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Sample records for pmma films doped

  1. Silver release and antimicrobial properties of PMMA films doped with silver ions, nano-particles and complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyutakov, O., E-mail: lyutakoo@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Goncharova, I. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Rimpelova, S. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Kolarova, K.; Svanda, J.; Svorcik, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-01

    Materials prepared on the base of bioactive silver compounds have become more and more popular due to low microbial resistance to silver. In the present work, the efficiency of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin films doped with silver ions, nanoparticles and silver–imidazole polymer complex was studied by a combination of AAS, XPS and AFM techniques. The biological activities of the proposed materials were discussed in view of the rate of silver releasing from the polymer matrix. Concentrations of Ag active form were estimated by its ability to interact with L-cysteine using electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Rates of the released silver were compared with the biological activity in dependence on the form of embedded silver. Antimicrobial properties of doped polymer films were studied using two bacterial strains: Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. It was found that PMMA films doped with Ag{sup +} had greater activity than those doped with nanoparticles and silver–imidazole polymeric complexes. However, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag{sup +} doped films was only short-term. Contrary, the antimicrobial activity of silver–imidazole/PMMA films increased in time of sample soaking. - Highlights: • PMMA thin films doped with silver ions, nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver–imidazole helical complexes (AgIm) were studied. • Silver release from doped polymer films and its biological activity were estimated. • Antimicrobial properties of doped polymer films were also studied. • Ag ions doped films showed the strongest antimicrobial activity, which quickly disappeared. • AgIm and AgNPs doped films showed more stable antimicrobial properties. • AgIm complexes conserve their structure after addition into polymer and after leaching.

  2. Silver release and antimicrobial properties of PMMA films doped with silver ions, nano-particles and complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutakov, O.; Goncharova, I.; Rimpelova, S.; Kolarova, K.; Svanda, J.; Svorcik, V.

    2015-01-01

    Materials prepared on the base of bioactive silver compounds have become more and more popular due to low microbial resistance to silver. In the present work, the efficiency of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin films doped with silver ions, nanoparticles and silver–imidazole polymer complex was studied by a combination of AAS, XPS and AFM techniques. The biological activities of the proposed materials were discussed in view of the rate of silver releasing from the polymer matrix. Concentrations of Ag active form were estimated by its ability to interact with L-cysteine using electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Rates of the released silver were compared with the biological activity in dependence on the form of embedded silver. Antimicrobial properties of doped polymer films were studied using two bacterial strains: Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. It was found that PMMA films doped with Ag + had greater activity than those doped with nanoparticles and silver–imidazole polymeric complexes. However, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag + doped films was only short-term. Contrary, the antimicrobial activity of silver–imidazole/PMMA films increased in time of sample soaking. - Highlights: • PMMA thin films doped with silver ions, nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver–imidazole helical complexes (AgIm) were studied. • Silver release from doped polymer films and its biological activity were estimated. • Antimicrobial properties of doped polymer films were also studied. • Ag ions doped films showed the strongest antimicrobial activity, which quickly disappeared. • AgIm and AgNPs doped films showed more stable antimicrobial properties. • AgIm complexes conserve their structure after addition into polymer and after leaching

  3. Free volume modifications in chalcone chromophore doped PMMA films by electron irradiation: Positron annihilation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayil; Ravindrachary, V.; Praveena, S. D.; Mahesha, M. G.

    2018-03-01

    The free volume related fluorescence behaviour in electron beam irradiated chalcone chromophore doped Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composite films have been studied using FTIR, UV-Visible, XRD and Positron Annihilation techniques. From the FTIR spectral study it is found that the formation of polarons and bipolaron takes place due to cross linking as well as chain scission processes at lower and higher doses respectively. It reveals that the formation of various polaronic defect levels upon irradiation is responsible for the creation of three optical energy band gaps within the polymer films as obtained from UV-Visible spectra. The crosslinking process at lower doses increases the distance between the pendant groups to reduce the interchain distance and chain scission process at higher doses decreases interchain separation to enhance the number of polarons in the polymer composites as suggested by XRD studies. The fluorescence studies show the enhancement of fluorescence emission at lower doses and reduction at higher doses under electron irradiation. The positron annihilation study suggests that the low radiation doses induce crosslinking which affect the free volume properties and in turn hinders the chalcone molecular rotation within the polymer composite. At higher doses chain scission process support polymer matrix relaxation and facilitates non-radiative transition of the chromophore upon excitation. This study shows that fluorescence enhancement and mobility of chromophore within the polymer matrix is directly related to the free volume around it.

  4. Influence of Doping Concentration on Dielectric, Optical, and Morphological Properties of PMMA Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyly Nyl Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PMMA thin films were deposited by sol gel spin coating method on ITO substrates. Toluene was used as the solvent to dissolve the PMMA powder. The PMMA concentration was varied from 30 ~ 120 mg. The dielectric properties were measured at frequency of 0 ~ 100 kHz. The dielectric permittivity was in the range of 7.3 to 7.5 which decreased as the PMMA concentration increased. The dielectric loss is in the range of 0.01 ~ –0.01. All samples show dielectric characteristics which have dielectric loss is less than 0.05. The optical properties for thin films were measured at room temperature across 200 ~ 1000 nm wavelength region. All samples are highly transparent. The energy band gaps are in the range of 3.6 eV to 3.9 eV when the PMMA concentration increased. The morphologies of the samples show that all samples are uniform and the surface roughness increased as the concentration increased. From this study, it is known that, the dielectric, optical, and morphology properties were influenced by the amount of PMMA concentration in the solution.

  5. Random laser based on Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G doped poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA films coating on ZnO nanorods synthesized by hydrothermal oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    Full Text Available Random laser based on Rh6G doped PMMA thin films coating on ZnO nanorods synthesized by a simple hydrothermal oxidation method has been demonstrated. This kind of random laser medium is based on waveguide structure consisting of ZnO nanorods, Rh6G doped PMMA film and air. By controlling the time of hydrothermal oxidation reaction, wheat-like and hexagonal prism ZnO nanorods have been successfully fabricated. The emission spectra of these gain mediums based on different ZnO nanorods are different. The one based on wheat-like ZnO nanorods mainly exhibits amplified spontaneous emission, and the other one based on hexagonal prism ZnO nanorods shows random laser emission. The threshold of the random laser medium is about 73.8 μJ/pulse, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM is around 2.1 nm. The emission spectra measured at different detecting angles reveal that the output direction is strongly confined in ±30° by the waveguide effect. Our experiments demonstrate a promising method to achieve organic random laser medium. Keywords: Random laser, ZnO nanorods, Hydrothermal oxidation, Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G, Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA

  6. Synthesis and photophysical properties of pyrene-functionalized nano-SiO{sub 2} hybrids in solutions and doped-PMMA thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-Jie; He, Wen-Li; Yu, Hong-Yu [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang, Hong-Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen, Meng [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Qian, Dong-Jin, E-mail: djqian@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Luminescent pyrene-functionalized nano-SiO{sub 2} (nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr) hybrids were synthesized and characterized using thermogravimetry, infrared, UV–vis absorption and, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM). The organic substituents immobilized on the nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids accounted for approximately 10% of the total weight. Polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG200) was found to be the most suitable solvent to suspend the nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids compared to other commonly used organic solvents. FETEM images indicated an average SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle diameter of approximately 12 nm and a 1- to 2-nm thick organic species functionalization layer. Several emission peaks were recorded at wavelengths of 380–580 nm and were designated as emissions arising from either the monomer or excimer of the pyrene substituents. Excimer formation was concentration and solvent polarity dependent, with higher concentrations and a stronger solvent polarity benefiting excimer formation. Further, nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids were doped in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films; fluorescence spectra indicated that the excimer could be formed almost exclusively from neighboring nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids. Time-resolved fluorescence decays revealed that the emission lifetimes of nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr monomers and excimers were approximately 190 ns and 65–100 ns in the PEG200 solution, respectively, which was shortened to 0.45 ns to tens of ns in doped PMMA thin films, depending on the nano-hybrid concentration. Thus, the present study not only provides a method to prepare luminescent nano-materials but also a route to investigate excimer formation in solutions and thin films. - Highlights: • Luminescent pyrene-functionalized nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids were prepared. • A 1- to 2- nm thick organic functionalization layer on nano-SiO{sub 2} was observed. • Formation of pyrene excimer was concentration and solvent

  7. Study of Polymeric Luminescent Blend (PC/PMMA) Doped with Europium Complex under Gamma-Iradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, D. F.

    2006-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of blends formed by bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) doped with europium in organic complex were studied. Polymeric luminescent blends are potential materials for many applications; however, little information has been reported concerning the stability under thermal and radiation conditions. Luminescent films were synthesized from europium thenoyltrifluoroacetonate at different concentrations doped in PC/PMMA blends. Films produced of the luminescent polymer blend were irradiated in a 60 C o source. Their luminescent properties, in the solid state, as well as, the thermal oxidative resistance after gamma irradiation was investigated. These systems were characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetry (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Based on TGA data, the thermal stability of PC/PMMA:(tta)3 system is higher than the polymer blend. The DSC results indicated that those new systems are chemically stables. The emission spectra of the Eu 3 +-tta complex doped in the PC/PMMA recorded at 298 and 77 K exhibited the characteristic bands arising from the 5 D 0 →7 F J transitions (J = 0-6). The luminescence intensity decreases with increasing of precursor concentration in the doped polymer obtained by chemical reaction. This result is different from that of samples obtained by physical method in melting doping. The blend was irradiated under ionizing radiation of 60 C o source. After irradiation of the luminescent films the physical properties of luminescence, thermal and oxidative stability were evaluated.(Fapesp and Cnpq financial support)

  8. Photoluminescence of PMMA doped with fluorescein and carbosilane dendrimer and lasing in PBG resonance cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunfang; Jin Feng; Dong Xianzi; Chen Weiqiang; Duan Xuanming

    2007-01-01

    Carbosilane dendrimers with terminal allyl groups were synthesized and used to encapsulate the allyl derivative of fluorescein (allyl-FL) doped in PMMA. The optical property of this system was investigated and the results showed that the concentration of allyl-FL in PMMA could be increased to 4.5 wt% without decrease of the luminescence efficiency by adding the dendrimer into the system. The allyl-FL/dendrimer/PMMA film was embedded into a resonance cavity composed of two pieces of photonic band gap (PBG) materials to form a new-type solid-state laser. A laser emission at 589 nm was obtained when excited with a third harmonic generation (THG) of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (355 nm) and its full-width at half-maximum of the spectrum was 1.7 nm

  9. Electrical conductivity of polyaniline doped PVC–PMMA polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films has been measured by studying the – characteristics at various temperatures in the range 323–363 K. The results are presented in the form of – characteristics and analysis has been made by ...

  10. Dielectric properties of PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Acosta, M. D.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Alshareef, Husam N.; Gnade, Bruce E.; Ramí rez-Bon, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid films were synthesized by a modified sol-gel process. PMMASiO2 films were prepared using methylmethacrylate (MMA), tetraethil-orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon dioxide source, and 3-trimetoxi-silil-propil-methacrylate (TMSPM) as coupling agent. FTIR measurements were performed on the hybrid films to confirm the presence of PMMA-SiO2 bonding. In addition, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices were fabricated to study the dielectric constant of the films as function of frequency (1 KHz to 1 MHz). Electrical results show a weak trend of the dielectric constant of the hybrid films with MMA molar ratio. More importantly, the PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films showed a higher dielectric constant than SiO2 and PMMA layers, which is likely due to the presence of additional C-O-C bond. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

  11. Dielectric properties of PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Acosta, M. D.

    2010-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid films were synthesized by a modified sol-gel process. PMMASiO2 films were prepared using methylmethacrylate (MMA), tetraethil-orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon dioxide source, and 3-trimetoxi-silil-propil-methacrylate (TMSPM) as coupling agent. FTIR measurements were performed on the hybrid films to confirm the presence of PMMA-SiO2 bonding. In addition, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices were fabricated to study the dielectric constant of the films as function of frequency (1 KHz to 1 MHz). Electrical results show a weak trend of the dielectric constant of the hybrid films with MMA molar ratio. More importantly, the PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films showed a higher dielectric constant than SiO2 and PMMA layers, which is likely due to the presence of additional C-O-C bond. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

  12. Characterisation and optical vapour sensing properties of PMMA thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capan, I. [Balikesir University, Science and Arts Faculty, Physics Department, 10100 Balikesir (Turkey)], E-mail: inci.capan@gmail.com; Tarimci, C. [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100, Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Hassan, A.K. [Sheffield Hallam University, Materials and Engineering Research Institute, City Campus, Pond Street, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Tanrisever, T. [Balikesir University, Science and Arts Faculty, Chemistry Department, 10100 Balikesir (Turkey)

    2009-01-01

    The present article reports on the characterisation of spin coated thin films of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for their use in organic vapour sensing application. Thin film properties of PMMA are studied by UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. Results obtained show that homogeneous thin films with thickness in the range between 6 and 15 nm have been successfully prepared when films were spun at speeds between 1000-5000 rpm. Using SPR technique, the sensing properties of the spun films were studied on exposures to several halohydrocarbons including chloroform, dichloromethane and trichloroethylene. Data from measured kinetic response have been used to evaluate the sensitivity of the studied films to the various analyte molecules in terms of normalised response (%) per unit concentration (ppm). The highest PMMA film sensitivity of 0.067 normalised response per ppm was observed for chloroform vapour, for films spun at 1000 rpm. The high film's sensitivity to chloroform vapour was ascribed mainly to its solubility parameter and molar volume values. Effect of film thickness on the vapour sensing properties is also discussed.

  13. Memory and threshold switching in thin film PMMA polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, K.V.O.

    1995-05-01

    Threshold switching between two impedance states have been observed at room temperature in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin film sandwiched between two evaporated Al-metal electrodes. The cell's I-V characteristics were found to exhibit memory property. (author). 19 refs, 4 figs

  14. Structural, optical and photo thermal properties of Er3+:Y2O3 doped PMMA nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanli, Sevcan; Eryurek, Gonul

    2018-02-01

    Thermal decomposition technique was employed to synthesize of phosphors of yttria (Y2O3) doped with erbium (Er3+) ions. After the synthesized procedure, the nano-sized crystalline powders were annealed at 800oC for 24 h. Annealed powders were embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by free radical polymerization to fabricate nanocomposite polymer materials. The crystalline structure of the powder and doped PMMA nanocomposite samples were determined using X-ray diffraction technique. Scherrer's equation and the FW1/5/4/5M method were used to determine average crystalline size and grain size distributions, respectively. The spectroscopic properties of the powders and doped PMMA nanocomposites were studied by measuring the upconversion emission spectra under near-infrared laser excitation at room temperature. The laser-induced photo thermal behaviors of Er3+:Y2O3 nano-powders and doped PMMA nanocomposite were investigated using the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) technique.

  15. Impact of X-ray irradiation on PMMA thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Saman, E-mail: saman.khan343@gmail.com [Physics Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Rafique, Muhammad Shahid [Physics Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Anjum, Safia [Physics Department, Lahore College for Woman University, Lahore (Pakistan); Hayat, Asma [Physics Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Iqbal, Nida [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) (Malaysia)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PMMA thin films were deposited at 300 Degree-Sign C and 500 Degree-Sign C using PLD technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These films were irradiated with different fluence of laser produced X-rays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation affects the ordered packing as well as surface morphology of film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardness of film decreases up to certain value of X-ray fluence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorption in UV-visible range exhibits a non linear behavior. - Abstract: The objective of this project is to explore the effect of X-ray irradiation of thin polymeric films deposited at various substrate temperatures. pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used for the deposition of PMMA thin films on glass substrate at 300 Degree-Sign C and 500 Degree-Sign C. These films have been irradiated with various X-rays fluences ranging from 2.56 to 5.76 mJ cm{sup -2}. Characterization of the films (before and after the irradiation) is done with help of X-ray Diffractrometer, Optical Microscope, Vickers hardness tester and UV-vis spectroscopy techniques. From XRD data, it is revealed that ordered packing has been improved for the films deposited at 300 Degree-Sign C. However after irradiation the films exhibited the amorphous behavior regardless of the X-ray fluence. Film deposited at 500 Degree-Sign C shows amorphous structure before and after irradiation. Hardness and particle size of thin film have also increased with the increasing substrate temperature. However, the irradiation has reverse effect i.e. the particle size as well as the hardness has reduced. Irradiation has also enhanced the absorption in the UV-visible region.

  16. Impact of X-ray irradiation on PMMA thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Saman; Rafique, Muhammad Shahid; Anjum, Safia; Hayat, Asma; Iqbal, Nida

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PMMA thin films were deposited at 300 °C and 500 °C using PLD technique. ► These films were irradiated with different fluence of laser produced X-rays. ► Irradiation affects the ordered packing as well as surface morphology of film. ► Hardness of film decreases up to certain value of X-ray fluence. ► Absorption in UV–visible range exhibits a non linear behavior. - Abstract: The objective of this project is to explore the effect of X-ray irradiation of thin polymeric films deposited at various substrate temperatures. pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used for the deposition of PMMA thin films on glass substrate at 300 °C and 500 °C. These films have been irradiated with various X-rays fluences ranging from 2.56 to 5.76 mJ cm −2 . Characterization of the films (before and after the irradiation) is done with help of X-ray Diffractrometer, Optical Microscope, Vickers hardness tester and UV–vis spectroscopy techniques. From XRD data, it is revealed that ordered packing has been improved for the films deposited at 300 °C. However after irradiation the films exhibited the amorphous behavior regardless of the X-ray fluence. Film deposited at 500 °C shows amorphous structure before and after irradiation. Hardness and particle size of thin film have also increased with the increasing substrate temperature. However, the irradiation has reverse effect i.e. the particle size as well as the hardness has reduced. Irradiation has also enhanced the absorption in the UV–visible region.

  17. Thin-Film LSCs Based on PMMA Nanohybrid Coatings: Device Optimization and Outdoor Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. El-Bashir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the design optimization of thin-film luminescent solar concentrators (TLSCs based on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA/silica nanohybrid films doped with coumarin dyestuffs specialized in coloring plastics. Two designs of TLSCs had been prepared and characterized. The first consists of a transparent nanohybrid layer coated on a fluorescent PMMA substrate. The second design is the ordinary configuration in which fluorescent nanohybrid layer is coated on a transparent PMMA substrate. The investigation of the spectral properties and efficiency parameters recommended the best solar energy conversion efficiency for the second design. The outdoor performance of optimized TLSC was also evaluated under clear sky conditions of Riyadh city, and the hourly values of the optical efficiency, ηopt, were calculated for one year. The best performance was achieved in summer since the short circuit current for PV cell was doubled after being attached to TLSC and the value of ηopt reached 40% which is higher than other values recorded before due to the abundant solar energy potential in the Arabian Peninsula.

  18. Formation of hydrated layers in PMMA thin films in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, Peter W. [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Nelson, Andrew R.J. [The Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia); Williams, David E. [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Wellington (New Zealand); McGillivray, Duncan J., E-mail: d.mcgillivray@auckland.ac.nz [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Homogeneous thin PMMA films prepared on Si/SiOx substrates and measured in air and water. • Reproducible formation of highly hydrated layer containing 50% water at the PMMA/SiOx interface. • When heated the films swell at 50 °C without loss of material. • Upon re-cooling to 25 °C the surface roughens and material is lost. - Abstract: Neutron reflectometry (NR) measurements have been made on thin (70–150 Å) poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films on Si/SiOx substrates in aqueous conditions, and compared with parameters measured using ellipsometry and X-Ray reflectometry (XRR) on dry films. All techniques show that the thin films prepared using spin-coating techniques were uniform and had low roughness at both the silicon and subphase interfaces, and similar surface energetics to thicker PMMA films. In aqueous solution, NR measurements at 25 °C showed that PMMA forms a partially hydrated layer at the SiOx interface 10 Å under the film, while the bulk film remains intact and contains around 4% water. Both the PMMA film layer and the sublayer showed minimal swelling over a period of 24 h. At 50 °C, PMMA films in aqueous solution roughen and swell, without loss of PMMA material at the surface. After cooling back to 25 °C, swelling and roughening increases further, with loss of material from the PMMA layer.

  19. Formation of hydrated layers in PMMA thin films in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, Peter W.; Nelson, Andrew R.J.; Williams, David E.; McGillivray, Duncan J.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Homogeneous thin PMMA films prepared on Si/SiOx substrates and measured in air and water. • Reproducible formation of highly hydrated layer containing 50% water at the PMMA/SiOx interface. • When heated the films swell at 50 °C without loss of material. • Upon re-cooling to 25 °C the surface roughens and material is lost. - Abstract: Neutron reflectometry (NR) measurements have been made on thin (70–150 Å) poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films on Si/SiOx substrates in aqueous conditions, and compared with parameters measured using ellipsometry and X-Ray reflectometry (XRR) on dry films. All techniques show that the thin films prepared using spin-coating techniques were uniform and had low roughness at both the silicon and subphase interfaces, and similar surface energetics to thicker PMMA films. In aqueous solution, NR measurements at 25 °C showed that PMMA forms a partially hydrated layer at the SiOx interface 10 Å under the film, while the bulk film remains intact and contains around 4% water. Both the PMMA film layer and the sublayer showed minimal swelling over a period of 24 h. At 50 °C, PMMA films in aqueous solution roughen and swell, without loss of PMMA material at the surface. After cooling back to 25 °C, swelling and roughening increases further, with loss of material from the PMMA layer.

  20. Different photoluminescent properties of binary and ternary europium chelates doped in PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongguo; Park, Seongtae; Jang, Kiwan; Zhang Wansong; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2003-01-01

    Two kinds of europium-β-diketone chelates, binary Eu(DBM) 3 and ternary Eu(DBM) 3 phen were doped in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). These chelates show very different photoluminescent (PL) behaviors: the hypersensitive 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 emission bands of Eu(DBM) 3 phen change slightly with the molar ratios, while those of Eu(DBM) 3 change obviously and regularly with the molar ratios. The results of the luminescent lifetimes of 5 D 0 levels show that the binary chelate exists as two kinds of species in the doped systems, and the lifetimes and contents of each species change with the molar ratios, while the ternary chelate exists as one kind of species in the doped systems. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the binary chelate doped systems give some diffraction peaks that are different from those of pure chelate and change with the molar ratios, indicating new kinds of crystal structures formed, and consequently, the first coordination sphere of Eu 3+ ion changes; while those of the ternary chelate doped systems just show amorphous diffraction halos of the host, indicating that the ternary chelate exist in an amorphous state and disperse well in the host. The FTIR spectra of PMMA also change gradually with increasing the molar ratios of the doped two kinds of chelates, and the XRD patterns show that the amorphous halos of PMMA in the doped systems are different from those of pure PMMA and change with the molar ratios, too, suggesting the interaction between the guest and the host

  1. Characterisation and vapour sensing properties of spin coated thin films of anthracene labelled PMMA polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capan, I., E-mail: inci.capan@gmail.com [Balikesir University, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Department of Physics, Cagis Campus, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey); Tarimci, C., E-mail: Celik.Tarimci@eng.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100, Ankara (Turkey); Erdogan, M., E-mail: merdogan@balikesir.edu.tr [Balikesir University, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Department of Physics, Cagis Campus, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey); Hassan, A.K., E-mail: A.Hassan@shu.ac.uk [Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheaf Building, Pond Street, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-05

    In the present article thin films of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer labelled with anthracene (Ant-PMMA) prepared by spin coating are characterised by UV-visible spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and their organic vapour sensing properties are investigated. Ant-PMMA films' thickness are determined by performing theoretical fitting to experimental data measured using SPR and SE. Results obtained show that the spin-cast films are of good uniformity with an average thickness of 6-8 nm. Organic vapour sensing properties are studied using SPR technique during exposures to different volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ant-PMMA films' response to the selected VOCs has been examined in terms of solubility parameters and molar volumes of the solvents, and the films were found to be largely sensitive to benzene vapour compared to other studied analytes.

  2. Characterisation and vapour sensing properties of spin coated thin films of anthracene labelled PMMA polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capan, I.; Tarimci, C.; Erdogan, M.; Hassan, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    In the present article thin films of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer labelled with anthracene (Ant-PMMA) prepared by spin coating are characterised by UV-visible spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and their organic vapour sensing properties are investigated. Ant-PMMA films' thickness are determined by performing theoretical fitting to experimental data measured using SPR and SE. Results obtained show that the spin-cast films are of good uniformity with an average thickness of 6-8 nm. Organic vapour sensing properties are studied using SPR technique during exposures to different volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ant-PMMA films' response to the selected VOCs has been examined in terms of solubility parameters and molar volumes of the solvents, and the films were found to be largely sensitive to benzene vapour compared to other studied analytes.

  3. Influence of ligands on the photoluminescent properties of Eu3+ in europium β-diketonate/PMMA-doped systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.-G.; Park, Seongtae; Jang, Kiwan; Feng, X.-S.; Kim, Changdae; Seo, H.-J.; Lee, Y.-I.

    2004-01-01

    Three kinds of europium β-diketonates Eu(DBM) 3 , Eu(BA) 3 and Eu(TTA) 3 (DBM: Dibenzoylmethane; BA: 1-Benzoylacetone; TTA: Thenoyltrifluoroacetone) were doped in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. The doped systems were studied by using photoluminescent (PL) spectroscopy, emission decay experiments and X-ray diffractometry. Eu(III) ions in the doped Eu(DBM) 3 /PMMA systems have two distinct symmetric sites and the emission band changes greatly with the compositions. Eu(III) in the Eu(BA) 3 /PMMA systems gives only one symmetric site in the doped systems and the emission band changes slightly with the compositions. Although two distinct symmetric sites of Eu(III) can be distinguished in the doped systems of Eu(TTA) 3 /PMMA, the two sites have similar 5 D 0 lifetimes and the luminescent spectra almost do not change with the compositions. XRD reveals that crystallites were formed in the doped Eu(DBM) 3 /PMMA systems that have different crystalline structure from that of the chelate, and Eu(BA) 3 and Eu(TTA) 3 exist in amorphous state in the doped systems. The difference between the PL properties and structures of the doped systems for the three kinds of chelates should be attributed to different interactions between the chelate molecules and between the chelate and PMMA

  4. Electrical conductivity of polyaniline doped PVC–PMMA polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which has now become one of the hot topics of research. (Radhakrishnan 2001). ... and sensitive methods for studying the polymer structure. (Ferraro and Walkar ... acceptor mixed polymers doped with polyaniline, was measured to identify ...

  5. Photoluminescent behaviors of several kinds of europium ternary complexes doped in PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.-G.; Lee, Yong-Ill; Park, Seongtae; Jang, Kiwan; Kim, Sang Su

    2004-01-01

    Four kinds of europium ternary complexes; Eu(DBM) 3 phen, Eu(DBM) 3 (DB-bpy), Eu(DBM) 3 (DN-bpy) and Eu(DBM) 3 biq (DBM, phen, DB-bpy, DN-bpy and biq refer to Dibenzoylmethane, 1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4'-Di-tert-butyl-2,2'-dipyridyl, 4,4'-Dinonyl-2,2'-dipyridyl and 2,2'-Biquinoline, respectively), were doped in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. The luminescence properties of the composites were investigated by emission spectroscopy and lifetime measurements. It was found that the composites formed by the three complexes, Eu(DBM) 3 phen, Eu(DBM) 3 (DB-bpy), and Eu(DBM) 3 (DN-bpy), exhibit strong luminescence and similar emission spectral characteristics to Eu(III). Whereas, Eu(DBM) 3 biq shows large differences in its luminescence spectrum compared to those of other complexes. The luminescence was very weak and broad. The emission spectral features of Eu(III) in the Eu(DBM) 3 biq/PMMA systems change with the molar ratios of the complex and PMMA. The lifetime of 5 D 0 level of Eu(III) in Eu(DBM) 3 biq/PMMA systems is shorter than those in the other systems. The luminescence intensity of Eu(III) in Eu(DBM) 3 biq/PMMA systems decreases gradually when exposed to UV-light while the broad emission band becomes stronger

  6. Fatigue Resistance of Filled NR with PMMA-Wrapped and Rare Earth-Doped Alumina-Siloxane Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was used to wrap alumina-siloxane sol which was produced by water glass, aluminum nitrate and α-methacrylic acid, and as a result, alumina-siloxane gel wrapped by PMMA was obtained. Meanwhile, rare earth ions were employed to dope in the course of reaction, and the formed rare earth doped PMMA microcapsule powder was filled into natural rubber (NR). It is found through the analysis of mechanical properties that Young′s modulus universally improves and a remarkable resistance to fatigue is displayed. Retention rate of tensile strength is twice that of the controlled sample after ten thousand times of extension fatigue.

  7. AC/DC electrical conduction and dielectric properties of PMMA/PVAc/C60 down-shifting nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bashir, S. M.; Alwadai, N. M.; AlZayed, N.

    2018-02-01

    Polymer nanocomposite films were prepared by doping fullerene C60 in polymer blend composed of polymethacrylate/polyvinyl acetate blends (PMMA/PVAc) using solution cast technique. The films were characterized by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), DC/AC electrical conductivity and dielectric measurements in the frequency range (100 Hz- 1 MHz). The glass transition temperature, Tg, was increased by increasing the concentration of fullerene C60; this property reflects the increase of thermal stability by increasing the nanofiller content. The DC and AC electrical conductivities were enhanced by increasing C60 concentration due to the electron hopping or tunneling between filled and empty localized states above Tg. The relaxation time was determined from the αβ -relaxations and found to be attenuated by increasing the temperature as a typical behavior of amorphous polymers. The calculated values of thermodynamic parameters revealed the increase of molecular stability by increasing the doping concentration; this feature supports the application of PMMA/PVAc/C60 nanocomposite films in a wide scale of solar energy conversion applications such as luminescent down-shifting (LDS) coatings for photovoltaic cells.

  8. BDK-doped core microstructured PMMA optical fiber for effective Bragg grating photo-inscription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xuehao; Woyessa, Getinet; Kinet, Damien

    2017-01-01

    An endlessly single-mode doped microstructured poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) optical fiber is produced for effective fiber Bragg grating (FBG) photo-inscription by means of a 400 nm femtosecond pulsed laser and the phase mask technique. The fiber presents a uniform benzyl dimethyl ketal (BDK......) distribution in its core without drastic loss increase. It was produced using the selected center hole doping technique, and the BDK dopant acts as a photoinitiator. In this Letter, we report a rapidly growing process of the grating reflection band. For an 11 mW mean laser power, the FBG reflectivity reaches...

  9. BDK-doped core microstructured PMMA optical fiber for effective Bragg grating photo-inscription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuehao; Woyessa, Getinet; Kinet, Damien; Janting, Jakob; Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    An endlessly single-mode doped microstructured poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) optical fiber is produced for effective fiber Bragg grating (FBG) photo-inscription by means of a 400 nm femtosecond pulsed laser and the phase mask technique. The fiber presents a uniform benzyl dimethyl ketal (BDK) distribution in its core without drastic loss increase. It was produced using the selected center hole doping technique, and the BDK dopant acts as a photoinitiator. In this Letter, we report a rapidly growing process of the grating reflection band. For an 11 mW mean laser power, the FBG reflectivity reaches 83% in only 40 s.

  10. Synthesis and investigation of PMMA films with homogeneously dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoja-Castro, M.A.; Pérez-Robles, J.F.; González-Rodríguez, H.; Vorobiev-Vasilievitch, Y.; Martínez-Tejada, H.V.; Velasco-Santos, C.

    2013-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) modified by 2.2′-azoiso-butyronitrile (AIBN) were incorporated into methyl methacrylate (MMA) by sonochemistry method, resulting in homogenous dispersion of MWNT, which makes possible to obtain flexible conductive polymer-matrix nanocomposites films of PMMA, with MWNT concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.5 wt%. Modified MWNT (AIBN-MWNT) were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and through visual observations in order to compare the dispersion in 2-propanone and toluene with that of pristine MWNT. Synthesized PMMA-AIBN-MWNT films were studied by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Using FT-IR for the AIBN-MWNT it was not possible to identify any group or groups attached to the nanotubes. Raman spectroscopy shows a small modification in the Lorentzian peaks ratio I D/G of AIBN-MWNT, meanwhile XPS showed that atomic compositions does not change for AIBN-MWNT compared to the pristine nanotubes. Also by impedance it was analyzed the conductivity of PMMA-MWNT films and the results showed a threshold percolation at 0.5 wt%. FT-IR and Raman analyses for PMMA-AIBN-MWNT composite indicate a covalent bonding between PMMA and MWNT due to the opening of π-bonds of the nanotubes, which is related with a possible proposed reaction scheme. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • We used sonochemistry-in situ polymerization to disperse MWNT very soon in PMMA. • A high and homogenous dispersion of MWNT in PMMA was achieved. • The modification of MWNT by AIBN was analyzed using Raman. • A covalent bonding between PMMA and MWNT was analyzed by FT-IR and Raman. • According to the results of PMMA-MWNT it was proposed a scheme reaction

  11. Synthesis and investigation of PMMA films with homogeneously dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantoja-Castro, M.A., E-mail: m_pantojaq@yahoo.com.mx [Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Av. J. Múgica S/N Col., Villa Universidad, CP 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Pérez-Robles, J.F. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente #2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, CP 76230 Querétaro (Mexico); González-Rodríguez, H. [Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Av. J. Múgica S/N Col., Villa Universidad, CP 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Vorobiev-Vasilievitch, Y. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente #2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, CP 76230 Querétaro (Mexico); Martínez-Tejada, H.V. [Instituto de Energía, Materiales y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Circular 1 No. 70-01, Bloque 22, Medellín (Colombia); Velasco-Santos, C. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Autónoma de México, Av. Boulevard Juriquilla, No. 3001 Juriquilla, CP 76230 Querétaro (Mexico)

    2013-07-15

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) modified by 2.2′-azoiso-butyronitrile (AIBN) were incorporated into methyl methacrylate (MMA) by sonochemistry method, resulting in homogenous dispersion of MWNT, which makes possible to obtain flexible conductive polymer-matrix nanocomposites films of PMMA, with MWNT concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.5 wt%. Modified MWNT (AIBN-MWNT) were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and through visual observations in order to compare the dispersion in 2-propanone and toluene with that of pristine MWNT. Synthesized PMMA-AIBN-MWNT films were studied by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Using FT-IR for the AIBN-MWNT it was not possible to identify any group or groups attached to the nanotubes. Raman spectroscopy shows a small modification in the Lorentzian peaks ratio I{sub D/G} of AIBN-MWNT, meanwhile XPS showed that atomic compositions does not change for AIBN-MWNT compared to the pristine nanotubes. Also by impedance it was analyzed the conductivity of PMMA-MWNT films and the results showed a threshold percolation at 0.5 wt%. FT-IR and Raman analyses for PMMA-AIBN-MWNT composite indicate a covalent bonding between PMMA and MWNT due to the opening of π-bonds of the nanotubes, which is related with a possible proposed reaction scheme. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • We used sonochemistry-in situ polymerization to disperse MWNT very soon in PMMA. • A high and homogenous dispersion of MWNT in PMMA was achieved. • The modification of MWNT by AIBN was analyzed using Raman. • A covalent bonding between PMMA and MWNT was analyzed by FT-IR and Raman. • According to the results of PMMA-MWNT it was proposed a scheme reaction.

  12. Film thickness dependence of phase separation and dewetting behaviors in PMMA/SAN blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jichun; Liao, Yonggui; Men, Yongfeng; Shi, Tongfei; An, Lijia

    2010-09-21

    Film thickness dependence of complex behaviors coupled by phase separation and dewetting in blend [poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(styrene-ran-acrylonitrile) (SAN)] films on silicon oxide substrate at 175 °C was investigated by grazing incidence ultrasmall-angle X-ray scattering (GIUSAX) and in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the dewetting pathway was under the control of the parameter U(q0)/E, which described the initial amplitude of the surface undulation and original thickness of film, respectively. Furthermore, our results showed that interplay between phase separation and dewetting depended crucially on film thickness. Three mechanisms including dewetting-phase separation/wetting, dewetting/wetting-phase separation, and phase separation/wetting-pseudodewetting were discussed in detail. In conclusion, it is relative rates of phase separation and dewetting that dominate the interplay between them.

  13. Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Nano-composite PMMA: TiO2 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyly Nyl Ismail; Ahmad Fairoz Aziz; Habibah Zulkefle

    2011-01-01

    There are two nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 solutions were prepared in this research. First solution is nano-composite PMMA commercially available TiO 2 nanopowder and the second solution is nano-composite PMMA with self-prepared TiO 2 powder. The self-prepared TiO 2 powder is obtained by preparing the TiO 2 sol-gel. Solvo thermal method were used to dry the TiO 2 sol-gel and obtained TiO 2 crystal. Ball millers were used to grind the TiO 2 crystal in order to obtained nano sized powder. Triton-X was used as surfactant to stabilizer the composite between PMMA: TiO 2 . Besides comparing the nano-composite solution, we also studied the effect of the thin films thickness on the optical properties and surface morphology of the thin films. The thin films were deposited by sol-gel spin coating method on glass substrates. The optical properties and surface characterization were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer equipment and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The result showed that nano-composite PMMA with self prepared TiO 2 give high optical transparency than nano-composite PMMA with commercially available TiO 2 nano powder. The results also indicate as the thickness is increased the optical transparency are decreased. Both AFM images showed that the agglomerations of TiO 2 particles are occurred on the thin films and the surface roughness is increased when the thickness is increased. High agglomeration particles exist in the AFM images for nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 with TiO 2 nano powder compare to the other nano-composite solution. (author)

  14. PMMA highlights the layering transition of PDMS in Langmuir films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardini, C.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Arnaudov, L.N.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    We report a system consisting of a mixed Langmuir monolayer, made of water-insoluble, spreadable, fluid-like polymers polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with a minority P(DMS-b-MMA) copolymer. We have performed both Langmuir trough pressure/area isotherm measurements and

  15. Solid state solvation effect and reduced amplified spontaneous emission threshold value of glass forming DCM derivative in PMMA films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vembris, Aivars, E-mail: aivars.vembris@cfi.lu.lv [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Street, Riga LV 1063 (Latvia); Zarins, Elmars; Kokars, Valdis [Institute of Applied Chemistry, Riga Technical University, 14/24 Azenes Street, Riga LV 1048 (Latvia)

    2015-02-15

    Molecule crystallization is one of the limitations for obtaining high-gain organic laser systems. One of the examples is well known red laser dye 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM). The lowest threshold value of amplified spontaneous emission was achieved by doping 2 wt% of DCM molecule in tris-(8-hydroxy quinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) matrix. Further increase of the DCM dye concentration makes the system less efficient as its threshold value increases. It is due to large intermolecular interaction, which induces photoluminescence quenching. Compounds with reduced intermolecular interaction could be prospective in organic laser systems due to higher possible doping. In this work photoluminescence and amplified spontaneous emission properties of modified DCM molecule in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix were investigated. Bulky trityloxyethyl groups were attached to the donor part of DCM. These groups increase intermolecular distance wherewith reduce photoluminescence quenching. More than one order of magnitude lower excitation threshold energy of the amplified spontaneous emission was achieved in doped polymer films with investigated compound in comparison to doped polymer with DCM. It means that the investigated compound is more perspective as a laser material compared to the previously studied. In addition, amplified spontaneous emission maximum could be tuned within 15 nm by changing concentration from 0.1 wt% to 10 wt% DWK-1 in PMMA matrix due to solid state solvation effect. - Highlights: • Bulky groups attached to DCM dye reduce photoluminescence quenching. • Amplified spontaneous emission is in red spectral region. • Amplified spontaneous emission spectra were tuned by 15 nm. • Amplified spontaneous emission threshold value was reduced by one order of magnitude.

  16. FIB NANOPATTERNING OF METAL FILMS ON PMMA SUBSTRATES: NON-SPUTTERING MODE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana; Adashkevich, Vadzim; Chiriaev, Serguei

    polymer materials, which results in material shrinkage in the irradiated areas [2]. In this work, we demonstrate that this mechanism can be used for nanopatterning thin metal films deposited on PMMA resist spin-coated onto a silicon substrate. For this purpose, the samples were irradiated with He+ FIB...

  17. Study of cerium doped magnetite (Fe3O4:Ce)/PMMA nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padalia, Diwakar; Johri, U.C.; Zaidi, M.G.H.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the synthesis and properties of polymer nanocomposite material based on cerium doped magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) as filler material and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) as host matrix. The magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) particles were synthesized by co-precipitation route using stable ferrous and ferric salts with ammonium hydroxide as precipitating agent. Further, they doped by cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) non-stoichiometrically. The composite material was fabricated by solvent evaporation method. Here 2.4 GHz microwaves were used to study the effect of microwaves heating on polymerization. The phase and crystal structure is determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The average crystallite size of the composites varies from 28 to 35 nm. The chemical structure is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The magnetic and thermal properties are investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal study shows that the microwave heated samples possess higher glass transition temperature (T g ). The magnetic results suggest that coercivity (H C ) and squareness (M r /M s ) of the loop increases with increasing doping percent of cerium.

  18. Study of cerium doped magnetite (Fe 3O 4:Ce)/PMMA nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalia, Diwakar; Johri, U. C.; Zaidi, M. G. H.

    2012-03-01

    The paper presents the synthesis and properties of polymer nanocomposite material based on cerium doped magnetite (Fe 3O 4) as filler material and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) as host matrix. The magnetite (Fe 3O 4) particles were synthesized by co-precipitation route using stable ferrous and ferric salts with ammonium hydroxide as precipitating agent. Further, they doped by cerium oxide (CeO 2) non-stoichiometrically. The composite material was fabricated by solvent evaporation method. Here 2.4 GHz microwaves were used to study the effect of microwaves heating on polymerization. The phase and crystal structure is determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The average crystallite size of the composites varies from 28 to 35 nm. The chemical structure is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The magnetic and thermal properties are investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal study shows that the microwave heated samples possess higher glass transition temperature ( Tg). The magnetic results suggest that coercivity ( HC) and squareness ( Mr/ Ms) of the loop increases with increasing doping percent of cerium.

  19. Pattern Formation in PMMA Film Induced by Electric Field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lyutakov, O.; Huttel, I.; Prajzler, V.; Jerabek, V.; Jančarek, A.; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Švorčík, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 12 (2009), s. 1131-1135 ISSN 0887-6266 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : optics * spin coating * thin films Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.586, year: 2009

  20. Effect of plasma fluorination variables on the deposition and growth of partially fluorinated polymer over PMMA films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana da Silva Padilha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an investigation was made of the modification of film surface of Poly(methylmethacrylate (PMMA using the plasma polymerization technique. PMMA films 10 µm thick were obtained by Spin-Coating starting from a chloroform solution (15.36% w/w. The films were exposed to the plasma of CHF3 at different gas pressures and exposure times to increase the thickness of fluorinated polymers onto PMMA films. The plasma fluorinated optical films were characterized by gravimetry, FTIR-ATR, contact angle of wetting, SEM and AFM. The surface fluorination of PMMA films can be inferred by the increase in contact angle under all experimental conditions, and confirmed with FTIR-ATR analysis. Gravimetry showed an increase of the fluorinated polymer layer over PMMA films, being 1.55 µm thick at 0.7 torr and 40 minutes of plasma exposure. The SEM analysis showed a well-defined layer of fluorinated polymer, with fluorine being detected in the EDS analysis. The film roughness for the fluorinated polymers was around of 200 Å, quite satisfactory for a 1.55 µm cladding.

  1. Structural, thermal, optical properties and cytotoxicity of PMMA/ZnO fibers and films: Potential application in tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balen, Rodrigo; Vidotto da Costa, Wilian; Lara Andrade, Jéssica de; Piai, Juliana Francis; Muniz, Edvani Curti; Companhoni, Mychelle Vianna; Nakamura, Tânia Ueda

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Films and fibers of PMMA/ZnO nanocomposite were prepared. • ZnO NPs incorporated into PMMA fibers reduces their diameter and beads presence. • PMMA films containing ZnO exhibit higher thermal stability than pure polymer. • PMMA/ZnO nanocomposites show improved optical properties compared to pure polymer. • PMMA/ZnO shows potential for applications in tissue engineering. - Abstract: Films and fibers of PMMA/ZnO nanocomposites (100/0, 99/01, 97/03, 95/05, 90/10, and 85/15 wt.%) were produced by casting and electrospinning, respectively. Their structural, thermal, and optical properties were investigated by XRD, SEM, TGA, PAS, and PL. The incorporation of ZnO NPs reduced the diameter of PMMA fibers and the presence of beads. The surfaces of the fibers exhibited greater hydrophobicity, compared to the films, with contact angles of around 120° and 94°, respectively. PMMA films containing ZnO exhibited higher thermal stability than the pure polymer, while the corresponding fibers did not show any changes in thermal stability. The dispersion of the ZnO NPs at the surface and in the bulk of the nanocomposites appeared to be relatively homogeneous. ZnO improved the optical properties of the PMMA, with an intense absorption band near 370 nm observed for all the nanocomposites, which also exhibited luminescence with emission in the near-UV region, both attributed to ZnO. Biological tests demonstrated that fibers and films with up to 1% of ZnO exhibited good performance in the proliferation of fibroblast cells, indicating their potential for applications in tissue engineering. The fibers provided higher cell viability than the films, presumably due to their greater surface area and/or more suitable surface morphology. Nanocomposites with 15% ZnO inhibited cell proliferation, due to the cytotoxicity of the ZnO NPs. Although several applications of PMMA have been suggested by biomedical researchers, until now there have been no reports on the specific

  2. Structural, thermal, optical properties and cytotoxicity of PMMA/ZnO fibers and films: Potential application in tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balen, Rodrigo; Vidotto da Costa, Wilian; Lara Andrade, Jéssica de; Piai, Juliana Francis [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900, Zona Sete, Maringá, PR (Brazil); Muniz, Edvani Curti [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900, Zona Sete, Maringá, PR (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agricultura, Universidade Paranaense (UNIPAR), 87502-210, Umuarama, PR (Brazil); Programa de Pós- Graduação em Ciências de Materiais & Engenharia, Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR-LD), 86036-370, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Companhoni, Mychelle Vianna; Nakamura, Tânia Ueda [Departamento de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900, Zona Sete, Maringá, PR (Brazil); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Films and fibers of PMMA/ZnO nanocomposite were prepared. • ZnO NPs incorporated into PMMA fibers reduces their diameter and beads presence. • PMMA films containing ZnO exhibit higher thermal stability than pure polymer. • PMMA/ZnO nanocomposites show improved optical properties compared to pure polymer. • PMMA/ZnO shows potential for applications in tissue engineering. - Abstract: Films and fibers of PMMA/ZnO nanocomposites (100/0, 99/01, 97/03, 95/05, 90/10, and 85/15 wt.%) were produced by casting and electrospinning, respectively. Their structural, thermal, and optical properties were investigated by XRD, SEM, TGA, PAS, and PL. The incorporation of ZnO NPs reduced the diameter of PMMA fibers and the presence of beads. The surfaces of the fibers exhibited greater hydrophobicity, compared to the films, with contact angles of around 120° and 94°, respectively. PMMA films containing ZnO exhibited higher thermal stability than the pure polymer, while the corresponding fibers did not show any changes in thermal stability. The dispersion of the ZnO NPs at the surface and in the bulk of the nanocomposites appeared to be relatively homogeneous. ZnO improved the optical properties of the PMMA, with an intense absorption band near 370 nm observed for all the nanocomposites, which also exhibited luminescence with emission in the near-UV region, both attributed to ZnO. Biological tests demonstrated that fibers and films with up to 1% of ZnO exhibited good performance in the proliferation of fibroblast cells, indicating their potential for applications in tissue engineering. The fibers provided higher cell viability than the films, presumably due to their greater surface area and/or more suitable surface morphology. Nanocomposites with 15% ZnO inhibited cell proliferation, due to the cytotoxicity of the ZnO NPs. Although several applications of PMMA have been suggested by biomedical researchers, until now there have been no reports on the specific

  3. doped ZnO thick film resistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characterization and ethanol gas sensing properties of pure and doped ZnO thick films were investigated. Thick films of pure zinc oxide were prepared by the screen printing technique. Pure zinc oxide was almost insensitive to ethanol. Thick films of Al2O3 (1 wt%) doped ZnO were observed to be highly sensitive to ...

  4. Perhydropolysilazane-derived silica-polymethylmethacrylate hybrid thin films highly doped with spiropyran: Effects of polymethylmethacrylate on the hardness, chemical durability and photochromic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Akihiro; Kozuka, Hiromitsu

    2011-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-perhydropolysilazane (PHPS) hybrid thin films doped with spiropyran were prepared by spin-coating, which were then converted into 0.26-1.7 μm thick, spiropyran-doped PMMA-silica hybrid films by exposure treatment over aqueous ammonia. The spiropyran/(spiropyran + PHPS + PMMA) mass ratio was fixed at a high value of 0.2 so that the films exhibit visual photochromic changes in color, while the PMMA/(PMMA + PHPS) mass ratio, r, was varied. The spiropyran molecules in the as-prepared films were in merocyanine (MC) and spiro (SP) forms, with and without an optical absorption at 500 nm, at low (r ≤ 0.2) and high (r ≥ 0.4) PMMA contents, respectively. When PMMA content r was increased from 0 to 0.2, the degree of the MC-to-SP conversion on vis light illumination was enhanced, while at higher r's the spiropyran molecules underwent photodegradation. When the silica film (r = 0) was soaked in xylene under vis light, the spiropyran molecules were almost totally leached out, while not on soaking in the dark. On the other hand, no leaching occurred for the film of r = 0.2 either in the presence or absence of vis light. These suggest that the introduction of PMMA is effective in improving the chemical durability of the films, while the silica film (r = 0) is an interesting material with a photoresponsive controlled-release ability. The pencil hardness of the films decreased with increasing PMMA content, but remained over 9H at r ≤ 0.4.

  5. Modifications in optical and structural properties of PMMA/PCTFE blend films as a function of PCTFE concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, J., E-mail: jtripathi00@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, ISLE, IPS Academy, Indore (India); Sharma, A. [Dept. of Physics, Manipal University Jaipur, Jaipur (India); Tripathi, S. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore (India); Bisen, R. [Dept. of Physics, ISLE, IPS Academy, Indore (India); Agrawal, A. [Dept. of Elect. and Commun., Global Engineering College, Jabalpur (India)

    2017-06-15

    The poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer blend films were prepared by solution casting method with varying PolyChloroTriFluoroEthylene (PCTFE) concentrations (1–5 wt %). The crystallinity, bonding behavior and disorder in the films were investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV–visible and ellipsometry techniques, while surface morphology was studied using Atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nanocrystalline nature of PMMA is seen to be preserved in the blends although there are clear indications of bond modifications. The addition of PCTFE results in the improvement of overall crystallinity of the films via the interaction among PMMA and degraded PCTFE molecules when the films are casted from diluted solutions. In agreement, corresponding disorder in terms of Urbach energy shows a decreasing trend upon inclusion of more and more PCTFE molecules. Micro-Raman spectra are dominated by fluorescence background, which is proposed as arising from degraded PCTFE. Supporting this, FTIR spectra also shows modifications in bonding as a function of PCTFE percentage, but this bond modification is not enough to produce refractive index variation in the sample, which is dominated by the host PMMA contribution for all the PCTFE concentrations. The study suggests the useful range of PCTFE concentration in which PMMA host properties can be modified for optimizing optical and structural properties without much degradation of PCTFE. - Highlights: • PMMA blend films with varying PCTFE concentrations (1–5 wt%) were prepared. • Nanocrystalline nature of PMMA is preserved in spite of bond modifications. • Addition of PCTFE results in improvement of overall crystallinity of the films. • Urbach energy shows a decreasing Disorder upon inclusion of more PCTFE molecules. • FTIR spectra show bond modifications without changing refractive index.

  6. Gain investigation of Perylene-Red-doped PMMA for stimulated luminescent solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysir, Md Rejvi; Fleming, Simon; Argyros, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) utilizing stimulated emission by a seed laser are a promising approach to overcome the limitations of conventional LSCs, with a significant reduction of the photovoltaic material. In our previous work, we demonstrated the principle of a stimulated LSC (s-LSC) and correspondingly developed a model for quantifying the output power of such a system, taking into account different important physical parameters. The model suggested Perylene Red (PR) dye as a potential candidate for s-LSCs. Here, we experimentally investigate the gain of PR-doped polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) required for s-LSCs using a single pump wavelength (instead of the solar spectrum) as a proof of principle. The results found from the experiment are well matched with the previously developed numerical model except for gain saturation, which occurs at a comparatively small seed laser signal power. To investigate the gain saturation, two approaches were taken: investigating (i) spectral hole burning and (ii) triplet state absorption. Experimental investigation of spectral hole burning with PR dyes showed a small effect on the gain saturation. We developed a general state model considering triplet state absorption of the PR dyes for the second approach. The state model suggests that the PR dyes suffer from significant triplet state absorption loss, which obstructs the normal operation of the PR-based s-LSC system.

  7. UV Radiation Detection Using Optical Sensor Based on Eu3+ Doped PMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miluski Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Progress in UV treatment applications requires new compact and sensor constructions. In the paper a hybrid (organic-inorganic rare-earth-based polymeric UV sensor construction is proposed. The efficient luminescence of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA matrix doped by europium was used for testing the optical sensor (optrode construction. The europium complex assures effective luminescence in the visible range with well determined multi-peak spectrum emission enabling construction of the optrode. The fabricated UV optical fibre sensor was used for determination of Nd:YAG laser intensity measurements at the third harmonic (355 nm in the radiation power range 5.0-34.0 mW. The multi-peak luminescence spectrum was used for optimization of the measurement formula. The composition of luminescent peak intensity enables to increase the slope of sensitivity up to −2.8 mW-1. The obtained results and advantages of the optical fibre construction enable to apply it in numerous UV detection systems.

  8. Synthesis of transparent ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films through free-radical copolymerization of asymmetric zinc methacrylate acetate and in-situ thermal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lin [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Li Fan, E-mail: lfan@ncu.edu.cn [Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Chen Yiwang, E-mail: ywchen@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang Xiaofeng [Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2011-08-15

    In this paper, a new and simple approach for in-situ preparation of transparent ZnO/poly(metyl methacrylate) (ZnO/PMMA) nanocomposite films was developed. Poly(methyl methacrylate)-co-poly(zinc methacrylate acetate) (PMMA-co-PZnMAAc) copolymer was synthesized via free-radical polymerization between methyl methacrylate (MMA) and zinc methacrylate acetate (ZnMAAc), where asymmetric ZnMAAc with only one terminal double bond (C=C) was applied to act as the precursor for ZnO nanocrystals and could avoid cross-link. Subsequently, transparent ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films were obtained by in-situ thermal decomposition. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image revealed that ZnO nanocrystals were homogeneously dispersed in PMMA matrix. With thermal decomposition time increasing, the absorption intensity in UV region and photoluminescence intensity of ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films enhanced. However, the optical properties diminished when the thermal decomposition temperature increased. The TGA measurement displayed ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films prepared by the in-situ synthesis method possessed better thermal stability compared with those prepared by the physical blending method and pristine PMMA films. - Highlights: > ZnO/PMMA hybrid films were prepared via free-radical polymerization and in-situ thermal decomposition. > ZnO NCs are homogeneously dispersed in the PMMA matrix and these films have good optical properties. > Thermal stability of these films is improved compared with those of physically blending ones.

  9. Synthesis of transparent ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films through free-radical copolymerization of asymmetric zinc methacrylate acetate and in-situ thermal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Li Fan; Chen Yiwang; Wang Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new and simple approach for in-situ preparation of transparent ZnO/poly(metyl methacrylate) (ZnO/PMMA) nanocomposite films was developed. Poly(methyl methacrylate)-co-poly(zinc methacrylate acetate) (PMMA-co-PZnMAAc) copolymer was synthesized via free-radical polymerization between methyl methacrylate (MMA) and zinc methacrylate acetate (ZnMAAc), where asymmetric ZnMAAc with only one terminal double bond (C=C) was applied to act as the precursor for ZnO nanocrystals and could avoid cross-link. Subsequently, transparent ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films were obtained by in-situ thermal decomposition. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image revealed that ZnO nanocrystals were homogeneously dispersed in PMMA matrix. With thermal decomposition time increasing, the absorption intensity in UV region and photoluminescence intensity of ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films enhanced. However, the optical properties diminished when the thermal decomposition temperature increased. The TGA measurement displayed ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films prepared by the in-situ synthesis method possessed better thermal stability compared with those prepared by the physical blending method and pristine PMMA films. - Highlights: → ZnO/PMMA hybrid films were prepared via free-radical polymerization and in-situ thermal decomposition. → ZnO NCs are homogeneously dispersed in the PMMA matrix and these films have good optical properties. → Thermal stability of these films is improved compared with those of physically blending ones.

  10. Investigation of the ferroelectric switching behavior of P(VDF-TrFE)-PMMA blended films for synaptic device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E J; Kim, K A; Yoon, S M

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity can be mimicked by electronic synaptic devices. By using ferroelectric thin films as gate insulator for thin-film transistors (TFT), channel conductance can be defined as the synaptic plasticity, and gradually modulated by the variations in amounts of aligned ferroelectric dipoles. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)]-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blended films are chosen and their switching kinetics are investigated by using the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model. The switching time for ferroelectric polarization is sensitively influenced by the amplitude of applied electric field and volumetric ratio of ferroelectric beta-phases in the P(VDF-TrFE)-PMMA films. The switching time of the P(VDF-TrFE) increases with decreasing the pulse amplitude and/or the ratio of ferroelectric beta-phases by incorporation of PMMA. The activation electric field is also found to increase as the increase in blended amount of PMMA. Synapse TFTs are fabricated using the P(VDF-TrFE)-PMMA as gate insulator and In-Ga-Zn-O active channels. The drain currents of the synapse TFTs gradually increased when the voltage pulse signals with given duration are repeatedly applied. This suggests that the synaptic weights can be modulated by the number of external pulse signals, and that the proposed synapse TFT can be applied for mimicking the operations of bio-synapses. (paper)

  11. Preparation and characterization of Tb3+ and Tb(sal)3.nH2O doped PC:PMMA blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Y.; Singh, A.K.; Prakash, Rajiv; Rai, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Tb doped polycarbonate:poly(methyl methacrylate) (Tb-PC:PMMA) blend was prepared with varying proportions of PC and PMMA. Thermal and spectroscopic properties of the doped polymer have been investigated employing Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) absorption and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) techniques. PC:PMMA blend (with 10 wt% PC and 90 wt% PMMA) shows better miscibility. Optical properties of the dopant Tb 3+ ions have been investigated using UV-vis absorption and fluorescence excited by 355 nm radiation. It is seen that luminescence intensity of Tb 3+ ion depends on PC:PMMA ratio and on Tb 3+ ion concentration. Concentration quenching is seen for TbCl 3 .6H 2 O concentration larger than 4 wt%. Addition of salicylic acid to the polymer blend increases the luminescence from Tb 3+ ions. Luminescence decay curve analysis affirms the non-radiative energy transfer from salicylic acid to Tb 3+ ions, which is identified as the reason behind this enhancement. - Highlights: → Blend formation is confirmed at PC/90PMMA, using FTIR and DSC techniques. → Absorption and bandgap studies of blend and parent components were studied. → Optical properties of Tb and Tb(sal) 3 .nH 2 O complex have been studied in PC/PMMA blend. → Luminescence decay curves confirm non-radiative energy transfer from Sal to Tb 3+ ions.

  12. Thermally induced self-assembly of cylindrical nanodomains in low molecular weight PS-b-PMMA thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguini, Gabriele; Giammaria, Tommaso J; Lupi, Federico Ferrarese; Perego, Michele; Sparnacci, Katia; Antonioli, Diego; Gianotti, Valentina; Laus, Michele; Vita, Francesco; Placentino, Immacolata F; Francescangeli, Oriano; Hilhorst, Jan; Ferrero, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The phase behaviour in thin films of an asymmetric polystyrene-b-polymethylmethacrylate (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymer with a molecular weight of 39 kg mol −1 was assessed at a wide range of temperatures and times. Cylindrical PMMA structures featuring a diameter close to 10 nm and perpendicularly oriented with respect to the substrate were obtained at 180 ° C in relatively short annealing times (t ≤ 30 min) by means of a simple thermal treatment performed in a standard rapid thermal processing machine. (paper)

  13. Ag{sup +12} ion induced modifications of structural and optical properties of ZnO-PMMA nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sarla; Vijay, Y. K. [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302055 (India); Vyas, Rishi [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur-302017 (India)

    2013-02-05

    The influence of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on structural and photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnO-PMMA nanocomposite films, prepared by solution casting method, was studied. The ZnO-PMMA nanocomposite films were irradiated using 120 MeV Ag{sup +12} ions at different fluences varying from 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The intensity of the X-ray diffraction peaks is increased at the high fluence, without evolution of any new peak. A shift in absorption edge (i.e. shift in optical band gap) towards higher wavelength was observed after irradiation and PL from ZnO-PMMA nanocomposite films is found to increase up to a critical fluence and then found to be suppressed for higher fluence (1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} ion/cm{sup 2}). The change in photoluminescence after irradiation can be attributed to the change in microstructure of PMMA matrix as well as the agglomeration of ZnO nanoparticles.

