Pettitt and CUSUM), one semi-parametric (Guan), and two parametric (Rodionov and Bayesian Change Point) tests. Two non-parametric (Mann-Kendall and Spearman) and one parametric (Pearson) tests are applied to detect the presence of temporal trends. Generalized Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) models are also used to parametrically model the streamflow data exploiting their flexibility to account for changes and temporal trends in the parameters of distribution functions. Additionally, serial correlation is assessed in advance by computing the autocorrelation function (ACF), and the Hurst parameter is estimated using two estimators (aggregated variance and differenced variance methods) to investigate the presence of long range dependence. The results of this study indicate lack of long range dependence in the maximum streamflow series. At some stations the authors found a statistically significant change point in the mean and/or variance, while in general they detected no statistically significant temporal trends.

  7. One-point fluctuation analysis of the high-energy neutrino sky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feyereisen, Michael R.; Ando, Shin' ichiro [GRAPPA Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tamborra, Irene, E-mail: m.r.feyereisen@uva.nl, E-mail: tamborra@nbi.ku.dk, E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl [Niels Bohr International Academy, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-03-01

    We perform the first one-point fluctuation analysis of the high-energy neutrino sky. This method reveals itself to be especially suited to contemporary neutrino data, as it allows to study the properties of the astrophysical components of the high-energy flux detected by the IceCube telescope, even with low statistics and in the absence of point source detection. Besides the veto-passing atmospheric foregrounds, we adopt a simple model of the high-energy neutrino background by assuming two main extra-galactic components: star-forming galaxies and blazars. By leveraging multi-wavelength data from Herschel and Fermi , we predict the spectral and anisotropic probability distributions for their expected neutrino counts in IceCube. We find that star-forming galaxies are likely to remain a diffuse background due to the poor angular resolution of IceCube, and we determine an upper limit on the number of shower events that can reasonably be associated to blazars. We also find that upper limits on the contribution of blazars to the measured flux are unfavourably affected by the skewness of the blazar flux distribution. One-point event clustering and likelihood analyses of the IceCube HESE data suggest that this method has the potential to dramatically improve over more conventional model-based analyses, especially for the next generation of neutrino telescopes.

  8. Electron-density critical points analysis and catastrophe theory to forecast structure instability in periodic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merli, Marcello; Pavese, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    The critical points analysis of electron density, i.e. ρ(x), from ab initio calculations is used in combination with the catastrophe theory to show a correlation between ρ(x) topology and the appearance of instability that may lead to transformations of crystal structures, as a function of pressure/temperature. In particular, this study focuses on the evolution of coalescing non-degenerate critical points, i.e. such that ∇ρ(x c ) = 0 and λ 1 , λ 2 , λ 3 ≠ 0 [λ being the eigenvalues of the Hessian of ρ(x) at x c ], towards degenerate critical points, i.e. ∇ρ(x c ) = 0 and at least one λ equal to zero. The catastrophe theory formalism provides a mathematical tool to model ρ(x) in the neighbourhood of x c and allows one to rationalize the occurrence of instability in terms of electron-density topology and Gibbs energy. The phase/state transitions that TiO 2 (rutile structure), MgO (periclase structure) and Al 2 O 3 (corundum structure) undergo because of pressure and/or temperature are here discussed. An agreement of 3-5% is observed between the theoretical model and experimental pressure/temperature of transformation.

  9. Stochastic Turing Patterns: Analysis of Compartment-Based Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yang; Erban, Radek

    2014-01-01

    © 2014, Society for Mathematical Biology. Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  10. Stochastic Turing Patterns: Analysis of Compartment-Based Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yang

    2014-11-25

    © 2014, Society for Mathematical Biology. Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  11. Determination of boiling point of petrochemicals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate regression analysis of structural activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakayode, Sayo O; Mitchell, Breanna S; Pollard, David A

    2014-08-01

    Accurate understanding of analyte boiling points (BP) is of critical importance in gas chromatographic (GC) separation and crude oil refinery operation in petrochemical industries. This study reported the first combined use of GC separation and partial-least-square (PLS1) multivariate regression analysis of petrochemical structural activity relationship (SAR) for accurate BP determination of two commercially available (D3710 and MA VHP) calibration gas mix samples. The results of the BP determination using PLS1 multivariate regression were further compared with the results of traditional simulated distillation method of BP determination. The developed PLS1 regression was able to correctly predict analytes BP in D3710 and MA VHP calibration gas mix samples, with a root-mean-square-%-relative-error (RMS%RE) of 6.4%, and 10.8% respectively. In contrast, the overall RMS%RE of 32.9% and 40.4%, respectively obtained for BP determination in D3710 and MA VHP using a traditional simulated distillation method were approximately four times larger than the corresponding RMS%RE of BP prediction using MRA, demonstrating the better predictive ability of MRA. The reported method is rapid, robust, and promising, and can be potentially used routinely for fast analysis, pattern recognition, and analyte BP determination in petrochemical industries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Spectral analysis of growing graphs a quantum probability point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Obata, Nobuaki

    2017-01-01

    This book is designed as a concise introduction to the recent achievements on spectral analysis of graphs or networks from the point of view of quantum (or non-commutative) probability theory. The main topics are spectral distributions of the adjacency matrices of finite or infinite graphs and their limit distributions for growing graphs. The main vehicle is quantum probability, an algebraic extension of the traditional probability theory, which provides a new framework for the analysis of adjacency matrices revealing their non-commutative nature. For example, the method of quantum decomposition makes it possible to study spectral distributions by means of interacting Fock spaces or equivalently by orthogonal polynomials. Various concepts of independence in quantum probability and corresponding central limit theorems are used for the asymptotic study of spectral distributions for product graphs. This book is written for researchers, teachers, and students interested in graph spectra, their (asymptotic) spectr...

  13. Development of Point Kernel Shielding Analysis Computer Program Implementing Recent Nuclear Data and Graphic User Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Ho; Lee, Seung Gi; Chung, Chan Young; Lee, Choon Sik; Lee, Jai Ki

    2001-01-01

    In order to comply with revised national regulationson radiological protection and to implement recent nuclear data and dose conversion factors, KOPEC developed a new point kernel gamma and beta ray shielding analysis computer program. This new code, named VisualShield, adopted mass attenuation coefficient and buildup factors from recent ANSI/ANS standards and flux-to-dose conversion factors from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 74 for estimation of effective/equivalent dose recommended in ICRP 60. VisualShield utilizes graphical user interfaces and 3-D visualization of the geometric configuration for preparing input data sets and analyzing results, which leads users to error free processing with visual effects. Code validation and data analysis were performed by comparing the results of various calculations to the data outputs of previous programs such as MCNP 4B, ISOSHLD-II, QAD-CGGP, etc

  14. PENERAPAN SISTEM HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP PADA PROSES PEMBUATAN KERIPIK TEMPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Yuniarti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malang is one of the industrial centers of tempe chips. To maintain the quality and food safety, analysis is required to identify the hazards during the production process. This study was conducted to identify the hazards during the production process of tempe chips and provide recommendations for developing a HACCP system. The phases of production process of tempe chips are started from slice the tempe, move it to the kitchen, coat it with flour dough, fry it in the pan, drain it, package it, and then storage it. There are 3 types of potential hazards in terms of biological, physical, and chemical during the production process. With the CCP identification, there are three processes that have Critical Control Point. There are the process of slicing tempe, immersion of tempe into the flour mixture and draining. Recommendations for the development of HACCP systems include recommendations related to employee hygiene, supporting equipment, 5-S analysis, and the production layout.

  15. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Edwards, Rachel; Chairez, Janette; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc). Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory) was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics) was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer) for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing.

  16. Classification using diffraction patterns for single-particle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hongli; Zhang, Kaiming [Department of Biophysics, the Health Science Centre, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Meng, Xing, E-mail: xmeng101@gmail.com [Wadsworth Centre, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    An alternative method has been assessed; diffraction patterns derived from the single particle data set were used to perform the first round of classification in creating the initial averages for proteins data with symmetrical morphology. The test protein set was a collection of Caenorhabditis elegans small heat shock protein 17 obtained by Cryo EM, which has a tetrahedral (12-fold) symmetry. It is demonstrated that the initial classification on diffraction patterns is workable as well as the real-space classification that is based on the phase contrast. The test results show that the information from diffraction patterns has the enough details to make the initial model faithful. The potential advantage using the alternative method is twofold, the ability to handle the sets with poor signal/noise or/and that break the symmetry properties. - Highlights: • New classification method. • Create the accurate initial model. • Better in handling noisy data.

  17. Classification using diffraction patterns for single-particle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Hongli; Zhang, Kaiming; Meng, Xing

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method has been assessed; diffraction patterns derived from the single particle data set were used to perform the first round of classification in creating the initial averages for proteins data with symmetrical morphology. The test protein set was a collection of Caenorhabditis elegans small heat shock protein 17 obtained by Cryo EM, which has a tetrahedral (12-fold) symmetry. It is demonstrated that the initial classification on diffraction patterns is workable as well as the real-space classification that is based on the phase contrast. The test results show that the information from diffraction patterns has the enough details to make the initial model faithful. The potential advantage using the alternative method is twofold, the ability to handle the sets with poor signal/noise or/and that break the symmetry properties. - Highlights: • New classification method. • Create the accurate initial model. • Better in handling noisy data.

  18. Analysis of pattern formation in systems with competing range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H J; Misko, V R; Peeters, F M

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed pattern formation and identified various morphologies in a system of particles interacting through a non-monotonic potential with a competing range interaction characterized by a repulsive core (r c ) and an attractive tail (r > r c ), using molecular-dynamics simulations. Depending on parameters, the interaction potential models the inter-particle interaction in various physical systems ranging from atoms, molecules and colloids to vortices in low κ type-II superconductors and in recently discovered ‘type-1.5’ superconductors. We constructed a ‘morphology diagram’ in the plane ‘critical radius r c -density n’ and proposed a new approach to characterizing the different types of patterns. Namely, we elaborated a set of quantitative criteria in order to identify the different pattern types, using the radial distribution function (RDF), the local density function and the occupation factor. (paper)

  19. Application of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) to organic chemical contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-03-01

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards that was developed as an effective alternative to conventional end-point analysis to control food safety. It has been described as the most effective means of controlling foodborne diseases, and its application to the control of microbiological hazards has been accepted internationally. By contrast, relatively little has been reported relating to the potential use of HACCP, or HACCP-like procedures, to control chemical contaminants of food. This article presents an overview of the implementation of HACCP and discusses its application to the control of organic chemical contaminants in the food chain. Although this is likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP, that is, more effective, efficient, and economical hazard management, a number of areas are identified that require further research and development. These include: (1) a need to refine the methods of chemical contaminant identification and risk assessment employed, (2) develop more cost-effective monitoring and control methods for routine chemical contaminant surveillance of food, and (3) improve the effectiveness of process optimization for the control of chemical contaminants in food.

  20. AUTOMATED VOXEL MODEL FROM POINT CLOUDS FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bitelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of cultural heritage, an accurate and comprehensive digital survey of a historical building is today essential in order to measure its geometry in detail for documentation or restoration purposes, for supporting special studies regarding materials and constructive characteristics, and finally for structural analysis. Some proven geomatic techniques, such as photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning, are increasingly used to survey buildings with different complexity and dimensions; one typical product is in form of point clouds. We developed a semi-automatic procedure to convert point clouds, acquired from laserscan or digital photogrammetry, to a filled volume model of the whole structure. The filled volume model, in a voxel format, can be useful for further analysis and also for the generation of a Finite Element Model (FEM of the surveyed building. In this paper a new approach is presented with the aim to decrease operator intervention in the workflow and obtain a better description of the structure. In order to achieve this result a voxel model with variable resolution is produced. Different parameters are compared and different steps of the procedure are tested and validated in the case study of the North tower of the San Felice sul Panaro Fortress, a monumental historical building located in San Felice sul Panaro (Modena, Italy that was hit by an earthquake in 2012.

  1. Spectral analysis of point-vortex dynamics: first application to vortex polygons in a circular domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speetjens, M F M; Meleshko, V V; Van Heijst, G J F

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses the classical problem of the dynamics and stability of a cluster of N-point vortices of equal strength arranged in a polygonal configuration (‘N-vortex polygons’). In unbounded domains, such N-vortex polygons are unconditionally stable for N⩽7. Confinement in a circular domain tightens the stability conditions to N⩽6 and a maximum polygon size relative to the domain radius. This work expands on existing studies on stability and integrability by a first giving an exploratory spectral analysis of the dynamics of N vortex polygons in circular domains. Key to this is that the spectral signature of the time evolution of vortex positions reflects their qualitative behaviour. Expressing vortex motion by a generic evolution operator (the so-called Koopman operator) provides a rigorous framework for such spectral analyses. This paves the way to further differentiation and classification of point-vortex behaviour beyond stability and integrability. The concept of Koopman-based spectral analysis is demonstrated for N-vortex polygons. This reveals that conditional stability can be seen as a local form of integrability and confirms an important generic link between spectrum and dynamics: discrete spectra imply regular (quasi-periodic) motion; continuous (sub-)spectra imply chaotic motion. Moreover, this exposes rich nonlinear dynamics as intermittency between regular and chaotic motion and quasi-coherent structures formed by chaotic vortices. (ss 1)

  2. Area, and Power Performance Analysis of a Floating-Point Based Application on FPGAs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Govindu, Gokul

    2003-01-01

    .... However the inevitable quantization effects and the complexity of converting the floating-point algorithm into a fixed point one, limit the use of fixed-point arithmetic for high precision embedded computing...

  3. Start point to savings - Better load demand analysis in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaravicius, Juozas; Pyrko, Jurek [Lund Univ., Dept of Energy Sciences (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Existing installations and energy systems in most commercial buildings could be used in a more efficient way to provide savings - both in terms of energy and load demand. The key for effective operation is a thorough and detailed analysis of energy use patterns that creates essential baseline for energy savings and the development of demand response (DR) strategies. The knowledge of energy demand variations is still very limited and the use of methods to analyse the load demand is rare. Many utilities have recently installed interval (hourly) metering even for smaller commercial users and households. This is a big step forward; however, experience shows that the data is being used only to a limited extent, mostly for billing purposes only. This paper reports about a study conducted with the objective of developing a detailed load demand analysis for commercial buildings. The study results should provide essential information for the formation and evaluation of future DR and energy efficiency strategies. This study was performed in collaboration with IKEA and E.ON and contributes to an ongoing IKEA energy efficiency programme. Two sample department stores in Sweden were selected and analysed within this project. The demand data analysis covers almost 3 years period, 2004-2006.This study contributes to new knowledge of energy use patterns (load demand) in commercial buildings. It proposes solutions of load-related problems, evaluates energy and load savings potential, identifies and analyses the needs, motives and barriers for participation in DR programmes. The study provides recommendations for ongoing and future efficiency and DR strategies and discusses the potential economic benefits from the DR measures.

  4. Attack Pattern Analysis Framework for a Multiagent Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Juszczyszyn

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the use of attack pattern ontology and formal framework for network traffic anomalies detection within a distributed multi-agent Intrusion Detection System architecture. Our framework assumes ontology-based attack definition and distributed processing scheme with exchange of communicates between agents. The role of traffic anomalies detection was presented then it has been discussed how some specific values characterizing network communication can be used to detect network anomalies caused by security incidents (worm attack, virus spreading. Finally, it has been defined how to use the proposed techniques in distributed IDS using attack pattern ontology.

  5. Point process modeling and estimation: Advances in the analysis of dynamic neural spiking data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyi

    2016-08-01

    A common interest of scientists in many fields is to understand the relationship between the dynamics of a physical system and the occurrences of discrete events within such physical system. Seismologists study the connection between mechanical vibrations of the Earth and the occurrences of earthquakes so that future earthquakes can be better predicted. Astrophysicists study the association between the oscillating energy of celestial regions and the emission of photons to learn the Universe's various objects and their interactions. Neuroscientists study the link between behavior and the millisecond-timescale spike patterns of neurons to understand higher brain functions. Such relationships can often be formulated within the framework of state-space models with point process observations. The basic idea is that the dynamics of the physical systems are driven by the dynamics of some stochastic state variables and the discrete events we observe in an interval are noisy observations with distributions determined by the state variables. This thesis proposes several new methodological developments that advance the framework of state-space models with point process observations at the intersection of statistics and neuroscience. In particular, we develop new methods 1) to characterize the rhythmic spiking activity using history-dependent structure, 2) to model population spike activity using marked point process models, 3) to allow for real-time decision making, and 4) to take into account the need for dimensionality reduction for high-dimensional state and observation processes. We applied these methods to a novel problem of tracking rhythmic dynamics in the spiking of neurons in the subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's patients with the goal of optimizing placement of deep brain stimulation electrodes. We developed a decoding algorithm that can make decision in real-time (for example, to stimulate the neurons or not) based on various sources of information present in

  6. Numerical analysis for multi-group neutron-diffusion equation using Radial Point Interpolation Method (RPIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung-O; Jeong, Hae Sun; Jo, Daeseong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Employing the Radial Point Interpolation Method (RPIM) in numerical analysis of multi-group neutron-diffusion equation. • Establishing mathematical formation of modified multi-group neutron-diffusion equation by RPIM. • Performing the numerical analysis for 2D critical problem. - Abstract: A mesh-free method is introduced to overcome the drawbacks (e.g., mesh generation and connectivity definition between the meshes) of mesh-based (nodal) methods such as the finite-element method and finite-difference method. In particular, the Point Interpolation Method (PIM) using a radial basis function is employed in the numerical analysis for the multi-group neutron-diffusion equation. The benchmark calculations are performed for the 2D homogeneous and heterogeneous problems, and the Multiquadrics (MQ) and Gaussian (EXP) functions are employed to analyze the effect of the radial basis function on the numerical solution. Additionally, the effect of the dimensionless shape parameter in those functions on the calculation accuracy is evaluated. According to the results, the radial PIM (RPIM) can provide a highly accurate solution for the multiplication eigenvalue and the neutron flux distribution, and the numerical solution with the MQ radial basis function exhibits the stable accuracy with respect to the reference solutions compared with the other solution. The dimensionless shape parameter directly affects the calculation accuracy and computing time. Values between 1.87 and 3.0 for the benchmark problems considered in this study lead to the most accurate solution. The difference between the analytical and numerical results for the neutron flux is significantly increased in the edge of the problem geometry, even though the maximum difference is lower than 4%. This phenomenon seems to arise from the derivative boundary condition at (x,0) and (0,y) positions, and it may be necessary to introduce additional strategy (e.g., the method using fictitious points and

  7. An analysis of silver candlesticks from a casting point of view: originals,copies, forgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir Audy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Collecting silver artefacts has traditionally been a very popular hobby. Silver is addictive, therefore the number of potential collectors and investors appears to grow each year. Unfortunately, increases in the interest and buying potentials resulted in a number of forgeries manufactured and introduced to the open antique market. The items such as early silver candlesticks dictate a very high price, for many high quality fakes show very good appearances and matching similarities with originals. Such copies are traditionally manufactured by casting using the original items as patterns. Small details and variances in design features, position and shape of hallmarks, including the final surface quality are usual features to distinguish the fakes from the originals. This paper presents results of a study conducted on several silver candlesticks, including two artefacts bearing features of those produced in the mid 18th century, one original Italian candelabrum from Fascist era, and small candlesticks made in the early 20th century. Also, the paper presents some interesting contemporary coins ?replicas of many those produced in different countries. The coins were offered for sale by unscrupulous dealers via auctions and e-bays. Finally the main results and findings from this study are discussed from a manufacturing point of view, such as fabrication technology, surface quality and hallmarks, which will help the collectors, dealers and investors to detect and avoid forgeries.

