Regenerative braking system of PM synchronous motor
Gao, Qian; Lv, Chengxing; Zhao, Na; Zang, Hechao; Jiang, Huilue; Zhang, Zhaowen; Zhang, Fengli
2018-04-01
Permanent-magnet synchronous motor is widely adopted in many fields with the advantage of a high efficiency and a high torque density. Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist PMSM system achieve better fuel economy and lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes the design and testing of the regenerative braking systems of PMSM. The mode of PWM duty has been adjusted to control regenerative braking of PMSM using energy controller for the port-controlled Hamiltonian model. The simulation analysis indicates that a smooth control could be realized and the highest efficiency and the smallest current ripple could be achieved by Regenerative Braking Systems.
Sensorless Control of PM Synchronous Motors and Brushless DC Motors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Montesinos, D.; Galceran, Samuel; Blaabjerg, Frede
2005-01-01
This paper provides a review of the literature addressing sensorless operation methods of PM brushless machines. The methods explained are state-of-the-art of open and closed loop control strategies. The closed loop review includes those methods based on voltage and current measurements, those me...
Performance analysis of samarium cobalt P.M. synchronous motor fed from PWM inverters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahman, M.A.; Choudhury, M.A.
1985-01-01
This paper presents an analysis and performance of samarium cobalt permanent magnet (P.M.) synchronous motors fed from two types of voltage source pulse width modulated (PWM) inverters. The analysis and test results on the steady state performance of a P.M. motor fed from PWM inverters are presented. PWM inverters are used in variable voltage variable frequency applications to avoid a double conversion process of ordinary inverters. In drives, they are used for voltage and speed regulation of motors. Use of modulation technique in inverters also allow to eliminate or minimize selected harmonics from the inverter output voltage
PM Synchronous Motor Dynamic Modeling with Genetic Algorithm ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Adel
This paper proposes dynamic modeling simulation for ac Surface Permanent Magnet Synchronous ... Simulations are implemented using MATLAB with its genetic algorithm toolbox. .... selection, the process that drives biological evolution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karakaya, A.; Karakas, E.
2008-01-01
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors have nonlinear characteristics whose dynamics changes with time. In spite of this structure the permanent magnet synchronous motor has answered engineering problems in industry such as motion control which need high torque values. This paper obtains a nonlinear mathematical model for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and realizes stimulation of the obtained model in the Matlab/Simulink program. Motor parameters are determined by an experimental set-up and they are used in the motor model. Speed control of motor model is made with Fuzzy Logic and Self Tuning logic PI controllers. Using the speed graphs obtained, rise time, overshoot, steady-state error and settling time are analyzed and controller performances are compared. (author)
A Two-stage Kalman Filter for Sensorless Direct Torque Controlled PM Synchronous Motor Drive
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boyu Yi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal two-stage extended Kalman filter (OTSEKF for closed-loop flux, torque, and speed estimation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM to achieve sensorless DTC-SVPWM operation of drive system. The novel observer is obtained by using the same transformation as in a linear Kalman observer, which is proposed by C.-S. Hsieh and F.-C. Chen in 1999. The OTSEKF is an effective implementation of the extended Kalman filter (EKF and provides a recursive optimum state estimation for PMSMs using terminal signals that may be polluted by noise. Compared to a conventional EKF, the OTSEKF reduces the number of arithmetic operations. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed OTSEKF observer for DTC of PMSMs.
Krop, D.C.J.; Lomonova, E.A.; Jansen, J.W.; Paulides, J.J.H.
2009-01-01
Linear motors find their utilization in an increasing number of industrial applications. Permanent magnet linear synchronous motors (PMLSMs) are favorable in many applications due to their servo characteristics, robustness, and high force density. The major disadvantage of moving coil type PMLSMs is
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenye Wu
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Low-energy permanent magnet (PM such as ferrite is usually adopted in a PM-assisted reluctance (PMAREL motor to enhance the output torque and reduce costs. However, the relatively low magnetic energy product and remanence in such PMs may lead to the risk of demagnetization. By using two types of materials of rare-earth NdFeB and non-rare-earth ferrite PM, a new less-rare-earth hybrid PMAREL motor is proposed in this paper, where the output torque and the power factor can be improved obviously, and meanwhile the risk of irreversible demagnetization in ferrite PMs can be reduced significantly due to the existence of NdFeB PMs. To verify the validity of the proposed motor, the operating principles of the motor and the positive interaction influences between the two involved types of PMs are analyzed. Moreover, by using the finite element method, the torque characteristics and anti-demagnetization capabilities are also investigated in details. Both the theoretical analysis and simulated results confirm the advantages of the proposed motor.
Wu, Wenye; Zhu, Xiaoyong; Quan, Li; Fan, Deyang; Xiang, Zixuan
2017-05-01
Low-energy permanent magnet (PM) such as ferrite is usually adopted in a PM-assisted reluctance (PMAREL) motor to enhance the output torque and reduce costs. However, the relatively low magnetic energy product and remanence in such PMs may lead to the risk of demagnetization. By using two types of materials of rare-earth NdFeB and non-rare-earth ferrite PM, a new less-rare-earth hybrid PMAREL motor is proposed in this paper, where the output torque and the power factor can be improved obviously, and meanwhile the risk of irreversible demagnetization in ferrite PMs can be reduced significantly due to the existence of NdFeB PMs. To verify the validity of the proposed motor, the operating principles of the motor and the positive interaction influences between the two involved types of PMs are analyzed. Moreover, by using the finite element method, the torque characteristics and anti-demagnetization capabilities are also investigated in details. Both the theoretical analysis and simulated results confirm the advantages of the proposed motor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugimoto, H; Morishita, T; Tsuda, T; Takeda, T; Togawa, H; Oota, T; Ohmatsu, K; Yoshida, S
2008-01-01
We developed an axial gap permanent magnet type superconducting synchronous motor cooled by liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ). The motor includes 8 poles and 6 armature windings. The armature windings are made from BSCCO wire operated at the temperature level between 66K∼70K. The design of the rated output is 400kW at 250rpm. Because HTS wires produce AC loss, there are few motors developed with a superconducting armature winding. In a large capacity motor, HTS windings need to be connected in parallel way. However, the parallel connection causes different current flowing to each HTS winding. To solve this problem, we connected a current distributor to the motor. As a result, not only the current difference can be suppressed, but also the current of each winding can be adjusted freely. The low frequency and less flux penetrating HTS wire because of current distributor contribute to low AC loss. This motor is an axial gap rotating-field one, the cooling parts are fixed. This directly leads to simple cooling system. The motor is also brushless. This paper presents the structure, the analysis of the motor and the tests
Louis, Jean-Paul
2013-01-01
Synchronous motors are indubitably the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. Their control law is thus critical for combining at the same time high productivity to reduced energy consummation. As far as possible, the control algorithms must exploit the properties of these actuators. Therefore, this work draws on well adapted models resulting from the Park's transformation, for both the most traditional machines with sinusoidal field distribution and for machines with non-sinusoidal field distribution which are more and more used in
Control of non-conventional synchronous motors
Louis, Jean-Paul
2013-01-01
Classical synchronous motors are the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. However, numerous applications require efficient controls in non-conventional situations. Firstly, this is the case with synchronous motors supplied by thyristor line-commutated inverters, or with synchronous motors with faults on one or several phases. Secondly, many drive systems use non-conventional motors such as polyphase (more than three phases) synchronous motors, synchronous motors with double excitation, permanent magnet linear synchronous motors,
Linear Synchronous Motor Repeatability Tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ward, C.R.