  14. Ag+12 ion induced modifications of structural and optical properties of ZnO-PMMA nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sarla; Vijay, Y. K.; Vyas, Rishi

    2013-01-01

    The influence of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on structural and photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnO-PMMA nanocomposite films, prepared by solution casting method, was studied. The ZnO-PMMA nanocomposite films were irradiated using 120 MeV Ag +12 ions at different fluences varying from 1×10 11 to 1×10 13 ions/cm 2 . The intensity of the X-ray diffraction peaks is increased at the high fluence, without evolution of any new peak. A shift in absorption edge (i.e. shift in optical band gap) towards higher wavelength was observed after irradiation and PL from ZnO-PMMA nanocomposite films is found to increase up to a critical fluence and then found to be suppressed for higher fluence (1×10 12 ion/cm 2 ). The change in photoluminescence after irradiation can be attributed to the change in microstructure of PMMA matrix as well as the agglomeration of ZnO nanoparticles.

  15. Study of doping non-PMMA polymer fibre canes with UV photosensitive compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Fasano, Andrea; Janting, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    and hollow-core TOPAS canes were doped with a solution of dopants in acetone/methanol and hexane/methanol, respectively. Doping time, solvent mixture concentration and doping temperature were optimised. A long and stepwise drying process was applied to the doped canes to ensure complete solvent removal...

  16. Enhanced performance of P(VDF-HFP)-based composite polymer electrolytes doped with organic-inorganic hybrid particles PMMA-ZrO2 for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhiyan; Zhang, Yan; Fang, Rui; Yuan, Zun; Miao, Chang; Yan, Xuemin; Jiang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    To improve the ionic conductivity as well as enhance the mechanical strength of the gel polymer electrolyte, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoroprolene) (P(VDF-HFP))-based composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) membranes doped with the organic-inorganic hybrid particles poly(methyl methacrylate) -ZrO2 (PMMA-ZrO2) are prepared by phase inversion method, in which PMMA is successfully grafted onto the surface of the homemade nano-ZrO2 particles via in situ polymerization confirmed by FT-IR. XRD and DSC patterns show adding PMMA-ZrO2 particles into P(VDF-HFP) can significantly decrease the crystallinity of the CPE membrane. The CPE membrane doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can not only present a homogeneous surface with abundant interconnected micro-pores, but maintain its initial shape after thermal exposure at 160 °C for 1 h, in which the ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number at room temperature can reach to 3.59 × 10-3 S cm-1 and 0.41, respectively. The fitting results of the EIS plots indicate the doped PMMA-ZrO2 particles can significantly lower the interface resistance and promote lithium ions diffusion rate. The Li/CPE-sPZ/LiCoO2 and Li/CPE-sPZ/Graphite coin cells can deliver excellent rate and cycling performance. Those results suggest the P(VDF-HFP)-based CPE doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can become an exciting potential candidate as polymer electrolyte for the lithium ion battery.

  17. Synthesis of Antimony Doped Amorphous Carbon Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, H.; Takashima, M.; Akasaka, H.; Ohtake, N.

    2013-06-01

    We report the effects of antimony (Sb) doping on the electrical and optical properties of amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films grown on silicon and copper substrates by magnetron sputtering deposition. For film deposition, the mixture targets fabricated from carbon and antimony powders was used. The atomic concentration of carbon, hydrogen, and antimony, in the film deposited from the 1.0 mol% Sb containing target were 81, 17, 2 at.%, respectively. These elements were homogeneously distributed in the film. On the structural effect, the average continuous sp2 carbon bonding networks decreased with Sb concentration increasing, and defects in the films were increased with the Sb incorporation because atomic radius of Sb atoms is twice larger size than that of carbon. The optical gap and the electrical resistivity were carried out before and after the Sb doping. The results show that optical gap dropped from 3.15 to 3.04 eV corresponding to non-doping to Sb-doping conditions, respectively. The electrical resistivity reduced from 10.5 to 1.0 MΩm by the Sb doping. These results suggest the doping level was newly formed in the forbidden band.

  18. Synthesis of Antimony Doped Amorphous Carbon Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, H; Takashima, M; Akasaka, H; Ohtake, N

    2013-01-01

    We report the effects of antimony (Sb) doping on the electrical and optical properties of amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films grown on silicon and copper substrates by magnetron sputtering deposition. For film deposition, the mixture targets fabricated from carbon and antimony powders was used. The atomic concentration of carbon, hydrogen, and antimony, in the film deposited from the 1.0 mol% Sb containing target were 81, 17, 2 at.%, respectively. These elements were homogeneously distributed in the film. On the structural effect, the average continuous sp 2 carbon bonding networks decreased with Sb concentration increasing, and defects in the films were increased with the Sb incorporation because atomic radius of Sb atoms is twice larger size than that of carbon. The optical gap and the electrical resistivity were carried out before and after the Sb doping. The results show that optical gap dropped from 3.15 to 3.04 eV corresponding to non-doping to Sb-doping conditions, respectively. The electrical resistivity reduced from 10.5 to 1.0 MΩm by the Sb doping. These results suggest the doping level was newly formed in the forbidden band.

  19. MesoDyn simulation study on the phase morphologies of Miktoarm PEO-b-PMMA copolymer doped by nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dan; Li, Jian-Quan; Feng, Sheng-Yu

    2013-03-01

    The compatibility of six groups of 12 miktoarm poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PEO-b-PMMA) copolymers is studied at 270, 298 and 400 K via mesoscopic modeling. The values of the order parameters depend on both the architectures of the block copolymers and the simulation temperature, while the tendency to change of the order parameters at low temperature, such as 270 and 298 K, is nearly the same. However, the values of order parameters of the copolymer in the same group are the same at high temperature, i.e. 400 K. Obviously, temperature has a more obvious effect on long and PEO-rich chains. A study of plain copolymers doped with nanoparticles shows that the microscopic phase is influenced by not only the properties of the nanoparticles, such as the size, number and density, but also the composition and architecture of copolymers. Increasing the size and the number of the nanoparticles used as a dopant plays the most significant role on determining the phase morphologies of the copolymers at lower and higher temperature, respectively. In paricular, the 23141 and 23241-type copolymers, which are both of PEO-rich composition, presents microscopic phase separation as perforated lamallae phase morphologies at 400 K, alternated with PEO and PMMA components.

  20. Study of cerium doped magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}:Ce)/PMMA nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padalia, Diwakar, E-mail: Padalia.diwakar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttrakhand (India); Johri, U.C. [Department of Physics, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttrakhand (India); Zaidi, M.G.H. [Supercritical Fluid Processing Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttrakhand (India)

    2012-03-01

    The paper presents the synthesis and properties of polymer nanocomposite material based on cerium doped magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) as filler material and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) as host matrix. The magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) particles were synthesized by co-precipitation route using stable ferrous and ferric salts with ammonium hydroxide as precipitating agent. Further, they doped by cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) non-stoichiometrically. The composite material was fabricated by solvent evaporation method. Here 2.4 GHz microwaves were used to study the effect of microwaves heating on polymerization. The phase and crystal structure is determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The average crystallite size of the composites varies from 28 to 35 nm. The chemical structure is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The magnetic and thermal properties are investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal study shows that the microwave heated samples possess higher glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). The magnetic results suggest that coercivity (H{sub C}) and squareness (M{sub r}/M{sub s}) of the loop increases with increasing doping percent of cerium.

  1. Hydrophilic film polymerized on the inner surface of PMMA tube by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mengmeng; Huang, Jun; Yu, Jinsong; Chen, Guangliang; Qu, Shanqing

    2017-07-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) tube is widely used in biomedical and mechanical engineering fields. However, it is hampered for some special applications as the inner surface of PMMA tube exhibts a hydrophobic characteristic. The aim of this work is to explore the hydrophilic modification of the inner surface of the PMMA tubes using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) system that incorporates the acylic acid monomer (AA). Polar groups were grafted onto the inner surface of PMMA tube via the reactive radicals (•OH, •H, •O) generated in the Ar/O2/AA plasma, which were observed by the optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The deposition of the PAA thin layer on the PMMA surface was verified through the ATR-FTIR spectra, which clearly showed the strengthened stretching vibration of the carbonyl group (C=O) at 1700 cm-1. The XPS data show that the carbon ratios of C-OH/R and COOH/R groups increased from 9.50% and 0.07% to 13.49% and 17.07% respectively when a discharge power of 50 W was used in the APPJ system. As a result, the static water contat angle (WCA) of the modified inner surface of PMMA tube decreased from 100° to 48°. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the APP modified PMMA tubes was illustrated by the study of the adhesion of the cultured MC3T3-E1 osteocyte cells, which exhibted a significantly enhanced adhesion density.

  2. Studies of optical, morphological and electrical properties of POMA/PMMA blends, using two different levels of doping with CSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamara S. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(o-methoxyaniline (POMA was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of the monomer o-methoxyaniline. POMA/poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA blends were produced by dissolving both polymers in chloroform (CHCl3.The amount of camphor sulfonic acid (CSA used as dopant of POMA was different, providing two methods for preparation of the blends. Solutions were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and then deposited on glass substrate by spin coating for characterization by atomic force microscope (AFM and current versus voltage (I × V curves. FTIR spectra of solutions were similar as expected. In the AFM images a reduction and/or loss of globules common in conducting polymers (CP such as polyaniline (PANI and its derivatives was observed. Films produced with different amounts of CSA presented distinct, linear and non-linear I × V curves.

  3. Optical properties of Sr3B2O6:Dy3+/PMMA polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khursheed, Sumara; Kumar, Vinay; Singh, Vivek K.; Sharma, Jitendra; Swart, H. C.

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents a facile way to synthesize luminescent polymer nanocomposite (PNC) films consisting of nanophosphors (NPs) of rare earth ions doped alkaline earth borates (Sr3B2O6:Dy3+) dispersed in a polymer (PMMA) matrix via a solution casting method and the results of their detailed structural and optical properties measurements. The PNC films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Photoluminescence (PL), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The crystallinity of the dispersed NPs did not suffer on account of being dispersed in the PMMA. The Rhombohedral structure and the formation of a single phase of Sr3B2O6:Dy3+ were confirmed by the XRD data of both the NP powders and the PNC films with an average particle size of 43 nm. Also, the observed PL emission and excitation spectra of the PNC films amply suggested that embedding of the nanophosphors in the PMMA matrix preserves their typical luminescence emission. The chromaticity coordinates (x = 0.37, y = 0.39) of the PNC films also validated the yellowish white emission of the nanophosphor. DSC scans on the PMMA only and the Sr3B2O6:Dy3+/PMMA films suggested an increase in the thermal stability of the PNC films as compared to pure PMMA although no significant change in the glass transition temperature was observed.

  4. A comparative study on CdS: PEO and CdS: PMMA nanocomposite solid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaja, S.; Jayakumar, S.; Balaji, R.; Vaideki, K.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles were reinforced in Poly(ethylene Oxide) (PEO) and Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrices by in situ technique. The presence of CdS in PEO and PMMA matrix was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis disclosed the co-ordination of CdS in the matrices. Thermal analysis of the nanocomposites was carried out using Differential Scanning calorimetric studies (DSC). The optical studies using UV–vis spectroscopy were carried out to find the band gap of the materials and the absorption onset. The CdS particle size in the matrices was found by Effective Mass Approximation (EMA) model using the band gap values and was confirmed by TEM studies. The surface trapped emissions of the nanocomposites were observed from the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The distribution of CdS particles in the polymer matrices were presented by Atomic force microscopic studies (AFM).

  5. A comparative study on CdS: PEO and CdS: PMMA nanocomposite solid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmaja, S. [Thin film centre, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore (India); Jayakumar, S., E-mail: s_jayakumar_99@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, PSG Institute of Technology and Applied Research, Coimbatore (India); Balaji, R.; Vaideki, K. [Thin film centre, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore (India)

    2016-08-15

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles were reinforced in Poly(ethylene Oxide) (PEO) and Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrices by in situ technique. The presence of CdS in PEO and PMMA matrix was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis disclosed the co-ordination of CdS in the matrices. Thermal analysis of the nanocomposites was carried out using Differential Scanning calorimetric studies (DSC). The optical studies using UV–vis spectroscopy were carried out to find the band gap of the materials and the absorption onset. The CdS particle size in the matrices was found by Effective Mass Approximation (EMA) model using the band gap values and was confirmed by TEM studies. The surface trapped emissions of the nanocomposites were observed from the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The distribution of CdS particles in the polymer matrices were presented by Atomic force microscopic studies (AFM).

  6. Optoelectronic properties of doped hydrothermal ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad J.; Carberry, Benjamin; Oh, Sang Ho; Myzaferi, Anisa; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    , or In were evaluated for their optoelectronic properties. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of dopants within the ZnO films. While Al and Ga-doped films showed linear incorporation rates

  7. Nonlinear optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films doped with Bixa Orellana dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongo, S., E-mail: sidiki@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, POBox 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Kerasidou, A.P. [LUNAM Université, Université d’Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex (France); Sone, B.T.; Diallo, A. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, POBox 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Mthunzi, P. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Iliopoulos, K. [LUNAM Université, Université d’Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex (France); Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504 Patras (Greece); Nkosi, M. [Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); and others

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We studied the linear and nonlinear optical properties of hybrid Bixa Orellana dye doped PMMA thin film. • We investigated the linear optical properties by means of UV/Vis, FTIR and Fluorescence. • We used Tauc - Lorentz model to evaluate linear optical parameters (n &k) with relative maximum of 1.456 at 508.5, 523.79 and 511.9 nm for n is observed while the maximum of k varies from 0.070 to 0.080. • We evaluated nonlinear third order susceptibility which was found to be 1.00 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} V{sup −2} or 0.72 × 10{sup −13} esu. - Abstract: Natural dyes with highly delocalized π-electron systems are considered as promising organic materials for nonlinear optical applications. Among these dyes, Bixa Orellana dye with extended π-electron delocalization is one of the most attractive dyes. Bixa Orellana dye-doped Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films were prepared through spin coating process for linear and nonlinear optical properties investigation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the roughness of the thin films. The optical constants n and k were evaluated by ellipsometric spectroscopy. The refractive index had a maximum of about 1.456 at 508.5, 523.79 and 511.9 nm, while the maximum of k varies from 0.070 to 0.080 with the thickness. The third order nonlinear optical properties of the hybrid Bixa Orellana dye-PMMA polymer were investigated under 30 ps laser irradiation at 1064 nm with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. In particular the third-order nonlinear susceptibility has been determined by means of the Maker Fringes technique. The nonlinear third order susceptibility was found to be 1.00 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} V{sup −2} or 0.72 × 10{sup −13} esu. Our studies provide concrete evidence that the hybrid-PMMA composites of Bixa dye are prospective candidates for nonlinear material applications.

  8. Effects of elevated temperatures during interruption of irradiation on Harwell Red 4034 PMMA and Kodak Biomax alanine film dosimetry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidereas, P.; Patil, D. S.; Garcia, R.; Tracy, R. P.; Holzman, J. M.

    2007-11-01

    In the industrial setting it is not uncommon for a process interruption to occur during irradiation. In this event, dosimeters may be exposed to prolonged periods of elevated temperature without exposure to ionizing radiation. Once the process is restarted, the same dosimeters are exposed to ionizing radiation in order to achieve target dose. The goal of this experiment was to simulate a process interruption within limits and quantify the effects of a combination of factors (heat, time, and fractionation) on dosimeter response. We present an in-depth experimental study on the response of dosimeters that have been irradiated, stored for a fixed period of time at several temperatures, and then re-irradiated. This study was performed using Harwell Red 4034 polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and Kodak BioMax alanine film dosimeters.

  9. Hydroxyapatite thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition and magnetron sputtering on PMMA substrates for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socol, G.; Macovei, A.M.; Miroiu, F.; Stefan, N.; Duta, L.; Dorcioman, G.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Petrescu, S.M.; Stan, G.E.; Marcov, D.A.; Chiriac, A.; Poeata, I.

    2010-01-01

    Functionalized implants represent an advanced approaching in implantology, aiming to improve the biointegration and the long-term success of surgical procedures. We report on the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films on polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) substrates - used as cranio-spinal implant-type structures - by two alternative methods: pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and radio-frequency magnetron sputtering (MS). The deposition parameters were optimized in order to avoid the substrate overheating. Stoichiometric HA structures were obtained by PLD with incident laser fluences of 1.4-2.75 J/cm 2 , pressures of 30-46.66 Pa and 10 Hz pulses repetition rate. The MS depositions were performed at constant pressure of 0.3 Pa in inert and reactive atmospheres. SEM-EDS, XRD, FTIR and pull-out measurements were performed assessing the apatitic-type structure of the prepared films along with their satisfactory mechanical adhesion. Cell viability, proliferation and adhesion tests in osteosarcoma SaOs2 cell cultures were performed to validate the bioactive behaviour of the structures and to select the most favourable deposition regimes. For PLD, this requires a low fluence of 1.4 J/cm 2 , reduced pressure of water vapours and a 100 o C/4 h thermal treatment. For MS, the best results were obtained for 80% Ar + 20% O 2 reactive atmosphere at low RF power (∼75 W). Cells grown on these coatings exhibit behaviour similar to those grown on the standard borosilicate glass control: increased viability, good proliferation, and optimal cell adhesion. In vitro tests proved that HA/PMMA neurosurgical structures prepared by PLD and MS are compatible for the interaction with human bone cells.

  10. Preparation and properties of PMMA nanoparticles as 3 dimensional photonic crystals and its thin film via surfactant-free emulsion polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrin, Rabiatul Addawiyah Azwa; Azma, Nur Syafiqa; Kassim, Syara; Harun, Noor Aniza

    2017-09-01

    3-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals have been extended use in wide research and application from material to sensor. Nanoparticles of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) latex beads have been successfully prepared by green-chemistry approach where no surfactant, linking agent and solvent were involved. Regardless of the effect of initiator in polymerization reaction, this study presents the effect of temperature, monomer concentration, stirring speed and reaction period in order to tune the particle size. Its morphology of uniformity sized-tuned was confirming by using particle size analyzer (PSA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fabrication of 3D photonic crystals film by using self-assembly method to pattern the desired PMMA layers which is the most feasible, low cost method are also presented. The detailed properties of PMMA nanoparticles from this experimental study will be discussed and its potential used in photonic application will be explained.

  11. Determination of the linear coefficient of thermal expansion in polymer films at the nanoscale: influence of the composition of EVA copolymers and the molecular weight of PMMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Benito, J; Castillo, E; Cruz-Caldito, J F

    2015-07-28

    Nanothermal-expansion of poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate), EVA, and poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, in the form of films was measured to finally obtain linear coefficients of thermal expansion, CTEs. The simple deflection of a cantilever in an atomic force microscope, AFM, was used to monitor thermal expansions at the nanoscale. The influences of: (a) the structure of EVA in terms of its composition (vinylacetate content) and (b) the size of PMMA chains in terms of the molecular weight were studied. To carry out this, several polymer samples were used, EVA copolymers with different weight percents of the vinylacetate comonomer (12, 18, 25 and 40%) and PMMA polymers with different weight average molecular weights (33.9, 64.8, 75.600 and 360.0 kg mol(-1)). The dependencies of the vinyl acetate weight fraction of EVA and the molecular weight of PMMA on their corresponding CTEs were analyzed to finally explain them using new, intuitive and very simple models based on the rule of mixtures. In the case of EVA copolymers a simple equation considering the weighted contributions of each comonomer was enough to estimate the final CTE above the glass transition temperature. On the other hand, when the molecular weight dependence is considered the free volume concept was used as novelty. The expansion of PMMA, at least at the nanoscale, was well and easily described by the sum of the weighted contributions of the occupied and free volumes, respectively.

  12. Irradiation effect on PP/PMMA and PP/PP-g-PMMA matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsongko; Soebianto, Yanti S.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of PMMA and PP-g-PMMA on the oxidation of polypropylene (PP) have been studied. The mixing was done in Laboplastomill at the temperature of 200 o C, and screw speed of 20 rpm, for 5 minutes. The PMMA concentrations were 1, 2, 5, and 10% by weight, and PP-g-PMMA (12% grafting) 5, 10, and 20% by weight. Mechanical properties (tensile strength (Tb) and elongation at break (Eb)( of the mixture decreased with the increase of PMMA content over 5%. The addition of PMMA over 3% produced non-transparent film. Electron beam irradiation at the dose of 5, 10, 30, and 50 kGy was carried out to accelerate the matrix oxidation is accelerated. The optimum properties of PP/PMMA blends can be achieved by addition of maximum 2% PMMA either direct as PMMA or as compatibilizer (PP-g-PMMA). (authors)

  13. Investigation of antibacterial and wettability behaviours of plasma-modified PMMA films for application in ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Abbasi-Firouzjah, Marzieh; Shokri, Babak

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research is the experimental investigation of the surface properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) such as wettability and the roughness effect on Escherichia coli (gram negative) cell adhesion. Radio frequency (RF; 13.56 MHz) oxygen plasma was used to enhance the antibacterial and wettability properties of this polymer for biomedical applications, especially ophthalmology. The surface was activated by O 2 plasma to produce hydrophilic functional groups. Samples were treated with various RF powers from 10 to 80 W and different gas flow rates from 20 to 120 sccm. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to monitor the plasma process. The modified surface hydrophilicity, morphology and transparency characteristics were studied by water contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy, respectively. Based on the contact angle measurements of three liquids, surface free energy variations were investigated. Moreover, the antibacterial properties were evaluated utilizing the method of plate counting of Escherichia coli. Also, in order to investigate stability of the plasma treatment, an ageing study was carried out by water contact angle measurements repeated in the days after the treatment. For biomedical applications, especially eye lenses, highly efficient antibacterial surfaces with appropriate hydrophilicity and transparency are of great importance. In this study, it is shown that the plasma process is a reliable and convenient method to achieve these purposes. A significant alteration in the hydrophilicity of a pristine PMMA surface was observed after treatment. Also, our results indicated that the plasma-modified PMMAs exhibit appropriate antibacterial performance. Moreover, surface hydrophilicity and surface charge have more influence on bacterial adhesion rate than surface roughness. UV–vis analysis results do not show a considerable difference for transparency of samples after plasma treatment

  14. Ferroelectric Phase Diagram of PVDF:PMMA

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mengyuan; Stingelin, Natalie; Michels, Jasper J.; Spijkman, Mark-Jan; Asadi, Kamal; Feldman, Kirill; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the ferroelectric phase diagram of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The binary nonequilibrium temperature composition diagram was determined and melting of alpha- and beta-phase PVDF was identified. Ferroelectric beta-PVDF:PMMA blend films were made by melting, ice quenching, and subsequent annealing above the glass transition temperature of PMMA, close to the melting temperature of PVDF. Addition of PMMA suppresses the crystallizatio...

  15. Mechanical properties of phosphorus-doped polysilicon films

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S W; Kim, J P; Park, S J; Yi, S W; Cho, D I; Kim, J J

    1998-01-01

    Polysilicon films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) are the most widely used structural material in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However, the structural properties of LPCVD polysilicon films are known to vary significantly, depending on deposition conditions as well as post-deposition processes. This paper investigates the effects of phosphorus doping and texture on Young's modulus of polysilicon films. Polysilicon films are deposited at 585 .deg. C, 605 .deg. C, and 625 .deg. C to a thickness of 2 mu m. Specimens with varying phosphorus doping levels are prepared by the diffusion process at various temperatures and times using both POCl sub 3 and phosphosilicate glass (PSG) source. Texture is measured using an X-ray diffractometer. Young's modulus is estimated from the average values of the resonant frequencies measured from four-different size lateral resonators. Our results show that Young's modulus of diffusion doped polysilicon films decreases with increasing doping co...

  16. Nanoparticles doped film sensing based on terahertz metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weimin; Fan, Fei; Chang, Shengjiang; Hou, Jiaqing; Chen, Meng; Wang, Xianghui; Bai, Jinjun

    2017-12-01

    A nanoparticles concentration sensor based on doped film and terahertz (THz) metamaterial has been proposed. By coating the nanoparticles doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film on the surface of THz metamaterial, the effects of nanoparticle concentration on the metamaterial resonances are investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. Results show that resonant frequency of the metamaterial linearly decreases with the increment of doping concentration. Furthermore, numerical simulations illustrate that the redshift of resonance results from the changes of refractive index of the doped film. The concentration sensitivity of this sensor is 3.12 GHz/0.1%, and the refractive index sensitivity reaches 53.33 GHz/RIU. This work provides a non-contact, nondestructive and sensitive method for the detection of nanoparticles concentration and brings out a new application on THz film metamaterial sensing.

  17. Neutron Detection Utilizing Gadolinium Doped Hafnium Oxide Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blasy, Bryan D

    2008-01-01

    ... retains monoclinic local symmetery for all levels of doping. Current as a function of voltage experiments identified the films as having poor diode characteristics with high leakage current in the forward bias region...

  18. Pure and Sn-doped ZnO films produced by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmelund, E.; Schou, Jørgen; Tougaard, S.

    2002-01-01

    A new technique, metronome doping, has been used for doping of films during pulsed laser deposition (PLD). This technique makes it possible to dope continuously during film growth with different concentrations of a dopant in one deposition sequence. Films of pure and doped ZnO have been produced...

  19. Spectral and time-resolved properties of photoinduced hydroxyquinolines doped thin polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2018-01-01

    Quinoline and its derivatives have a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities. Quinoline ring is used to design functional materials (quinoline derivatives) for OLEDs and field-induce electrooptics. It possesses antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, cardiotonic, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant and analgesic activity. Here, we have examined photoexcitation dynamics of 6-hydroxyquinoline (6-HQ) doped in polymer films of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and cellulose acetate (CA) at atmospheric conditions. The absorption maximum of 6-HQ in polymer films was observed at 333 ± 1 nm, whereas fluorescence (FL) maximum fell in the range of 365-371 nm. In PVA film, in addition to the typical FL, a band maximum at 432 nm appeared as a result of an excited-state intermolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction facilitated in the hydrogen-bonded complex formed in the ground state between 6-HQ:PVA. The multi-exponential decay behavior of 6-HQ in all the three polymer films indicates a nanoscale heterogeneity of the polymer environments.

  20. Linearly and circularly polarized laser photoinduced molecular order in azo dye doped polymer films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Bendaoud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Photo-induced behavior of Azo Disperse one (AZD1 doped Poly(Methyl MethAcrylate (PMMA using both linear and circular polarized light is studied. The anisotropy is not erased by the circular polarization light. The circular polarization light combined with relatively long lifetime of the cis state in azo dye doped polymers activate all transverse directions of the angular hole burning through the spot in the film inducing anisotropy. Under circular polarized light, there is no orientation perpendicularly to the helex described by the rotating electric field vector, trans molecules reorients in the propagation direction of the pump beam. The polarization state of the probe beam after propagation through the pumped spot depends strongly on the angle of incidence of both pump and probe beams on the input face. In the case where circular polarized pump and probe beams are under the same angle of incidence, the probe beam “sees” anisotropic film as if it is isotropic. Results of this work shows the possibility to reorient azobenzene-type molecules in two orthogonal directions using alternately linearly and circularly polarized beams.

  1. Effect of Grafting Density of Random Copolymer Brushes on Perpendicular Alignment in PS-b-PMMA Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Wooseop; Park, Sungmin; Kim, Yeongsik; Sethuraman, Vaidyanathan; Rebello, Nathan; Ganesan, Venkat; Ryu, Du Yeol

    2017-01-01

    We modulated the grafting density (σ) of a random copolymer brush of poly(styrene-r-methyl methacrylate) on substrates to probe its effect on the formation of perpendicularly aligned lamellae of polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA). Supported by coarse-grained simulation results, we hypothesized that an increase in σ will allow us to systematically tune the block copolymer interfacial interactions with the substrates from being preferential to one of the blocks to being neutral toward both blocks and will thereby facilitate enhanced regimes of perpendicularly aligned lamellae. We verified such a hypothesis by using a simple grafting-to approach to modify the substrates and characterized the thickness window for perpendicular lamellae as a function of brush thickness (or σ) on the grafted substrates using scanning force microscopy (SFM) images and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements. The experimental results validated our hypothesis and suggested that the σ of random copolymer brushes can be used as an additional versatile parameter to modulate the interfacial interactions and the resulting alignment of block copolymer films.

  2. Effect of Grafting Density of Random Copolymer Brushes on Perpendicular Alignment in PS-b-PMMA Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Wooseop

    2017-07-18

    We modulated the grafting density (σ) of a random copolymer brush of poly(styrene-r-methyl methacrylate) on substrates to probe its effect on the formation of perpendicularly aligned lamellae of polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA). Supported by coarse-grained simulation results, we hypothesized that an increase in σ will allow us to systematically tune the block copolymer interfacial interactions with the substrates from being preferential to one of the blocks to being neutral toward both blocks and will thereby facilitate enhanced regimes of perpendicularly aligned lamellae. We verified such a hypothesis by using a simple grafting-to approach to modify the substrates and characterized the thickness window for perpendicular lamellae as a function of brush thickness (or σ) on the grafted substrates using scanning force microscopy (SFM) images and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements. The experimental results validated our hypothesis and suggested that the σ of random copolymer brushes can be used as an additional versatile parameter to modulate the interfacial interactions and the resulting alignment of block copolymer films.

  3. Optical modelling of photoluminescence emitted by thin doped films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeat, P.; Easwarakhanthan, T.; Briancon, J.L.; Rinnert, H.

    2011-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectra emitted by doped films are deformed owing to film thickness-dependent wave interference. This hampers knowing well their PL generating mechanisms as well as designing photonic devices with suitable geometries that improve their PL efficiency. We develop in this paper an energy model for PL emitted by doped films considering the interaction between the wavelength-differing incident standing and emitted waves, their energy transfer in-between, and the interferences undergone by both. The film optical constants are estimated fitting the model to the measured PL. This simple model has thus allowed us to interpret the evolution of PL emitted by Er-doped AlN films prepared on Si substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering. The shapes, the amplitudes, and the illusive sub-spectral features of the PL spectra depend essentially on the film thickness. The model further predicts high sensitivity for PL emitted by non-homogenously doped stacked-films to incident light wavelengths and film-thickness variations. This property has potential applications in tracking wavelength variations and in measuring physical quantities producing thickness variations. This model may be used to optimise PL efficiency of photonic devices through different film geometries and optical properties.

  4. Optical Properies of Polystyrene Films Doped by Methyl Green Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrar A. Saeed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of methyl green (MG dye on the optical properties of polystyrene (PS have been studied. Pure polystyrene and MG doped PS films were prepared by using casting method. These films were characterized using UV/VIS spectrophotometer technique in order to estimate the type of electric transition which was found to be indirect transition. The value of the optical energy gap was decreased with increasing doping ratios of methyl green dye. Absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index and energy gap have been also investigated; it was found that all the above parameters affects by doping dye.

  5. VOx effectively doping CVD-graphene for transparent conductive films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qinghua; Shi, Liangjing; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Weiqi; Zheng, Huifeng; Zhang, Yuzhi; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing

    2016-11-01

    Chemical vapor deposition(CVD)-synthesized graphene is potentially an alternative for tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) transparent conductive films (TCFs), however its sheet resistance is still too high to meet many demands. Vanadium oxide has been widely applied as smart window materials, however, no study has been reported to use it as dopant to improve the conductivity of graphene TCFs. In this study, we firstly reported that VOx doping can effectively lower the sheet resistance of CVD-graphene films while keeping its good optical properties, whose transmittance is as high as 86-90%. The optimized VOx-doped graphene exhibits a sheet resistance as low as 176 Ω/□, which decreases by 56% compared to the undoped graphene films. The doping process is convenient, stable, economical and easy to operate. What is more, VOx can effectively increase the work function(WF) of the film, making it more appropriate for use in solar cells. The evolution of the VOx species annealed at different temperatures below 400 °C has been detailed studied for the first time, based on which the doping mechanism is proposed. The prepared VOx doped graphene is expected to be a promising candidate for transparent conductive film purposes.

  6. Optoelectronic properties of doped hydrothermal ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad J.

    2017-03-10

    Group III impurity doped ZnO thin films were deposited on MgAl2O3 substrates using a simple low temperature two-step deposition method involving atomic layer deposition and hydrothermal epitaxy. Films with varying concentrations of either Al, Ga, or In were evaluated for their optoelectronic properties. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of dopants within the ZnO films. While Al and Ga-doped films showed linear incorporation rates with the addition of precursors salts in the hydrothermal growth solution, In-doped films were shown to saturate at relatively low concentrations. It was found that Ga-doped films showed the best performance in terms of electrical resistivity and optical absorbance when compared to those doped with In or Al, with a resistivity as low as 1.9 mΩ cm and an optical absorption coefficient of 441 cm−1 at 450 nm.

  7. Phase Holograms In PMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Paul D.; Muller, Richard E.

    1994-01-01

    Complex, computer-generated phase holograms written in thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by process of electron-beam exposure followed by chemical development. Spatial variations of phase delay in holograms quasi-continuous, as distinquished from stepwise as in binary phase holograms made by integrated-circuit fabrication. Holograms more precise than binary holograms. Greater continuity and precision results in decreased scattering loss and increased imaging efficiency.

  8. Fluorine doped vanadium dioxide thin films for smart windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiri, Pragna; Warwick, Michael E.A.; Ridley, Ian; Binions, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Thermochromic fluorine doped thin films of vanadium dioxide were deposited from the aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition reaction of vanadyl acetylacetonate, ethanol and trifluoroacetic acid on glass substrates. The films were characterised with scanning electron microscopy, variable temperature Raman spectroscopy and variable temperature UV/Vis spectroscopy. The incorporation of fluorine in the films led to an increase in the visible transmittance of the films whilst retaining the thermochromic properties. This approach shows promise for improving the aesthetic properties of vanadium dioxide thin films.

  9. Indium doped zinc oxide thin films obtained by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, G.; Guerra, D.N.; Leinen, D.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.; Marotti, R.E.; Dalchiele, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Indium doped ZnO thin films were obtained by co-electrodeposition (precursor and dopant) from aqueous solution. XRD analysis showed typical patterns of the hexagonal ZnO structure for both doped and undoped films. No diffraction peaks of any other structure such as In 2 O 3 or In(OH) 3 were found. The incorporation of In into the ZnO film was verified by both EDS and XPS measurements. The bandgap energy of the films varied from 3.27 eV to 3.42 eV, increasing with the In concentration in the solution. This dependence was stronger for the less cathodic potentials. The incorporation of In into the film occurs as both, an In donor state in the ZnO grains and as an amorphous In 2 O 3 at the grain boundaries

  10. Tantalum-doped hydroxyapatite thin films: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligot, S.; Godfroid, T.; Music, D.; Bousser, E.; Schneider, J.M.; Snyders, R.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve a good bioactivity, magnetron-sputtered (MS) hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have to be stoichiometric and crystalline. It has also been suggested that doping HA with metallic elements improves its bioactivity but frequently reduces its Young’s modulus. Therefore, efforts are still necessary to identify adequate growth conditions, good doping elements and finally to grow doped HA films. In a first attempt, HA films have been synthesized by MS. Our conditions enabled us to grow at ∼10 nm min −1 stoichiometric and crystallized HA coatings that presented a strong texture. The latter is discussed in view of the competitive growth of the material under the strong electron and ion bombardments used here. Based on ab initio calculations identifying Ta as a promising doping element, we then investigated the growth of Ta-doped hydroxyapatite (HA:Ta) by magnetron co-sputtering. The HA:Ta films were in situ crystallized. Our data reveals that for Ta contents <4.5 at.%, Ta could substitute Ca in the HA cell. For higher doping contents, a deviation from the stoichiometric compound is observed and CaO appears. By nanoindentation, we have measured an elastic modulus of 120 ± 9 GPa for a Ta content of 3 at.%. This value is very close to the value of 110 GPa calculated by ab initio calculations, supporting the substitution scenario. The elasticity drop may be understood by screening of the ionic interaction between constituents in HA upon Ta incorporation.

  11. RBS and XRD analysis of silicon doped titanium diboride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollica, S.; Sood, D.K.; Ghantasala, M.K.; Kothari, R.

    1999-01-01

    Titanium diboride is a newly developed material suitable for protective coatings. Its high temperature oxidation resistance at temperatures of 700 deg C and beyond is limited due to its poor oxidative behaviour. This paper presents a novel approach to improving the coatings' oxidative characteristics at temperatures of 700 deg C by doping with silicon. Titanium diboride films were deposited onto Si(100) wafer substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering system. Films were deposited in two different compositions, one at pure TiB 2 and the other with 20 % Si doping. These samples were vacuum annealed at 700 deg C at 1x10 -6 Torr to investigate the anaerobic behaviour of the material at elevated temperatures and to ensure that they were crystalline. Samples were then oxidised in air at 700 deg C to investigate their oxidation resistance. Annealing the films at 700 deg C in air results in the oxidation of the film as titanium and boron form TiO 2 and B 2 O 3 . Annealing is seen to produce only minor changes in the films. There is some silicon diffusion from the substrate at elevated temperatures, which is related to the porous nature of the deposited film and the high temperature heat treatments. However, silicon doped films showed relatively less oxidation characteristics after annealing in air compared with the pure TiB 2 samples

  12. Flux pinning in MOD YBCO films by chemical doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y X; Ghalsasi, S; Rusakova, I; Salama, K

    2007-01-01

    A novel nanomaterial synthesis technique has been developed to introduce 0D (particles), 1D (columnar defects) and 3D (domains) nanoscale pinning centres in MOD Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) coated conductors. We have succeeded in introducing nanoscale Y enriched particles, nanoscale 90 0 rotated Y 1/3 Sm 2/3 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 domains and nanoscale Zr enriched columnar defects into YBCO layers by different chemical doping. The pinning force density in Y 2 O 3 -doped YBCO film is found to be larger than that of pure YBCO film at all fields. Also it was found that YBCO films with Sm substituting for Y have yielded improved critical current density characteristics over a wide range of magnetic fields. Maximum pinning force densities exceeding 7 and 8 GN m -3 are obtained in 5% BZO-doped and Sm substituted YBCO films, respectively. Additionally, TEM studies revealed nanoscale Zr enriched columnar defects distributing in the matrix of the c-oriented YBCO film throughout the whole cross section. This indicates that chemical doping is a promising fabrication technique to create specific pinning landscapes in YBCO coated conductors

  13. Polyaniline emeraldine base nanofibers as a radiostabilizing agent for PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Patricia L.B.; Ferreira, Carlas C.; Araujo, Elmo S.

    2007-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) presents antioxidant and radical-scavenging properties. Substances having these characteristics are good candidates for radioprotecting agents. Some studies have also shown results pointing out to biocompatibility and biodegradability of PANI. These characteristics are desirable for substances in contact with biological tissues and have important implications for inclusion of PANI in physical mixtures with conventional radiosterilizable polymers. In this work, nanofibers of polyaniline emeraldine doped with (±)-camphor-10-sulfonic acid (PANI-(±)-CSA) were prepared by self-assembly method. Polyaniline emeraldine base (PANI-EB) nanofibers were obtained after dedoping with NH 4 OH and used as additives in films of commercial poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). In order to assess possible radiostabilizing effects of PANI-EB and its aniline monomer (An) on the PMMA matrix, films containing 0.075 and 0.15% (wt/wt) of these substances were submitted to gamma irradiation from 25 to 75 kGy doses. Variation on viscosity-average molar mass (Mv) of the PMMA matrix at 25 kGy dose showed that samples containing An and PANI-EB nanofibers in amounts of 0.15% (wt/wt) underwent less degradation than control sample. When nanofibers were used as additives, no measurable variation of Mv could be detected in PMMA samples at this dose. At 75 kGy, all composites containing PANI-EB nanofibers underwent less degradation than control samples, suggesting that these additives are able to retain their action at doses higher than standard sterilization dose. These evidences show that PANI-EB nanofibers could be useful additives in commercial PMMA used in medical applications. FTIR spectroscopic characterization and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of PANI samples were also performed. (author)

  14. Preparation and Faraday rotation of Bi-YIG/PMMA nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, H. P.; Hong, R. Y.; Wu, Y. J.; Di, G. Q.; Xu, B.; Zheng, Y.; Wei, D. G.

    Bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi-YIG) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by coprecipitation and subsequent heating treatment. Thermal gravity-differential thermal analysis was performed to investigate the thermal behavior of the Bi-YIG precursors and to decide the best annealing temperature. Phase formation of garnet NPs was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction. The size of Bi-YIG NPs was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, and the magnetic properties of Bi-YIG NPs were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The results show that the temperature needed for the transformation of Bi-YIG from the amorphous phase to the garnet phase decreases with increasing Bi content, and Bi-YIG NPs with sizes of 28-78 nm are obtained after heating treatment at 650-1000 °C. The saturation magnetization of Bi-YIG NPs increases as the Bi content increases. Moreover, the Faraday rotation of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slices doped with Bi-YIG NPs was investigated. The results indicate that the angle of Faraday rotation increases with increasing Bi content in PMMA composites, and the maximum value of the figure of merit is 1.46°, which is comparable to the value of a sputtered film. The Bi-YIG NPs-doped PMMA slices are new promising materials for magneto-optical devices.

  15. Doping graphene films via chemically mediated charge transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa Ryousuke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transparent conductive films (TCFs are critical components of a myriad of technologies including flat panel displays, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. Graphene-based TCFs have attracted a lot of attention because of their high electrical conductivity, transparency, and low cost. Carrier doping of graphene would potentially improve the properties of graphene-based TCFs for practical industrial applications. However, controlling the carrier type and concentration of dopants in graphene films is challenging, especially for the synthesis of p-type films. In this article, a new method for doping graphene using the conjugated organic molecule, tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ, is described. Notably, TCNQ is well known as a powerful electron accepter and is expected to favor electron transfer from graphene into TCNQ molecules, thereby leading to p-type doping of graphene films. Small amounts of TCNQ drastically improved the resistivity without degradation of optical transparency. Our carrier doping method based on charge transfer has a huge potential for graphene-based TCFs.

  16. Altering properties of cerium oxide thin films by Rh doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ševčíková, Klára; Nehasil, Václav; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Haviar, Stanislav; Matolín, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin films of ceria doped by rhodium deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. • Concentration of rhodium has great impact on properties of Rh–CeO x thin films. • Intensive oxygen migration in films with low concentration of rhodium. • Oxygen migration suppressed in films with high amount of Rh dopants. - Abstract: Ceria containing highly dispersed ions of rhodium is a promising material for catalytic applications. The Rh–CeO x thin films with different concentrations of rhodium were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and were studied by soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, Temperature programmed reaction and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The sputtered films consist of rhodium–cerium mixed oxide where cerium exhibits a mixed valency of Ce 4+ and Ce 3+ and rhodium occurs in two oxidation states, Rh 3+ and Rh n+ . We show that the concentration of rhodium has a great influence on the chemical composition, structure and reducibility of the Rh–CeO x thin films. The films with low concentrations of rhodium are polycrystalline, while the films with higher amount of Rh dopants are amorphous. The morphology of the films strongly influences the mobility of oxygen in the material. Therefore, varying the concentration of rhodium in Rh–CeO x thin films leads to preparing materials with different properties

  17. Au nanoparticles in PMMA matrix: In situ synthesis and the effect of Au nanoparticles on PMMA conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Eda; Suzer, Sefik

    2010-01-01

    Thin PMMA films with and without gold nanoparticles were subjected to ±10 V d.c. and a.c. (square wave) excitations in various frequencies while recording their XPS spectra, and the resulting differences due to charging were examined. Both pure PMMA films and films containing gold nanoparticles showed charging shifts, but those of pure PMMA were more extensive than of PMMA containing gold nanoparticles, suggesting enhanced conductivity, induced by the incorporated gold nanoparticles. Non-charging behavior for these films was also observed with the increase of gold nanoparticle concentration. Gold nanoparticles were in situ synthesized and photo-patterned within the polymer films by UV irradiation.

  18. In situ atomic force microscopy studies of reversible light-induced switching of surface roughness and adhesion in azobenzene-containing PMMA films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.; Gonzalez-Garcia, Y.; Pakula, C.; Zaporojtchenko, V.; Strunskus, T.; Faupel, F.; Herges, R.; Zargarani, D.; Magnussen, O.M.

    2011-01-01

    Thin films in the range 40-80 nm of a blend of PMMA with an azobenzene derivative have been studied directly during UV and blue light irradiation by atomic force microscopy (AFM), revealing highly reversible changes in the surface roughness and the film adhesion. UV light induces an ∼80% increase in surface roughness, whereas illumination by blue light completely reverses these changes. Based on the observed surface topography and transition kinetics a reversible mass flow mechanisms is suggested, where the polarity changes upon switching trigger a wetting-dewetting transition in a surface segregation layer of the chromophore. Similar AFM measurements of the pull-off force indicate a decrease upon UV and an increase after blue light illumination with a complex kinetic behavior: a rapid initial change, attributed to the change in the cis isomer fraction of the azobenzene derivative, and a more gradual change, indicative of slow structural reorganization.

  19. Multiple delta doping of single crystal cubic boron nitride films heteroepitaxially grown on (001)diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H.; Ziemann, P.

    2014-06-01

    Phase pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN) films have been epitaxially grown on (001) diamond substrates at 900 °C. The n-type doping of c-BN epitaxial films relies on the sequential growth of nominally undoped (p-) and Si doped (n-) layers with well-controlled thickness (down to several nanometer range) in the concept of multiple delta doping. The existence of nominally undoped c-BN overgrowth separates the Si doped layers, preventing Si dopant segregation that was observed for continuously doped epitaxial c-BN films. This strategy allows doping of c-BN films can be scaled up to multiple numbers of doped layers through atomic level control of the interface in the future electronic devices. Enhanced electronic transport properties with higher hall mobility (102 cm2/V s) have been demonstrated at room temperature as compared to the normally continuously Si doped c-BN films.

  20. On single doping and co-doping of spray pyrolysed ZnO films: Structural, electrical and optical characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimalkumar, T.V.; Poornima, N.; Jinesh, K.B.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present studies on ZnO thin films (prepared using Chemical Spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique) doped in two different ways; in one set, 'single doping' using indium was done while in the second set, 'co-doping' using indium and fluorine was adopted. In the former case, effect of in-situ as well as ex-situ doping using In was analyzed. Structural (XRD studies), electrical (I-V measurements) and optical characterizations (through absorption, transmission and photoluminescence studies) of the films were done. XRD analysis showed that, for spray-deposited ZnO films, ex-situ doping using Indium resulted in preferred (0 0 2) plane orientation, while in-situ doping caused preferred orientation along (1 0 0), (0 0 2), (1 0 1) planes; however for higher percentage of in-situ doping, orientation of grains changed from (0 0 2) plane to (1 0 1) plane. The co-doped films had (0 0 2) and (1 0 1) planes. Lowest resistivity (2 x 10 -3 Ω cm) was achieved for the films, doped with 1% Indium through in-situ method. Photoluminescence (PL) emissions of ex-situ doped and co-doped samples had two peaks; one was the 'near band edge' emission (NBE) and the other was the 'blue-green' emission. But interestingly the PL emission of in-situ doped samples exhibited only the 'near band edge' emission. Optical band gap of the films increased with doping percentage, in all cases of doping.

  1. Elevated transition temperature in Ge doped VO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Anna; Magrez, Arnaud; Vitale, Wolfgang A.; Mocny, Piotr; Jeanneret, Patrick; Guibert, Edouard; Whitlow, Harry J.; Ionescu, Adrian M.; Schüler, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Thermochromic GexV1-xO2+y thin films have been deposited on Si (100) substrates by means of reactive magnetron sputtering. The films were then characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), four-point probe electrical resistivity measurements, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. From the temperature dependent resistivity measurements, the effect of Ge doping on the semiconductor-to-metal phase transition in vanadium oxide thin films was investigated. The transition temperature was shown to increase significantly upon Ge doping (˜95 °C), while the hysteresis width and resistivity contrast gradually decreased. The precise Ge concentration and the film thickness have been determined by RBS. The crystallinity of phase-pure VO2 monoclinic films was confirmed by XRD. These findings make the use of vanadium dioxide thin films in solar and electronic device applications—where higher critical temperatures than 68 °C of pristine VO2 are needed—a viable and promising solution.

  2. Solution growth of Tb doped Gd_2O_3 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, M.; Pitale, S.; Desai, D.G.; Patra, G.D.; Sen, S.; Gadkari, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials of Gd_2O_3 have proven applications in medical imaging and cancer therapy due to the presence of element Gd. Also Gd_2O_3 films have been grown by vapor phase method as well as self assembly in solution and studied as a high-k dielectric and efficient luminescence material. Here, we report a method to obtain Tb doped Gd_2O_3 film by solution growth method followed by suitable heat treatment. Uniform films of Tb doped Gadolinium hydroxycarbonate have been deposited on fused quartz substrates kept inside a solution containing gadolinium nitrate, terbium nitrate and Urea maintained at 90°C. Gadolinium hydroxy-carbonate films are then treated at 800°C for 2 hour to obtain Tb doped cubic Gd_2O_3 as confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurement. The photoluminescence spectra display characteristic Tb emission at 544 nm when excited at 285 nm. The lifetime of Tb emission is found to be of the order of few microseconds. (author)

  3. Chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films doped with Zn and Cu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Zn- and Cu-doped CdS thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the chemical bath technique. ... Cadmium sulfide; chemical bath deposition; doping; optical window. 1. ..... at low temperature (10 K), finding similar trends than.

  4. Hall effect of K-doped superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Eunseon; Lee, Nam Hoon; Kang, Won Nam [Dept. of physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Tae Jong; Kim, Dong Ho [Dept. of physics, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan(Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    We have studied Hall effect for potassium (K)-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}superconducting thin films by analyzing the relation between the longitudinal resistivity (ρ{sub xy}) and the Hall resistivity (ρ{sub xy}). The thin films used in this study were fabricated on Al{sub O3} (000l) substrates by using an ex-situ pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique under a high-vacuum condition of ∼10{sup -6} Torr. The samples showed the high superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub C}) of ∼40 K. The ρ{sub xx} and ρ{sub xy}the for K-doped BaFeAs{sub 2} thin films were measured by using a physical property measurement system (PPMS) with a temperature sweep (T-sweep) mode at an applied current density of 100 A/cm{sup 2} and at magnetic fields from 0 up to 9 T. We report the T-sweep results of the ρ{sub xx} and the ρ{sub xy} to investigate Hall scaling behavior on the basis of the relation of ρ{sub xy} = A(ρ{sub xy}){sup β}. The ρ{sub xx} values are 3.0 ± 0.2 in the c-axis-oriented K-doped BaFeAs{sub 2} thin films, whereas the thin films with various oriented-directions like a polycrystal showed slightly lower β than that of c-axis-oriented thin films. Interestingly, the β value is decreased with increasing magnetic fields.

  5. Structural and optical studies of Au doped titanium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, E.; Franco, N.; Barradas, N.P.; Nunes, B.; Lopes, J.; Cavaleiro, A.; Torrell, M.; Cunha, L.; Vaz, F.

    2012-01-01

    Thin films of TiO 2 were doped with Au by ion implantation and in situ during the deposition. The films were grown by reactive magnetron sputtering and deposited in silicon and glass substrates at a temperature around 150 °C. The undoped films were implanted with Au fluences in the range of 5 × 10 15 Au/cm 2 –1 × 10 17 Au/cm 2 with a energy of 150 keV. At a fluence of 5 × 10 16 Au/cm 2 the formation of Au nanoclusters in the films is observed during the implantation at room temperature. The clustering process starts to occur during the implantation where XRD estimates the presence of 3–5 nm precipitates. After annealing in a reducing atmosphere, the small precipitates coalesce into larger ones following an Ostwald ripening mechanism. In situ XRD studies reveal that Au atoms start to coalesce at 350 °C, reaching the precipitates dimensions larger than 40 nm at 600 °C. Annealing above 700 °C promotes drastic changes in the Au profile of in situ doped films with the formation of two Au rich regions at the interface and surface respectively. The optical properties reveal the presence of a broad band centered at 550 nm related to the plasmon resonance of gold particles visible in AFM maps.

  6. Structural and optical studies of Au doped titanium oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, E., E-mail: ealves@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Gama Pinto, 21649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Franco, N.; Barradas, N.P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Gama Pinto, 21649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Nunes, B. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Lopes, J. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa (Portugal); Cavaleiro, A. [SEC-CEMUC - Universidade de Coimbra, Dept. Eng. Mecanica, Polo II, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Torrell, M.; Cunha, L.; Vaz, F. [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal)

    2012-02-01

    Thin films of TiO{sub 2} were doped with Au by ion implantation and in situ during the deposition. The films were grown by reactive magnetron sputtering and deposited in silicon and glass substrates at a temperature around 150 Degree-Sign C. The undoped films were implanted with Au fluences in the range of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} Au/cm{sup 2}-1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} Au/cm{sup 2} with a energy of 150 keV. At a fluence of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} Au/cm{sup 2} the formation of Au nanoclusters in the films is observed during the implantation at room temperature. The clustering process starts to occur during the implantation where XRD estimates the presence of 3-5 nm precipitates. After annealing in a reducing atmosphere, the small precipitates coalesce into larger ones following an Ostwald ripening mechanism. In situ XRD studies reveal that Au atoms start to coalesce at 350 Degree-Sign C, reaching the precipitates dimensions larger than 40 nm at 600 Degree-Sign C. Annealing above 700 Degree-Sign C promotes drastic changes in the Au profile of in situ doped films with the formation of two Au rich regions at the interface and surface respectively. The optical properties reveal the presence of a broad band centered at 550 nm related to the plasmon resonance of gold particles visible in AFM maps.

  7. Doped organic films for OLEDs probed with neutron reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Arthur R. G.; Lo, Shih-Chun; Gentle, Ian R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Conjugated organic semiconductors form an exciting class of materials that can be used in a variety of cutting edge technologies including organic light-emitting diodes, solar cells and transistors. In all these technologies the thin film morphology and interfacial interactions are key areas for their operation. In order to optimise the materials and devices it is critical to understand the structural property relationships for the organic semiconductors by relating the 'molecular' structure to the film morphology and correlating these to the photophysical and device characteristics. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEO) have gained interest for their superior performance compared to current display technologies. Optimising the active emissive layer remains a challenge which can significantly affect the final performance of the device [1]. We have investigated the layering behaviour of small molecule co-evaporated films of deuterated 4,4'-bis(9-carbazolyl)-1, 1 '-biphenyl doped with tris-phenylpyridine iridium(llI) using neutron reflectometry The behaviour of doped emissive layers is dependent on the ratio between dopant and host material. The morphology and internal structure of such films have not yet been investigated, leading to questions about the phase separation and ordering of layers within the film.

  8. Electrochemical Behavior of TiO2 Nanoparticle Doped WO3 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarna R. Bathe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin films by pulsed spray pyrolysis technique have been studied on fluorine tin doped (FTO and glass substrate. XRD shows amorphous nature for undoped and anatase phase of TiO2 having (101 plane for nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin film. SEM shows microfibrous reticulated porous network for WO3 with 600 nm fiber diameter and nanocrystalline having size 40 nm for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film. TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film shows ~95% reversibility due to may be attributed to nanocrystalline nature of the film, which helpful for charge insertion and deinsertion process. The diffusion coefficient for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 film is less than undoped WO3.

  9. Enhancing the performance of organic thin-film transistors using an organic-doped inorganic buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Shui-Hsiang, E-mail: shsu@isu.edu.tw; Wu, Chung-Ming; Kung, Shu-Yi; Yokoyama, Meiso

    2013-06-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) with various buffer layers between the active layer and source/drain electrodes were investigated. The structure was polyethylene terephthalate/indium-tin oxide/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/pentacene/buffer layer/Au (source/drain). V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 4,4′,4″-tris{N,(3-methylpheny)-N-phenylamino}-triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) and m-MTDATA-doped V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films were utilized as buffer layers. The electrical performances of OTFTs in terms of drain current, threshold voltage, mobility and on/off current ratio have been determined. As a result, the saturation current of − 40 μA is achieved in OTFTs with a 10% m-MTDATA-doped V{sub 2}O{sub 5} buffer layer at a V{sub GS} of − 60 V. The on/off current ratio reaches 2 × 10{sup 5}, which is approximately double of the device without a buffer layer. The energy band diagrams of the electrode/buffer layer/pentacene were measured using ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy. The improvement in electrical characteristics of the OTFTs is attributable to the weakening of the interface dipole and the lowering of the barrier to enhance holes transportation from the source electrode to the active layer. - Highlights: • A buffer layer enhances the performance of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). • The buffer layer consists of organic-doped inorganic material. • Interface dipole is weakened at the active layer/electrodes interface of OTFTs.

  10. Synthesis and Properties of High Strength Thin Film Composites of Poly(ethylene Oxide and PEO-PMMA Blend with Cetylpyridinium Chloride Modified Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleem Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion-conducting thin film composites of polymer electrolytes were prepared by mixing high MW poly(ethylene oxide (PEO, poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA as a polymer matrix, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC modified MMT as filler, and different content of LiClO4 by using solution cast method. The crystallinity, ionic conductivity (σ, and mechanical properties of the composite electrolytes and blend composites were evaluated by using XRD, AC impedance, and UTM studies, respectively. The modification of clay by CPC showed enhancement in the d-spacing. The loading of clay has effect on crystallinity of PEO systems. Blend composites showed better mechanical properties. Young’s modulus and elongation at break values showed increase with salt and clay incorporation in pure PEO. The optimum composition composite of PEO with 3.5 wt% of salt and 3.3 wt% of CPMMT exhibited better performance.

  11. Conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films. Doping with iodine or self-doping?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe

    1991-01-01

    In this research thesis dealing with molecular architecture, the author reports the testing of two strategies aiming at reducing the importance of defects in conductive Langmuir-Blodgett films, and at enabling the production of conductive mono-molecular layer. According to the first strategy, conductive films are obtained after doping based on the use of iodine vapours of an insulating precursor film of molecules derived from BEDT-TTF. The so-produced films display a high conductivity and can be used as sensitive elements in gas sensors, but remain macroscopically insulating, probably because molecular reorganisation, as shown by a study based on different techniques (IR and UV linear dichroism, Raman spectroscopy, X ray diffraction), generates too many defects. The second strategy, self-doping, is based on a mixing of two derivatives of the same electro-active nucleus (the TCNQ, tetracyanoquinodimethane), an amphiphilic one and a semi-amphiphilic one. This strategy opens new perspectives in molecular engineering as it is a general way to produce conductive LB films from TCNQ [fr

  12. Preparation of manganese-doped ZnO thin films and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Various physical and chemical techniques that has been used to deposit Mn:ZnO thin films .... appearance and Mn-doped films were slightly brownish with a good adherence to the ..... shows a constantly decreasing trend with increasing man-.

  13. Crystal orientation dependent thermoelectric properties of highly oriented aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.; Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of highly oriented Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films can be improved by controlling their crystal orientation. The crystal orientation of the AZO films was changed by changing the temperature

  14. Magnetic hysteresis of cerium doped bismuth ferrite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Surbhi; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    The influence of Cerium doping on the structural and magnetic properties of BiFeO 3 thin films have been investigated. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data and successive de-convolution of Raman scattering spectra of Bi 1−x Ce x FeO 3 (BCFO) thin films with x=0–0.20 reflect the single phase rhombohedral (R3c) formation for x<0.08, whereas concentration-driven gradual structural phase transition from rhombohedral (R3c) to partial tetragonal (P4mm) phase follows for x≥0.08. All low wavenumber Raman modes (<300 cm −1 ) showed a noticeable shift towards higher wavenumber with increase in doping concentration, except Raman E-1 mode (71 cm −1 ), shows a minor shift. Sudden evolution of Raman mode at 668 cm −1 , manifested as A 1 -tetragonal mode, accompanied by the shift to higher wavenumber with increase in doping concentration (x) affirm partial structural phase transition. Anomalous wasp waist shaped (M–H) hysteresis curves with improved saturation magnetization (M s ) for BCFO thin films is attributed to antiferromagnetic interaction/hybridization between Ce 4f and Fe 3d electronic states. The contribution of both hard and soft phase to the total coercivity is calculated. Polycrystalline Bi 0.88 Ce 0.12 FeO 3 thin film found to exhibit better magnetic properties with M s =15.9 emu/g without any impure phase. - Highlights: • Synthesis of single phase Bi 1−x Ce x FeO 3 thin films with (x=0–0.2) on cost effective corning glass and silicon substrates using CSD technique. • Structural modification studies using Rietveld refinement of XRD and de-convolution of Raman spectra revealed partial phase transition from rhombohedral (R3c) to tetragonal (P4mm) phase. • Possible reasons for origin of pinched magnetic behavior of BCFO thin films are identified. • Contribution of both hard and soft magnetic phase in coercivity of BCFO thin films is calculated and practical applications of such materials exhibiting pinching behavior are conferred

  15. Magnetic hysteresis of cerium doped bismuth ferrite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Surbhi [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi (India); Tomar, Monika [Physics Department, Miranda House, University of Delhi (India); Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi (India)

    2015-03-15

    The influence of Cerium doping on the structural and magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} thin films have been investigated. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data and successive de-convolution of Raman scattering spectra of Bi{sub 1−x}Ce{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (BCFO) thin films with x=0–0.20 reflect the single phase rhombohedral (R3c) formation for x<0.08, whereas concentration-driven gradual structural phase transition from rhombohedral (R3c) to partial tetragonal (P4mm) phase follows for x≥0.08. All low wavenumber Raman modes (<300 cm{sup −1}) showed a noticeable shift towards higher wavenumber with increase in doping concentration, except Raman E-1 mode (71 cm{sup −1}), shows a minor shift. Sudden evolution of Raman mode at 668 cm{sup −1}, manifested as A{sub 1}-tetragonal mode, accompanied by the shift to higher wavenumber with increase in doping concentration (x) affirm partial structural phase transition. Anomalous wasp waist shaped (M–H) hysteresis curves with improved saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) for BCFO thin films is attributed to antiferromagnetic interaction/hybridization between Ce 4f and Fe 3d electronic states. The contribution of both hard and soft phase to the total coercivity is calculated. Polycrystalline Bi{sub 0.88}Ce{sub 0.12}FeO{sub 3} thin film found to exhibit better magnetic properties with M{sub s}=15.9 emu/g without any impure phase. - Highlights: • Synthesis of single phase Bi{sub 1−x}Ce{sub x}FeO{sub 3} thin films with (x=0–0.2) on cost effective corning glass and silicon substrates using CSD technique. • Structural modification studies using Rietveld refinement of XRD and de-convolution of Raman spectra revealed partial phase transition from rhombohedral (R3c) to tetragonal (P4mm) phase. • Possible reasons for origin of pinched magnetic behavior of BCFO thin films are identified. • Contribution of both hard and soft magnetic phase in coercivity of BCFO thin films is calculated and practical

  16. Microwave plasma-assisted photoluminescence enhancement in nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lin Liu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical properties and conductivity of nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystal diamond (UNCD films were investigated following treatment with low energy microwave plasma at room temperature. The plasma also generated vacancies in UNCD films and provided heat for mobilizing the vacancies to combine with the impurities, which formed the nitrogen-vacancy defect centers. The generated color centers were distributed uniformly in the samples. The conductivity of nitrogen-doped UNCD films treated by microwave plasma was found to decrease slightly due to the reduced grain boundaries. The photoluminescence emitted by the plasma treated nitrogen-doped UNCD films was enhanced significantly compared to the untreated films.