  8. Citation Analysis and Authorship Patterns of Two Linguistics Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezema, Ifeanyi J.; Asogwa, Brendan E.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sources cited in articles published in two linguistics journals, "Applied Linguistics and Journal of Linguistics," from 2001 to 2010. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted using bibliometric indicators, such as types of cited sources, timeliness of cited sources, authorship patterns, rank lists of the…

  9. Patterns of Reading Performance in Acute Stroke: A Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren L. Cloutman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main sources of information regarding the underlying processes involved in both normal and impaired reading has been the study of reading deficits that occur as a result of brain damage. However, patterns of reading deficits found acutely after brain injury have been little explored. The observed patterns of performance in chronic stroke patients might reflect reorganization of the cognitive processes underlying reading or development of compensatory strategies that are not normally used to read. Method: 112 acute left hemisphere stroke patients were administered a task of oral reading of words and pseudowords within 1–2 days of hospital admission; performance was examined for error rate and type, and compared to that on tasks involving visual lexical decision, visual/auditory comprehension, and naming. Results: Several distinct patterns of performance were identified. Although similarities were found between the patterns of reading performance observed acutely and the classical acquired dyslexias generally identified more chronically, some notable differences were observed. Of interest was the finding that no patient produced any pure semantic errors in reading, despite finding such errors in comprehension and naming.

  10. Analysis of Spatial Voting Patterns: An Approach in Political Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimasewski, Ted

    1973-01-01

    Passage of the 26th Amendment gave young adults the right to vote. This study attempts to further student understanding of the electoral process by presenting a method for analyzing spatial voting patterns. The spatial emphasis adds another dimension to the temporal and behavioral-structural approaches in studying the American electoral system.…

  11. Analysis of morphophonemic patterns of Gujii dialect: an insight from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Gujii dialect which is one of southern dialects of Afaan Oromoo is highly characterized by assimilation patterns. This assimilation is dictated by some linguistic and non-linguistic factors and it has impact on the communication held between Gujii dialect speakers and school text version speakers. Therefore, this paper ...

  12. Do pattern recognition skills transfer across sports? A preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeton, Nicholas J; Ward, Paul; Williams, A Mark

    2004-02-01

    The ability to recognize patterns of play is fundamental to performance in team sports. While typically assumed to be domain-specific, pattern recognition skills may transfer from one sport to another if similarities exist in the perceptual features and their relations and/or the strategies used to encode and retrieve relevant information. A transfer paradigm was employed to compare skilled and less skilled soccer, field hockey and volleyball players' pattern recognition skills. Participants viewed structured and unstructured action sequences from each sport, half of which were randomly represented with clips not previously seen. The task was to identify previously viewed action sequences quickly and accurately. Transfer of pattern recognition skill was dependent on the participant's skill, sport practised, nature of the task and degree of structure. The skilled soccer and hockey players were quicker than the skilled volleyball players at recognizing structured soccer and hockey action sequences. Performance differences were not observed on the structured volleyball trials between the skilled soccer, field hockey and volleyball players. The skilled field hockey and soccer players were able to transfer perceptual information or strategies between their respective sports. The less skilled participants' results were less clear. Implications for domain-specific expertise, transfer and diversity across domains are discussed.

  13. Demand response driven load pattern elasticity analysis for smart households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.; Tascikaraoglu, A.; Bakirtzis, A.G.; Erdinc, O.

    2015-01-01

    The recent interest in smart grid vision enables several smart applications in different parts of the power grid structure, where specific importance should be given to the demand side. As a result, changes in load patterns due to demand response (DR) activities at end-user premises, such as smart

  14. Corpus-Based Rhythmic Pattern Analysis of Ragtime Syncopation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, Hendrik Vincent; Volk, A.; de Haas, W.B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a corpus-based study on rhythmic patterns in the RAG-collection of approximately 11.000 symbolically encoded ragtime pieces. While characteristic musical features that define ragtime as a genre have been debated since its inception, musicologists argue that specific syncopation

  15. A cross-cultural analysis of communication patterns between two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing the mixed-method research design, the study revealed the cultural affinity in both ethnic groups' communication patterns in the use of honorific greeting, silence, expressiveness (direct or indirectness and touch) and eye contact. This shows that culture has a significant influence on some of the communication ...

  16. Analysis of Conceptualization Patterns across Groups of People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes patterns of conceptualizations possessed by different groups of subjects. The eventual goal of this work is to dynamically learn and structure semantic representations for groups of people sharing domain knowledge. In this paper, we conduct a survey for collecting data...

  17. Polysubstance Use Patterns in Underground Rave Attenders: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Calderon, Fermin; Lozano, Oscar M.; Vidal, Claudio; Ortega, Josefa Gutierrez; Vergara, Esperanza; Gonzalez-Saiz, Francisco; Bilbao, Izaskun; Caluente, Marta; Cano, Tomas; Cid, Francisco; Dominguez, Celia; Izquierdo, Emcarni; Perez, Maria I.

    2011-01-01

    Drug use in mainstream rave parties has been widely documented in a large number of studies. However, not much is known about drug use in underground raves. The purpose of this study is to find out the polysubstance use patterns at underground raves. Two hundred and fifty-two young people between the ages of 18 and 30 who went to underground raves…

  18. An Analysis of Primary School Dropout Patterns in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Takeshi; Ashida, Akemi

    2017-01-01

    This study hypothesized that repeating a grade is one reason why Honduran primary students drop out of school but not the main reason. Using longitudinal data, we analyzed student enrollment patterns up until students left school. The results revealed that many students dropped out suddenly without having previously repeated a grade, although many…

  19. Prescription pattern and cost analysis of antipsychotics in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our study revealed that the prescription patterns at the hospital studied were not in conformity with the WHO guidelines. Atypicals, are very expensive and unaffordable to the majority of patients in the study setting. This indicates the need for measures to reduce cost of newer psychotropic drugs, to increase their availability ...

  20. Systematic analysis of stability patterns in plant primary metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Girbig

    Full Text Available Metabolic networks are characterized by complex interactions and regulatory mechanisms between many individual components. These interactions determine whether a steady state is stable to perturbations. Structural kinetic modeling (SKM is a framework to analyze the stability of metabolic steady states that allows the study of the system Jacobian without requiring detailed knowledge about individual rate equations. Stability criteria can be derived by generating a large number of structural kinetic models (SK-models with randomly sampled parameter sets and evaluating the resulting Jacobian matrices. Until now, SKM experiments applied univariate tests to detect the network components with the largest influence on stability. In this work, we present an extended SKM approach relying on supervised machine learning to detect patterns of enzyme-metabolite interactions that act together in an orchestrated manner to ensure stability. We demonstrate its application on a detailed SK-model of the Calvin-Benson cycle and connected pathways. The identified stability patterns are highly complex reflecting that changes in dynamic properties depend on concerted interactions between several network components. In total, we find more patterns that reliably ensure stability than patterns ensuring instability. This shows that the design of this system is strongly targeted towards maintaining stability. We also investigate the effect of allosteric regulators revealing that the tendency to stability is significantly increased by including experimentally determined regulatory mechanisms that have not yet been integrated into existing kinetic models.

  1. Pattern of abdominal wall herniae in females: a retrospective analysis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: There were 181 female patients with 184 hernias representing 27.9% of the total ... It is not unexpected to find variations in the pattern of hernia presentation and outcome of man- .... with majority typically found in elderly females with a.

  2. [Experience of a Break-Even Point Analysis for Make-or-Buy Decision.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunhee

    2006-12-01

    Cost containment through continuous quality improvement of medical service is required in an age of a keen competition of the medical market. Laboratory managers should examine the matters on make-or-buy decision periodically. On this occasion, a break-even point analysis can be useful as an analyzing tool. In this study, cost accounting and break-even point (BEP) analysis were performed in case that the immunoassay items showing a recent increase in order volume were to be in-house made. Fixed and variable costs were calculated in case that alpha fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), ferritin, free thyroxine (fT4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), CA 125, CA 19-9, and hepatitis B envelope antibody (HBeAb) were to be tested with Abbott AxSYM instrument. Break-even volume was calculated as fixed cost per year divided by purchasing cost per test minus variable cost per test and BEP ratio as total purchasing costs at break-even volume divided by total purchasing costs at actual annual volume. The average fixed cost per year of AFP, CEA, PSA, ferritin, fT4, T3, TSH, CA 125, CA 19-9, and HBeAb was 8,279,187 won and average variable cost per test, 3,786 won. Average break-even volume was 1,599 and average BEP ratio was 852%. Average BEP ratio without including quality costs such as calibration and quality control was 74%. Because the quality assurance of clinical tests cannot be waived, outsourcing all of 10 items was more adequate than in-house make at the present volume in financial aspect. BEP analysis was useful as a financial tool for make-or-buy decision, the common matter which laboratory managers meet with.

  3. Analysis of web-based online services for GPS relative and precise point positioning techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Ocalan

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Global Positioning System (GPS has been used effectively in several engineering applications for the survey purposes by multiple disciplines. Web-based online services developed by several organizations; which are user friendly, unlimited and most of them are free; have become a significant alternative against the high-cost scientific and commercial software on achievement of post processing and analyzing the GPS data. When centimeter (cm or decimeter (dm level accuracies are desired, that can be obtained easily regarding different quality engineering applications through these services. In this paper, a test study was conducted at ISKI-CORS network; Istanbul-Turkey in order to figure out the accuracy analysis of the most used web based online services around the world (namely OPUS, AUSPOS, SCOUT, CSRS-PPP, GAPS, APPS, magicGNSS. These services use relative and precise point positioning (PPP solution approaches. In this test study, the coordinates of eight stations were estimated by using of both online services and Bernese 5.0 scientific GPS processing software from 24-hour GPS data set and then the coordinate differences between the online services and Bernese processing software were computed. From the evaluations, it was seen that the results for each individual differences were less than 10 mm regarding relative online service, and less than 20 mm regarding precise point positioning service. The accuracy analysis was gathered from these coordinate differences and standard deviations of the obtained coordinates from different techniques and then online services were compared to each other. The results show that the position accuracies obtained by associated online services provide high accurate solutions that may be used in many engineering applications and geodetic analysis.

  4. Evaluating Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia as Tools for Influenza Surveillance Using Bayesian Change Point Analysis: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, J Danielle; Hopkins, Richard S; Cook, Robert L; Striley, Catherine W

    2016-10-20

    Traditional influenza surveillance relies on influenza-like illness (ILI) syndrome that is reported by health care providers. It primarily captures individuals who seek medical care and misses those who do not. Recently, Web-based data sources have been studied for application to public health surveillance, as there is a growing number of people who search, post, and tweet about their illnesses before seeking medical care. Existing research has shown some promise of using data from Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia to complement traditional surveillance for ILI. However, past studies have evaluated these Web-based sources individually or dually without comparing all 3 of them, and it would be beneficial to know which of the Web-based sources performs best in order to be considered to complement traditional methods. The objective of this study is to comparatively analyze Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia by examining which best corresponds with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ILI data. It was hypothesized that Wikipedia will best correspond with CDC ILI data as previous research found it to be least influenced by high media coverage in comparison with Google and Twitter. Publicly available, deidentified data were collected from the CDC, Google Flu Trends, HealthTweets, and Wikipedia for the 2012-2015 influenza seasons. Bayesian change point analysis was used to detect seasonal changes, or change points, in each of the data sources. Change points in Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia that occurred during the exact week, 1 preceding week, or 1 week after the CDC's change points were compared with the CDC data as the gold standard. All analyses were conducted using the R package "bcp" version 4.0.0 in RStudio version 0.99.484 (RStudio Inc). In addition, sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) were calculated for Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia. During the 2012-2015 influenza seasons, a high sensitivity of 92% was found for Google, whereas the PPV for

  5. Pattern Recognition-Based Analysis of COPD in CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs

    recognition part is used to turn the texture measures, measured in a CT image of the lungs, into a quantitative measure of disease. This is done by applying a classifier that is trained on a training set of data examples with known lung tissue patterns. Different classification systems are considered, and we...... will in particular use the pattern recognition concepts of supervised learning, multiple instance learning, and dissimilarity representation-based classification. The proposed texture-based measures are applied to CT data from two different sources, one comprising low dose CT slices from subjects with manually...... annotated regions of emphysema and healthy tissue, and one comprising volumetric low dose CT images from subjects that are either healthy or suffer from COPD. Several experiments demonstrate that it is clearly beneficial to take the lung tissue texture into account when classifying or quantifying emphysema...

  6. An econometric analysis of the effects of the penalty points system driver's license in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Manzano, José I; Castro-Nuño, Mercedes; Pedregal, Diego J

    2010-07-01

    This article seeks to quantify the effects of the penalty points system driver's license during the 18-month period following its coming into force. This is achieved by means of univariate and multivariate unobserved component models set up in a state space framework estimated using maximum likelihood. A detailed intervention analysis is carried out in order to test for the effects and their duration of the introduction of the penalty points system driver's license in Spain. Other variables, mainly indicators of the level of economic activity in Spain, are also considered. Among the main effects, we can mention an average reduction of almost 12.6% in the number of deaths in highway accidents. It would take at least 2 years for that effect to disappear. For the rest of the safety indicator variables (vehicle occupants injured in highway accidents and vehicle occupants injured in accidents built-up areas) the effects disappeared 1 year after the law coming into force. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. At what age group blood pressure discontinue to increase? An assessment using change-point analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalib A. Latiff

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim To study at what age group blood pressure ceases to increase for women and men.Methods Applying change-point technique, we used our existing database - mega base-line cross-sectional Hulu Langat Health Study that was initiated in 2000 - to locate the most appropriate age limit in planning promotive, preventive and controlling strategies against systolic hypertension.Results Systolic hypertension was found to be constantly increasing for both gender right from the early age until the middle age group. However, women achieved the systolic peak 15 years earlier (at 41-45 years old than men (at 56-60 years old. Systolic blood pressure was steadily declined after the peak.Conclusions Hypertension intervention, we recommend age before 40 (women and 55 (men be the most appropriate period to apply various public health intervention, after that, the action must be exclusively curative. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:136-41Keywords: change-point analysis, public health intervention, systolic hypertension

  8. Testing to fulfill HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) requirements: principles and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, I A

    1997-12-01

    On-farm HACCP (hazard analysis critical control points) monitoring requires cost-effective, yet accurate and reproducible tests that can determine the status of cows, milk, and the dairy environment. Tests need to be field-validated, and their limitations need to be established so that appropriate screening strategies can be initiated and test results can be rationally interpreted. For infections and residues of low prevalence, tests or testing strategies that are highly specific help to minimize false-positive results and excessive costs to the dairy industry. The determination of the numbers of samples to be tested in HACCP monitoring programs depends on the specific purpose of the test and the likely prevalence of the agent or residue at the critical control point. The absence of positive samples from a herd test should not be interpreted as freedom from a particular agent or residue unless the entire herd has been tested with a test that is 100% sensitive. The current lack of field-validated tests for most of the chemical and infectious agents of concern makes it difficult to ensure that the stated goals of HACCP programs are consistently achieved.

  9. Controlling organic chemical hazards in food manufacturing: a hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-08-01

    Hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all hazards, i.e., chemical, microbiological and physical. However, to-date most 'in-place' HACCP procedures have tended to focus on the control of microbiological and physical food hazards. In general, the chemical component of HACCP procedures is either ignored or limited to applied chemicals, e.g., food additives and pesticides. In this paper we discuss the application of HACCP to a broader range of chemical hazards, using organic chemical contaminants as examples, and the problems that are likely to arise in the food manufacturing sector. Chemical HACCP procedures are likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP procedures: more effective, efficient and economical than conventional end-point-testing methods. However, the high costs of analytical monitoring of chemical contaminants and a limited understanding of formulation and process optimisation as means of controlling chemical contamination of foods are likely to prevent chemical HACCP becoming as effective as microbiological HACCP.

  10. Linear stability analysis of laminar flow near a stagnation point in the slip flow regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaghir, E.; Oubarra, A.; Lahjomri, J.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present contribution is to analyze the effect of slip parameter on the stability of a laminar incompressible flow near a stagnation point in the slip flow regime. The analysis is based on the traditional normal mode approach and assumes parallel flow approximation. The Orr-Sommerfeld equation that governs the infinitesimal disturbance of stream function imposed to the steady main flow, which is an exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equation satisfying slip boundary conditions, is obtained by using the powerful spectral Chebyshev collocation method. The results of the effect of slip parameter K on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the base flow, namely the velocity profile, the shear stress profile, the boundary layer, displacement and momentum thicknesses are illustrated and discussed. The numerical data for these characteristics, as well as those of the eigenvalues and the corresponding wave numbers recover the results of the special case of no-slip boundary conditions. They are found to be in good agreement with previous numerical calculations. The effects of slip parameter on the neutral curves of stability, for two-dimensional disturbances in the Reynolds-wave number plane, are then obtained for the first time in the slip flow regime for stagnation point flow. Furthermore, the evolution of the critical Reynolds number against the slip parameter is established. The results show that the critical Reynolds number for instability is significantly increased with the slip parameter and the flow turn out to be more stable when the effect of rarefaction becomes important.

  11. Sleep wake pattern analysis: Study of 131 medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Nita Ninama; Jaydeep Kangathara

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Sleep is part of the rhythm of life. Without a good sleep the mind is less adapts, mood is altered and the body loses the ability to refresh. The sleep wake cycle of the students is quite different and characterized by delayed onset, partial sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, insufficient sleep duration and occurrence of napping episodes during the day The aim of the present study is to know sleep wake pattern in medical student, role of residence and individual characterization...