2002-01-01
A cart system using linear synchronous motors was being considered for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). One of the applications in the PIP was the movement of a stack of furnace trays, filled with the waste form (pucks) from a stacking/unstacking station to several bottom loaded furnaces. A system was ordered to perform this function in the PIP Ceramic Prototype Test Facility (CPTF). This system was installed and started up in SRTC prior to being installed in the CPTF. The PIP was suspended and then canceled after the linear synchronous motor system was started up. This system was used to determine repeatability of a linear synchronous motor cart system for the Modern Pit Facility
The rediscovery of synchronous reluctance and ferrite permanent magnet motors tutorial course notes
Pellegrino, Gianmario; Bianchi, Nicola; Soong, Wen; Cupertino, Francesco
2016-01-01
This book offers an essential compendium on the analysis and design of synchronous motors for variable-speed applications. Focusing on synchronous reluctance and ferrite permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous reluctance machines, it provides a broad perspective on three-phase machines for variable speed applications, a field currently dominated by asynchronous machines and rare-earth PM synchronous machines. It also describes synchronous reluctance machines and PM machines without rare-earth materials, comparing them to state-of-the-art solutions. The book provides readers with extensive information on and finite element models of PM synchronous machines, including all relevant equations and with an emphasis on synchronous-reluctance and PM-assisted synchronous-reluctance machines. It covers ferrite-assisted machines, modeled as a subcase of PM-assistance, fractional slot combinations solutions, and a quantitative, normalized comparison of torque capability with benchmark PM machines. The book discusses a wealth o...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Fatu, M.
2008-01-01
This paper proposes a novel hybrid motion- sensorless control system for permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) using a new robust start-up method called I-f control, and a smooth transition to emf-based vector control. The I-f method is based on separate control of id, iq currents with the r......This paper proposes a novel hybrid motion- sensorless control system for permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) using a new robust start-up method called I-f control, and a smooth transition to emf-based vector control. The I-f method is based on separate control of id, iq currents......-adaptive compensator to eliminate dc-offset and phase-delay. Digital simulations for PMSM start-up with full load torque are presented for different initial rotor-positions. The transitions from I-f to emf motion-sensorless vector control and back as well, at very low-speeds, are fully validated by experimental...
Sensorless Speed Control including zero speed of Non Salient PM Synchronous Drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik
This paper presents a position sensorless drive of non salient pole PM synchronous motors for all speeds including zero speed. Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states...
Sensorless Speed Control including zero speed of Non Salient PM Synchronous Drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik
2005-01-01
This paper presents a position sensorless drive of non salient pole PM synchronous motors for all speeds including zero speed. Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states...
Sensorless speed Control including Zero Speed on Non Salient PM Synchronous Drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik
2006-01-01
This paper presents a position sensorless drive of non salient pole PM synchronous motors for all speeds including zero speed. Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hvenegaard, C.M.; Hansen, Mads P.R.; Groenborg Nikolaisen, C. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Nielsen, Sandie B. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); Ritchie, E.; Leban, K. (Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))
2009-12-15
The traditional asynchronous motor with aluminum rotor is today by far the most widespread and sold electric motor, but a new and more energy efficient type of engine - the permanent magnet motor (PM motor) - is expected in the coming years to win larger and larger market shares. Several engine manufacturers in Europe, USA and Asia are now beginning to market the PM motors, which can replace the traditional asynchronous motor. The project aims to uncover the pros and cons of replacing asynchronous motors including EFF1 engines with PM motors, including the price difference. Furthermore, it is identified how the efficiency of PM motors is affected by low load levels and at various forms of control. Finally, the energy savings potential is analysed, by replacing asynchronous motors with PM motors. The study includes laboratory tests of PM motors, made in a test stand at Danish Technological Institute. (ln)
Control of a superconducting synchronous motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Jiang, Q; Hong, Z; Coombs, T A [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)
2007-04-15
This paper presents a control algorithm for starting up a high temperature superconducting synchronous motor. The mathematical model of the motor has been established in m-file in Matlab and the parameters have been identified by means of the finite-element analysis method. Different starting methods for the motor have been compared and discussed, and eventually a hybrid control algorithm is proposed.
A Study on the Design of PM Exited Transverse Flux Linear Motor for Ropeless Elevator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Do Hyun; Bang, Deok Je; Kim, Jong Moo; Jeong, Yeon Ho [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea); Kim, Moon Hwan [Silla University (Korea)
2000-03-01
The topological investigations regarding magnetic circuit geometry and winding form of the transverse flux machine have brought up a variety of constructable arrangements with different features for several types of application[1, 2]. Here with, a novel PM-exited linear motor with inner mover, based on the transverse flux configuration leads to a considerable increase in power density for moving part. In this study we designed PM-exited transverse flux linear motor for ropeless elevator, whose output power density is higher and weight is lighter than conventional linear synchronous motors, When the designed motor in this study is applied to ropeless elevator, it is possible to increase power density more than 400% comparing with PM exited linear synchronous motor. The result of this study can be utilized for ropeless elevator or gearless direct linear moving system with high output[3]. (author). 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.
Comparison of capabilities of reluctance synchronous motor and induction motor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stumberger, Gorazd; Hadziselimovic, Miralem; Stumberger, Bojan; Miljavec, Damijan; Dolinar, Drago; Zagradisnik, Ivan
2006-01-01
This paper compares the capabilities of a reluctance synchronous motor (RSM) with those of an induction motor (IM). An RSM and IM were designed and made, with the same rated power and speed. They differ only in the rotor portion while their stators, housings and cooling systems are identical. The capabilities of both motors in a variable speed drive are evaluated by comparison of the results obtained by magnetically nonlinear models and by measurements
Synchronous motor with HTS-2G wires
Dezhin, D.; Ilyasov, R.; Kozub, S.; Kovalev, K.; Verzhbitsky, L.