  17. Highly improved hydration level sensing properties of copper oxide films with sodium and potassium doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Bünyamin; Kaya, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A series of Na- and K-doped CuO were growth via SILAR method. • The hydration level monitoring activity has been tested with CuO films. • The highest sensing efficiency was obtained with 4 M% K. - Abstract: In this study, un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped nanostructured CuO films were successfully synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and current–voltage (I–V) measurements. Structural properties of the CuO films were affected from doping. The XRD pattern indicates the formation of polycrystalline CuO films with no secondary phases. Furthermore, doping affected the crystal structure of the samples. The optimum conductivity values for both Na and K were obtained at 4 M% doping concentrations. The comparative hydration level sensing properties of the un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped CuO nanoparticles were also investigated. A significant enhancement in hydration level sensing properties was observed for both 4 M% Na and K-doped CuO films for all concentration levels. Detailed discussions were reported in the study regarding atomic radii, crystalline structure, and conductivity.

  18. Highly improved hydration level sensing properties of copper oxide films with sodium and potassium doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Bünyamin, E-mail: sahin38@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, 31034 (Turkey); School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, 48859 (United States); Kaya, Tolga [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, 48859 (United States); Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, 48859 (United States)

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A series of Na- and K-doped CuO were growth via SILAR method. • The hydration level monitoring activity has been tested with CuO films. • The highest sensing efficiency was obtained with 4 M% K. - Abstract: In this study, un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped nanostructured CuO films were successfully synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and current–voltage (I–V) measurements. Structural properties of the CuO films were affected from doping. The XRD pattern indicates the formation of polycrystalline CuO films with no secondary phases. Furthermore, doping affected the crystal structure of the samples. The optimum conductivity values for both Na and K were obtained at 4 M% doping concentrations. The comparative hydration level sensing properties of the un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped CuO nanoparticles were also investigated. A significant enhancement in hydration level sensing properties was observed for both 4 M% Na and K-doped CuO films for all concentration levels. Detailed discussions were reported in the study regarding atomic radii, crystalline structure, and conductivity.

  19. Optical study on doped polyaniline composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G; Zheng, P; Wang, N L; Long, Y Z; Chen, Z J; Li, J C; Wan, M X

    2004-01-01

    Localization driven by disorder has a strong influence on the conducting properties of conducting polymers. Some authors hold the opinion that disorder in the material is homogeneous and that the conducting polymer is a disordered metal close to the Anderson-Mott metal-insulator (MI) transition, while others treat the disorder as inhomogeneous and have the opinion that conducting polymers are a composite of ordered metallic regions and disordered insulating regions. The morphology of conducting polymers is an important factor that has an influence on the type and extent of disorder. Different protonic acids used as dopants and moisture have influence on the polymer chain arrangement and interchain interactions. We performed optical reflectance measurements on several PANI-CSA/PANI-DBSA composite films with different dopant ratios and moisture contents. Optical conductivity and the real part of the dielectric function are calculated by Kramers-Kronig (KK) relations. σ 1 (ο) and ε 1 (ο) deviate from the simple Drude model in the low frequency range and the tendencies of the three sample are different and non-monotonic. The localization modified Drude model (LMD) in the framework of the Anderson-Mott theory cannot give a good fit to the experimental data. By introducing the distribution of relaxation time into the LMD, reasonable fits for all three samples are obtained. This result supports the inhomogeneous picture

  20. Proton beam writing on PMMA and SU-8 films as a tool for development of micro-structures for organic electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Mihir, E-mail: mihirs@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Shukla, Neeraj; Banerji, Nobin [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Mohapatra, Y.N. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Materials Science Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Samtel Center for Display Technologies, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Proton beam writing is a maskless lithographic technique for the fabrication of 3D micro and nano structures in polymers. The fabricated structures find application in micro fluidics, optics, biosensors, etc. We use proton beam writing for micro-patterning in polymers which will facilitate fabrication of test structures for micro-components of micro-fluidic devices, organic thin film transistors (OTFT) and organic light emitting diodes (OLED). In this paper we report fabrication of varying width micro channels in PMMA and SU-8 films used as positive and negative resists respectively. The patterns were written using 2 MeV proton beam focused down to around 1 micron. We have achieved clean periodic micro-channels of width varying from few micrometers to wider ones in both the resists. Being a mask less lithography it provides an efficient way of reducing turnaround time for test structures with several channel widths and patterns being conveniently written at the same development cycle. Possible applications of the patterned structures in OLED/TFT are discussed. Additional structures like checkered board are also fabricated. Optimized fluence for both the resist has been determined.

  1. Electron field emission from undoped and doped DLC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakhovskoi, A G; Evtukh, A A; Felter, T E; Klyui, N I; Kudzinovsky, S Y; Litovchenko, V G; Litvin, Y M

    1999-01-01

    Electron field emission and electrical conductivity of undoped and nitrogen doped DLC films have been investigated. The films were grown by the PE CVD method from CH(sub 4):H(sub 2) and CH(sub 4):H(sub 2):N(sub 2) gas mixtures, respectively. By varying nitrogen content in the gas mixture over the range 0 to 45%, corresponding concentrations of 0 to 8% (atomic) could be achieved in the films. Three different gas pressures were used in the deposition chamber: 0.2, 0.6 and 0.8 Torr. Emission current measurements were performed at approximately 10(sup -6) Torr using the diode method with emitter-anode spacing set at 20(micro)m. The current - voltage characteristics of the Si field electron emission arrays covered with DLC films show that threshold voltage (V(sub th)) varies in a complex manner with nitrogen content. As a function of nitrogen content, V(sub th) initially increases rapidly, then decreases and finally increases again for the highest concentration. Corresponding Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) plots follow F-N tunneling over a wide range. The F-N plots were used for determination of the work function, threshold voltage, field enhancement factor and effective emission area. For a qualitative explanation of experimental results, we treat the DLC film as a diamond-like (sp(sup 3) bonded) matrix with graphite-like inclusions

  2. Highly stable carbon-doped Cu films on barrierless Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.Y.; Li, X.N.; Nie, L.F.; Chu, J.P.; Wang, Q.; Lin, C.H.; Dong, C.

    2011-01-01

    Electrical resistivities and thermal stabilities of carbon-doped Cu films on silicon have been investigated. The films were prepared by magnetron sputtering using a Cu-C alloy target. After annealing at 400 deg. C for 1 h, the resistivity maintains a low level at 2.7 μΩ-cm and no Cu-Si reaction is detected in the film by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. According to the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) results, carbon is enriched near the interfacial region of Cu(C)/Si, and is considered responsible for the growth of an amorphous Cu(C)/Si interlayer that inhibits the Cu-Si inter-diffusion. Fine Cu grains, less than 100 nm, were present in the Cu(C) films after long-term and high-temperature annealings. The effect of C shows a combination of forming a self-passivated interface barrier layer and maintaining a fine-grained structure of Cu. A low current leakage measured on this Cu(C) film also provides further evidence for the carbon-induced diffusion barrier interlayer performance.

  3. Doping site dependent thermoelectric properties of epitaxial strontium titanate thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.; Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Mehdizadeh Dehkordi, Arash; Tritt, Terry M.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of epitaxial strontium titanate (STO) thin films can be improved by additional B-site doping of A-site doped ABO3 type perovskite STO. The additional B-site doping of A-site doped STO results in increased electrical conductivity, but at the expense of Seebeck coefficient. However, doping on both sites of the STO lattice significantly reduces the lattice thermal conductivity of STO by adding more densely and strategically distributed phononic scattering centers that attack wider phonon spectra. The additional B-site doping limits the trade-off relationship between the electrical conductivity and total thermal conductivity of A-site doped STO, leading to an improvement in the room-temperature thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT. The 5% Pr3+ and 20% Nb5+ double-doped STO film exhibits the best ZT of 0.016 at room temperature. This journal is

  4. Observation of point defects in impurity-doped zinc selenide films using a monoenergetic positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, T.; Okuyama, H.; Akimoto, K.; Mori, Y.; Wei, L.; Tanigawa, S.

    1992-01-01

    We studied point defects in ZnSe films grown by molecular beam epitaxy using the positron annihilation method. We found that doping with Ga atoms induces vacancy-type defects such as Zn vacancies, and that heavy doping with oxygen atoms induces interstitial type defects. We think that these defects are one of the causes of active carrier saturation in doped ZnSe films. (author)

  5. Properties of antimony doped ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadananda Kumar, N., E-mail: sadanthara@gmail.com; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Thin Films Laboratory, Department of Physics (India)

    2015-07-15

    Antimony (Sb) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate at 450°C using spray pyrolysis technique. Effect of Sb doping on surface morphology structural, optical and electrical properties were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that both the undoped and doped ZnO thin films are polycrystalline in nature with (101) preferred orientation. SEM analysis showed a change in surface morphology of Sb doped ZnO thin films. Doping results in a marked increase in conductivity without affecting the transmittance of the films. ZnO films prepared with 3 at % Sb shows the lowest resistivity of 0.185 Ohm cm with a Hall mobility of 54.05 cm{sup 2} V{sup –1} s{sup –1}, and a hole concentration of 6.25 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup –3}.

  6. Local Electrical Response in Alkaline-Doped Electrodeposited CuInSe2/Cu Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Barón-Miranda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The local electrical response in alkaline-doped CuInSe2 films prepared by single-step electrodeposition onto Cu substrates was studied by current-sensing atomic force microscopy. The CuInSe2 (CIS films were prepared from single baths containing the dopant ions (Li, Na, K or Cs and were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and photocurrent response. Increased crystallinity and surface texturing as the ion size increased were observed, as well as an enhanced photocurrent response in Cs-doped CIS. Li- and Na-doped films had larger conductivity than the undoped film while the K- and Cs-doped samples displayed shorter currents and the current images indicated strong charge accumulation in the K- and Cs-doped films, forming surface capacitors. Corrected current-sensing AFM IV curves were adjusted with the Shockley equation.

  7. Enhanced flux-pinning in fluorine-free MOD YBCO films by chemical doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.T.; Pu, M.H.; Yang, Y. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhang, H. [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, C.H. [Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)

    2010-11-01

    YBCO films without and with dilute cobalt and zinc doping were prepared on (0 0 l) LaAlO{sub 3} substrate by non-fluorine metal organic deposition method. Effects of dilute cobalt and zinc doping on biaxial texture, microstructure and flux-pinning properties of YBCO films were investigated. The surface density and smoothness of the doped YBCO films have been distinctly improved compared with that of the pure film. Dilute cobalt- and zinc-doped YBCO films exhibit significantly enhanced J{sub c} values in the magnetic field. The best result is achieved in the cobalt-doped YBCO film. At 77 K, J{sub c} values of cobalt-doped film are 1.7 and 5.4 times higher than that of pure film in 0.5 T and 1.5 T, respectively. These results strongly suggest that dilute cobalt and zinc doping is a promising way to increase the current carrying capability of YBCO films.

  8. VO{sub x} effectively doping CVD-graphene for transparent conductive films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Qinghua; Shi, Liangjing [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Qinghong [State Key Laboratory of Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang, Weiqi; Zheng, Huifeng [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Yuzhi [The Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu, Yangqiao, E-mail: yqliu@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Sun, Jing, E-mail: jingsun@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Doping process operated easily. • Sheet resistance decreased efficiently after doping. • Sheet resistance of doped graphene is stable after exposed in the air. • Mechanism of doping process is studied. - Abstract: Chemical vapor deposition(CVD)-synthesized graphene is potentially an alternative for tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) transparent conductive films (TCFs), however its sheet resistance is still too high to meet many demands. Vanadium oxide has been widely applied as smart window materials, however, no study has been reported to use it as dopant to improve the conductivity of graphene TCFs. In this study, we firstly reported that VO{sub x} doping can effectively lower the sheet resistance of CVD-graphene films while keeping its good optical properties, whose transmittance is as high as 86–90%. The optimized VO{sub x}-doped graphene exhibits a sheet resistance as low as 176 Ω/□, which decreases by 56% compared to the undoped graphene films. The doping process is convenient, stable, economical and easy to operate. What is more, VO{sub x} can effectively increase the work function(WF) of the film, making it more appropriate for use in solar cells. The evolution of the VO{sub x} species annealed at different temperatures below 400 °C has been detailed studied for the first time, based on which the doping mechanism is proposed. The prepared VO{sub x} doped graphene is expected to be a promising candidate for transparent conductive film purposes.

  9. Stable iodide doping induced by photonic curing for carbon nanotube transparent conductive films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachi, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Zhou, Ying; Azumi, Reiko

    2018-06-01

    Doping has become crucial for achieving stable and high-performance conductive transparent carbon nanotube (CNT) films. In this study, we systematically investigate the doping effects of a few materials including alkali metal iodides, nonmetal iodide, and metals. We demonstrate that photonic curing can enhance the doping effects, and correspondingly improve the conductivity of CNT films, and that such iodides have better doping effects than metals. In particular, doping with a nonmetal compound (NH4I) shows the largest potential to improve the conductivity of CNT films. Typically, doping with metal iodides reduces the sheet resistance (R S) of CNT films with 70–80% optical transmittances at λ = 550 nm from 600–2400 to 250–440 Ω/square, whereas doping with NH4I reduces R S to 57 and 84 Ω/square at 74 and 84% optical transmittances, respectively. Interestingly, such a doped CNT film exhibits only a slight increase in sheet resistance under an extreme environment of high temperature (85 °C) and high relative humidity (85%) for 350 h. The results suggest that photonic-curing-induced iodide doping is a promising approach to producing high-performance conductive transparent CNT films.

  10. Silicon and aluminum doping effects on the microstructure and properties of polymeric amorphous carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang, E-mail: lxq_suse@sina.com [Material Corrosion and Protection Key Laboratory of Sichuan province, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Hao, Junying, E-mail: jyhao@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Xie, Yuntao [Material Corrosion and Protection Key Laboratory of Sichuan province, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Evolution of nanostructure and properties of the polymeric amorphous carbon films were firstly studied. • Si doping enhanced polymerization of the hydrocarbon chains and Al doping resulted in increase in the ordered carbon clusters of polymeric amorphous carbon films. • Soft polymeric amorphous carbon films exhibited an unconventional frictional behaviors with a superior wear resistance. • The mechanical and vacuum tribological properties of the polymeric amorphous carbon films were significantly improved by Si and Al co-doping. - Abstract: Polymeric amorphous carbon films were prepared by radio frequency (R.F. 13.56 MHz) magnetron sputtering deposition. The microstructure evolution of the deposited polymeric films induced by silicon (Si) and aluminum(Al) doping were scrutinized through infrared spectroscopy, multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The comparative results show that Si doping can enhance polymerization and Al doping results in an increase in the ordered carbon clusters. Si and Al co-doping into polymeric films leads to the formation of an unusual dual nanostructure consisting of cross-linked polymer-like hydrocarbon chains and fullerene-like carbon clusters. The super-high elasticity and super-low friction coefficients (<0.002) under a high vacuum were obtained through Si and Al co-doping into the films. Unconventionally, the co-doped polymeric films exhibited a superior wear resistance even though they were very soft. The relationship between the microstructure and properties of the polymeric amorphous carbon films with different elements doping are also discussed in detail.

  11. Methods for enhancing P-type doping in III-V semiconductor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Stringfellow, Gerald; Zhu, Junyi

    2017-08-01

    Methods of doping a semiconductor film are provided. The methods comprise epitaxially growing the III-V semiconductor film in the presence of a dopant, a surfactant capable of acting as an electron reservoir, and hydrogen, under conditions that promote the formation of a III-V semiconductor film doped with the p-type dopant. In some embodiments of the methods, the epitaxial growth of the doped III-V semiconductor film is initiated at a first hydrogen partial pressure which is increased to a second hydrogen partial pressure during the epitaxial growth process.

  12. UVO radiation effects on carbon nanotube/PMMA composites and their neutron reflectivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Ebi; Koo, J. S.; Shin, K. W.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotube(CNT)-Poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) nanocomposite thin films have been studied. By irradiation of short wavelength ultraviolet(UV) light with ozone, the surface modification and stripping effects on their CNT/PMMA thin films was studied as a function of weight % of CNT in PMMA matrices. The experimental evidence indicates that the presence of CNT in PMMA matrix lowers significantly the stripping rate of the composites. In addition, changes of the rheological properties (i.e. diffusion coefficient) of PMMA molecules due to the presence of CNTs were also studied, in order to determine the microscopic interaction between diffusion coefficients of PMMA with and without CNTs was minimal

  13. Improvement of physical properties of ZnO thin films by tellurium doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sönmezoğlu, Savaş, E-mail: svssonmezoglu@kmu.edu.tr; Akman, Erdi

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • We report the synthesis of tellurium-doped zinc oxide (Te–ZnO) thin films using sol–gel method. • Highly c-axis oriented Te-doped ZnO thin films were grown on FTO glasses as substrate. • 1.5% Te-doping ratio could improve the physical properties of ZnO thin films. - Abstract: This investigation addressed the structural, optical and morphological properties of tellurium incorporated zinc oxide (Te–ZnO) thin films. The obtained results indicated that Te-doped ZnO thin films exhibit an enhancement of band gap energy and crystallinity compared with non-doped films. The optical transmission spectra revealed a shift in the absorption edge toward lower wavelengths. X-ray diffraction measurement demonstrated that the film was crystallized in the hexagonal (wurtzite) phase and presented a preferential orientation along the c-axis. The XRD obtained patterns indicate that the crystallite size of the thin films, ranging from 23.9 to 49.1 nm, changed with the Te doping level. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy results demonstrated that the grain size and surface roughness of the thin films increased as the Te concentration increased. Most significantly, we demonstrate that it is possible to control the structural, optical and morphological properties of ZnO thin films with the isoelectronic Te-incorporation level.

  14. Structure and mechanical properties of silica doped zirconia thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlmann, Ina, E-mail: uhlmann@ceramics.tu-darmstadt.de [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Hawelka, Dominik [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Hildebrandt, Erwin [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Pradella, Jens [Merck KGaA Darmstadt, 64293 Darmstadt (Germany); Rödel, Jürgen [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-01-01

    Sol–gel based wear resistant coatings are presented as an alternative to existing vapor deposition coatings. The films consist of zirconia which has been doped with 8 wt.% silica. Crack-free single as well as multilayer coatings with thicknesses of 80 and 150 nm, respectively, could be produced after sintering at 1000 °C. The evolution of layer thickness, optical, chemical and mechanical properties during film annealing was investigated by ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and micro-abrasion. Micro-abrasion has been established as an easy and powerful tool to achieve first comparative abrasion data which could be correlated to hardness, Young's modulus and structure of the films. Above 600 °C a tetragonal, oxide coating with a Young's modulus ranging from 80 to 90 GPa, a hardness from 7 to 8 GPa and an increased abrasion resistance was obtained. The film density reached 4.64 g/cm{sup 3} with the mean refractive index n{sub 550} {sub nm} lying between 1.88 and 1.93. - Highlights: ► Sol–gel zirconia–8 wt.% silica coatings with hardness up to 8 GPa achieved ► Layer thickness as compared by ellipsometry and scanning electron microscopy ► Crack-free multilayer coatings produced up to 150 nm.

  15. Pyroelectricity of silicon-doped hafnium oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachalke, Sven; Schenk, Tony; Park, Min Hyuk; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas; Stöcker, Hartmut; Mehner, Erik; Meyer, Dirk C.

    2018-04-01

    Ferroelectricity in hafnium oxide thin films is known to be induced by various doping elements and in solid-solution with zirconia. While a wealth of studies is focused on their basic ferroelectric properties and memory applications, thorough studies of the related pyroelectric properties and their application potential are only rarely found. This work investigates the impact of Si doping on the phase composition and ferro- as well as pyroelectric properties of thin film capacitors. Dynamic hysteresis measurements and the field-free Sharp-Garn method were used to correlate the reported orthorhombic phase fractions with the remanent polarization and pyroelectric coefficient. Maximum values of 8.21 µC cm-2 and -46.2 µC K-1 m-2 for remanent polarization and pyroelectric coefficient were found for a Si content of 2.0 at%, respectively. Moreover, temperature-dependent measurements reveal nearly constant values for the pyroelectric coefficient and remanent polarization over the temperature range of 0 ° C to 170 ° C , which make the material a promising candidate for IR sensor and energy conversion applications beyond the commonly discussed use in memory applications.

  16. Epitaxial stabilization of ultra thin films of electron doped manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middey, S., E-mail: smiddey@uark.edu; Kareev, M.; Meyers, D.; Liu, X.; Cao, Y.; Tripathi, S.; Chakhalian, J. [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Yazici, D.; Maple, M. B. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Ryan, P. J.; Freeland, J. W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-05-19

    Ultra-thin films of the electron doped manganite La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} were grown in a layer-by-layer growth mode on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrates by pulsed laser interval deposition. High structural quality and surface morphology were confirmed by a combination of synchrotron based x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Resonant X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements confirm the presence of Ce{sup 4+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions. In addition, the electron doping signature was corroborated by Hall effect measurements. All grown films show a ferromagnetic ground state as revealed by both dc magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements and remain insulating contrary to earlier reports of a metal-insulator transition. Our results hint at the possibility of electron-hole asymmetry in the colossal magnetoresistive manganite phase diagram akin to the high-T{sub c} cuprates.

  17. Magnetoresistance of magnetically doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behan, A J; Mokhtari, A; Blythe, H J; Fox, A M; Gehring, G A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Ziese, M, E-mail: G.A.Gehring@sheffield.ac.u [Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, University of Leipzig, D-04103, Leipzig (Germany)

    2009-08-26

    Magnetoresistance measurements have been made at 5 K on doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. ZnCoO, ZnCoAlO and ZnMnAlO samples have been investigated and compared to similar films containing no transition metal dopants. It is found that the Co-doped samples with a high carrier concentration have a small negative magnetoresistance, irrespective of their magnetic moment. On decreasing the carrier concentration, a positive contribution to the magnetoresistance appears and a further negative contribution. This second, negative contribution, which occurs at very low carrier densities, correlates with the onset of ferromagnetism due to bound magnetic polarons suggesting that the negative magnetoresistance results from the destruction of polarons by a magnetic field. An investigation of the anisotropic magnetoresistance showed that the orientation of the applied magnetic field, relative to the sample, had a large effect. The results for the ZnMnAlO samples showed less consistent trends.

  18. Prediction of the percolation threshold and electrical conductivity of self-assembled antimony-doped tin oxide nanoparticles into ordered structures in PMMA/ATO nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Youngho; Gerhardt, Rosario A

    2014-12-24

    Electrical percolation in nanocomposites consisting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and antimony tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles was investigated experimentally using monosize and polydisperse polymer particles. The nanocomposites were fabricated by compression molding at 170 °C. The matrix PMMA was transformed into space filling polyhedra while the ATO nanoparticles distributed along the sharp edges of the matrix, forming a 3D interconnected network. The measured electrical resistivity showed that percolation was achieved in these materials at a very low ATO content of 0.99 wt % ATO when monosize PMMA was used, whereas 1.48 wt % ATO was needed to achieve percolation when the PMMA was polydispersed. A parametric finite element approach was chosen to model this unique microstructure-driven self-assembling percolation behavior. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to solve the effects of phase segregation between the matrix and the filler using a 2D simplified model in the frequency domain of the AC/DC module. It was found that the percolation threshold (pc) is affected by the size ratio between the matrix and the filler in a systematic way. Furthermore, simulations indicate that small deviations from perfect interconnection result mostly in changes in the electrical resistivity while the minimum DC resistivity achievable in any given composite is governed by the electrical conductivity of the filler, which must be accurately known in order to obtain an accurate prediction. The model is quite general and is able to predict percolation behavior in a number of other similarly processed segregated network nanocomposites.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Fe doped cadmium selenide thin films by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Abhijit A., E-mail: aay_physics@yahoo.co.in [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Electronics and Photonics, Rajarshi Shahu Mahavidyalaya, Latur 413 512, Maharashtra (India)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and inexpensive method to dope trivalent Fe in CdSe thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe doped CdSe thin films are highly photosensitive. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AFM analysis shows uniform deposition of film over the entire substrate surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The band gap energy decreases from 1.74 to 1.65 eV with Fe doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Film resistivity decreases to 6.76 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} {Omega}-cm with Fe doping in CdSe thin films. - Abstract: Undoped and Fe doped CdSe thin films have been deposited onto the amorphous and fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by spray pyrolysis. The Fe doping concentration has been optimized by photoelectrochemical (PEC) characterization technique. The structural, surface morphological, compositional, optical and electrical properties of undoped and Fe doped CdSe thin films have been studied. X-ray diffraction study reveals that the as deposited CdSe films possess hexagonal crystal structure with preferential orientation along (1 0 0) plane. AFM analysis shows uniform deposition of the film over the entire substrate surface with minimum surface roughness of 7.90 nm. Direct allowed type of transition with band gap decreasing from 1.74 to 1.65 eV with Fe doping has been observed. The activation energy of the films has been found to be in the range of 0.14-0.19 eV at low temperature and 0.27-0.44 eV at high temperature. Semi-conducting behavior has been observed from resistivity measurements. The thermoelectric power measurements reveal that the films are of n type.

  20. Improving the conductance of ZnO thin film doping with Ti by using a cathodic vacuum arc deposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chun-Sen; Lin, Bor-Tsuen; Jean, Ming-Der

    2011-01-01

    The Ti-doped ZnO films compared to un-doped ZnO films were deposited onto Corning XG glass substrates by using a cathodic vacuum arc deposition process in a mixture of oxygen and argon gases. The structural, electrical and optical properties of un-doped and Ti-doped ZnO films have been investigated. When the Ti target power is about 750 W, the incorporation of titanium atoms into zinc oxide films is obviously effective. Additionally, the resistivity of un-doped ZnO films is high and reduces to a value of 3.48 x 10 -3 Ω-cm when Ti is incorporated. The Ti doped in the ZnO films gave rise to the improvement of the conductivity of the films obviously. The Ti-doped ZnO films have > 85% transmittance in a range of 400-700 nm.

  1. Optical and electrochromic properties of sol-gel deposited Ti- doped vanadium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezer, N.; Sabuncu, S.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the yellowish color, vanadium oxide films in the as deposited state is not as favorable as transparent coatings for most elector chromic devices. an interesting possibility to alter the yellowish colours is the doping with other non-absorbing metal oxides. Ti doped vanadium oxide films with various amounts of titanium were synthesized and investigated as transparent counter electrodes for electrochromic transmissive device application. Electrochromic titanium doped vanadium pentoxide (V sub 2 O 5) coatings were prepared by the sol-gel dip coating technique. The coating solutions were synthesized from vanadium tri(isopropoxide) precursors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the sol-gel deposited doped films heat treated at temperatures below 350 degree centigrade, were amorphous, whereas hose heat treated at higher temperatures were slight y crystalline. The optical and electrochemical properties of the Ti doped vanadium oxide films has been investigated in 0.1 m LiClO sub 4 propylene carbonate solution color changes by dropping were noted for all investigated films exhibits good electrochemical cycling (CV) measurements also showed that Ti doped V sub 2 O sub 5 films exhibits good electrochemical cycling reversibility, 'in situ' optical measurement revealed that those films exhibits good electrochemical cycling the spectra range 300 < lambda < 800 nm and change color between yellow and light green. The change in visible transmittance was 25 % for 5% Ti doped film. (author)

  2. Electrical transport characterization of Al and Sn doped Mg 2 Si thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2017-05-22

    Thin-film Mg2Si was deposited using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Al and Sn were incorporated as n-type dopants using co-sputtering to tune the thin-film electrical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that the deposited films are polycrystalline Mg2Si. The Sn and Al doping concentrations were measured using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The charge carrier concentration and the charge carrier type of the Mg2Si films were measured using a Hall bar structure. Hall measurements show that as the doping concentration increases, the carrier concentration of the Al-doped films increases, whereas the carrier concentration of the Sn-doped films decreases. Combined with the resistivity measurements, the mobility of the Al-doped Mg2Si films is found to decrease with increasing doping concentration, whereas the mobility of the Sn-doped Mg2Si films is found to increase.

  3. Influences of Pr and Ta doping concentration on the characteristic features of FTO thin film deposited by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turgut, Güven; Koçyiğit, Adem; Sönmez, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    The Pr and Ta separately doped FTO (10 at.% F incorporated SnO 2 ) films are fabricated via spray pyrolysis. The microstructural, topographic, optical, and electrical features of fluorine-doped TO (FTO) films are investigated as functions of Pr and Ta dopant concentrations. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements reveal that all deposited films show polycrystalline tin oxide crystal property. FTO film has (200) preferential orientation, but this orientation changes to (211) direction with Pr and Ta doping ratio increasing. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses show that all films have uniform and homogenous nanoparticle distributions. Furthermore, morphologies of the films depend on the ratio between Pr and Ta dopants. From ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer measurements, it is shown that the transmittance value of FTO film decreases with Pr and Ta doping elements increasing. The band gap value of FTO film increases only at 1 at.% Ta doping level, it drops off with Pr and Ta doping ratio increasing at other doped FTO films. The electrical measurements indicate that the sheet resistance value of FTO film initially decreases with Pr and Ta doping ratio decreasing and then it increases with Pr and Ta doping ratio increasing. The highest value of figure of merit is obtained for 1 at.% Ta- and Pr-doped FTO film. These results suggest that Pr- and Ta-doped FTO films may be appealing candidates for TCO applications. (paper)

  4. Highly improved hydration level sensing properties of copper oxide films with sodium and potassium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Bünyamin; Kaya, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    In this study, un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped nanostructured CuO films were successfully synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Structural properties of the CuO films were affected from doping. The XRD pattern indicates the formation of polycrystalline CuO films with no secondary phases. Furthermore, doping affected the crystal structure of the samples. The optimum conductivity values for both Na and K were obtained at 4 M% doping concentrations. The comparative hydration level sensing properties of the un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped CuO nanoparticles were also investigated. A significant enhancement in hydration level sensing properties was observed for both 4 M% Na and K-doped CuO films for all concentration levels. Detailed discussions were reported in the study regarding atomic radii, crystalline structure, and conductivity.

  5. Electrical, optical, and electronic properties of Al:ZnO films in a wide doping range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, Ilaria; Valeri, Sergio; Benedetti, Stefania; Bona, Alessandro di; Lollobrigida, Valerio; Perucchi, Andrea; Di Pietro, Paola; Lupi, Stefano; Torelli, Piero

    2015-01-01

    The combination of photoemission spectroscopies, infrared and UV-VIS absorption, and electric measurements has allowed to clarify the mechanisms governing the conductivity and the electronic properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films in a wide doping range. The contribution of defect-related in-gap states to conduction has been excluded in optimally doped films (around 4 at. %). The appearance of gap states at high doping, the disappearance of occupied DOS at Fermi level, and the bands evolution complete the picture of electronic structure in AZO when doped above 4 at. %. In this situation, compensating defects deplete the conduction band and increase the electronic bandgap of the material. Electrical measurements and figure of merit determination confirm the high quality of the films obtained by magnetron sputtering, and thus allow to extend their properties to AZO films in general

  6. Electrical, optical, and electronic properties of Al:ZnO films in a wide doping range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, Ilaria; Valeri, Sergio [CNR, Istituto Nanoscienze, S3, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Benedetti, Stefania, E-mail: stefania.benedetti@unimore.it; Bona, Alessandro di [CNR, Istituto Nanoscienze, S3, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Lollobrigida, Valerio [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome, Italy and Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Perucchi, Andrea; Di Pietro, Paola [INSTM Udr Trieste-ST and Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Area Science Park, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Lupi, Stefano [CNR-IOM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Torelli, Piero [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14 km 163.5, Basovizza, I-34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-10-28

    The combination of photoemission spectroscopies, infrared and UV-VIS absorption, and electric measurements has allowed to clarify the mechanisms governing the conductivity and the electronic properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films in a wide doping range. The contribution of defect-related in-gap states to conduction has been excluded in optimally doped films (around 4 at. %). The appearance of gap states at high doping, the disappearance of occupied DOS at Fermi level, and the bands evolution complete the picture of electronic structure in AZO when doped above 4 at. %. In this situation, compensating defects deplete the conduction band and increase the electronic bandgap of the material. Electrical measurements and figure of merit determination confirm the high quality of the films obtained by magnetron sputtering, and thus allow to extend their properties to AZO films in general.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Molybdenum Doped ZnO Thin Films by SILAR Deposition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, R.; Sakthivelu, A.; Pradhabhan, D.

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) deposition method. The effect of Mo dopant concentration of 5, 6.6 and 10 mol% on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of n-type Mo doped ZnO films was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the Mo doped ZnO thin films were polycrystalline with wurtzite structure. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) studies shows that the surface morphology of the films changes with Mo doping. A blue shift of the optical band gap was observed in the optical studies. Effect of Mo dopant concentration on electrical conductivity was studied and it shows comparatively high electrical conductivity at 10 mol% of Mo doping concentration.

  8. Effect of Al doping on phase formation and thermal stability of iron nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, Akhil [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201 303 (India); Gupta, Mukul, E-mail: mgupta@csr.res.in [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201 303 (India); Pandey, Nidhi [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201 303 (India); Gupta, Ajay [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 001 (India); Horisberger, Michael [Laboratory for Developments and Methods, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Stahn, Jochen [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-11-25

    In the present work, we systematically studied the effect of Al doping on the phase formation of iron nitride (Fe–N) thin films. Fe–N thin films with different concentration of Al (Al = 0, 2, 3, 6, and 12 at.%) were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering by varying the nitrogen partial pressure between 0 and 100%. The structural and magnetic properties of the films were studied using x-ray diffraction and polarized neutron reflectivity. It was observed that at the lowest doping level (2 at.% of Al), nitrogen rich non-magnetic Fe–N phase gets formed at a lower nitrogen partial pressure as compared to the un-doped sample. Interestingly, we observed that as Al doping is increased beyond 3 at.%, nitrogen rich non-magnetic Fe–N phase appears at higher nitrogen partial pressure as compared to un-doped sample. The thermal stability of films were also investigated. Un-doped Fe–N films deposited at 10% nitrogen partial pressure possess poor thermal stability. Doping of Al at 2 at.% improves it marginally, whereas, for 3, 6 and 12 at.% Al doping, it shows significant improvement. The obtained results have been explained in terms of thermodynamics of Fe–N and Al–N. - Highlights: • Doping effects of Al on Fe–N phase formation is studied. • Phase formation shows a non-monotonic behavior with Al doping. • Low doping levels of Al enhance and high levels retard the nitridation process. • Al doping beyond 3 at.% improve thermal stability of Fe–N films.

  9. Investigation on the effect of Zr doping in ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokulakrishnan, V.; Parthiban, S.; Jeganathan, K.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Zirconium doped zinc oxide thin films with enhanced optical transparency were prepared on Corning 1737 glass substrates at the substrate temperature of 400 o C by spray pyrolysis method for various doping concentrations of zirconium (IV) chloride in the spray solution. The X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the films exhibit hexagonal crystal structure with polycrystalline grains oriented along (0 0 2) direction. The crystalline quality of the films is found to be deteriorating with the increase of doping concentration and acquires amorphous state for higher concentration of 8 at.% in precursor solution. The average transmittance for 5 at.% (solution) zirconium doped ZnO film is significantly increased to ∼92% in the visible region of 500-800 nm. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of films show a band edge between 3.41 and 3.2 eV and strong blue emission at 2.8 eV irrespective of doping concentration and however intensity increases consistently with doping levels. The vacuum annealing at 400 o C reduced the resistivity of the films significantly due to the coalescence of grains and the lowest resistivity of 2 x 10 -3 Ω cm is observed for 3 at.% (solution) Zr doped ZnO films which envisages that it is a good candidate for stable TCO material.

  10. Morphology and thermal stability of Ti-doped copper nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiaoyan; Wu Zhiguo; Li Huajun; Geng Baisong; Li Chun; Yan Pengxun

    2007-01-01

    A weakly Ti-doped copper nitride (Cu 3 N) film was prepared by cylindrical magnetron sputtering. The XPS results indicate that Ti atoms do not substitute for the Cu atoms but probably locate at the grain boundaries. The columnar grains size is about half of that of the undoped Cu 3 N film and the surface is smoother. For weakly Ti-doped Cu 3 N films, a dense layer appears on top of the columnar crystals. The RMS of the Cu film formed by annealing of the weakly Ti-doped Cu 3 N film is more than twice larger than that of the film before annealing. Compared with the undoped Cu 3 N film, it possesses fine thermal stability both in vacuum and in atmosphere

  11. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped nickel oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathisha, D.; Naik, K. Gopalakrishna

    2018-05-01

    Cobalt (Co) doped nickel oxide (NiO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at a temperature of about 400 °C by spray pyrolysis method. The effect of Co doping concentration on structural, optical and compositional properties of NiO thin films was investigated. X-ray diffraction result shows that the deposited thin films are polycrystalline in nature. Surface morphologies of the deposited thin films were observed by FESEM and AFM. EDS spectra showed the incorporation of Co dopants in NiO thin films. Optical properties of the grown thin films were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. It was found that the optical band gap energy and transmittance of the films decrease with increasing Co doping concentration.

  12. Effect of low level doping of boron and phosphorus on the properties of amorphous silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, N.T.; Epstein, K.A.; Grimmer, D.P.; Vernstrom, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of the low level doping of boron and phosphorus on the properties of amorphous silicon films (a-Si:H) were studied. Doping level of both boron and phosphorus was in the range of 10/sup 17/ atoms/cm/sup 3/. Apparent improvement in the stability of dark and photoconductivity of a-Si: films upon low level doping does not result from the elimination of light-induced defects. The stability of the dark and photoconductivity upon doping is an indication of pinning of the Fermi level

  13. The Effect of H2SO4 Concentration on the Ionic Conductivity of Liquid PMMA Oligomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norashima Kamaluddin; Famiza Abdul Latif; Han, C.C.; Ruhani Ibrahim; Sharil Fadli Mohamad Zamri; Norashima Kamaluddin; Famiza Abdul Latif; Han, C.C.; Ruhani Ibrahim; Sharil Fadli Mohamad Zamri

    2015-01-01

    To date gel and film type polymer electrolytes have been widely synthesized due to their wide range of electrical properties. However these types of polymer electrolytes exhibit poor mechanical stability and poor electrode-electrolyte contact hence deprive the overall performance of a battery system. Therefore, in order to indulge the advantages of polymer as electrolyte, a new class of polymer electrolyte was synthesized and investigated. In this study, liquid poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrolyte was synthesized using the simplest free radical polymerization technique using benzoyl peroxide as the initiator. At this stage, it was found that this liquid PMMA oligomer (MW=3000 g/ mole) has a potential as electrolyte in electrochemical devices. It was found that an ionic conductivity of ∼10 -7 S/ cm at room temperature can be achieved when only small volume of high molarity of sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) was doped in the liquid PMMA oligomer. The properties of this liquid PMMA oligomer were further investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). (author)

  14. Combined effect of nitrogen doping and nanosteps on microcrystalline diamond films for improvement of field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengui, U.A.; Campos, R.A.; Alves, K.A.; Antunes, E.F.; Hamanaka, M.H.M.O.; Corat, E.J.; Baldan, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot filament chemical vapor deposition using methane, hydrogen and a solution of urea in methanol produced nitrogen-doped diamond films. • Diamonds had the grain morphology changed for long growth time (28 h), and the nitrogen doping were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. • Field emission characterization shows a decrease up to 70% in threshold field, related to reference diamond layer. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped microcrystalline diamond (N-MCD) films were grown on Si substrates using a hot filament reactor with methanol solution of urea as N source. Electrostatic self-assembly seeding of nanocrystalline diamond were used to obtain continuous and uniform films. Simultaneous changes in grains morphology and work function of diamond by nitrogen doping decreased the threshold field and the angular coefficient of Fowler–Nordhein plots. The field emission properties of our N-MCD films are comparable to carbon nanotube films

  15. Combined effect of nitrogen doping and nanosteps on microcrystalline diamond films for improvement of field emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengui, U.A., E-mail: ursulamengui@gmail.com [INPE – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais – LAS, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, CP 515, CEP 12.245-970, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Campos, R.A.; Alves, K.A.; Antunes, E.F. [INPE – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais – LAS, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, CP 515, CEP 12.245-970, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Hamanaka, M.H.M.O. [Centro de Tecnologia da Informação Renato Archer, Divisão de Superfícies de Interação e Displays, Rodovia D. Pedro I (SP 65) km 143.6, CP 6162, CEP 13089-500, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Corat, E.J.; Baldan, M.R. [INPE – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais – LAS, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, CP 515, CEP 12.245-970, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Hot filament chemical vapor deposition using methane, hydrogen and a solution of urea in methanol produced nitrogen-doped diamond films. • Diamonds had the grain morphology changed for long growth time (28 h), and the nitrogen doping were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. • Field emission characterization shows a decrease up to 70% in threshold field, related to reference diamond layer. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped microcrystalline diamond (N-MCD) films were grown on Si substrates using a hot filament reactor with methanol solution of urea as N source. Electrostatic self-assembly seeding of nanocrystalline diamond were used to obtain continuous and uniform films. Simultaneous changes in grains morphology and work function of diamond by nitrogen doping decreased the threshold field and the angular coefficient of Fowler–Nordhein plots. The field emission properties of our N-MCD films are comparable to carbon nanotube films.

  16. An investigation on the In doping of ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Devika; Kumar, M. C. Santhosh

    2018-04-01

    Indium doped zinc oxide (IGZO)thin films are gaining much interest owing to its commercial application as transparent conductive oxide thin films. In the current study thin films indium doped ZnO thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique with an indium concentration of 1, 2.5 and 4% in Zinc source. The films show a peak shift in the X-Ray Diffraction patterns with varying indium doping concentration. The (101) peak was enhanced for the 2.5 % indium doped films and variation in grain size with the different doping levels was studied. The as-deposited films are uniform and shown high transparency (>90%) in the visible region. Average thicknesses of films are found to be 800nm, calculated using the envelope method. The film with 2.5 % of indium content was found to be highly conducting than the rest, since for the lower and higher concentrations the conductivity was possibly halted by the limit in carrier concentration and indium segregation in the grain boundaries respectively. The enhancement of mobility and carrier concentration was clearly seen in the optimum films.

  17. Effect of La doping on crystalline orientation, microstructure and dielectric properties of PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wencai; Li, Qi; Wang, Xing [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China). School of Mechanical Engineering; Yin, Zhifu [Jilin Univ., Changchun (China). Faculty of the School of Mechanical Science and Engineering; Zou, Helin [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China). Key Lab. for Micro/Nano Systems and Technology

    2017-11-01

    Lanthanum (La)-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) thin films with doping concentration from 0 to 5 at.-% have been fabricated by sol-gel methods to investigate the effects of La doping on crystalline orientation, microstructure and dielectric properties of the modified films. The characterization of PLZT thin films were performed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and precision impedance analysis. XRD analysis showed that PLZT films with La doping concentration below 4 at.-% exhibited (100) preferred orientation. SEM results indicated that PLZT films presented dense and columnar microstructures when La doping concentration was less than 3 at.-%, while the others showed columnar microstructures only at the bottom of the cross section. The maximum dielectric constant (1502.59 at 100 Hz) was obtained in a 2 at.-% La-doped film, which increased by 53.9 % compared with undoped film. Without introducing a seed layer, (100) oriented PLZT thin films were prepared by using conventional heat treatment process and adjusting La doping concentration.

  18. Two different mechanisms on UV emission enhancement in Ag-doped ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Linhua; Zheng, Gaige; Zhao, Lilong; Pei, Shixin

    2015-01-01

    Ag-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by a sol–gel method. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis and photoluminescence spectra. The results show that the Ag in the ZnO thin films annealed at 500 °C for 1 h substitutes for Zn and exists in the form of Ag + ion (Ag Zn ) while the Ag in the ZnO thin films without a post-annealing mainly exists in the form of simple substance (Ag 0 ). The incorporation of Ag indeed can improve the ultraviolet emission of ZnO thin films and suppress the visible emissions at the same time. However, the mechanisms on the ultraviolet emission enhancement in the annealed and unannealed Ag-doped ZnO thin films are very different. As for the post-annealed Ag-doped ZnO thin films, the UV emission enhancement maybe mainly results from more electron–hole pairs (excitons) due to Ag-doping while for the unannealed Ag-doped ZnO thin films; the UV emission enhancement is attributed to the resonant coupling between exciton emission in ZnO and localized surface plasmon in Ag nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Ag-doped ZnO thin films have been prepared by the sol–gel method. • Ag-doping can enhance ultraviolet emission of ZnO thin films and depress the visible emissions at the same time. • There are two different mechanisms on UV emission enhancement in Ag-doped ZnO thin films. • The UV emission enhancement from the resonant coupling between excitonic emissions and localized surface plasmon in Ag nanoparticle is very attractive

  19. Optical and structural properties of Cu-doped β-Ga2O3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yijun; Yan Jinliang; Li Qingshan; Qu Chong; Zhang Liying; Xie Wanfeng

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → We prepare polycrystalline Cu-doped β-Ga2O3 films. → Cu dopants cause poor crystal quality and shrinkage of the optical band gap. → Cu-doping enhances the UV and blue emission. → A new blue emission peak centre at 475 nm appears by Cu-doping. → Cu dopants decrease the optical transmittance. - Abstract: The intrinsic and Cu-doped β-Ga 2 O 3 films were grown on Si and quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering in an argon and oxygen mixture ambient. The effects of the Cu doping and the post thermal annealing on the optical and structural properties of the β-Ga 2 O 3 films were studied. The surface morphology, microstructure, optical transmittance, optical absorption, optical energy gap and photoluminescence of the β-Ga 2 O 3 films were significantly changed after Cu-doping. After post thermal annealing, Polycrystalline β-Ga 2 O 3 films were obtained, the transmittance decreased. After Cu-doping, the grain size decreased, the crystal quality deteriorated and the optical band gap shrunk. The UV, blue and green emission bands were observed and discussed. The UV and blue emission were enhanced and a new blue emission peak centred at 475 nm appeared by Cu-doping.

  20. Thin film hybrid Josephson junctions with Co doped Ba-122

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Stefan; Doering, Sebastian; Schmidl, Frank; Tympel, Volker; Grosse, Veit; Seidel, Paul [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Haindl, Silvia; Iida, Kazumasa; Kurth, Fritz; Holzapfel, Bernhard [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Metallische Werkstoffe, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Moench, Ingolf [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Integrative Nanowissenschaften, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Josephson junctions are a strong tool to investigate fundamental superconducting properties, such as gap behaviour, dependencies from external fields and the order parameter symmetry. Finding secure values enables the possibility of theoretical descriptions to understand the physical processes within the new iron-based superconductors. Based on Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (Ba-122) layers produced via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on (La,Sr)(Al,Ta)O{sub 3} substrates, we manufactured superconductor-normal conductor-superconductor (S-N-S) junctions structures by using photolithography, ion beam etching as well as insulating SiO{sub 2} layers. We present working Ba-122/Au/PbIn thin film Josephson junctions with different contact areas and barrier thicknesses, their temperature dependence and response to microwave irradiation. The calculated I{sub c}R{sub N} product is in the range of a couple of microvolts.

  1. Transfer-free synthesis of doped and patterned graphene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Qi-Qi; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Duo; Li, Qin-Liang; Gao, Chun-Hong; Sun, Yan-Qiu; Ding, Lei; Sun, Qi-Jun; Wang, Sui-Dong; Zhong, Jun; Sun, Xu-Hui; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2015-01-27

    High-quality and wafer-scale graphene on insulating gate dielectrics is a prerequisite for graphene electronic applications. For such applications, graphene is typically synthesized and then transferred to a desirable substrate for subsequent device processing. Direct production of graphene on substrates without transfer is highly desirable for simplified device processing. However, graphene synthesis directly on substrates suitable for device applications, though highly demanded, remains unattainable and challenging. Here, we report a simple, transfer-free method capable of synthesizing graphene directly on dielectric substrates at temperatures as low as 600 °C using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the carbon source. Significantly, N-doping and patterning of graphene can be readily and concurrently achieved by this growth method. Remarkably, the graphene films directly grown on glass attained a small sheet resistance of 550 Ω/sq and a high transmittance of 91.2%. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) fabricated on N-doped graphene on glass achieved a current density of 4.0 mA/cm(2) at 8 V compared to 2.6 mA/cm(2) for OLEDs similarly fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass, demonstrating that the graphene thus prepared may have potential to serve as a transparent electrode to replace ITO.

  2. Effects of thermal treatment on the structure and luminescent properties of Eu3+ doped SiO2–PMMA hybrid nanocomposites prepared by a sol–gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Filipe Augusto de; Tarse Sobrinho Santos, Simei; Caiut, José Maurício Almeida; Sarmento, Victor Hugo Vitorino

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites are multifunctional materials and their properties are the consequence of molecular interaction between inorganic and organic phases. These materials are interesting hosts for lanthanide ions, such as Eu 3+ . The purpose of this research was to synthesize Eu 3+ doped SiO 2 –PMMA hybrid nanocomposites by a sol–gel process and to study the effects of thermal treatment on the structure and luminescent properties of the material. Structural characterization was carried out using the FTIR, TG and 29 Si NMR techniques, however, the luminescence studies were more sensitive to detect the slight structural changes resulting from the thermal treatment. The Eu 3+ ions inserted into the matrix behaved as a structural probe and make it possible to notice the symmetry change from Eu 3+ site, the decrease in the number of hydroxyl coordinated groups and the improvement in quantum efficiency as a result of the thermal treatment. In addition, the Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters were obtained and supported the interaction between the rare earth and hybrid material. The hybrid was obtained as a stable material until 200 °C and the high sensitivity of the Eu 3+ ions in the system may be used in future applications as thermal sensors, for example. - Highlights: • Eu 3+ -doped SiO 2 –PMMA hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized through a sol–gel process. • FTIR, NMR and TG techniques were used to structural characterization of the material. • Luminescence analysis showed changes in Eu 3+ coordination sphere caused by thermal treatments. • Thermal treatments increase the interaction between the lanthanide ions and the host. • There was a huge improvement in the quantum efficiency of Eu 3+ in heat treated sample.

  3. Effects of thermal treatment on the structure and luminescent properties of Eu{sup 3+} doped SiO{sub 2}–PMMA hybrid nanocomposites prepared by a sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Filipe Augusto de; Tarse Sobrinho Santos, Simei [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Vereador Olímpio Grande s/n, Centro, Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Caiut, José Maurício Almeida [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Sarmento, Victor Hugo Vitorino, E-mail: vhsarmento@ufs.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Vereador Olímpio Grande s/n, Centro, Itabaiana, SE (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Hybrid nanocomposites are multifunctional materials and their properties are the consequence of molecular interaction between inorganic and organic phases. These materials are interesting hosts for lanthanide ions, such as Eu{sup 3+}. The purpose of this research was to synthesize Eu{sup 3+} doped SiO{sub 2}–PMMA hybrid nanocomposites by a sol–gel process and to study the effects of thermal treatment on the structure and luminescent properties of the material. Structural characterization was carried out using the FTIR, TG and {sup 29}Si NMR techniques, however, the luminescence studies were more sensitive to detect the slight structural changes resulting from the thermal treatment. The Eu{sup 3+} ions inserted into the matrix behaved as a structural probe and make it possible to notice the symmetry change from Eu{sup 3+} site, the decrease in the number of hydroxyl coordinated groups and the improvement in quantum efficiency as a result of the thermal treatment. In addition, the Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters were obtained and supported the interaction between the rare earth and hybrid material. The hybrid was obtained as a stable material until 200 °C and the high sensitivity of the Eu{sup 3+} ions in the system may be used in future applications as thermal sensors, for example. - Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+}-doped SiO{sub 2}–PMMA hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized through a sol–gel process. • FTIR, NMR and TG techniques were used to structural characterization of the material. • Luminescence analysis showed changes in Eu{sup 3+} coordination sphere caused by thermal treatments. • Thermal treatments increase the interaction between the lanthanide ions and the host. • There was a huge improvement in the quantum efficiency of Eu{sup 3+} in heat treated sample.

  4. Effect of B doping on optical, electrical properties and defects of ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Caiying [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); Fang, Liang, E-mail: lfang@cqu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); Zhang, Hong; Li, Wanjun [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Functional Materials of Chongqing, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Wu, Fang, E-mail: fang01234@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); Qin, Guoping [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Functional Materials of Chongqing, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Ruan, Haibo, E-mail: rhbcqu@aliyun.com [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Materials Engineering and Technology, Research Center for Materials Interdisciplinary Sciences, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, Chongqing, 402160 (China); Kong, Chunyang, E-mail: kchy@163.com [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Functional Materials of Chongqing, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Boron doped ZnO (BZO) films with B content in the range of 0–6 at.% were deposited on quartz glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The effects of B doping content on microstructure, optical and electrical properties of BZO films were systematically investigated by XRD, SEM, AFM, XPS, PL, UV–vis–near infrared spectrophotometer and Hall-effect measurement, respectively. It is found that the crystal quality of ZnO films can be improved as B doping content increases to no larger than 4 at.% and will be deteriorated at higher B doping content. The grain size and surface roughness of the films reduce with the increase of B doping content. The BZO films exhibit tensile stress and the stress increases with B content. The transmittance of the BZO films is revealed to be 90% in the visible region. As the B doping content increases from 0 to 6 at.%, the optical band gap of BZO films enhances from 3.28 to 3.57 eV, which is found to increase linearly with the tensile stress in the films. The lowest resistivity of 1.58 × 10{sup −3} (Ω cm) is obtained at 2 at.% B doping content. XPS and PL analyses demonstrated that B doping can promote the formation of defects of zinc interstitials (Zn{sub i}) and oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}). - Highlights: • The relationship of band gap (E{sub g}) and stress (σ) in BZO is deduced. • XPS and PL illustrate B doping can promote the formation of Zn{sub i} and V{sub O} in BZO. • The lowest resistivity (1.58 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm) is obtained at 2 at.% B content.

  5. Relation between film thickness and surface doping of MoS2 based field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart de la Rosa, César J.; Arutchelvan, Goutham; Leonhardt, Alessandra; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Radu, Iuliana; Heyns, Marc; De Gendt, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    Ultra-thin MoS2 film doping through surface functionalization with physically adsorbed species is of great interest due to its ability to dope the film without reduction in the carrier mobility. However, there is a need for understanding how the thickness of the MoS2 film is related to the induced surface doping for improved electrical performance. In this work, we report on the relation of MoS2 film thickness with the doping effect induced by the n-dopant adsorbate poly(vinyl-alcohol). Field effect transistors built using MoS2 films of different thicknesses were electrically characterized, and it was observed that the ION/OFF ratio after doping in thin films is more than four orders of magnitudes greater when compared with thick films. Additionally, a semi-classical model tuned with the experimental devices was used to understand the spatial distribution of charge in the channel and explain the observed behavior. From the simulation results, it was revealed that the two-dimensional carrier density induced by the adsorbate is distributed rather uniformly along the complete channel for thin films (<5.2 nm) contrary to what happens for thicker films.

  6. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride-organic hybrid films via graphene doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Airul Azha Abd; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Salleh, Muhamad Mat; Chen, Xiaomei; Oyama, Munetaka

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of graphene-doped bismuth telluride-PEDOT:PSS-glycerol (hybrid) films were investigated. Prior to the study, p-type and n-type hybrid films were prepared by doping the PEDOT:PSS-glycerol with the p- and n-type bismuth telluride. Graphene-doped hybrid films were prepared by adding graphene particles of concentration ranging from 0.02 to 0.1 wt% into the hybrid films. Films of graphene-doped hybrid system were then prepared on a glass substrate using a spin-coating technique. It was found that the electrical conductivity of the hybrid films increases with the increasing of the graphene-dopant concentration and optimum at 0.08 wt% for both p- and n-type films, namely 400 and 195 S/cm, respectively. Further increasing in the concentration caused a decreasing in the electrical conductivity. Analysis of the thermoelectric properties of the films obtained that the p-type film exhibited significant improvement in its thermoelectric properties, where the thermoelectric properties increased with the increasing of the doping concentration. Meanwhile, for the case of n-type film, graphene doping showed a negative effect to the thermoelectrical properties, where the thermoelectric properties decreased with the increasing of doping concentration. Seebeck coefficient (and power factor) for optimum p-type and n-type hybrid thin films, i.e., doped with 0.08 wt% of graphene, is 20 μV/K (and 160 μW m -1 K -2 ) and 10 μV/K (and 19.5 μW m -1 K -2 ), respectively. The obtained electrical conductivity and thermoelectric properties of graphene-doped hybrid film are interestingly several orders higher than the pristine hybrid films. A thermocouple device fabricated utilizing the p- and n-type graphene-doped hybrid films can generate an electric voltage as high as 2.2 mV under a temperature difference between the hot-side and the cold-side terminal as only low as 55 K. This is equivalent to the output power as high as 24.2 nW (for output load as high as 50

  7. Morphology and structure of Ti-doped diamond films prepared by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejie; Lu, Pengfei; Wang, Hongchao; Ren, Yuan; Tan, Xin; Sun, Shiyang; Jia, Huiling

    2018-06-01

    Ti-doped diamond films were deposited through a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) system for the first time. The effects of the addition of Ti on the morphology, microstructure and quality of diamond films were systematically investigated. Secondary ion mass spectrometry results show that Ti can be added to diamond films through the MPCVD system using tetra n-butyl titanate as precursor. The spectra from X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the images from scanning electron microscopy of the deposited films indicate that the diamond phase clearly exists and dominates in Ti-doped diamond films. The amount of Ti added obviously influences film morphology and the preferred orientation of the crystals. Ti doping is beneficial to the second nucleation and the growth of the (1 1 0) faceted grains.

  8. Atomic layer deposition of Al-doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynell, Tommi; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit; Okazaki, Ryuji; Terasaki, Ichiro [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition has been used to fabricate thin films of aluminum-doped ZnO by depositing interspersed layers of ZnO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on borosilicate glass substrates. The growth characteristics of the films have been investigated through x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflection, and x-ray fluorescence measurements, and the efficacy of the Al doping has been evaluated through optical reflectivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements. The Al doping is found to affect the carrier density of ZnO up to a nominal Al dopant content of 5 at. %. At nominal Al doping levels of 10 at. % and higher, the structure of the films is found to be strongly affected by the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase and no further carrier doping of ZnO is observed.

  9. Structural, optoelectronic, luminescence and thermal properties of Ga-doped zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S.S.; Shinde, P.S.; Oh, Y.W.; Haranath, D.; Bhosale, C.H.; Rajpure, K.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The ecofriendly deposition of Ga-doped zinc oxide. ► Influence of Ga doping onto physicochemical properties in aqueous media. ► Electron–phonon coupling by Raman. ► Chemical bonding structure and valence band analysis by XPS. - Abstract: Ga-doped ZnO thin films are synthesized by chemical spray pyrolysis onto corning glass substrates in aqueous media. The influence of gallium doping on to the photoelectrochemical, structural, Raman, XPS, morphological, optical, electrical, photoluminescence and thermal properties have been investigated in order to achieve good quality films. X-ray diffraction study depicts the films are polycrystalline and fit well with hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure with strong orientations along the (0 0 2) and (1 0 1) planes. Presence of E 2 high mode in Raman spectra indicates that the gallium doping does not change the wurtzite structure. The coupling strength between electron and LO phonon has experimentally estimated. In order to understand the chemical bonding structure and electronic states of the Ga-doped ZnO thin films XPS analysis have been studied. SEM images shows the films are adherent, compact, densely packed with hexagonal flakes and spherical grains. Optical transmittance and reflectance measurements have been carried out. Room temperature PL spectra depict violet, blue and green emission in deposited films. The specific heat and thermal conductivity study shows the phonon conduction behavior is dominant in these polycrystalline films.