  12. Pattern recognition as a method of data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputo, M.

    1978-11-15

    The method of pattern recognition has been used in biological and social sciences and has been recently introduced for the solution of geological and geophysical problems such as oil and ore prospecting and seismological prediction. The method is briefly illustrated by an application to earthquake prediction in Italy in which topographic and geologic maps are used in conjunction with earthquake catalogs. 3 figures, 1 table.

  13. Energy consumption patterns. A theoretical analysis; Energieverbrauchsverhalten. Eine theoretische Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flandrich, D.

    2006-07-01

    The author questions the methodological and methodical foundations of energy consumption research and attempts a theory of energy consumption patterns on the basis of psychology, opening up a quite new perspective that has been neglected so far. Energy policy and energy marketing are two fields of applications which are getting more important in these times of increasing prices of energy resources, high public awareness of environmental issues, and deregulated energy markets. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of co-authorship patterns at the individual level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Glänzel

    Full Text Available Publication activity, citation impact and communication patterns, in general, change in the course of a scientist's career. Mobility and radical changes in a scientist's research environment or profile are among the most spectacular factors that have effect on individual collaboration patterns. Although bibliometrics at this level should be applied with the utmost care, characteristic patterns of an individual scientist's research collaboration and changes in these in the course of a career can be well depicted using bibliometric methods. A wide variety of indicators and network tools are chosen to follow up the evolution and to visualise and to quantify collaboration and performance profiles of individual researchers. These methods are, however, designed to supplement expert-opinion based assessment and other qualitative assessments, and should not be used as stand-alone evaluation tools. This study presents part of the results published in an earlier study by Zhang and Glänzel (20124 as well as new applications of these methods.

  15. Implementation of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) in dried anchovy production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citraresmi, A. D. P.; Wahyuni, E. E.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to inspect the implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) for identification and prevention of potential hazards in the production process of dried anchovy at PT. Kelola Mina Laut (KML), Lobuk unit, Sumenep. Cold storage process is needed in each anchovy processing step in order to maintain its physical and chemical condition. In addition, the implementation of quality assurance system should be undertaken to maintain product quality. The research was conducted using a survey method, by following the whole process of making anchovy from the receiving raw materials to the packaging of final product. The method of data analysis used was descriptive analysis method. Implementation of HACCP at PT. KML, Lobuk unit, Sumenep was conducted by applying Pre Requisite Programs (PRP) and preparation stage consisting of 5 initial stages and 7 principles of HACCP. The results showed that CCP was found in boiling process flow with significant hazard of Listeria monocytogenesis bacteria and final sorting process with significant hazard of foreign material contamination in the product. Actions taken were controlling boiling temperature of 100 – 105°C for 3 - 5 minutes and training for sorting process employees.

  16. Performance Analysis of a Maximum Power Point Tracking Technique using Silver Mean Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Rani Depuru

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed paper presents a simple and particularly efficacious Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT algorithm based on Silver Mean Method (SMM. This method operates by choosing a search interval from the P-V characteristics of the given solar array and converges to MPP of the Solar Photo-Voltaic (SPV system by shrinking its interval. After achieving the maximum power, the algorithm stops shrinking and maintains constant voltage until the next interval is decided. The tracking capability efficiency and performance analysis of the proposed algorithm are validated by the simulation and experimental results with a 100W solar panel for variable temperature and irradiance conditions. The results obtained confirm that even without any perturbation and observation process, the proposed method still outperforms the traditional perturb and observe (P&O method by demonstrating far better steady state output, more accuracy and higher efficiency.

  17. Measurement and analysis of pressure tube elongation in the Douglas Point reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causey, A.R.; MacEwan, S.R.; Jamieson, H.C.; Mitchell, A.B.

    1980-02-01

    Elongations of zirconium alloy pressure tubes in CANDU reactors, which occur as a result of neutron-irradiation-induced creep and growth, have been measured over the past 6 years, and the consequences of thses elongations have recently been analysed. Elongation rates, previously deduced from extensive measurements of elongations of cold-worked Zircaloy-2 pressure tubes in the Pickering reactors, have been modified to apply to the pressure tubes in the Douglas Point (DP) reactor by taking into account measured diffences in texture and dislocation density. Using these elongation rates, and structural data unique to the DP reactor, the analysis predicts elongation behaviour which is in good agreement with pressure tube elongations measured during the ten years of reactor operation. (Auth)

  18. Ergodic Capacity Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-04-01

    A unified capacity analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for nonzero boresight pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/ direct detection as well as heterodyne detection) is addressed in this work. More specifically, an exact closed-form expression for the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system is presented in terms of well-known elementary functions. Capitalizing on these new moments expressions, we present approximate and simple closedform results for the ergodic capacity at high and low SNR regimes. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  19. Indian Point Nuclear Power Station: verification analysis of County Radiological Emergency-Response Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, J.; Whitfield, R.

    1983-05-01

    This report was developed as a management tool for use by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Region II staff. The analysis summarized in this report was undertaken to verify the extent to which procedures, training programs, and resources set forth in the County Radiological Emergency Response Plans (CRERPs) for Orange, Putnam, and Westchester counties in New York had been realized prior to the March 9, 1983, exercise of the Indian Point Nuclear Power Station near Buchanan, New York. To this end, a telephone survey of county emergency response organizations was conducted between January 19 and February 22, 1983. This report presents the results of responses obtained from this survey of county emergency response organizations

  20. Simplified Probabilistic Analysis of Settlement of Cyclically Loaded Soil Stratum by Point Estimate Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewłócki, Jarosław; Górski, Jarosław; Świdziński, Waldemar

    2016-12-01

    The paper deals with the probabilistic analysis of the settlement of a non-cohesive soil layer subjected to cyclic loading. Originally, the settlement assessment is based on a deterministic compaction model, which requires integration of a set of differential equations. However, with the use of the Bessel functions, the settlement of a soil stratum can be calculated by a simplified algorithm. The compaction model parameters were determined for soil samples taken from subsoil near the Izmit Bay, Turkey. The computations were performed for various sets of random variables. The point estimate method was applied, and the results were verified by the Monte Carlo method. The outcome leads to a conclusion that can be useful in the prediction of soil settlement under seismic loading.

  1. 'Fixed point' QCD analysis of the CCFR data on deep inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, A.V.; Stamenov, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    The results of LO Fixed point QCD (FP-QCD) analysis of the CCFR data for the nucleon structure function xF 3 (x,Q 2 ) are presented. The predictions of FP-QCD, in which α S (Q 2 ) tends to a nonzero coupling constant α 0 as Q 2 → ∞, are in good agreement with the data. The description of the data is even better than that in the case of LO QCD. The FP-QCD parameter α 0 is determined with a good accuracy: α 0 0.198 ± 0.009. Having in mind the recent QCD fits to the same data we conclude that unlike the high precision and large (x,Q 2 ) kinematic range of the CCFR data they cannot discriminate between QCD and FP-QCD predictions for xF 3 (x,Q 2 ). 11 refs., 1 tab

  2. Comparative analysis of different configurations of PLC-based safety systems from reliability point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Moiez A.

    1993-01-01

    The study of a comparative analysis of distinct multiplex and fault-tolerant configurations for a PLC-based safety system from a reliability point of view is presented. It considers simplex, duplex and fault-tolerant triple redundancy configurations. The standby unit in case of a duplex configuration has a failure rate which is k times the failure rate of the standby unit, the value of k varying from 0 to 1. For distinct values of MTTR and MTTF of the main unit, MTBF and availability for these configurations are calculated. The effect of duplexing only the PLC module or only the sensors and the actuators module, on the MTBF of the configuration, is also presented. The results are summarized and merits and demerits of various configurations under distinct environments are discussed.

  3. Multivariate analysis and extraction of parameters in resistive RAMs using the Quantum Point Contact model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, J. B.; Miranda, E.; González-Cordero, G.; García-Fernández, P.; Romero-Zaliz, R.; González-Rodelas, P.; Aguilera, A. M.; González, M. B.; Jiménez-Molinos, F.

    2018-01-01

    A multivariate analysis of the parameters that characterize the reset process in Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) has been performed. The different correlations obtained can help to shed light on the current components that contribute in the Low Resistance State (LRS) of the technology considered. In addition, a screening method for the Quantum Point Contact (QPC) current component is presented. For this purpose, the second derivative of the current has been obtained using a novel numerical method which allows determining the QPC model parameters. Once the procedure is completed, a whole Resistive Switching (RS) series of thousands of curves is studied by means of a genetic algorithm. The extracted QPC parameter distributions are characterized in depth to get information about the filamentary pathways associated with LRS in the low voltage conduction regime.

  4. Extracting Loop Bounds for WCET Analysis Using the Instrumentation Point Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, A.; Bernat, G.

    2009-05-01

    Every calculation engine proposed in the literature of Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) analysis requires upper bounds on loop iterations. Existing mechanisms to procure this information are either error prone, because they are gathered from the end-user, or limited in scope, because automatic analyses target very specific loop structures. In this paper, we present a technique that obtains bounds completely automatically for arbitrary loop structures. In particular, we show how to employ the Instrumentation Point Graph (IPG) to parse traces of execution (generated by an instrumented program) in order to extract bounds relative to any loop-nesting level. With this technique, therefore, non-rectangular dependencies between loops can be captured, allowing more accurate WCET estimates to be calculated. We demonstrate the improvement in accuracy by comparing WCET estimates computed through our HMB framework against those computed with state-of-the-art techniques.

  5. Mode analysis of heuristic behavior of searching for multimodal optimum point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, K; Araki, Y; Inoue, K

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experimental study of a heuristic behavior of searching for the global optimum (maximum) point of a two-dimensional, multimodal, nonlinear and unknown function. First, the authors define three modes dealing with the trial purposes, called the purpose modes and show the heuristic search behaviors expressed by the purpose modes which the human subjects select in the search experiments. Second, the authors classify the heuristic search behaviors into three types according to the mode transitions and extracts eight states of searches which cause the mode transitions. Third, a model of the heuristic search behavior is composed of the eight mode transitions. The analysis of the heuristic search behaviors by use of the purpose modes plays an important role in the heuristic search techniques. 6 references.

  6. Readiness to implement Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems in Iowa schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henroid, Daniel; Sneed, Jeannie

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate current food-handling practices, food safety prerequisite programs, and employee knowledge and food safety attitudes and provide baseline data for implementing Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems in school foodservice. One member of the research team visited each school to observe food-handling practices and assess prerequisite programs using a structured observation form. A questionnaire was used to determine employees' attitudes, knowledge, and demographic information. A convenience sample of 40 Iowa schools was recruited with input from the Iowa Department of Education. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. One-way analysis of variance was used to assess differences in attitudes and food safety knowledge among managers, cooks, and other foodservice employees. Multiple linear regression assessed the relationship between manager and school district demographics and the food safety practice score. Proper food-handling practices were not being followed in many schools and prerequisite food safety programs for HACCP were found to be inadequate for many school foodservice operations. School foodservice employees were found to have a significant amount of food safety knowledge (15.9+/-2.4 out of 20 possible points). School districts with managers (P=.019) and employees (P=.030) who had a food handler certificate were found to have higher food safety practice scores. Emphasis on implementing prerequisite programs in preparation for HACCP is needed in school foodservice. Training programs, both basic food safety such as ServSafe and HACCP, will support improvement of food-handling practices and implementation of prerequisite programs and HACCP.

  7. Time-series analysis of foreign exchange rates using time-dependent pattern entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Ryuji; Inoue, Masayoshi

    2013-08-01

    Time-dependent pattern entropy is a method that reduces variations to binary symbolic dynamics and considers the pattern of symbols in a sliding temporal window. We use this method to analyze the instability of daily variations in foreign exchange rates, in particular, the dollar-yen rate. The time-dependent pattern entropy of the dollar-yen rate was found to be high in the following periods: before and after the turning points of the yen from strong to weak or from weak to strong, and the period after the Lehman shock.

  8. Time course Analysis of Gene expression patterns in ZebrafIsh Eye during Optic Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy T. Mccurley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established that neurons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS are terminally differentiated and, if injured, will be unable to regenerate their connections. In contrast to mammals, zebrafish and other teleosts display a robust neuroregenerative response. Following optic nerve crush (ONX, retinal ganglion cells (RGC regrow their axons to synapse with topographically correct targets in the optic tectum, such that vision is restored in ~21 days. What accounts for these differences between teleostean and mammalian responses to neural injury is not fully understood. A time course analysis of global gene expression patterns in the zebrafish eye after ONX can help to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to a successful neuroregeneration. To define different phases of regeneration after ONX, alpha tubulin 1 ( tuba1 and growth-associated protein 43 ( gap43 , markers previously shown to correspond to morphophological events, were measured by real time quantitative PCR (qPCR. Microarray analysis was then performed at defined intervals (6 hours, 1, 4, 12, and 21 days post-ONX and compared to SHAM. Results show that optic nerve damage induces multiple, phase-related transcriptional programs, with the maximum number of genes changed and highest fold-change occurring at 4 days. Several functional groups affected by optic nerve regeneration, including cell adhesion, apoptosis, cell cycle, energy metabolism, ion channel activity, and calcium signaling, were identified. Utilizing the whole eye allowed us to identify signaling contributions from the vitreous, immune and glial cells as well as the neural cells of the retina. Comparisons between our dataset and transcriptional profiles from other models of regeneration in zebrafish retina, heart and fin revealed a subset of commonly regulated transcripts, indicating shared mechanisms in different regenerating tissues. Knowledge of gene expression patterns in all

  9. Network Analysis of Acupuncture Points Used in the Treatment of Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Ho Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The appropriate selection of acupoints is fundamental to obtain a therapeutic effect from clinical acupuncture. Objective. Using a network analysis method, we investigated the acupoints that are combined to treat low back pain (LBP. Methods. To analyze the patterns of the combinations of acupoints, we used acupoint information from clinical trials to calculate the modified mutual information (MI value, integrated these data, and visualized the network. Results. Based on the highest MI values, we found two different types of acupoint pairs used in the treatment of LBP: pairs of distant acupoints and pairs of local acupoints. Using modular analysis, we found that three acupoint modules were applied in the treatment of LBP: local acupoints, distant acupoints along the meridian, and distant acupoints based on the symptom differentiations. Conclusion. Using the modified MI technique, we provide a systematic framework for the acupoint combination network, and reveal how the technique of acupoint combination is used in the treatment of LBP. Application of this knowledge in acupuncture research may help clarify the mechanisms underlying acupuncture treatment at the systems level, bridging the gap between traditional medicine and modern science.

  10. Error analysis of dimensionless scaling experiments with multiple points using linear regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guercan, Oe.D.; Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Bourdelle, C.

    2010-01-01

    A general method of error estimation in the case of multiple point dimensionless scaling experiments, using linear regression and standard error propagation, is proposed. The method reduces to the previous result of Cordey (2009 Nucl. Fusion 49 052001) in the case of a two-point scan. On the other hand, if the points follow a linear trend, it explains how the estimated error decreases as more points are added to the scan. Based on the analytical expression that is derived, it is argued that for a low number of points, adding points to the ends of the scanned range, rather than the middle, results in a smaller error estimate. (letter)

  11. Single cell analysis of G1 check points-the relationship between the restriction point and phosphorylation of pRb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinsson, Hanna-Stina; Starborg, Maria; Erlandsson, Fredrik; Zetterberg, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Single cell analysis allows high resolution investigation of temporal relationships between transition events in G 1 . It has been suggested that phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) is the molecular mechanism behind passage through the restriction point (R). We performed a detailed single cell study of the temporal relationship between R and pRb phosphorylation in human fibroblasts using time lapse video-microscopy combined with immunocytochemistry. Four principally different criteria for pRb phosphorylation were used, namely (i) phosphorylation of residues Ser 795 and Ser 780 (ii) degree of pRb-association with the nuclear structure, a property that is closely related with pRb phosphorylation status, (iii) release of the transcription factor E2F-1 from pRb, and (iv) accumulation of cyclin E, which is dependent on phosphorylation of pRb. The analyses of individual cells revealed that passage through R preceded phosphorylation of pRb, which occurs in a gradually increasing proportion of cells in late G 1 . Our data clearly suggest that pRb phosphorylation is not the molecular mechanism behind the passage through R. The restriction point and phosphorylation of pRb thus seem to represent two separate check point in G 1

  12. Determination of the minimum size of a statistical representative volume element from a fibre-reinforced composite based on point pattern statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Brøndsted, Povl

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, Trias et al. [1] determined the minimum size of a statistical representative volume element (SRVE) of a unidirectional fibre-reinforced composite primarily based on numerical analyses of the stress/strain field. In continuation of this, the present study determines the minimu...... size of an SRVE based on a statistical analysis on the spatial statistics of the fibre packing patterns found in genuine laminates, and those generated numerically using a microstructure generator. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Patterns of urban violent injury: a spatio-temporal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cusimano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury related to violent acts is a problem in every society. Although some authors have examined the geography of violent crime, few have focused on the spatio-temporal patterns of violent injury and none have used an ambulance dataset to explore the spatial characteristics of injury. The purpose of this study was to describe the combined spatial and temporal characteristics of violent injury in a large urban centre.Using a geomatics framework and geographic information systems software, we studied 4,587 ambulance dispatches and 10,693 emergency room admissions for violent injury occurrences among adults (aged 18-64 in Toronto, Canada, during 2002 and 2004, using population-based datasets. We created kernel density and choropleth maps for 24-hour periods and four-hour daily time periods and compared location of ambulance dispatches and patient residences with local land use and socioeconomic characteristics. We used multivariate regressions to control for confounding factors. We found the locations of violent injury and the residence locations of those injured were both closely related to each other and clearly clustered in certain parts of the city characterised by high numbers of bars, social housing units, and homeless shelters, as well as lower household incomes. The night and early morning showed a distinctive peak in injuries and a shift in the location of injuries to a "nightlife" district. The locational pattern of patient residences remained unchanged during those times.Our results demonstrate that there is a distinctive spatio-temporal pattern in violent injury reflected in the ambulance data. People injured in this urban centre more commonly live in areas of social deprivation. During the day, locations of injury and locations of residences are similar. However, later at night, the injury location of highest density shifts to a "nightlife" district, whereas the residence locations of those most at risk of injury do not change.