2014-05-01
One of the applications of new high-temperature superconductor materials (HTS) is field coils for synchronous electrical machines. The use of YBCO 2G HTS tapes (HTS-2G) allows increasing of magnetic flux density in the air gap, which will increase the output power and reduce the dimensions of the motor. Such motors with improved characteristics can be successfully used in transportation as traction motor. In MAI-based "Center of Superconducting machines and devices" with the support of "Rosatom" has been designed and tested a prototype of the 50 kW synchronous motor with radial magnetic flux from a field-coils based on HTS-2G tapes. The experimental and theoretical results are presented.
Control of permanent magnet synchronous motors
Vaez-Zadeh, Sadegh
2018-01-01
This is the first comprehensive, coherent, and up-to-date book devoted solely to the control of permanent magnet synchronous (PMS) motors, as the fastest growing AC motor. It covers a deep and detailed presentation of major PMS motor modeling and control methods. The readers can find rich materials on the fundamentals of PMS motor control in addition to new motor control methods, which have mainly been developed in the last two decades, including recent advancements in the field in a systematic manner. These include extensive modeling of PMS motors and a full range of vector control and direct torque control schemes, in addition to predictive control, deadbeat control, and combined control methods. All major sensorless control and parameter estimation methods are also studied. The book covers about 10 machine models in various reference frames and 70 control and estimation schemes with sufficient analytical and implementation details including about 200 original figures. A great emphasis is placed on energy-s...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gaohong Xu
2017-05-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel permanent magnet (PM motor for high torque performance, in which hybrid PM material and asymmetric rotor design are applied. The hybrid PM material is adopted to reduce the consumption of rare-earth PM because ferrite PM is assisted to enhance the torque production. Meanwhile, the rotor structure is designed to be asymmetric by shifting the surface-insert PM (SPM, which is used to improve the torque performance, including average torque and torque ripple. Moreover, the reasons for improvement of the torque performance are explained by evaluation and analysis of the performances of the proposed motor. Compared with SPM motor and V-type motor, the merit of high utilization ratio of rare-earth PM is also confirmed, showing that the proposed motor can offer higher torque density and lower torque ripple simultaneously with less consumption of rare-earth PM.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Xiping
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a permanent magnet (PM-assisted synchronous reluctance machine (PMASynRM using ferrite magnets with the same power density as rareearth PM synchronous motors employed in Toyota Prius 2010. A suitable rotor structure for high torque density and high power density is discussed with respect to the demagnetization of ferrite magnets, mechanical strength and torque ripple. Some electromagnetic characteristics including torque, output power, loss and efficiency are calculated by 2-D finite element analysis (FEA. The analysis results show that a high power density and high efficiency of PMASynRM are obtained by using ferrite magnets.
Umans, Stephen D; Nisley, Donald L; Melfi, Michael J
2014-10-28
A line-start synchronous motor has a housing, a rotor shaft, and an output shaft. A soft-start coupling portion is operatively coupled to the output shaft and the rotor shaft. The soft-start coupling portion is configurable to enable the synchronous motor to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling. The synchronous motor is sufficiently rated to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling.
Social Motor Synchronization: Insights for Understanding Social Behavior in Autism.
Fitzpatrick, Paula; Romero, Veronica; Amaral, Joseph L; Duncan, Amie; Barnard, Holly; Richardson, Michael J; Schmidt, R C
2017-07-01
Impairments in social interaction and communication are critical features of ASD but the underlying processes are poorly understood. An under-explored area is the social motor synchronization that happens when we coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we explored the relationships between dynamical measures of social motor synchronization and assessments of ASD traits. We found (a) spontaneous social motor synchronization was associated with responding to joint attention, cooperation, and theory of mind while intentional social motor synchronization was associated with initiating joint attention and theory of mind; and (b) social motor synchronization was associated with ASD severity but not fully explained by motor problems. Findings suggest that objective measures of social motor synchronization may provide insights into understanding ASD traits.
Sensorless V/f Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel; Perera, P. D. Chandana; Galceran-Arellano, Samuel; Blaabjerg, Frede
2010-01-01
V/f control strategy for permanent magnet synchronous motors can be useful for HVAC applications, where not high performance is required. Permanent magnet synchronous motors have efficiency advantages over the induction motor. But open loop V/f control is not stable in the whole frequency range. As demonstrated, the V/f control strategy becomes
Design and control of a superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Hong, Z; Song, J; Fang, F; Coombs, T A
2007-01-01
This paper gives a detailed description of the design of a superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor. The parameters of the motor have been identified, and the torque equation has been stated. A direct torque control algorithm is introduced and applied to a traditional permanent magnet synchronous motor and the superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor described in this paper. The motor performance shows that the direct torque control algorithm provides excellent control to the superconducting motor, and guarantees that the magnitude of the operational armature currents is smaller than the value of the critical current of the superconducting tape used for stator winding
Design and control of a superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, Y [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Pei, R [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Hong, Z [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Song, J [Huazhong University of Science of Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Fang, F [Huazhong University of Science of Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Coombs, T A [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)
2007-07-15
This paper gives a detailed description of the design of a superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor. The parameters of the motor have been identified, and the torque equation has been stated. A direct torque control algorithm is introduced and applied to a traditional permanent magnet synchronous motor and the superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor described in this paper. The motor performance shows that the direct torque control algorithm provides excellent control to the superconducting motor, and guarantees that the magnitude of the operational armature currents is smaller than the value of the critical current of the superconducting tape used for stator winding.
Synchronization of motor neurons during locomotion in the neonatal rat
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tresch, Matthew C.; Kiehn, Ole
2002-01-01
We describe here the robust synchronization of motor neurons at a millisecond time scale during locomotor activity in the neonatal rat. Action potential activity of motor neuron pairs was recorded extracellularly using tetrodes during locomotor activity in the in vitro neonatal rat spinal cord....... Approximately 40% of motor neuron pairs recorded in the same spinal segment showed significant synchronization, with the duration of the central peak in cross-correlograms between motor neurons typically ranging between ∼ 30 and 100 msec. The percentage of synchronized motor neuron pairs was considerably higher...... between motor neurons persisted. On the other hand, both local and distant coupling between motor neurons were preserved after antagonism of gap junction coupling between motor neurons. These results demonstrate that motor neuron activity is strongly synchronized at a millisecond time scale during...
Modular PM Motor Drives for Automotive Traction Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, G.J.
2001-01-01
This paper presents modular permanent magnet (PM) motor drives for automotive traction applications. A partially modularized drive system consisting of a single PM motor and multiple inverters is described. The motor has multiple three-phase stator winding sets and each winding set is driven with a separate three-phase inverter module. A truly modularized inverter and motor configuration based on an axial-gap PM motor is then introduced, in which identical PM motor modules are mounted on a common shaft and each motor module is powered by a separate inverter module. The advantages of the modular approach for both inverter and motor include: (1) power rating scalability-one design meets different power requirements by simply stacking an adequate number of modules, thus avoiding redesigning and reducing the development cost, (2) increased fault tolerance, and (3) easy repairing. A prototype was constructed by using two inverters and an axial-gap PM motor with two sets of three-phase stat or windings, and it is used to assist the diesel engine in a hybrid electric vehicle converted from a Chevrolet Suburban. The effect of different pulse-width-modulation strategies for both motoring and regenerative modes on current control is analyzed. Torque and regenerative control algorithms are implemented with a digital signal processor. Analytical and initial testing results are included in the paper
Acoustic Characterization of a Stationary Field Synchronous Motor
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Woodward, E
2001-01-01
.... We investigate the gross acoustic signature of a notional stationary field synchronous motor utilized as a marine propulsion motor in a naval combatant using the following methodology: (1) model the forces...