  10. Influence of Ag thickness of aluminum-doped ZnO/Ag/aluminum-doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hung-Wei, E-mail: hwwu@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Computer and Communication, Kun Shan University, No. 949, Dawan Rd., Yongkang Dist., Tainan City 710, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ru-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Materials Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Rd., Neipu, Pingtung City 912, Taiwan (China); Hsiung, Chin-Min; Chu, Chien-Hsun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Rd., Neipu, Pingtung City 912, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-01

    Highly conducting aluminum-doped ZnO (30 nm)/Ag (5-15 nm)/aluminum-doped ZnO (30 nm) multilayer thin films were deposited on glass substrate by rf magnetron sputtering (for top/bottom aluminum-doped ZnO films) and e-beam evaporation (for Ag film). The transmittance is more than 70% for wavelengths above 400 nm with the Ag layer thickness of 10 nm. The resistivity is 3.71 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega}-cm, which can be decreased to 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} {Omega}-cm with the increase of the Ag layer thickness to 15 nm. The Haacke figure of merit has been calculated for the films with the best value being 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1}. It was shown that the multilayer thin films have potential for applications in optoelectronics. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-quality Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/Ag/AZO Transparent Conducting Oxide films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AZO films (30 nm) made by RF sputtering; E-beam evaporation for Ag film (5-15 nm). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of Ag thickness on optical and electrical properties were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High quality multilayer film with optimal intermediate Ag layer thickness of 10 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3.71 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega}-cm resistivity, 91.89% transmittance at 470 nm obtained and reproducible.

  11. Influence of indium doping on the properties of zinc tin oxide films and its application to transparent thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Mu Hee; Ma, Tae Young, E-mail: tyma@gnu.ac.kr

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of indium (In) doping on the properties of zinc tin oxide (ZTO) films are reported. ZTO films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering followed by In layer deposition, for use as the diffusion source. In order to protect the In layer from peeling, a second ZTO film was deposited on the In film. The annealing at 400 °C for 30 min was carried out to diffuse In atoms into the ZTO films. The structural, optical, and elemental properties of the annealed ZTO/In/ZTO films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, UV/vis spectrophotometry, and X-ray photoluminescence spectroscopy, respectively. The ZTO transparent thin film transistors employing the ZTO/In/ZTO films as the source/drain were prepared, and the effects of the In doped source/drain on the threshold voltage and mobility were characterized and analyzed. - Highlights: • We successfully doped zinc tin oxide (ZTO) films using In as a diffusion source. • Indium (In) was diffused in both directions with the diffusion coefficient of ∼ 4.3 × 10{sup −16} cm{sup 2}/s. • The mobility of ZTO thin film transistor was increased 1.6-times by adopting the In-diffused source/drain.

  12. Influence of In doping on electro-optical properties of ZnO films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Doped-zinc oxide; microstructure; optical parameters; electrical conductivity. 1. Introduction ..... In-interstitial atoms determine the widening of the bandgap caused by .... Melendez-Lira M A and de la Olvera L M 2005 Thin Solid Films. 490 132.

  13. Investigation of the Optoelectronic Properties of Ti-doped Indium Tin Oxide Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nen-Wen Pu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available : In this study, direct-current magnetron sputtering was used to fabricate Ti-doped indium tin oxide (ITO thin films. The sputtering power during the 350-nm-thick thin-film production process was fixed at 100 W with substrate temperatures increasing from room temperature to 500 °C. The Ti-doped ITO thin films exhibited superior thin-film resistivity (1.5 × 10−4 Ω/cm, carrier concentration (4.1 × 1021 cm−3, carrier mobility (10 cm2/Vs, and mean visible-light transmittance (90% at wavelengths of 400–800 nm at a deposition temperature of 400 °C. The superior carrier concentration of the Ti-doped ITO alloys (>1021 cm−3 with a high figure of merit (81.1 × 10−3 Ω−1 demonstrate the pronounced contribution of Ti doping, indicating their high suitability for application in optoelectronic devices.

  14. Investigation of the Optoelectronic Properties of Ti-doped Indium Tin Oxide Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Nen-Wen; Liu, Wei-Sheng; Cheng, Huai-Ming; Hu, Hung-Chun; Hsieh, Wei-Ting; Yu, Hau-Wei; Liang, Shih-Chang

    2015-09-21

    : In this study, direct-current magnetron sputtering was used to fabricate Ti-doped indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films. The sputtering power during the 350-nm-thick thin-film production process was fixed at 100 W with substrate temperatures increasing from room temperature to 500 °C. The Ti-doped ITO thin films exhibited superior thin-film resistivity (1.5 × 10 - ⁴ Ω/cm), carrier concentration (4.1 × 10 21 cm - ³), carrier mobility (10 cm²/Vs), and mean visible-light transmittance (90%) at wavelengths of 400-800 nm at a deposition temperature of 400 °C. The superior carrier concentration of the Ti-doped ITO alloys (>10 21 cm - ³) with a high figure of merit (81.1 × 10 - ³ Ω - ¹) demonstrate the pronounced contribution of Ti doping, indicating their high suitability for application in optoelectronic devices.

  15. Thermal Quenching of Photoluminescence from Er-Doped GaN Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seo, J. T; Hoemmerich, U; Lee, D. C; Heikenfeld, J; Steckl, A. J; Zavada, J. M

    2002-01-01

    The green (537 and 558 nm) and near infrared (1.54 micrometers) photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Er-doped GaN thin films have been investigated as a function of temperature, excitation wavelength, and pump intensity...

  16. Low-temperature electrical transport in B-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lin; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Zhaosheng; Quan, Baogang; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi

    2014-01-01

    B-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films are grown using hot-filament chemical vapor deposition method, and their electrical transport properties varying with temperature are investigated. When the B-doped concentration of UNCD film is low, a step-like increase feature of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature, reflecting at least three temperature-modified electronic state densities at the Fermi level according to three-dimensional Mott's variable range hopping transport mechanism, which is very different from that of reported B-doped nanodiamond. With increasing B-doped concentration, a superconductive transformation occurs in the UNCD film and the highest transformation temperature of 5.3 K is observed, which is higher than that reported for superconducting nanodiamond films. In addition, the superconducting coherence length is about 0.63 nm, which breaks a reported theoretical and experimental prediction about ultra-nanoscale diamond's superconductivity

  17. Nitrogen-doped graphene films from simple photochemical doping for n-type field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinyu [College of Science, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Department of Physics and Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tang, Tao; Li, Ming, E-mail: liming928@163.com, E-mail: lixinyu5260@163.com [College of Science, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); He, Xiancong, E-mail: liming928@163.com, E-mail: lixinyu5260@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing 211167 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highly nitrogen-doped GO (NGO) and n-type graphene field effect transistor (FET) have been achieved by simple irradiation of graphene oxide (GO) thin films in NH{sub 3} atmosphere. The electrical properties of the NGO film were performed on electric field effect measurements, and it displays an n-type FET behavior with a charge neutral point (Dirac point) located at around −8 V. It is suggested that the amino-like nitrogen (N-A) mainly contributes to the n-type behavior. Furthermore, compared to the GO film irradiated in Ar atmosphere, the NGO film is much more capable to improve the electrical conductivity. It may attribute to nitrogen doping and oxygen reduction, both of which can effectively enhance the electrical conductivity.

  18. Modeling flux pinning in thin undoped and BazRo3-doped YBCO films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paturi, P.; Irjala, M.; Huhtinen, H.

    2009-01-01

    A simple model based on distributions of twin boundaries, dislocations, and BaZrO3 nanorods is presented to describe the Jc properties of undoped and BaZrO3 (BZO)-doped YBa2Cu3Ox thin films. The model accurately describes the shape of Jc(B,T) curves of the films, when the pinning site distributions...... are taken from distributions of twin spacings and BZO nanorods from transmission electron microscope images. Thus, assuming that the model can be used for prediction of the Jc properties, we conclude that for enhancement of undoped films more crystalline defects are needed and for doped films a dopant...

  19. Synthesis of TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and its applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    structure of the titanium oxide species in the TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and the photocatalytic reactiv- ity in order to ... gaku D-max γA diffractometer with graphite mono- chromized ... FT–IR absorption spectra of TiO2-doped SiO2 com-.

  20. Development of Doped Microcrystalline Silicon Oxide and its Application to Thin‑Film Silicon Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambertz, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the development of doped microcrystalline silicon oxide (µc‑SiOx:H) alloys and its application in thin‑film silicon solar cells. The doped µc‑SiOx:H material was prepared from carbon dioxide (CO2), silane (SiH4), hydrogen (H2) gas mixtures using plasma enhanced

  1. Microstructural and electrical characteristics of rare earth oxides doped ZnO varistor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Lei; Mei, Yunzhu; Xu, Dong; Zhong, Sujuan; Ma, Jia; Zhang, Lei; Bao, Li

    2018-02-01

    ZnO-Bi2O3 varistor films doped with two kinds of rare earth element oxides (Lu2O3 and Yb2O3) were prepared by the sol-gel method. The effects of Lu2O3/Yb2O3 doping on the microstructure and electrical characteristics of ZnO-Bi2O3 varistor films were investigated. All samples show a homogenized morphology and an improved nonlinear relationship between the electric field (E) and current density (I). Both Yb2O3 and Lu2O3 doping can decrease the grain size of ZnO-Bi2O3 varistor films and improve the electrical properties, which have a positive effect on the development of ZnO varistor ceramics. Yb2O3 doping significantly increases the dielectric constant at low frequency. 0.2 mol. % Yb2O3 doped ZnO-Bi2O3 varistor films exhibit the highest nonlinear coefficient (2.5) and the lowest leakage current (328 μA) among Lu2O3/Yb2O3 doped ZnO-Bi2O3 varistor films. Similarly, 0.1 mol. % Lu2O3 doping increases the nonlinear coefficient to 1.9 and decrease the leakage current to 462 μA.

  2. Exceptionally crystalline and conducting acid doped polyaniline films by level surface assisted solution casting approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puthirath, Anand B.; Varma, Sreekanth J.; Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Division for Research in Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala 682022 (India); Methattel Raman, Shijeesh [Nanophotonic and Optoelectronic Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala 682022 (India)

    2016-04-18

    Emeraldine salt form of polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerisation method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant. Resultant emeraldine salt form of PANI was dedoped using ammonia solution and then re-doped with camphor sulphonic acid (CSA), naphthaline sulphonic acid (NSA), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and m-cresol. Thin films of these doped PANI samples were deposited on glass substrates using solution casting method with m-cresol as solvent. A level surface was employed to get homogeneous thin films of uniform thickness. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the films are exceptionally crystalline. The crystalline peaks observed in the XRD spectra can be indexed to simple monoclinic structure. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy studies provide convincing explanation for the exceptional crystallinity observed in these polymer films. FESEM and AFM images give better details of surface morphology of doped PANI films. The DC electrical conductivity of the samples was measured using four point probe technique. It is seen that the samples also exhibit quite high DC electrical conductivity, about 287 S/cm for CSA doped PANI, 67 S/cm for NSA doped PANI 65 S/cm for HCl doped PANI, and just below 1 S/cm for m-cresol doped PANI. Effect of using the level surface for solution casting is studied and correlated with the observed crystallinity.

  3. Low-Concentration Indium Doping in Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Films for Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of low-concentration indium (In doping on the chemical and structural properties of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO films and the electrical characteristics of bottom-gate/top-contact In-doped ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs. The thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analysis results showed that thermal annealing at 400 °C for 40 min produces In-doped ZnO films. As the In content of ZnO films was increased from 1% to 9%, the metal-oxygen bonding increased from 5.56% to 71.33%, while the metal-hydroxyl bonding decreased from 72.03% to 9.63%. The X-ray diffraction peaks and field-emission scanning microscope images of the ZnO films with different In concentrations revealed a better crystalline quality and reduced grain size of the solution-processed ZnO thin films. The thickness of the In-doped ZnO films also increased when the In content was increased up to 5%; however, the thickness decreased on further increasing the In content. The field-effect mobility and on/off current ratio of In-doped ZnO TFTs were notably affected by any change in the In concentration. Considering the overall TFT performance, the optimal In doping concentration in the solution-processed ZnO semiconductor was determined to be 5% in this study. These results suggest that low-concentration In incorporation is crucial for modulating the morphological characteristics of solution-processed ZnO thin films and the TFT performance.

  4. Fluorescence lifetime, dipole orientation and bilayer polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Xuan Long; Chen, Po-Jui; Woon, Wei-Yen; White, Jonathon David

    2017-10-01

    Bilayer films consisting of the optically transparent polymers, polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were spin-cast on glass substrates. The upper 13.5 nm layer (PS) was lightly doped with Rhodamine-6 G (RH6G) or MEH-PPV. While the fluorescence of MEH-PPV was independent of PMMA thickness, the lifetime of RH6G increased 3-fold as the underlying PMMA thickness increased from 0 to 500 nm while the collected flux decreased suggesting a reorientation of the smaller molecule's dipole with respect to the air-polymer interface with PMMA thickness. This suggests lifetime may find application for nondestructive thickness measurements of transparent films with sub-micron lateral resolution and large range.

  5. Enhanced ultraviolet photo-response in Dy doped ZnO thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Ranveer; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, a Dy doped ZnO thin film deposited by the spin coating method has been studied for its potential application in a ZnO based UV detector. The investigations on the structural property and surface morphology of the thin film ensure that the prepared samples are crystalline and exhibit a hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO. A small change in crystallite size has been observed due to Dy doping in ZnO. AFM analysis ascertains the grain growth and smooth surface of the thin films. The Dy doped ZnO thin film exhibits a significant enhancement in UV region absorption as compared to the pure ZnO thin film, which suggests that Dy doped ZnO can be used as a UV detector. Under UV irradiation of wavelength 325 nm, the photocurrent value of Dy doped ZnO is 105.54 μA at 4.5 V, which is 31 times greater than that of the un-doped ZnO thin film (3.39 μA). The calculated value of responsivity is found to increase significantly due to the incorporation of Dy in the ZnO lattice. The observed higher value of photocurrent and responsivity could be attributed to the substitution of Dy in the ZnO lattice, which enhances the conductivity, electron mobility, and defects in ZnO and benefits the UV sensing property.

  6. Effect of hydrogen doping on the properties of Al and F co-doped ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fang-Hsing, E-mail: fansen@dragon.nchu.edu.tw; Yang, Tung-Hsin

    2016-04-30

    Aluminum and fluorine co-doped zinc oxide (AFZO) thin films were prepared in Ar + H{sub 2} atmospheres by rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the prepared films were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Hall-effect measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ultraviolet–visible spectrometry, and their dependence on deposition atmosphere (i.e. H{sub 2} / (H{sub 2} + Ar) ratio) was studied. The resulting films showed a (0 0 2) diffraction peak, indicating a typical wurtzite structure, and the optimal film crystallinity was obtained with the H{sub 2} / (H{sub 2} + Ar) ratio of 3%. The electrical resistivity of AFZO films decreased to 9.16 × 10{sup −4} Ω-cm, which was lower than ZnO:Al and ZnO:F films due to double doping effect of Al and F. The resistivity further decreased to below 5 × 10{sup −4} Ω-cm for the AFZO film with the H{sub 2} / (H{sub 2} + Ar) ratio of 3%–5%. All the films regardless of hydrogen content displayed high transmittances (> 92%) in the visible wavelength range. Applying the developed AFZO films as front transparent electrodes, amorphous Si thin film solar cells were fabricated and the open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and efficiency of the cell with the hydrogenated AFZO film were improved in contrast to those without the hydrogenated film. - Highlights: • H{sub 2} doping improves optoelectronic properties of Al, F co-doped ZnO (AFZO) films. • Resistivity of AFZO films decreases to 4.4 × 10{sup −4} Ω-cm with the 3% H{sub 2}/(Ar + H{sub 2}) ratio. • AFZO films show high average visible transmittances of above 92%. • Efficiency of a-Si thin film solar cells is improved by AFZO:H as front electrode.

  7. Electrical characteristics of top contact pentacene organic thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) were fabricated using pentacene as the active layer with two different gate dielectrics, namely SiO2 and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), in top contact geometry for comparative studies. OTFTs with SiO2 as dielectric and gold deposited on the rough side of highly doped silicon (n+ -Si) ...

  8. Improvement of the optoelectronic properties of tin oxide transparent conductive thin films through lanthanum doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrabet, C., E-mail: chokri.mrabet@hotmail.com; Boukhachem, A.; Amlouk, M.; Manoubi, T.

    2016-05-05

    This work highlights some physical investigations on tin oxide thin films doped with different lanthanum content (ratio La–to-Sn = 0–3%). Such doped thin films have been successfully grown by spray pyrolysis onto glass substrates at 450 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that SnO{sub 2}:La thin films were polycrystalline with tetragonal crystal structure. The preferred orientation of crystallites for undoped SnO{sub 2} thin film was along (110) plane, whereas La-doped ones have rather preferential orientations along (200) direction. Although the grain size values exhibited a decreasing tendency with increasing doping content confirming the role of La as a grain growth inhibitor, dislocation density and microstrain values showed an increasing tendency. Also, Raman spectroscopy shows the bands corresponding to the tetragonal structure for the entire range of La doping. The same technique confirms the presence of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} as secondary phase. Moreover, SEM images showed a porous architecture with presence of big clusters with different sizes and shapes resulting from the agglomeration of small grains round shaped. Photoluminescence spectra of SnO{sub 2}:La thin films exhibit a decrease in the emission intensity with La concentration due to the decrease in grain size. Optical transmittance spectra of the films showed high transparency (∼80%) in the visible region. The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed using both Cauchy model and Wemple–Di-Domenico method. The optical band gap values vary slightly with La doping and were found to be around 3.8 eV. It has been found that La doping causes a pronounced decrease in the sheet resistance by up to two orders of magnitude and allows improving the Haacke's figure of merit (Φ) of the sprayed thin films. Moreover, we have introduced for a first time a new figure of merit for qualifying photo-thermal conversion applications. The obtained high conducting and transparent SnO{sub 2}:La

  9. Investigation of Physical Properties and Electrochemical Behavior of Nitrogen-Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattanakorn Saensak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work reports characterizations of diamond-like carbon (DLC films used as electrodes for electrochemical applications. DLC thin films are prepared on glass slides and silicon substrates by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD using a gas mixture of methane and hydrogen. In addition, the DLC films are doped with nitrogen in order to reduce electrical resistivity. Compared to the undoped DLC films, the electrical resistivity of nitrogen-doped (N-doped DLC films is decreased by three orders of magnitude. Raman spectroscopy and UV/Vis spectroscopy analyses show the structural transformation in N-doped DLC films that causes the reduction of band gap energy. Contact angle measurement at N-doped DLC films indicates increased hydrophobicity. The results obtained from the cyclic voltammetry measurements with Fe(CN63-/Fe(CN64- redox species exhibit the correlation between the physical properties and electrochemical behavior of DLC films.

  10. A short literature survey on iron and cobalt ion doped TiO2 thin films and photocatalytic activity of these films against fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatlıdil, İlknur; Bacaksız, Emin; Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Breen, Chris; Sökmen, Münevver

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Co or Fe doped TiO 2 thin films were prepared by sol–gel method. ► We obtained lower E g values for Fe-doped and Co-TiO 2 thin films. ► Doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO 2 nanoparticles. ► Photocatalytic killing effect of the doped TiO 2 thin films on C. albicans and A. niger was significantly higher than undoped TiO 2 thin film for short exposure periods. - Abstract: In this study, a short recent literature survey which concentrated on the usage of Fe 3+ or Co 2+ ion doped TiO 2 thin films and suspensions were summarized. Additionally, a sol–gel method was used for preparation of the 2% Co or Fe doped TiO 2 thin films. The surface of the prepared materials was characterised using scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and band gap of the films were calculated from the transmission measurements that were taken over the range of 190 and 1100 nm. The E g value was 3.40 eV for the pure TiO 2 , 3.00 eV for the Fe-doped TiO 2 film and 3.25 eV for Co-TiO 2 thin film. Iron or cobalt doping at lower concentration produce more uniformed particles and doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO 2 nanoparticles. Photocatalytic killing effect of the 2% Co doped TiO 2 thin film on Candida albicans was significantly higher than Fe doped TiO 2 thin film for short and long exposure periods. Doped thin films were more effective on Aspergillus niger for short exposure periods.

  11. Characteristics of strontium-doped ZnO films on love wave filter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water, Walter; Yan, Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of dopant concentrations in strontium-doped ZnO films on Love wave filter characteristics was investigated. Strontium-doped ZnO films with a c-axis preferred orientation were grown on ST-cut quartz by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The crystalline structures and surface morphology of films were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The electromechanical coupling coefficient, dielectric constant, and temperature coefficient of frequency of filters were then determined using a network analyzer. A uniform crystalline structure and smooth surface of the ZnO films were obtained at the 1-2 mol% strontium dopant level. The electromechanical coupling coefficient of the 1 mol% strontium-doped ZnO film reaches a maximum of 0.61%, and the temperature coefficient of frequency declines to + 12.87 ppm/deg. C at a 1.5 mol% strontium dopant level

  12. Temperature dependence of gas sensing behaviour of TiO2 doped PANI composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Subodh; Sharma, S. S.; Sharma, Preetam; Sharma, Vinay; Rajura, Rajveer Singh; Singh, M.; Vijay, Y. K.

    2014-04-01

    In the present work we have reported the effect of temperature on the gas sensing properties of TiO2 doped PANI composite thin film based chemiresistor type gas sensors for hydrogen gas sensing application. PANI and TiO2 doped PANI composite were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline at low temperature. The electrical properties of these composite thin films were characterized by I-V measurements as function of temperature. The I-V measurement revealed that conductivity of composite thin films increased as the temperature increased. The changes in resistance of the composite thin film sensor were utilized for detection of hydrogen gas. It was observed that at room temperature TiO2 doped PANI composite sensor shows higher response value and showed unstable behavior as the temperature increased. The surface morphology of these composite thin films has also been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement.

  13. Effect of Sr doping on LaTiO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilquin, B.; Kanki, T.; Yanagida, T.; Tanaka, H.; Kawai, T.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the electric properties of La 1-x Sr x TiO 3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition method. Crystallographic measurement of the thin films showed the epitaxial c-axis perovskite structure. The electric property of LaTiO 3 thin film, which is a typical Mott insulative material in bulk, showed insulative behaviour, while the Sr-doped films showed metallic conduction suffering electron-electron scattering. Below x = 0.1, the major carrier type was identified to be hole, and switched to electron with further increasing Sr-doping above x = 0.15. In fact, the switching from p-type to n-type for La 1-x Sr x TiO 3 thin films is first demonstrated in this study. The transition suggests that effective Coulomb gap vanishes due to over-additional Sr doping

  14. Structural Transformation upon Nitrogen Doping of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Films by Microwave Plasma CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chung Teng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular properties and surface morphology of undoped and N-doped ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD films deposited by microwave plasma CVD with addition of nitrogen are investigated with various spectroscopic techniques. The results of spatially resolved Raman scattering, ATR/FT-IR and XPS spectra show more amorphous and sp2/sp3 ratio characteristics in N-doped UNCD films. The surface morphology in AFM scans shows larger nanocrystalline diamond clusters in N-doped UNCD films. Incorporation of nitrogen into UNCD films has promoted an increase of amorphous sp2-bonded carbons in the grain boundaries and the size of nanocrystalline diamond grains that are well correlated to the reported enhancement of conductivity and structural changes of UNCD films.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical behavior of Sb-doped ZnO microsphere film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qian [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Cheng, Kui, E-mail: chengkui@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Weng, Wenjian, E-mail: wengwj@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); The Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Du, Piyi; Han, Gaorong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Sb-doped ZnO microsphere film was fabricated by a carboxylate ion assisted hydrothermal route coupled with a post-calcination process. The structure, chemical composition and optical band gap of the Sb-doped ZnO microsphere film were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively couple plasma optical emission spectroscopy and UV–visible spectrophotometry, and compared with the un-doped ZnO microsphere film. The results suggest that the formation of zinc–antimony tartrate complex species during hydrothermal growth is the key to realize Sb-doped ZnO microstructures, and the present hydrothermal method with post-calcination is an effective way to dope Sb into ZnO. Furthermore, the Sb-doped ZnO microsphere film based electrochemical biosensor exhibits a good sensing performance for the detection of hydrogen peroxide, with a sensitivity of 271 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} which is more than three times higher than that of the un-doped ZnO biosensor. - Highlights: • Sb-doped ZnO microsphere (SZM) films were grown by hydrothermal deposition. • Carboxylate ions were used to form complex during hydrothermal growth. • The formation of Zn–Sb tartrate complex is the key to realize SZM. • The biosensors based on SZM film are feasible and sensitive to detect H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The Sb doping could improve the electrochemical property of ZnO.

  16. Stoichiometric transfer of material in the infrared pulsed laser deposition of yttrium doped Bi-2212 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vero, Jeffrey C.; Blanca, Glaiza Rose S.; Vitug, Jaziel R.; Garcia, Wilson O.; Sarmago, Roland V.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This work describes the stoichiometric transfer of Y-doped Bi-2212 during IR-PLD. → As-deposited films show spheroidal morphology with similar composition as the target. Relatively flat and highly c-axis oriented films were obtained after heat treatment. → IR-PLD can be a viable technique in growing other high Tc superconducting materials. - Abstract: Films of Y-doped Bi-2212 were successfully grown on MgO (1 0 0) substrates by infrared pulsed laser deposition (IR-PLD). With post-heat treatments, smooth and highly c-axis oriented films were obtained. The average compositions of the films have the same stoichiometry as the target. Y content is also preserved on the grown films at all doping levels. The electrical properties of the grown Y-doped Bi-2212 films exhibit the expected electrical properties of the bulk Y-doped Bi-2212. This is attributed to the stoichiometric transfer of material by IR-PLD.

  17. Highly conducting and transparent Ti-doped CdO films by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Ghosh, K.; Patel, R.; Kahol, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Titanium-doped cadmium oxide thin films were deposited on quartz substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique. The effect of substrate temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties was studied. The films grown at high temperature show (2 0 0) preferred orientation, while films grown at low temperature have both (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) orientation. These films are highly transparent (63-79%) in visible region, and transmittance of the films depends on growth temperature. The band gap of the films varies from 2.70 eV to 2.84 eV for various temperatures. It is observed that resistivity increases with growth temperature after attaining minimum at 150 deg. C, while carrier concentration continuously decreases with temperature. The low resistivity, high transmittance and wide band gap titanium-doped CdO films could be an excellent candidate for future optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  18. Nitrogen doping in atomic layer deposition grown titanium dioxide films by using ammonium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, M.-L., E-mail: marja-leena.kaariainen@lut.fi; Cameron, D.C.

    2012-12-30

    Titanium dioxide films have been created by atomic layer deposition using titanium chloride as the metal source and a solution of ammonium hydroxide in water as oxidant. Ammonium hydroxide has been used as a source of nitrogen for doping and three thickness series have been deposited at 350 Degree-Sign C. A 15 nm anatase dominated film was found to possess the highest photocatalytic activity in all film series. Furthermore almost three times better photocatalytic activity was discovered in the doped series compared to undoped films. The doped films also had lower resistivity. The results from X-ray photoemission spectroscopy showed evidence for interstitial nitrogen in the titanium dioxide structure. Besides, there was a minor red shift observable in the thickest samples. In addition the film conductivity was discovered to increase with the feeding pressure of ammonium hydroxide in the oxidant precursor. This may indicate that nitrogen doping has caused the decrease in the resistivity and therefore has an impact as an enhanced photocatalytic activity. The hot probe test showed that all the anatase or anatase dominant films were p-type and all the rutile dominant films were n-type. The best photocatalytic activity was shown by anatase-dominant films containing a small amount of rutile. It may be that p-n-junctions are formed between p-type anatase and n-type rutile which cause carrier separation and slow down the recombination rate. The combination of nitrogen doping and p-n junction formation results in superior photocatalytic performance. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found all N-doped and undoped anatase dominating films p-type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found all N-doped and undoped rutile dominating films n-type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose that p-n junctions are formed in anatase-rutile mixture films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that low level N-doping has increased TiO{sub 2} conductivity. Black

  19. Structural, morphological and optical properties of Na and K dual doped CdS thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mageswari, S.; Dhivya, L.; Palanivel, Balan; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of incorporation of Na, K and Na,K dual dopants into CdS thin film was investigated. ► Thin films were prepared by simple chemical bath deposition technique. ► The XRD analysis revealed cubic phase for all the investigated films. ► AFM analysis revealed uniform surface with crack free and densely packed morphology for CdS:Na,K film. ► The band gap value increases for CdS:Na, CdS:K and CdS:Na,K thin films compared to CdS film. - Abstract: CdS, sodium doped CdS (CdS:Na), potassium doped CdS (CdS:K) and sodium and potassium dual doped CdS (CdS:Na,K) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the as-grown films were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet visible (UV–VIS) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis revealed cubic phase for ‘as-deposited’ CdS, CdS:Na, CdS:K and CdS:Na,K dual doped thin films. AFM analysis revealed uniform film surface with crack free and densely packed morphology for CdS:Na,K film. The absorption edge in the optical absorption spectra shifts towards the shorter wavelength for CdS:Na, CdS:K and CdS:Na,K thin films compared to CdS film. The optical band gap of CdS, CdS:Na, CdS:K and CdS:Na,K thin films was found to be 2.31, 2.35, 2.38 and 2.34 eV, respectively.

  20. Structural, morphological and optical properties of spray deposited Mn-doped CeO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan Kumar, CH.S.S.; Pandeeswari, R.; Jeyaprakash, B.G., E-mail: jp@ece.sastra.edu

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Spray deposited undoped and Mn-doped CeO{sub 2} thin films were polycrystalline. • Complete changeover of surface morphology upon 4 wt% Mn doping. • 4 wt% Mn-doped CeO{sub 2} thin film exhibited a hydrophobic nature. • Optical band-gap decreases beyond 2 wt% Mn doping. - Abstract: Cerium oxide and manganese (Mn) doped cerium oxide thin films on glass substrates were prepared by home built spray pyrolysis system. The effect of Mn doping on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CeO{sub 2} films were studied. It was found that both the undoped and doped CeO{sub 2} films were polycrystalline in nature but the preferential orientation and grain size changed upon doping. Atomic force micrograph showed a complete changeover of surface morphology from spherical to flake upon doping. A water contact angle result displayed the hydrophobic nature of the doped CeO{sub 2} film. Optical properties indicated an increase in band-gap and a decrease in transmittance upon doping owing to Moss–Burstein effect and inverse Moss–Burstein effects. Other optical properties such as refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constant as a function of doping were analysed and reported.

  1. Structural, morphological and optical properties of spray deposited Mn-doped CeO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan Kumar, CH.S.S.; Pandeeswari, R.; Jeyaprakash, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Spray deposited undoped and Mn-doped CeO 2 thin films were polycrystalline. • Complete changeover of surface morphology upon 4 wt% Mn doping. • 4 wt% Mn-doped CeO 2 thin film exhibited a hydrophobic nature. • Optical band-gap decreases beyond 2 wt% Mn doping. - Abstract: Cerium oxide and manganese (Mn) doped cerium oxide thin films on glass substrates were prepared by home built spray pyrolysis system. The effect of Mn doping on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CeO 2 films were studied. It was found that both the undoped and doped CeO 2 films were polycrystalline in nature but the preferential orientation and grain size changed upon doping. Atomic force micrograph showed a complete changeover of surface morphology from spherical to flake upon doping. A water contact angle result displayed the hydrophobic nature of the doped CeO 2 film. Optical properties indicated an increase in band-gap and a decrease in transmittance upon doping owing to Moss–Burstein effect and inverse Moss–Burstein effects. Other optical properties such as refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constant as a function of doping were analysed and reported

  2. Photovoltaic Properties of Co-doped ZnO Thin Film on Glass Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabia Aye; Zin Ma Ma; May Nwe Oo; Than Than Win; Yin Maung Maung; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2011-12-01

    Cobalt (Co) 0.4 mol doped zinc oxide (ZnO) fine powder was prepared by solid state mixed oxide route. Phase formation and crystal structure of Co-doped ZnO (CZO) powder were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the micro structure of Co doped ZnO powder. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent (EDXRF) technique gave the elemental content of cobalt and zinc. Co-doped ZnO film was formed on glass substrate by spin coating technique. Photovoltaic properties of CZO/glass cell were measured.

  3. In situ ellipsometry — A powerful tool for monitoring alkali doping of organic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidu, F.; Ludemann, M.; Schäfer, P.; Gordan, O.D.; Zahn, D.R.T.

    2014-01-01

    The changes of the optical properties of several organic thin films induced by potassium doping were monitored using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. The samples were prepared in a high vacuum chamber by organic molecular deposition. Then, potassium (K) was evaporated by passing current through K getters. The three different organic molecules used, show very distinct and different spectral behaviour upon doping. While for Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminium(III) and N,N′-Di-[(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl]-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine only small shifts of the spectral features were noticed, Manganese Phthalocyanine revealed significant changes of the optical properties induced by the K doping. This work indicates that the K doping process can have a dramatic effect on the electronic and the optical properties of the organic molecules, but the effect on the optical spectra remains specific for each organic molecule used, and cannot be easily predicted. - Highlights: • Monitoring organic film growth and doping with in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry • K doped organic thin films • Optical properties of organic thin films change by K doping. • The changes in the optical spectra remain specific for each organic molecule used

  4. Effect of doping on electronic states in B-doped polycrystalline CVD diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsherif, O S; Vernon-Parry, K D; Evans-Freeman, J H; May, P W

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution Laplace deep-level transient spectroscopy (LDLTS) and thermal admittance spectroscopy (TAS) have been used to determine the effect of boron (B) concentration on the electronic states in polycrystalline chemical vapour deposition diamond thin films grown on silicon by the hot filament method. A combination of high-resolution LDLTS and direct-capture cross-sectional measurements was used to investigate whether the deep electronic states present in the layers originated from point or extended defects. There was good agreement between data on deep electronic levels obtained from DLTS and TAS experiments. Two hole traps, E1 (0.29 eV) and E2 (0.53 eV), were found in a film with a boron content of 1 × 10 19 cm −3 . Both these levels and an additional level, E3 (0.35 eV), were found when the B content was increased to 4 × 10 19 cm −3 . Direct capture cross-sectional measurements of levels E1 and E2 show an unusual dependence on the fill-pulse duration which is interpreted as possibly indicating that the levels are part of an extended defect. The E3 level found in the more highly doped film consisted of two closely spaced levels, both of which show point-like defect characteristics. The E1 level may be due to B-related extended defects within the grain boundaries, whereas the ionization energy of the E2 level is in agreement with literature values from ab initio calculations for B–H complexes. We suggest that the E3 level is due to isolated B-related centres in bulk diamond. (paper)

  5. Magnetic and electromagnetic properties of Pr doped strontium ferrite/polyaniline composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Yuqing; Wang, Yan, E-mail: wangyan287580632@126.com

    2014-11-15

    This paper reported three acid (including hydrochloric acid HCl, p-toluenesulfonic acid PTS and D-camphor-10-acid CSA) doped SrPr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 11.8}O{sub 19}/PANI composite film and the HCl–PANI film prepared by a sol–gel method and in-situ oxidative polymerization. The characteristics of the film phase structure, surface morphology, conductivity and magnetic and electromagnetic properties were studied by using XRD, XPS, FESEM, four-probe tester, VSM and Vector Network Analyzer. The resistivity of organic acid doped composite films is higher than that of the HCl doped one. The saturation and remanent magnetization of PTS and HCl doped composite films are greater than the CSA-doped one; however, the coercivity of the three acid doped composite films is basically 5546 Oe. The saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity of SrPr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 11.8}O{sub 19} film are greater than those of the SrPr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 11.8}O{sub 19}–PANI composite film. In the frequency range of 8–12 GHz, the dielectric loss of HCl–PANI film is the maximum, and the dielectric loss of SrPr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 11.8}O{sub 19} film is the minimum; the magnetic loss of the four films is in descending order as SrPr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 11.8}O{sub 19} film, PrSrM/(HCl–PANI) composite film, PrSrM/(CSA–PANI) and HCl–PANI film. - Highlights: • Synthesizing three acid doped SrPr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 11.8}O{sub 19}/PANI composite films. • By sol–gel method and in-situ oxidative polymerization. • With excellent magnetic and electromagnetic properties. • The particular coating structure of PANI and Sr-ferrite. • Great interest for magnetic material and microwave absorbers.

  6. Impacts of doping on epitaxial germanium thin film quality and Si-Ge interdiffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Guangnan

    2018-04-03

    Ge-on-Si structures with three different dopants (P, As and B) and those without intentional doping were grown, annealed and characterized by several different material characterization methods. All samples have a smooth surface (roughness < 1.5 nm), and the Ge films are almost entirely relaxed. B doped Ge films have threading dislocations above 1 × 10 cm, while P and As doping can reduce the threading dislocation density to be less than 10 cm without annealing. The interdiffusion of Si and Ge of different films have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. A quantitative model of Si-Ge interdiffusion under extrinsic conditions across the full x range was established including the dislocationmediated diffusion. The Kirkendall effect has been observed. The results are of technical significance for the structure, doping, and process design of Ge-on-Si based devices, especially for photonic applications.

  7. Impacts of doping on epitaxial germanium thin film quality and Si-Ge interdiffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Guangnan; Lee, Kwang Hong; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xixiang; Tan, Chuan Seng; Xia, Guangrui

    2018-01-01

    Ge-on-Si structures with three different dopants (P, As and B) and those without intentional doping were grown, annealed and characterized by several different material characterization methods. All samples have a smooth surface (roughness < 1.5 nm), and the Ge films are almost entirely relaxed. B doped Ge films have threading dislocations above 1 × 10 cm, while P and As doping can reduce the threading dislocation density to be less than 10 cm without annealing. The interdiffusion of Si and Ge of different films have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. A quantitative model of Si-Ge interdiffusion under extrinsic conditions across the full x range was established including the dislocationmediated diffusion. The Kirkendall effect has been observed. The results are of technical significance for the structure, doping, and process design of Ge-on-Si based devices, especially for photonic applications.

  8. Enhanced field emission from Si doped nanocrystalline AlN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thapa, R.; Saha, B.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.

    2009-01-01

    Si doped and undoped nanocrystalline aluminum nitride thin films were deposited on various substrates by direct current sputtering technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of phase pure hexagonal aluminum nitride with a single peak corresponding to (1 0 0) reflection of AlN with lattice constants, a = 0.3114 nm and c = 0.4986 nm. Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays confirmed the presence of Si in the doped AlN films. Atomic force microscopic studies showed that the average particle size of the film prepared at substrate temperature 200 deg. C was 9.5 nm, but when 5 at.% Si was incorporated the average particle size increased to ∼21 nm. Field emission study indicated that, with increasing Si doping concentration, the emission characteristics have been improved. The turn-on field (E to ) was 15.0 (±0.7) V/μm, 8.0 (±0.4) V/μm and 7.8 (±0.5) V/μm for undoped, 3 at.% and 5 at.% Si doped AlN films respectively and the maximum current density of 0.27 μA/cm 2 has been observed for 5 at.% Si doped nanocrystalline AlN film. It was also found that the dielectric properties were highly dependent on Si doping.

  9. The surface properties of PS/PMMA blends nanostructured polymeric layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosycevas, I.; Tamulevicius, S.; Guobiene, A.

    2004-01-01

    Solvent cast thin films of blends polystyrene (PS) and poly (methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) with nominal compositions ranging from 25/75 wt.%/v% (w/v) up to 75/25 w/v PS/PMMA with toluene as the mutual solvent on crystalline Si (100) and silica substrates has been studied. Films of PS and PMMA blends have been examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ellipsometry. The blend films with less than 50% PMMA bulk concentration generally exhibit pitted surfaces; the pit size varies with film thickness and bulk composition. When the PMMA bulk concentration is greater than 50%, the film surface can be described as island-like phase-separated structure. The surface segregation and morphology are explained in terms of solubility of the two polymers in the solvent and rewetting of PMMA relative to PS

  10. Understanding anodic wear at boron doped diamond film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, Brian P.; Hubler, David K.; Farrell, James

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the mechanisms associated with anodic wear of boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to measure changes in electrode response and surface chemistry as a function of the charge passed and applied current density. Density functional theory (DFT) modeling was used to evaluate possible reaction mechanisms. The initial hydrogen-terminated surface was electrochemically oxidized at lower potentials than water oxidation (≤ 1.83 V/SHE), and was not catalyzed by the hydrogen-terminated surface. In the region where water oxidation produces hydroxyl radicals (OH·), the hydrogen-terminated surface may also be oxidized by chemical reaction with OH·. Oxygen atoms became incorporated into the surface via reaction of carbon atoms with OH·, forming both C = O and C-OH functional groups, that were also detected by XPS measurements. Experimental and DFT modeling results indicate that the oxygenated diamond surface lowers the potential for activationless water oxidation from 2.74 V/SHE for the hydrogen terminated surface to 2.29 V/SHE for the oxygenated surface. Electrode wear was accelerated at high current densities (i.e., 500 mA cm −2 ), where SEM results indicated oxidation of the BDD film resulted in significant surface roughening. These results are supported by EIS measurements that document an increase in the double-layer capacitance as a function of the charge passed. DFT simulations provide a possible mechanism that explains the observed diamond oxidation. DFT simulation results indicate that BDD edge sites (=CH 2 ) can be converted to COOH functional groups, which are further oxidized via reactions with OH· to form H 2 CO 3(aq.) with an activation energy of 58.9 kJ mol −1

  11. Electrical properties of vacuum-annealed titanium-doped indium oxide films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, L.T.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium-doped indium oxide (ITiO) films were deposited on Corning glass 2000 substrates at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering followed by vacuum post-annealing. With increasing deposition power, the as-deposited films showed an increasingly crystalline nature. As-deposited

  12. Engineering Gilbert damping by dilute Gd doping in soft magnetic Fe thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Jiang, S.; Wong, P.K.J.; Sun, Li; Wang, Y.K.; Wang, Kai; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; van der Laan, G.; Zhai, Y.

    2014-01-01

    By analyzing the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, we show that the Gilbert damping constant in soft magnetic Fe thin films can be enhanced by ∼6 times with Gd doping of up to 20%. At the same time, the magnetic easy axis remains in the film plane while the coercivity is strongly reduced after Gd

  13. Theoretical investigation of electronic, magnetic and optical properties of Fe doped GaN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmani, E.; Mounkachi, O.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.; Hamedoun, M.; Hlil, E.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Magnetic and optical properties Fe-doped GaN thin films are studied using DFT. •The band gaps of GaN thin films are larger than the one of the bulk. •The layer thickness and acceptor defect can switch the magnetic ordering. -- Abstract: Using first principles calculations based on spin-polarized density functional theory, the magnetic and optical properties of GaN and Fe-doped GaN thin films with and without acceptor defect is studied. The band structure calculations show that the band gaps of GaN thin films with 2, 4 and 6 layers are larger than the one of the bulk with wurtzite structure and decreases with increasing the film thickness. In Fe doped GaN thin films, we show that layer of thickness and acceptor defect can switch the magnetic ordering from disorder local moment (DLM) to ferromagnetic (FM) order. Without acceptor defect Fe doped GaN exhibits spin glass phase in 4 layers form and ferromagnetic state for 2 layers form of the thin films, while it exhibits ferromagnetic phase with acceptor defect such as vacancies defect for 2 and 4 layers. In the FM ordering, the thin films is half-metallic and is therefore ideal for spin application. The different energy between ferromagnetic state and disorder local moment state was evaluated. Moreover, the optical absorption spectra obtained by ab initio calculations confirm the ferromagnetic stability based on the charge state of magnetic impurities

  14. Crystallographic Investigation of Ag (4 mol%) Doped ZnO (SZO) Thin Films by XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lwin Lwin Nwe; Sandar Dwe; Khant Khant Lin; Khin Thuzar; Than Than Win; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2008-03-01

    Silver doped ZnO(SZO) thin films are prepared by sol-based method. The silver dopant concentration is 4 mol % in this case. XRD analysis carried out to determine, crystallographic properties such as lattice parameters and crystallite size of SZO thin films.

  15. Properties of Nb-doped ZnO transparent conductive thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    by rf magnetron sputtering using a high quality ceramic target ... Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, Guilin University of Electronic ... films are highly textured along the c axis and perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. ... ZnO films; Nb-doped; magnetron sputtering; optical and electrical properties. 1.

  16. Sn4+-Doped TiO2 Nanorod Array Film with Enhanced Visible Light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    61

    specific surface area of flat film than nano-powder would lead to the decrease of its .... doped TiO2 NAFs were acquired with EDS spectrometer fitted on the microscopy. ... The morphologies of films were obtained by the SEM measurement.

  17. Stress-Induced Crystallization of Ge-Doped Sb Phase-Change Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, Gert; Pauza, Andrew; Kooi, Bart J.

    The large effects of moderate stresses on the crystal growth rate in Ge-doped Sb phase-change thin films are demonstrated using direct optical imaging. For Ge6Sb94 and Ge7Sb93 phase-change films, a large increase in crystallization temperature is found when using a polycarbonate substrate instead of

  18. Pulsed laser deposition of aluminum-doped ZnO films at 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmelund, E.; Schou, Jørgen; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    Conducting, transparent films of aluminium-doped ZnO (AZO) have been produced at the laser wavelength 355 nm. The most critical property, the electric resistivity, is up to a factor of 8 above that for films produced at shorter wavelengths. In contrast, the transmission of visible light through...

  19. Optoelectronic properties of sprayed transparent and conducting indium doped zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S S; Shinde, P S; Bhosale, C H; Rajpure, K Y

    2008-01-01

    Indium doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films are grown onto Corning glass substrates using the spray pyrolysis technique. The effect of doping concentration on the structural, electrical and optical properties of IZO thin films is studied. X-ray diffraction studies show a change in preferential orientation from the (0 0 2) to the (1 0 1) crystal planes with increase in indium doping concentration. Scanning electron microscopy studies show polycrystalline morphology of the films. Based on the Hall-effect measurements and analysis, impurity scattering is found to be the dominant mechanism determining the diminished mobility in ZnO thin films having higher indium concentration. The addition of indium also induces a drastic decrease in the electrical resistivity of films; the lowest resistivity (4.03 x 10 -5 Ω cm) being observed for the film deposited with 3 at% indium doping. The effect of annealing on the film properties has been reported. Films deposited with 3 at% In concentration have relatively low resistivity with 90% transmittance at 550 nm and the highest value of figure of merit 7.9 x 10 -2 □ Ω -1

  20. An investigation of the Nb doping effect on structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of spray deposited F doped SnO2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, G.; Keskenler, E. F.; Aydın, S.; Yılmaz, M.; Doǧan, S.; Düzgün, B.

    2013-03-01

    F and Nb + F co-doped SnO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis method. The microstructural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of the 10 wt% F doped SnO2 (FTO) thin films were investigated specifically for niobium (Nb) doping in the range of 0-4 at.% with 1 at.% steps. As shown by the x-ray diffraction patterns, the films exhibited a tetragonal cassiterite structure with (200) preferential orientation. It was observed that grain sizes of the films for (200) and (301) peaks depended on the Nb doping concentration and varied in the range of 25.11-32.19 and 100.6-183.7 nm, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs showed that the FTO films were made of small pyramidal grains, while doubly doped films were made of small pyramidal grains and big polyhedron grains. From electrical studies, although 1 at.% Nb doped FTO films have the lowest sheet resistance and resistivity values, the highest figure-of-merit and optical band gap values obtained for FTO films were 16.2 × 10-2 Ω-1 and 4.21 eV, respectively. Also, infrared reflectivity values of the films were in the range of 97.39-98.98%. These results strongly suggest that these films are an attractive candidate for various optoelectronic applications and for photothermal conversion of solar energy.

  1. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Wong, F.L.; Fung, M.K.; Lee, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    Highly transparent conductive, aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films were deposited on glass substrates by midfrequency magnetron sputtering of metallic aluminum-doped zinc target. ZnO:Al films with surface work functions between 3.7 and 4.4 eV were obtained by varying the sputtering conditions. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated on these ZnO:Al films. A current efficiency of higher than 3.7 cd/A, was achieved. For comparison, 3.9 cd/A was achieved by the reference OLEDs fabricated on commercial indium-tin-oxide substrates

  2. Transport and magnetic properties of Ce-doped LaMnO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takeshi; Kanki, Teruo; Vilquin, Bertrand; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Kawai, Tomoji

    2005-01-01

    Ce-doped LaMnO 3 epitaxial thin films were fabricated by a pulsed laser deposition method in consideration of thermodynamics. Oxygen- or argon-atmosphere post-annealed films showed a metal-insulator transition and ferromagnetic property, and the transition temperature T c was found to be significantly influenced by the post-annealing conditions at the T c ranging from 200 to 300 K. Moreover, the majority carriers within Ce-doped LaMnO 3 films were identified to be holes from Hall effect measurements

  3. TEM specimen preparation of semiconductor-PMMA-metal interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangadurai, P.; Lumelsky, Yulia; Silverstein, Michael S.; Kaplan, Wayne D.

    2008-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) cross-section specimens of PMMA in contact with gold and Si were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) and compared with plan-view PMMA specimens prepared by a dip-coating technique. The specimens were characterized by TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). In the cross-section specimens, the thin films of PMMA were located in a Si-PMMA-Au multilayer. Different thicknesses of PMMA films were spin-coated on the Si substrates. The thickness of the TEM specimens prepared by FIB was estimated using EELS to be 0.65 of the plasmon mean-free-path. Along the PMMA-Au interface, Au particle diffusion into the PMMA was observed, and the size of the Au particles was in the range of 2-4 nm. Dip-coating of PMMA directly on Cu TEM grids resulted in thin specimens with a granular morphology, with a thickness of 0.58 of the plasmon mean-free-path. The dip-coated specimens were free from ion milling induced artifacts, and thus serve as control specimens for comparison with the cross-sectioned specimens prepared by FIB

  4. Electrodeposition of zinc-doped silane films for corrosion protection of mild steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Liankui; Hu Jiming; Zhang Jianqing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Metallic zinc is doped into organosilane films by one-step electrodeposition. ► The composite films exhibit the improved corrosion resistance of mild steels. ► Zinc-doping provides additional cathodic protection to the mild steels. - Abstract: Organosilane/zinc composite films are prepared by one-step electrodeposition onto cold-rolled steels for corrosion protection. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, bulk solution immersion and wet heat tests all show that the composite films have improved corrosion performance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement suggests the successful encapsulation of metallic zinc. The embedding of metallic zinc results in negative shift in open-circuit potential of the film-covered electrodes. Such cathodic protection effect given by the metallic zinc provides the improved corrosion resistance of the composite films.

  5. Characteristics of W Doped Nanocrystalline Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Seob; Park, Chul Min; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Moon

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten doped carbon (WC) films were prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Tungsten was used as the doping material in carbon thin films with the aim of application as a contact strip in an electric railway. The structural, physical, and electrical properties of the fabricated WC films with various DC bias voltages were investigated. The films had a uniform and smooth surface. Hardness and frication characteristics of the films were improved, and the resistivity and sheet resistance decreased with increasing negative DC bias voltage. These results are associated with the nanocrystalline WC phase and sp(2) clusters in carbon networks increased by ion bombardment enhanced with increasing DC bias voltage. Consequently, the increase of sp(2) clusters containing WC nanocrystalline in the carbon films is attributed to the improvement in the physical and electrical properties.

  6. Structural and optical properties of ITO and Cu doped ITO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Deepannita; Kaleemulla, S.; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Subbaravamma, K.; Rao, G. Venugopal

    2018-04-01

    (In0.95Sn0.05)2O3 and (In0.90Cu0.05Sn0.05)2O3 thin films were coated onto glass substrate by electron beam evaporation technique. The structural and optical properties of ITO and Cu doped ITO thin films have been studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The crystallite size obtained for ITO and Cu doped ITO thin films was in the range of 24 nm to 22 nm. The optical band gap of 4 eV for ITO thin film sample has been observed. The optical band gap decreases to 3.85 eV by doping Cu in ITO.

  7. Deposition of Cu-doped PbS thin films with low resistivity using DC sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetedjo, Hariyadi; Siswanto, Bambang; Aziz, Ihwanul; Sudjatmoko

    2018-03-01

    Investigation of the electrical resistivity of Cu-doped PbS thin films has been carried out. The films were prepared using a DC sputtering technique. The doping was achieved by introducing the Cu dopant plate material directly on the surface of the PbS sputtering target plate. SEM-EDX data shows the Cu concentration in the PbS film to be proportional to the Cu plate diameter. The XRD pattern indicates the film is in crystalline cubic form. The Hall effect measurement shows that Cu doping yields an increase in the carrier concentration to 3.55 × 1019 cm-3 and a significant decrease in electrical resistivity. The lowest resistivity obtained was 0.13 Ωcm for a Cu concentration of 18.5%. Preferential orientation of (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) occurs during deposition.

  8. Highly conducting and crystalline doubly doped tin oxide films fabricated using a low-cost and simplified spray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K., E-mail: kkr1365@yahoo.co [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpum College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India); Muruganantham, G.; Sakthivel, B. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpum College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India)

    2009-11-15

    Doubly doped (simultaneous doping of antimony and fluorine) tin oxide films (SnO{sub 2}:Sb:F) have been fabricated by employing an inexpensive and simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer from aqueous solution of SnCl{sub 2} precursor. The structural studies revealed that the films are highly crystalline in nature with preferential orientation along the (2 0 0) plane. It is found that the size of the crystallites of the doubly doped tin oxide films is larger (69 nm) than that (27 nm) of their undoped counterparts. The dislocation density of the doubly doped film is lesser (2.08x10{sup 14} lines/m{sup 2}) when compared with that of the undoped film (13.2x10{sup 14} lines/m{sup 2}), indicating the higher degree of crystallinity of the doubly doped films. The SEM images depict that the films are homogeneous and uniform. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap of the doubly doped films are 71% and 3.56 eV respectively. The sheet resistance (4.13 OMEGA/square) attained for the doubly doped film in this study is lower than the values reported for spray deposited fluorine or antimony doped tin oxide films prepared from aqueous solution of SnCl{sub 2} precursor (without using methanol or ethanol).

  9. Preparation and characterisation of Al-doped Zn O thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.; Kassis, A.; Nounou, F.

    2010-12-01

    Al-doped Zn O thin films were prepared using RF magnetron sputtering under several preparation conditions (deposition pressure, RF power, substrate temperature). The films were optically and electrically characterized by measuring their transmission and resistance. Furthermore, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy was used in order to study the structural properties of these films. As a result of this study, the preparation conditions suitable for the highly conductive part of the window layer in solar cells were determined. (author)

  10. Oxygen vacancy-induced ferromagnetism in un-doped ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Peng; Wang, Weipeng; Liu, Can; Hu, Yang; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Baoyi; Cao, Xingzhong

    2012-02-01

    ZnO films became ferromagnetic when defects were introduced by thermal-annealing in flowing argon. This ferromagnetism, as shown by the photoluminescence measurement and positron annihilation analysis, was induced by the singly occupied oxygen vacancy with a saturated magnetization dependent positively on the amount of this vacancy. This study clarified the origin of the ferromagnetism of un-doped ZnO thin films and provides possibly an alternative way to prepare ferromagnetic ZnO films.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Thin Solid Films of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chapon, Patrick; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with x Ag = 0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h. PMID:24523630

  12. Antimicrobial activity of thin solid films of silver doped hydroxyapatite prepared by sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chapon, Patrick; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with x(Ag) = 0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Thin Solid Films of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Liliana Iconaru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES. These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with xAg=0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h.

  14. Formulation and Characterization of Cu Doped ZnO Thick Films as LPG Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. PATIL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thick films of pure and various concentrations (1 wt. %, 3 wt. %, 5 wt. %, 7 wt. % and 10 wt. % of Cu-doped ZnO were prepared on alumina substrates using a screen printing technique. These films were fired at a temperature of 700ºC for two hours in an air atmosphere. Morphological, compositional and structural properties of the samples were obtained using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX and X-ray diffraction techniques respectively. The LPG gas sensing properties of these thick films were investigated at different operating temperatures and LPG gas concentrations. The surface resistance of thick films decreases when exposed to LPG gas. The Cu doped films show significant sensitivity to LPG gas than pure ZnO film. 5 wt. % Cu-doped ZnO film was found to be more sensitive (87.3 % to LPG gas exposed at 300 oC than other doping concentrations with fast response and recovery time.

  15. Quenching of surface traps in Mn doped ZnO thin films for enhanced optical transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, Usman; Rawat, R.S.; Roshan, G.; Tan, T.L.; Lee, P.; Springham, S.V.; Zhang, Sam; Fengji Li; Chen, R.; Sun, H.D.

    2011-01-01

    The structural and photoluminescence analyses were performed on un-doped and Mn doped ZnO thin films grown on Si (1 0 0) substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and annealed at different post-deposition temperatures (500-800 deg. C). X-ray diffraction (XRD), employed to study the structural properties, showed an improved crystallinity at elevated temperatures with a consistent decrease in the lattice parameter 'c'. The peak broadening in XRD spectra and the presence of Mn 2p3/2 peak at ∼640 eV in X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic (XPS) spectra of the doped thin films confirmed the successful incorporation of Mn in ZnO host matrix. Extended near band edge emission (NBE) spectra indicated the reduction in the concentration of the intrinsic surface traps in comparison to the doped ones resulting in improved optical transparency. Reduced deep level emission (DLE) spectra in doped thin films with declined PL ratio validated the quenching of the intrinsic surface traps thereby improving the optical transparency and the band gap, essential for optoelectronic and spintronic applications. Furthermore, the formation and uniform distribution of nano-sized grains with improved surface features of Mn-doped ZnO thin films were observed in Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) images.

  16. Iron, nitrogen and silicon doped diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Sekhar C.; Pong, W.F.; Papakonstantinou, P.

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), valence band photoemission (VB-PES) and Raman spectroscopy results show that the incorporation of nitrogen in pulsed laser deposited diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films, reverts the sp"3 network to sp"2 as evidenced by an increase of the sp"2 cluster and I_D/I_G ratio in C K-edge XANES and Raman spectra respectively which reduces the hardness/Young's modulus into the film network. Si-doped DLC film deposited in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process reduces the sp"2 cluster and I_D/I_G ratio that causes the decrease of hardness/Young's modulus of the film structure. The Fe-doped DLC films deposited by dip coating technique increase the hardness/Young's modulus with an increase of sp"3-content in DLC film structure. - Highlights: • Fe, N and Si doped DLC films deposited by dip, PLD and PECVD methods respectively • DLC:Fe thin films have higher hardness/Young's modulus than DLC:N(:Si) thin films. • sp"3 and sp"2 contents are estimated from C K-edge XANES and VB-PES measurements.

  17. Iron, nitrogen and silicon doped diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Sekhar C., E-mail: Raysc@unisa.ac.za [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710, Science Campus, Christiaan de Wet and Pioneer Avenue, Florida Park, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pong, W.F. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Papakonstantinou, P. [Nanotechnology and Integrated Bio-Engineering Centre, University of Ulster, Shore Road, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), valence band photoemission (VB-PES) and Raman spectroscopy results show that the incorporation of nitrogen in pulsed laser deposited diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films, reverts the sp{sup 3} network to sp{sup 2} as evidenced by an increase of the sp{sup 2} cluster and I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio in C K-edge XANES and Raman spectra respectively which reduces the hardness/Young's modulus into the film network. Si-doped DLC film deposited in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process reduces the sp{sup 2} cluster and I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio that causes the decrease of hardness/Young's modulus of the film structure. The Fe-doped DLC films deposited by dip coating technique increase the hardness/Young's modulus with an increase of sp{sup 3}-content in DLC film structure. - Highlights: • Fe, N and Si doped DLC films deposited by dip, PLD and PECVD methods respectively • DLC:Fe thin films have higher hardness/Young's modulus than DLC:N(:Si) thin films. • sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} contents are estimated from C K-edge XANES and VB-PES measurements.

  18. Improved electrochromical properties of sol-gel WO3 thin films by doping gold nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseri, N.; Azimirad, R.; Akhavan, O.; Moshfegh, A.Z.

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the effect of gold nanocrystals on the electrochromical properties of sol-gel Au doped WO 3 thin films has been studied. The Au-WO 3 thin films were dip-coated on both glass and indium tin oxide coated conducting glass substrates with various gold concentrations of 0, 3.2 and 6.4 mol%. Optical properties of the samples were studied by UV-visible spectrophotometry in a range of 300-1100 nm. The optical density spectra of the films showed the formation of gold nanoparticles in the films. The optical bandgap energy of Au-WO 3 films decreased with increasing the Au concentration. Crystalline structure of the doped films was investigated by X-ray diffractometry, which indicated formation of gold nanocrystals in amorphous WO 3 thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the surface chemical composition of the samples. XPS analysis indicated the presence of gold in metallic state and the formation of stoichiometric WO 3 . The electrochromic properties of the Au-WO 3 samples were also characterized using lithium-based electrolyte. It was found that doping of Au nanocrystals in WO 3 thin films improved the coloration time of the layer. In addition, it was shown that variation of Au concentration led to color change in the colored state of the Au-WO 3 thin films.