  14. An analysis on vegetation pattern of ecotone in North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, J.C.; Zhang, H.Y. [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    2008-07-01

    Vegetation pattern is influenced by several natural factors, including climatic elements, elevation factors and soil conditions. Since soil formation and soil types are influenced by water-temperature conditions, much can be learned about vegetation distribution patterns by studying the relationship between water-temperature conditions and vegetation distribution. This paper presented the results of a study whose purpose was to provide scientific evidence for exploiting natural resources, planting trees, and restoring grassland from cropland. A warmth index (WI ) and humidity index (HI) were used to examine the relation between the distribution of vegetation and the water-temperature condition in North China's ecotone, the transition area between two adjacent but different plant communities, including steppe, bush and forest ecosystems. A vegetation map of the study site was digitized and then converted into a vegetation grid map from which 17 different vegetation types were chosen as the study object. A monthly mean temperature grid map and precipitation grid map of the study site were made based on the method of spatial interpolation, by using 119 meteorological data for 50 years during the period from 1951 to 2000. The thermal distribution curves and humidity distribution curves of 17 vegetation types in North China, determined the whole range and optimum range of WI and HI of 17 vegetation types. The relative proportion of each vegetation type distributed in the optimum range of WI and HI were calculated. The vegetation pattern was analyzed according to the WI and HI standard, and was described by species and their relative amount. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  15. Pattern analysis in MR imaging of muscle diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.A.; Schalke, B.C.G.

    1987-01-01

    Between March 1984 and March 1987, 161 patients with muscle diseases underwent MR imaging performed with a 1.0-T superconductive magnet. Forty-four had progressive muscular dystrophies, 25 had different types of myositis, 19 had spinal or neural muscular atrophies, 16 had myotonic dystrophy, 22 had metabolic disorders, and 35 had other muscle disease, including muscle tumors, posttraumatic muscular atrophies, and postradiation effects. The advantages of MR imaging are the high sensitivity and soft-tissue contrast, as well as the depiction of typical distribution patterns of affected muscle groups, which can be used in diagnosis, biopsy planning, and design of therapy

  16. Identification of Design Work Patterns by Retrospective Analysis of Work Sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp

    1999-01-01

    project is carried out where we seek to identify design work patterns by retrospective analysis of documentation created during design projects.An elements to satisfy the wish for an efficient design process could be to identify work patterns applied by engineering designers, evaluate these patterns...... with respect to their efficiency, and reuse the most efficient in future projects. Thus, the objective of this research is to analyse design projects in order to identify the work patterns applied. Based on an evaluation of identified work patterns we expect a recommendation of work patterns supporting...... an efficient design process can be established.In this paper we describe the analysis method, and present observations from analyses of three projects....

  17. Can Detectability Analysis Improve the Utility of Point Counts for Temperate Forest Raptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperate forest breeding raptors are poorly represented in typical point count surveys because these birds are cryptic and typically breed at low densities. In recent years, many new methods for estimating detectability during point counts have been developed, including distanc...

  18. An analysis of whorl patterns for determination of hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Neeti; Badiye, Ashish

    2015-05-01

    On crime scenes, whole set of the ten digit fingerprints are rarely found and usually chance prints in the form of single digit fingerprint are encountered. Determination of hand (Right or left) can be of vital importance to reduce the burden on the investigator and may thereby aid in fixation of absolute identity of the donor. In the present investigation, 500 randomly selected and bilateral rolled fingerprints of 250 healthy, consenting adult subjects of a central Indian (Marathi) population with whorl patterns were examined to determine the hand. It was found that by studying various parameters like; slope of apex ridges (towards right, left or absent), rotation of innermost ridges (either clockwise, anti-clockwise or absent), angle formed at both sides of core, position of the perpendicular bisector on the delta line (with respect to core), ridge tracing (outer, inner or meeting), higher ridge count, angle between deltas and core (at deltas), direction of the pattern (tilting/inclination) and distance between the deltas & the core; it is possible to successfully determine the hand of the print. Applying chi-square test, the results were found to be statistically significant at p < 0.01 levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. An electromyographic analysis of two handwriting grasp patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Pedro Henrique Tavares Queiroz; da Cruz, Daniel Marinho Cezar; Magna, Luis Alberto; Ferrigno, Iracema Serrat Vergotti

    2013-08-01

    Handwriting is a fundamental skill needed for the development of daily-life activities during lifetime and can be performed using different forms to hold the writing object. In this study, we monitored the sEMG activity of trapezius, biceps brachii, extensor carpi radialis brevis and flexor digitorum superficialis during a handwriting task with two groups of subjects using different grasp patterns. Twenty-four university students (thirteen males and eleven females; mean age of 22.04±2.8years) were included in this study. We randomly invited 12 subjects that used the Dynamic Tripod grasp and 12 subjects that used the Static Tripod grasp. The static tripod group showed statistically significant changes in the sEMG activity of trapezium and biceps brachii muscles during handwriting when compared to dynamic tripod group's subjects. No significant differences were found in extensor carpi radialis brevis and flexor digitorum superficialis activities among the two groups. The findings in this study suggest an increased activity of proximal muscles among subjects using a transitional grasp, indicating potential higher energy expenditure and muscular harm with the maintenance of this motor pattern in handwriting tasks, especially during the progression in academic life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Are your hands clean enough for point-of-care electrolyte analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hugh S; Chan, Michael H M; Ng, Pak C; Wong, William; Cheung, Robert C K; So, Alan K W; Fok, Tai F; Lam, Christopher W K

    2005-08-01

    To investigate clinically significant analytical interference in point-of-care electrolyte analysis caused by contamination of blood specimens with hand disinfectant. Six different hand hygiene products were added separately to heparinised blood samples in varying amounts as contaminant. The contaminated samples were analysed by three different blood gas and electrolyte analysers for assessing interference on measured whole blood sodium and potassium concentrations. There were significant analytical interferences caused by hand hygiene product contamination that varied depending on the combination of disinfectant and analyser. Small amounts of Microshield Antibacterial Hand Gel contamination caused large increases in measured sodium concentration. Such effect was much greater compared with the other five products tested, and started to occur at much lower levels of contamination. There was a trend towards lower sodium results in blood samples contaminated with Hexol Antiseptic Lotion (Hexol), the hand hygiene product that we used initially. Apart from AiE Hand Sanitizer, all the other hand disinfectants, especially Hexol, significantly elevated the measured potassium concentration, particularly when a direct ion-selective electrode method was used for measurement. Hand disinfectant products can significantly interfere with blood electrolyte analysis. Proper precautions must be taken against contamination since the resultant errors can adversely affect the clinical management of patients.

  1. Biospectral analysis of the bladder channel point in chronic low back pain patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Alberto Espinosa; Nava, Juan José Godina; Segura, Miguel Ángel Rodriguez; Bastida, Albino Villegas

    2012-10-01

    Chronic pain is the main cause of disability in the productive age people and is a public health problem that affects both the patient and society. On the other hand, there isn't any instrument to measure it; this is only estimated using subjective variables. The healthy cells generate a known membrane potential which is part of a network of biologically closed electric circuits still unstudied. It is proposed a biospectral analysis of a bladder channel point as a diagnosis method for chronic low back pain patients. Materials and methods: We employed a study group with chronic low back pain patients and a control group without low back pain patients. The visual analog scale (VAS) to determine the level of pain was applied. Bioelectric variables were measured for 10 seconds and the respective biostatistical analyses were made. Results: Biospectral analysis on frequency domain shows a depression in the 60-300 Hz frequency range proportional to the chronicity of low back pain compared against healthy patients.

  2. Challenges of teacher-based clinical evaluation from nursing students' point of view: Qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Tabandeh; Seyed Bagheri, Seyed Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Clinical evaluation is very important in the educational system of nursing. One of the most common methods of clinical evaluation is evaluation by the teacher, but the challenges that students would face in this evaluation method, have not been mentioned. Thus, this study aimed to explore the experiences and views of nursing students about the challenges of teacher-based clinical evaluation. This study was a descriptive qualitative study with a qualitative content analysis approach. Data were gathered through semi-structured focused group sessions with undergraduate nursing students who were passing their 8 th semester at Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. Date were analyzed using Graneheim and Lundman's proposed method. Data collection and analysis were concurrent. According to the findings, "factitious evaluation" was the main theme of study that consisted of three categories: "Personal preferences," "unfairness" and "shirking responsibility." These categories are explained using quotes derived from the data. According to the results of this study, teacher-based clinical evaluation would lead to factitious evaluation. Thus, changing this approach of evaluation toward modern methods of evaluation is suggested. The finding can help nursing instructors to get a better understanding of the nursing students' point of view toward this evaluation approach and as a result could be planning for changing of this approach.

  3. Temperature calibration procedure for thin film substrates for thermo-ellipsometric analysis using melting point standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappert, Emiel J.; Raaijmakers, Michiel J.T.; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Nijmeijer, Arian; Huiskes, Cindy; Benes, Nieck E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Facile temperature calibration method for thermo-ellipsometric analysis. • The melting point of thin films of indium, lead, zinc, and water can be detected by ellipsometry. • In-situ calibration of ellipsometry hot stage, without using any external equipment. • High-accuracy temperature calibration (±1.3 °C). - Abstract: Precise and accurate temperature control is pertinent to studying thermally activated processes in thin films. Here, we present a calibration method for the substrate–film interface temperature using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The method is adapted from temperature calibration methods that are well developed for thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry instruments, and is based on probing a transition temperature. Indium, lead, and zinc could be spread on a substrate, and the phase transition of these metals could be detected by a change in the Ψ signal of the ellipsometer. For water, the phase transition could be detected by a loss of signal intensity as a result of light scattering by the ice crystals. The combined approach allowed for construction of a linear calibration curve with an accuracy of 1.3 °C or lower over the full temperature range

  4. Cost analysis of premixed multichamber bags versus compounded parenteral nutrition: breakeven point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozat, Erkut; Korubuk, Gamze; Onar, Pelin; Abbasoglu, Osman

    2014-02-01

    Industrially premixed multichamber bags or hospital-manufactured compounded products can be used for parenteral nutrition. The aim of this study was to compare the cost of these 2 approaches. Costs of compounded parenteral nutrition bags in an university hospital were calculated. A total of 600 bags that were administered during 34 days between December 10, 2009 and February 17, 2010 were included in the analysis. For quality control, specific gravity evaluation of the filled bags was performed. It was calculated that the variable cost of a hospital compounded bag was $26.15. If we take the annual fixed costs into consideration, the production cost reaches $36.09 for each unit. It was estimated that the cost for the corresponding multichamber bag was $37.79. Taking the fixed and the variable costs into account, the breakeven point of the hospital compounded and the premixed multichamber bags was seen at 5,404 units per year. In specific gravity evaluation, it was observed that the mean and interval values were inside the upper and lower control margins. In this analysis, usage of hospital-compounded parenteral nutrition bags showed a cost advantage in hospitals that treat more than 15 patients per day. In small volume hospitals, premixed multichamber bags may be more beneficial.

  5. Intraosseous blood samples for point-of-care analysis: agreement between intraosseous and arterial analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousi, Milla; Saikko, Simo; Nurmi, Jouni

    2017-09-11

    Point-of-care (POC) testing is highly useful when treating critically ill patients. In case of difficult vascular access, the intraosseous (IO) route is commonly used, and blood is aspirated to confirm the correct position of the IO-needle. Thus, IO blood samples could be easily accessed for POC analyses in emergency situations. The aim of this study was to determine whether IO values agree sufficiently with arterial values to be used for clinical decision making. Two samples of IO blood were drawn from 31 healthy volunteers and compared with arterial samples. The samples were analysed for sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, glucose, haemoglobin, haematocrit, pH, blood gases, base excess, bicarbonate, and lactate using the i-STAT® POC device. Agreement and reliability were estimated by using the Bland-Altman method and intraclass correlation coefficient calculations. Good agreement was evident between the IO and arterial samples for pH, glucose, and lactate. Potassium levels were clearly higher in the IO samples than those from arterial blood. Base excess and bicarbonate were slightly higher, and sodium and ionised calcium values were slightly lower, in the IO samples compared with the arterial values. The blood gases in the IO samples were between arterial and venous values. Haemoglobin and haematocrit showed remarkable variation in agreement. POC diagnostics of IO blood can be a useful tool to guide treatment in critical emergency care. Seeking out the reversible causes of cardiac arrest or assessing the severity of shock are examples of situations in which obtaining vascular access and blood samples can be difficult, though information about the electrolytes, acid-base balance, and lactate could guide clinical decision making. The analysis of IO samples should though be limited to situations in which no other option is available, and the results should be interpreted with caution, because there is not yet enough scientific evidence regarding the agreement of IO

  6. Patterns of Puffery: An Analysis of Non-Fiction Blurbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Blaise; La Barre, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    The blurb is a paratextual element which has not previously been subjected to systematic analysis. We describe the nature and purpose of this publishing epiphenomenon, highlight some of the related marketing issues and ethical concerns and provide a statistical analysis of almost 2000 blurbs identified in a sample of 450 non-fiction books.…

  7. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-05-29

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination-Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The "MFDF" dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the "WNC" dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults.

  8. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94. The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults.

  9. Inter- and intra-examiner reliability of footprint pattern analysis obtained from diabetics using the Harris mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Lígia de Loiola; Fonseca, Tiago H S; Abreu, Vivianni C

    2010-01-01

    High plantar pressure is a proven risk factor for ulceration among individuals with diabetes mellitus. The Harris and Beath footprinting mat is one of the tools used in screening for foot ulceration risk among these subjects. There are no reports in the literature on the reliability of footprint analysis using print pattern criteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of the analysis of footprint patterns obtained using the Harris and Beath footprinting mat. Footprints were taken from 41 subjects using the footprinting mat. The images were subjected to analysis by three independent examiners. To investigate the intra-examiner reliability, the analysis was repeated by one of the examiners one week later. The weighted kappa coefficient was excellent (K(w) > 0.80) for the inter- and intra-examiner analyses for most of the points studied on both feet. The criteria for analyzing footprint patterns obtained using the Harris and Beath footprinting mat presented good reliability and high to excellent inter- and intra-examiner agreement. This method is reliable for analyses involving one or more examiners. Article registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) under the number ACTRN12609000693224.

  10. Chopped or long roughage: what do calves prefer? Using cross point analysis of double demand functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Webb

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to quantify calves' (Bos taurus preference for long versus chopped hay and straw, and hay versus straw, using cross point analysis of double demand functions, in a context where energy intake was not a limiting factor. Nine calves, fed milk replacer and concentrate, were trained to work for roughage rewards from two simultaneously available panels. The cost (number of muzzle presses required on the panels varied in each session (left panel/right panel: 7/35, 14/28, 21/21, 28/14, 35/7. Demand functions were estimated from the proportion of rewards achieved on one panel relative to the total number of rewards achieved in one session. Cross points (cp were calculated as the cost at which an equal number of rewards was achieved from both panels. The deviation of the cp from the midpoint (here 21 indicates the strength of the preference. Calves showed a preference for long versus chopped hay (cp = 14.5; P = 0.004, and for hay versus straw (cp = 38.9; P = 0.004, both of which improve rumen function. Long hay may stimulate chewing more than chopped hay, and the preference for hay versus straw could be related to hedonic characteristics. No preference was found for chopped versus long straw (cp = 20.8; P = 0.910. These results could be used to improve the welfare of calves in production systems; for example, in systems where calves are fed hay along with high energy concentrate, providing long hay instead of chopped could promote roughage intake, rumen development, and rumination.

  11. Chopped or Long Roughage: What Do Calves Prefer? Using Cross Point Analysis of Double Demand Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Laura E.; Bak Jensen, Margit; Engel, Bas; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Gerrits, Walter J. J.; de Boer, Imke J. M.; Bokkers, Eddie A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to quantify calves'(Bos taurus) preference for long versus chopped hay and straw, and hay versus straw, using cross point analysis of double demand functions, in a context where energy intake was not a limiting factor. Nine calves, fed milk replacer and concentrate, were trained to work for roughage rewards from two simultaneously available panels. The cost (number of muzzle presses) required on the panels varied in each session (left panel/right panel): 7/35, 14/28, 21/21, 28/14, 35/7. Demand functions were estimated from the proportion of rewards achieved on one panel relative to the total number of rewards achieved in one session. Cross points (cp) were calculated as the cost at which an equal number of rewards was achieved from both panels. The deviation of the cp from the midpoint (here 21) indicates the strength of the preference. Calves showed a preference for long versus chopped hay (cp  = 14.5; P  = 0.004), and for hay versus straw (cp  = 38.9; P = 0.004), both of which improve rumen function. Long hay may stimulate chewing more than chopped hay, and the preference for hay versus straw could be related to hedonic characteristics. No preference was found for chopped versus long straw (cp  = 20.8; P = 0.910). These results could be used to improve the welfare of calves in production systems; for example, in systems where calves are fed hay along with high energy concentrate, providing long hay instead of chopped could promote roughage intake, rumen development, and rumination. PMID:24558426

  12. Curie point depth from spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data for geothermal reconnaissance in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibi, H.; Aboud, E.; Gottsmann, J.

    2015-11-01

    The geologic setting of Afghanistan has the potential to contain significant mineral, petroleum and geothermal resources. However, much of the country's potential remains unknown due to limited exploration surveys. Here, we present countrywide aeromagnetic data to estimate the Curie point depth (CPD) and to evaluate the geothermal exploration potential. CPD is an isothermal surface at which magnetic minerals lose their magnetization and as such outlines an isotherm of about 580 °C. We use spectral analysis on the aeromagnetic data to estimate the CPD spatial distribution and compare our findings with known geothermal fields in the western part of Afghanistan. The results outline four regions with geothermal potential: 1) regions of shallow Curie point depths (∼16-21 km) are located in the Helmand basin. 2) regions of intermediate depths (∼21-27 km) are located in the southern Helmand basin and the Baluchistan area. 3) Regions of great depths (∼25-35 km) are located in the Farad block. 4) Regions of greatest depths (∼35-40 km) are located in the western part of the northern Afghanistan platform. The deduced thermal structure in western Afghanistan relates to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates, while the shallow CPDs are related to crustal thinning. This study also shows that the geothermal systems are associated with complex magmatic and tectonic association of major intrusions and fault systems. Our results imply geothermal gradients ranging from 14 °C/km to 36 °C/km and heat-flow values ranging from 36 to 90 mW/m2 for the study area.

  13. Evenly spaced Detrended Fluctuation Analysis: Selecting the number of points for the diffusion plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Joshua J.; Haddad, Jeffrey M.