Features of Synchronous Electronically Commutated Motors in Servomotor Operation Modes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dirba J.
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The authors consider the features and operation specifics of the synchronous permanent magnet motors and the synchronous reluctance motors with electronic commutation in servomotor operation modes. Calculation results show that mechanical and control characteristics of studied motors are close to a linear shape. The studied motor control is proposed to implement similar to phase control of induction servomotor; it means that angle θ (angle between vectors of the supply voltage and non-load electromotive force or angle ε (angle between rotor direct axis and armature magnetomotive force axis is changed. The analysis results show that synchronous electronically commutated motors could be used as servomotors.
Features of Synchronous Electronically Commutated Motors in Servomotor Operation Modes
Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.; Dobriyan, R.
2017-04-01
The authors consider the features and operation specifics of the synchronous permanent magnet motors and the synchronous reluctance motors with electronic commutation in servomotor operation modes. Calculation results show that mechanical and control characteristics of studied motors are close to a linear shape. The studied motor control is proposed to implement similar to phase control of induction servomotor; it means that angle θ (angle between vectors of the supply voltage and non-load electromotive force) or angle ɛ (angle between rotor direct axis and armature magnetomotive force axis) is changed. The analysis results show that synchronous electronically commutated motors could be used as servomotors.
A seismic vertical vibrator driven by linear synchronous motors
Noorlandt, R.P.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Dams, J.; Jenneskens, R.
2015-01-01
A linear synchronous motor (LSM) is an electric motor that can produce large controllable forces and is therefore suitable as a driving engine for a seismic vibrator. This motor consists of two independent elements, a magnet track and a coil track, allowing practically unlimited motor displacements.
Permanent magnet synchronous and brushless DC motor drives
Ramu, Krishnan
2009-01-01
Presents an introduction to machines, power devices, inverters, and control. This book covers pm synchronous machines, including modeling, implementation, control strategies, flux weakening operations, parameter sensitivity, sensorless control, and intelligent control applications.
Modelling a linear PM motor including magnetic saturation
Polinder, H.; Slootweg, J.G.; Compter, J.C.; Hoeijmakers, M.J.
2002-01-01
The use of linear permanent-magnet (PM) actuators increases in a wide variety of applications because of the high force density, robustness and accuracy. The paper describes the modelling of a linear PM motor applied in, for example, wafer steppers, including magnetic saturation. This is important
Synchronization of low- and high-threshold motor units.
Defreitas, Jason M; Beck, Travis W; Ye, Xin; Stock, Matt S
2014-04-01
We examined the degree of synchronization for both low- and high-threshold motor unit (MU) pairs at high force levels. MU spike trains were recorded from the quadriceps during high-force isometric leg extensions. Short-term synchronization (between -6 and 6 ms) was calculated for every unique MU pair for each contraction. At high force levels, earlier recruited motor unit pairs (low-threshold) demonstrated relatively low levels of short-term synchronization (approximately 7.3% extra firings than would have been expected by chance). However, the magnitude of synchronization increased significantly and linearly with mean recruitment threshold (reaching 22.1% extra firings for motor unit pairs recruited above 70% MVC). Three potential mechanisms that could explain the observed differences in synchronization across motor unit types are proposed and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Loss analysis of a 1 MW class HTS synchronous motor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baik, S K; Kwon, Y K; Kim, H M; Lee, J D; Kim, Y C; Park, H J; Kwon, W S; Park, G S
2009-01-01
The HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) synchronous motor has advantages over the conventional synchronous motor such as smaller size and higher efficiency. Higher efficiency is due to smaller loss than the conventional motor, so it is important to do loss analysis in order to develop a machine with higher efficiency. This paper deals with machine losses those are dissipated in each part of a HTS synchronous motor. These losses are analyzed theoretically and compared with loss data obtained from experimental results of a 1 MW class HTS synchronous motor. Each machine loss is measured based on IEEE 115 standard and the results are analyzed and considered based on the manufacturing of the test machine.
Induction motor for superconducting synchronous/asynchronous motor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Litz, D.C.; Haller, H.E. III.
1975-01-01
An induction motor structure for use on the outside of a superconducting rotor comprising a cylindrical shell of solid and laminated, magnetic iron with squirrel cage windings embedded in the outer circumference of said shell is described. The sections of the shell between the superconducting windings of the rotor are solid magnetic iron. The sections of the shell over the superconducting windings are made of laminations of magnetic iron. These laminations are parallel to the axis of the machine and are divided in halves with the laminations in each half oriented in diagonal opposition so that the intersection of the laminations forms a V. This structure presents a relatively high reluctance to leakage flux from the superconducting windings in the synchronous operating mode, while presenting a low reluctance path to the stator flux during asynchronous operation
Failure Diagnosis for Demagnetization in Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takeo Ishikawa
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Since a high degree of reliability is necessary for permanent magnet synchronous motors, the detection of a precursor for the demagnetization of permanent magnets is very important. This paper investigates the diagnosis of very slight PM demagnetization. The permanent magnet volume is altered so as to mimic the effect of demagnetization. This paper investigates the influence of demagnetization by using several methods: the 3D finite element analysis (FEA of the motor, the measurement of high-frequency impedance, and the measurement and FEA of the stator voltage and current under vector control. We have obtained the following results. The back-EMF is proportional to permanent magnet volume, and there is no difference in the demagnetization in the radial direction and in the axial direction. Even harmonics and subharmonics of flux density at the teeth tip could be useful for diagnosis if a search coil is installed there. The relatively low frequency resistance at the d-axis position is useful for diagnosis. Under vector control, the stator voltage is useful except in an intermediate torque range, and the intermediate torque is expressed by a simple equation.