  19. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Polymerization Synthesis and Characterization of Polyaniline Films Doped with and without Iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon-Sang Park

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although polymerized aniline (polyaniline, PANI with and without iodine (I2 doping has already been extensively studied, little work has been done on the synthesis of PANI films using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP deposition. Therefore, this study characterized pure and I2-doped PANI films synthesized using an advanced APP polymerization system. The I2 doping was conducted ex-situ and using an I2 chamber method following the APP deposition. The pure and I2-doped PANI films were structurally analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, atomic force microscope (AFM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS studies. When increasing the I2 doping time, the plane and cross-sectional SEM images showed a decrease in the width and thickness of the PANI nanofibers, while the AFM results showed an increase in the roughness and grain size of the PANI films. Moreover, the FT-IR, XPS, and ToF-SIMS results showed an increase in the content of oxygen-containing functional groups and C=C double bonds, yet decrease in the C–N and C–H bonds when increasing the I2 doping time due to the reduction of hydrogen in the PANI films via the I2. To check the suitability of the conductive layer for polymer display applications, the resistance variations of the PANI films grown on the interdigitated electrode substrates were also examined according to the I2 doping time.

  20. Effects of Mn doping on the ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qi

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Mn doping on the ferroelectric properties of Pb(Zr 0.3 Ti 0.7 )O 3 (PZT) thin films on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates have been investigated. The composition of the PZT and Mn doping level are Pb(Zr 0.3 Ti 0.7 ) 1-x Mn x O 3 (x = 0,0.2,0.5,1,2,4 mol%). The PZT thin films doped with a small amount of Mn 2+ (x ≤ 1) showed almost no hysteretic fatigue up to 10 10 switching bipolar pulse cycles, coupled with excellent retention properties. However, excessive additions of manganese made the fatigue behaviour worse. We propose that the addition of small amounts of Mn is able to reduce the oxygen vacancy concentration due to the combination of Mn 2+ and oxygen vacancies in PZT films, forming Mn 4+ ions. The interfacial layer between the Pt electrode and PZT films and Mn-doped PZT (x = 4) was detected by measuring the dielectric constant of thin films of different thickness. However, this interfacial layer was not detected in Mn-doped PZT (x = 1). These observations support the concept of the preferential electromigration of oxygen vacancies into sites in planes parallel to the electrodes, which is probably responsible for the hysteretic fatigue

  1. Structural and vibrational investigations of Nb-doped TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyanga, E.; Gibaud, A.; Daniel, P.; Sangaa, D.; Sevjidsuren, G.; Altantsog, P.; Beuvier, T.; Lee, Chih Hao; Balagurov, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the evolutions of structure for TiO 2 thin film as changes with Nb doping and temperatures. • Up to 800 °C, the grain size of Nb 0.1 Ti 0.9 O 2 is smaller than for pure TiO 2 because doped Nb hinders the growth of the TiO 2 grains. • There was no formation of the rutile phase at high temperature. • Nb doped TiO 2 films have high electron densities at 400–700 °C. • Nb dope extends the absorbance spectra of TiO 2 which leads to the band gap reduce. - Abstract: Acid-catalyzed sol–gel and spin-coating methods were used to prepare Nb-doped TiO 2 thin film. In this work, we studied the effect of niobium doping on the structure, surface, and absorption properties of TiO 2 by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectometry (XRR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy at various annealing temperatures. EDX spectra show that the Nb:Ti atomic ratios of the niobium-doped titania films are in good agreement with the nominal values (5 and 10%). XPS results suggest that charge compensation is achieved by the formation of Ti vacancies. Specific niobium phases are not observed, thus confirming that niobium is well incorporated into the titania crystal lattice. Thin films are amorphous at room temperature and the formation of anatase phase appeared at an annealing temperature close to 400 °C. The rutile phase was not observed even at 900 °C (XRD and Raman spectroscopy). Grain sizes and electron densities increased when the temperature was raised. Nb-doped films have higher electron densities and lower grain sizes due to niobium doping. Grain size inhibition can be explained by lattice stress induced by the incorporation of larger Nb 5+ ions into the lattice. The band gap energy of indirect transition of the TiO 2 thin films was calculated to be about 3.03 eV. After niobium doping, it decreased to 2.40 eV

  2. The effect of the film thickness and doping content of SnO2:F thin films prepared by the ultrasonic spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahal Achour; Benramache Said; Benhaoua Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of film thickness and doping content on the optical and electrical properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide. Tin (II) chloride dehydrate, ammonium fluoride dehydrate, ethanol and HCl were used as the starting materials, dopant source, solvent and stabilizer, respectively. The doped films were deposited on a glass substrate at different concentrations varying between 0 and 5 wt% using an ultrasonic spray technique. The SnO 2 :F thin films were deposited at a 350 °C pending time (5, 15, 60 and 90 s). The average transmission was about 80%, and the films were thus transparent in the visible region. The optical energy gap of the doped films with 2.5 wt% F was found to increase from 3.47 to 3.89 eV with increasing film thickness, and increased after doping at 5 wt%. The decrease in the Urbach energy of the SnO 2 :F thin films indicated a decrease in the defects. The increase in the electrical conductivity of the films reached maximum values of 278.9 and 281.9 (Ω·cm) −1 for 2.5 and 5 wt% F, respectively, indicating that the films exhibited an n-type semiconducting nature. A systematic study on the influence of film thickness and doping content on the properties of SnO 2 :F thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray was reported. (semiconductor materials)

  3. Pulsed laser deposited Al-doped ZnO thin films for optical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Highly transparent and conducting Al-doped ZnO (Al:ZnO thin films were grown on glass substrates using pulsed laser deposition technique. The profound effect of film thickness on the structural, optical and electrical properties of Al:ZnO thin films was observed. The X-ray diffraction depicts c-axis, plane (002 oriented thin films with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. Al-doping in ZnO introduces a compressive stress in the films which increase with the film thickness. AFM images reveal the columnar grain formation with low surface roughness. The versatile optical properties of Al:ZnO thin films are important for applications such as transparent electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding materials and solar cells. The obtained optical band gap (3.2–3.08 eV was found to be less than pure ZnO (3.37 eV films. The lowering in the band gap in Al:ZnO thin films could be attributed to band edge bending phenomena. The photoluminescence spectra gives sharp visible emission peaks, enables Al:ZnO thin films for light emitting devices (LEDs applications. The current–voltage (I–V measurements show the ohmic behavior of the films with resistivity (ρ~10−3 Ω cm.

  4. Structural and magnetic studies of Cr doped nickel ferrite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, Kalpana; Heda, N. L.; Tiwari, Shailja; Bapna, Komal; Ahuja, B. L.; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the structural and magnetic properties of Cr doped nickel ferrite thin films deposited on Si (100) and Si (111) using pulsed laser deposition technique. The films were deposited under vacuum and substrate temperature was kept at 700°C. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that films on both substrates have single phase cubic spinel structure. However, the film grown on Si (111) shows better crystalline behavior. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggests that films on both substrates have mixed spinel structure. These films show magnetic hysteresis behavior and magnetization value of film on Si (100) is larger than that on Si (111). It turns out that structural and magnetic properties of these two films are correlated.

  5. Europium and samarium doped calcium sulfide thin films grown by PLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoulakis, S.; Suchea, M; Katsarakis, N.; Koudoumas, E

    2007-01-01

    Europium and samarium doped calcium sulfide thin films (CaS:Eu,Sm) with different thickness were prepared by the pulsed laser deposition technique using sintered targets. A typical homemade deposition chamber and XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) were employed and the films were deposited in helium atmosphere onto silicon and corning glass substrates. Structural investigations carried out by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy showed a strong influence of the deposition parameters on the film properties. The films grown had an amorphous or polycrystalline structure depending on growth temperature and the number of pulses used, the same parameters affecting the film roughness, the grain shape and dimensions, the film thickness and the optical transmittance. This work indicates that pulsed laser deposition can be a suitable technique for the preparation of CaS:Eu,Sm thin films, the film characteristics being controlled by the growth conditions

  6. Tailoring of magnetic properties of ultrathin epitaxial Fe films by Dy doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the controlled modification of relaxation parameters and magnetic moments of epitaxial Fe thin films through Dy doping. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements show that an increase of Dy doping from 0.1% to 5% gives a tripling in Gilbert damping, and more importantly a strongly enhanced anisotropic damping that can be qualitatively understood through the slow-relaxing impurity model. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements show a pronounced suppression of the orbital moment of the Fe with Dy doping, leading to an almost threefold drop in the orbital to spin moment ratio, ml/ms. Doping with Dy can therefore be used to control both dynamic and static properties of thin ferromagnetic films for improved performance in spintronics device applications, mediated through the antiferromagnetic interaction of the 4f and 3d states.

  7. Tailoring of magnetic properties of ultrathin epitaxial Fe films by Dy doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, A. A. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Figueroa, A. I.; Laan, G. van der [Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Hesjedal, T. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    We report on the controlled modification of relaxation parameters and magnetic moments of epitaxial Fe thin films through Dy doping. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements show that an increase of Dy doping from 0.1% to 5% gives a tripling in Gilbert damping, and more importantly a strongly enhanced anisotropic damping that can be qualitatively understood through the slow-relaxing impurity model. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements show a pronounced suppression of the orbital moment of the Fe with Dy doping, leading to an almost threefold drop in the orbital to spin moment ratio, m{sub l}/m{sub s}. Doping with Dy can therefore be used to control both dynamic and static properties of thin ferromagnetic films for improved performance in spintronics device applications, mediated through the antiferromagnetic interaction of the 4f and 3d states.

  8. Doping dependence of electrical and thermal conductivity of nanoscale polyaniline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Jiezhu; Wang Qing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Haque, M A [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-05-26

    We performed simultaneous characterization of electrical and thermal conductivity of 55 nm thick polyaniline (PANI) thin films doped with different levels of camphor sulfonic acids (CSAs). The effect of the doping level is more pronounced on electrical conductivity than on thermal conductivity of PANIs, thereby greatly affecting their ratio that determines the thermoelectric efficiency. At the 60% (the molar ratio of CSA to phenyl-N repeat unit of PANI) doping level, PANI exhibited the maximum electrical and thermal conductivity due to the formation of mostly delocalized structures. Whereas polarons are the charge carriers responsible for the electrical conduction, phonons are believed to play a dominant role in the heat conduction in nanoscale doped PANI thin films.

  9. Dependence of reaction pressure on deposition and properties of boron-doped freestanding diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liuan; Li Hongdong; Lue Xianyi; Cheng Shaoheng; Wang Qiliang; Ren Shiyuan; Liu Junwei; Zou Guangtian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the reaction pressure-dependent growth and properties of boron-doped freestanding diamond films, synthesized by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) at different boron-doping levels. With the decrease in pressure, the growth feature of the films varies from mixed [1 1 1] and [1 1 0] to dominated [1 1 1] texture. The low reaction pressure, as well as high boron-doping level, results in the increase (decrease) of carrier concentration (resistivity). The high concentration of atomic hydrogen in the ambient and preferable [1 1 1] growth, due to the low reaction pressure, is available for the enhancement of boron doping. The estimated residual stress increases with increase in the introducing boron level.

  10. Effect of the electrolyte cations and anions on the photocurrent of dodecylsulphate doped polypyrrole films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Milena; De Paoli, Marco-A. [Laboratorio de Poliimeros Condutores, Instituto de Quimica-UNICAMP, Universidade de Campinas, Cx Postal 6154, 13081-970 , SP Campinas (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Photoelectrochemical and UV-Vis spectroelectrochemical measurements were performed in a three-electrode cell containing dodecylsulphate-doped polypyrrole films as active layers in contact with different aqueous electrolytes. The effect of both cations and anions of the electrolyte on the photocurrent generation and on the absorption spectra of the system was studied. Dynamic photocurrent and absorption spectra measurements performed during the redox cycles of the films show that both cation and anion insertion and deinsertion occurs during the cycles. These results are in agreement with the previously reported redox mechanism proposed for amphiphilic anion doped polypyrrole. Reduced films show cathodic photocurrent at -0.4>E>-0.8V vs. Ag|AgCl. Photocurrent voltammograms are reproducible after the conditioning of the films and the higher cathodic currents were observed in films with thickness of =0.05-0.5{mu}m.

  11. Nitrogen and europium doped TiO2 anodized films with applications in photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Choong-Soo; Choi, Jinwook; Jeong, Yongsoo; Lee, Oh Yeon; Oh, Han-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Micro-arc oxidation method is a useful process for mesoporous titanium dioxide films. In order to improve the photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2 film, N-Eu co-doped titania catalyst was synthesized by micro-arc oxidation in the H 2 SO 4 /Eu(NO 3 ) 3 mixture solution. The specific surface area and the roughness of the anodic titania film fabricated in the H 2 SO 4 /Eu(NO 3 ) 3 electrolyte, were increased compared to that of the anodic TiO 2 film prepared in H 2 SO 4 solution. The absorbance response of N-Eu titania film shows a higher adsorption onset toward visible light region, and the incorporated N and Eu ions during anodization as a dopant in the anodic TiO 2 film significantly enhanced the photocatalytic activity for dye degradation. After dye decomposition test for 3 h, dye removal rates for the anodic TiO 2 film were 60.7% and 90.1% for the N-Eu doped titania film. The improvement of the photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the synergistic effects of the surface enlargement and the new electronic state of the TiO 2 band gap by N and Eu co-doping.

  12. Optical Analysis of Iron-Doped Lead Sulfide Thin Films for Opto-Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambara Kumar, K. N.; Khadeer Pasha, S. K.; Deshmukh, Kalim; Chidambaram, K.; Shakil Muhammad, G.

    Iron-doped lead sulfide thin films were deposited on glass substrates using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method (SILAR) at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the film shows a well formed crystalline thin film with face-centered cubic structure along the preferential orientation (1 1 1). The lattice constant is determined using Nelson Riley plots. Using X-ray broadening, the crystallite size is determined by Scherrer formula. Morphology of the thin film was studied using a scanning electron microscope. The optical properties of the film were investigated using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. We observed an increase in the optical band gap from 2.45 to 3.03eV after doping iron in the lead sulfide thin film. The cutoff wavelength lies in the visible region, and hence the grown thin films can be used for optoelectronic and sensor applications. The results from the photoluminescence study show the emission at 500-720nm. The vibrating sample magnetometer measurements confirmed that the lead sulfide thin film becomes weakly ferromagnetic material after doping with iron.

  13. Characteristics of hydrogen co-doped ZnO : Al thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S H; Lee, T S; Lee, K S; Cheong, B; Kim, W M; Kim, Y D

    2008-01-01

    ZnO films co-doped with H and Al (HAZO) were prepared by sputtering ZnO targets containing 1 wt% Al 2 O 3 on Corning glass at a substrate temperature of 150 deg. C with Ar and H 2 /Ar gas mixtures. The effects of hydrogen addition to Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films with low Al content on the electrical, the optical and the structural properties of the as-grown films as well as the vacuum- and air-annealed films were examined. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the hydrogen concentration increased with increasing H 2 in sputter gas. For the as-deposited films, the free carrier number increased with increasing H 2 . The Hall mobility increased at low hydrogen content, reaching a maximum before decreasing with a further increase of H 2 content in sputter gas. Annealing at 300 deg. C resulted in the removal of hydrogen, causing a decrease in the carrier concentration. It was shown that hydrogen might exist as single isolated interstitial hydrogen bound with oxygen, thereby acting like an anionic dopant. Also, it was shown that the addition of hydrogen to ZnO films doped with low metallic dopant concentration could yield transparent conducting films with very low absorption loss as well as with proper electrical properties, which is suitable for thin film solar cell applications

  14. Comparison of the Thermal Degradation of Heavily Nb-Doped and Normal PZT Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeong-Suong; Kang, YunSung; Kang, Inyoung; Lim, SeungMo; Shin, Seung-Joo; Lee, JungWon; Hur, Kang Heon

    2017-03-01

    The degradation of niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and two types of PZT thin films were investigated. Undoped PZT, two-step PZT, and heavily Nb-doped PZT (PNZT) around the morphotropic phase boundary were in situ deposited under optimum condition by RF-magnetron sputtering. All 2- [Formula: see text]-thick films had dense perovskite columnar grain structure and self-polarized (100) dominant orientation. PZT thin films were deposited on Pt/TiO x bottom electrode on Si wafer, and PNZT thin film was on Ir/TiW electrode with the help of orientation control. Sputtered PZT films formed on microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope and the degradation rates were compared at different temperatures. PNZT showed the best resistance to the thermal degradation, followed by two-step PZT. To clarify the effect of oxygen vacancies on the degradation of the film at high temperature, photoluminescence measurement was conducted, which confirmed that oxygen vacancy rate was the lowest in heavy PNZT. Nb-doping PZT thin films suppressed the oxygen deficit and made high imprint with self-polarization. This defect distribution and high internal field allowed PNZT thin film to make the piezoelectric sensors more stable and reliable at high temperature, such as reflow process of MEMS packaging.

  15. Electrical and optical properties of ITO and ITO/Cr-doped ITO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Cesaria, M.; Luches, A.; Martino, M.; Valerini, D.; Maruccio, G.; Catalano, M.; Cola, A.; Manera, M.G.; Lomascolo, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on the effects of the insertion of Cr atoms on the electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films to be used as electrodes in spin-polarized light-emitting devices. ITO films and ITO(80 nm)/Cr-doped ITO(20 nm) bilayers and Cr-doped ITO films with a thickness of 20 nm were grown by pulsed ArF excimer laser deposition. The optical, structural, morphological and electrical properties of ITO films and ITO/Cr-doped structures were characterized by UV-Visible transmission and reflection spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Hall-effect analysis. For the different investigations, the samples were deposited on different substrates like silica and carbon coated Cu grids. ITO films with a thickness of 100 nm, a resistivity as low as ∝4 x 10 -4 Ω cm, an energy gap of ∝4.3 eV and an atomic scale roughness were deposited at room temperature without any post-deposition process. The insertion of Cr into the ITO matrix in the upper 20 nm of the ITO matrix induced variations in the physical properties of the structure like an increase of average roughness (∝0.4-0.5 nm) and resistivity (up to ∝8 x 10 -4 Ω cm). These variations were correlated to the microstructure of the Cr-doped ITO films with particular attention to the upper 20 nm. (orig.)

  16. Boron doping compensation of hydrogenated amorphous and polymorphous germanium thin films for infrared detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.; Delgadillo, N.; Torres, A.; Ambrosio, R.; Rosales, P.; Kosarev, A.; Reyes-Betanzo, C.; Hidalga-Wade, J. de la; Zuniga, C.; Calleja, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have studied boron doping of hydrogenated amorphous germanium a-Ge:H and polymorphous germanium (pm-Ge:H) in low regimes, in order to compensate the material from n-type (due to oxygen contamination that commonly occurs during plasma deposition) to intrinsic, and in this manner improve the properties that are important for infrared (IR) detection, as activation energy (E a ) and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). Electrical, structural and optical characterization was performed on the films produced. Measurements of the temperature dependence of conductivity, room temperature conductivity (σ RT ), E a and current–voltage characteristics under IR radiation were performed in the compensated a-Ge:H and pm-Ge:H films. Our results demonstrate that, effectively, the values of E a , TCR and IR detection are improved on the a-Ge:H/pm-Ge:H films, using boron doping in low regimes, which results of interest for infrared detectors. - Highlights: • We reported boron doping compensation of amorphous and polymorphous germanium. • The films were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • The aim is to use the films as thermo-sensing elements in un-cooled microbolometers. • Those films have advantages over boron doped a-Si:H used in commercial detectors

  17. Electrical and optical properties of ITO and ITO/Cr-doped ITO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricato, A. P.; Cesaria, M.; Luches, A.; Martino, M.; Maruccio, G.; Valerini, D.; Catalano, M.; Cola, A.; Manera, M. G.; Lomascolo, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.

    2010-12-01

    In this paper we report on the effects of the insertion of Cr atoms on the electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films to be used as electrodes in spin-polarized light-emitting devices. ITO films and ITO(80 nm)/Cr-doped ITO(20 nm) bilayers and Cr-doped ITO films with a thickness of 20 nm were grown by pulsed ArF excimer laser deposition. The optical, structural, morphological and electrical properties of ITO films and ITO/Cr-doped structures were characterized by UV-Visible transmission and reflection spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Hall-effect analysis. For the different investigations, the samples were deposited on different substrates like silica and carbon coated Cu grids. ITO films with a thickness of 100 nm, a resistivity as low as ˜4×10-4 Ω cm, an energy gap of ˜4.3 eV and an atomic scale roughness were deposited at room temperature without any post-deposition process. The insertion of Cr into the ITO matrix in the upper 20 nm of the ITO matrix induced variations in the physical properties of the structure like an increase of average roughness (˜0.4-0.5 nm) and resistivity (up to ˜8×10-4 Ω cm). These variations were correlated to the microstructure of the Cr-doped ITO films with particular attention to the upper 20 nm.

  18. Boron doping compensation of hydrogenated amorphous and polymorphous germanium thin films for infrared detection applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, M., E-mail: mmoreno@inaoep.mx [National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics, INAOE, P.O. Box 51 and 216, Puebla, Z. P. 72840 Puebla (Mexico); Delgadillo, N. [Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Av. Universidad No. 1, Z. P. 90006 Tlaxcala (Mexico); Torres, A. [National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics, INAOE, P.O. Box 51 and 216, Puebla, Z. P. 72840 Puebla (Mexico); Ambrosio, R. [Technology and Engineering Institute, Ciudad Juarez University UACJ, Av. Del Charro 450N, Z. P. 32310 Chihuahua (Mexico); Rosales, P.; Kosarev, A.; Reyes-Betanzo, C.; Hidalga-Wade, J. de la; Zuniga, C.; Calleja, W. [National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics, INAOE, P.O. Box 51 and 216, Puebla, Z. P. 72840 Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-12-02

    In this work we have studied boron doping of hydrogenated amorphous germanium a-Ge:H and polymorphous germanium (pm-Ge:H) in low regimes, in order to compensate the material from n-type (due to oxygen contamination that commonly occurs during plasma deposition) to intrinsic, and in this manner improve the properties that are important for infrared (IR) detection, as activation energy (E{sub a}) and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). Electrical, structural and optical characterization was performed on the films produced. Measurements of the temperature dependence of conductivity, room temperature conductivity (σ{sub RT}), E{sub a} and current–voltage characteristics under IR radiation were performed in the compensated a-Ge:H and pm-Ge:H films. Our results demonstrate that, effectively, the values of E{sub a}, TCR and IR detection are improved on the a-Ge:H/pm-Ge:H films, using boron doping in low regimes, which results of interest for infrared detectors. - Highlights: • We reported boron doping compensation of amorphous and polymorphous germanium. • The films were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • The aim is to use the films as thermo-sensing elements in un-cooled microbolometers. • Those films have advantages over boron doped a-Si:H used in commercial detectors.

  19. Micro-orientation control of silicon polymer thin films on graphite surfaces modified by heteroatom doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Iwao, E-mail: shimoyama.iwao@jaea.go.jp [Material Science Research Center, Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura 2-4, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Baba, Yuji [Fukushima Administrative Department, Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura 2-4, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hirao, Norie [Material Science Research Center, Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura 2-4, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Micro-orientation control method for organic polysilane thin films is proposed. • This method utilizes surface modification of graphite using heteroatom doping. • Lying, standing, and random orientations can be freely controlled by this method. • Micro-pattering of a polysilane film with controlled orientations is achieved. - Abstract: Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is applied to study orientation structures of polydimethylsilane (PDMS) films deposited on heteroatom-doped graphite substrates prepared by ion beam doping. The Si K-edge NEXAFS spectra of PDMS show opposite trends of polarization dependence for non irradiated and N{sub 2}{sup +}-irradiated substrates, and show no polarization dependence for an Ar{sup +}-irradiated substrate. Based on a theoretical interpretation of the NEXAFS spectra via first-principles calculations, we clarify that PDMS films have lying, standing, and random orientations on the non irradiated, N{sub 2}{sup +}-irradiated, and Ar{sup +}-irradiated substrates, respectively. Furthermore, photoemission electron microscopy indicates that the orientation of a PDMS film can be controlled with microstructures on the order of μm by separating irradiated and non irradiated areas on the graphite surface. These results suggest that surface modification of graphite using ion beam doping is useful for micro-orientation control of organic thin films.

  20. Electrosynthesis and characterization of Fe doped CdSe thin films from ethylene glycol bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.M.; Moholkar, A.V.; Rajpure, K.Y.; Bhosale, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    The CdSe and Fe doped CdSe (Fe:CdSe) thin films have been electrodeposited potentiostatically onto the stainless steel and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates, from ethylene glycol bath containing (CH 3 COO) 2 .Cd.2H 2 O, SeO 2 , and FeCl 3 at room temperature. The doping concentration of Fe is optimized by using (photo) electrochemical (PEC) characterization technique. The deposition mechanism and Fe incorporation are studied by cyclic voltammetry. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of the deposited CdSe and Fe:CdSe thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical absorption techniques respectively. The PEC study shows that Fe:CdSe thin films are more photosensitive than that of undoped CdSe thin films. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the films are polycrystalline with hexagonal crystal structure. SEM studies reveal that the films with uniformly distributed grains over the entire surface of the substrate. The complete surface morphology has been changed after doping. Optical absorption study shows the presence of direct transition and a considerable decrease in bandgap, E g from 1.95 to 1.65 eV

  1. Preparation of Nd-doped BiFeO{sub 3} films and their electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Meng [Key Laboratory of Auxiliary Chemistry and Technology for Chemical Industry, Ministry of Education of China, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Weiyang District, Xi' an 710021 (China); Tan Guoqiang, E-mail: tan3114@163.com [Key Laboratory of Auxiliary Chemistry and Technology for Chemical Industry, Ministry of Education of China, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Weiyang District, Xi' an 710021 (China); Xue Xu; Xia Ao; Ren Huijun [Key Laboratory of Auxiliary Chemistry and Technology for Chemical Industry, Ministry of Education of China, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Weiyang District, Xi' an 710021 (China)

    2012-09-01

    The Nd-doped BiFeO{sub 3} thin films were prepared on SnO{sub 2}(FTO) substrates spin-coated by the sol-gel method using Nd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}9H{sub 2}O and Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O as raw materials. The microstructure and electric properties of the BiFeO{sub 3} thin films were characterized and tested. The results indicate that the diffraction peak of the Nd-doped BiFeO{sub 3} films is shifted towards right as the doping amounts are increased. The structure is transformed from the rhombohedral to pseudotetragonal phase. The crystal grain is changed from an elliptical to irregular polyhedron. Structure transition occurring in the Bi{sub 0.85}Nd{sub 0.15}FeO{sub 3} films gives rise to the largest Pr of 64 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}. The leakage conductance of the Nd doped thin films is reduced. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of Bi{sub 0.85}Nd{sub 0.15}FeO{sub 3} thin film at 10 kHz are 190 and 0.017 respectively.

  2. The origin of magnetism in transition metal-doped ZrO2 thin films: Experiment and theory

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Nguyenhoa

    2013-10-04

    We have investigated the magnetic properties of Fe/Co/Ni-doped ZrO 2 laser ablated thin films in comparison with the known results of Mn-doped ZrO2, which is thought to be a promising material for spintronics applications. It is found that doping with a transition metal can induce room temperature ferromagnetism in \\'fake\\' diamond. Theoretical analysis based on density functional theory confirms the experimental measurements, by revealing that the magnetic moments of Mn- and Ni-doped ZrO2 thin films are much larger than that of Fe- or Co-doped ZrO2 thin films. Most importantly, our calculations confirm that Mn- and Ni-doped ZrO2 show a ferromagnetic ground state in comparison to Co- and Fe-doped ZrO 2, which favor an antiferromagnetic ground state. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. In-situ boron doping of chemical-bath deposited CdS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khallaf, Hani; Park, S.; Schulte, Alfons; Chai, Guangyu; Lupan, Oleg; Chow, Lee; Heinrich, Helge

    2009-01-01

    In-situ boron doping of CdS using chemical-bath deposition (CBD) is reported. The effect of B doping on optical properties, as well as electrical properties, crystal structure, chemistry, and morphology of CdS films is studied. We present a successful approach towards B doping of CdS using CBD, where a resistivity as low as 1.7 x 10 -2 Ωcm and a carrier density as high as 1.91 x 10 19 cm -3 were achieved. The bandgap of B-doped films was found to slightly decrease as the[B]/[Cd] ratio in the solution increases. X-ray diffraction studies showed B 3+ ions likely enter the lattice substitutionally. A phase transition, due to annealing, as well as induced lattice defects, due to B doping, were detected by micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The chemistry and morphology of films were unaffected by B doping. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Electrical Transport Ability of Nanostructured Potassium-Doped Titanium Oxide Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Yoon; Matsuno, Ryosuke; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Takai, Madoka

    2011-02-01

    Potassium-doped nanostructured titanium oxide films were fabricated using a wet corrosion process with various KOH solutions. The doped condition of potassium in TiO2 was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Nanotubular were synthesized at a dopant concentration of 0.27%, these structures disappeared. To investigate the electrical properties of K-doped TiO2, pseudo metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) samples were fabricated. The samples exhibited a distinct electrical behavior and p-type characteristics. The electrical behavior was governed by the volume of the dopant when the dopant concentration was 0.18%.

  5. Influence of iron doping on tetravalent nickel content in catalytic oxygen evolving films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Nancy; Bediako, D. Kwabena; Hadt, Ryan G.; Hayes, Dugan; Kempa, Thomas J.; von Cube, Felix; Bell, David C.; Chen, Lin X.; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2017-01-30

    Iron doping of nickel oxide films results in enhanced activity for promoting the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Whereas this enhanced activity has been ascribed to a unique iron site within the nickel oxide matrix, we show here that Fe doping influences the Ni valency. The percent of Fe3+ doping promotes the formation of formal Ni4+, which in turn directly correlates with an enhanced activity of the catalyst in promoting OER. The role of Fe3+ is consistent with its behavior as a superior Lewis acid.

  6. Influence of film thickness on structural, optical, and electrical properties of spray deposited antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Abhijit A., E-mail: aay_physics@yahoo.co.in

    2015-09-30

    Transparent conducting antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin films with varying thickness were deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique from non-aqueous solvent Propan-2-ol. The effect of film thickness on the properties of antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin films have been studied. X-ray diffraction measurements showed tetragonal crystal structure of as-deposited antimony doped SnO{sub 2} films irrespective of film thickness. The surface morphology of antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin film is spherical with the continuous distribution of grains. Electrical and optical properties were investigated by Hall Effect and optical measurements. The average optical transmittance of films decreased from 89% to 73% within the visible range (350–850 nm) with increase in film thickness. The minimum value of sheet resistance observed is 4.81 Ω/cm{sup 2}. The lowest resistivity found is 3.76 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm at 660 nm film thickness. - Highlights: • Effect of film thickness on the properties of antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin films • Crystalline size in the range of 34–37 nm • Average transmittance decreased from 89% to 73% in the visible region. • Minimum sheet resistance of 4.81 Ω/cm{sup 2} • Lowest resistivity is found to be 3.76 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm at 660 nm film thickness.

  7. Preparation, characterization and optical properties of Gadolinium doped ceria thin films by pulsed laser deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraju, P.; Vijaya Kumar, Y.; Vishnuvardhan Reddy, C.; Ramana Reddy, M.V.; Phase, D.M; Raghavendra Reddy, V.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of Gadolinium doped ceria thin films with controlled surface structure for device quality applications presents a significant problem for experimental investigation. In the present study gadolinium doped cerium oxide thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and were studied for their surface structure evaluation in relation to the optimized operating conditions during the stage of film preparation. The deposition was made with gadolinium concentration of 10 mole% to ceria pellets. The films were deposited on quartz substrate in the presence of oxygen partial pressure of 1.5 x 10 -3 torr using KrF Excimer laser with laser energy 220 mJ at a substrate temperature 700℃. The effect of annealing temperature on 10 mole% GDC thin film was investigated. The film thickness was measured by using AMBIOS make XP-l stylus profiler. As prepared and annealed thin films were characterized for crystallinity, particle size and orientation by using G.I.XRD. The films were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM results gave a consistent picture of the evolution of GDC film surface morphologies and microstructures in terms of surface roughness, grain distribution and mean grain size. The optical transmittance spectra was used to determine the optical constants such as optical band gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient of as prepared and annealed thin films. (author)

  8. Transparent conducting oxide films of group V doped titania prepared by aqueous chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elen, Ken; Capon, Boris; De Dobbelaere, Christopher; Dewulf, Daan; Peys, Nick; Detavernier, Christophe; Hardy, An; Van Bael, Marlies K.

    2014-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films of titania doped with vanadium (V), niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) are obtained by aqueous Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD). The effect of the dopant on the crystallization and microstructure of the resulting films is examined by means of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. During annealing of the thin films, in-situ characterization of the crystal structure and sheet resistance is carried out. Niobium doped anatase films, obtained after annealing in forming gas, show a resistivity of 0,28 Ohm cm, which is the lowest resistivity reported for a solution deposited anatase-based TCO so far. Here, we demonstrate that aqueous CSD may provide a strategy for scalable TCO production in the future. - Highlights: • Aqueous chemical solution deposition of doped titanium dioxide • Doping delays the phase transition from anatase to rutile • Lowest resistivity after doping with niobium and annealing in Forming Gas • Transparency higher than 80% in the visible range of optical spectrum

  9. Transparent conducting oxide films of group V doped titania prepared by aqueous chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elen, Ken [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw division IMOMEC, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Strategisch Initiatief Materialen (SIM), SoPPoM Program (Belgium); Capon, Boris [Strategisch Initiatief Materialen (SIM), SoPPoM Programm (Belgium); Coating and Contacting of Nanostructures, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Dobbelaere, Christopher [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Dewulf, Daan [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw division IMOMEC, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Peys, Nick [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Detavernier, Christophe [Coating and Contacting of Nanostructures, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Hardy, An [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw division IMOMEC, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Van Bael, Marlies K., E-mail: marlies.vanbael@uhasselt.be [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMEC vzw division IMOMEC, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2014-03-31

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films of titania doped with vanadium (V), niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) are obtained by aqueous Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD). The effect of the dopant on the crystallization and microstructure of the resulting films is examined by means of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. During annealing of the thin films, in-situ characterization of the crystal structure and sheet resistance is carried out. Niobium doped anatase films, obtained after annealing in forming gas, show a resistivity of 0,28 Ohm cm, which is the lowest resistivity reported for a solution deposited anatase-based TCO so far. Here, we demonstrate that aqueous CSD may provide a strategy for scalable TCO production in the future. - Highlights: • Aqueous chemical solution deposition of doped titanium dioxide • Doping delays the phase transition from anatase to rutile • Lowest resistivity after doping with niobium and annealing in Forming Gas • Transparency higher than 80% in the visible range of optical spectrum.

  10. Structural properties of pure and Fe-doped Yb films prepared by vapor condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Ayala, C., E-mail: chachi@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil); Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, P.O.B. 14-149, Lima 14 (Peru); Passamani, E.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória 29075-910, ES (Brazil); Suguihiro, N.M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil); Litterst, F.J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil); Institut für Physik der Kondensierten Materie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Baggio Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    Ytterbium and iron-doped ytterbium films were prepared by vapor quenching on Kapton substrates at room temperature. Structural characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The aim was to study the microstructure of pure and iron-doped films and thereby to understand the effects induced by iron incorporation. A coexistence of face centered cubic and hexagonal close packed-like structures was observed, the cubic-type structure being the dominant contribution. There is an apparent thickness dependence of the cubic/hexagonal relative ratios in the case of pure ytterbium. Iron-clusters induce a crystalline texture effect, but do not influence the cubic/hexagonal volume fraction. A schematic model is proposed for the microstructure of un-doped and iron-doped films including the cubic- and hexagonal-like structures, as well as the iron distribution in the ytterbium matrix. - Highlights: • Pure and Fe-doped Yb films have been prepared by vapor condensation. • Coexistence of fcc- and hcp-type structures was observed. • No oxide phases have been detected. • Fe-clustering does not affect the fcc/hcp ratio, but favors a crystalline texture. • A schematic model is proposed to describe microscopically the microstructure.

  11. Mn doping effect on structure and magnetism of epitaxial (FePt)1-xMnx films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.C.A.; Chang, Y.C.; Yu, C.C.; Yao, Y.D.; Hu, Y.M.; Fu, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    We study the structure and perpendicular magnetism of molecular beam epitaxy grown (FePt) 1-x Mn x films with doping concentration x=0, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%. The (FePt) 1-x Mn x films were made by multilayers growth of [Fe/Pt/Mn]xN at 100 deg. C and annealed at 600 deg. C. X-ray diffraction scans indicate that relatively better L1 0 ordered structure for low Mn doping (x 3%. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy effect of the (FePt) 1-x Mn x films tends to decrease with the increase of Mn doping for x>1%. However, the x=1% doped films possess slightly better perpendicular magnetic anisotropy effect than the zero doped film. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant are of about 1.3x10 7 and 1.6x10 7 erg/cm 3 for x=0% and x=1%, respectively

  12. Effects of Ge- and Sb-doping and annealing on the tunable bandgaps of SnS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsuan-Tai; Chiang, Ming-Hung; Huang, Chen-Hao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wen-Tai, E-mail: wtlin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Fu, Yaw-Shyan [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700, Taiwan (China); Guo, Tzung-Fang [Department of Photonics, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-01

    SnS, Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films with single orthorhombic SnS phase were fabricated via solvothermal routes and subsequent spin-coating, respectively. The substitution solubilities of Ge and Sb in SnS are about 6 and 5 at.%, respectively. The bandgaps of Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films can be tuned in the ranges of 1.25–1.35 and 1.30–1.39 eV, respectively. The possible mechanisms for the tunable bandgaps of Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films are discussed. For the Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films subjected to annealing at 200–350 °C in N{sub 2}, the bandgaps of 200 °C-annealed films remain unchanged, while those of 300 °C- and 350 °C-annealed films decrease with the annealing temperature because of the evaporation of Ge and Sb respectively. - Highlights: • Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films were fabricated via spin-coating. • The solubilities of Ge and Sb in SnS are about 6 and 5 at.%, respectively. • The bandgaps of SnS films can be tuned by Ge and Sb doping respectively. • Annealing above 300 °C reduces the bandgaps of Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films.

  13. Refractive index modulation in polymer film doped with diazo Meldrum's acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanutta, Alessio; Villa, Filippo; Bertarelli, Chiara; Bianco, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Diazo Meldrum's acid undergoes a photoreaction induced by UV light and it is used as photosensitizer in photoresists. Upon photoreaction, a change in refractive index occurs, which makes this system interesting for volume holography. We report on the sublimation effect at room temperature and the effect of photoirradiation on the refractive index in thin films of CAB (Cellulose acetate butyrate) doped with different amount of diazo Meldrum's acid. A net modulation of the refractive index of 0.01 is achieved with 40% of doping ratio together with a reduction of the film thickness.

  14. Ferromagnetism carried by highly delocalized hybrid states in Sc-doped ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Benali Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-05-29

    We present first-principles results for Sc-doped ZnOthin films. Neighboring Sc atoms in the surface and/or subsurface layers are found to be coupled ferromagnetically, where only two of the possible configurations induce spin polarization. In the first configuration, the polarization is carried by the Sc d states as expected for transition metaldoping. However, there is a second configuration which is energetically favorable. It is governed by polarized hybrid states of the Zns, O p, and Sc d orbitals. Such highly delocalized states can be an important ingredient for understanding the magnetism of dopedZnOthin films.

  15. Ionized zinc vacancy mediated ferromagnetism in copper doped ZnO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yi Zhuo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the origin of ferromagnetism in Cu-doped ZnO thin films. Room-temperature ferromagnetism is obtained in all the thin films when deposited at different oxygen partial pressure. An obviously enhanced peak corresponding to zinc vacancy is observed in the photoluminescence spectra, while the electrical spin resonance measurement implies the zinc vacancy is negative charged. After excluding the possibility of direct exchange mechanisms (via free carriers, we tentatively propose a quasi-indirect exchange model (via ionized zinc vacancy for Cu-doped ZnO system.

  16. Electrical doping: the impact on interfaces of π-conjugated molecular films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Weiying; Kahn, Antoine

    2003-01-01

    Organic-metal and organic-organic interfaces play crucial roles in charge injection in, and transport through, organic thin film devices. Their electronic structure, chemical properties and electrical behaviour must be fully characterized and understood if engineering and control of organic devices are to reach the levels attained for inorganic semiconductor devices. Recent fundamental, as well as device, work has demonstrated that electrical doping provides a very interesting way to improve carrier injection into molecular films and, eventually, control molecular level alignment at their interfaces. This brief review emphasizes the current understanding of the effects of doping on organic interfaces

  17. Investigation of blue luminescence in Mg doped AlN films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiliang; Xiong, Juan, E-mail: xiongjuana@163.com; Zhang, Weihai; Liu, Lei; Gu, Haoshuang, E-mail: guhsh@hubu.edu.cn

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • AlN films doped with 0.8–4.4 at.% Mg were deposited by magnetron sputtering. • Structural and photoluminescence properties of Mg-doped AlN films were synthesized in detailed. • A broad blue band centered at 420 nm and 440 nm was observed in Mg-doped AlN films. • An enhancement of A1 (TO) mod and a slightly blue-shift of E2 (high) mode were observed. - Abstract: The Al{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}N thin films were deposited on (1 0 0) silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering. The structural and photoluminescence properties of the films with varying Mg concentrations were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectra and photoluminescence (PL), respectively. The results clearly showed that the Mg atoms successfully incorporated into AlN, while the crystal structure of the films was maintained. The Raman spectra of Al{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}N films reveals the enhancement of A{sub 1} (TO) mode, a slightly blue-shift and an augment in FWHM for E{sub 2} (high) phonon mode with increasing Mg content, which can be associated with the deterioration of (0 0 2) orientation and the appearance of (1 0 0) orientation. A broad blue band centered at 420 nm and 440 nm was observed in Mg-doped AlN films. It was suggested that the transitions from the shallow donor level not only to the ground state but also to the excited states of the deep level was responsible for the broad blue emission band. This work indicates the AlN film for the application in lighting emission devices.

  18. Structural and optical properties of cobalt doped multiferroics BiFeO3 nanostructure thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasannakumara, R.; Naik, K. Gopalakrishna

    2018-05-01

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) and Cobalt doped BiFeO3 (BiFe1-XCoXO3) nanostructure thin films were deposited on glass substrates by the sol-gel spin coating method. The X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) of the grown BiFeO3 and BiFe1-XCoXO3 nanostructure thin films showed distorted rhombohedral structure. The shifting of peaks to higher angles was observed in cobalt doped BiFeO3. The surface morphology of the BiFeO3 and BiFe1-XCoXO3 nanostructure thin films were studied using FESEM, an increase in grain size was observed as Co concentration increases. The thickness of the nanostructure thin films was examined using FESEM cross-section. The EDX studies confirmed the elemental composition of the grown BiFeO3 and BiFe1-XCoXO3 nanostructure thin films. The optical characterizations of the grown nanostructure thin films were carried out using FTIR, it confirms the existence of Fe-O and Bi-O bands and UV-Visible spectroscopy shows the increase in optical band gap of the BiFeO3 nanostructure thin films with Co doping by ploting Tauc plot.

  19. Ag- and Cu-doped multifunctional bioactive nanostructured TiCaPCON films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtansky, D.V., E-mail: shtansky@shs.misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospekt 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Batenina, I.V.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph.V.; Sheveyko, A.N.; Kuptsov, K.A. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospekt 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Zhitnyak, I.Y.; Anisimova, N.Yu.; Gloushankova, N.A. [N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center of RAMS, Kashirskoe shosse 24, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    A key property of multicomponent bioactive nanostructured Ti(C,N)-based films doped with Ca, P, and O (TiCaPCON) that can be improved further is their antibacterial effect that should be achieved without compromising the implant bioactivity and biocompatibility. The present work is focused on the study of structure, chemical, mechanical, tribological, and biological properties of Ag- and Cu-doped TiCaPCON films. The films with Ag (0.4–4 at.%) and Cu (13 at.%) contents were obtained by simultaneous sputtering of a TiC{sub 0.5}–Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} target and either an Ag or a Cu target. The film structure was studied using X-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, and Raman-shift and IR spectroscopy. The films were characterized in terms of their hardness, elastic modulus, dynamic impact resistance, friction coefficient and wear rate (both in air and normal saline), surface wettability, electrochemical behavior and Ag or Cu ion release in normal saline. Particular attention was paid to the influence of inorganic bactericides (Ag and Cu ions) on the bactericidal activity against unicellular yeast fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae and gram-positive bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus, as well as on the attachment, spreading, actin cytoskeleton organization, focal adhesions, and early stages of osteoblastic cell differentiation. The obtained results show that the Ag-doped films are more suitable for the protection of metallic surfaces against bacterial infection compared with their Cu-doped counterpart. In particular, an excellent combination of mechanical, tribological, and biological properties makes Ag-doped TiCaPCON film with 1.2 at.% of Ag very attractive material for bioengineering and modification of load-bearing metal implant surfaces.

  20. Electrical and optical properties of ultrasonically sprayed Al-doped zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, B.J., E-mail: jbabu@cinvestav.mx [Department of Electrical Engineering-SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Zacatenco, D.F., C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Maldonado, A.; Velumani, S.; Asomoza, R. [Department of Electrical Engineering-SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Zacatenco, D.F., C.P. 07360 (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    Aluminium-doped ZnO (AZO) films were deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique to investigate its potential application as antireflection coating and top contact layer for copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) based photovoltaic cells. The solution used to prepare AZO thin films contained 0.2 M of zinc acetate and 0.2 M of aluminium pentanedionate solutions in the order of 2, 3 and 4 at.% of Al/Zn. AZO films were deposited onto glass substrates at different substrate temperatures starting from 450 deg. C to 500 deg. C. XRD and FESEM analysis revealed the structural properties of the films and almost all the films possessed crystalline structure with a preferred (0 0 2) orientation except for the 4 at.% of Al. Grain size of AZO films varied from 29.7 to 37 nm for different substrate temperatures and atomic percentage of aluminium. The average optical transmittance of all films with the variation of doping concentration and substrate temperature was 75-90% in the visible range of wavelength 600-700 nm. Optical direct band gap value of 2, 3 and 4 at.% Al-doped films sprayed at different temperatures varied from 3.32 to 3.46 eV. Hall studies were carried out to analyze resistivity, mobility and carrier concentration of the films. AZO films deposited at different substrate temperatures and at various Al/Zn ratios showed resistivity ranging from 0.12 to 1.0 x 10{sup -2} {Omega} cm. Mobility value was {approx}5 cm{sup 2}/V s and carrier concentration value was {approx}7.7 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Minimum electrical resistivity was obtained for the 3 at.% Al-doped film sprayed at 475 deg. C and its value was 1.0 x 10{sup -2} {Omega} cm with film thickness of 602 nm. The electrical conductivity of ZnO films was improved by aluminium doping.

  1. Air purification by heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation with multi-doped thin film titanium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keeffe, Cormac, E-mail: cormac.okeeffe@theta.ie [Theta Chemicals Ltd., Station Road, Ballindine, Claremorris, Mayo (Ireland); Gannon, Paul; Gilson, Paul [Theta Chemicals Ltd., Station Road, Ballindine, Claremorris, Mayo (Ireland); Kafizas, Andreas; Parkin, Ivan P. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Binions, Russell [School of Engineering and Materials Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-30

    Multi element-doped titania films (F, S-TiO{sub 2}) were produced via sol–gel techniques and deposited on glass and ceramic substrates with an annealing temperature of 500 °C. The films were characterised by X-ray diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrum showed the films to have an anatase TiO{sub 2} structure with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirming the presence of sulphur, fluorine and carbon doping. The titania coated glass and ceramic substrates were compared against two commercially available TiO{sub 2} coated products for the photo-destruction of NO{sub 2(g)}. The study included both equivalent indoor and outdoor test conditions. The multi-doped titania films were shown to provide a genuine method of air purification under both visible (room lighting) and UVA lighting with photo-destruction rates as high as 72%. - Highlights: • Synthesis of multi-doped titania films • Excellent NO{sub 2} conversion rates for coated ceramic tiles • Excellent NO{sub 2} conversion rates for coated glass substrates • Significantly better conversion rates for existing commercial products.

  2. Structural, optical and electrochemical properties of F-doped vanadium oxide transparent semiconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, M.; Khorrami, G.H. [University of Bojnord, Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science, Bojnord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kompany, A. [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Physics, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdi, S.T. [Payame Noor University (PNU), Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-12-15

    In this study, F-doped vanadium oxide thin films with doping levels up to 60 at % were prepared by spray pyrolysis method on glass substrates. To measure the electrochemical properties, some films were deposited on fluorine-tin oxide coated glass substrates. The effect of F-doping on the structural, electrical, optical and electrochemical properties of vanadium oxide samples was investigated. The X-ray diffractographs analysis has shown that all the samples grow in tetragonal β-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase structure with the preferred orientation of [200]. The intensity of (200) peak belonging to β-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase was strongest in the undoped vanadium oxide film. The scanning electron microscopy images show that the samples have nanorod- and nanobelt-shaped structure. The size of the nanobelts in the F-doped vanadium oxide films is smaller than that in the pure sample and the width of the nanobelts increases from 30 to 70 nm with F concentration. With increasing F-doping level from 10 to 60 at %, the resistivity, the transparency and the optical band gap decrease from 111 to 20 Ω cm, 70 to 50% and 2.4 to 2.36 eV, respectively. The cyclic voltammogram (CV) results show that the undoped sample has the most extensive CV and by increasing F-doping level from 20 to 60 at %, the area of the CV is expanded. The anodic and cathodic peaks in F-doped samples are stronger. (orig.)

  3. Effect of micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide films on electrochromic properties of Prussian blue films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyuha; Kim, A-Young; Park, Ji Hun; Jung, Hun-Gi; Choi, Wonchang; Lee, Hwa Young; Lee, Joong Kee

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PB-based ECD employed micro-patterned FTO electrode was fabricated. • Effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined. • Electrochromic properties were enhanced by employing a patterned interface. - Abstract: The effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined for an electrochromic device (ECD). Micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were fabricated using a photolithography process. Prussian blue (PB) films were then deposited on the patterned FTO films. The surface areas of both PB films and FTO films were increased by patterning. ECDs were assembled using patterned PB/FTO films as the electrochromic electrode, bare FTO films as the counter electrode, and an electrolyte containing LiClO 4 salt. The increased effective surface area of the patterned PB/FTO electrode boosted the mobility of ions at the interphase between the electrolyte and PB electrode, and the electron transfer between PB films and FTO films. As a result, electrochromic properties such as transmittance and response time were significantly improved by employing the patterned FTO films as the transparent conductive oxide layer of the electrochromic electrode

  4. Effect of micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide films on electrochromic properties of Prussian blue films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyuha [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, A-Young [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Hun; Jung, Hun-Gi; Choi, Wonchang; Lee, Hwa Young [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PB-based ECD employed micro-patterned FTO electrode was fabricated. • Effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined. • Electrochromic properties were enhanced by employing a patterned interface. - Abstract: The effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined for an electrochromic device (ECD). Micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were fabricated using a photolithography process. Prussian blue (PB) films were then deposited on the patterned FTO films. The surface areas of both PB films and FTO films were increased by patterning. ECDs were assembled using patterned PB/FTO films as the electrochromic electrode, bare FTO films as the counter electrode, and an electrolyte containing LiClO{sub 4} salt. The increased effective surface area of the patterned PB/FTO electrode boosted the mobility of ions at the interphase between the electrolyte and PB electrode, and the electron transfer between PB films and FTO films. As a result, electrochromic properties such as transmittance and response time were significantly improved by employing the patterned FTO films as the transparent conductive oxide layer of the electrochromic electrode.

  5. Study of thin films of carrier-doped strontium titanate with emphasis on their interfaces with organic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Naoki [Laboratory of Molecular Aggregation Analysis, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)]. E-mail: naokis@e.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Harada, Youichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Aggregation Analysis, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Terashima, Takahito [International Research Center of Elements Science, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kanda, Ryoko [International Research Center of Elements Science, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Takano, Mikio [International Research Center of Elements Science, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2005-05-15

    Fifty nanometer-thick metal-doped strontium titanate (M:STO, M = La and V) films deposited epitaxially on single crystalline STO substrates were characterized in comparison with indium tin oxide (ITO) covered glasses, to check their applicability to optically transparent anode materials for organic optoelectronic devices. M:STO, in particular V:STO, films turned out to have distinct surface flatness, needfully low electric resistivities and notably large work functions. While their optical transmittances are lower than those of ITOs at this moment, we suggest that M:STO films have a potential to take the place of ITO films. Further, we have observed energy level alignments for copper phthalocyanine thin films at the interface of V:STO.

  6. Controllable deposition of gadolinium doped ceria electrolyte films by magnetic-field-assisted electrostatic spray deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksapabutr, Bussarin; Chalermkiti, Tanapol; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra; Panapoy, Manop

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a simple and low-temperature approach to fabrication of dense and crack-free gadolinium doped ceria (GDC) thin films with controllable deposition by a magnetic-field-assisted electrostatic spray deposition technique. The influences of external permanent magnets on the deposition of GDC films were investigated. The coating area deposited using two magnets with the same pole arrangement decreased in comparison with the case of no magnets, whereas the largest deposition area was obtained in the system of the opposite poles. Analysis of as-deposited films at 450 °C indicated the formation of uniform, smooth and dense thin films with a single-phase fluorite structure. The films produced in the system using same poles were thicker, smaller in crystallite size and smoother than those fabricated under other conditions. Additionally, the GDC film deposited using the same pole arrangement showed the maximum in electrical conductivity of about 2.5 × 10 −2 S/cm at a low operating temperature of 500 °C. - Highlights: • Magnetic-field-assisted electrostatic spray allows a controllable coating. • Dense, crack-free thin films were obtained at low process temperature of 450 °C. • Control of deposition, thickness and uniformity is easy to achieve simultaneously. • Films from the same pole were thicker, smaller in crystal size and smoother. • The maximum conductivity of doped ceria film was 2.5 × 10 −2 S/cm at 500 °C

  7. Physical properties and characterization of Ag doped CdS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, N.A.; Nazir, A.; Mahmood, W.; Syed, W.A.A.; Butt, S.; Ali, Z.; Maqsood, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CdS thin films were grown. ► By ion exchange, Ag was doped. ► Physical properties were investigated. - Abstract: Thin films of cadmium sulfide with very well defined preferential orientation and relatively high absorption coefficient were fabricated by thermal evaporation technique. The research is focused to the fabrication and characterization of the compositional data of CdS thin films obtained by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The optical properties were studied by using a UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. The effects of silver-doping by ion exchange process on the properties of as-deposited CdS thin films have been investigated.

  8. Substrate effect on the room-temperature ferromagnetism in un-doped ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Peng; Wang, Weipeng; Xie, Zheng; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Baoyi; Cao, Xingzhong

    2012-07-01

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism was achieved in un-doped ZnO films on silicon and quartz substrates. Photoluminescence measurement and positron annihilation analysis suggested that the ferromagnetism was originated from singly occupied oxygen vacancies (roughly estimated as ˜0.55 μB/vacancy), created in ZnO films by annealing in argon. The saturated magnetization of ZnO films was enhanced from ˜0.44 emu/g (on quartz) to ˜1.18 emu/g (on silicon) after annealing at 600 °C, as silicon acted as oxygen getter and created more oxygen vacancies in ZnO films. This study clarified the origin of ferromagnetism in un-doped ZnO and provides an idea to enhance the ferromagnetism.

  9. Scintillation characteristic of In, Ga-doped ZnO thin films with different dopant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yokota, Yuui; Chani, Valery; Yoshikawa, Akira; Sekiwa, Hideyuki

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes the first detailed evaluation of the rise and the decay time of scintillation phenomenon in In 3+ - and Ga 3+ -doped ZnO thin films with different dopant concentrations. In 3+ -(25, 55, and 141 ppm) and Ga 3+ -(33, 67, 333, and 1374 ppm) doped ZnO films were grown by the Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) method. The characterization was performed using the pulse X-ray equipped streak camera system. Both the rise and the decay times were shortened considerably with increasing content of In 3+ and Ga 3+ in the films. However, the scintillation light yield under 241 Am α-ray excitation reduced when concentration of In 3+ and Ga 3+ in the ZnO films was high. (author)

  10. Observation of reduced phase transition temperature in N-doped thermochromic film of monoclinic VO_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Meinan; Xiong, Mo; Li, Neng; Liu, Baoshun; Wang, Shuo; Ching, Wai-Yim; Zhao, Xiujian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • N-doped VO_2(M1) thin films have been synthesized by annealing in NH_3 atmosphere. • The phase purity, microstructure and optical property of VO_2 thin film can be regulated by NH_3 concentration. • First-principles calculations have been carried out to study the mechanism of N-doping on energy band structures of VO_2(M1). • The energy band gaps of VO_2(M1) are tuned by substitution N-doping or interstitial N-doping. - Abstract: Research on monoclinic (M1) phase of VO_2 has attracted a great of interest for smart coating applications due to its exceptional thermochromic property. Herein, we report the results using a novel approach to synthesize N-doped VO_2(M1) thin films with high purity by heat treatment in NH_3 atmosphere. The N dopant in the film can be regulated by varying NH_3 concentration during the annealing process. We find that the N atoms are located at the interstitial sites or substitute oxygen atoms, and the V-N bonds in the VO_2 thin films increase with NH_3 concentration. The metal to insulator transition (MIT) temperature (τ_c_,_h) of the VO_2 thin film is effectively reduced from 80.0 to 62.9 °C, while the solar modulation efficiency (ΔT_s_o_l) and the modulation efficiency at 2000 nm (ΔT_2_0_0_0_n_m) are 7.36% and 55.6% respectively. The band gap of N-doped VO_2 thin films related to MIT (E_g_1) is estimated to be as low as 0.18–0.25 eV whereas the band gap associated with the visible transparency (E_g_2) is about 1.50–1.58 eV. Based on the highly accurate first-principles calculations, the E_g_1 of VO_2 (M1) is reduced after substituted or interstitial N-doping, while the E_g_2 alters with the mode of N-doping, which is excellent agreement with experimental measurement.

  11. Antibacterial effects of silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films sputter deposited on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo, Nathan A.; Oldinski, Rachael A.; Ma, Hongyan; Bryers, James D.; Williams, John D.; Popat, Ketul C.

    2012-01-01

    Since many orthopedic implants fail as a result of loosening, wear, and inflammation caused by repeated loading on the joints, coatings such as hydroxyapatite (HAp) on titanium with a unique topography have been shown to improve the interface between the implant and the natural tissue. Another serious problem with long-term or ideally permanent implants is infection. It is important to prevent initial bacterial colonization as existing colonies have the potential to become encased in an extracellular matrix polymer (biofilm) that is resistant to antibacterial agents. In this study, plasma-based ion implantation was used to examine the effects of pre-etching on plain titanium. Topographical changes to the titanium samples were examined and compared via scanning electron microscopy. Hydroxyapatite and silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films were then sputter deposited on titanium substrates etched at − 700 eV. For silver-doped films, two concentrations of silver (∼ 0.5 wt.% and ∼ 1.5 wt.%) were used. Silver concentrations in the film were determined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Hydroxyapatite film thicknesses were determined by measuring the surface profile using contact profilometry. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion studies were performed on plain titanium, titanium coated with hydroxyapatite, titanium coated with ∼ 0.5 wt.% silver-doped hydroxyapatite, and titanium coated with ∼ 1.5 wt.% silver-doped hydroxyapatite. Results indicate that less bacteria adhered to surfaces containing hydroxyapatite and silver; further, as the hydroxyapatite films delaminated, silver ions were released which killed bacteria in suspension. - Highlights: ► We have developed a combination of plasma-based ion implantation and ion beam sputter deposition technique. ► Silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films on titanium were developed. ► The thin films showed the ability to control the concentration of silver that is doped within the

  12. Visible luminescence from highly textured Tb{sup 3+} doped RF sputtered zinc oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreedharan, R. Sreeja; Krishnan, R. Reshmi; Bose, R. Jolly; Kavitha, V.S.; Suresh, S. [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram 695581, Kerala (India); Vinodkumar, R. [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram 695581, Kerala (India); Department of Physics, University College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); Sudheer, S.K. [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram 695581, Kerala (India); Pillai, V.P. Mahadevan, E-mail: vpmpillai9@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram 695581, Kerala (India)

    2017-04-15

    Highly transparent, luminescent, c-axis oriented Tb{sup 3+} doped ZnO films are prepared by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The structural, morphological, optical and luminescence properties of these films are investigated as a function of Tb{sup 3+} doping concentration by X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV-Visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The as-deposited films are found to be highly crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase of ZnO. The characteristic features of hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO, particularly the appearance of non-polar E{sub 2} modes are easily identified from the Raman spectra of the films. The surface morphology of the films revealed by FESEM and AFM images present a dense distribution of grains. The elemental analysis carried out using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra confirms the incorporation of Tb{sup 3+} ions in the ZnO lattice. The films are highly transparent in the visible region. Using ellipsometric analysis, the variation of refractive index, dielectric constant and thickness of the films are studied as a function of Tb{sup 3+} doping concentration. The photoluminescence spectra of the Tb{sup 3+} doped ZnO films recorded using an excitation radiation of wavelength 325 nm from a He-Cd laser exhibit visible luminescence ~430, 490, 516 and 542 nm. The origin of visible emissions ~490 and 542 nm in the doped films can be attributed to 5D{sub 4}→7F{sub 6} and 5D{sub 4}→7F{sub 5} transition of Tb{sup 3+} ion respectively. The intensity of the emission at 542 nm is found to be decreasing at higher doping concentration due to concentration quenching effect. The blue emission in the films can be attributed to the electron transition from shallow donor level formed by interstitial Zn atoms to the top of the valence band. The origin of the visible emission ~516 nm is attributed

  13. Zirconium doped TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juma, A. [Laboratory of Thin Film Chemical Technologies, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Private bag 16, Palapye (Botswana); Oja Acik, I., E-mail: ilona.oja@ttu.ee [Laboratory of Thin Film Chemical Technologies, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Oluwabi, A.T.; Mere, A. [Laboratory of Thin Film Chemical Technologies, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Mikli, V.; Danilson, M. [Chair of Semiconductor Materials Technology, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Krunks, M. [Laboratory of Thin Film Chemical Technologies, Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Mean crystallite size of TiO{sub 2}:Zr film decreases with increasing [Zr] in the solution. • Zr doping supresses the anatase to rutile transformation process in TiO{sub 2} films. • Band gap of TiO{sub 2}:Zr film is 3.4 eV irrespective of the annealing temperature. - Abstract: Chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) is a flexible deposition technique that allows for mixing of the precursor solutions in different proportions suitable for doping thin films. The CSP method was used to dope TiO{sub 2} thin films with Zr by adding zirconium(IV) acetylacetonate into a solution of titanium(IV) isopropoxide in ethanol stabilized by acetylacetone at [Zr]/[Ti] of 0, 5, 10 and 20 at%. The Zr-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films were uniform and homogeneous showing much smaller grains than the undoped TiO{sub 2} films. Zr stabilized the anatase phase to temperatures above 800 °C depending on Zr concentration in the spray solution. The concentration of Zr determined by XPS was 6.4 at% for the thin film deposited from the 20 at% solution. According to AFM studies, Zr doping decreased the root mean square roughness of TiO{sub 2} film from 5.9 to 1.1 nm. An XRD study of samples with the highest Zr amount showed the ZrTiO{sub 4} phase started forming after annealing at 800 °C. The optical band gap for TiO{sub 2} decreased from 3.3 eV to 3.0 eV after annealing at 800 °C but for the TiO{sub 2}:Zr(20) film it remained at 3.4 eV. The dielectric constant increased by more than four times with Zr-doping and this was associated with the change in the bond formations caused by substitution of Ti by Zr in the lattice.