    2018-02-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) has become a widely-used tool to examine the correlation structure of a time series and provided insights into neuromuscular health and disease states. As the popularity of utilizing DFA in the human behavioral sciences has grown, understanding its limitations and how to properly determine parameters is becoming increasingly important. DFA examines the correlation structure of variability in a time series by computing α, the slope of the log SD- log n diffusion plot. When using the traditional DFA algorithm, the timescales, n, are often selected as a set of integers between a minimum and maximum length based on the number of data points in the time series. This produces non-uniformly distributed values of n in logarithmic scale, which influences the estimation of α due to a disproportionate weighting of the long-timescale regions of the diffusion plot. Recently, the evenly spaced DFA and evenly spaced average DFA algorithms were introduced. Both algorithms compute α by selecting k points for the diffusion plot based on the minimum and maximum timescales of interest and improve the consistency of α estimates for simulated fractional Gaussian noise and fractional Brownian motion time series. Two issues that remain unaddressed are (1) how to select k and (2) whether the evenly-spaced DFA algorithms show similar benefits when assessing human behavioral data. We manipulated k and examined its effects on the accuracy, consistency, and confidence limits of α in simulated and experimental time series. We demonstrate that the accuracy and consistency of α are relatively unaffected by the selection of k. However, the confidence limits of α narrow as k increases, dramatically reducing measurement uncertainty for single trials. We provide guidelines for selecting k and discuss potential uses of the evenly spaced DFA algorithms when assessing human behavioral data.

  14. Napping patterns during the 2nd year of USMA 2007 Class A preliminary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Nita; Shattuck, Lawrence G.; Matsangas, Panagiotis

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: In support of a four-year longitudinal study of the Class of 2007, at United States Military Academy (USMA), West Point, NY, this work focuses on: Cadet napping patterns during the second year of their stay at the Academy, napping effect on daily sleep, and frequency of napping versus gender, and seasonality issues.

  15. Analysis of step-up transformer tap change on the quantities at the point of connection to transmission grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of a step-up transformer tap change on the quantities at the point of connection to the transmission grid is presented in this paper. The point of connection of generator TENT A6 has been analyzed, and a detailed model of this generator is available in software package DIgSILENT Power Factory. The comparison between the effect of a step-up transformer tap change on the quantities at the point of connection during automatic and manual operation of voltage regulator has been conducted. In order to conduct the analysis of the manual operation of the voltage regulator, the comparison between the different methods of modeling of these modes has been performed. Several generator operating points, selected in order to represent the need for tap change, have been analyzed. Also, previously mentioned analyses have been performed taking into account the voltage-reactive stiffness at the point of connection.

  16. An analysis of factors related to the tail-like pattern of myxofibrosarcoma seen on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuta, Kazutaka; Kubota, Daisuke; Chuuman, Hirokazu; Kawai, Akira; Yoshida, Akihiko; Morioka, Hideo; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is characterized by a high frequency of local recurrence after surgery because of infiltrative growth of the tumor cells. This infiltrative growth creates a characteristic 'tail-like' pattern on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and it has been reported that this pattern is especially obvious on gadolinium-enhanced MRI (Gd MRI). However, the relationship between the tail-like pattern seen on Gd MRI and clinicopathological features of MFS is still not clear. In this study, we performed a retrospective analysis to identify clinicopathological factors related to the tail-like pattern of the MRI findings in patients with MFS. We retrospectively analyzed 50 patients with MFS to identify factors related to the tail-like pattern. On Gd MRI, 32 of the 50 patients presented the tail-like pattern, whereas 18 presented a solid pattern. The clincopathological factors related to the tail-like pattern were evaluated by chi-squared test. A superficial origin (p = 0.0009) was most significantly related to the tail-like pattern. The 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate was 75.6 % for patients showing the tail-like pattern and 90.9 % for those showing the solid pattern. The corresponding 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 64.7 and 79.3 %, respectively. Thus in terms of both 5-year RFS and DFS, patients with the tail-like pattern tended to have a poorer outcome. A superficial origin of MFS is significantly related to a tail-like pattern on Gd MRI. The tail-like pattern is associated with poorer prognosis. Further studies of tumor depth and the tail-like pattern on Gd MRI are needed. (orig.)

  17. The application of hazard analysis and critical control points and risk management in the preparation of anti-cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, Brigitte; Martelli, Nicolas; Berhoune, Malik; Maestroni, Marie-Laure; Havard, Laurent; Prognon, Patrice

    2009-02-01

    To apply the Hazard analysis and Critical Control Points method to the preparation of anti-cancer drugs. To identify critical control points in our cancer chemotherapy process and to propose control measures and corrective actions to manage these processes. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points application began in January 2004 in our centralized chemotherapy compounding unit. From October 2004 to August 2005, monitoring of the process nonconformities was performed to assess the method. According to the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points method, a multidisciplinary team was formed to describe and assess the cancer chemotherapy process. This team listed all of the critical points and calculated their risk indexes according to their frequency of occurrence, their severity and their detectability. The team defined monitoring, control measures and corrective actions for each identified risk. Finally, over a 10-month period, pharmacists reported each non-conformity of the process in a follow-up document. Our team described 11 steps in the cancer chemotherapy process. The team identified 39 critical control points, including 11 of higher importance with a high-risk index. Over 10 months, 16,647 preparations were performed; 1225 nonconformities were reported during this same period. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points method is relevant when it is used to target a specific process such as the preparation of anti-cancer drugs. This method helped us to focus on the production steps, which can have a critical influence on product quality, and led us to improve our process.

  18. Implementing SCRUM using Business Process Management and Pattern Analysis Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron S. Kenett

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The National Institute of Standards and Technology in the US has estimated that software defects and problems annually cost 59.5 billions the U.S. economy (http://www.abeacha.com/NIST_press_release_bugs_cost.htm. The study is only one of many that demonstrate the need for significant improvements in software development processes and practices. US Federal agencies, that depend on IT to support their missions and spent at least $76 billion on IT in fiscal year 2011, experienced numerous examples of lengthy IT projects that incurred cost overruns and schedule delays while contributing little to mission-related outcomes (www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-681. To reduce the risk of such problems, the US Office of Management and Budget recommended deploying an agile software delivery, which calls for producing software in small, short increments (GAO, 2012. Consistent with this recommendation, this paper is about the application of Business Process Management to the improvement of software and system development through SCRUM or agile techniques. It focuses on how organizational behavior and process management techniques can be integrated with knowledge management approaches to deploy agile development. The context of this work is a global company developing software solutions for service operators such as cellular phone operators. For a related paper with a comprehensive overview of agile methods in project management see Stare (2013. Through this comprehensive case study we demonstrate how such an integration can be achieved. SCRUM is a paradigm shift in many organizations in that it results in a new balance between focus on results and focus on processes. In order to describe this new paradigm of business processes this work refers to Enterprise Knowledge Development (EKD, a comprehensive approach to map and document organizational patterns. In that context, the paper emphasizes the concept of patterns, reviews the main elements of SCRUM and shows how

  19. The Determination of Children's Knowledge of Global Lunar Patterns from Online Essays Using Text Mining Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Jongpil; Lee, Sangno; Smith, Walter; Song, Jaeki; Kim, Yongjin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use text mining analysis of early adolescents' online essays to determine their knowledge of global lunar patterns. Australian and American students in grades five to seven wrote about global lunar patterns they had discovered by sharing observations with each other via the Internet. These essays were analyzed for…

  20. SCAP-82, Single Scattering, Albedo Scattering, Point-Kernel Analysis in Complex Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, R.K.; Vogtman, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SCAP solves for radiation transport in complex geometries using the single or albedo scatter point kernel method. The program is designed to calculate the neutron or gamma ray radiation level at detector points located within or outside a complex radiation scatter source geometry or a user specified discrete scattering volume. Geometry is describable by zones bounded by intersecting quadratic surfaces within an arbitrary maximum number of boundary surfaces per zone. Anisotropic point sources are describable as pointwise energy dependent distributions of polar angles on a meridian; isotropic point sources may also be specified. The attenuation function for gamma rays is an exponential function on the primary source leg and the scatter leg with a build- up factor approximation to account for multiple scatter on the scat- ter leg. The neutron attenuation function is an exponential function using neutron removal cross sections on the primary source leg and scatter leg. Line or volumetric sources can be represented as a distribution of isotropic point sources, with un-collided line-of-sight attenuation and buildup calculated between each source point and the detector point. 2 - Method of solution: A point kernel method using an anisotropic or isotropic point source representation is used, line-of-sight material attenuation and inverse square spatial attenuation between the source point and scatter points and the scatter points and detector point is employed. A direct summation of individual point source results is obtained. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: - The SCAP program is written in complete flexible dimensioning so that no restrictions are imposed on the number of energy groups or geometric zones. The geometric zone description is restricted to zones defined by boundary surfaces defined by the general quadratic equation or one of its degenerate forms. The only restriction in the program is that the total

  1. Quantitative Analysis of VIIRS DNB Nightlight Point Source for Light Power Estimation and Stability Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Cao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The high sensitivity and advanced onboard calibration on the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB enables accurate measurements of low light radiances which leads to enhanced quantitative applications at night. The finer spatial resolution of DNB also allows users to examine social economic activities at urban scales. Given the growing interest in the use of the DNB data, there is a pressing need for better understanding of the calibration stability and absolute accuracy of the DNB at low radiances. The low light calibration accuracy was previously estimated at a moderate 15% using extended sources while the long-term stability has yet to be characterized. There are also several science related questions to be answered, for example, how the Earth’s atmosphere and surface variability contribute to the stability of the DNB measured radiances; how to separate them from instrument calibration stability; whether or not SI (International System of Units traceable active light sources can be designed and installed at selected sites to monitor the calibration stability, radiometric and geolocation accuracy, and point spread functions of the DNB; furthermore, whether or not such active light sources can be used for detecting environmental changes, such as aerosols. This paper explores the quantitative analysis of nightlight point sources, such as those from fishing vessels, bridges, and cities, using fundamental radiometry and radiative transfer, which would be useful for a number of applications including search and rescue in severe weather events, as well as calibration/validation of the DNB. Time series of the bridge light data are used to assess the stability of the light measurements and the calibration of VIIRS DNB. It was found that the light radiant power computed from the VIIRS DNB data matched relatively well with independent assessments based on the in situ light installations, although estimates have to be

  2. Hazard analysis and critical control point to irradiated food in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaratti, Maria de Fatima Guerra

    2004-01-01

    Food borne diseases, in particular gastro-intestinal infections, represent a very large group of pathologies with a strong negative impact on the health of the population because of their widespread nature. Little consideration is given to such conditions due to the fact that their symptoms are often moderate and self-limiting. This has led to a general underestimation of their importance, and consequently to incorrect practices during the preparation and preservation of food, resulting in the frequent occurrence of outbreaks involving groups of varying numbers of consumers. Despite substantial efforts in the avoidance of contamination, an upward trend in the number of outbreaks of food borne illnesses caused by non-spore forming pathogenic bacteria are reported in many countries. Good hygienic practices can reduce the level of contamination but the most important pathogens cannot presently be eliminated from most farms, nor is it possible to eliminate them by primary processing, particularly from those foods which are sold raw. Several decontamination methods exist but the most versatile treatment among them is the ionizing radiation procedure. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. For successful implementation of a HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept. A firm commitment to HACCP by top management provides company employees with a sense of the importance of producing safe food. At the same time, it has to be always emphasized that, like other intervention strategies, irradiation must be applied as part of a total sanitation program. The benefits of irradiation should never be considered as an excuse for poor quality or for poor handling and storage conditions

  3. Genetic interaction analysis of point mutations enables interrogation of gene function at a residue-level resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braberg, Hannes; Moehle, Erica A.; Shales, Michael; Guthrie, Christine; Krogan, Nevan J.

    2014-01-01

    We have achieved a residue-level resolution of genetic interaction mapping – a technique that measures how the function of one gene is affected by the alteration of a second gene – by analyzing point mutations. Here, we describe how to interpret point mutant genetic interactions, and outline key applications for the approach, including interrogation of protein interaction interfaces and active sites, and examination of post-translational modifications. Genetic interaction analysis has proven effective for characterizing cellular processes; however, to date, systematic high-throughput genetic interaction screens have relied on gene deletions or knockdowns, which limits the resolution of gene function analysis and poses problems for multifunctional genes. Our point mutant approach addresses these issues, and further provides a tool for in vivo structure-function analysis that complements traditional biophysical methods. We also discuss the potential for genetic interaction mapping of point mutations in human cells and its application to personalized medicine. PMID:24842270

  4. Irradiation Pattern Analysis for Designing Light Sources-Based on Light Emitting Diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, E.; Stolik, S.; La Rosa, J. de; Valor, A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays it is possible to design light sources with a specific irradiation pattern for many applications. Light Emitting Diodes present features like high luminous efficiency, durability, reliability, flexibility, among others as the result of its rapid development. In this paper the analysis of the irradiation pattern of the light emitting diodes is presented. The approximation of these irradiation patterns to both, a Lambertian, as well as a Gaussian functions for the design of light sources is proposed. Finally, the obtained results and the functionality of bringing the irradiation pattern of the light emitting diodes to these functions are discussed. (Author)

  5. Joint Clustering and Component Analysis of Correspondenceless Point Sets: Application to Cardiac Statistical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooya, Ali; Lekadir, Karim; Alba, Xenia; Swift, Andrew J; Wild, Jim M; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2015-01-01

    Construction of Statistical Shape Models (SSMs) from arbitrary point sets is a challenging problem due to significant shape variation and lack of explicit point correspondence across the training data set. In medical imaging, point sets can generally represent different shape classes that span healthy and pathological exemplars. In such cases, the constructed SSM may not generalize well, largely because the probability density function (pdf) of the point sets deviates from the underlying assumption of Gaussian statistics. To this end, we propose a generative model for unsupervised learning of the pdf of point sets as a mixture of distinctive classes. A Variational Bayesian (VB) method is proposed for making joint inferences on the labels of point sets, and the principal modes of variations in each cluster. The method provides a flexible framework to handle point sets with no explicit point-to-point correspondences. We also show that by maximizing the marginalized likelihood of the model, the optimal number of clusters of point sets can be determined. We illustrate this work in the context of understanding the anatomical phenotype of the left and right ventricles in heart. To this end, we use a database containing hearts of healthy subjects, patients with Pulmonary Hypertension (PH), and patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM). We demonstrate that our method can outperform traditional PCA in both generalization and specificity measures.

  6. Using visual information analysis to explore complex patterns in the activity of designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of complex interlinked datasets poses a significant problem for design researchers. This is addressed by proposing an information visualisation method for analysing patterns of design activity, qualitatively and quantitatively, with respect to time. This method visualises the tempora...

  7. GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN LAND USE PATTERN ANALYSIS FOR HEMORRHAGIC FEVER RISK – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Izzah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human modification of the natural environment continues to create habitats in which vectors of a wide variety of human and animal pathogens (such as Plasmodium, Aedes aegypti, Arenavirus etc. thrive if unabated with an enormous potential to negatively affect public health. Typical examples of these modifications include impoundments, dams, irrigation systems, landfills and so on that provide enabled environment for the transmission of Hemorrhagic fever such as malaria, dengue, avian flu, Lassa fever etc. Furthermore, contemporary urban dwelling pattern appears to be associated with the prevalence of Hemorrhagic diseases in recent years. These observations are not peculiar to the developing world, as urban expansion also contributes significantly to mosquito and other vectors habitats. This habitats offer breeding ground to some vector virus populations. The key to disease control is developing an understanding of the contribution of human landscape modification to vector-borne pathogen transmission and how a balance may be achieved between human development, public health, and responsible urban land use. A comprehensive review of urban land use Pattern Analysis for Hemorrhagic fever risk has been conducted in this paper. The study found that most of the available literatures dwell more on the impact of urban land use on malaria and dengue fevers; however, studies are yet to be found discussing the implications of urban land use on the risk of Ebola, Lassa and other non-mosquito borne VHFs. A relational model for investigating the influence of urban land use change pattern on the risk of Hemorrhagic fever has been proposed in this study.

  8. Substance Use Patterns Among Adolescents in Europe: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Kristin; Scheithauer, Herbert; Bräker, Astrid-Britta; Jonkman, Harrie; Soellner, Renate

    2016-07-28

    Several researchers have investigated substance use patterns using a latent class analysis; however, hardly no studies exist on substance use patterns across countries. Adolescent substance use patterns, demographic factors, and international differences in the prevalence of substance use patterns were explored. Data from 25 European countries were used to identify patterns of adolescent (12-16 years, 50.6% female) substance use (N = 33,566). Latent class analysis revealed four substance use classes: nonusers (68%), low-alcohol users (recent use of beer, wine, and alcopops; 16.1%), alcohol users (recent use of alcohol and lifetime use of marijuana; 11.2%), and polysubstance users (recent use of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs; 4.7%). Results support a general pattern of adolescent substance use across all countries; however, the prevalence rates of use patterns vary for each country. The present research provides insight into substance use patterns across Europe by using a large international adolescent sample, multidimensional indicators and a variety of substances. Substance use patterns are helpful when targeting policy and prevention strategies.

  9. Analysis of the diffraction pattern obtained by the Laue method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riquet, J. par; Bonnet, R.

    1978-01-01

    A computation method is presented which allows a rapid indexing of any unknown spot pattern obtained by back-reflection or transmission Laue methods. The Cartesian coordinates of n spots are measured in an orthonormal frame referred to the photographic film. Two spots 1 and 2 separated by a wide angular distance αsup(m) are carefully chosen. Their indices are assumed to be less than 5. The set (E) of all the pairs of planes (h 1 k 1 l 1 ) and (h 2 k 2 l 2 ) making an angle α close to αsup(m) is then computed. Since the pair of reflecting planes related to spots 1 and 2 belongs to (E), each computed pair of planes is tried, in order to determine the orientation of the crystal and to check whether the coordinates of the (n-2) other spots can be matched to dense planes of indices less than 8. If the uncertainty of the measurements is high or if n is too low, this method gives the possible orientations for the crystal. Plane indices less than 8 have been identified in cubic, tetragonal and orthorhombic crystals. (Auth.)