Dynamic eccentricity fault diagnosis in round rotor synchronous motors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebrahimi, Bashir Mahdi; Etemadrezaei, Mohammad; Faiz, Jawad
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → We have presented a novel approach to detect dynamic eccentricity in round rotor synchronous motors. → We have introduced an efficient index based on processing torque using time series data mining method. → The stator current spectrum of the motor under different levels of fault and load are computed. → Winding function method has been employed to model healthy and faulty synchronous motors. -- Abstract: In this paper, a novel approach is presented to detect dynamic eccentricity in round rotor synchronous motors. For this, an efficient index is introduced based on processing developed torque using time series data mining (TSDM) method. This index can be utilized to diagnose eccentricity fault and its degree. The capability of this index to predict dynamic eccentricity is illustrated by investigation of load variation impacts on the nominated index. Stator current spectrum of the faulty synchronous motor under different loads and dynamic eccentricity degrees are computed. Effects of the dynamic eccentricity and load variation simultaneously are scrutinized on the magnitude of 17th and 19th harmonic components as traditional indices for eccentricity fault diagnosis in synchronous motors. Necessity signals and parameters for processing and feature extraction are evaluated by winding function method which is employed to model healthy and faulty synchronous motors.
MODELING OF TRACTION SYNCHRONOUS PERMANENT MAGNET MOTOR MODES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y.N. Vas’kovsky
2013-10-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model of electromagnetic field for simulating operational modes of traction synchronous motors with permanent magnets intended for electric vehicles is developed. The mathematical model takes into account real-time rotor rotation and allows calculating and analyzing the motor basic running characteristics as time functions.
Design and simulation of permanent magnet synchronous motor control system
Li, Li; Liu, Yongqiu
2018-06-01
In recent years, with the development of power electronics, microelectronics, new motor control theory and rare earth permanent magnet materials, permanent magnet synchronous motors have been rapidly applied. Permanent magnet synchronous motors have the advantages of small size, low loss and high efficiency. Today, energy conservation and environmental protection are increasingly valued. It is very necessary to study them. Permanent magnet synchronous motor control system has a wide range of application prospects in the fields of electric vehicles, ships and other transportation. Using the simulation function of MATLAB/SIMULINK, a modular design structure was used to simulate the whole system model of speed loop adjustment, current PI modulation, SVPWM (Space Vector Pulse Width Module) wave generation and double closed loop. The results show that this control method has good robustness, and this method can improve the design efficiency and shorten the system design time. In this article, the analysis of the control principle of modern permanent magnet synchronous motor and the various processes of MATLAB simulation application will be analyzed in detail. The basic theory, basic method and application technology of the permanent magnet synchronous motor control system are systematically introduced.
Kondo, Minoru; Kawamura, Junya; Terauchi, Nobuo
Performance tests are carried out to demonstrate the superiority of a permanent magnet synchronous motor to an induction motor as a traction motor for high-speed train. A prototype motor was manufactured by replacing the rotor of a conventional induction motor. The test results show that the permanent magnet motor is lighter, efficient and more silent than the induction motor because of the different rotor structure.
Controlling chaos in the permanent magnet synchronous motor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zribi, Mohamed; Oteafy, Ahmed; Smaoui, Nejib
2009-01-01
The Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is known to exhibit chaotic behavior under certain conditions. This paper proposes to use an instantaneous Lyapunov exponent control algorithm to control the PMSM. One of the objectives of the control approach is to bring order to the PMSM and to drive it to any user-defined desired state. Simulation results under different operating conditions indicate that the proposed control scheme works well. Moreover, the proposed Lyapunov exponent control scheme is able to induce chaos on the permanent magnet synchronous motor. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme in chaotifing the response of the motor.
Testing of motor unit synchronization model for localized muscle fatigue.
Naik, Ganesh R; Kumar, Dinesh K; Yadav, Vivek; Wheeler, Katherine; Arjunan, Sridhar
2009-01-01
Spectral compression of surface electromyogram (sEMG) is associated with onset of localized muscle fatigue. The spectral compression has been explained based on motor unit synchronization theory. According to this theory, motor units are pseudo randomly excited during muscle contraction, and with the onset of muscle fatigue the recruitment pattern changes such that motor unit firings become more synchronized. While this is widely accepted, there is little experimental proof of this phenomenon. This paper has used source dependence measures developed in research related to independent component analysis (ICA) to test this theory.
Coupling with concentric contact around motor shaft for line start synchronous motor
Melfi, Michael J.; Burdeshaw, Galen E.
2017-10-03
A method comprises providing a line-start synchronous motor. The motor has a stator, a rotor core disposed within the stator, and a motor shaft. In accordance with a step of the method, a coupling for coupling a load to the motor is provided. The coupling has a motor shaft attachment portion configured to provide substantially concentric contact around the shaft at the end of the motor shaft. The coupling has a load attachment portion configured to operatively connect to a load. In accordance with a step of the method, a load is coupled to the motor with the coupling, and driven from start to at least near synchronous speed during steady state operation of the motor with a load coupled thereto. The motor shaft attachment portion may comprise a bushing assembly with matching and opposed tapered surfaces that cooperate to secure the motor shaft attachment portion around the motor shaft.
Design of permanent magnet synchronous motor within minimum cost
Півняк, Геннадій Григорович; Бешта, Олександр Степанович; Фурса, Сергій Григорійович; Neuberger, Nikolaus; Nolle, N.
2010-01-01
The article describes design and simulation experience of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The design goal is to develop PMSM of the least possible cost. For that purpose the standard induction motor stator was applied as a basic solution and permanent magnets were installed in rotor. Simulation results are presented, the dependence of efficiency and total loss on magnet material mass are obtained. The optimal value of permanent magnets is estimated for the given electric motor frame.
Deng, Zhenhua; Shang, Jing; Nian, Xiaohong
2015-11-01
In this paper, two coupling permanent magnet synchronous motors system with nonlinear constraints is studied. First of all, the mathematical model of the system is established according to the engineering practices, in which the dynamic model of motor and the nonlinear coupling effect between two motors are considered. In order to keep the two motors synchronization, a synchronization controller based on load observer is designed via cross-coupling idea and interval matrix. Moreover, speed, position and current signals of two motor all are taken as self-feedback signal as well as cross-feedback signal in the proposed controller, which is conducive to improving the dynamical performance and the synchronization performance of the system. The proposed control strategy is verified by simulation via Matlab/Simulink program. The simulation results show that the proposed control method has a better control performance, especially synchronization performance, than that of the conventional PI controller. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The study of transient processes in the asynchronous starting of the synchronous motor
Alexandru Bârlea; Olivian Chiver
2012-01-01
Starting synchronous motors can be achieved by several ethods: starting with an auxiliary motor launch, starting in asynchronous regim, by feeding from a variable frequency source, auto-synchronization with the network.. In our case we study the transient processes in a asynchronous regim . In this case the synchronous motor is started like a squirrel cage induction motor . To start, the synchronous motor is equipped with a starting winding cage placed in the pole pieces of polar inducers; la...
Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor
Coffey, Howard T.
1993-01-01
A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle leviation.
Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor
Coffey, H.T.
1993-10-19
A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle levitation. 3 figures.
Evaluating the importance of social motor synchronization and motor skill for understanding autism.