  14. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Ti-doped DLC films by a hybrid PVD/PECVD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yeong Ju; Zhang, Teng Fei; Son, Myoung Jun; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2018-03-01

    Low electrical conductivity and poor adhesion to metallic substrates are the main drawbacks of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films when used in electrode applications. In this study, Ti-doped DLC films with various Ti contents were synthesized on metal Ti substrates by a hybrid PVD/PECVD process, where PECVD was used for deposition of DLC films and PVD was used for Ti doping. The effects of the Ti doping ratio on the microstructure, adhesion strength, and electrical and electrochemical properties of the DLC films were systematically investigated. An increase in the Ti content led to increased surface roughness and a higher sp2/sp3 ratio of the Ti-DLC films. Ti atoms existed as amorphous-phase Ti carbide when the Ti doping ratio was less than 2.8 at.%, while the nanocrystalline TiC phase was formed in DLC films when the Ti doping ratio was exceeded 4.0 at.%. The adhesion strength, electrical resistivity, electrochemical activity and reversibility of the DLC films were greatly improved by Ti doping. The influence of Ti doping ratio on the electrical and electrochemical properties of the DLC films were also investigated and the best performance was obtained at a Ti content of 2.8 at.%.

  15. Studies on optical properties of antimony doped SnO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürakar, Sibel, E-mail: sgurakar@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Serin, Tülay, E-mail: serin@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Serin, Necmi, E-mail: nserin@eng.ankara.edu.tr

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Antimony doped tin oxide thin films were grown by spray method on glass substrates. • The antimony doping was varied from 0 to 4 at%. • The structural properties of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. • A simple analysis according to Swanepoel's method was applied to derive the real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction plus film thickness. • The dispersion of refractive index was investigated in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple and DiDomenico model to determine the optical parameters. - Abstract: Antimony doped tin oxide thin films were grown by spray method on microscope glass substrates. The antimony doping was varied from 0 to 4 at%. The structural properties of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. The optical transmittances of thin films were measured with UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer in the 300–2000 nm wavelength range. A simple analysis according to Swanepoel's method was applied to derive the real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction plus film thickness. The dispersion of refractive index was investigated in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple and DiDomenico model and the important oscillating parameters such as the dispersion energy E{sub d}, the oscillation energy E{sub o}, the high frequency dielectric constant ε{sub ∞} were determined. The analysis of the refractive index has been carried out to calculate the lattice dielectric constant ε{sub L} and the ratio of carrier concentration to the effective mass N/m*. The real and imaginary parts of the electronic dielectric constant and optical conductivity were analyzed. The optical band gap, E{sub g} values of the films were obtained from the spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient, using the Tauc relation.

  16. P-type Al-doped Cr-deficient CrN thin films for thermoelectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Febvrier, Arnaud le; Van Nong, Ngo; Abadias, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Thermoelectric properties of chromium nitride (CrN)-based films grown on c-plane sapphire by dc reactive magnetron sputtering were investigated. In this work, aluminum doping was introduced in CrN (degenerate n-type semiconductor) by co-deposition. Under the present deposition conditions, over......-type/n-type thermoelectric materials based on chromium nitride films, which are cheap and routinely grown on the industrial scale....

  17. Effect of Gallium Doping on the Characteristic Properties of Polycrystalline Cadmium Telluride Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, A. A.; Dharmadasa, I. M.

    2017-08-01

    Ga-doped CdTe polycrystalline thin films were successfully electrodeposited on glass/fluorine doped tin oxide substrates from aqueous electrolytes containing cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO3)2·4H2O) and tellurium oxide (TeO2). The effects of different Ga-doping concentrations on the CdTe:Ga coupled with different post-growth treatments were studied by analysing the structural, optical, morphological and electronic properties of the deposited layers using x-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, photoelectrochemical cell measurement and direct-current conductivity test respectively. XRD results show diminishing (111)C CdTe peak above 20 ppm Ga-doping and the appearance of (301)M GaTe diffraction above 50 ppm Ga-doping indicating the formation of two phases; CdTe and GaTe. Although, reductions in the absorption edge slopes were observed above 20 ppm Ga-doping for the as-deposited CdTe:Ga layer, no obvious influence on the energy gap of CdTe films with Ga-doping were detected. Morphologically, reductions in grain size were observed at 50 ppm Ga-doping and above with high pinhole density within the layer. For the as-deposited CdTe:Ga layers, conduction type change from n- to p- were observed at 50 ppm, while the n-type conductivity were retained after post-growth treatment. Highest conductivity was observed at 20 ppm Ga-doping of CdTe. These results are systematically reported in this paper.

  18. Effect of doping concentration on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of Mn-doped CdO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of manganese-doped cadmium oxide (CdO:Mn with different Mn-doping levels (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 at.% were deposited on glass substrates by employing an inexpensive, simplified spray technique using a perfume atomizer at 375 °C. The influence of Mn incorporation on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of CdO films has been studied. All the films exhibit cubic crystal structure with a (1 1 1 preferential orientation. Mn-doping causes a slight shift of the (1 1 1 diffraction peak towards higher angle. The crystallite size of the films is found to decrease from 34.63 nm to 17.68 nm with an increase in Mn doping concentration. The CdO:Mn film coated with 1 at.% Mn exhibit a high transparency of nearly 90 % which decreases for higher doping concentration. The optical band gap decreases with an increase in Mn doping concentration. All the films have electrical resistivity of the order of 10−4 Ω·cm.

  19. TUNABLE MAGNETIC AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF Co-DOPED ZnO FILMS BY VARYING OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    L. G. WANG; H. W. ZHANG; X. L. TANG; Y. X. LI; Z. Y. ZHONG

    2011-01-01

    High quality Co-doped ZnO films with good reproducibility have been prepared under different oxygen partial pressure by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. These films were characterized using numerous characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction, electrical transport, and magnetization measurements. The effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of Co-doped ZnO films has been systematically studied. It was found that the structural, ...

  20. Facile synthesis of cobalt-doped zinc oxide thin films for highly efficient visible light photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altintas Yildirim, Ozlem, E-mail: ozlemaltintas@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Arslan, Hanife; Sönmezoğlu, Savaş [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Karaman (Turkey); Nanotechnology R& D Laboratory, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Karaman (Turkey)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Photocatalytically active Co-ZnO thin film was obtained by sol-gel method. • Co{sup 2+} doping narrowed the band gap of pure ZnO to an extent of 3.18 eV. • Co-ZnO was effective in MB degradation under visible light. • Optimum dopant content to show high performance was 3 at.%. - Abstract: Cobalt-doped zinc oxide (Co:ZnO) thin films with dopant contents ranging from 0 to 5 at.% were prepared using the sol–gel method, and their structural, morphological, optical, and photocatalytic properties were characterized. The effect of the dopant content on the photocatalytic properties of the films was investigated by examining the degradation behavior of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation, and a detailed investigation of their photocatalytic activities was performed by determining the apparent quantum yields (AQYs). Co{sup 2+} ions were observed to be substitutionally incorporated into Zn{sup 2+} sites in the ZnO crystal, leading to lattice parameter constriction and band gap narrowing due to the photoinduced carriers produced under the visible light irradiation. Thus, the light absorption range of the Co:ZnO films was improved compared with that of the undoped ZnO film, and the Co:ZnO films exhibited highly efficient photocatalytic activity (∼92% decomposition of MB after 60-min visible light irradiation for the 3 at.% Co:ZnO film). The AQYs of the Co:ZnO films were greatly enhanced under visible light irradiation compared with that of the undoped ZnO thin film, demonstrating the effect of the Co doping level on the photocatalytic activity of the films.

  1. Flux pinning characteristics of Sn-doped YBCO film by the MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S.M.; Shin, G.M.; Yoo, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The pinning effects of undoped and Sn-doped YBCO films by MOD were characterized. ► Sn-containing nanoparticles were trapped in Sn-doped YBCO films by MOD. ► Sn-containing nanoparticles were identified as the YBa 2 SnO 5.5 (YBSO) phase by TEM. ► The YBSO nanoparticles are responsible for improved flux pinning effect. ► We report the orientation relationship between YBSO nanoparticles and YBCO matrix. -- Abstract: Compared with the undoped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ (YBCO) film, 10 mol% Sn-doped YBCO film exhibited significantly enhanced critical current densities (J c ) in magnetic fields up to 5 T at 65 and 77 K for H//c, indicating that the Sn-doped YBCO film possesses more effective flux pinning centers. Both samples were grown on the SrTiO 3 (STO) (1 0 0) single crystal substrates by the metal-organic deposition (MOD) process. Larger J c (77 K, 1 T) values of Sn-doped YBCO film are observed over a wide field-orientation angle (θ) except the field-orientations close to the ab-plane of YBCO (85° c values for 85° 2 SnO 5.5 (YBSO) phase by STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy)-EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis. Further analyses by HR-TEM (high resolution-transmission electron microscopy) revealed that YBSO nanoparticles completely surrounded by the YBCO matrix had random orientation with YBCO while those located at the interface of YBCO/STO substrate had epitaxial relationship with YBCO

  2. Crystallization behavior of Ge-doped eutectic Sb70Te30 films in optical disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khulbe, Pramod K.; Hurst, Terril; Mansuripur, Masud; Horie, Michikazu

    2002-01-01

    We report laser-induced crystallization behavior of binary Sb-Te and ternary Ge-doped eutectic Sb70Te30 thin film samples in a typical quadrilayer stack as used in phase-change optical disk data storage. Several experiments have been conducted on a two-laser static tester in which one laser operating in pulse mode writes crystalline marks on amorphous film or amorphous marks on crystalline film, while the second laser operating at low-power cw mode simultaneously monitors the progress of the crystalline or amorphous mark formation in real time in terms of the reflectivity variation. The results of this study show that the crystallization kinetics of this class of film is strongly growth dominant, which is significantly different from the crystallization kinetics of stochiometric Ge-Sb-Te compositions. In Sb-Te and Ge-doped eutectic Sb70Te30 thin-film samples, the crystallization behavior of the two forms of amorphous states, namely, as-deposited amorphous state and melt-quenched amorphous state, remains approximately same. We have also presented experiments showing the effect of the variation of the Sb/Te ratio and Ge doping on the crystallization behavior of these films

  3. Spectroscopic and luminescent properties of Co2+ doped tin oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Durga Venkata Prasad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The wide variety of electronic and chemical properties of metal oxides makes them exciting materials for basic research and for technological applications alike. Oxides span a wide range of electrical properties from wide band-gap insulators to metallic and superconducting. Tin oxide belongs to a class of materials called Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCO which constitutes an important component for optoelectronic applications. Co2+ doped tin oxide thin films were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis synthesis and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, optical, EPR and PL techniques to collect the information about the crystal structure, coordination/local site symmetry of doped Co2+ ions in the host lattice and the luminescent properties of the prepared sample. Powder XRD data revealed that the crystal structure belongs to tetragonal rutile phase and its lattice cell parameters are evaluated. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 26 nm. The morphology of prepared sample was analyzed by using SEM and TEM studies. Functional groups of the prepared sample were observed in the FT-IR spectrum. Optical absorption and EPR studies have shown that on doping, Co2+ ions enter in the host lattice as octahedral site symmetry. PL studies of Co2+ doped SnO2 thin films exhibit blue and yellow emission bands. CIE chromaticity coordinates were also calculated from emission spectrum of Co2+ doped SnO2 thin films.

  4. Fabrication of doped TiO2 nanotube array films with enhanced photo-catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peighambardoust, Naeimeh-Sadat; Khameneh-asl, Shahin; Khademi, Adib

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the N and Fe-doped TiO2 nanotube array film prepared by treating TiO2 nanotube array film with ammonia solution and anodizing in Fe(NO3)3 solution respectively. This method avoided the use of hazardous ammonia gas, or laborious ion implantation process. N and Fe-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTs) were prepared by electrochemical anodization process in 0.5 wt % HF aqueous solution. The anodization was performed at the conditions of 20 V and 20 min, Followed by a wet immersion in NH3.H2O (1M) for N-doping for 2 hr and annealing post-treatment at 450 °C. The morphology and structure of the nanotube films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and EDX. UV-vis. illumination test were done to observe photo-enhanced catalysis. The effect of different annealing temperature on the structure and photo-absorption property of the TiO2-TNTs was investigated. The results showed that N-TNTs nanotubes exhibited higher photocatalytic activity compared whit the Fe-doped and pure TNTs, because doping N promoted the separation of the photogenerated electrons and holes.

  5. A comparative study on the flux pinning properties of Zr-doped YBCO film with those of Sn-doped one prepared by metal-organic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S. M.; Shin, G. M.; Joo, Y.S.; Yoo, S. I.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the flux pinning properties of both 10 mol% Zr-and Sn-doped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) films with the same thickness of ∽350 nm for a comparative purpose. The films were prepared on the SrTiO 3 (STO) single crystal substrate by the metal-organic deposition (MOD) process. Compared with Sn-doped YBCO film, Zr-doped one exhibited a significant enhancement in the critical current density (J c ) and pinning force density (F p ). The anisotropic J c ,min/J c ,max ratio in the field-angle dependence of J c at 77 K for 1 T was also improved from 0.23 for Sn-doped YBCO to 0.39 for Zr-doped YBCO. Thus, the highest magnetic J c values of 9.0 and 2.9 MA/cm 2 with the maximum F p (F p ,max) values of 19 and 5 GN/m 3 at 65 and 77 K for H // c, respectively, could be achieved from Zr-doped YBCO film. The stronger pinning effect in Zr-doped YBCO film is attributable to smaller BaZrO-3 (BZO) nanoparticles (the average size ≈ 28.4 nm) than YBa 2 SnO 5. 5 (YBSO) nanoparticles (the average size ≈ 45.0 nm) incorporated in Sn-doped YBCO film since smaller nanoparticles can generate more defects acting as effective flux pinning sites due to larger incoherent interfacial area for the same doping concentration.

  6. Morphological differences in transparent conductive indium-doped zinc oxide thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongthammanurak, Samerkhae; Cheawkul, Tinnaphob; Witana, Maetapa

    2014-01-01

    In-doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrates by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique, using indium chloride (InCl 3 ) as a dopant and zinc acetate solution as a precursor. Increasing the [at.% In]/[at.% Zn] ratio changed the crystal orientations of thin films, from the (100) preferred orientation in the undoped, to the (101) and (001) preferred orientations in the In-doped ZnO thin films with 4 at.% and 6–8 at.%, respectively. Undoped ZnO thin film shows relatively smooth surface whereas In-doped ZnO thin films with 4 at.% and 6–8 at.% show surface features of pyramidal forms and hexagonal columns, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns of the In-doped ZnO thin films with [at.% In]/[at.% Zn] ratios of 6–8% presented an additional peak located at 2-theta of 32.95°, which possibly suggested that a metastable Zn 7 In 2 O 10 phase was present with the ZnO phase. ZnO thin films doped with 2 at.% In resulted in a sheet resistance of ∼ 645 Ω/sq, the lowest value among thin films with [at.% In]/[at.% Zn] ratio in a range of 0–8%. The precursor molarity was changed between 0.05 M and 0.20 M at an [at.% In]/[at.% Zn] ratio of 2%. Increasing the precursor molarity in a range of 0.10 M–0.20 M resulted in In-doped ZnO thin films with the (100) preferred orientation. An In-doped ZnO thin film deposited by 0.20 M precursor showed a sheet resistance of 25 Ω/sq, and an optical transmission of 75% at 550 nm wavelength. The optical band gap estimated from the transmission result was 3.292 eV. - Highlights: • Indium-doped ZnO thin films were grown on glass using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. • Thin films' orientations depend on In doping and Zn molarity of precursor solution. • Highly c-axis or a-axis orientations were found in the In-doped ZnO thin films. • In doping of 6–8 at.% may have resulted in ZnO and a metastable Zn 7 In 2 O 10 phases. • Increasing precursor molarity reduced sheet resistance of In-doped ZnO thin films

  7. Effect of ZDDP concentration on the thermal film formation on steel, hydrogenated non-doped and Si-doped DLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, S. [Laboratory for Tribology and Interface Nanotechnology, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kovač, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kalin, M., E-mail: mitjan.kalin@tint.fs.uni-lj.si [Laboratory for Tribology and Interface Nanotechnology, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The effect of the ZDDP concentrations onto the steel, H-DLC and Si-DLC surfaces is investigated. • ZDDP film structure on the DLC coatings is different from steel. • Different concentrations of ZDDP do not affect the final chemical structure of the ZDDP film on any of the studied surfaces. • The thickness of the thermal film is linear with the concentration for a given surface. • The reactivity of the ZDDP film is higher on the steel surface than on the DLC coatings. - Abstract: This work focuses on the ZDDP concentration (1, 5 and 20 wt%) to form a ZDDP film on surfaces during static thermal tests at 150 °C. Silicon-doped and hydrogenated DLC coatings, as well as steel as reference, were studied using Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that, on the three surfaces, the structure of the ZDDP thermal film consists of identical groups of pyrophosphate and zinc oxide, while the sulphuric groups are dissimilar. On the steel surface, the sulphuric part consists of a mixture of organic sulphide and sulphohydryl groups, but on H-DLC and Si-DLC only organic sulphide groups are found; there are no sulphohydryl groups. Moreover, both ATR-FTIR and XPS show that different concentrations of ZDDP do not affect the final chemical structure of the ZDDP thermal film on any of the studied surfaces. In addition, the XPS results show that the thickness of the thermal film is linear with the concentration for the whole range from 1 to 20 wt%, supporting also its uniform chemical structure. These thicknesses further show that the reactivity of the ZDDP film is higher on the steel surface than on the DLC coatings.

  8. Preparation, structural and luminescent properties of nanocrystalline ZnO films doped Ag by close space sublimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomchenko, Viktoriya; Mazin, Mikhail; Sopinskyy, Mykola; Lytvyn, Oksana; Dan'ko, Viktor; Piryatinskii, Yurii; Demydiuk, Pavlo

    2018-05-01

    The simple way for silver doping of ZnO films is presented. The ZnO films were prepared by reactive rf-magnetron sputtering on silicon and sapphire substrates. Ag doping is carried out by sublimation of the Ag source located at close space at atmospheric pressure in air. Then the ZnO and ZnO-Ag films were annealed in wet media. The microstructure and optical properties of the films were compared and studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL). XRD results indicated that all the ZnO films have a polycrystalline hexagonal structure and a preferred orientation with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The annealing and Ag doping promote increasing grain's sizes and modification of grain size distribution. The effect of substrate temperature, substrate type, Ag doping and post-growth annealing of the films was studied by PL spectroscopy. The effect of Ag doping was obvious and identical for all the films, namely the wide visible bands of PL spectra are suppressed by Ag doping. The intensity of ultraviolet band increased 15 times as compared to their reference films on sapphire substrate. The ultraviolet/visible emission ratio was 20. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) for a 380 nm band was 14 nm, which is comparable with that of epitaxial ZnO. The data implies the high quality of ZnO-Ag films. Possible mechanisms to enhance UV emission are discussed.

  9. Mechanical properties of Al2O3-doped (2 wt.%) ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriki, Shina; Kawashima, Toshitaka

    2007-01-01

    We report a new method of evaluating the adhesion of Al 2 O 3 -doped (2 wt.%) ZnO (AZO) thin films. The AZO films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering on plastic film (PET: polyethyleneterephthalate) at various sputtering pressures, power, and reactive gas-flow ratios. The adhesion test of the films was carried out using the nanoindentation system. The fracture point as determined by the load-displacement curve occurred at the time of separation between the thin film and the substrate. The integration value of load and displacement to the fracture point is defined as the degree of adhesion (S W ). The AZO films showed that adhesion increase as sputtering power increases and sputtering pressure decreases

  10. Crystal orientation dependent thermoelectric properties of highly oriented aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2013-02-06

    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of highly oriented Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films can be improved by controlling their crystal orientation. The crystal orientation of the AZO films was changed by changing the temperature of the laser deposition process on LaAlO3 (100) substrates. The change in surface termination of the LaAlO3 substrate with temperature induces a change in AZO film orientation. The anisotropic nature of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the AZO films showed a favored thermoelectric performance in c-axis oriented films. These films gave the highest power factor of 0.26 W m−1 K−1 at 740 K.

  11. Structural, morphological and optical studies of F doped SnO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Tarun; Thakur, Vikas; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar; Zaman, M. Burhanuz; Rajaram, Poolla

    2018-05-01

    Highly conducting and transparent FTO (flourine doped tin Oxide) thin films were grown on the glass substrates using a low cost spray pyrolysis technique. The films were characterized for their structural, morphological and optical studies using XRD, SEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. XRD studies show that the FTO films crystallize in Tetragonal cassiterite structure. Morphological analysis using SEM show that the films are uniformly covered with spherical grains albeit high in surface roughness. The average optical transmission greater than 80% in the visible region along with the appearance of interference fringes in the transmission curves confirms the high quality of the films. Electrical studies show that the films exhibit sheet resistance below 10 Ω ϒ-1.

  12. Wide bandgap Mg-doped ZnAlO thin films for optoelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Ghosh, K.; Patel, R.; Kahol, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium-doped ZnAlO thin films were grown on quartz substrate by ablating the sintered target with a KrF excimer laser. The effect of growth temperature from 30 deg. C to 700 deg. C on structural, optical, and electrical properties has been studied. These films are highly transparent in visible spectrum with average transmittance of 82%. The films grown at low temperature are amorphous while films grown at high temperature are crystalline in nature. These films are highly oriented along (0 0 2) direction. The electrical conductivity, carrier concentration, and electron mobility is found to increase with increase in temperature and then decreases with further increase in temperature. The bandgap is found to vary from 3.86 eV to 4.00 eV for various films

  13. Doping Nitrogen in InGaZnO Thin Film Transistor with Double Layer Channel Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sheng-Po; Shan, Deng

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents the electrical characteristics of doping nitrogen in an amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistor. The IGZO:N film, which acted as a channel layer, was deposited using RF sputtering with a nitrogen and argon gas mixture at room temperature. The optimized parameters of the IGZO:N/IGZO TFT are as follows: threshold voltage is 0.5 V, field effect mobility is 14.34 cm2V-1S-1. The on/off current ratio is 106 and subthreshold swing is 1.48 V/decade. The positive gate bias stress stability of InGaZnO doping with nitrogen shows improvement compared to doping with oxygen.

  14. Growing of synthetic diamond boron-doped films for analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Rita de Cassia Mendes de; Suarez-Iha, Maria Encarnacion Vazquez; Corat, Evaldo Jose; Iha, Koshun

    1999-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology affords the possibility of producing synthetic diamond film electrodes, with several advantageous properties due the unique characteristics of diamond. In this work, we present the study of boron-doped diamond films growth on molybdenum and silicon substrates, using boron trioxide as dopant in a filament assisted CVD reactor. The objective was to obtain semiconductor diamond for use as electrode. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy to confirm morphology and doping levels. We have assembled electrodes with the various samples, Pt, Mo, Si and diamond, by utilizing brass and left as base materials. The electrodes were tested in neutralization potentiometric titrations for future use in electroanalysis. Boron-doped electrodes have very good performance compared with Pt, widely used in analytical chemistry. (author)

  15. Role of vacancy defects in Al doped ZnO thin films for optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, H.; Mazel, Y.; Brochen, S.; Valla, A.; Pautrat, A.; Licitra, C.; Rochat, N.; Sabbione, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Nolot, E.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the electrical, optical and photoluminescence properties of industry-ready Al doped ZnO thin films grown by physical vapor deposition, and their evolution after annealing under vacuum. Doping ZnO with Al atoms increases the carrier density but also favors the formation of Zn vacancies, thereby inducing a saturation of the conductivity mechanism at high aluminum content. The electrical and optical properties of these thin layered materials are both improved by annealing process which creates oxygen vacancies that releases charge carriers thus improving the conductivity. This study underlines the effect of the formation of extrinsic and intrinsic defects in Al doped ZnO compound during the fabrication process. The quality and the optoelectronic response of the produced films are increased (up to 1.52 mΩ \\cdotcm and 3.73 eV) and consistent with the industrial device requirements.

  16. Effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcés, F.A., E-mail: felipe.garces@santafe-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Budini, N. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Arce, R.D.; Schmidt, J.A. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, Santa Fe S3000AOM (Argentina)

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the influence of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films. Transparent conducting oxide films were grown by the spray pyrolysis technique from precursors prepared via the sol–gel method. We determined the structural properties of the films by performing X-ray diffraction and mosaicity measurements, which evidenced an increase of disorder and inhomogeneity between crystalline domains as the films thickened. This behavior was contrasted with results obtained from electrical measurements and was attributed to plastic deformation of the films as their thickness increased. As a result, the carrier mobility, the optical gap and the activation energy are affected due to emerging grain boundaries and a higher degree of disorder. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO thin films on glass with different thicknesses • Film thickness affects the morphological and electrical properties. • Increasing time deposition allows modification of resistivity and Hall mobility. • Mosaicity between crystalline domains increases with film thickness.

  17. Effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcés, F.A.; Budini, N.; Arce, R.D.; Schmidt, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the influence of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films. Transparent conducting oxide films were grown by the spray pyrolysis technique from precursors prepared via the sol–gel method. We determined the structural properties of the films by performing X-ray diffraction and mosaicity measurements, which evidenced an increase of disorder and inhomogeneity between crystalline domains as the films thickened. This behavior was contrasted with results obtained from electrical measurements and was attributed to plastic deformation of the films as their thickness increased. As a result, the carrier mobility, the optical gap and the activation energy are affected due to emerging grain boundaries and a higher degree of disorder. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO thin films on glass with different thicknesses • Film thickness affects the morphological and electrical properties. • Increasing time deposition allows modification of resistivity and Hall mobility. • Mosaicity between crystalline domains increases with film thickness

  18. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived films doped with platinum and antimony deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savaniu, C.; Arnautu, A.; Cobianu, C.; Craciun, G.; Flueraru, C.; Zaharescu, M.; Parlog, C.; Paszti, F.; van den Berg, Albert

    1999-01-01

    SnO2 sol-gel derived thin films doped simultaneously with Pt and Sb are obtained and reported for the first time. The Sn sources were tin(IV) ethoxide or tin(II) ethylhexanoate, while hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and antimony chloride (SbCl3) were used as platinum and antimony sources,

  19. Ferromagnetism carried by highly delocalized hybrid states in Sc-doped ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Benali Kanoun, Mohammed; Goumri-Said, Souraya; Manchon, Aurelien; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    We present first-principles results for Sc-doped ZnOthin films. Neighboring Sc atoms in the surface and/or subsurface layers are found to be coupled ferromagnetically, where only two of the possible configurations induce spin polarization

  20. Phosphorus-doped thin silica films characterized by magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H.J.; Skibsted, J.; Kristensen, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of 31P and 29Si have been achieved for a thin silica film doped with only 1.8% 31P and deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on a pure silicon wafer. The observation of a symmetric 31P chemical shift tensor is consistent...

  1. Study on Crystallographic Properties of Li Doped ZnO Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khine Khine Linn; Than Than Win; Yin Maung Maung; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2008-03-01

    Li-doped ZnO film is prepared on highly polished Si substrate. The process temperature are range from 400 0 C to 600 0 C and maintained 1 hr for homogenization. According to the experimental results, it is significant that the growth chemistry is quite feasible and expected to be crystalline at above-mentioned temperatures.

  2. Structural and optical properties of Zn doped CuInS 2 thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Copper indium sulphide (CIS) films were deposited by spray pyrolysis onto glass ... The effects of Zn (0–5%)molecular weight compared with CuInS2 Source and ... candidates for use as doped acceptors to fabricate CuInS2-based solar cells.

  3. Optical and electrical properties of TiOPc doped Alq{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramar, M.; Suman, C. K., E-mail: sumanck@nplindia.org; Tyagi, Priyanka; Srivastava, R. [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy CSIR - National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi -110012 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The Titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) was doped in Tris (8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Alq3) with different concentration. The thin film of optimized doping concentration was studied extensively for optical and electrical properties. The optical properties, studied using ellipsometry, absorption and photoluminescence. The absorption peak of Alq{sub 3} and TiOPc was observed at 387 nm and 707 nm and the photo-luminescence intensity (PL) peak of doped thin film was observed at 517 nm. The DC and AC electrical properties of the thin film were studied by current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics and impedance over a frequency range of 100 Hz - 1 MHz. The electron mobility calculated from trap-free space-charge limited region (SCLC) is 0.17×10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/Vs. The Cole-Cole plots shows that the TiOPc doped Alq{sub 3} thin film can be represented by a single parallel resistance R{sub P} and capacitance C{sub P} network with a series resistance R{sub S} (10 Ω). The value of R{sub P} and C{sub P} at zero bias was 1587 Ω and 2.568 nF respectively. The resistance R{sub P} decreases with applied bias whereas the capacitance C{sub P} remains almost constant.

  4. Performance Evaluation of an Oxygen Sensor as a Function of the Samaria Doped Ceria Film Thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghavi, Rahul P.; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Engelhard, Mark H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Jiang, Weilin; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Kayani, Asghar N.; Prasad, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    The current demand in the automobile industry is in the control of air-fuel mixture in the combustion engine of automobiles. Oxygen partial pressure can be used as an input parameter for regulating or controlling systems in order to optimize the combustion process. Our goal is to identify and optimize the material system that would potentially function as the active sensing material for such a device that monitors oxygen partial pressure in these systems. We have used thin film samaria doped ceria (SDC) as the sensing material for the sensor operation, exploiting the fact that at high temperatures, oxygen vacancies generated due to samarium doping act as conducting medium for oxygen ions which hop through the vacancies from one side to the other contributing to an electrical signal. We have recently established that 6 atom% Sm doping in ceria films has optimum conductivity. Based on this observation, we have studied the variation in the overall conductivity of 6 atom% samaria doped ceria thin films as a function of thickness in the range of 50 nm to 300 nm at a fixed bias voltage of 2 volts. A direct proportionality in the increase in the overall conductivity is observed with the increase in sensing film thickness. For a range of oxygen pressure values from 1 mTorr to 100 Torr, a tolerable hysteresis error, good dynamic response and a response time of less than 10 seconds was observed

  5. Structural and Optical Properties of Group III Doped Hydrothermal ZnO Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad J.; Carberry, Benjamin; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    . The hydrothermal layer is doped with Al, Ga, and In through the addition of their respective nitrate salts. We evaluated the effect that varying the concentrations of these dopants has on both the structural and optical properties of these films. It was found

  6. Optical spectroscopy of rare-earth ions doped KY(WO4)2 thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Revilla, S.; Valiente, R.; Romanyuk, Y.E.; Utke, I.; Pollnau, Markus

    KY(WO4)2 thin films doped with Dy3+, Tb3+, Yb3+, were grown onto KY(WO4)2 substrates using liquid-phase epitaxy. Spectroscopic investigations of the grown layers were performed. Obtained results were compared with spectra given for bulk crystals. Upconversion experiments after direct Yb3+ excitation

  7. Preparation of cadmium-doped ZnO thin films by SILAR and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cadmium-doped zinc oxide (Cd : ZnO) thin films were deposited from sodium zincate bath .... of complex ion on the substrate followed by reaction of the .... Intensity (a.u.). 0. 500 .... trum confirmed the presence of Zn, O and Cd elements in the.

  8. Nb-doped TiO2 thin films as photocatalytic materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    that hydrophilicity is ruled by a different mechanism than photocatalysis. Keywords. Nb-doped ... studied for a large area of applications: solar cells,1–3 hydrogen ... our previous work.12,13 Results show that all the films are amorphous and ...

  9. Study of high mobility carriers in Ni-doped CdO films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) doped with different amounts of nickel ion thin films have been prepared on silicon and glass .... glass substrate have [111] energetically preferred orientation growth, which is ... Bragg angle of the considered (111) reflection. ... boundaries. .... (figure 3), which means that the grain or crystallite bound-.

  10. Boron doped nanostructure ZnO films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Seniye, E-mail: seniyek@ogu.edu.tr; Ozbas, Omer

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Nanostructure undoped and boron doped ZnO films were deposited by USP technique. • Influences of doping on the surface and optical properties of the ZnO films were investigated. • XRD spectra of the films exhibited a variation in crystalline quality depending on the B content. - Abstract: ZnO is an II–VI compound semiconductor with a wide direct band gap of 3.3 eV at room temperature. Doped with group III elements (B, Al or Ga), it becomes an attractive candidate to replace tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) or indium tin oxide (ITO) as transparent conducting electrodes in solar cell devices and flat panel display due to competitive electrical and optical properties. In this work, ZnO and boron doped ZnO (ZnO:B) films have been deposited onto glass substrates at 350 ± 5 °C by a cost-efficient ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. The optical, structural, morphological and electrical properties of nanostructure undoped and ZnO:B films have been investigated. Electrical resistivity of films has been analyzed by four-probe technique. Optical properties and thicknesses of the films have been examined in the wavelength range 1200–1600 nm by using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements. The optical constants (refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k)) and the thicknesses of the films have been fitted according to Cauchy model. The optical method has been used to determine the band gap value of the films. Transmission spectra have been taken by UV spectrophotometer. It is found that both ZnO and ZnO:B films have high average optical transmission (≥80%). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the obtained ZnO has a hexagonal wurtzite type structure. The morphological properties of the films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface morphology of the nanostructure films is found to depend on the concentration of B. As a result, ZnO:B films are promising contender for their potential use as transparent window layer and

  11. Multicomponent doped barium strontium titanate thin films for tunable microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alema, Fikadu Legesse

    In recent years there has been enormous progress in the development of barium strontium titanate (BST) films for tunable microwave applications. However, the properties of BST films still remain inferior compared to bulk materials, limiting their use for microwave technology. Understanding the film/substrate mismatch, microstructure, and stoichiometry of BST films and finding the necessary remedies are vital. In this work, BST films were deposited via radio frequency magnetron sputtering method and characterized both analytically and electrically with the aim of optimizing their properties. The stoichiometry, crystal structure, and phase purity of the films were studied by varying the oxygen partial pressure (OPP) and total gas pressure (TGP) in the chamber. A better stoichiometric match between film and target was achieved when the TGP is high (> 30 mTorr). However, the O2/Ar ratio should be adjusted as exceeding a threshold of 2 mTorr in OPP facilitates the formation of secondary phases. The growth of crystalline film on platinized substrates was achieved only with a lower temperature grown buffer layer, which acts as a seed layer by crystallizing when the temperature increases. Concurrent Mg/Nb doping has significantly improved the properties of BST thin films. The doped film has shown an average tunability of 53%, which is only ˜8 % lower than the value for the undoped film. This drop is associated with the Mg ions whose detrimental effects are partially compensated by Nb ions. Conversely, the doping has reduced the dielectric loss by ˜40 % leading to a higher figure of merit. Moreover, the two dopants ensure a charge neutrality condition which resulted in significant leakage current reduction. The presence of large amounts of empty shallow traps related to Nb Ti localize the free carriers injected from the contacts; thus increase the device control voltage substantially (>10 V). A combinatorial thin film synthesis method based on co-sputtering of two BST

  12. A short literature survey on iron and cobalt ion doped TiO{sub 2} thin films and photocatalytic activity of these films against fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I dil, Ilknur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Bacaks Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I z, Emin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Buruk, Celal Kurtulus [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Breen, Chris [Materials and Engineering Research Institution, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Soekmen, Muenevver, E-mail: msokmen@ktu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co or Fe doped TiO{sub 2} thin films were prepared by sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained lower E{sub g} values for Fe-doped and Co-TiO{sub 2} thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic killing effect of the doped TiO{sub 2} thin films on C. albicans and A. niger was significantly higher than undoped TiO{sub 2} thin film for short exposure periods. - Abstract: In this study, a short recent literature survey which concentrated on the usage of Fe{sup 3+} or Co{sup 2+} ion doped TiO{sub 2} thin films and suspensions were summarized. Additionally, a sol-gel method was used for preparation of the 2% Co or Fe doped TiO{sub 2} thin films. The surface of the prepared materials was characterised using scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and band gap of the films were calculated from the transmission measurements that were taken over the range of 190 and 1100 nm. The E{sub g} value was 3.40 eV for the pure TiO{sub 2}, 3.00 eV for the Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} film and 3.25 eV for Co-TiO{sub 2} thin film. Iron or cobalt doping at lower concentration produce more uniformed particles and doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Photocatalytic killing effect of the 2% Co doped TiO{sub 2} thin film on Candida albicans was significantly higher than Fe doped TiO{sub 2} thin film for short and long exposure periods. Doped thin films were more effective on Aspergillus niger for short exposure periods.

  13. Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Organic Pyridinium Dye doped Polymeric Waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Xi; Li-Hua, Ye; Qiong, Wang; Deng, Xu; Chang-Gui, Lu; Guo-Hua, Hu; Yi-Ping, Cui

    2009-01-01

    An organic dye salt trans-4-[p-(N-hydroxyethyl-N-methylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASPI) is doped with an electron transport organic molecule tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) in a host matrix of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), and the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is studied. By efficient Forster energy transfer from Alq3 to ASPI, it is demonstrated that the ASE threshold of ASPI:Alq3:PMMA waveguide (about 11μJ/pulse) is much lower than that of ASPI:PMMA system (about 38μJ/pulse). Meanwhile, the peak position of ASE can be controlled by the effect of film thickness on waveguide modes. We show that the ASE peak position can be tuned over 37nm. These characteristics indicate the ASPI:Alq3 system as a promising gain medium for optical amplifiers and organic semiconductor lasers

  14. Influence of lithium doping on the structural and electrical characteristics of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johny, T. Anto [Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), (Department of Information Technology, Scientific Society, Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Govt. of India), Athani - PO, Thrissur, 680 581 Kerala (India); Kumar, Viswanathan, E-mail: vkumar10@yahoo.com [Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), (Department of Information Technology, Scientific Society, Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Govt. of India), Athani - PO, Thrissur, 680 581 Kerala (India); Imai, Hideyuki; Kanno, Isaku [Micro Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-06-30

    Thin films of undoped and lithium-doped Zinc oxide, (Zn{sub 1-x}Li{sub x})O; x = 0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 were prepared by sol-gel method using spin-coating technique on silicon substrates [(111)Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si)]. The influence of lithium doping on the structural, electrical and microstructural characteristics have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, leakage current, piezoelectric measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The resistivity of the ZnO film is found to increase markedly with low levels (x {<=} 0.05) of lithium doping thereby enhancing their piezoelectric applications. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient, e{sub 31}{sup Low-Asterisk} has been determined for the thin films having the composition (Zn{sub 0.95}Li{sub 0.05})O, to study their suitability for piezoelectric applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preferentially c-axis oriented (Zn{sub 1-x}Li{sub x})O films were spin-coated on glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (Zn{sub 1-x}Li{sub x})O thin films exhibit dense columnar microstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low levels of lithium doping, increases the electrical resistivity of ZnO thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (Zn{sub 1-x}Li{sub x})O thin films show high values of transverse piezoelectric coefficient, e{sup Low-Asterisk }{sub 31}.

  15. Anomalous magnetism of superconducting Mg-doped InN film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Chang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the Meissner effect of Mg-doped InN film with superconducting transition onset temperature Tc,onset of 5 K. Mg-doped InN is magnetically ordered and exhibits a simultaneous first-order magnetic and electric transition near 50 K. Its behavior is similar to that of iron-based superconductors. A strong correlation is proposed to exist between structural distortion and superconductivity when Mg is doped into InN. The suppression of magnetic ordering close to Tc by doping is further demonstrated by anisotropic magnetoresistance and M-H measurements. The findings suggest that the superconducting mechanism in the system may not be conventional BCS.

  16. Influence of sputtering gas pressure on properties of transparent conducting Si-doped zinc oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Hua; Liu, Hunfa; Lei, Chengxin [Shandong Univ. of Technology, Zibo (China). Dept. of Sciences

    2013-10-15

    Si-doped zinc oxide (SZO, Si 3%) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by means of direct current magnetron sputtering under different pressures. The influence of sputtering pressure on structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties of SZO thin films was investigated. The results reveal that the sputtering pressures have a significant impact on the growth rate, crystal quality and electrical properties of the films, but have little impact on the optical properties of the films. SZO thin film samples grown on glasses are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and have a preferred orientation along the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. When the sputtering pressure increases from 2 to 8 Pa, the film surface becomes compact and smooth, the degree of crystallization of the films increases, and the resistivity of films decreases. However, when the sputtering pressure continues to increase from 8 to 10 Pa, the degree of crystallization of the films decreases, the grain size decreases, and the resistivity of the films increases. SZO(3%) thin film deposited at a sputtering pressure of 8 Pa shows the largest carrier concentration, the largest mobility, the lowest resistivity of 3.0 x 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm and a high overall transmission of 93.3% in the visible range. (orig.)

  17. Stabilization and enhanced energy gap by Mg doping in ɛ-phase Ga2O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoyu; Wu, Zhenping; Huang, Yuanqi; Tang, Weihua

    2018-02-01

    Mg-doped Ga2O3 thin films with different doping concentrations were deposited on sapphire substrates using laser molecular beam epitaxy (L-MBE) technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectrum were used to characterize the crystal structure and optical properties of the as-grown films. Compared to pure Ga2O3 thin film, the Mg-doped thin films have transformed from the most stable β-phase into ɛ-phase. The absorption edge shifted to about 205 nm and the optical bandgap increased to ˜ 6 eV. These properties reveal that Mg-doped Ga2O3 films may have potential applications in the field of deep ultraviolet optoelectronic devices, such as deep ultraviolet photodetectors, short wavelength light emitting devices and so on.

  18. Comparative study of zinc oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent thin films grown by direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchea, M.; Christoulakis, S.; Katsarakis, N.; Kitsopoulos, T.; Kiriakidis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Pure and aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO and ZAO) thin films have been grown using direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering from pure metallic Zn and ceramic ZnO targets, as well as from Al-doped metallic ZnAl2at.% and ceramic ZnAl2at.%O targets at room temperature (RT). The effects of target composition on the film's surface topology, crystallinity, and optical transmission have been investigated for various oxygen partial pressures in the sputtering atmosphere. It has been shown that Al-doped ZnO films sputtered from either metallic or ceramic targets exhibit different surface morphology than the undoped ZnO films, while their preferential crystalline growth orientation revealed by X-ray diffraction remains always the (002). More significantly, Al-doping leads to a larger increase of the optical transmission and energy gap (E g ) of the metallic than of the ceramic target prepared films

  19. Effect of tin doping on the optical properties of indium oxide films by a spray pyrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Abu Talib; Muhammad Mat Salleh; Muhammad Yahya; Mod Noor Bader Sher

    1993-01-01

    Thin films of stannum doped indium oxide were deposited on glass by a X-ray pyrolysis method. The substrate temperature and the rate of flow of the carrier gas were fixed at 450 0 C and 2.5 litre/minute respectively during deposition. The dependence of the optical properties of the films on the doping concentration was studied. It is found that the transmission of the visible wavelengths (300 to 800 nm) through the films increases around 5% from 74.9% as the film was doped with 10% stannum. It is also found that the optical energy bandgap increases 0.2 eV from 3.16 to 3.36 eV by doping the film with 10% stannum. The increase is attributed to the Bernstein-Moss (1) and self-energy (2) effects

  20. Stabilization and enhanced energy gap by Mg doping in ε-phase Ga2O3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Bi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mg-doped Ga2O3 thin films with different doping concentrations were deposited on sapphire substrates using laser molecular beam epitaxy (L-MBE technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis absorption spectrum were used to characterize the crystal structure and optical properties of the as-grown films. Compared to pure Ga2O3 thin film, the Mg-doped thin films have transformed from the most stable β-phase into ε-phase. The absorption edge shifted to about 205 nm and the optical bandgap increased to ∼ 6 eV. These properties reveal that Mg-doped Ga2O3 films may have potential applications in the field of deep ultraviolet optoelectronic devices, such as deep ultraviolet photodetectors, short wavelength light emitting devices and so on.

  1. High transmittance optical films based on quantum dot doped nanoscale polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2016-04-01

    We propose a simple way to fabricate highly transparent nanoscale polymer dispersed liquid crystal (nano-PDLC) films between glass substrates and investigate their incident angle dependent optical transmittance properties with both collimated and Lambertian intensity distribution light sources. We also demonstrate that doping nano-PDLC films with 0.1% InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QD) results in a higher optical transmittance. This work lays the foundation for such nanostructured composites to potentially serve as roll-to-roll coatable light extraction or brightness enhancement films in emissive display applications, superior to complex nanocorrugation techniques proposed in the past.

  2. Electrical properties of cadmium telluride films doped with antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atdaev, B.S.; Garyagdyev, G.; Grin', V.F.; Noskov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of cadmium telluride doping with antimony on electric and photoelectric properties is investigated. Temperature dependence of dark (σ d ) and photoconductivity (σ p ) during excitation from the range of proper absorption in the temperature range 77-300 K and spectral distribution of photoconductivity at 300 K are investigated. It is shown that in the process of doping antimony diffusses intensively over CdTe grain boundaries, decreasing potential barriers between them and due to diffusion into CdTe grains it changes their electrical properties. The acceptor character of antimony impurity can be caused by antimony diffusion into tellurium sublattice owing to proximity of their ionic and covalent radii

  3. Opto-electronic properties of chromium doped indium-tin-oxide films deposited at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Weiche; Lee Shihchin; Yang Chihhao; Lin Tienchai

    2008-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) doped chromium films were deposited on Corning 7059 glass prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering under various levels of sputtering power for the chromium target. Experimental results show that the surface roughness slightly decreases by co-sputtering Cr. The pure ITO films deposited at room temperature were amorphous-like. At 15 W of chromium target power, the structure of ITO: Cr film mainly consists of (2 2 2) crystallization plane, with minority of (2 1 1), (4 4 0), (6 6 2) crystallization planes. The carrier concentration of the ITO films increases with increasing the doping of chromium, however the mobility of the carrier decreases. When the sputtering power of the chromium target is at 7.5 W, there has a maximum carrier mobility of 27.3 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , minimum carrier concentration of 2.47 x 10 20 cm -3 , and lowest resistivity of 7.32 x 10 -4 Ω cm. The transmittance of all the chromium doped ITO films at the 300-800 nm wavelength region in this experiment can reach up to 70-85%. In addition, the blue shift of UV-Vis spectrum is not observed with the increase of carrier concentration

  4. An anode with aluminum doped on zinc oxide thin films for organic light emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Denghui; Deng Zhenbo; Xu Ying; Xiao Jing; Liang Chunjun; Pei Zhiliang; Sun Chao

    2005-01-01

    Doped zinc oxides are attractive alternative materials as transparent conducting electrode because they are nontoxic and inexpensive compared with indium tin oxide (ITO). Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. Films were deposited at a substrate temperature of 150-bar o C in 0.03 Pa of oxygen pressure. The electrical and optical properties of the film with the Al-doping amount of 2 wt% in the target were investigated. For the 300-nm thick AZO film deposited using a ZnO target with an Al content of 2 wt%, the lowest electrical resistivity was 4x10 -4 Ωcm and the average transmission in the visible range 400-700 nm was more than 90%. The AZO film was used as an anode contact to fabricate organic light-emitting diodes. The device performance was measured and the current efficiency of 2.9 cd/A was measured at a current density of 100 mA/cm 2

  5. Structural and optical properties of Na-doped ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcan, D.; Gungor, A.; Arda, L.

    2018-06-01

    Zn1-xNaxO (x = 0.0-0.05) solutions have been synthesized by the sol-gel technique using Zinc acetate dihydrate and Sodium acetate which were dissolved into solvent and chelating agent. Na-doped ZnO nanoparticles were obtained from solutions to find phase and crystal structure. Na-doped ZnO films have been deposited onto glass substrate by using sol-gel dip coating system. The effects of dopant concentration on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of Na-doped ZnO thin films deposited on glass substrate are investigated. Characterization of Zn1-xNaxO nanoparticles and thin films are examined using differential thermal analysis (DTA)/thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray diffractometer (XRD). Optical properties of Zn1-xNaxO thin films were obtained by using PG Instruments UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer in 190-1100 nm range. The structure, morphology, and optical properties of thin films are presented.

  6. Characterization of a new transparent-conducting material of ZnO doped ITO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. M.

    2005-11-01

    Thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) doped with zinc oxide have the remarkable properties of being conductive yet still highly transparent in the visible and near-IR spectral ranges. The Electron beam deposi- tion technique is one of the simplest and least expensive ways of preparing. High-quality ITO thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by Electron beam evaporation technique. The effect of doping and substrate deposition temperature was found to have a significant effect on the structure, electrical and optical properties of ZnO doped ITO films. The average optical transmittance has been increased with in- creasing the substrate temperature. The maximum value of transmittance is greater than 84% in the visible region and 85% in the NIR region obtained for film with Zn/ITO = 0.13 at substrate temperature 200 °C. The dielectric constant, average excitation energy for electronic transitions (E o), the dispersion energy (E d), the long wavelength refractive index (n ), average oscillator wave length ( o) and oscillator strength S o for the thin films were determined and presented in this work.

  7. Highly doped ZnO films deposited by spray-pyrolysis. Design parameters for optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcés, F.A., E-mail: felipe.garces@santafe-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Física del Litoral (UNL-CONICET), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Budini, N. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (UNL-CONICET), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Schmidt, J.A.; Arce, R.D. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (UNL-CONICET), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, Santa Fe S3000AOM (Argentina)

    2016-04-30

    Synthesis and preparation of ZnO films are relevant subjects for obtaining transparent and conducting layers with interesting applications in optoelectronics and photovoltaics. Optimization of parameters such as dopant type and concentration, deposition time and substrate temperature is important for obtaining ZnO layers with optimal properties. In this work we present a study about the induced effects of deposition time on optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films. These films were deposited by spray pyrolysis of a suitable Zn precursor, obtained through the sol–gel method. The deposition time has direct incidence on internal stress in the crystal structure, generating defects that may affect transparency and electrical transport into the layers. We performed mosaicity measurements, through X-ray diffraction, and used it as a tool to get an insight on structural characteristics and homogeneity of ZnO layers. Also, through this technique, we analyzed thickness and doping effects on crystallinity and carrier transport properties. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO films with high conductivity and moderate Hall mobility were obtained. • Mosaicity between crystalline domains increased with film thickness. • Lattice parameters a and c diminished linearly as a function of Al concentration. • First steps for developing porous silicon/doped ZnO heterojunctions were presented.

  8. Highly doped ZnO films deposited by spray-pyrolysis. Design parameters for optoelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcés, F.A.; Budini, N.; Schmidt, J.A.; Arce, R.D.

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis and preparation of ZnO films are relevant subjects for obtaining transparent and conducting layers with interesting applications in optoelectronics and photovoltaics. Optimization of parameters such as dopant type and concentration, deposition time and substrate temperature is important for obtaining ZnO layers with optimal properties. In this work we present a study about the induced effects of deposition time on optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films. These films were deposited by spray pyrolysis of a suitable Zn precursor, obtained through the sol–gel method. The deposition time has direct incidence on internal stress in the crystal structure, generating defects that may affect transparency and electrical transport into the layers. We performed mosaicity measurements, through X-ray diffraction, and used it as a tool to get an insight on structural characteristics and homogeneity of ZnO layers. Also, through this technique, we analyzed thickness and doping effects on crystallinity and carrier transport properties. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO films with high conductivity and moderate Hall mobility were obtained. • Mosaicity between crystalline domains increased with film thickness. • Lattice parameters a and c diminished linearly as a function of Al concentration. • First steps for developing porous silicon/doped ZnO heterojunctions were presented.

  9. Deposition of Cu-doped PbS thin films with low resistivity using DC sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariyadi Soetedjo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the electrical resistivity of Cu-doped PbS thin films has been carried out. The films were prepared using a DC sputtering technique. The doping was achieved by introducing the Cu dopant plate material directly on the surface of the PbS sputtering target plate. SEM-EDX data shows the Cu concentration in the PbS film to be proportional to the Cu plate diameter. The XRD pattern indicates the film is in crystalline cubic form. The Hall effect measurement shows that Cu doping yields an increase in the carrier concentration to 3.55 × 1019 cm−3 and a significant decrease in electrical resistivity. The lowest resistivity obtained was 0.13 Ωcm for a Cu concentration of 18.5%. Preferential orientation of (1 1 1 and (2 0 0 occurs during deposition. Keywords: Thin films, Lead sulfide, Sputtering, Resistivity, Semiconductor, Infrared

  10. Photoelectrochemical Performance Observed in Mn-Doped BiFeO3 Heterostructured Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Min Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pure BiFeO3 and heterostructured BiFeO3/BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 (5% Mn-doped BiFeO3 thin films have been prepared by a chemical deposition method. The band structures and photosensitive properties of these films have been investigated elaborately. Pure BiFeO3 films showed stable and strong response to photo illumination (open circuit potential kept −0.18 V, short circuit photocurrent density was −0.023 mA·cm−2. By Mn doping, the energy band positions shifted, resulting in a smaller band gap of BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 layer and an internal field being built in the BiFeO3/BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 interface. BiFeO3/BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 and BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 thin films demonstrated poor photo activity compared with pure BiFeO3 films, which can be explained by the fact that Mn doping brought in a large amount of defects in the BiFe0.95Mn0.05O3 layers, causing higher carrier combination and correspondingly suppressing the photo response, and this negative influence was more considerable than the positive effects provided by the band modulation.

  11. Characteristics of sputtered Al-doped ZnO films for transparent electrodes of organic thin-film transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Seob; Kim, Han-Ki

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films were deposited with various RF powers at room temperature by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. The electrical properties of the AZO film were improved with the increasing RF power. These results can be explained by the improvement of the crystallinity in the AZO film. We fabricated the organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) of the bottom gate structure using pentacene active and poly-4-vinyl phenol gate dielectric layers on the indium tin oxide gate electrode, and estimated the device properties of the OTFTs including drain current-drain voltage (I D -V D ), drain current-gate voltage (I D -V G ), threshold voltage (V T ), on/off ratio and field effect mobility. The AZO film that grown at 160 W RF power exhibited low resistivity (1.54 x 10 -3 Ω.cm), high crystallinity and uniform surface morphology. The pentacene thin-film transistor using the AZO film that's fabricated at 160 W RF power exhibited good device performance such as the mobility of 0.94 cm 2 /V s and the on/off ratio of ∼ 10 5 . Consequently, the performance of the OTFT such as larger field-effect carrier mobility was determined the conductivity of the AZO source/drain (S/D) electrode. AZO films prepared at room temperature by the sputtering method are suitable for the S/D electrodes in the OTFTs.

  12. Influence of film thickness and Fe doping on LPG sensing properties of Mn3O4 thin film grown by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhedkar, M. R.; Ubale, A. U.

    2018-05-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe doped and undoped Mn3O4 thin films have been deposited by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method onto glass substrates using MnCl2 and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors. The grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)) have been carried out to analyze structural and surface morphological properties of the films. The LPG sensing performance of Mn3O4thin films have been studied by varying temperature, concentration of LPG, thickness of the film and doping percentage of Fe. The LPG response of the Mn3O4thin films were found to be enhances with film thickness and decreases with increased Fe doping (0 to 8 wt. %) at 573 K temperature.

  13. P-type Al-doped Cr-deficient CrN thin films for thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Febvrier, Arnaud; Van Nong, Ngo; Abadias, Gregory; Eklund, Per

    2018-05-01

    Thermoelectric properties of chromium nitride (CrN)-based films grown on c-plane sapphire by dc reactive magnetron sputtering were investigated. In this work, aluminum doping was introduced in CrN (degenerate n-type semiconductor) by co-deposition. Under the present deposition conditions, over-stoichiometry in nitrogen (CrN1+δ) rock-salt structure is obtained. A p-type conduction is observed with nitrogen-rich CrN combined with aluminum doping. The Cr0.96Al0.04N1.17 film exhibited a high Seebeck coefficient and a sufficient power factor at 300 °C. These results are a starting point for designing p-type/n-type thermoelectric materials based on chromium nitride films, which are cheap and routinely grown on the industrial scale.

  14. Influence of Te and Se doping on ZnO films growth by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güney, Harun; Duman, Ćaǧlar

    2016-04-01

    The AIP Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) is an economic and simple method to growth thin films. In this study, SILAR method is used to growth Selenium (Se) and Tellurium (Te) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with different doping rates. For characterization of the films X-ray diffraction (XRD), absorbance and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used. XRD results are showed well-defined strongly (002) oriented crystal structure for all samples. Also, absorbance measurements show, Te and Se concentration are proportional and inversely proportional with band gap energy, respectively. SEM measurements show that the surface morphology and thickness of the material varied with Se and/or Te and varying concentrations.

  15. Influence of Te and Se doping on ZnO films growth by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Güney, Harun; Duman, Çağlar

    2016-01-01

    The AIP Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) is an economic and simple method to growth thin films. In this study, SILAR method is used to growth Selenium (Se) and Tellurium (Te) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with different doping rates. For characterization of the films X-ray diffraction (XRD), absorbance and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used. XRD results are showed well-defined strongly (002) oriented crystal structure for all samples. Also, absorbance measurements show, Te and Se concentration are proportional and inversely proportional with band gap energy, respectively. SEM measurements show that the surface morphology and thickness of the material varied with Se and/or Te and varying concentrations.

  16. Influence of Te and Se doping on ZnO films growth by SILAR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Güney, Harun, E-mail: harunguney25@hotmail.com [Department of Electric and Energy, Vocation High School, Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University (Turkey); Duman, Çağlar, E-mail: caglarduman@erzurum.edu.tr [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Erzurum Technical University (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    The AIP Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) is an economic and simple method to growth thin films. In this study, SILAR method is used to growth Selenium (Se) and Tellurium (Te) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with different doping rates. For characterization of the films X-ray diffraction (XRD), absorbance and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used. XRD results are showed well-defined strongly (002) oriented crystal structure for all samples. Also, absorbance measurements show, Te and Se concentration are proportional and inversely proportional with band gap energy, respectively. SEM measurements show that the surface morphology and thickness of the material varied with Se and/or Te and varying concentrations.

  17. Gas Sensing of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. YADAV

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine doped tin oxide (F: SnO2 films have been prepared onto the amorphous glass substrates by a spray pyrolysis. XRD studies reveal that the material deposited is polycrystalline SnO2 and have tetragonal structure. It is observed that films are highly orientated along (200 direction. The direct optical band gap energy for the F: SnO2 films are found to be 4.15 eV. Gas sensing properties of the sensor were checked against combustible gases like H2, CO2 CO, C3H8, CH4.The H2 sensitivity of the F-doped SnO2 sensor was found to be increased. The increase in the sensitivity is discussed in terms of increased resistivity and reduced permeation of gaseous oxygen into the underlying sensing layer due to the surface modification of the sensor.

  18. Magnetic and structural study of Cu-doped TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, C.E. Rodriguez; Golmar, F.; Cabrera, A.F.; Errico, L.; Navarro, A.M. Mudarra; Renteria, M.; Sanchez, F.H.; Duhalde, S.