  10. Analysis of periodically patterned metallic nanostructures for infrared absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sha; Yuan, Ying; Long, Huabao; Liu, Runhan; Wei, Dong; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Haiwei; Xie, Changsheng

    2018-02-01

    With rapid advancement of infrared detecting technology in both military and civil domains, the photo-electronic performances of near-infrared detectors have been widely concerned. Currently, near-infrared detectors demonstrate some problems such as low sensitivity, low detectivity, and relatively small array scale. The current studies show that surface plasmons (SPs) stimulated over the surface of metallic nanostructures by incident light can be used to break the diffraction limit and thus concentrate light into sub-wavelength scale, so as to indicate a method to develop a new type of infrared absorber or detector with very large array. In this paper, we present the design and characterization of periodically patterned metallic nanostructures that combine nanometer thickness aluminum film with silicon wafer. Numerical computations show that there are some valleys caused by surface plasmons in the reflection spectrum in the infrared region, and both red shift and blue shift of the reflection spectrum were observed through changing the nanostructural parameters such as angle α and diameters D. Moreover, the strong E-field intensity is located at the sharp corner of the nano-structures.

  11. Stress analysis of neutral beam pivot point bellows for tokamak fusion test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Benda, B.J.; Tiong, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    The neutral beam pivot point bellows serves as an airtight flexible linkage between the torus duct and the neutral beam transition duct in Princeton University's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. The bellows considered here is basically rectangular in cross section with rounded corners; a unique shape. Its overall external dimensions are about 28 in. (about 711 mm) X about 35 in. (about 889 mm). The bellows is formed from 18 convolutions and is of the nested ripple type. It is about 11 in. (about 43.3 mm) in length, composed of Inconel 718, and each leaf has a thickness of 0.034 in. (.86 mm). The bellows is subjected to a series of design loading conditions -- vacuum, vacuum + 2 psi (.12 MPa), vacuum + stroke (10,000 cycles), vacuum + temperature increase + extension, extension to a stress of 120 ksi (838 MPa), and a series of rotational loading conditions induced in the bellows by alignment of the neutral beam injector. A stress analysis of the bellows was performed by the finite element method -- locations and magnitude of maximum stresses were calculated for all of the design loading conditions to check with allowable values and help guide placement of strain gauges during proof testing. A typical center convolution and end convolution were analyzed. Loading conditions were separated into symmetric and antisymmetric cases about the planes of symmetry of the cross-section. Iterative linear analyses were performed, i.e. compressive loading conditions led to predicted overlap of the leaves from linear analysis and restraints were added to prevent such overlap. This effect was found to be substantial in stress predicition and necessary to be taken into account. A total of eleven loading conditions and seven models were analyzed. The results showed peak stresses to be within allowable limits and the number of allowable cycles to be greater than the design condition

  12. Strain Analysis of Stretched Tourmaline Crystals Using ImageJ, Microsoft Excel and PowerPoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosbyshell, H.

    2012-12-01

    This poster describes an undergraduate structural geology lab exercise utilizing the Mohr's circle diagram for finite strain, constructed using measurements obtained from stretched tourmaline crystals. A small building housing HVAC equipment at the south end of West Chester University's Recitation Hall (itself made of serpentinite) is constructed of early-Cambrian Chickies Quartzite. Stretched tourmaline crystals, with segments joined by fibrous quartz, are visible on many surfaces (presumably originally bedding). While the original orientation of any stone is unknown, these rocks provide an opportunity for a short field exercise during a two-hour lab period and a great base for conducting strain analysis. It is always fun to ask how many in the class have ever noticed the tourmaline (few have). Students take photos using their cell phones or cameras. Since strain is a ratio the absolute size of the tourmaline crystals is immaterial. Nonetheless, this is a good opportunity to remind students of the importance of including a scale in their photographs. The photos are opened in ImageJ and the line tool is used to determine the original and final lengths of selected crystals. Students calculate strain parameters using Microsoft Excel. Then, we use Adobe Illustrator or the drafting capabilities of Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 to follow Ramsay and Huber's techniques using a Mohr's circle construction to determine the finite strain ellipse. If a stretching direction can be estimated, elongation of two crystals is all that is required to determine the strain ratio. If no stretching direction is apparent, three crystals are required for a more complicated analysis that allows for determination of the stretching direction, as well as the strain ratio.

  13. Driving Style Analysis Using Primitive Driving Patterns With Bayesian Nonparametric Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenshuo; Xi, Junqiang; Zhao, Ding

    2017-01-01

    Analysis and recognition of driving styles are profoundly important to intelligent transportation and vehicle calibration. This paper presents a novel driving style analysis framework using the primitive driving patterns learned from naturalistic driving data. In order to achieve this, first, a Bayesian nonparametric learning method based on a hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM) is introduced to extract primitive driving patterns from time series driving data without prior knowledge of the number...

  14. A study on association and correlation of lip and finger print pattern analysis for gender identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapaneni Ratheesh Kumar Nandan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Lip print analysis is a challenging area in the personal identification during forensic dentistry examination. The study revealed the weaker correlation and approachable significance of lip and finger print pattern in gender identification. Future studies should be encouraged in the direction of software based identification for lip and finger print analysis in gender identification. Such studies may benefit this study pattern in more accurate way.

  15. Analysis of ultrasonically rotating droplet using moving particle semi-implicit and distributed point source methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yuji; Yuge, Kohei; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2016-07-01

    Numerical analysis of the rotation of an ultrasonically levitated droplet with a free surface boundary is discussed. The ultrasonically levitated droplet is often reported to rotate owing to the surface tangential component of acoustic radiation force. To observe the torque from an acoustic wave and clarify the mechanism underlying the phenomena, it is effective to take advantage of numerical simulation using the distributed point source method (DPSM) and moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, both of which do not require a calculation grid or mesh. In this paper, the numerical treatment of the viscoacoustic torque, which emerges from the viscous boundary layer and governs the acoustical droplet rotation, is discussed. The Reynolds stress traction force is calculated from the DPSM result using the idea of effective normal particle velocity through the boundary layer and input to the MPS surface particles. A droplet levitated in an acoustic chamber is simulated using the proposed calculation method. The droplet is vertically supported by a plane standing wave from an ultrasonic driver and subjected to a rotating sound field excited by two acoustic sources on the side wall with different phases. The rotation of the droplet is successfully reproduced numerically and its acceleration is discussed and compared with those in the literature.

  16. An automated smartphone-based diagnostic assay for point-of-care semen analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakasabapathy, Manoj Kumar; Sadasivam, Magesh; Singh, Anupriya; Preston, Collin; Thirumalaraju, Prudhvi; Venkataraman, Maanasa; Bormann, Charles L.; Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Petrozza, John C.; Shafiee, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Male infertility affects up to 12% of the world’s male population and is linked to various environmental and medical conditions. Manual microscope-based testing and computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) are the current standard methods to diagnose male infertility; however, these methods are labor-intensive, expensive, and laboratory-based. Cultural and socially dominated stigma against male infertility testing hinders a large number of men from getting tested for infertility, especially in resource-limited African countries. We describe the development and clinical testing of an automated smartphone-based semen analyzer designed for quantitative measurement of sperm concentration and motility for point-of-care male infertility screening. Using a total of 350 clinical semen specimens at a fertility clinic, we have shown that our assay can analyze an unwashed, unprocessed liquefied semen sample with smartphone capabilities, can make remote semen quality testing accessible to people in both developed and developing countries who have access to smartphones. PMID:28330865

  17. What motivates individuals with ADHD? A qualitative analysis from the adolescent's point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsink, Sarah; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Mies, Gabry; Glorie, Nathalie; Lemiere, Jurgen; Van der Oord, Saskia; Danckaerts, Marina

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with ADHD appear to respond differently to incentives than their peers. This could be due to a general altered sensitivity to reinforcers. However, apart from differences in the degree of motivation, individuals with ADHD might also be motivated by qualitatively different factors. This study aimed to harvest a range of motivational factors and identify ADHD-related qualitative differences in motivation, from the adolescent's point of view. Semi-structured interviews allowing participants to describe what motivates them in daily life were conducted with young adolescents (9-16 years) with and without ADHD. Thematic analysis was undertaken using NVivo software. Major themes relating to motivation were identified from the interview data. These were: (1) achieving a sense of togetherness; (2) feeling competent; (3) fulfilling a need for variation; (4) gaining pleasure from applying effort to achieve a goal; (5) valuing social reinforcement; (6) desiring to be absorbed/forget problems; (7) feeling free and independent, (8) attaining material reinforcement; and (9) an enjoyment of bodily stimulation. The theme structure was very similar for both groups. However, individuals with ADHD differed in some specifics: their focus on the passing of time, the absence of preference for predictable and familiar tasks, and their less elaborate description of the togetherness theme. A broad range of motivational themes was identified, stretching beyond the current focus of ADHD research and motivational theories. Similarities and differences in motivational values of individuals with and without ADHD should be taken into account in reward sensitivity research, and in psychological treatment.

  18. Analysis of three geopressured geothermal aquifer-natural gas fields; Duson Hollywood and Church Point, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.A.; Boardman, C.R.

    1981-05-01

    The available well logs, production records and geological structure maps were analyzed for the Hollywood, Duson, and Church Point, Louisiana oil and gas field to determine the areal extent of the sealed geopressured blocks and to identify which aquifer sands within the blocks are connected to commercial production of hydrocarbons. The analysis showed that over the depth intervals of the geopressured zones shown on the logs essentially all of the sands of any substantial thickness had gas production from them somewhere or other in the fault block. It is therefore expected that the sands which are fully brine saturated in many of the wells are the water drive portion of the producing gas/oil somewhere else within the fault block. In this study only one deep sand was identified, in the Hollywood field, which was not connected to a producing horizon somewhere else in the field. Estimates of the reservoir parameters were made and a hypothetical production calculation showed the probable production to be less than 10,000 b/d. The required gas price to profitably produce this gas is well above the current market price.

  19. HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points): is it coming to the dairy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullor, J S

    1997-12-01

    The risks and consequences of foodborne and waterborne pathogens are coming to the forefront of public health concerns, and strong pressure is being applied on agriculture for immediate implementation of on-farm controls. The FDA is considering HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) as the new foundation for revision of the US Food Safety Assurance Program because HACCP is considered to be a science-based, systematic approach to the prevention of food safety problems. In addition, the implementation of HACCP principles permits more government oversight through requirements for standard operating procedures and additional systems for keeping records, places primary responsibility for ensuring food safety on the food manufacturer or distributor, and may assist US food companies in competing more effectively in the world market. With the HACCP-based program in place, a government investigator should be able to determine and evaluate both current and past conditions that are critical to ensuring the safety of the food produced by the facility. When this policy is brought to the production unit, the impact for producers and veterinarians will be substantial.

  20. Kick-Off Point (KOP and End of Buildup (EOB Data Analysis in Trajectory Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novrianti Novrianti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Well X is a development well which is directionally drilled. Directional drilling is choosen because the coordinate target of Well X is above the buffer zone. The directional track plan needs accurate survey calculation in order to make the righ track for directional drilling. There are many survey calculation in directional drilling such as tangential, underbalance, average angle, radius of curvature, and mercury method. Minimum curvature method is used in this directional track plan calculation. This method is used because it gives less error than other method.  Kick-Off Point (KOP and End of Buildup (EOB analysis is done at 200 ft, 400 ft, and 600 ft depth to determine the trajectory design and optimal inclination. The hole problem is also determined in this trajectory track design. Optimal trajectory design determined at 200 ft depth because the inclination below 35º and also already reach the target quite well at 1632.28 ft TVD and 408.16 AHD. The optimal inclination at 200 ft KOP depth because the maximum inclination is 18.87º which is below 35º. Hole problem will occur if the trajectory designed at 600 ft. The problems are stuck pipe and the casing or tubing will not able to bend.

  1. An automated smartphone-based diagnostic assay for point-of-care semen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakasabapathy, Manoj Kumar; Sadasivam, Magesh; Singh, Anupriya; Preston, Collin; Thirumalaraju, Prudhvi; Venkataraman, Maanasa; Bormann, Charles L; Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Petrozza, John C; Shafiee, Hadi

    2017-03-22

    Male infertility affects up to 12% of the world's male population and is linked to various environmental and medical conditions. Manual microscope-based testing and computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) are the current standard methods to diagnose male infertility; however, these methods are labor-intensive, expensive, and laboratory-based. Cultural and socially dominated stigma against male infertility testing hinders a large number of men from getting tested for infertility, especially in resource-limited African countries. We describe the development and clinical testing of an automated smartphone-based semen analyzer designed for quantitative measurement of sperm concentration and motility for point-of-care male infertility screening. Using a total of 350 clinical semen specimens at a fertility clinic, we have shown that our assay can analyze an unwashed, unprocessed liquefied semen sample with time and provide the user a semen quality evaluation based on the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines with ~98% accuracy. The work suggests that the integration of microfluidics, optical sensing accessories, and advances in consumer electronics, particularly smartphone capabilities, can make remote semen quality testing accessible to people in both developed and developing countries who have access to smartphones. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Instantaneous normal mode analysis for intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations of water from atomic point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chun; Tang, Ping-Han; Wu, Ten-Ming

    2013-11-28

    By exploiting the instantaneous normal mode (INM) analysis for models of flexible molecules, we investigate intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations of water from the atomic point of view. With two flexible SPC/E models, our investigations include three aspects about their INM spectra, which are separated into the unstable, intermolecular, bending, and stretching bands. First, the O- and H-atom contributions in the four INM bands are calculated and their stable INM spectra are compared with the power spectra of the atomic velocity autocorrelation functions. The unstable and intermolecular bands of the flexible models are also compared with those of the SPC/E model of rigid molecules. Second, we formulate the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the INMs, respectively, for the O- and H-atom and molecule. With the IPRs, the numbers of the three species participated in the INMs are estimated so that the localization characters of the INMs in each band are studied. Further, by the ratio of the IPR of the H atom to that of the O atom, we explore the number of involved OH bond per molecule participated in the INMs. Third, by classifying simulated molecules into subensembles according to the geometry of their local environments or their H-bond configurations, we examine the local-structure effects on the bending and stretching INM bands. All of our results are verified to be insensible to the definition of H-bond. Our conclusions about the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations in water are given.

  3. Pattern analysis of aligned nanowires in a microchannel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Young Jin; Kang, Hyun Wook; Ko, Seung Hwan; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2013-01-01

    An image processing method for evaluating the quality of nanowire alignment in a microchannel is described. A solution containing nanowires flowing into a microchannel will tend to deposit the nanowires on the bottom surface of the channel via near-wall shear flows. The deposited nanowires generally form complex directional structures along the direction of flow, and the physical properties of these structures depend on the structural morphology, including the alignment quality. A quantitative analysis approach to characterizing the nanowire alignment is needed to estimate the useful features of the nanowire structures. This analysis consists of several image processing methods, including ridge detection, texton analysis and autocorrelation function (ACF) calculation. The ridge detection method improved the ACF by extracting nanowire frames 1–2 pixels in width. Dilation filters were introduced to permit a comparison of the ACF results calculated from different images, regardless of the nanowire orientation. An ACF based on the FFT was then calculated over a square interrogation window. The alignment angle probability distribution was obtained using texton analysis. Monte Carlo simulations of artificially generated images were carried out, and the new algorithm was applied to images collected using two types of microscopy. (paper)

  4. Analysis of spatial pattern of settlements in the federal capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human settlements are important, seemingly static but dynamic, features of the cultural landscape that have attracted several studies due to the important role they play in human life. This paper examined the spatial distribution of settlements in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Nigeria. The analysis uses vector based ...

  5. Comparative analysis on some spatial-domain filters for fringe pattern denoising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Kemao, Qian

    2011-04-20

    Fringe patterns produced by various optical interferometric techniques encode information such as shape, deformation, and refractive index. Noise affects further processing of the fringe patterns. Denoising is often needed before fringe pattern demodulation. Filtering along the fringe orientation is an effective option. Such filters include coherence enhancing diffusion, spin filtering with curve windows, second-order oriented partial-differential equations, and the regularized quadratic cost function for oriented fringe pattern filtering. These filters are analyzed to establish the relationships among them. Theoretical analysis shows that the four filters are largely equivalent to each other. Quantitative results are given on simulated fringe patterns to validate the theoretical analysis and to compare the performance of these filters. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  6. CETF Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study. [Critical Evaluation Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagala, Tom; Mcglew, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The expected pointing performance of an attached payload coupled to the Critical Evaluation Task Force Space Station via a payload pointing system (PPS) is determined. The PPS is a 3-axis gimbal which provides the capability for maintaining inertial pointing of a payload in the presence of disturbances associated with the Space Station environment. A system where the axes of rotation were offset from the payload center of mass (CM) by 10 in. in the Z axis was studied as well as a system having the payload CM offset by only 1 inch. There is a significant improvement in pointing performance when going from the 10 in. to the 1 in. gimbal offset.

  7. Hydrodynamic-driven stability analysis of morphological patterns on stalactites and implications for cave paleoflow reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2012-06-08

    A novel hydrodynamic-driven stability analysis is presented for surface patterns on speleothems, i.e., secondary sedimentary cave deposits, by coupling fluid dynamics to the geochemistry of calcite precipitation or dissolution. Falling film theory provides the solution for the flow-field and depth perturbations, the latter being crucial to triggering patterns known as crenulations. In a wide range of Reynolds numbers, the model provides the dominant wavelengths and pattern celerities, in fair agreement with field data. The analysis of the phase velocity of ridges on speleothems has a potential as a proxy of past film flow rates, thus suggesting a new support for paleoclimate analyses.

  8. Experimental Analysis of the Influence of Drill Point Angle and Wear on the Drilling of Woven CFRPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Feito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of the drill geometry on the drilling of woven Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer composite (CFRPs. Although different geometrical effects can be considered in drilling CFRPs, the present work focuses on the influence of point angle and wear because they are the important factors influencing hole quality and machining forces. Surface quality was evaluated in terms of delamination and superficial defects. Three different point angles were tested representative of the geometries commonly used in the industry. Two wear modes were considered, being representative of the wear patterns commonly observed when drilling CFRPs: flank wear and honed cutting edge. It was found that the crossed influence of the point angle and wear were significant to the thrust force. Delamination at the hole entry and exit showed opposite trends with the change of geometry. Also, cutting parameters were checked showing the feed’s dominant influence on surface damage.