Fitzpatrick, Paula; Romero, Veronica; Amaral, Joseph L; Duncan, Amie; Barnard, Holly; Richardson, Michael J; Schmidt, R C
2017-10-01
Impairments in social interaction and communicating with others are core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the specific processes underlying such social competence impairments are not well understood. An important key for increasing our understanding of ASD-specific social deficits may lie with the social motor synchronization that takes place when we implicitly coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we tested whether dynamical measures of synchronization differentiate children with ASD from controls and further explored the relationships between synchronization ability and motor control problems. We found (a) that children with ASD exhibited different and less stable patterns of social synchronization ability than controls; (b) children with ASD performed motor movements that were slower and more variable in both spacing and timing; and (c) some social synchronization that involved motor timing was related to motor ability but less rhythmic synchronization was not. These findings raise the possibility that objective dynamical measures of synchronization ability and motor skill could provide new insights into understanding the social deficits in ASD that could ultimately aid clinical diagnosis and prognosis. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1687-1699. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Comparison of linear synchronous and induction motors
2004-06-01
A propulsion prade study was conducted as part of the Colorado Maglev Project of FTA's Urban Maglev Technology Development Program to identify and evaluate prospective linear motor designs that could potentially meet the system performance requiremen...
Synchronous motor with hybrid permanent magnets on the rotor.
Slusarek, Barbara; Kapelski, Dariusz; Antal, Ludwik; Zalas, Pawel; Gwoździewicz, Maciej
2014-07-10
Powder metallurgy allows designers of electric motors to implement new magnetic circuit structures. A relatively new concept is the use of a magnet system consisting of various types of magnets on one rotor, for example sintered and bonded magnets. This concept has been applied to the design and manufacture of the four-pole rotor of a synchronous motor with 400 W power and a rotational speed of 1500 rpm. In this motor, the stator of an asynchronous motor type Sh 71-4B is applied. The application of the new construction of the rotor resulted in an increase in motor efficiency and power factor compared to an asynchronous motor with the same volume.
Synchronous Motor with Hybrid Permanent Magnets on the Rotor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barbara Slusarek
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Powder metallurgy allows designers of electric motors to implement new magnetic circuit structures. A relatively new concept is the use of a magnet system consisting of various types of magnets on one rotor, for example sintered and bonded magnets. This concept has been applied to the design and manufacture of the four-pole rotor of a synchronous motor with 400 W power and a rotational speed of 1500 rpm. In this motor, the stator of an asynchronous motor type Sh 71-4B is applied. The application of the new construction of the rotor resulted in an increase in motor efficiency and power factor compared to an asynchronous motor with the same volume.
Nonlinear control of permanent magnet synchronous motor driving a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper presents a non-linear control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) fed by a PWM voltage source inverter. To improve the performance of this control technique, the input-output linearization technique is proposed for a system driving a mechanical load with two masses. In order to ensure a steady ...
Position sensor for linear synchronous motors employing halbach arrays
Post, Richard Freeman
2014-12-23
A position sensor suitable for use in linear synchronous motor (LSM) drive systems employing Halbach arrays to create their magnetic fields is described. The system has several advantages over previously employed ones, especially in its simplicity and its freedom from being affected by weather conditions, accumulated dirt, or electrical interference from the LSM system itself.
Design Challenges and Potentials of HTS Synchronous Motor for Superbus
Ani, S.O.; Polinder, H.; Ferreira, J.A.; Ockels, W.J.
2009-01-01
This paper discusses the possibilities of applying high temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor to Superbus, an alternative and sustainable type of public transportation developed at TU Delft. Two important factors within the Superbus drive that influence the operating range are weight
Air Compressor Driving with Synchronous Motors at Optimal Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iuliu Petrica
2010-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper a method of optimal compensation of the reactive load by the synchronous motors, driving the air compressors, used in mining enterprises is presented, taking into account that in this case, the great majority of the equipment (compressors, pumps are generally working a constant load.
Casula, Elias P; Mayer, Isabella M S; Desikan, Mahalekshmi; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Rothwell, John C; Orth, Michael
2018-03-01
In Huntington's disease there is evidence of structural damage in the motor system, but it is still unclear how to link this to the behavioral disorder of movement. One feature of choreic movement is variable timing and coordination between sequences of actions. We postulate this results from desynchronization of neural activity in cortical motor areas. The objective of this study was to explore the ability to synchronize activity in a motor network using transcranial magnetic stimulation and to relate this to timing of motor performance. We examined synchronization in oscillatory activity of cortical motor areas in response to an external input produced by a pulse of transcranial magnetic stimulation. We combined this with EEG to compare the response of 16 presymptomatic Huntington's disease participants with 16 age-matched healthy volunteers to test whether the strength of synchronization relates to the variability of motor performance at the following 2 tasks: a grip force task and a speeded-tapping task. Phase synchronization in response to M1 stimulation was lower in Huntington's disease than healthy volunteers (P synchronization (r = -0.356; P synchronization and desynchronization could be a physiological basis for some key clinical features of Huntington's disease. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Melfi, Michael J.
2015-10-20
A mechanical soft-start type coupling is used as an interface between a line start, synchronous motor and a heavy load to enable the synchronous motor to bring the heavy load up to or near synchronous speed. The soft-start coupling effectively isolates the synchronous motor from the load for enough time to enable the synchronous motor to come up to full speed. The soft-start coupling then brings the load up to or near synchronous speed.
Theoretical and Experimental Research of Synchronous Reluctance Motor
Dobriyan, R.; Vitolina, S.; Lavrinovicha, L.; Dirba, J.
2017-10-01
The paper presents the research on evaluation of accuracy of magnetic field calculations of synchronous reluctance motor in comparison with the results obtained in experiments. Magnetic field calculations are performed with the finite element method to determine values of the magnetic flux and electromagnetic torque according to the current value in motor stator and load angle between the rotor direct-axis and axis of stator magnetomotive force (MMF). Experimental values of magnetic flux and electromagnetic torque are obtained on motor with locked rotor while equivalent direct current is applied to the stator windings. The research shows that the results obtained from the magnetic field calculations coincide well with the experimental data.
Fuzzy adaptive speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor
Choi, Han Ho; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Rae-Young
2012-05-01
A fuzzy adaptive speed controller is proposed for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The proposed fuzzy adaptive speed regulator is insensitive to model parameter and load torque variations because it does not need any accurate knowledge about the motor parameter and load torque values. The stability of the proposed control system is also proven. The proposed adaptive speed regulator system is implemented by using a TMS320F28335 floating point DSP. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy adaptive speed controller under uncertainties such as motor parameter and load torque variations using a prototype PMSM drive system.