    2007-01-01

    Transparent pure and Cu-doped (2.5, 5 and 10 at.%) anatase TiO 2 thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on LaAlO 3 substrates. The samples were structurally characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties were measured using a SQUID. All films have a FM-like behaviour. In the case of the Cu-doped samples, the magnetic cycles are almost independent of the Cu concentration. Cu atoms are forming CuO and/or substituting Ti in TiO 2 . The thermal treatment in air promotes the CuO segregation. Since CuO is antiferromagnetic, the magnetic signals present in the films could be assigned to Cu substitutionally replacing cations in TiO 2

  19. Magnetic and structural study of Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, C.E. Rodriguez [Dpto de Fisica-IFLP, Fac. Cs. Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET, CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: torres@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Golmar, F. [Laboratorio de Ablacion Laser, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cabrera, A.F.; Errico, L.; Navarro, A.M. Mudarra; Renteria, M.; Sanchez, F.H. [Dpto de Fisica-IFLP, Fac. Cs. Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET, CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Duhalde, S. [Laboratorio de Ablacion Laser, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-10-31

    Transparent pure and Cu-doped (2.5, 5 and 10 at.%) anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on LaAlO{sub 3} substrates. The samples were structurally characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties were measured using a SQUID. All films have a FM-like behaviour. In the case of the Cu-doped samples, the magnetic cycles are almost independent of the Cu concentration. Cu atoms are forming CuO and/or substituting Ti in TiO{sub 2}. The thermal treatment in air promotes the CuO segregation. Since CuO is antiferromagnetic, the magnetic signals present in the films could be assigned to Cu substitutionally replacing cations in TiO{sub 2}.

  20. Fabrication of nickel oxide and Ni-doped indium tin oxide thin films using pyrosol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasa, Akihiko; Adachi, Mami; Usami, Hisanao; Suzuki, Eiji; Taniguchi, Yoshio

    2006-01-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) need indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes with highly smooth surface. The work function of ITO, about 4.8 eV, is generally rather lower than the optimum level for application to OLEDs. In this work, NiO was deposited by pyrosol process on pyrosol ITO film to increase the work function of the ITO for improving the performance of OLEDs. It was confirmed that NiO was successfully deposited on pyrosol ITO film and the NiO deposition increased the work function of pyrosol ITO, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and atmospheric photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, doping ITO with Ni succeeded in producing the Ni-doped ITO film with high work function and lower sheet resistance

  1. Ultraviolet Sensing by Al-doped ZnO Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, A.R.A.; Menon, P.S.; Shaari, S.

    2011-01-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of an ultraviolet photoconductive sensing by using Al-doped ZnO films. Undoped ZnO, 1 at.% and 2 at% of Al were prepared on quartz glass by sol gel method with annealing temperature of 500 degree Celsius for 1 hour. The presence of spherical shaped nanoparticles were detected for undoped ZnO by using FESEM. The absorption edge shifted to a lower wavelength by doping with Al and excitonic peak can be observed. The band gap values increased by adding Al. I-V curves reveal an improvement in electrical properties when the samples are illuminated by ultraviolet (UV) light with a wavelength of 365 nm. At 1 at.% of Al, the film have a larger increment in photocurrent response when illuminated with UV light compared to undoped ZnO and 2 at.% Al. The thin films have a longer recovery time than response time. (author)

  2. Optical Properties of Al- and Sb-Doped CdTe Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. J. Al-Douri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nondoped and (Al, Sb-doped CdTe thin films with 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5  wt.%, respectively, were deposited by thermal evaporation technique under vacuum onto Corning 7059 glass at substrate temperatures ( of room temperature (RT and 423 K. The optical properties of deposited CdTe films such as band gap, refractive index (n, extinction coefficient (, and dielectric coefficients were investigated as function of Al and Sb wt.% doping, respectively. The results showed that films have direct optical transition. Increasing and the wt.% of both types of dopant, the band gap decrease but the optical is constant as n, and real and imaginary parts of the dielectric coefficient increase.

  3. Design and characterization of Ga-doped indium tin oxide films for pixel electrode in liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Kang, S.H.; Oh, H.S.; Yu, T.H.; Sohn, I.S.

    2013-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films doped with various metal atoms were investigated in terms of phase transition behavior and electro-optical properties for the purpose of upgrading ITO and indium zinc oxide (IZO) films, commonly used for pixel electrodes in flat panel displays. We explored Ce, Mg, Zn, and Ga atoms as dopants to ITO by the co-sputtering technique, and Ga-doped ITO films (In:Sn:Ga = 87.4:6.7:5.9 at.%) showed the phase transition behavior at 210 °C within 20 min with high visible transmittance of 91% and low resistivity of 0.22 mΩ cm. The film also showed etching rate similar to amorphous ITO, and no etching residue on glass surfaces. These results were confirmed with the film formed from a single Ga-doped ITO target with slightly different compositions (In:Sn:Ga = 87:9:4 at.%). Compared to the ITO target, Ga-doped ITO target left 1/4 less nodules on the target surface after sputtering. These results suggest that Ga-doped ITO films could be an excellent alternative to ITO and IZO for pixel electrodes in thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD). - Highlights: ► We report Ga-doped In–Sn–O films for a pixel electrode in liquid crystal display. ► Ga-doped In–Sn–O films show phase transition behavior at 210 °C. ► Ga-doped In–Sn–O films show high wet etchability and low resistivity

  4. Preparing patterned carbonaceous nanostructures directly by overexposure of PMMA using electron-beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan Huigao; Zhao Jianguo; Zhang Yongzhe; Xie Erqing [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Han Li [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)], E-mail: duanhg@gmail.com, E-mail: xieeq@lzu.edu.cn

    2009-04-01

    The overexposure process of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was studied in detail using electron-beam lithography. It was found that PMMA films could be directly patterned without development due to the electron-beam-induced collapse of PMMA macromolecular chains. By analyzing the evolution of surface morphologies and compositions of the overexposed PMMA films, it was also found that the transformation of PMMA from positive to negative resist was a carbonization process, so patterned carbonaceous nanostructures could be prepared directly by overexposure of PMMA using electron-beam lithography. This simple one-step process for directly obtaining patterned carbonaceous nanostructures has promising potential application as a tool to make masks and templates, nanoelectrodes, and building blocks for MEMS and nanophotonic devices.

  5. Effect of ZDDP concentration on the thermal film formation on steel, hydrogenated non-doped and Si-doped DLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, S.; Kovač, J.; Kalin, M.

    2016-10-01

    This work focuses on the ZDDP concentration (1, 5 and 20 wt%) to form a ZDDP film on surfaces during static thermal tests at 150 °C. Silicon-doped and hydrogenated DLC coatings, as well as steel as reference, were studied using Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that, on the three surfaces, the structure of the ZDDP thermal film consists of identical groups of pyrophosphate and zinc oxide, while the sulphuric groups are dissimilar. On the steel surface, the sulphuric part consists of a mixture of organic sulphide and sulphohydryl groups, but on H-DLC and Si-DLC only organic sulphide groups are found; there are no sulphohydryl groups. Moreover, both ATR-FTIR and XPS show that different concentrations of ZDDP do not affect the final chemical structure of the ZDDP thermal film on any of the studied surfaces. In addition, the XPS results show that the thickness of the thermal film is linear with the concentration for the whole range from 1 to 20 wt%, supporting also its uniform chemical structure. These thicknesses further show that the reactivity of the ZDDP film is higher on the steel surface than on the DLC coatings.

  6. Properties of Ce-doped ITO films deposited on polymer substrate by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.M.; Kwon, S.H.; Choi, J.H.; Cho, Y.J.; Song, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Ce-doped indium tin oxide (ITO:Ce) films were deposited on flexible polyimide substrates by DC magnetron sputtering using ITO targets containing various CeO 2 contents (CeO 2 : 0, 0.5, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0 wt.%) at room temperature and post-annealed at 200 o C. The crystallinity of the ITO films decreased with increasing Ce content, and it led to a decrease in surface roughness. In addition, a relatively small change in resistance in dynamic stress mode was obtained for ITO:Ce films even after the annealing at high temperature (200 o C). The minimum resistivity of the amorphous ITO:Ce films was 3.96 x 10 -4 Ωcm, which was deposited using a 3.0 wt.% CeO 2 doped ITO target. The amorphous ITO:Ce films not only have comparable electrical properties to the polycrystalline films but also have a crystallization temperature > 200 o C. In addition, the amorphous ITO:Ce film showed stable mechanical properties in the bended state.

  7. The role of electric field during spray deposition on fluorine doped tin oxide film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Anuj, E-mail: anujkumarom@gmail.com; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Dutta, Viresh

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • Fluorine doped tin oxide deposition by spray technique. • The growth reaction of tin oxide, controlled by the electric field on the substrate surface. • Deposit on large scale substrate 10 cm × 10 cm by single nozzle. • Obtained good quality of thin film. -- Abstract: The fluorine doped tin oxide film has been deposited on 10 cm × 10 cm glass substrate by using spray technique with a voltage applied between the nozzle and an annular electrode placed 2 mm below the nozzle. The effect of the electric field thus created during the spray deposition on structural, optical and electrical properties of SnO{sub 2}:F (FTO) film was studied. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed the presence of cassiterite structure with (2 0 0) orientation for all the FTO film. SEM study revealed the formation of smooth and uniform surface FTO film under the electric field over the entire substrate area. The electrical measurements show that the film prepared under the electric field (for an applied voltage of 2000 V) had a resistivity ∼1.2 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm, carrier concentration ∼4.21 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} and mobility ∼14.48 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The sprayed FTO film have the average transmission in the visible region of more than about 80%.

  8. Deposition and Tribological Properties of Sulfur-Doped DLC Films Deposited by PBII Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutthanun Moolsradoo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-doped diamond-like carbon films (S-DLC fabricated from C2H2 and SF6 mixtures were used to study the effects of sulfur content and negative pulse bias voltage on the deposition and tribological properties of films prepared by plasma-based ion implantation (PBII. The structure and relative concentration of the films were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Hardness and elastic modulus of films were measured by nanoindentation hardness testing. Tribological characteristics of films were performed using a ball-on-disk friction tester. The results indicate that with the increasing sulfur content, the hardness and elastic modulus decrease. Additionally, by changing the negative pulse bias voltage from 0 kV to −5 kV, the hardness and elastic modulus increase, while the friction coefficient and specific wear rate tends to decrease. Moreover, at a negative pulse bias voltage of −5 kV and flow-rate ratio of 1 : 2, there is considerable improvement in friction coefficient of 0.05 under ambient air is due to the formation of a transfer films on the interface. The decrease in the friction coefficient of films doped with 4.9 at.% sulfur is greater under high vacuum (0.03 than under ambient air (>0.1.

  9. The local structure, magnetic, and transport properties of Cr-doped In2O3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shiqi; An Yukai; Feng Deqiang; Liu Jiwen; Wu Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Cr-doped In 2 O 3 films were deposited on Si (100) substrates by RF-magnetron sputtering technique. The local structure, magnetic, and transport properties of films are investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure, Hall effect, R-T, and magnetic measurements. Structural analysis clearly indicates that Cr ions substitute for In 3+ sites of the In 2 O 3 lattice in the valence of +2 states and Cr-related secondary phases or clusters as the source of ferromagnetism is safely ruled out. The films with low Cr concentration show a crossover from semiconducting to metallic transport behavior, whereas only semiconducting behavior is observed in high Cr concentration films. The transport property of all films is governed by Mott variable range hopping behavior, suggesting that the carriers are strongly localized. Magnetic characterizations show that the saturated magnetization of films increases first, and then decreases with Cr doping, while carrier concentration n c decreases monotonically, implying that the ferromagnetism is not directly induced by the mediated carriers. It can be concluded the ferromagnetism of films is intrinsic and originates from electrons bound in defect states associated with oxygen vacancies.

  10. Investigation of corrosion behavior of nitrogen doped and platinum/ruthenium doped diamond-like carbon thin films in Hank's solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, N.W.; Liu, E.

    2011-01-01

    Undoped (DLC), nitrogen-doped (N-DLC) and platinum/ruthenium doped diamond-like carbon (PtRu-DLC) thin films were deposited on p-Si (100) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering deposition system. The chemical composition, bonding structure, surface morphology and adhesion strength of the films were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-scratch test, respectively. The corrosion behavior of the films in a Hank's solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization test. The corrosion results revealed that the PtRu-DLC film had the highest corrosion potential among the films used in this study. Highlights: → DLC thin films were deposited on Si substrates via dc magnetron sputtering. → Some DLC films were doped with N and/or Pt/Ru. → The film corrosion behavior was studied in a Hank solution with polarization test. → The PtRu-DLC film showed the highest corrosion potential among the films studied.

  11. Investigation of corrosion behavior of nitrogen doped and platinum/ruthenium doped diamond-like carbon thin films in Hank's solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun, N.W.; Liu, E., E-mail: MEJLiu@ntu.edu.sg

    2011-10-10

    Undoped (DLC), nitrogen-doped (N-DLC) and platinum/ruthenium doped diamond-like carbon (PtRu-DLC) thin films were deposited on p-Si (100) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering deposition system. The chemical composition, bonding structure, surface morphology and adhesion strength of the films were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-scratch test, respectively. The corrosion behavior of the films in a Hank's solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization test. The corrosion results revealed that the PtRu-DLC film had the highest corrosion potential among the films used in this study. Highlights: {yields} DLC thin films were deposited on Si substrates via dc magnetron sputtering. {yields} Some DLC films were doped with N and/or Pt/Ru. {yields} The film corrosion behavior was studied in a Hank solution with polarization test. {yields} The PtRu-DLC film showed the highest corrosion potential among the films studied.

  12. Universal Scaling in Highly Doped Conducting Polymer Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronemeijer, A. J.; Huisman, E. H.; Katsouras, I.; van Hal, P. A.; Geuns, T. C. T.; Blom, P. W. M.; van der Molen, S. J.; de Leeuw, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical transport of a highly doped disordered conducting polymer, viz. poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene stabilized with poly-4-styrenesulphonic acid, is investigated as a function of bias and temperature. The transport shows universal power-law scaling with both bias and temperature. All

  13. Universal scaling in highly doped conducting polymer films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronemeijer, A.J.; Huisman, E.H.; Katsouras, I.; Hal, P.A. van; Geuns, T.C.T.; Blom, P.W.M.; Molen, S.J. van der; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2010-01-01

    Electrical transport of a highly doped disordered conducting polymer, viz. poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene stabilized with poly-4-styrenesulphonic acid, is investigated as a function of bias and temperature. The transport shows universal power-law scaling with both bias and temperature. All

  14. Electrical and optical properties of ITO and ITO/Cr-doped ITO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caricato, A.P.; Cesaria, M.; Luches, A.; Martino, M.; Valerini, D. [University of Salento, Physics Department, Lecce (Italy); Maruccio, G. [University of Salento, Scuola Superiore Isufi, Lecce (Italy); Catalano, M.; Cola, A.; Manera, M.G.; Lomascolo, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R. [IMM-CNR, Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, Lecce (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper we report on the effects of the insertion of Cr atoms on the electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films to be used as electrodes in spin-polarized light-emitting devices. ITO films and ITO(80 nm)/Cr-doped ITO(20 nm) bilayers and Cr-doped ITO films with a thickness of 20 nm were grown by pulsed ArF excimer laser deposition. The optical, structural, morphological and electrical properties of ITO films and ITO/Cr-doped structures were characterized by UV-Visible transmission and reflection spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Hall-effect analysis. For the different investigations, the samples were deposited on different substrates like silica and carbon coated Cu grids. ITO films with a thickness of 100 nm, a resistivity as low as {proportional_to}4 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm, an energy gap of {proportional_to}4.3 eV and an atomic scale roughness were deposited at room temperature without any post-deposition process. The insertion of Cr into the ITO matrix in the upper 20 nm of the ITO matrix induced variations in the physical properties of the structure like an increase of average roughness ({proportional_to}0.4-0.5 nm) and resistivity (up to {proportional_to}8 x 10{sup -4}{omega} cm). These variations were correlated to the microstructure of the Cr-doped ITO films with particular attention to the upper 20 nm. (orig.)

  15. Enhanced flux pinning properties in superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−z} films by a novel chemical doping approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.T., E-mail: wtwang@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Mail Stop 165, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Pu, M.H.; Lei, M.; Zhang, H.; Wang, Z. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Mail Stop 165, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhang, H. [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, C.H. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Mail Stop 165, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Mail Stop 165, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Pure and Co-doped YBCO films were prepared by newly-developed chemical method. • The doped films have much denser and smoother surface microstructures. • Significantly enhanced fux-pinning properties have been obtained for dilute Co-doped flm. -- Abstract: Pure and cobalt-doped superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−z} (YBCO) films were prepared on (0 0 l) LaAlO{sub 3} substrate by a newly developed polymer-assisted metal organic deposition method. The cobalt-doped YBCO films display much denser and smoother surface microstructures and the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} spans a small range of 1.7 K with the doping levels. Significantly enhanced flux-pinning properties have been obtained for dilute cobalt-doped film. This may be attributed to the good grain connections and the effective flux pinning centers introduced by cobalt doping.

  16. Enhanced flux pinning properties in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7−z films by a novel chemical doping approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.T.; Pu, M.H.; Lei, M.; Zhang, H.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Cheng, C.H.; Zhao, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Pure and Co-doped YBCO films were prepared by newly-developed chemical method. • The doped films have much denser and smoother surface microstructures. • Significantly enhanced fux-pinning properties have been obtained for dilute Co-doped flm. -- Abstract: Pure and cobalt-doped superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−z (YBCO) films were prepared on (0 0 l) LaAlO 3 substrate by a newly developed polymer-assisted metal organic deposition method. The cobalt-doped YBCO films display much denser and smoother surface microstructures and the superconducting transition temperature T c spans a small range of 1.7 K with the doping levels. Significantly enhanced flux-pinning properties have been obtained for dilute cobalt-doped film. This may be attributed to the good grain connections and the effective flux pinning centers introduced by cobalt doping

  17. Synthesis, characterization and photovoltaic properties of Mn-doped Sb2S3 thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horoz Sabit

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of Mn-doped Sb2S3 thin films (TFs prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD at room temperature have been documented and their structural, optical, morphological, magnetic and photovoltaic properties have been examined for the first time. Their structural properties reveal that the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF has an orthorhombic phase structure of Sb2S3, and that the grain size of the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF (72.9 nm becomes larger than that of undoped Sb2S3 TF (69.3 nm. It has been observed that Mn content causes the Sb2S3 TF band gap to decrease. This situation clearly correlates with band tailing due to the impurities that are involved. The morphological properties have revealed that the shape of the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF is more uniform than the shape of its undoped counterpart. The study on its magnetic properties has demonstrated that the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF exhibits paramagnetic behavior. Its paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperature was found to be -4.1 K. This result suggests that there is an anti-ferromagnetic interaction between Mn moments in the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF. Incident photon to electron conversion efficiency (IPCE and J-V measurements were also carried out for the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF for the first time. The results have indicated that the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF can be utilized as a sensitizer to improve the performance of solar cells. Another important observation on the photovoltaic properties of Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF is that the spectral response range is wider than that of undoped Sb2S3 TF. Our study suggests that the introduction of dopant could serve as an effective means of improving the device performance of solar cells.

  18. Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films as Effective Anodes of Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO thin films were prepared by low-cost ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP. Both a low resistivity (3.13×10−3 Ω cm and an average direct transmittance (400∼1500 nm about 80% of the IZO films were achieved. The IZO films were investigated as anodes in bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV devices based on poly(3-hexylthiophene and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester. The device fabricated on IZO film-coated glass substrate showed an open circuit voltage of 0.56 V, a short circuit current of 8.49 mA cm-2, a fill factor of 0.40, and a power conversion efficiency of 1.91%, demonstrating that the IZO films prepared by USP technique are promising low In content and transparent electrode candidates of low-cost OPV devices.

  19. Anomalous transmission through heavily doped conducting polymer films with periodic subwavelength hole array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tatsunosuke; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Agrawal, Amit; Nahata, Ajay; Menon, Reghu

    2006-08-01

    We observed resonantly enhanced (or anomalous transmission) terahertz transmission through two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of subwavelength apertures with various periodicities fabricated on metallic organic conducting polymer films of polypyrrole heavily doped with PF 6 molecules [PPy(PF6)]. The anomalous transmission spectra are in good agreement with a model involving surface plasmon polariton excitations on the film surfaces. We also found that the resonantly enhanced transmission peaks are broader in the exotic metallic PPy(PF6) films compared to those formed in 2D aperture array in regular metallic films such as silver, indicating that the surface plasmon polaritons on the PPy(PF6) film surfaces have higher attenuation.

  20. The effect of Nb doping on ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films prepared from polymeric precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, E.C.F.; Simoes, A.Z.; Cilense, M.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Pure and Nb doped PbZr 0.4 Ti 0.6 O 3 thin films was prepared by the polymeric precursor method and deposited by spin coating on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si (100) substrates and annealed at 700 deg. C. The films are oriented in (1 1 0) and (1 0 0) direction. The electric properties of PZT thin films show strong dependence of the crystallographic orientation. The P-E hysteresis loops for the thin film with composition PbZr 0.39 Ti 0.6 Nb 0.1 O 3 showed good saturation, with values for coercive field (E c ) equal to 60 KV cm -1 and for remanent polarization (P r ) equal to 20 μC cm -2 . The measured dielectric constant (ε) is 1084 for this film. These results show good potential for application in FERAM

  1. Electrophoretic Deposition of Hydroxyapatite Film Containing Re-Doped MoS₂ Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalom, Hila; Feldman, Yishay; Rosentsveig, Rita; Pinkas, Iddo; Kaplan-Ashiri, Ifat; Moshkovich, Alexey; Perfilyev, Vladislav; Rapoport, Lev; Tenne, Reshef

    2018-02-26

    Films combining hydroxyapatite (HA) with minute amounts (ca. 1 weight %) of (rhenium doped) fullerene-like MoS₂ (IF) nanoparticles were deposited onto porous titanium substrate through electrophoretic process (EPD). The films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The SEM analysis showed relatively uniform coatings of the HA + IF on the titanium substrate. Chemical composition analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of the coatings revealed the presence of calcium phosphate minerals like hydroxyapatite, as a majority phase. Tribological tests were undertaken showing that the IF nanoparticles endow the HA film very low friction and wear characteristics. Such films could be of interest for various medical technologies. Means for improving the adhesion of the film to the underlying substrate and its fracture toughness, without compromising its biocompatibility are discussed at the end.

  2. Effects of process parameters on sheet resistance uniformity of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudaya, Chairul; Park, Ji Hun; Lee, Joong Kee

    2012-01-01

    An alternative indium-free material for transparent conducting oxides of fluorine-doped tin oxide [FTO] thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate [PET] was prepared by electron cyclotron resonance - metal organic chemical vapor deposition [ECR-MOCVD]. One of the essential issues regarding metal oxide film deposition is the sheet resistance uniformity of the film. Variations in process parameters, in this case, working and bubbler pressures of ECR-MOCVD, can lead to a change in resistance uniformity. Both the optical transmittance and electrical resistance uniformity of FTO film-coated PET were investigated. The result shows that sheet resistance uniformity and the transmittance of the film are affected significantly by the changes in bubbler pressure but are less influenced by the working pressure of the ECR-MOCVD system.

  3. Translation Effects in Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Thin Film Properties by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Afzaal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the impact of translation rates in fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO thin films using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD were studied. We demonstrated that by adjusting the translation speeds of the susceptor, the growth rates of the FTO films varied and hence many of the film properties were modified. X-ray powder diffraction showed an increased preferred orientation along the (200 plane at higher translation rates, although with no actual change in the particle sizes. A reduction in dopant level resulted in decreased particle sizes and a much greater degree of (200 preferred orientation. For low dopant concentration levels, atomic force microscope (AFM studies showed a reduction in roughness (and lower optical haze with increased translation rate and decreased growth rates. Electrical measurements concluded that the resistivity, carrier concentration, and mobility of films were dependent on the level of fluorine dopant, the translation rate and hence the growth rates of the deposited films.

  4. Electrophoretic Deposition of Hydroxyapatite Film Containing Re-Doped MoS2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hila Shalom

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Films combining hydroxyapatite (HA with minute amounts (ca. 1 weight % of (rhenium doped fullerene-like MoS2 (IF nanoparticles were deposited onto porous titanium substrate through electrophoretic process (EPD. The films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The SEM analysis showed relatively uniform coatings of the HA + IF on the titanium substrate. Chemical composition analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS of the coatings revealed the presence of calcium phosphate minerals like hydroxyapatite, as a majority phase. Tribological tests were undertaken showing that the IF nanoparticles endow the HA film very low friction and wear characteristics. Such films could be of interest for various medical technologies. Means for improving the adhesion of the film to the underlying substrate and its fracture toughness, without compromising its biocompatibility are discussed at the end.

  5. Exploration of Al-Doped ZnO in Photovoltaic Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarino, Christopher; Sahiner, M. Alper

    The electrical properties of Al doped ZnO-based thin films represent a potential advancement in the push for increasing solar cell efficiency. Doping with Aluminum will theoretically decrease resistivity of the film and therefore achieve this potential as a viable option in the P-N junction phase of photovoltaic cells. The n-type semi-conductive characteristics of the ZnO layer will theoretically be optimized with the addition of Aluminum carriers. In this study, Aluminum doping concentrations ranging from 1-3% by mass were produced, analyzed, and compared. Films were developed onto ITO coated glass using the Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. Target thickness was 250 nm and ellipsometry measurements showed uniformity and accuracy in this regard. Active dopant concentrations were determined using Hall Effect measurements. Efficiency measurements showed possible applications of this doped compound, with upwards of 7% efficiency measured, using a Keithley 2602 SourceMeter set-up. XRD scans showed highly crystalline structures, with effective Al intertwining of the hexagonal wurtzile ZnO molecular structure. This alone indicates a promising future of collaboration between these two materials.

  6. Nano-Architecture of nitrogen-doped graphene films synthesized from a solid CN source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, Chiranjeevi; Bourquard, Florent; Barnier, Vincent; Avila, José; Asensio, Maria-Carmen; Tite, Teddy; Donnet, Christophe; Garrelie, Florence

    2018-02-19

    New synthesis routes to tailor graphene properties by controlling the concentration and chemical configuration of dopants show great promise. Herein we report the direct reproducible synthesis of 2-3% nitrogen-doped 'few-layer' graphene from a solid state nitrogen carbide a-C:N source synthesized by femtosecond pulsed laser ablation. Analytical investigations, including synchrotron facilities, made it possible to identify the configuration and chemistry of the nitrogen-doped graphene films. Auger mapping successfully quantified the 2D distribution of the number of graphene layers over the surface, and hence offers a new original way to probe the architecture of graphene sheets. The films mainly consist in a Bernal ABA stacking three-layer architecture, with a layer number distribution ranging from 2 to 6. Nitrogen doping affects the charge carrier distribution but has no significant effects on the number of lattice defects or disorders, compared to undoped graphene synthetized in similar conditions. Pyridinic, quaternary and pyrrolic nitrogen are the dominant chemical configurations, pyridinic N being preponderant at the scale of the film architecture. This work opens highly promising perspectives for the development of self-organized nitrogen-doped graphene materials, as synthetized from solid carbon nitride, with various functionalities, and for the characterization of 2D materials using a significant new methodology.

  7. Cr doping induced negative transverse magnetoresistance in C d3A s2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanwen; Tiwari, Rajarshi; Narayan, Awadhesh; Jin, Zhao; Yuan, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Feng; Li, Liang; Xia, Zhengcai; Sanvito, Stefano; Zhou, Peng; Xiu, Faxian

    2018-02-01

    The magnetoresistance of a material conveys various dynamic information about charge and spin carriers, inspiring both fundamental studies in physics and practical applications such as magnetic sensors, data storage, and spintronic devices. Magnetic impurities play a crucial role in the magnetoresistance as they induce exotic states of matter such as the quantum anomalous Hall effect in topological insulators and tunable ferromagnetic phases in dilute magnetic semiconductors. However, magnetically doped topological Dirac semimetals are hitherto lacking. Here, we report a systematic study of Cr-doped C d3A s2 thin films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. With the Cr doping, C d3A s2 thin films exhibit unexpected negative transverse magnetoresistance and strong quantum oscillations, bearing a trivial Berry's phase and an enhanced effective mass. More importantly, with ionic gating the magnetoresistance of Cr-doped C d3A s2 thin films can be drastically tuned from negative to positive, demonstrating the strong correlation between electrons and the localized spins of the Cr impurities, which we interpret through the formation of magnetic polarons. Such a negative magnetoresistance under perpendicular magnetic field and its gate tunability have not been observed previously in the Dirac semimetal C d3A s2 . The Cr-induced topological phase transition and the formation of magnetic polarons in C d3A s2 provide insights into the magnetic interaction in Dirac semimetals as well as their potential applications in spintronics.

  8. Microstructure and high-temperature tribological properties of Si-doped hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng Fei; Wan, Zhi Xin; Ding, Ji Cheng; Zhang, Shihong; Wang, Qi Min; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2018-03-01

    Si-doped DLC films have attracted great attention for use in tribological applications. However, their high-temperature tribological properties remain less investigated, especially in harsh oxidative working conditions. In this study, Si-doped hydrogenated DLC films with various Si content were synthesized and the effects of the addition of Si on the microstructural, mechanical and high-temperature tribological properties of the films were investigated. The results indicate that Si doping leads to an obvious increase in the sp3/sp2 ratio of DLC films, likely due to the silicon atoms preferentially substitute the sp2-hybridized carbon atoms and augment the number of sp3 sites. With Si doping, the mechanical properties, including hardness and adhesion strength, were improved, while the residual stress of the DLC films was reduced. The addition of Si leads to higher thermal and mechanical stability of DLC films because the Si atoms inhibit the graphitization of the films at an elevated temperature. Better high-temperature tribological properties of the Si-DLC films under oxidative conditions were observed, which can be attributed to the enhanced thermal stability and formation of a Si-containing lubricant layer on the surfaces of the wear tracks. The nano-wear resistance of the DLC films was also improved by Si doping.

  9. Effect of doping concentration on the conductivity and optical properties of p-type ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, Trilok Kumar [Semiconductor Research Lab, Department of Physics, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar (India); Kumar, Vinod, E-mail: vinod.phy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa); Purohit, L.P., E-mail: proflppurohitphys@gmail.com [Semiconductor Research Lab, Department of Physics, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar (India)

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen doped ZnO (NZO) thin films were synthesized on glass substrates by the sol–gel and spin coating method. Zinc acetate dihydrates and ammonium acetate were used as precursors for zinc and nitrogen, respectively. X-ray diffraction study showed that the thin films have a hexagonal wurtzite structure corresponding (002) peak for undoped and doped ZnO thin films. The transmittance of the films was above 80% and the band gap of the film varies from 3.21±0.03 eV for undoped and doped ZnO. The minimum resistivity of NZO thin films was obtained as 0.473 Ω cm for the 4 at% of nitrogen (N) doping with a mobility of 1.995 cm{sup 2}/V s. The NZO thin films showed p-type conductivity at 2 and 3 at% of N doping. The AC conductivity measurements that were carried out in the frequency range 10 kHz to 0.1 MHz showed localized conduction in the NZO thin films. These highly transparent ZnO films can be used as a possible window layer in solar cells.

  10. Room temperature ferromagnetism in undoped and Ni doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, N. Sai; Kaleemulla, S., E-mail: skaleemulla@gmail.com; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Krishnamoorthi, C.; Begam, M. Rigana [Thin Films Laboratory, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore – 632014 (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam – 603102 (India); UGC-DAE-CSR, Kalpakkam Node, Kokilamedu-603104 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Undoped and Ni (5 at.%) doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were deposited on glass substrate using electron beam evaporation technique and Ni doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were annealed at 450 oC. A systematic study was carried out on the structural, chemical and magnetic properties of the as deposited and annealed thin films. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all the films were cubic in structure and exhibied ferromagnetism at room temperature. The undoped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films exhibited a saturation magnetization of 24.01 emu/cm3. Ni doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films annealed at 450 oC showed a saturation magnetization of 53.81 emu/cm3.

  11. Fabrication of cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet thin films by a mist CVD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, Shunsuke, E-mail: murai@dipole7.kuic.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sato, Takafumi; Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2016-02-15

    We synthesized thin films, consisting of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Ce{sup 3+} (YAG:Ce), using the mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, which allows the fabrication of high-quality thin films under atmospheric conditions without the use of vacuum equipment. Under a deposition rate of approximately 1 μm/h, the obtained thin films had a typical thickness of 2 μm. The XRD analysis indicated that the thin films consisted of single-phase YAG:Ce. The Rutherford backscattering confirmed the stoichiometry; the composition of the film was determined to be (Y, Ce){sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, with a Ce content of Ce/(Y+Ce)=2.5%. The YAG:Ce thin films exhibited fluorescence due to the 5d–4f electronic transitions characteristic of the Ce ions occupying the eight-coordinated dodecahedral sites in the YAG lattice. - Highlights: • We have synthesized thin films of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Ce{sup 3+} (YAG:Ce) by using a mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the first time. • The thickness of the single-phase and stoichiometric thin film obtained by 2 h deposition and following heat treatments is 2 μm. • The thin film is porous but optically transparent, and shows yellow fluorescence upon irradiation with a blue light. • Mist-CVD is a green and sustainable technique that allows fabrication of high-quality thin films at atmospheric conditions without vacuum equipment.

  12. Mn{sup 2+} ions distribution in doped sol–gel deposited ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, Mariana, E-mail: mstefan@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Ghica, Daniela; Nistor, Sergiu V.; Maraloiu, Adrian V. [National Institute of Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Plugaru, Rodica [National Institute for R & D in Microtechnologies (IMT), Erou Iancu Nicolae Str. 126A, 077190 Bucharest (Romania)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Several Mn{sup 2+} centers observed by EPR in sol–gel ZnO films. • Mn{sup 2+} ions localized at Zn{sup 2+} sites in ZnO grains and disordered ZnO phase. • Sixfold coordinated Mn{sup 2+} ions localized in inter-grain region. • Aggregated Mn in insular-like regions between ZnO grains in the ZnO:5%Mn film. • Aggregated Mn phase presence and distribution observed by EPR and EDX-STEM. - Abstract: The localization and distribution of the Mn{sup 2+} ions in two sol–gel deposited ZnO films doped with different manganese concentrations were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy. In the lightly doped sample the Mn{sup 2+} ions are mainly localized substitutionally at isolated tetrahedrally coordinated Zn{sup 2+} sites in both crystalline ZnO nanograins (34%) and surrounding disordered ZnO (52%). In the highly doped ZnO film, a much smaller proportion of manganese substitutes Zn{sup 2+} in the crystalline and disordered ZnO (10%). The main amount (85%) of manganese aggregates in a secondary phase as an insular-like distribution between the ZnO nanograins. The remaining Mn{sup 2+} ions (14% and 5% at low and high doping levels, respectively) are localized at isolated, six-fold coordinated sites, very likely in the disordered intergrain region. Annealing at 600 °C induced changes in the Mn{sup 2+} ions distribution, reflecting the increase of the ZnO crystallization degree, better observed in the lightly doped sample.

  13. Properties of fluorine and tin co-doped ZnO thin films deposited by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Zhanchang; Zhang, Pengwei; Tian, Xinlong; Cheng, Guo; Xie, Yinghao; Zhang, Huangchu; Zeng, Xiangfu; Xiao, Chumin; Hu, Guanghui; Wei, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •F and Sn co-doped ZnO thin films were synthesized by sol–gel method. •The effects of different F doping concentrations were investigated. •The co-doped nanocrystals exhibit good crystal quality. •The origin of the photoluminescence emissions was discussed. •The films showed high transmittance and low resistivity. -- Abstract: Highly transparent and conducting fluorine (F) and tin (Sn) co-doped ZnO (FTZO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by the sol–gel processing. The structure and morphology of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with various F doping concentrations. SEM images showed that the hexagonal ZnO crystals were well-arranged on the glass substrates and the HRTEM images indicated that the individual nanocrystals are highly oriented and exhibited a perfect lattice structure. Owing to its high carrier concentration and mobility, as well as good crystal quality, a minimum resistivity of 1 × 10 −3 Ω cm was obtained from the FTZO thin film with 3% F doping, and the average optical transmittance in the entire visible wavelength region was higher than 90%. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study confirmed the substitution of Zn 2+ by Sn ions and Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) observed for pure and FTZO thin films suggested the films exhibit a good crystallinity with a very low defect concentration

  14. Partially filled intermediate band of Cr-doped GaN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the band structure of sputtered Cr-doped GaN (GaCrN) films using optical absorption, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, and charge transport measurements. It was found that an additional energy band is formed in the intrinsic band gap of GaN upon Cr doping, and that charge carriers in the material move in the inserted band. Prototype solar cells showed enhanced short circuit current and open circuit voltage in the n-GaN/GaCrN/p-GaN structure compared to the GaCrN/p-GaN structure, which validates the proposed concept of an intermediate-band solar cell.

  15. Electromagnetic and optical characteristics of Nb5+-doped double-crossover and salmon DNA thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu Mitta, Sekhar; Reddy Dugasani, Sreekantha; Jung, Soon-Gil; Vellampatti, Srivithya; Park, Tuson; Park, Sung Ha

    2017-10-01

    We report the fabrication and physical characteristics of niobium ion (Nb5+)-doped double-crossover DNA (DX-DNA) and salmon DNA (SDNA) thin films. Different concentrations of Nb5+ ([Nb5+]) are coordinated into the DNA molecules, and the thin films are fabricated via substrate-assisted growth (DX-DNA) and drop-casting (SDNA) on oxygen plasma treated substrates. We conducted atomic force microscopy to estimate the optimum concentration of Nb5+ ([Nb5+]O = 0.08 mM) in Nb5+-doped DX-DNA thin films, up to which the DX-DNA lattices maintain their structures without deformation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was performed to probe the chemical nature of the intercalated Nb5+ in the SDNA thin films. The change in peak intensities and the shift in binding energy were witnessed in XPS spectra to explicate the binding and charge transfer mechanisms between Nb5+ and SDNA molecules. UV-visible, Raman, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were measured to determine the optical properties and thus investigate the binding modes, Nb5+ coordination sites in Nb5+-doped SDNA thin films, and energy transfer mechanisms, respectively. As [Nb5+] increases, the absorbance peak intensities monotonically increase until ˜[Nb5+]O and then decrease. However, from the Raman measurements, the peak intensities gradually decrease with an increase in [Nb5+] to reveal the binding mechanism and binding sites of metal ions in the SDNA molecules. From the PL, we observe the emission intensities to reduce them at up to ˜[Nb5+]O and then increase after that, expecting the energy transfer between the Nb5+ and SDNA molecules. The current-voltage measurement shows a significant increase in the current observed as [Nb5+] increases in the SDNA thin films when compared to that of pristine SDNA thin films. Finally, we investigate the temperature dependent magnetization in which the Nb5+-doped SDNA thin films reveal weak ferromagnetism due to the existence of tiny magnetic dipoles in the Nb5+-doped SDNA

  16. Optoelectronic Characterization of Ta-Doped ZnO Thin Films by Pulsed Laser Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Horng-Show; Peng, Jo-Chi; Chen, Mi; Chin, Hung-I; Chen, Jaw-Yeh; Wu, Maw-Kuen

    2015-11-01

    Transparent conductive oxide of Ta-doped ZnO (TZO) film with doping amount of 3.0 wt% have been deposited on glass substrates (Corning Eagle XG) at substrate temperatures of 100 to 500 degrees C by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, optical and electronic characteristics of Ta-doped ZnO (TZO) films with 3.0 wt% dopant of tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) was measured and demonstrated in terms of X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UV-Vis), four-probe and Hall-effect measurements. X-ray diffraction pattern shows that TZO films grow in hexagonal crystal structure of wurtzite phase with a preferred orientation of the crystallites along (002) direction and exhibits better physical characteristics of optical transmittance, electrical conductivity, carrier concentration and mobility for the application of window layer in the optoelectronic devices of solar cells, OLEDs and LEDs. The lowest electrical resistivity (ρ) and the highest carrier concentration of the as-deposited film deposited at 300 degrees C are measured as 2.6 x 10(-3) Ω-cm and 3.87 x 10(-20) cm(-3), respectively. The highest optical transmittance of the as-deposited film deposited at 500 degrees C is shown to be 93%, compared with another films deposited below 300 degrees C. It is found that electrical and optical properties of the as-deposited TZO film are greatly dependent on substrate temperature during laser ablation deposition.

  17. Alkaline-doped manganese perovskite thin films grown by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibes, M.; Gorbenko, O.; Martinez, B.; Kaul, A.; Fontcuberta, J.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the preparation and characterization of La 1-x Na x MnO 3 thin films grown by MOCVD on various single-crystalline substrates. Under appropriate conditions epitaxial thin films have been obtained. The Curie temperatures of the films, which are very similar to those of bulk samples of similar composition, reflect the residual strain caused by the substrate. The anisotropic magnetoresistance AMR of the films has been analyzed in some detail, and it has been found that it has a two-fold symmetry at any temperature. Its temperature dependence mimics that of the electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance measured at similar fields, thus suggesting that the real structure of the material contributes to the measured AMR besides the intrinsic component

  18. Amorphous silicon films doped with BF3 and PF5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, A.; Muhl, S.; Sanchez, A.; Monroy, R.; Pickin, W.

    1984-01-01

    By using gaseous discharge process, thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) were produced. This process consists of Silane (SiH 4 ) decomposition at low pressure, in a chamber. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  19. Preparation and properties of KCl-doped Cu2O thin film by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xiaojiao; Li, Xinming; Zheng, Gang; Wei, Yuchen; Zhang, Ama; Yao, Binghua

    2013-01-01

    With the indium tin oxide-coated glass as working electrode, cuprous oxide thin film is fabricated by means of electrodeposition. The effects of KCl doped and annealing treatment upon Cu 2 O thin film morphology, surface resistivity, open-circuit voltage, electric conduction types and visible light response are studied. The research results indicate that KCl doped has a great effect upon Cu 2 O crystal morphology, thus, making Cu 2 O thin film surface resistivity drop, and the open-circuit voltage increase and that electric conduction types are transformed from p type into n type, and the visible light (400–500 nm) absorption rate is slightly reduced. Annealing treatment can obviously decrease Cu 2 O thin film surface resistivity and improve its open-circuit voltage. When KCl concentration in electrolytic solution reaches 7 mmol/L, Cu 2 O thin film morphology can be changed from the dendritic crystal into the cubic crystal and Cu 2 O thin film surface resistivity decreases from the initial 2.5 × 10 6 Ω cm to 8.5 × 10 4 Ω cm. After annealing treatment at 320 °C for 30 min, the surface resistivity decreases to 8.5 × 10 2 Ω cm, and the open-circuit voltage increases from the initial 3.1 mV to 79.2 mV.

  20. Preparation and properties of KCl-doped Cu{sub 2}O thin film by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiaojiao, E-mail: yxjw@xaut.edu.cn [Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Li, Xinming [Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Zheng, Gang [Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Wei, Yuchen [The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, Ama; Yao, Binghua [Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China)

    2013-04-01

    With the indium tin oxide-coated glass as working electrode, cuprous oxide thin film is fabricated by means of electrodeposition. The effects of KCl doped and annealing treatment upon Cu{sub 2}O thin film morphology, surface resistivity, open-circuit voltage, electric conduction types and visible light response are studied. The research results indicate that KCl doped has a great effect upon Cu{sub 2}O crystal morphology, thus, making Cu{sub 2}O thin film surface resistivity drop, and the open-circuit voltage increase and that electric conduction types are transformed from p type into n type, and the visible light (400–500 nm) absorption rate is slightly reduced. Annealing treatment can obviously decrease Cu{sub 2}O thin film surface resistivity and improve its open-circuit voltage. When KCl concentration in electrolytic solution reaches 7 mmol/L, Cu{sub 2}O thin film morphology can be changed from the dendritic crystal into the cubic crystal and Cu{sub 2}O thin film surface resistivity decreases from the initial 2.5 × 10{sup 6} Ω cm to 8.5 × 10{sup 4} Ω cm. After annealing treatment at 320 °C for 30 min, the surface resistivity decreases to 8.5 × 10{sup 2} Ω cm, and the open-circuit voltage increases from the initial 3.1 mV to 79.2 mV.

  1. Chemical bath deposition of Hg doped CdSe thin films and their characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuse, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    The deliberate addition of Hg in CdSe thin film have been carried out using a simple, modified, chemical bath deposition technique with the objective to study the effect of Hg doping on properties of CdSe thin films. Synthesis was initiated at 278 K temperature using complexed cadmium sulphate, mercuric nitrate and sodium selenosulphate in an aqueous ammonical medium at pH 10. Films were characterized by XRD, SEM, optical absorption, electrical and thermoelectric techniques. The 'as deposited' films were uniform, well adherent, nearly stoichiometric and polycrystalline in a single cubic phase (zinc blende). Crystallite size determined from XRD and SEM was found to increase slightly with addition of Hg. The optical band gap of CdSe remains constant upto 0.05 mol% Hg doping, while it decreases monotonically with further increase in mercury content. Dark dc electrical resistivity and conduction activation energy of CdSe were found to decrease initially upto 0.05 mol% of Hg, thereafter increased for higher values of Hg but remains less than those of CdSe. All the films showed n-type of conductivity. A CdSe film containing 0.05 mol% of Hg showed higher absorption coefficient, and conductivity

  2. Optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties in Ga doped {beta}- PbS{sub 2} nanostructured thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geethu, R.; Jacob, Rajani [Thin Film Research Lab, U.C. College, Aluva, Cochin, Kerala (India); Shripathi, T.; Okram, G.S.; Ganesan, V.; Tripathi, Shilpa; Fatima, Anees [UGC-DAE CSR, Khandwa Road, Indore-452 001, Madhya Pradesh (India); Sreenivasan, P.V. [Department of Chemistry, U.C. College, Aluva, Cochin, Kerala (India); Urmila, K.S.; Pradeep, B. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala (India); Philip, Rachel Reena, E-mail: reenatara@rediffmail.com [Thin Film Research Lab, U.C. College, Aluva, Cochin, Kerala (India)

    2012-06-15

    Lead sulphide nanostructured thin films were grown on soda lime glass substrates by chemical bath deposition. The films were then doped with gallium using vacuum evaporation technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) established the structural type of the host films to be tetragonal {beta}-PbS{sub 2} with average grain size of the order of 15 nm. The nanostructure of films was further confirmed from scanning electron and atomic force micrographs. The shift in the binding energies of the 4f and 4d states of lead, 2p state of sulphur and the 2p states of Ga from their elemental binding energy values, determined from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), indicated intact chemical bonding in the compound. Compositional analysis showed about 0.01% doping of Ga into PbS{sub 2}. Low temperature thermopower measurements indicated p-type conductivity for the films with Fermi level positioned at about 0.017 eV above the maxima of valence band. Optical absorption studies in conjunction with photo sensitivity measurements established its pertinence in junction formation in photovoltaic applications due to the blue shift in the band gap to 2.37 eV and the increased photoconductivity of the films.

  3. Characterization of Sn Doped ZnS thin films synthesized by CBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Ayan; Mitra, Partha, E-mail: mitrapartha1@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan (India)

    2017-03-15

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) thin film were prepared using chemical bath deposition (CBD) process and tin (Sn) doping was successfully carried out in ZnS. Structural, morphological and microstructural characterization was carried out using XRD, TEM, FESEM and EDX. XRD and SAED pattern confirms presence of hexagonal phase. Rietveld analysis using MAUD software was used for particle size estimation. A constantly decreasing trend in particle size was observed with increasing tin incorporation in ZnS film which was due to enhanced microstrain resulting for tin incorporation. The particle size of prepared hexagonal wurtzite ZnS was around 14-18 nm with average size of ~16.5 nm. The bandgap of the film increases from ~ 3.69 eV for ZnS to ~ 3.90 eV for 5% Sn doped ZnS film which might be due to more ordered hexagonal structure as a result of tin incorporation. Band gap tenability property makes Sn doped ZnS suitable for application in different optoelectronics devices. PL study shows variation of intensity with excitation wavelength and a red shift is noticed for increasing excitation wavelength. (author)

  4. Measurement of the magnetic penetration depth in p-doped superconducting diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Lorenz; Brunner, Markus C.P.; Schneider, Ina; Kronfeldner, Klaus [University of Regensburg (Germany); Bousquet, Jessica; Bustarret, Etienne; Strunk, Christoph [Institut Neel, Grenoble (France)

    2016-07-01

    Boron-doped diamond becomes superconducting once a critical doping concentration of 4.5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} is reached. Mutual inductance measurements with a two-coil setup have been performed to determine the magnetic penetration depth λ(T), which is a measure for the superfluid stiffnes θ ∝ 1/λ{sup 2}(T). Two superconducting p-doped diamond films with thicknesses of 145 nm and 345 nm were investigated. At low temperatures these values agree reasonably with the values expected within BCS-theory using T{sub c}, carrier density and mean free path determined from electric transport measurements. Magnetic penetration depths of 3.7 μm for the thinner and 2.6 μm for the thicker film have been found. λ decreases and accordingly θ increases with increasing film thickness. On the other hand, the superfluid stiffness drops by a factor of 2 or even more at T{sub c}/2, i.e., much faster than expected from BCS-theory, but remains finite between T{sub c}/2 < T < T{sub c}. At present it is unclear, whether this behavior results from the proliferation of phase fluctuations already far below T{sub c} or from a spatial inhomogeneity of the films.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Ag doped TiO{sub 2} heterojunction films and their photocatalytic performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirci, Selim, E-mail: selim.demirci@marmara.edu.tr [Marmara University, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Kadiköy, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey); Dikici, Tuncay [Izmir Katip Celebi University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cigli, 35620 Izmir (Turkey); Yurddaskal, Metin [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, 35390 Izmir (Turkey); Center for Fabrication and Application of Electronic Materials, Dokuz Eylul University, 35390 Izmir (Turkey); Gultekin, Serdar [Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, Dokuz Eylul University, 35390 İzmir (Turkey); Experimental Science Applications and Research Center, Celal Bayar University, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Toparli, Mustafa; Celik, Erdal [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, 35390 Izmir (Turkey); Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, Dokuz Eylul University, 35390 İzmir (Turkey); Center for Fabrication and Application of Electronic Materials, Dokuz Eylul University, 35390 Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Ag doped TiO{sub 2} films were successfully synthesized by sol–gel spin coating method. • Ag in TiO{sub 2} lattice enters in intermediate states to decrease TiO{sub 2} bandgap energy. • Ag dopants increase the photoactivity and superhydrophilicity. • The degradation kinetics of methylene blue was studied. • The 0.7 mol% of Ag was found to be the optimum concentration. - Abstract: In this study, undoped and silver (Ag) doped titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) films were successfully synthesized by sol-gel spin coating technique on the Si substrates. Photocatalytic activities of the TiO{sub 2} films with different Ag content were investigated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation. The crystal phase structure, surface morphology, chemical and optical properties of Ag-doped TiO{sub 2} films were characterized using an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectrophotometer, and FTIR spectrophotometer. The results showed that the Ag-doped TiO{sub 2} films calcined at 500 °C had the crystalline anatase phases and the surface morphologies with some cracks. Ag substitution into TiO{sub 2} matrix enhanced the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} films under UV light irradiation as compared to the undoped TiO{sub 2} film. Furthermore, the results indicated that the 0.7% Ag doped TiO{sub 2} film exhibited a superior photocatalytic activity than that of undoped and other Ag-doped TiO{sub 2} films. This study demonstrated the potential of an application of Ag doped films to efficiently treat dissolved organic contaminants in water.

  6. Novel doped hydroxyapatite thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duta, L.; Oktar, F.N.; Stan, G.E.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Serban, N.; Luculescu, C.; Mihailescu, I.N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► HA coatings synthesized by pulsed laser deposition. ► Comparative study of commercial vs. animal origin materials. ► HA coatings of animal origin were rougher and more adherent to substrates. ► Animal origin films can be considered as promising candidates for implant coatings. - Abstract: We report on the synthesis of novel ovine and bovine derived hydroxyapatite thin films on titanium substrates by pulsed laser deposition for a new generation of implants. The calcination treatment applied to produce the hydroxyapatite powders from ovine/bovine bones was intended to induce crystallization and to prohibit the transmission of diseases. The deposited films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Pull-off adherence and profilometry measurements were also carried out. X-ray diffraction ascertained the polycrystalline hydroxyapatite nature of the powders and films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy evidenced the vibrational bands characteristic to a hydroxyapatite material slightly carbonated. The micrographs of the films showed a uniform distribution of spheroidal particulates with a mean diameter of ∼2 μm. Pull-off measurements demonstrated excellent bonding strength values between the hydroxyapatite films and the titanium substrates. Because of their physical–chemical properties and low cost fabrication from renewable resources, we think that these new coating materials could be considered as a prospective competitor to synthetic hydroxyapatite used for implantology applications.

  7. Lattice dynamics and substrate-dependent transport properties of (In, Yb)-doped CoSb3 skutterudite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-01-01

    Lattice dynamics, low-temperature electrical transport, and high-temperature thermoelectric properties of (In, Yb)-doped CoSb3thin films on different substrates are reported. Pulsed laser deposition under optimized conditions yielded single

  8. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Different Antibiotics Enhanced with Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Predoi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory and antimicrobial effects of silver particles have been known since ancient times. In the last few years, a major health problem has arisen due to pathogenic bacteria resistance to antimicrobial agents. The antibacterial activities of new materials including hydroxyapatite (HAp, silver-doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp and various types of antibiotics such as tetracycline (T-HAp and T-Ag:HAp or ciprofloxacin (C-HAp and C-Ag:HAp have not been studied so far. In this study we reported, for the first time, the preparation and characterization of various thin films based on hydroxyapatite and silver-doped hydroxyapatite combined with tetracycline or ciprofloxacin. The structural and chemical characterization of hydroxyapatite and silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films has been evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The morphological studies of the HAp, Ag:HAp, T-HAp, T-Ag:HAp, C-HAp and C-Ag:HAp thin solid films were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In order to study the chemical composition of the coatings, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES measurements have been used, obtaining information on the distribution of the elements throughout the film. These studies have confirmed the purity of the prepared hydroxyapatite and silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films obtained from composite targets containing Ca10−xAgx(PO46(OH2 with xAg = 0 (HAp and xAg = 0.2 (Ag:HAp. On the other hand, the major aim of this study was the evaluation of the antibacterial activities of ciprofloxacin and tetracycline in the presence of HAp and Ag:HAp thin layers against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains. The antibacterial activities of ciprofloxacin and tetracycline against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli test strains increased in the presence of HAp and Ag:HAp thin layers.

  9. Damp heat stability and annealing behavior of aluminum doped zinc oxide films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohsophon, T.; Huepkes, J.; Calnan, S.; Reetz, W.; Rech, B.; Beyer, W.; Sirikulrat, N.

    2006-01-01

    The damp heat stability and subsequent vacuum annealing behavior of aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) films was investigated using Hall effect measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical spectrometry techniques. The AZO films were deposited on glass or silicon wafers using reactive and non-reactive magnetron sputtering from metallic and ceramic targets, respectively. Additionally, we characterized surface textured AZO films, which are used as light scattering transparent conductive oxide (TCO) in silicon thin film solar cells. For all films a degradation of the electrical film properties was found after the damp heat treatment. For thick compact films, with large grain size, only a small increase in the electrical resistivity was observed, whereas less compact films prepared at high deposition pressures or very thin films (< 300 nm) showed an increase in resistivity by up to a factor of three already after 300 h. The conductivity degradation during damp heat treatment could be largely reversed by annealing in vacuum. However, annealing temperatures of at least 150 deg. C were required. Possible mechanisms explaining the experimental results are discussed

  10. Influence of Al doping on structural and optical properties of Mg–Al co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Dongyu; Lin, Kui; Xue, Tao; Cui, Can; Chen, Xiaoping; Yao, Pei; Li, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mg–Al co-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by sol–gel spin coating method. • The effects of Al doping on structural and optical properties of AMZO thin films were investigated. • The EDS spectra confirmed presence of Mg and Al elements in AMZO thin films. • The optical band gap of AMZO thin films increased with Al doping concentration increased. • The origin of the photoluminescence emissions was discussed. -- Abstract: Mg–Al co-doped ZnO (AMZO) thin films were successfully deposited onto quartz glass substrates by sol–gel spin coating method. The structure, surface morphology, composition, optical transmittance, and photoluminescence properties of AMZO thin films were characterized through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy, UV–VIS–NIR spectrophotometry, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. The results indicated that AMZO thin films exhibited preferred orientation growth along the c-axis, and the full width at half maximum of the (0 0 2) diffraction peak decreased first and subsequently increased, reaching a minimum of approximately 0.275° at 3% Al content. The calculated crystallite size increased from 30.21 nm to 40.73 nm. Al doping content increased from 1% to 3% and subsequently reached 19.33 nm for Al doping content at 5%. The change in lattice parameters was demonstrated by the c/a ratio, residual stress, bond length, and volume per unit cell. EDS analysis confirmed the presence of Mg and Al elements in ZnO thin films. The atomic percentage of Mg and Al elements was nearly equal to their nominal stoichiometry within the experimental error. In addition, the optical transmittance of AMZO thin films was over 85% in the visible region, and the optical band gap increased with increasing Al doping concentration. Room temperature photoluminescence showed ultraviolet emission peak and defect emission peak. The defect emission peak of

  11. Formulation and Characterization of Cr2O3 Doped ZnO Thick Films as H2S Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. PATIL

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cr2O3 doped ZnO thick films have been prepared by screen printing technique and firing process. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and EDX. H2S gas sensing properties of these films were investigated at different operating temperatures and different H2S concentrations. The 7 wt. % Cr2O3 doped ZnO thick films exhibits excellent H2S gas sensing properties with maximum sensitivity of 99.12 % at 300 oC in air atmosphere with fast response and recovery time.

  12. Improved electrical conduction properties in unintentionally-doped ZnO thin films treated by rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youngmin; Lee, Choeun; Shim, Eunhee; Jung, Eiwhan; Lee, Jinyong; Kim, Deukyoung; Lee, Sejoon; Fu, Dejun; Yoon, Hyungdo

    2011-01-01

    The effects of thermal treatments on the electrical conduction properties for the unintentionally doped ZnO thin films were investigated. Despite the decreased carrier density in the annealed ZnO thin films, the conductivity was increased because the contribution of the effective carrier mobility to the conductivity of the unintentionally-doped ZnO thin films is greater than that of the carrier density. The resistivity exponentially decreased with increasing RTA temperature, and this result was confirmed to come from the enhanced effective carrier-mobility, which originated from the increased crystallite size in the annealed ZnO thin films.

  13. Improved electrical conduction properties in unintentionally-doped ZnO thin films treated by rapid thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngmin; Lee, Choeun; Shim, Eunhee; Jung, Eiwhan; Lee, Jinyong; Kim, Deukyoung; Lee, Sejoon [Dongguk University-Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Fu, Dejun [Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Yoon, Hyungdo [Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of thermal treatments on the electrical conduction properties for the unintentionally doped ZnO thin films were investigated. Despite the decreased carrier density in the annealed ZnO thin films, the conductivity was increased because the contribution of the effective carrier mobility to the conductivity of the unintentionally-doped ZnO thin films is greater than that of the carrier density. The resistivity exponentially decreased with increasing RTA temperature, and this result was confirmed to come from the enhanced effective carrier-mobility, which originated from the increased crystallite size in the annealed ZnO thin films.

  14. One unit-cell seed layer induced epitaxial growth of heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T L; Hirose, Y; Hitosugi, T; Hasegawa, T [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)], E-mail: chen@ksp.or.jp

    2008-03-21

    We present a novel way to obtain heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films by using a solid-state nitrogen source. Epitaxial growth of the films was realized by introducing one unit-cell seed layer, which was indicated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction as intensity oscillation. Results of x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the films were in the anatase phase heavily doped with nitrogen of {approx}15 at%. The films obtained exhibited considerable narrowing of the optical bandgap, resulting in an enhancement of absorption in the visible-light region. (fast track communication)

  15. Photo-catalytic studies of transition metal doped titanium dioxide thin films processed by metalorganic decomposition (MOD) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talagala, P.; Marko, X.; Padmanabhan, K. R.; Naik, R.; Rodak, D.; Cheng, Y. T.

    2006-03-01

    We have synthesized pure and transition element (Fe, Co and V) doped Titanium oxide thin films of thickness ˜ 350 nm on sapphire, Si, and stainless steel substrates by Metalorganic Decomposition (MOD) method. The films were subsequently annealed at appropriate temperatures ( 500-750C) to obtain either anatase or the rutile phase of TiO2. Analysis of the composition of the films were performed by energy dispersive X-ray(EDAX) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry(RBS). Ion channeling was used to identify possible epitaxial growth of the films on sapphire. Both XRD and Raman spectra of the films exhibit that the films annealed at 550C are of anatase phase, while those annealed at 700C seem to prefer a rutile structure. The water contact angle measurements of the films before and after photoactivation, demonstrate a significant reduction in the contact angle for the anatase phase. However, the variation in contact angle was observed for films exposed to UV (<10^o-30^o) and dark (25^o-50^o). Films doped with Fe show a trend towards lower contact angle than those doped with Co. Results with films doped with V will also be included.