  9. An Enumerative Combinatorics Model for Fragmentation Patterns in RNA Sequencing Provides Insights into Nonuniformity of the Expected Fragment Starting-Point and Coverage Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Celine; Haeseler, Arndt Von

    2017-03-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has emerged as the method of choice for measuring the expression of RNAs in a given cell population. In most RNA-seq technologies, sequencing the full length of RNA molecules requires fragmentation into smaller pieces. Unfortunately, the issue of nonuniform sequencing coverage across a genomic feature has been a concern in RNA-seq and is attributed to biases for certain fragments in RNA-seq library preparation and sequencing. To investigate the expected coverage obtained from fragmentation, we develop a simple fragmentation model that is independent of bias from the experimental method and is not specific to the transcript sequence. Essentially, we enumerate all configurations for maximal placement of a given fragment length, F, on transcript length, T, to represent every possible fragmentation pattern, from which we compute the expected coverage profile across a transcript. We extend this model to incorporate general empirical attributes such as read length, fragment length distribution, and number of molecules of the transcript. We further introduce the fragment starting-point, fragment coverage, and read coverage profiles. We find that the expected profiles are not uniform and that factors such as fragment length to transcript length ratio, read length to fragment length ratio, fragment length distribution, and number of molecules influence the variability of coverage across a transcript. Finally, we explore a potential application of the model where, with simulations, we show that it is possible to correctly estimate the transcript copy number for any transcript in the RNA-seq experiment.

  10. Analysis of the cephalometric pattern of Brazilian achondroplastic adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the position of the cranial base, maxilla, and mandible of Brazilian achondroplastic adult subjects through cephalometric measurements of the cranio-dento-facial complex, and to compare the results to normal patterns established in literature. METHODS: Fourteen achondroplastic adult subjects were evaluated based on their radiographic cephalometric measurements, which were obtained using the tracings proposed by Downs, Steinner, Bjork, Ricketts and McNamara. Statistical comparison of the means was performed with Student's t test. RESULTS: When compared to normal patterns, the cranial base presented a smaller size in both its anterior and posterior portions, the cranial base angle was acute and there was an anterior projection of the porion; the maxilla was found to be smaller in size in both the anteroposterior and transversal directions, it was inclined anteriorly with anterior vertical excess, and retropositioned in relation to the cranial base and to the mandible; the mandible presented a normal-sized ramus, a decreased body and transverse dimension, a tendency towards vertical growth and clockwise rotation, and it was slightly protruded in relation to the cranial base and maxilla. CONCLUSION: Although we observed wide individual variation in some parameters, it was possible to identify significant differences responsible for the phenotypical characteristics of achondroplastic patients.OBJETIVO: avaliar o tamanho e o posicionamento da base do crânio, da maxila e da mandíbula de indivíduos acondroplásicos brasileiros adultos, a partir de medidas cefalométricas do complexo dentoesqueletofacial. Confrontar os dados obtidos aos padrões de normalidade estabelecidos na literatura. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 14 indivíduos acondroplásicos adultos, utilizando algumas grandezas cefalométricas radiográficas obtidas a partir dos traçados preconizados por Downs, Steinner, Björk, Ricketts e Mc

  11. Advanced analysis of free visual exploration patterns in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eSprenger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual scanpath analyses provide important information about attention allocation and attention shifting during visual exploration of social situations. This study investigated whether patients with schizophrenia simply show restricted free visual exploration behaviour reflected by reduced saccade frequency and increased fixation duration or whether patients use qualitatively different exploration strategies than healthy controls. Methods: Scanpaths of 32 patients with schizophrenia and age-matched 33 healthy controls were assessed while participants freely explored six photos of daily life situations (20 seconds/photo evaluated for cognitive complexity and emotional strain. Using fixation and saccade parameters, we compared temporal changes in exploration behaviour, cluster analyses, attentional landscapes and analyses of scanpath similarities between both groups. Results: We found fewer fixation clusters, longer fixation durations within a cluster, fewer changes between clusters, and a greater increase of fixation duration over time in patients compared to controls. Scanpath patterns and attentional landscapes in patients also differed significantly from those of controls. Generally, cognitive complexity and emotional strain had significant effects on visual exploration behaviour. This effect was similar in both groups as were physical properties of fixation locations.Conclusions: Longer attention allocation to a given feature in a scene and less attention shifts in patients suggest a more focal processing mode compared to a more ambient exploration strategy in controls. These visual exploration alterations were present in patients independently of cognitive complexity, emotional strain or physical properties of visual cues implying that they represent a rather general deficit. Despite this impairment, patients were able to adapt their scanning behaviour to changes in cognitive complexity and emotional strain similar to controls.

  12. Relevance analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Rendong; Lv Xiangyang; Li Shaolin; Gao Ming; Miao Liqiong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Discussing the relativity of Mammographic parenchymal patterns and breast cancer, implementing the intervention treatment and regularly traces to the breast high dangerous crowd, in order to reduce the occurrence rate of beast cancer and the mortality rate. Methods: Mammary gland type was marked according to X ray on 500 breast cancer subjects and 1000 control subjects. Peri-cancer histological sections of the subtypes of the breast cancer group and histological section of the subtypes of the control group were studied contrastively to analyze the breast cancer risk index in every subtype and the occurrence rate in every age group. The types and the occurrence rates were counted. Results: (1)The lowest risk group: the subtypes with OR 0.3 and the cancer incidence rate ranging from 5% to 10% were IV b, II b, III b. (4)High-risk group: the subtypes with OR> 1 and the cancer incidence rate above 10% were III c, IV c. High dangerous age sections of breast cancer: 35 to 55 years old in IVc and IIIc (the age section of IIIc may lengthen to 60 years old), 31 to 50 years old in IVb, 50 to 60 years old in IIIb and IIb. Conclusion: IIIc and IVc belong to the high dangerous subtypes. People of these subtypes reach 67.4% of all breast cancer examples, so these people are the main subjects of the mammary gland general survey and tracing. Patient aged from 35 to 55 should be reexamined once a year. When necessary, the intervention treatment may be carried out to prevent breast cancer and to reduce the occurrence rate of beast cancer. Discovery and treatment in early phase can improve the breast cancer's survival quality, and reduce the mortality rate. (authors)

  13. Value of self-monitoring blood glucose pattern analysis in improving diabetes outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Christopher G; Davidson, Jaime A

    2009-05-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important adjunct to hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing. This action can distinguish between fasting, preprandial, and postprandial hyperglycemia; detect glycemic excursions; identify and monitor resolution of hypoglycemia; and provide immediate feedback to patients about the effect of food choices, activity, and medication on glycemic control. Pattern analysis is a systematic approach to identifying glycemic patterns within SMBG data and then taking appropriate action based upon those results. The use of pattern analysis involves: (1) establishing pre- and postprandial glucose targets; (2) obtaining data on glucose levels, carbohydrate intake, medication administration (type, dosages, timing), activity levels and physical/emotional stress; (3) analyzing data to identify patterns of glycemic excursions, assessing any influential factors, and implementing appropriate action(s); and (4) performing ongoing SMBG to assess the impact of any therapeutic changes made. Computer-based and paper-based data collection and management tools can be developed to perform pattern analysis for identifying patterns in SMBG data. This approach to interpreting SMBG data facilitates rational therapeutic adjustments in response to this information. Pattern analysis of SMBG data can be of equal or greater value than measurement of HbA1c levels. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  14. Analysis of Activity Patterns and Performance in Polio Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    correlations ( clustering ) from multiple observations on the same subject. Multivariable mixed models with random intercepts or both random...0.001 (0.001) (0.59) (ɘ.001) * The top p values compared the means between the three groups in using unpaired t tests, taking clustering of...May 2004. Talaty M. Models for Gait Analysis. 5th SIAMOC (Societa Italiana Di Analisi Del Movimento in Clinica) Congress, Loano, Italy November

  15. Levels and Patterns in the Analysis of the Organizational Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Aida Cimpeanu

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge and analysis of the component elements of the organizational culture helps us greatly understand the respective culture, establish the main guidelines of the company values and understand the behaviours and attitudes of the employees. M. Thevenet indentifies two levels at which the culture manifests itself: the external level – the outside culture (which refers to local, regional or national culture), and the inner level –the internal culture (including organizational culture, profe...

  16. Classification of viral zoonosis through receptor pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Se-Eun; Son, Hyeon Seok

    2011-04-13

    Viral zoonosis, the transmission of a virus from its primary vertebrate reservoir species to humans, requires ubiquitous cellular proteins known as receptor proteins. Zoonosis can occur not only through direct transmission from vertebrates to humans, but also through intermediate reservoirs or other environmental factors. Viruses can be categorized according to genotype (ssDNA, dsDNA, ssRNA and dsRNA viruses). Among them, the RNA viruses exhibit particularly high mutation rates and are especially problematic for this reason. Most zoonotic viruses are RNA viruses that change their envelope proteins to facilitate binding to various receptors of host species. In this study, we sought to predict zoonotic propensity through the analysis of receptor characteristics. We hypothesized that the major barrier to interspecies virus transmission is that receptor sequences vary among species--in other words, that the specific amino acid sequence of the receptor determines the ability of the viral envelope protein to attach to the cell. We analysed host-cell receptor sequences for their hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity characteristics. We then analysed these properties for similarities among receptors of different species and used a statistical discriminant analysis to predict the likelihood of transmission among species. This study is an attempt to predict zoonosis through simple computational analysis of receptor sequence differences. Our method may be useful in predicting the zoonotic potential of newly discovered viral strains.

  17. Gene expression patterns during the larval development of European sea bass (dicentrarchus labrax) by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darias, M J; Zambonino-Infante, J L; Hugot, K; Cahu, C L; Mazurais, D

    2008-01-01

    During the larval period, marine teleosts undergo very fast growth and dramatic changes in morphology, metabolism, and behavior to accomplish their metamorphosis into juvenile fish. Regulation of gene expression is widely thought to be a key mechanism underlying the management of the biological processes required for harmonious development over this phase of life. To provide an overall analysis of gene expression in the whole body during sea bass larval development, we monitored the expression of 6,626 distinct genes at 10 different points in time between 7 and 43 days post-hatching (dph) by using heterologous hybridization of a rainbow trout cDNA microarray. The differentially expressed genes (n = 485) could be grouped into two categories: genes that were generally up-expressed early, between 7 and 23 dph, and genes up-expressed between 25 and 43 dph. Interestingly, among the genes regulated during the larval period, those related to organogenesis, energy pathways, biosynthesis, and digestion were over-represented compared with total set of analyzed genes. We discuss the quantitative regulation of whole-body contents of these specific transcripts with regard to the ontogenesis and maturation of essential functions that take place over larval development. Our study is the first utilization of a transcriptomic approach in sea bass and reveals dynamic changes in gene expression patterns in relation to marine finfish larval development.

  18. APPLICABILITY ANALYSIS OF CLOTH SIMULATION FILTERING ALGORITHM FOR MOBILE LIDAR POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Classifying the original point clouds into ground and non-ground points is a key step in LiDAR (light detection and ranging data post-processing. Cloth simulation filtering (CSF algorithm, which based on a physical process, has been validated to be an accurate, automatic and easy-to-use algorithm for airborne LiDAR point cloud. As a new technique of three-dimensional data collection, the mobile laser scanning (MLS has been gradually applied in various fields, such as reconstruction of digital terrain models (DTM, 3D building modeling and forest inventory and management. Compared with airborne LiDAR point cloud, there are some different features (such as point density feature, distribution feature and complexity feature for mobile LiDAR point cloud. Some filtering algorithms for airborne LiDAR data were directly used in mobile LiDAR point cloud, but it did not give satisfactory results. In this paper, we explore the ability of the CSF algorithm for mobile LiDAR point cloud. Three samples with different shape of the terrain are selected to test the performance of this algorithm, which respectively yields total errors of 0.44 %, 0.77 % and1.20 %. Additionally, large area dataset is also tested to further validate the effectiveness of this algorithm, and results show that it can quickly and accurately separate point clouds into ground and non-ground points. In summary, this algorithm is efficient and reliable for mobile LiDAR point cloud.

  19. Molecular analysis of point mutations in a barley genome exposed to MNU and gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurowska, Marzena, E-mail: mkurowsk@us.edu.pl [Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia, Jagiellonska 28, 40-032 Katowice (Poland); Labocha-Pawlowska, Anna; Gnizda, Dominika; Maluszynski, Miroslaw; Szarejko, Iwona [Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia, Jagiellonska 28, 40-032 Katowice (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    We present studies aimed at determining the types and frequencies of mutations induced in the barley genome after treatment with chemical (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, MNU) and physical (gamma rays) mutagens. We created M{sub 2} populations of a doubled haploid line and used them for the analysis of mutations in targeted DNA sequences and over an entire barley genome using TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) and AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique, respectively. Based on the TILLING analysis of the total DNA sequence of 4,537,117 bp in the MNU population, the average mutation density was estimated as 1/504 kb. Only one nucleotide change was found after an analysis of 3,207,444 bp derived from the highest dose of gamma rays applied. MNU was clearly a more efficient mutagen than gamma rays in inducing point mutations in barley. The majority (63.6%) of the MNU-induced nucleotide changes were transitions, with a similar number of G > A and C > T substitutions. The similar share of G > A and C > T transitions indicates a lack of bias in the repair of O{sup 6}-methylguanine lesions between DNA strands. There was, however, a strong specificity of the nucleotide surrounding the O{sup 6}-meG at the -1 position. Purines formed 81% of nucleotides observed at the -1 site. Scanning the barley genome with AFLP markers revealed ca. a three times higher level of AFLP polymorphism in MNU-treated as compared to the gamma-irradiated population. In order to check whether AFLP markers can really scan the whole barley genome for mutagen-induced polymorphism, 114 different AFLP products, were cloned and sequenced. 94% of bands were heterogenic, with some bands containing up to 8 different amplicons. The polymorphic AFLP products were characterised in terms of their similarity to the records deposited in a GenBank database. The types of sequences present in the polymorphic bands reflected the organisation of the barley genome.

  20. Design of glass-ceramic complex microstructure with using onset point of crystallization in differential thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seongjin; Kim, Jinho; Shin, Hyo-Soon; Kim, Jong-Hee; Kim, Hyungsun

    2008-01-01

    Two types of frits with different compositions were used to develop a high strength substrate in electronic packaging using a low temperature co-fired ceramic process. In order to reveal the crystallization stage during heating to approximately 900 deg. C, a glass-ceramic consisting of the two types of frits, which had been crystallized to diopside and anorthite after firing, was tested at different mixing ratios of the frits. The exothermal peaks deconvoluted by a Gauss function in the differential thermal analysis curves were used to determine the onset point of crystallization of diopside or anorthite. The onset points of crystallization were affected by the mixing ratio of the frits, and the microstructure of the glass-ceramic depended on the onset point of crystallization. It was found that when multicrystalline phases appear in the microstructure, the resulting complex microstructure could be predicted from the onset point of crystallization obtained by differential thermal analysis

  1. Melodic pattern discovery by structural analysis via wavelets and clustering techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velarde, Gissel; Meredith, David

    We present an automatic method to support melodic pattern discovery by structural analysis of symbolic representations by means of wavelet analysis and clustering techniques. In previous work, we used the method to recognize the parent works of melodic segments, or to classify tunes into tune......-means to cluster melodic segments into groups of measured similarity and obtain a raking of the most prototypical melodic segments or patterns and their occurrences. We test the method on the JKU Patterns Development Database and evaluate it based on the ground truth defined by the MIREX 2013 Discovery of Repeated...... Themes & Sections task. We compare the results of our method to the output of geometric approaches. Finally, we discuss about the relevance of our wavelet-based analysis in relation to structure, pattern discovery, similarity and variation, and comment about the considerations of the method when used...

  2. Spatial analysis and mapping of malaria risk in Malawi using point-referenced prevalence of infection data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazembe Lawrence N

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current malaria control initiatives aim at reducing malaria burden by half by the year 2010. Effective control requires evidence-based utilisation of resources. Characterizing spatial patterns of risk, through maps, is an important tool to guide control programmes. To this end an analysis was carried out to predict and map malaria risk in Malawi using empirical data with the aim of identifying areas where greatest effort should be focussed. Methods Point-referenced prevalence of infection data for children aged 1–10 years were collected from published and grey literature and geo-referenced. The model-based geostatistical methods were applied to analyze and predict malaria risk in areas where data were not observed. Topographical and climatic covariates were added in the model for risk assessment and improved prediction. A Bayesian approach was used for model fitting and prediction. Results Bivariate models showed a significant association of malaria risk with elevation, annual maximum temperature, rainfall and potential evapotranspiration (PET. However in the prediction model, the spatial distribution of malaria risk was associated with elevation, and marginally with maximum temperature and PET. The resulting map broadly agreed with expert opinion about the variation of risk in the country, and further showed marked variation even at local level. High risk areas were in the low-lying lake shore regions, while low risk was along the highlands in the country. Conclusion The map provided an initial description of the geographic variation of malaria risk in Malawi, and might help in the choice and design of interventions, which is crucial for reducing the burden of malaria in Malawi.

  3. Analysis of Trends in Cooperative Network Patterns for KAERI Researchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Young Choon; Lee, Hyun Soo

    2016-01-01

    There has been a trend toward faster results of research and accelerating inter-disciplinary convergence, under constraints in available resources. Under such reality, national and international cooperation with inter-sectoral research on science-technology-industry is becoming inevitable as a strategic approach for enhancing competitive edge on global dimension. This study gives an analysis on the cooperative network in nuclear research which bears multi-disciplinary technical feature. The study aims to visualize the cooperative network of KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) researchers, as the hub of the network, including academics and industry, with a view to provide insight on strengthening the cooperative network in nuclear research. This study accounted for the paper entries in SCI(E) in 2013 (538 papers) and 2015 (551 papers) with a view to identify cooperative research activities centered for KAERI. On international cooperation, the analysis showed a trend toward, first of all, diversification of partner countries. There were 118 entries of co-authorship with 22 countries in 2013 (41 with USA, 12 with Japan, 9 with India), which evolved to 121 entries in 2015 (34 for USA, 11 with China, 10 each with Japan and India). Secondly, there was a trend toward more number of countries evenly spread in 2015 compared to 2013, except a few major countries like USA, Japan, and India

  4. Analysis of Trends in Cooperative Network Patterns for KAERI Researchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Young Choon; Lee, Hyun Soo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    There has been a trend toward faster results of research and accelerating inter-disciplinary convergence, under constraints in available resources. Under such reality, national and international cooperation with inter-sectoral research on science-technology-industry is becoming inevitable as a strategic approach for enhancing competitive edge on global dimension. This study gives an analysis on the cooperative network in nuclear research which bears multi-disciplinary technical feature. The study aims to visualize the cooperative network of KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) researchers, as the hub of the network, including academics and industry, with a view to provide insight on strengthening the cooperative network in nuclear research. This study accounted for the paper entries in SCI(E) in 2013 (538 papers) and 2015 (551 papers) with a view to identify cooperative research activities centered for KAERI. On international cooperation, the analysis showed a trend toward, first of all, diversification of partner countries. There were 118 entries of co-authorship with 22 countries in 2013 (41 with USA, 12 with Japan, 9 with India), which evolved to 121 entries in 2015 (34 for USA, 11 with China, 10 each with Japan and India). Secondly, there was a trend toward more number of countries evenly spread in 2015 compared to 2013, except a few major countries like USA, Japan, and India.