A New Torque Control System of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evstratov Andrey
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The article describes a new approach to control of permanent magnet synchronous motor drive based on the analysis of the electromechanical transformation. The proposed control system provides quick response and low ripple of the motor torque and flux. To synthesis this control system, the authors put the electromagnetic torque and the modulus of stator flux vector as controlled values and use the Lyapunov’s second method. In addition, the stator voltage constriction and ability of low-pass filtration are taken into account. The investigation of the proposed control system has carried out with the simulation and the experimental research which have confirmed that the proposed control system correspond to all above-mentioned control tasks and the permanent magnet synchronous motor controlled under this system may be recommended to use in robotics.
Dual motor drive vehicle speed synchronization and coordination control strategy
Huang, Hao; Tu, Qunzhang; Jiang, Chenming; Ma, Limin; Li, Pei; Zhang, Hongxing
2018-04-01
Multi-motor driven systems are more and more widely used in the field of electric engineering vehicles, as a result of the road conditions and the variable load of engineering vehicles, makes multi-motors synchronization coordinated control system as a key point of the development of the electric vehicle drive system. This paper based on electrical machinery transmission speed in the process of engineering vehicles headed for coordinated control problem, summarized control strategies at home and abroad in recent years, made analysis and comparison of the characteristics, finally discussed the trend of development of the multi-motor coordination control, provided a reference for synchronized control system research of electric drive engineering vehicles.
Design and AC loss analysis of a superconducting synchronous motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, Q [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Majoros, M [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University (United States); Hong, Z [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Campbell, A M [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Coombs, T A [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)
2006-11-15
This paper gives a conceptual design of a superconducting synchronous motor consisting of both high-temperature superconducting rotating field winding and armature winding. The AC losses of the armature winding of the motor have been investigated experimentally and numerically, by considering the self-field of the superconducting coils and the rotating magnetic field exposed on the armature winding. The recent developments of YBCO-coated conductors present the possibility of achieving a wholly superconducting machine of significantly smaller size and weight than a conventional machine. Both the rotating field winding and the armature winding are composed of YBCO high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils. A low AC loss armature winding design has been developed for this superconducting synchronous motor. The performance of the machine was investigated by modelling with the finite-element method. The machine's torque is calculated from first principles by considering the angle between the field and the armature main flux lines.
Performance of claw-poled PM-stepping motor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, C.P.; Jeng, G.R.; Chen, W.C.; Tsai, M.C.; Wu, K.T.; Yao, Y.D.
2007-01-01
Present work is to analyze the performance of a permanent-magnetic (PM) stepping motor with claw poles by using the magnetic-circuit simulation technique. In this paper, we calculate the torque characteristics of the motor, such as the detent and the holding torques, and the step-position error by changing the gap between the upper and the lower stators and the staggered angle between the two stators. Through comparison of numerical data with experiment measurements, we found that the detent torque could be effectively reduced by increasing the stator-to-stator gap and further by decreasing the step-position error. Furthermore, the holding torque could be unchanged as the stator assemblage changed; however, it would be degenerated under the condition of low magnetization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pitic, Cristian Ilie; Tutelea, Lucian; Boldea, Ion
2004-01-01
and the parameters of the machine have to be known precisely. The present paper introduces a series of the tests for parameters and efficiency determination of a PM-assisted RSM in the generator mode. The testing methods consist of standstill tests (dc decay), generator no load testing with capacitor and on load ac...... and diode-rectifier dc tests. Satisfactory results are obtained but some unresolved questions are also raised....
Asynchronous slip-ring motor synchronized with permanent magnets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Glinka Tadeusz
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The electric LSPMSM motor presented in the paper differs from standard induction motor by rotor design. The insulated start-up winding is located in slots along the rotor circumference. The winding ends are connected to the slip-rings. The rotor core contains permanent magnets. The electromechanical characteristics for synchronous operation were calculated, as were the start-up characteristics for operation with a short-circuited rotor winding. Two model motors were used for the calculations, the V-shaped Permanent Magnet (VPM – Fig. 3, and the Linear Permanent Magnet (IPM – Fig. 4, both rated at 14.5 kW. The advantages of the investigated motor are demonstrated in the conclusions.
Programmable logic controller based synchronous motor excitation system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janda Žarko
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a 3.5 MW synchronous motor excitation system reconstruction. In the proposed solution programmable logic controller is used to control motor, which drives the turbo compressor. Comparing to some other solutions that are used in similar situations, the proposed solution is superior due to its flexibility and usage of mass-production hardware. Moreover, the implementation of PLC enables easy integration of the excitation system with the other technological processes in the plant as well as in the voltage regulation of 'smart grid' system. Also, implementation of various optimization algorithms can be done comfortably and it does not require additional investment in hardware. Some experimental results that depict excitation current during motor start-up, as well as, measured static characteristics of the motor, were presented.
World championship with synchronous motors; Mit Synchronmotoren zur Weltmeisterschaft
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rapp, Juergen [AMK Arnold Mueller GmbH und Co. KG, Kirchheim/Teck (Germany). Technisches Marketing
2011-03-15
The Greenteam of Stuttgart University was clearly superior in the Formular Student Electric with their electric racing car EO711-1. The racing car accelerates from 0 km/h to 100 km/h in 3.3 s, owing to two permanently excited synchronous motors by AMK which are commonly used in mechanical engineering applications. The motors communicate in real time with the current inverters and with the control unit that was also supplied by AMK of Kirchheim/Teck. In all, a drive concept with high power density was obtained.
Impulsive control of permanent magnet synchronous motors with parameters uncertainties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Dong; Zhang Xiaohong; Wang Shilong; Yan Dan; Wang Hui
2008-01-01
The permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) may have chaotic behaviours for the uncertain values of parameters or under certain working conditions, which threatens the secure and stable operation of motor-driven. It is important to study methods of controlling or suppressing chaos in PMSMs. In this paper, robust stabilities of PMSM with parameter uncertainties are investigated. After the uncertain matrices which represent the variable system parameters are formulated through matrix analysis, a novel asymptotical stability criterion is established. Some illustrated examples are also given to show the effectiveness of the obtained results
Estimation of parameters of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, C.C.; Chang, S.M.; Pan, C.T.; Chang, T.Y.
2002-01-01
This paper presents a magnetic circuit model to the estimation of machine parameters of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine. It extends the earlier work of Hwang and Cho that focused mainly on the magnetic aspects of motor design. The proposed model used to calculate EMF, d- and q-axis reactances. These calculations are compared to those from finite element analysis and measurement with good agreement
Estimation of parameters of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors
Hwang, C C; Pan, C T; Chang, T Y
2002-01-01
This paper presents a magnetic circuit model to the estimation of machine parameters of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine. It extends the earlier work of Hwang and Cho that focused mainly on the magnetic aspects of motor design. The proposed model used to calculate EMF, d- and q-axis reactances. These calculations are compared to those from finite element analysis and measurement with good agreement.