  16. Fabrication and Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance of MoS₂/S-Doped g-C₃N₄ Heterojunction Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lijuan; Wang, Dan; Chen, Shijian

    2016-03-02

    We report on a novel MoS2/S-doped g-C3N4 heterojunction film with high visible-light photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance. The heterojunction films are prepared by CVD growth of S-doped g-C3N4 film on indium-tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates, with subsequent deposition of a low bandgap, 1.69 eV, visible-light response MoS2 layer by hydrothermal synthesis. Adding thiourea into melamine as the coprecursor not only facilitates the growth of g-C3N4 films but also introduces S dopants into the films, which significantly improves the PEC performance. The fabricated MoS2/S-doped g-C3N4 heterojunction film offers an enhanced anodic photocurrent of as high as ∼1.2 × 10(-4) A/cm(2) at an applied potential of +0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl under the visible light irradiation. The enhanced PEC performance of MoS2/S-doped g-C3N4 film is believed due to the improved light absorption and the efficient charge separation of the photogenerated charge at the MoS2/S-doped g-C3N4 interface. The convenient preparation of carbon nitride based heterojunction films in this work can be widely used to design new heterojunction photoelectrodes or photocatalysts with high performance for H2 evolution.

  17. Elucidating doping driven microstructure evolution and optical properties of lead sulfide thin films grown from a chemical bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Bhaskar Chandra; Bector, Keerti; Laha, Ranjit

    2018-03-01

    Doping driven remarkable microstructural evolution of PbS thin films grown by a single-step chemical bath deposition process at 60 °C is reported. The undoped films were discontinuous with octahedral-shaped crystallites after 30 min of deposition, whereas Cu doping led to a distinctly different surface microstructure characterized by densely packed elongated crystallites. A mechanism, based on the time sequence study of microstructural evolution of the films, and detailed XRD and Raman measurements, has been proposed to explain the contrasting microstructure of the doped films. The incorporation of Cu forms an interface layer, which is devoid of Pb. The excess Cu ions in this interface layer at the initial stages of film growth strongly interact and selectively stabilize the charged {111} faces containing either Pb or S compared to the uncharged {100} faces that contain both Pb and S. This interaction interferes with the natural growth habit resulting in the observed surface features of the doped films. Concurrently, the Cu-doping potentially changed the optical properties of the films: A significant widening of the bandgap from 1.52 eV to 1.74 eV for increase in Cu concentration from 0 to 20% was observed, making it a highly potential absorber layer in thin film solar cells.

  18. Realizing luminescent downshifting in ZnO thin films by Ce doping with enhancement of photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Nripasree; Deepak, N. K.

    2018-04-01

    ZnO thin films doped with Ce at different concentration were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. XRD analysis revealed the phase purity and polycrystalline nature of the films with hexagonal wurtzite geometry and the composition analysis confirmed the incorporation of Ce in the ZnO lattice in the case of doped films. Crystalline quality and optical transmittance diminished while electrical conductivity enhanced with Ce doping. Ce doping resulted in a red-shift of optical energy gap due to the downshift of the conduction band minimum after merging with Ce related impurity bands formed below the conduction band in the forbidden gap. In the room temperature photoluminescence spectra, UV emission intensity of the doped films decreased while the intensity of the visible emission band increased drastically implying the degradation in crystallinity as well as the incorporation of defect levels capable of luminescence downshifting. Ce doping showed improvement in photocatalytic efficiency by effectively trapping the free carriers and then transferring for dye degradation. Thus Ce doped ZnO thin films are capable of acting as luminescent downshifters as well as efficient photocatalysts.

  19. Preparation of Ga-doped ZnO films by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering with cylindrical rotating target for thin film solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Beom-Ki; Lee, Tae-Il; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Park, Kang-Il; Ahn, Kyung-Jun; Park, Sung-Kee; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2011-01-01

    Applicability of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films for thin film solar cells (TFSCs) was investigated by preparing GZO films via pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with rotating target. The GZO films showed improved crystallinity and increasing degree of Ga doping with increasing thickness to a limit of 1000 nm. The films also fulfilled requirements for the transparent electrodes of TFSCs in terms of electrical and optical properties. Moreover, the films exhibited good texturing potential based on etching studies with diluted HCl, which yielded an improved light trapping capability without significant degradation in electrical propreties. It is therefore suggested that the surface-textured GZO films prepared via PDMS and etching are promising candidates for indium-free transparent electrodes for TFSCs.

  20. Preparation of Ga-doped ZnO films by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering with cylindrical rotating target for thin film solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Beom-Ki; Lee, Tae-Il; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Park, Kang-Il; Ahn, Kyung-Jun; Park, Sung-Kee; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2011-11-01

    Applicability of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films for thin film solar cells (TFSCs) was investigated by preparing GZO films via pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with rotating target. The GZO films showed improved crystallinity and increasing degree of Ga doping with increasing thickness to a limit of 1000 nm. The films also fulfilled requirements for the transparent electrodes of TFSCs in terms of electrical and optical properties. Moreover, the films exhibited good texturing potential based on etching studies with diluted HCl, which yielded an improved light trapping capability without significant degradation in electrical propreties. It is therefore suggested that the surface-textured GZO films prepared via PDMS and etching are promising candidates for indium-free transparent electrodes for TFSCs.

  1. Investigation of structure, adhesion strength, wear performance and corrosion behavior of platinum/ruthenium/nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon thin films with respect to film thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, N.W.; Liu, E.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sputtered PtRuN-DLC thin films were fabricated with different film thicknesses. → The graphitization of the films increased with increased film thickness. → The wear resistance of the films increased though their adhesion strength decreased. → The corrosion potentials of the films shifted to more negative values. → However, the corrosion currents of the films decreased. - Abstract: In this study, the corrosion performance of platinum/ruthenium/nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (PtRuN-DLC) thin films deposited on p-Si substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering deposition system in a 0.1 M NaCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization test in terms of film thickness. The effect of the film thickness on the chemical composition, bonding structure, surface morphology, adhesion strength and wear resistance of the PtRuN-DLC films was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), micro-scratch test and ball-on-disc tribotest, respectively. It was found that the wear resistance of the PtRuN-DLC films apparently increased with increased film thickness though the adhesion strength of the films decreased. The corrosion results revealed that the increased concentration of sp 2 bonds in the PtRuN-DLC films with increased film thickness shifted the corrosion potentials of the films to more negative values but the decreased porosity density in the films significantly decreased the corrosion currents of the films.

  2. The magnetic ordering in high magnetoresistance Mn-doped ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Venkatesh, S.

    2016-03-24

    We studied the nature of magnetic ordering in Mn-doped ZnO thin films that exhibited ferromagnetism at 300 K and superparamagnetism at 5 K. We directly inter-related the magnetisation and magnetoresistance by invoking the polaronpercolation theory and variable range of hopping conduction below the metal-to-insulator transition. By obtaining a qualitative agreement between these two models, we attribute the ferromagnetism to the s-d exchange-induced spin splitting that was indicated by large positive magnetoresistance (∼40 %). Low temperature superparamagnetism was attributed to the localization of carriers and non-interacting polaron clusters. This analysis can assist in understanding the presence or absence of ferromagnetism in doped/un-doped ZnO.

  3. The magnetic ordering in high magnetoresistance Mn-doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesh, S.; Baras, A.; Roqan, I. S., E-mail: Iman.roqan@kaust.edu.sa [Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Lee, J.-S. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    We studied the nature of magnetic ordering in Mn-doped ZnO thin films that exhibited ferromagnetism at 300 K and superparamagnetism at 5 K. We directly inter-related the magnetisation and magnetoresistance by invoking the polaron percolation theory and variable range of hopping conduction below the metal-to-insulator transition. By obtaining a qualitative agreement between these two models, we attribute the ferromagnetism to the s-d exchange-induced spin splitting that was indicated by large positive magnetoresistance (∼40 %). Low temperature superparamagnetism was attributed to the localization of carriers and non-interacting polaron clusters. This analysis can assist in understanding the presence or absence of ferromagnetism in doped/un-doped ZnO.

  4. Effects of Ba doping on physical properties of La-Ca-Mn-O thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, N H; Sakai, J; Iwasaki, H

    2003-01-01

    Transport and magnetic properties of La-Ba-Ca-Mn-O thin films fabricated by the pulsed laser deposition technique had been investigated systematically to see the effects of substitution of the small atom Ca by Ba which is much bigger. The induced insulator-to-metal (IM) transition was obtained not only in compositions near 0.5 and 0.18 which are boundaries between metallic and insulating phases but also in the heavily doped region. In the region of x > 0.5, the Ba doping causes an anomalous response of the system to the magnetic field and a positive magnetoresistance was observed. Besides, our results concerning the vicinity of 0.5 imply the existence of phase separation. As for x < 0.5, the doping enhances remarkably the paramagnetism-ferromagnetism transition and the IM transition temperatures.

  5. Band-gap narrowing of TiO2 films induced by N-doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Ohwaki, T.; Taga, Y.

    2006-01-01

    N-doped TiO 2 films were deposited on n + -GaN/Al 2 O 3 substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering and subsequently crystallized by annealing at 550 o C in flowing N 2 gas. The N-doping concentration was ∼8.8%, as determined from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Deep-level optical spectroscopy measurements revealed two characteristic deep levels located at 1.18 and 2.48 eV below the conduction band. The 1.18 eV level is probably attributable to the O vacancy state and can be active as an efficient generation-recombination center. Additionally, the 2.48 eV band is newly introduced by the N-doping and contributes to band-gap narrowing by mixing with the O 2p valence band

  6. Deep-level optical spectroscopy investigation of N-doped TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Yoshitaka; Morikawa, Takeshi; Ohwaki, Takeshi; Taga, Yasunori

    2005-01-01

    N-doped TiO 2 films were deposited on n + -GaN/Al 2 O 3 substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering and subsequently crystallized by annealing at 550 deg. C in flowing N 2 gas. The N-doping concentration was ∼8.8%, as determined from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Deep-level optical spectroscopy measurements revealed two characteristic deep levels located at ∼1.18 and ∼2.48 eV below the conduction band. The 1.18 eV level is probably attributable to the O vacancy state and can be active as an efficient generation-recombination center. Additionally, the 2.48 eV band is newly introduced by the N doping and contributes to band-gap narrowing by mixing with the O 2p valence band

  7. Optical characterization of hydrogen-free CeO2 doped DLC films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenyu; Zhou Hongxiu; Guo Dongming; Gao Hang; Kang Renke

    2008-01-01

    A novel kind of hydrogen-free CeO 2 doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with thickness of 180-200 nm were deposited on silicon by unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Reduced reflectance and increased lifetime are expected with respect to pure DLC films, making these coatings good candidates as optical protective coatings for IR windows and solar cells. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms that CeO 2 is formed within the DLC films. Auger electron spectroscopy exhibits that the C, O, and Ce elements distribute uniformly across the film thickness, and C element diffuses into the Si substrate at the interface between the substrate and film. AFM shows that nanoparticles with diameter of around 50 nm are formed on the surface of deposited films, whose surface roughness is in the range of 1.3-2.3 nm. Raman spectra show the CeO 2 doped DLC films are amorphous DLC films, and both the G frequency and relative intensity ratio I D /I G are higher than those of pure DLC films. The photoluminescence of CeO 2 doped DLC films is obviously more intense than that of a pure DLC film, which indicates a promising potential as optical protective films for solar cells and IR window

  8. Photocatalytic activity of tin-doped TiO{sub 2} film deposited via aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, Chin Sheng, E-mail: cschua@simtech.a-star.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, 638075 (Singapore); Tan, Ooi Kiang; Tse, Man Siu [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Ding, Xingzhao [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, 638075 (Singapore)

    2013-10-01

    Tin-doped TiO{sub 2} films are deposited via aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition using a precursor mixture composing of titanium tetraisopropoxide and tetrabutyl tin. The amount of tin doping in the deposited films is controlled by the volume % concentration ratio of tetrabutyl tin over titanium tetraisopropoxide in the mixed precursor solution. X-ray diffraction analysis results reveal that the as-deposited films are composed of pure anatase TiO{sub 2} phase. Red-shift in the absorbance spectra is observed attributed to the introduction of Sn{sup 4+} band states below the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}. The effect of tin doping on the photocatalytic property of TiO{sub 2} films is studied through the degradation of stearic acid under UV light illumination. It is found that there is a 10% enhancement on the degradation rate of stearic acid for the film with 3.8% tin doping in comparison with pure TiO{sub 2} film. This improvement of photocatalytic performance with tin incorporation could be ascribed to the reduction of electron-hole recombination rate through charge separation and an increased amount of OH radicals which are crucial for the degradation of stearic acid. Further increase in tin doping results in the formation of recombination site and large anatase grains, which leads to a decrease in the degradation rate. - Highlights: ► Deposition of tin-doped TiO{sub 2} film via aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition ► Deposited anatase films show red-shifted in UV–vis spectrum with tin-dopants. ► Photoactivity improves at low tin concentration but reduces at higher concentration. ► Improvement in photoactivity due to bandgap narrowing from Sn{sup 4+} band states ► Maximum photoactivity achieved occurs for films with 3.8% tin doping.

  9. Effect of thallium doping on the electrical and optical properties of CdO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakhel, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    A series of lightly Tl-doped CdO thin films (1%,1.5%,2%,2.5%, and 3%) have been prepared by a vacuum evaporation method on glass and Si wafer substrates. The prepared films were subjected to structural study by X-ray diffraction, optical characterisation by UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy, and dc-electrical measurements. Experimental data indicate that Tl 3+ doping slightly stretching stresses the CdO crystalline structure and changes the optical and electrical properties. It was observed that Tl doping widens the energy gap of CdO from 2.22 eV to 2.83 eV via a Burstein-Moss energy level shift. The band gap shrinkage was also observed for carrier concentrations N el >1.13 x 10 20 cm -3 , which was explained by merging of the impurity band with the conduction band. The optical properties were explained by using Hamberg et al.'s band-to-band transitions and classical Drude theory. The electrical behaviour of the samples shows that they are degenerate semiconductors. The 2% Tl-doped CdO sample shows an increase in its mobility by about 1.4 times, conductivity by 5 times, and carrier concentration by 3.6 times relative to the undoped CdO film. From the transparent-conducting-oxide point of view, Tl is sufficiently effective for CdO doping but does not emulate other dopants like In,Sn,Sc, and Y. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films grown on various substrates using facing target sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Lee, Chang Hyun; Shon, Sun Young; Kim, Bong Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were fabricated on various substrates, such as glass, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), at room temperature using a facing target sputtering (FTS) system with hetero ZnO and Al2O3 targets, and their electrical and optical properties were investigated. The AZO film on glass exhibited compressive stress while the films on the plastic substrates showed tensile stress. These stresses negatively affected the crystalline quality of the AZO films, and it is suggested that the poor crystalline quality of the films may be related to the neutral Al-based defect complexes formed in the films; these complexes act as neutral impurity scattering centers. AZO films with good optoelectronic properties could be formed on the glass and plastic substrates by the FTS technique using the hetero targets. The AZO films deposited on the glass, PEN, and PET substrates showed very low resistivities, of 5.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, 7.0 × 10-4 Ω cm, and 7.4 × 10-4 Ω cm, respectively. Further, the figure merit of the AZO film formed on the PEN substrate in the visible range (400-700 nm) was significantly higher than that of the AZO film on PET and similar to that of the AZO film on glass. Finally, the average transmittances of the films in the visible range (400-700 nm) were 83.16% (on glass), 76.3% (on PEN), and 78.16% (on PET).

  11. Participation of the Third Order Optical Nonlinearities in Nanostructured Silver Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Solid Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Torres-Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the transmittance modulation of optical signals in a nanocomposite integrated by two different silver doped zinc oxide thin solid films. An ultrasonic spray pyrolysis approach was employed for the preparation of the samples. Measurements of the third-order nonlinear optical response at a nonresonant 532 nm wavelength of excitation were performed using a vectorial two-wave mixing. It seems that the separated contribution of the optical nonlinearity associated with each film noticeable differs in the resulting nonlinear effects with respect to the additive response exhibited by the bilayer system. An enhancement of the optical Kerr nonlinearity is predicted for prime number arrays of the studied nanoclusters in a two-wave interaction. We consider that the nanostructured morphology of the thin solid films originates a strong modification of the third-order optical phenomena exhibited by multilayer films based on zinc oxide.

  12. Molybdenum Doped SnO2 Thin Films as a Methanol Vapor Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Shriram B.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The molybdenum doped SnO2 thin films were synthesized by conventional spray pyrolysis route and has been investigated for the methanol vapor sensing. The structural and elemental composition analysis of thin films was carried out by X- ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX.The XRD spectrum revealed that the thin films have the polycrystalline nature with a mixed phase comprising of SnO2 and MoO3. The scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM clears that the surface morphology observed to be granular, uniformly covering the entire surface area of the thin film. The methanol vapor sensing studies were performed in dry air at the different temperatures. The influence of the concentration of Molybdenum and operating temperature on the sensor performance has been investigated.

  13. Characterization of photoluminescent europium doped yttrium oxide thin-films prepared by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKittrick, J.; Bacalski, C.F.; Hirata, G.A.; Hubbard, K.M.; Pattillo, S.G.; Salazar, K.V.; Trkula, M.

    1998-01-01

    Europium doped yttrium oxide, (Y 1-x Eu x ) 2 O 3 , thin-films were deposited on silicon and sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The films were grown in a MOCVD chamber reacting yttrium and europium tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5,-heptanedionates) precursors in an oxygen atmosphere at low pressures (5 Torr) and low substrate temperatures (500--700 C). The films deposited at 500 C were flat and composed of nanocrystalline regions of cubic Y 2 O 3 , grown in a textured [100] or [110] orientation to the substrate surface. Films deposited at 600 C developed from the flat, nanocrystalline morphology into a plate-like growth morphology oriented in the [111] with increasing deposition time. Monoclinic Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ was observed in x-ray diffraction for deposition temperatures ≥600 C on both (111) Si and (001) sapphire substrates. This was also confirmed by the photoluminescent emission spectra

  14. GALVANIC MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF BISMUTH THIN FILMS DOPED WITH TELLURIUM MADE BY THERMAL VACUUM EVAPORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Komarov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of n-type impurity of tellurium (concentration range from 0.005 atomic % Te to 0.15 atomic % Te on galvanic magnetic properties (resistivity, magnetic resistance and Hall constant of Bi thin films with various thicknesses was studied. The properties were measured in temperature range from 77 to 300 K. It was established that the classical size effect in the films is significant and decreases with higher concentration of Te impurity. The analysis of experimental results was carried out in approximation of the law of Jones-Schoenberg dispersion for Bi films doped with tellurium. Calculation of concentration and mobility of charge carriers in the studied films was made.

  15. Transition from diamagnetic to ferromagnetic state in laser ablated nitrogen doped ZnO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal Jindal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Transition from room temperature diamagnetic to ferromagnetic state in N doped ZnO (ZnO:N films grown by pulsed laser deposition with tunable energy density has been identified. ZnO:N films deposited with moderate laser energy density of 2.5 J/cm2 are single phase and nearly defect free having N dopant substitution at O sites in ZnO lattice, exhibiting intrinsic ferromagnetism. When energy density reduces (<2.5 J/cm2, defects in ZnO:N film degrades ferromagnetism and exhibit diamagnetic phase when grown at energy density of 1.0 J/cm2. Growth kinetics, which in turn depends on laser energy density is playing important role in making transition from ferromagnetic to diamagnetic in ZnO:N films.

  16. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of dodecylsulphate doped polypyrrole films in the dark and under illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martini Milena

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology, thickness, oxidation and illumination effects in dodecylsulphate doped polypyrrole films can be qualitatively observed by EIS and consist in variations of interfacial and bulk resistances and capacitances of a proposed equivalent circuit. The circuit well with the measured spectra of films obtained with 190 mC cm-2 of synthesis charge density. For thinner films the calculated values observed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS deviate probably due to the absence of diffusion effects. The oxidation of the films diminishes the total impedance over the entire frequency range. The morphology effects are also observed in the entire spectra. The illumination effects are reversible and are observed as expected only in the reduced form of the polymer. The illumination reduces the internal resistance and the space-charge capacitance and increases the charge transfer resistance and the double layer capacitance.

  17. Oxygen reduction activity of N-doped carbon-based films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Teruyuki; Yamamoto, Shunya; Kawaguchi, Kazuhiro; Yamaki, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Yoshikawa, Masahito

    2010-12-01

    Carbon-based films with nitrogen species on their surface were prepared on a glassy carbon (GC) substrate for application as a non-platinum cathode catalyst for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Cobalt and carbon were deposited in the presence of N 2 gas using a pulsed laser deposition method and then the metal Co was removed by HCl-washing treatment. Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity was electrochemically determined using a rotating disk electrode system in which the film samples on the GC substrate were replaceable. The ORR activity increased with the temperature of the GC substrate during deposition. A carbon-based film prepared at 600 °C in the presence of N 2 at 66.7 Pa showed the highest ORR activity among the tested samples (0.66 V vs. NHE). This film was composed of amorphous carbons doped with pyridine type nitrogen atoms on its surface.

  18. Chromium doped TiO2 sputtered thin films synthesis, physical investigations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hajjaji, Anouar; Gaidi, Mounir; Bessais, Brahim; El Khakani, My Ali

    2014-01-01

    This book presents co-sputtered processes ways to produce chrome doped TiO2 thin films onto various substrates such as quartz, silicon and porous silicon. Emphasis is given on the link between the experimental preparation and physical characterization in terms of Cr content. Moreover, the structural, optical and optoelectronic investigations are emphasized throughout. The book explores the potencial applications of devices based on Cr doped TiO2 thin films as gas sensors and in photocatalysis and in the photovoltaic industry. Also, this book provides extensive leads into research literature, and each chapter contains details which aim to develop awareness of the subject and the methods used. The content presented here will be useful for graduate students as well as researchers in materials science, physics, chemistry and engineering.

  19. Secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of In-doped p-type GaN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, C.Y.; Wang, C.C.; Ling, Y.C.; Chiang, C.I.

    2003-01-01

    SIMS was used to investigate the isoelectronic In-doped p-type GaN films. The growth rate of the p-type GaN film decreased with increasing Mg and In doping. The Mg saturation in GaN was 3.55x10 19 atoms/cm 3 . The role of In as surfactant was evaluated by varying In concentrations and it was observed that the surface appeared smooth with increasing In incorporation. The Mg solubility in p-type GaN improved to 0.0025% molar ratio of the GaN with In incorporation. The In concentration results observed in neutron activation analysis (NAA) were found to be higher by a factor of 2.88 than that observed in SIMS and can be attributed to the difference in sensitivity of the two techniques. Good linearity in the results was observed from both techniques

  20. Effect of nitrogen doping on the thermal conductivity of GeTe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallica, Roberto; Longo, Massimo; Wiemer, Claudia [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Agrate Brianza (Italy); Varesi, Enrico; Fumagalli, Luca; Spadoni, Simona [Micron Semiconductor Italia, Agrate Brianza (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    The 3{omega} method was employed to determine the effect of nitrogen doping (5 at.%) on the thermal conductivity of sputtered thin films of stoichiometric GeTe (a material of interest for phase change memories). It was found that nitrogen doping has a detrimental effect on the thermal conductivity of GeTe in both phases, but less markedly in the amorphous (-25%) than in the crystalline one (-40%). On the opposite, no effect could be detected on the measured thermal boundary resistance between these films and SiO{sub 2}, within the experimental error. Our results agree with those obtained by molecular dynamic simulation of amorphous GeTe. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Enhanced Supercapacitor Performance Using Electropolymerization of Self-Doped Polyaniline on Carbon Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hsin Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we electrochemically deposited self-doped polyanilines (SPANI on the surface of carbon-nanoparticle (CNP film, enhancing the superficial faradic reactions in supercapacitors and thus improving their performance. SPANI was electrodeposited on the CNP-film employing electropolymerization of aniline (AN and o-aminobenzene sulfonic acid (SAN comonomers in solution. Here, SAN acts in dual roles of a self-doped monomer while it also provides an acidic environment which is suitable for electropolymerization. The performance of SPANI−CNP-based supercapacitors significantly depends upon the mole ratio of AN/SAN. Supercapacitor performance was investigated by using cyclic voltammetry (CV, galvanostatic charge and discharge (GCD, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The optimal performance of SPANI−CNP-based supercapacitor exists at AN/SAN ratio of 1.0, having the specific capacitance of 273.3 Fg−1 at the charging current density of 0.5 Ag−1.

  2. Metal Oxides Doped PPY-PVA Blend Thin Films Based Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. DUPARE

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of metal oxides doped polypyrrole–polyvinyl alcohol blend thin films by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization, using microwave oven on glass substrate for development of Ammonia and Trimethyl ammine hazardous gas sensor. The all experimental process carried out at room temperature(304 K. These polymer materials were characterized by Chemical analyses, spectral studies (UV-visible and IR and conductivity measurement by four –probe technique. The surface morphology as observed in the SEM image was observed to be uniformly covering the entire substrate surface. The sensor was used for different concentration (ppm of TMA and Ammonia gas investigation at room temperature (304 k. This study found to possess improved electrical, mechanical and environmental stability metal oxides doped PPY-PVA films.

  3. Influence of Tm-doping on microstructure and luminescence behavior of barium strontium titanate thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingyang; Zhang Tianjin; Pan Ruikun; Ma Zhijun; Wang Jinzhao

    2012-01-01

    Tm-doped Ba 0.8 Sr 0.2 TiO 3 thick films were prepared by the screen-printing technique on the alumina substrate. The microstructure of the Tm-doped BST thick films was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. All the samples showed a typical perovskite polycrystalline structure when sintered at 1260 °C. The substitution behavior of Tm 3+ ion in BST was found to change with increasing the Tm 3+ concentration. The observed Tm-related red emission reaches the maximum at 0.2 mol% Tm 3+ concentration. The effects of concentration quenching on the luminescence intensity were discussed.

  4. Effect of Low Concentration Sn Doping on Optical Properties of CdS Films Grown by CBD Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sabri Mohd Ghazali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Thin and transparent films of doped cadmium sulfide (CdS were obtained on commercial glass substrates by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD technique. The films were doped with low concentration of Sn, and annealed in air at 300 °C for 45 min. The morphological characterization of the films with different amounts of dopant was made using SEM and EDAX analysis. Optical properties of the films were evaluated by measuring transmittance using the UV-vis spectrophotometer. A comparison of the results revealed that lower concentration of Sn doping improves transmittance of CdS films and makes them suitable for application as window layer of CdTe/CIGS solar cells.

  5. Phase transformations in sputter-deposited W-doped TiO2 films during annealing in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saladukhin, I. A.; Abadias, G.

    2013-01-01

    Pure and tungsten-doped TiO 2 films are characterized as amorphous in the as-deposited state by XRD. A crystallization of titanium dioxide occurs during their annealing in air. Depending on the tungsten and nitrogen doping level, anatase or rutile phase formation is observed. Both of these phases are thermally stable in all interval of the temperatures used during annealing. Phase composition and lattice parameter analysis indicates on the formation of substitutional Ti 1 -xW x O 2 films. N-doped Ti 0 .75W 0 .25O 2 film is more resistant against high-temperature oxidation as compared to Ti 0 .74W 0 .26O 2 film and, especially, as compared to Ti 0 .60W 0 .40O 2 film. (authors)

  6. Structural and magnetic properties of pure and Cu doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, N. Sai; Kaleemulla, S., E-mail: skaleemulla@gmail.com; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Krishnamoorthi, C.; Begam, M. Rigana [Thin Films Laboratory, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore – 632014 (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam –603102 (India); UGC-DAE-CSR, Kalpakkam Node, Kokilamedu-603104 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Pure and Cu (7 at.%) doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were prepared using an electron beam evaporation technique. A systematic study was carried out on the structural, chemical and magnetic properties of the thin films. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all the films were cubic in structure. The pure and Cu doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films showed ferromagnetism at room temperature. The Cu doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films showed the saturation magnetization, coercivity and retentivity of 38.71 emu/cm{sup 3}, 245 G and 5.54 emu/cm{sup 3}, respectively.

  7. Thickness-modulated anisotropic ferromagnetism in Fe-doped epitaxial HfO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Ruyi; Ma, Rong; Wang, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Epitaxial tetragonal Fe-doped Hf0.95Fe0.05O2 (FHO) thin films with various thicknesses were deposited on (001)-oriented NdCaAlO4 (NCAO) substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) system. The crystal structure and epitaxial nature of the FHO thin films were confirmed by typical x-ray diffraction (XRD) θ-2θ scan and reciprocal space mapping (RSM). The results indicate that two sets of lattice sites exist with two different crystal orientations [(001) and (100)] in the thicker FHO thin films. Further, the intensity of the (100) direction increases with the increase in thicknesses, which should have a significant effect on the anisotropic magnetization of the FHO thin films. Meanwhile, all the FHO thin films possess a tetragonal phase structure. An anisotropy behavior in magnetization has been observed in the FHO thin films. The anisotropic magnetization of the FHO thin films is slowly weakened as the thickness increases. Meanwhile, the saturation magnetization (Ms) of both in-plane and out-of-plane decreases with the increase in the thickness. The change in the anisotropic magnetization and Ms is attributed to the crystal lattice and the variation in the valence of Fe ions. These results indicate that the thickness-modulated anisotropic ferromagnetism of the tetragonal FHO epitaxial thin films is of potential use for the integration of metal-oxide semiconductors with spintronics.

  8. Titanium dioxide-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films for improving overall photoelectric property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bao-jia; Huang, Li-jing; Ren, Nai-fei; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) layers were deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on commercial fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses, followed by simultaneous oxidation and annealing treatment in a tubular furnace to prepare titanium dioxide (TiO 2 )/FTO bilayer films. Large and densely arranged grains were observed on all TiO 2 /FTO bilayer films. The presence of TiO 2 tetragonal rutile phase in the TiO 2 /FTO bilayer films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results of parameter optimization indicated that the TiO 2 /FTO bilayer film, which was formed by adopting a temperature of 400 °C and an oxygen flow rate of 15 sccm, had the optimal overall photoelectric property with a figure of merit of 2.30 × 10 −2 Ω −1 , higher than 1.78 × 10 −2 Ω −1 for the FTO single-layer film. After coating a 500 nm-thick AZO layer by DC magnetron sputtering on this TiO 2 /FTO bilayer film, the figure of merit of the trilayer film achieved to a higher figure of merit of 3.12 × 10 −2 Ω −1 , indicating further improvement of the overall photoelectric property. This work may provide a scientific basis and reference for improving overall photoelectric property of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films.

  9. Titanium dioxide-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films for improving overall photoelectric property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bao-jia, E-mail: bjia_li@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Huang, Li-jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Ren, Nai-fei [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhou, Ming [The State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-01-30

    Titanium (Ti) layers were deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on commercial fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses, followed by simultaneous oxidation and annealing treatment in a tubular furnace to prepare titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})/FTO bilayer films. Large and densely arranged grains were observed on all TiO{sub 2}/FTO bilayer films. The presence of TiO{sub 2} tetragonal rutile phase in the TiO{sub 2}/FTO bilayer films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results of parameter optimization indicated that the TiO{sub 2}/FTO bilayer film, which was formed by adopting a temperature of 400 °C and an oxygen flow rate of 15 sccm, had the optimal overall photoelectric property with a figure of merit of 2.30 × 10{sup −2} Ω{sup −1}, higher than 1.78 × 10{sup −2} Ω{sup −1} for the FTO single-layer film. After coating a 500 nm-thick AZO layer by DC magnetron sputtering on this TiO{sub 2}/FTO bilayer film, the figure of merit of the trilayer film achieved to a higher figure of merit of 3.12 × 10{sup −2} Ω{sup −1}, indicating further improvement of the overall photoelectric property. This work may provide a scientific basis and reference for improving overall photoelectric property of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films.

  10. Homogenous smooth sol gel films doped with organic compounds for nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliu, I.C. [INOE 2000 — National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, Bucharest, RO 077125 (Romania); Ionita, I., E-mail: i_ionita@yahoo.com [UB — University of Bucharest, 405 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, Bucharest, RO 077125 (Romania); Matei, A. [INFLPR — National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, Bucharest, RO 077125 (Romania); Elisa, M.; Iordanescu, R.; Feraru, I.; Emandi, A. [INOE 2000 — National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, Bucharest, RO 077125 (Romania)

    2016-02-29

    The demand for protection of various types of optical sensors from laser-beam pulses has resulted in the search for optical limiting devices that have the property of being transparent at low intensity of light (normal light), but no transparent towards high intensity (laser) light. Organic material with nonlinear optical (NLO) properties as reverse saturable absorption and two-photon absorption can be used for optical limiting with the advantage of a very fast response and self-activation. A promising approach in the fabrication of thin films by low cost/easy use deposition methods for second-order nonlinear optics is sol–gel technique. The present paper reports on the sol–gel synthesis of some pyrazolone derivative doped SiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} smooth and homogenous films (Root mean square roughness (Rq) = 1.1 nm) using as precursors tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). The structure of the deposited azo-derivatives doped thin films was examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, while their optical properties of the films by UV–VIS spectroscopy. The nonlinear optical efficiencies due to the interaction of the NLO-active chromophores with the inorganic matrix have a significant influence on the second harmonic generation capabilities that was measured using a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser. The properties of the films were investigated and correlated with the concentration of the organic dopant and the thermal treatment temperature. - Highlights: • We obtained pyrazolone derivative doped SiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} smooth and homogenous films. • The pyrazolone derivative presents SHG characteristics by itself. • Thin sol gel films doped with organic compounds with NLO properties. • Temperature of thermal treatment and aging time can improve NLO properties of films. • We found that 150 °C and 28 h aging time give the maximum performance in SHG response.

  11. Influence of Ag doping concentration on structural and optical properties of CdS thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pragati; Saxena, Nupur; Gupta, Vinay; Agarwal, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    This work shows the influence of Ag concentration on structural properties of pulsed laser deposited nanocrystalline CdS thin film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies confirm the dopant concentration in CdS films and atomic concentration of elements. XPS studies show that the samples are slightly sulfur deficient. GAXRD scan reveals the structural phase transformation from cubic to hexagonal phase of CdS without appearance of any phase of CdO, Ag 2 O or Ag 2 S suggesting the substitutional doping of Ag ions. Photoluminescence studies illustrate that emission intensity increases with increase in dopant concentration upto 5% and then decreases for higher dopant concentration

  12. Defect-band mediated ferromagnetism in Gd-doped ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Venkatesh, S.

    2015-01-07

    Gd-doped ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition with Gd concentrations varying from 0.02–0.45 atomic percent (at. %) showed deposition oxygen pressure controlled ferromagnetism. Thin films prepared with Gd dopant levels (

  13. Anion-induced N-doping of naphthalenediimide polymer semiconductor in organic thin-film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yang

    2018-03-13

    Molecular doping is an important strategy to improve the charge transport properties of organic semiconductors in various electronic devices. Compared to p-type dopants, the development of n-type dopants is especially challenging due to poor dopant stability against atmospheric conditions. In this article, we report the n-doping of the milestone naphthalenediimide-based conjugated polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) in organic thin film transistor devices by soluble anion dopants. The addition of the dopants resulted in the formation of stable radical anions in thin films, as confirmed by EPR spectroscopy. By tuning the dopant concentration via simple solution mixing, the transistor parameters could be readily controlled. Hence the contact resistance between the electrodes and the semiconducting polymer could be significantly reduced, which resulted in the transistor behaviour approaching the desirable gate voltage-independent model. Reduced hysteresis was also observed, thanks to the trap filling by the dopant. Under optimal doping concentrations the channel on-current was increased several fold whilst the on/off ratio was simultaneously increased by around one order of magnitude. Hence doping with soluble organic salts appears to be a promising route to improve the charge transport properties of n-type organic semiconductors.

  14. Substitution of Nb doping on the structural, microstructural and electrical properties in PZT films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haccart, T.; Remiens, D.; Cattan, E.

    2003-01-01

    Undoped and niobium (Nb) doped Pb 1-y (Zr 0.54 Ti 0.46 ) 1-y Nb y O 3 have been deposited by sputtering on Pt metallized silicon substrates. The niobium concentration, y, was varied from 1 to 7 at.% by 1 at.%. The Zr/Ti ratio was fixed to 54/46 corresponding to the Morphotropic Phase Boundary. Structural, microstructural, and electrical properties were evaluated depending on Nb content. The films (doped and undoped) present a (1 1 1)-preferred orientation. The Nb doping induces an increase of the grain size and as it was observed in bulk materials the dielectric constant (ε r ) and the piezoelectric coefficients (e 31 and d 33 ) reach their maximum for low Nb concentration (2 at.%). The remnant and the maximum polarizations increase as the coercive field decreased slightly with the Nb concentration. The internal electric field increases with Nb content; as a result, the 'self-polarization' of the films (polarization measured without poling treatment) is enhanced with niobium substitution. In term of fatigue behavior, it was found that switching endurance characteristics are maximum for low Nb doping level

  15. Substitution of Nb doping on the structural, microstructural and electrical properties in PZT films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haccart, T.; Remiens, D.; Cattan, E

    2003-01-15

    Undoped and niobium (Nb) doped Pb{sub 1-y}(Zr{sub 0.54}Ti{sub 0.46}){sub 1-y}Nb{sub y}O{sub 3} have been deposited by sputtering on Pt metallized silicon substrates. The niobium concentration, y, was varied from 1 to 7 at.% by 1 at.%. The Zr/Ti ratio was fixed to 54/46 corresponding to the Morphotropic Phase Boundary. Structural, microstructural, and electrical properties were evaluated depending on Nb content. The films (doped and undoped) present a (1 1 1)-preferred orientation. The Nb doping induces an increase of the grain size and as it was observed in bulk materials the dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub r}) and the piezoelectric coefficients (e{sub 31} and d{sub 33}) reach their maximum for low Nb concentration (2 at.%). The remnant and the maximum polarizations increase as the coercive field decreased slightly with the Nb concentration. The internal electric field increases with Nb content; as a result, the 'self-polarization' of the films (polarization measured without poling treatment) is enhanced with niobium substitution. In term of fatigue behavior, it was found that switching endurance characteristics are maximum for low Nb doping level.

  16. Anion-induced N-doping of naphthalenediimide polymer semiconductor in organic thin-film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yang; Fei, Zhuping; Lin, Yen-Hung; Martin, Jaime; Tuna, Floriana; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Heeney, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Molecular doping is an important strategy to improve the charge transport properties of organic semiconductors in various electronic devices. Compared to p-type dopants, the development of n-type dopants is especially challenging due to poor dopant stability against atmospheric conditions. In this article, we report the n-doping of the milestone naphthalenediimide-based conjugated polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) in organic thin film transistor devices by soluble anion dopants. The addition of the dopants resulted in the formation of stable radical anions in thin films, as confirmed by EPR spectroscopy. By tuning the dopant concentration via simple solution mixing, the transistor parameters could be readily controlled. Hence the contact resistance between the electrodes and the semiconducting polymer could be significantly reduced, which resulted in the transistor behaviour approaching the desirable gate voltage-independent model. Reduced hysteresis was also observed, thanks to the trap filling by the dopant. Under optimal doping concentrations the channel on-current was increased several fold whilst the on/off ratio was simultaneously increased by around one order of magnitude. Hence doping with soluble organic salts appears to be a promising route to improve the charge transport properties of n-type organic semiconductors.

  17. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Sb-doped GeSe2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Ying; Chen, Fen; Lu, Shun-Bin; Wang, Yong-Hui; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shi-Xun; Nie, Qiu-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Sb-doped GeSe2 chalcogenide thin films are prepared by the magnetron co-sputtering method. The linear optical properties of as-deposited films are derived by analyzing transmission spectra. The refractive index rises and the optical band gap decreases from 2.08 eV to 1.41 eV with increasing the Sb content. X-ray photoelectron spectra further confirm the formation of a covalent Sb-Se bond. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of thin films are investigated under femtosecond laser excitation at 800 nm. The results show that the third-order nonlinear optical properties are enhanced with increasing the concentration of Sb. The nonlinear refraction indices of these thin films are measured to be on the order of 10-18 m2/W with a positive sign and the nonlinear absorption coefficients are obtained to be on the order of 10-10 m/W. These excellent properties indicate that Sb-doped Ge-Se films have a good prospect in the applications of nonlinear optical devices. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB722703), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61377061), the Young Leaders of Academic Climbing Project of the Education Department of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. pd2013092), the Program for Innovative Research Team of Ningbo City, China (Grant No. 2009B217), and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  18. Visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission from nitrogen doped and undoped polycrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfimchev, S., E-mail: sergeyel@tx.technion.ac.il; Chandran, M.; Akhvlediani, R.; Hoffman, A.

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen related centers in diamond film are mainly responsible for visible sub-band-gap photoelectron emission. • The influence of film thickness and substrate on the measured photoelectron emission yields was not found. • Nanocrystalline diamonds have low electron emission yields most likely because of high amount of defects. • Visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission may increase with temperature due to electron trapping/detrapping processes. - Abstract: In this study the origin of visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission (PEE) from polycrystalline diamond films is investigated. The PEE yields as a function of temperature were studied in the wavelengths range of 360–520 nm. Based on the comparison of electron emission yields from diamond films deposited on silicon and molybdenum substrates, with different thicknesses and nitrogen doping levels, we suggested that photoelectrons are generated from nitrogen related centers in diamond. Our results show that diamond film thickness and substrate material have no significant influence on the PEE yield. We found that nanocrystalline diamond films have low electron emission yields, compared to microcrystalline diamond, due to the presence of high amount of defects in the former, which trap excited electrons before escaping into the vacuum. However, the low PEE yield of nanocrystalline diamond films was found to increase with temperature. The phenomenon was explained by the trap assisted photon enhanced thermionic emission (ta-PETE) model. According to the ta-PETE model, photoelectrons are trapped by shallow traps, followed by thermal excitation at elevated temperatures and escape into the vacuum. Activation energies of trap levels were estimated for undoped nanocrystalline, undoped microcrystalline and N-doped diamond films using the Richardson-Dushman equation, which gives 0.13, 0.39 and 0.04 eV, respectively. Such low activation energy of trap levels makes the ta-PETE process very

  19. Synergistic effect of indium and gallium co-doping on the properties of RF sputtered ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheera, M.; Girija, K. G.; Kaur, Manmeet; Geetha, V.; Debnath, A. K.; Karri, Malvika; Thota, Manoj Kumar; Vatsa, R. K.; Muthe, K. P.; Gadkari, S. C.

    2018-04-01

    ZnO thin films were synthesized using RF magnetron sputtering, with simultaneous incorporation of Indium (In) and Gallium (Ga). The structural, optical, chemical composition and surface morphology of the pure and co-doped (IGZO) thin films were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. XRD revealed that these films were oriented along c-axis with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The (002) diffraction peak in the co-doped sample was observed at 33.76° with a slight shift towards lower 2θ values as compared to pure ZnO. The surface morphology of the two thin films was observed to differ. For pure ZnO films, round grains were observed and for IGZO thin films round as well as rod type grains were observed. All thin films synthesized show excellent optical properties with more than 90% transmission in the visible region and band gap of the films is observed to decrease with co-doping. The co doping of In and Ga is therefore expected to provide a broad range optical and physical properties of ZnO thin films for a variety of optoelectronic applications.

  20. Improved diode performance of Ag nanoparticle dispersed Er doped In2O3 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anupam; Dwivedi, Shyam Murli Manohar Dhar; Chakrabartty, Shubhro; Mondal, Aniruddha

    2018-04-01

    Ag nanoparticle(NP) dispersedEr doped In2O3 film was prepared by sol-gel method followed by thermal evaporation cum glancing angle deposition technique. The Schottky contact based devicecontaining Ag NPs shows ideality factor of ˜180 at 10 K and ˜5 at 300 K, which is lesser as compared to the device that does not contain Ag NPs. The lower ideality factor value all over the temperature range makes the diode more reliable.

  1. Fabrication of Al doped ZnO films using atmospheric pressure cold plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzaki, Yoshifumi; Miyagawa, Hayato; Yamaguchi, Kenzo; Kim, Yoon-Kee

    2012-01-01

    Under atmospheric pressure, homogeneous non-equilibrium cold plasma was generated stably by high voltage pulsed power (1 kV, 20 kHz, 38 W) excitation of a mixture of He and O 2 gases produced by a dielectric barrier discharge setup. By feeding Bis (2 methoxy‐6-methyl‐3, 5-heptanedione) Zn (Zn-MOPD, C 18 H 3 O 6 Zn) and Tris (2-methoxy‐6‐methy l‐3, 5-heptanedione) Al (Al-MOPD, C 27 H 45 O 9 Al) into this plasma with He carrier gas, transparent flat Al-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) films about 120–240 nm thick were prepared on glass substrates directly under the slit made into the cathode. Deposition rates of the films were about 20–40 nm/min. The concentration of Al was measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The composition ratio of Al to Zn was 7.8 mol% when the carrier He gas flow rate of Al-MOPD was 30 cm 3 . The average transmittance of all films was more than 85% in the wavelength range from 400 to 800 nm. When the composition ratio of Al/Zn was between 1.1 and 7.8 mol%, the optical band gap of the film increased from 3.28 to 3.40 eV. The resistivity of ZnO:Al film was 2.96 Ω cm at 1.3 mol% of Al/Zn. In addition, the microstructure of the films was studied by X-ray diffraction measurement and field emission scanning electron microscope observation. It was revealed that doped Al is substituted onto the Zn site of the ZnO crystalline structure in ZnO:Al films. - Highlights: ► An atmospheric pressure cold plasma generator generated stable glow discharge. ► We fabricated Al doped ZnO films on glass substrates using cold plasma. ► Al concentration measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. ► The transmission spectrum and the resistivity of the films were measured. ► The microstructure of the films was studied.

  2. Rotational reorganization of doped cholesteric liquid crystalline films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, R.; M. Pollard, M.; Katsonis, N.; Vicario, J.; J. Broer, D.; Feringa, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper an unprecedented rotational reorganization of cholesteric liquid crystalline films is described. This rotational reorganization results from the conversion of a chiral molecular motor dopant to an isomer with a different helical twisting power, leading to a change in the cholesteric

  3. Electronic properties of intrinsic and doped amorphous silicon carbide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, M.; Voz, C.; Ferre, R.; Martin, I.; Orpella, A.; Puigdollers, J.; Andreu, J.; Alcubilla, R.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC x : H) films have shown excellent surface passivation of crystalline silicon. With the aim of large area deposition of these films the influence of the rf plasma power was investigated. It is found that homogenous deposition with effective surface recombination velocity lower than 100 cms -1 is possible up to 6'' diameter in a simple parallel plate reactor by optimizing deposition parameters. For application in solar cell processes the conductivity of these a-SiC x : H films might become of importance since good surface passivation results from field-effect passivation which needs an insulating dielectric layer. Therefore, the temperature dependence of the dark dc conductivity of these films was investigated in the temperature range from - 20 to 260 deg. C. Two transition temperatures, T s ∼80 deg. C and T s ∼170 deg. C, were found where conductivity increases, resp. decreases over-exponential. From Arrhenius plots activation energy (E a ) and conductivity pre-factor (σ 0 ) were calculated for a large number of samples with different composition. A correlation between E a and σ 0 was found giving a Meyer-Neldel relation with a slope of 59 mV, corresponding to a material characteristic temperature T m = 400 deg. C, and an intercept at σ 00 = 0.1 Ω -1 cm -1

  4. Zr-doped SnO2 thin films synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique for barrier layers in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, N. Nanda Kumar; Akkera, Harish Sharma; Sekhar, M. Chandra; Park, Si-Hyun

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, we investigated the effect of Zr doping (0-6 at%) on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of tin oxide (SnO2) thin films deposited onto glass substrates using a spray pyrolysis technique. The room-temperature X-ray diffraction pattern shows that all deposited films exhibit polycrystalline tetragonal structure. The pure SnO2 film is grown along a preferred (200) direction, whereas Zr-doped SnO2 (Zr:SnO2) films started growing along the (220) orientation along with a high intensity peak of (200). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) images showed that the grains of the films are spherical in structure, and the grain size decreased with increasing of Zr concentration. The optical transmission spectra of deposited films as a function of wavelength confirm that the average optical transmittance is > 85% for Zr:SnO2 films. The value of the optical bandgap is significantly decreased from 3.94 to 3.68 eV with increasing Zr concentration. Furthermore, the electrical measurements found that the sheet resistance ( R sh) and resistivity ( ρ) values are decreased with increasing of Zr doping. The lowest values of R sh = 6.82 Ω and ρ = 0.4 × 10- 3 Ω cm are found in 6-at% Zr-doped SnO2 film. In addition, a good efficiency value of the figure of merit ( ɸ = 3.35 × 10- 3 Ω-1) is observed in 6-at% Zr-doped SnO2 film. These outstanding properties of Zr-doped SnO2 films make them useful for several optoelectronic device applications.

  5. Electric controlling of surface metal-insulator transition in the doped BaTiO3 film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on first-principles calculations, the BaTiO3(BTO film with local La-doping is studied. For a selected concentration and position of doping, the surface metal-insulator transition occurs under the applied electric field, and the domain appears near the surface for both bipolar states. Furthermore, for the insulated surface state, i.e., the downward polarization state in the doped film, the gradient bandgap structure is achieved, which favors the absorption of solar energy. Our investigation can provide an alternative avenue in modification of surface property and surface screening effect in polar materials.

  6. Nonlinear Optical Characteristics of Crystal VioletDye Doped Polystyrene Films by Using Z-Scan Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasin F. Hadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Z-scan technique was employed to study the nonlinear optical properties (nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient for crystal violet doped polystyrene films as a function of doping ratio in chloroform solvent. Samples exhibits in closed aperture Z-scan positive nonlinear refraction (self-focusing. While in the open aperture Z-scan gives reverse saturation absorption (RSA (positive absorption for all film with different doping ratio making samples candidates for optical limiting devices for protection of sensors and eyes from energetic laser light pulses under the experimental conditions.

  7. Air-stable n-type doping of graphene from overlying Si3N4 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zegao; Li, Pingjian; Chen, Yuanfu; Liu, Jingbo; Qi, Fei; Tian, Hongjun; Zheng, Binjie; Zhou, Jinhao

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report a facile method to obtain air-stable n-type graphene by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor depositing Si 3 N 4 film on the surface of graphene. We have demonstrated that the overlying Si 3 N 4 film can not only act as the penetration-barrier against H 2 O and O 2 adsorbed on the graphene surface, but also cause an effective n-type doping due to the amine groups at the interface of graphene/Si 3 N 4 . Furthermore, the studies reveal that the Dirac point of graphene can be modulated by the thickness of Si 3 N 4 film, which is due to competing effects of Si 3 N 4 -induced doping (n-type) and penetrating H 2 O (O 2 )-induced doping (p-type). We expect this method to be used for obtaining stable n-type graphene field-effect transistors in air, which will be widely used in graphene electronic devices.

  8. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comes, Ryan B.; Smolin, Sergey Y.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Gao, Ran; Apgar, Brent A.; Martin, Lane W.; Bowden, Mark E.; Baxter, Jason; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO3 (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including high electron mobility, ferroelectricity—which may be valuable in photovoltaic applications—and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications, however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr3+ dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to between 2.4 and 2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance measurements confirm that optically generated carriers have a recombination lifetime comparable to that of STO and are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry. Finally, through photoelectrochemical yield measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  9. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comes, Ryan B., E-mail: ryan.comes@pnnl.gov; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Chambers, Scott A. [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Smolin, Sergey Y.; Baxter, Jason B. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Gao, Ran [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Apgar, Brent A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Martin, Lane W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bowden, Mark E. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including ferroelectricity and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications; however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr, we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr{sup 3+} dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to 2.4–2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance spectroscopy measurements are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry and confirm that optically generated carriers are present for longer than 2 ns. Finally, through photoelectrochemical methylene blue degradation measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  10. Optical, structural and photocatalysis properties of Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensouici, F., E-mail: fbensouici@yahoo.fr [Department of Physics, URMPE Unite, UMBB University, 35000 Boumerdes (Algeria); Bououdina, M.; Dakhel, A.A. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, PO Box 32038 (Bahrain); Tala-Ighil, R.; Tounane, M.; Iratni, A. [Department of Physics, URMPE Unite, UMBB University, 35000 Boumerdes (Algeria); Souier, T. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 36 (Oman); Liu, S.; Cai, W. [Key laboratory of Materials Physics, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Technology, Center for Environmental and Energy Nanomaterials, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A simple chemical route to obtain thin layers of Cu doped TiO{sub 2}. • Detailed structure analysis was carried out by Rietveld refinements. • Forming the CuO phase decreases the efficiency photocatalysis of TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Pure and Cu{sup +2} doped TiO{sub 2} thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrate by sol–gel dip-coating. The films were annealed at 450 °C for 1 h and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV–vis spectrophotometer and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. XRD confirmed the presence of two phases at higher Cu concentration; TiO{sub 2} anatase and CuO. AFM analysis showed that the surface roughness increases within increasing Cu content as well as the presence of large aggregates at higher Cu content. SEM observations confirmed the granular structure of the films, and EDX analysis revealed a low solubility limit (effective doping) of Cu into TiO{sub 2} lattice. It was found that the optical band gap energy decreases with increasing Cu content. At constant irradiation time, the photo-degradation of methylene blue rate decreased with increasing concentration of Cu{sup +2}.

  11. Electrochemical reactivity at graphitic micro-domains on polycrystalline boron doped diamond thin-films electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahe, E. [LI2C CNRS/UMR 7612, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Universite Pierre-et-Marie Curie - case courrier 51, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Devilliers, D. [LI2C CNRS/UMR 7612, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Universite Pierre-et-Marie Curie - case courrier 51, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Comninellis, Ch. [Unite de Genie Electrochimique, Institut de sciences des procedes chimiques et biologiques, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2005-04-01

    This paper deals with the electrochemical reactivity of boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. A comparative study has been carried out to show the influence of the presence of graphitic micro-domains upon the surface of these films. Those graphitic domains are sometimes present on as-grown boron doped diamond electrodes. The effect of doping a pure Csp{sup 3} diamond electrode is established by highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) abrasion onto the diamond surface. In order to establish the effect of doping on a pure Csp{sup 3} diamond electrode, the amount of graphitic domains was increased by means of HOPG crystals grafted onto the BDD surface. Indeed that method allows the enrichment of the Csp{sup 2} contribution of the electrode. The presence of graphitic domains can be correlatively associated with the presence of kinetically active redox sites. The electrochemical reactivity of boron doped diamond electrodes shows a distribution of kinetic constants on the whole surface of the electrode corresponding to different active sites. In this paper, we have studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy the kinetics parameters of the ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple in KCl electrolyte. A method is proposed to diagnose the presence of graphitic domains on diamond electrodes, and an electrochemical 'pulse cleaning' procedure is proposed to remove them.

  12. Low- and high-index sol-gel films for planar and channel-doped waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canva, Michael; Chaput, Frederic; Lahlil, Khalid; Rachet, Vincent; Goudket, Helene; Boilot, Jean-Pierre; Levy, Yves

    2001-11-01

    In view of realizing integrated optic components based on effects such as electro-optic, chi(2):chi(2) cascading, stimulated emission,... one has to first synthesize materials with the proper functionality; this may be achieved by doping solid state matrices by the appropriate organic chromophores. Second, and as important, these materials have to be properly structured into the final optical guiding structures. We shall report on issues related to the realization of chromophore-doped planar waveguides as well as channel waveguides. These structures were realized by either photo-transformation such as photo- chromism and photo-bleaching or reactive ion etching technique, starting with chromophore doped sol-gel materials at high loading contents for which optical index may be controlled via the local dopant concentration. With these materials and techniques, waveguides and components characterized by propagation losses of the order of a cm-1, measured off the edge of the absorption band of the doping species, were fabricated. In order to be also able to study and use waveguide functionalized with low concentration of chromophore species, we developed new sol-gel materials of high optical index, yet low temperature processed. These new films are under study to evaluate their potential as host for organic doped waveguides devices.

  13. Electrochemical reactivity at graphitic micro-domains on polycrystalline boron doped diamond thin-films electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahe, E.; Devilliers, D.; Comninellis, Ch.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the electrochemical reactivity of boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. A comparative study has been carried out to show the influence of the presence of graphitic micro-domains upon the surface of these films. Those graphitic domains are sometimes present on as-grown boron doped diamond electrodes. The effect of doping a pure Csp 3 diamond electrode is established by highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) abrasion onto the diamond surface. In order to establish the effect of doping on a pure Csp 3 diamond electrode, the amount of graphitic domains was increased by means of HOPG crystals grafted onto the BDD surface. Indeed that method allows the enrichment of the Csp 2 contribution of the electrode. The presence of graphitic domains can be correlatively associated with the presence of kinetically active redox sites. The electrochemical reactivity of boron doped diamond electrodes shows a distribution of kinetic constants on the whole surface of the electrode corresponding to different active sites. In this paper, we have studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy the kinetics parameters of the ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple in KCl electrolyte. A method is proposed to diagnose the presence of graphitic domains on diamond electrodes, and an electrochemical 'pulse cleaning' procedure is proposed to remove them

  14. Carbon and nitrogen co-doping self-assembled MoS{sub 2} multilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoqin [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Xu, Jiao; Chai, Liqiang [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); He, Tengfei [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Yu, Fucheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Wang, Peng, E-mail: pengwang@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Mo–S–C–N composite films were synthesized by using reactive magnetron sputtering. • A self-assembled multilayer structure with periodicity in the nanometer scale was formed in the composite film. • The hardness of Mo–S–C–N film deposited at optimized parameter reaches up to 9.76 GPa. • The wear rate of deposited Mo–S–C–N film both in vacuum and ambient atmosphere decreases dramatically. - Abstract: Mo–S–C–N composite films were prepared using reactive magnetron sputtering of graphite and MoS{sub 2} targets in argon and nitrogen atmospheres. The effects of carbon/nitrogen co-doping and carbon concentration on the composition, microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of deposited films have been investigated by various characterization techniques. The results show that the deposited films comprise MoS{sub 2} nanocrystalline and amorphous carbon, and the incorporating nitrogen forms Mo-N and C–N chemical bonds. Increasing carbon concentration leads to the increase of sp{sup 2} carbon fraction in the films. Furthermore, the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that a self-assembled multilayer structure with periodicity in the nanometer scale is formed in the Mo–S–C–N film. Benefiting from the composite and self-assembled multilayer structures, the hardness of Mo–S–C–N film deposited at optimized parameter reaches up to 9.76 GPa, and corresponding friction experiment indicates that this composite films display low friction coefficient and high wear resistance both in vacuum and ambient air conditions.

  15. Simultaneous thermal stability and phase change speed improvement of Sn15Sb85 thin film through erbium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hua; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Hu, Yifeng; Sui, Yongxing; Sun, Yuemei; Zhang, Jianhao; Zheng, Long; Song, Zhitang

    2016-12-01

    In general, there is a trade off between the phase change speed and thermal stability in chalcogenide phase change materials, which leads to sacrifice the one in order to ensure the other. For improving the performance, doping is a widely applied technological process. Here, we fabricated Er doped Sn15Sb85 thin films by magnetron sputtering. Compared with the pure Sn15Sb85, we show that Er doped Sn15Sb85 thin films exhibit simultaneous improvement over the thermal stability and the phase change speed. Thus, our results suggest that Er doping provides the opportunity to solve the contradiction. The main reason for improvement of both thermal stability and crystallization speed is due to the existence of Er-Sb and Er-Sn bonds in Er doped Sn15Sb85 films. Hence, Er doped Sn15Sb85 thin films are promising candidates for the phase change memory application, and this method could be extended to other lanthanide-doped phase change materials.

  16. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Mn diffusion-doped CdS thin films prepared by vacuum evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksu, S. [SoloPower, Inc., 5981 Optical Ct., San Jose, CA 95138 (United States); Bacaksiz, E., E-mail: eminb@ktu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Parlak, M. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Yilmaz, S.; Polat, I.; Altunbas, M. [Department of Physics, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Tuerksoy, M.; Topkaya, R. [Department of Physics, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozdogan, K. [Department of Physics, Yildiz Technical University, 34210 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Cadmium sulphide thin films were deposited by vacuum evaporation. {yields} Elemental Mn was deposited onto CdS thin films by using electron beam evaporation and annealed under vacuum at different temperatures. {yields} Structural, optical and magnetic studies of Mn-doped CdS have been investigated. {yields} X-ray diffraction results showed that the undoped CdS film had a zinc-blende structure with a strong preferred orientation along the (1 1 1) direction. {yields} Magnetic measurements show that Mn-doped CdS thin films exhibit a ferromagnetism behavior at room temperature. - Abstract: The effect of Mn-doping on the vacuum deposited CdS thin films has been investigated by studying the changes in the structural, optical and magnetic properties of the films. A thin Mn layer evaporated on the CdS film surface served as the source layer for the diffusion doping. Doping was accomplished by annealing the CdS/Mn stack layers at the temperature range from 300 deg. C to 400 deg. C in step of 50 deg. C for 30 min under vacuum. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the undoped CdS film had a zinc-blende structure with a strong preferred orientation along the (1 1 1) direction. The incorporation of Mn did not cause any change in the texture but reduced the peak intensity and lead to a smaller crystallite size. Investigation of surface morphology using atomic force microscopy confirmed the decrease in the grain size with the Mn diffusion. In addition, a more uniform grain size distribution was observed in the doped films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that Mn atoms on the surface of the films were bounded to either sulphur or oxygen atoms. Auger electron spectroscopy of the diffusion-doped CdS sample at 350 deg. C indicated that the atomic Mn concentration was higher close to the surface region and Mn was distributed with a steadily decreasing profile through the bulk of the film with an average atomic concentration value around few

  17. Low-temperature preparation of rutile-type TiO2 thin films for optical coatings by aluminum doping

    Science.gov (United States)