  5. Global patterns of materials use. A socioeconomic and geophysical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Julia K.; Krausmann, Fridolin; Eisenmenger, Nina [Institute of Social Ecology Vienna, IFF, University of Klagenfurt, Schottenfeldgasse 29, A-1070 Wien (Austria)

    2010-03-15

    Human use of materials is a major driver of global environmental change. The links between materials use and economic development are central to the challenge of decoupling of materials use and economic growth (dematerialization). This article presents a new global material flow dataset compiled for the year 2000, covering 175 countries, including both extraction and trade flows, and comprising four major material categories: biomass, construction minerals, fossil energy carriers and ores/industrial minerals. First, we quantify the variability and distributional inequality (Gini coefficients) in international material consumption. We then measure the influence of the drivers population, GDP, land area and climate. This analysis yields international income elasticities of material use. Finally, we examine the coupling between material flows, and between income and material productivity, measured in economic production per tonne material consumed. Material productivity is strongly coupled to income, and may thus not be suitable as an international indicator of environmental progress - a finding which we relate to the economic inelasticity of material consumption. The results demonstrate striking differences between the material groups. Biomass is the most equitably distributed resource, economically the most inelastic, and is not correlated to any of the mineral materials. The three mineral material groups are closely coupled to each other and economic activity, indicating that the challenge of dematerializing industrial economies may require fundamental structural transformation. Our analysis provides a first systematic investigation of international differences in material use and their drivers, and thus serves as the basis for more detailed future work. (author)

  6. [Spatial pattern analysis and associations of Quercus aquifolioides population at different growth stages in Southeast Tibet, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhi-qiang; Hua, Min; Dan, Qu; Lu, Jie; Fang, Jiang-ping

    2016-02-01

    This article analyzed the spatial pattern and its correlation of Quercus aquifolioides, Southeast Tibet at different growing stages by using Ripley' s L function in the method of point pattern, analysis. The results showed the diameter structure of Q. aquifolioides population in Southeast Tibet followed a 'single peak' shape and the saplings and medium trees predominated in number in the whole population. The population had a high regeneration rate and was of increase type. In the growth process of Q. aquifolioides from saplings to large trees, saplings and medium trees showed aggregation distribution at.small scale, while large trees showed basically random distribution at whole scale. There was significant correlation between saplings with medium or large trees at small scale, however, there was no correlation between medium and large trees. In the growth process of Q. aquifolioides population from saplings, medium trees to large trees, its spatial pattern developed from aggregative distribution to random distribution. The natural regeneration of Q. aquifolioides population was affected not only by interspecific competition, but also by intraspecific competition. In the similar natural environment, the most important factors affecting the spatial pattern of Q. aquifoioides population were its own biological and ecological characteristics.

  7. Occlusal contacting condition and masticatory function of 2 types of pattern that differ in the closing path of the mandibular incisal point during chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Shiga, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    2011-10-01

    To clarify the difference in the state of occlusal contact and masticatory function between two patterns of masticatory movement path that differed in the closing path. Fifteen healthy subjects with Pattern I (a linear or concave opening path and a convex closing path) and Pattern II (similar opening path to that in Pattern I and a concave closing path) were selected. The state of occlusal contact on the working and balancing sides and the masticatory function (integral value of the masseter muscular activity, gape, masticatory width, cycle time, indicators representing the stability of the path and rhythm, and glucose extraction) were compared between the two patterns. The occlusal contact on the working side was about the same. For the balancing side, occlusal contact at the molar region was observed for Pattern II in most cases, whereas no occlusal contact was observed for Pattern I. The integral value of the masseter muscular activity and the glucose extraction were greater for Pattern I. The gape was not different between the two patterns. Pattern I had a wide masticatory width and a short cycle time. The values of the indicators representing the stability of the path and rhythm were smaller for Pattern I. It was suggested that Pattern I with a convex closing path had a functional difference and a superior masticatory function from Pattern II with a concave closing path, and the difference in the occlusal contact on the balancing side was related. Copyright © 2011 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Watershed-based point sources permitting strategy and dynamic permit-trading analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shu-Kuang; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2007-09-01

    Permit-trading policy in a total maximum daily load (TMDL) program may provide an additional avenue to produce environmental benefit, which closely approximates what would be achieved through a command and control approach, with relatively lower costs. One of the important considerations that might affect the effective trading mechanism is to determine the dynamic transaction prices and trading ratios in response to seasonal changes of assimilative capacity in the river. Advanced studies associated with multi-temporal spatially varied trading ratios among point sources to manage water pollution hold considerable potential for industries and policy makers alike. This paper aims to present an integrated simulation and optimization analysis for generating spatially varied trading ratios and evaluating seasonal transaction prices accordingly. It is designed to configure a permit-trading structure basin-wide and provide decision makers with a wealth of cost-effective, technology-oriented, risk-informed, and community-based management strategies. The case study, seamlessly integrating a QUAL2E simulation model with an optimal waste load allocation (WLA) scheme in a designated TMDL study area, helps understand the complexity of varying environmental resources values over space and time. The pollutants of concern in this region, which are eligible for trading, mainly include both biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N). The problem solution, as a consequence, suggests an array of waste load reduction targets in a well-defined WLA scheme and exhibits a dynamic permit-trading framework among different sub-watersheds in the study area. Research findings gained in this paper may extend to any transferable dynamic-discharge permit (TDDP) program worldwide.

  9. Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links Over Malaga (M) Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection). More specifically, we present unified exact closedform expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system, all in terms of the Meijer’s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. We then capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems, such as, the outage probability, the scintillation index (SI), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity (except for IM/DD technique, where we present closed-form lower bound results), all in terms of Meijer’s G functions except for the SI that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we derive the asymptotic results for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of Meijer’s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer’s G function. We also derive new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  10. New approach to accuracy verification of 3D surface models: An analysis of point cloud coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan-Sun; Park, Jong-Kyoung; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Woong-Chul; Yu, Chin-Ho

    2016-04-01

    The precision of two types of surface digitization devices, i.e., a contact probe scanner and an optical scanner, and the trueness of two types of stone replicas, i.e., one without an imaging powder (SR/NP) and one with an imaging powder (SR/P), were evaluated using a computer-aided analysis. A master die was fabricated from stainless steel. Ten impressions were taken, and ten stone replicas were prepared from Type IV stone (Fujirock EP, GC, Leuven, Belgium). The precision of two types of scanners was analyzed using the root mean square (RMS), measurement error (ME), and limits of agreement (LoA) at each coordinate. The trueness of the stone replicas was evaluated using the total deviation. A Student's t-test was applied to compare the discrepancies between the CAD-reference-models of the master die (m-CRM) and point clouds for the two types of stone replicas (α=.05). The RMS values for the precision were 1.58, 1.28, and 0.98μm along the x-, y-, and z-axes in the contact probe scanner and 1.97, 1.32, and 1.33μm along the x-, y-, and z-axes in the optical scanner, respectively. A comparison with m-CRM revealed a trueness of 7.10μm for SR/NP and 8.65μm for SR/P. The precision at each coordinate (x-, y-, and z-axes) was revealed to be higher than the one assessed in the previous method (overall offset differences). A comparison between the m-CRM and 3D surface models of the stone replicas revealed a greater dimensional change in SR/P than in SR/NP. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links Over Malaga (M) Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-08-12

    In this work, we present a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection). More specifically, we present unified exact closedform expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system, all in terms of the Meijer’s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. We then capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems, such as, the outage probability, the scintillation index (SI), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity (except for IM/DD technique, where we present closed-form lower bound results), all in terms of Meijer’s G functions except for the SI that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we derive the asymptotic results for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of Meijer’s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer’s G function. We also derive new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  12. Point-of-sale tobacco promotion and youth smoking: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; Cameron, Claire; McGee, Rob; Marsh, Louise; Hoek, Janet

    2016-12-01

    Previous systematic reviews have found consistent evidence of a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco promotion and increased smoking and smoking susceptibility among children and adolescents. No meta-analysis has been conducted on these studies to date. Systematic literature searches were carried out to identify all quantitative observational studies that examined the relationship between POS tobacco promotion and individual-level smoking and smoking-related cognitions among children and adolescents, published between January 1990 and June 2014. Random-effects meta-analyses were used. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to extent of tobacco POS advertising environment in the study environment. Sensitivity analyses were performed according to study size and quality. 13 studies met the inclusion criteria; 11 reported data for behavioural outcomes, 6 for cognitive outcomes (each of these assessed smoking susceptibility). The studies were cross-sectional, with the exception of 2 cohort studies. For the behavioural outcomes, the pooled OR was 1.61 (95% CI 1.33 to 1.96) and for smoking susceptibility the pooled OR was 1.32 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.61). Children and adolescents more frequently exposed to POS tobacco promotion have around 1.6 times higher odds of having tried smoking and around 1.3 times higher odds of being susceptible to future smoking, compared with those less frequently exposed. Together with the available evaluations of POS display bans, the results strongly indicate that legislation banning tobacco POS promotion will effectively reduce smoking among young people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Identification, classification and expression pattern analysis of sugarcane cysteine proteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Coelho Correa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteases are peptidyl hydrolyses dependent on a cysteine residue at the active center. The physical and chemical properties of cysteine proteases have been extensively characterized, but their precise biological functions have not yet been completely understood, although it is known that they are involved in a number of events such as protein turnover, cancer, germination, programmed cell death and senescence. Protein sequences from different cysteine proteinases, classified as members of the E.C.3.4.22 sub-sub-class, were used to perform a T-BLAST-n search on the Brazilian Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tags project (SUCEST data bank. Sequence homology was found with 76 cluster sequences that corresponded to possible cysteine proteinases. The alignments of these SUCEST clusters with the sequence of cysteine proteinases of known origins provided important information about the classification and possible function of these sugarcane enzymes. Inferences about the expression pattern of each gene were made by direct correlation with the SUCEST cDNA libraries from which each cluster was derived. Since no previous reports of sugarcane cysteine proteinases genes exists, this study represents a first step in the study of new biochemical, physiological and biotechnological aspects of sugarcane cysteine proteases.Proteinases cisteínicas são peptidil-hidrolases dependentes de um resíduo de cisteína em seu sítio ativo. As propriedades físico-químicas destas proteinases têm sido amplamente caracterizadas, entretanto suas funções biológicas ainda não foram completamente elucidadas. Elas estão envolvidas em um grande número de eventos, tais como: processamento e degradação protéica, câncer, germinação, morte celular programada e processos de senescência. Diferentes proteinases cisteínicas, classificadas pelo Comitê de Nomenclatura da União Internacional de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular (IUBMB como pertencentes à sub

  14. Patterns of Communication through Interpreters: A Detailed Sociolinguistic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranguri, Cesar; Davidson, Brad; Ramirez, Robert

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Numerous articles have detailed how the presence of an interpreter leads to less satisfactory communication with physicians; few have studied how actual communication takes place through an interpreter in a clinical setting. OBJECTIVE Record and analyze physician-interpreter-patient interactions. DESIGN Primary care physicians with high-volume Hispanic practices were recruited for a communication study. Dyslipidemic Hispanic patients, either monolingual Spanish or bilingual Spanish-English, were recruited on the day of a normally scheduled appointment and, once consented, recorded without a researcher present in the room. Separate postvisit interviews were conducted with the patient and the physician. All interactions were fully transcribed and analyzed. PARTICIPANTS Sixteen patients were recorded interacting with 9 physicians. Thirteen patients used an interpreter with 8 physicians, and 3 patients spoke Spanish with the 1 bilingual physician. APPROACH Transcript analysis based on sociolinguistic and discourse analytic techniques, including but not limited to time speaking, analysis of questions asked and answered, and the loss of semantic information. RESULTS Speech was significantly reduced and revised by the interpreter, resulting in an alteration of linguistic features such as content, meaning, reinforcement/validation, repetition, and affect. In addition, visits that included an interpreter had virtually no rapport-building “small talk,” which typically enables the physician to gain comprehensive patient history, learn clinically relevant information, and increase emotional engagement in treatment. CONCLUSIONS The presence of an interpreter increases the difficulty of achieving good physician-patient communication. Physicians and interpreters should be trained in the process of communication and interpretation, to minimize conversational loss and maximize the information and relational exchange with interpreted patients. PMID:16808747

  15. Acupuncture-Point Stimulation for Postoperative Pain Control: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Liang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Acupuncture-point stimulation (APS in postoperative pain control compared with sham/placebo acupuncture or standard treatments (usual care or no treatment. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. Meta-analysis results indicated that APS interventions improved VAS scores significantly and also reduced total morphine consumption. No serious APS-related adverse effects (AEs were reported. There is Level I evidence for the effectiveness of body points plaster therapy and Level II evidence for body points electroacupuncture (EA, body points acupressure, body points APS for abdominal surgery patients, auricular points seed embedding, manual auricular acupuncture, and auricular EA. We obtained Level III evidence for body points APS in patients who underwent cardiac surgery and cesarean section and for auricular-point stimulation in patients who underwent abdominal surgery. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that APS is an effective postoperative pain therapy in surgical patients, although the evidence does support the conclusion that APS can reduce analgesic requirements without AEs. The best level of evidence was not adequate in most subgroups. Some limitations of this study may have affected the results, possibly leading to an overestimation of APS effects.

  16. A SWOT Analysis of the Nabucco Pipeline from Romania’s Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Papatulica

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available European Union energy sources are supposed to be sufficient to cover expected growth of natural gas demand for the coming decades, but there are not enough opportunities/infrastructure to transport these volumes of gas to European markets. Arbitrary interruptions of Russia gas deliveries towards Europe, the delays in the rehabilitation of its obsolete pipeline network, the interdiction of direct Asian gas exports transit through Russian transport infrastructure, made stringently necessary for European countries to diversify gas suppliers’ portfolio, by avoiding Russian territory. Nabucco pipeline was conceived as an alternative to European Union countries’ high dependence on Russian gas (about 40% of their consumption is provided by Russia, by connecting European Union countries directly to the huge natural gas resources of Central Asia, on the route Turkey – Bulgaria – Romania – Hungary – Austria. The purpose of this paper is to make a SWOT analysis of this project, highlighting its strengths and weakness from Romania’s point of view, as well as the opportunities and threats as external factors. The main idea resulting from the analysis is that strengths are prevailing for Romania. The turning to account of this project will ensure the diversification of gas sources and the development of competitive markets which can entail price reduction. It is supposed to be a fair and advantageous option, economically reliable, that will reduce dependence on deliveries of gas from a single source – Russia, ensuring two undeniable prerequisites: accessibility (to new supply sources and availability (which refers to guarantees of long term sustainability of gas deliveries. The project implementation will allow energy to help to establish new structural links between the EU, Turkey and the Caspian Sea states and will ensure transfrontier cooperation possibilities inside some euro-regions already constituted, by accessing regional development

  17. Quantitative functional analysis of Late Glacial projectile points from northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dev, Satya; Riede, Felix

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the function of Late Glacial arch-backed and tanged projectile points from northern Europe in general and southern Scandinavia in particular. Ballistic requirements place clear and fairly well understood constraints on the design of projectile points. We outline the argument...... surely fully serviceable, diverged considerably from the functional optimum predicated by ballistic theory. These observations relate directly to southern Scandinavian Late Glacial culture-history which is marked by a sequence of co-occurrence of arch-backed and large tanged points in the earlier part...

  18. The Importance of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in the Investigation of Road Traffic Accidents: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younis M. Albalooshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstain pattern analysis has become a field of specialization in Forensic sciences and plays an important role in the reconstruction of events at a crime scene. Research, books, and articles have been published on the analysis and interpretation of bloodstain patterns We present a case study of a road traffic accident in which bloodstain pattern analysis helped us to solve the discrepancy between reports produced by forensic examiners and by the forensic biology department. The case was of a 22-year-old man who died immediately and a 31- year-old woman who survived a road traffic accident. They were both found outside their overturned car and it was impossible to ascertain from initial observations which of the victims was driving the car at the time of the accident. An external examination of the man revealed multiple injuries, and the cause of his death was severe brain injury. The woman survived with a fracture of the forearm, dislocated clavicle bone, and other minor injuries. After initial examination of the car and based on the pattern of injuries the deceased received, forensic examiner concluded that the man was the driving the car at the time of accident. On the other hand, the forensic DNA analysis of bloodstains obtained from the driver's seat matched that of the woman, suggesting that she was the driver. This apparent discrepancy directed the forensic examiner to carry out a bloodstain pattern analysis on the driver's seat. The bloodstain pattern analysis helped resolve the discrepancy and enabled the investigators to identify the driver correctly. This case report emphasizes the importance of bloodstain pattern analysis in the reconstruction of cases involving road traffic accidents.

  19. Analysis on leisure patterns of the pre-elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gun-Sang; Yi, Eun-Surk

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of study is to analyze how leisure activities affect the near elders' preparation for successful and productive aging. To achieve the purpose of the study, this study was conducted in 2012 and the data was collected by using multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in the great city area (6 places), metropolitan area (7 places), medium-sized urban area (6 places), and rural area (6 places). Out of the total number of 1,000 copies of questionnaire distributed to pre-elders (Baby-boomers from 55 yr to 64 yr), 978 were collected and used for data analysis. According to the result, the more time, frequency and intensity in leisure and recreational participation, the higher the satisfaction level and the happiness level in their life. It means that leisure and recreational activities play an important role for their life. In other words, for pre-elders, leisure activities can be regarded as the important element for preparation of their old age. Therefore, the leisure and recreation for pre-elderly adults should not be recognized as a tool for improving the economic productivity but for reinforcing the recovery resilience.

  20. Numerical analysis of slowest heating or cooling point in a canned food in oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, T.; Wang, Q.; Suzuki, M.; Sakai, N. [Tokyo Univ. of Fisheries (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    In the sterilizing process of canned food in oil for a fish meat such as tunny, the slowest heating or cooling point is very important for the thermal process determination of the can. To obtain the slowest point, the temperature profiles in solid food are estimated by numerical calculation from the fundamental equations at unsteady state in consideration of a free convection in the space occupied by the oil. The positions of the slowest heating or cooling point in the canned food in oil are obtained accurately, and a correlative equation for the position is obtained numerically under various operating conditions. The calculated temperature profiles and the position of both slowest points are in sufficiently good approximation to the experimental ones. 4 refs., 9 figs.