Dynamics and Stability of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor
He, Ren; Han, Qingzhen
2017-01-01
The aim of this article is to explore the dynamic characteristics and stability of the permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). PMSM equilibrium local stability condition and Hopf bifurcation condition, pitchfork bifurcation condition, and fold bifurcation condition have been derived by using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion and the bifurcation theory, respectively. Bifurcation curves of the equilibrium with single and double parameters are obtained by continuation method. Numerical simulations...
Motion Sensorless Control of BLDC PM Motor with Offline FEM Info Assisted State Observer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stirban, Alin; Boldea, Ion; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel
2010-01-01
This paper describes a new offline FEM assisted position and speed observer, for brushless dc (BLDC) PM motor drive sensorless control, based on the line-to-line PM flux linkage estimation. The zero-crossing of the line-to-line PM flux linkage occurs right in the middle of two commutation points...... identification. Digital simulations and experimental results are shown, demonstrating the reliability of the FEM assisted position and speed observer for BLDC PM motor sensorless control operation....
Robust finite-time chaos synchronization of uncertain permanent magnet synchronous motors.
Chen, Qiang; Ren, Xuemei; Na, Jing
2015-09-01
In this paper, a robust finite-time chaos synchronization scheme is proposed for two uncertain third-order permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). The whole synchronization error system is divided into two cascaded subsystems: a first-order subsystem and a second-order subsystem. For the first subsystem, we design a finite-time controller based on the finite-time Lyapunov stability theory. Then, according to the backstepping idea and the adding a power integrator technique, a second finite-time controller is constructed recursively for the second subsystem. No exogenous forces are required in the controllers design but only the direct-axis (d-axis) and the quadrature-axis (q-axis) stator voltages are used as manipulated variables. Comparative simulations are provided to show the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed method. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Flux-weakening control methods for hybrid excitation synchronous motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mingming Huang
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The hybrid excitation synchronous motor (HESM, which aim at combining the advantages of permanent magnet motor and wound excitation motor, have the characteristics of low-speed high-torque hill climbing and wide speed range. Firstly, a new kind of HESM is presented in the paper, and its structure and mathematical model are illustrated. Then, based on a space voltage vector control, a novel flux-weakening method for speed adjustment in the high speed region is presented. The unique feature of the proposed control method is that the HESM driving system keeps the q-axis back-EMF components invariable during the flux-weakening operation process. Moreover, a copper loss minimization algorithm is adopted to reduce the copper loss of the HESM in the high speed region. Lastly, the proposed method is validated by the simulation and the experimental results.
Rotor design of a novel self-start type permanent magnet synchronous motor
Egawa, T; Higuchi, Tsuyoshi; Yokoi, Yuichi; Abe, T; Miyamoto, Yasuhiro; Ohto, M
2012-01-01
Recently, permanent magnet type synchronous motor has been used widely for industry application. In the paper, we propose a novel self-start type permanent magnet synchronous motor with squirrel-cage and analyze the basic characteristics of the motor. We try to increase the efficiency by the rotor design with the finite element analysis.
On-line efficiency optimization of a synchronous reluctance motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lubin, Thierry; Razik, Hubert; Rezzoug, Abderrezak [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, GREEN, CNRS-UMR 7037, Universite Henri Poincare, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)
2007-04-15
This paper deals with an on-line optimum-efficiency control of a synchronous reluctance motor drive. The input power minimization control is implemented with a search controller using Fibonacci search algorithm. It searches the optimal reference value of the d-axis stator current for which the input power is minimum. The input power is calculated from the measured dc-bus current and dc-bus voltage of the inverter. A rotor-oriented vector control of the synchronous reluctance machine with the optimization efficiency controller is achieved with a DSP board (TMS302C31). Experimental results are presented to validate the proposed control methods. It is shown that stability problems can appear during the search process. (author)
Loss Minimization Sliding Mode Control of IPM Synchronous Motor Drives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehran Zamanifar
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a nonlinear loss minimization control strategy for an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM based on a newly developed sliding mode approach is presented. This control method sets force the speed control of the IPMSM drives and simultaneously ensures the minimization of the losses besides the uncertainties exist in the system such as parameter variations which have undesirable effects on the controller performance except at near nominal conditions. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
Vibration analysis of the synchronous motor of a propane compressor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nogueira, D.; Rangel Junior, J. de S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. - PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: diananogueira@petrobras.com.br, joilson_jr@petrobras.com.br; Moreira, R.G. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. - PETROBRAS, Cabiunas, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: ricgmoreira@petrobras.com.br
2010-07-01
This paper aims at describing the Analysis of a synchronous electric motor which presented high vibration levels (shaft displacement and bearing housing vibration) during the commissioning process, as well as propose the best practices for the solution of vibration problems in similar situations. This motor belongs to the propane centrifugal compressor installed at a Gas Compression Station. The methodology used in this study conducted an investigation of the problems presented in the motor through the execution of many types of tests and the analysis of the results. The main evaluations were performed, such as the vibration analysis and the rotor dynamic analysis. The electric motor was shipped back to the manufacturer's shop, where the manufacturer made certain modifications to the motor structure so as to improve the structure stiffness, such as the improvement of the support and the increase of the thickness of the structural plates. In addition to that, the dynamic balancing of the rotating set was checked. Finally, the excitation at a critical speed close to the rated speed was found after Rotor Dynamics Analysis was performed again, because of the increase in bearing clearances. The bearing shells were replaced so as to increase the separation margin between these frequencies. In order to verify the final condition of the motor, the manufacturer repeated the standard tests - FAT (Factory Acceptance Tests) - according to internal procedure and international standards. As a result of this work, it was possible to conclude that there was a significant increase in the vibration levels due to unbalance conditions. It was also possible to conclude that there are close relationships between high vibration levels and unbalance conditions, as well as between high vibration levels and the stiffness of the system and its support. Certain points of attention related to the manufacturing process of the motor compressor are described at the end of this paper, based
Discrete Current Control Strategy of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Dong
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A control strategy of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs, which is different from the traditional vector control (VC and direct torque control (DTC, is proposed. Firstly, the circular rotating magnetic field is analyzed on the simplified model and discredited into stepping magnetic field. The stepping magnetomotive force will drive the rotor to run as the stepping motor. Secondly, the stator current orientation is used to build the control model instead of rotor flux orientation. Then, the discrete current control strategy is set and adopted in positioning control. Three methods of the strategy are simulated in computer and tested on the experiment platform of PMSM. The control precision is also verified through the experiment.
Fuzzy Impulsive Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, Li; Shi-Long, Wang; Xiao-Hong, Zhang; Dan, Yang; Hui, Wang
2008-01-01
The permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) may experience chaotic behaviours with systemic parameters falling into a certain area or under certain working conditions, which threaten the secure and stable operation of motor-driven. Hence, it is important to study the methods of controlling or suppressing chaos in PMSMs. In this work, the Takagi–Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy impulsive control model for PMSMs is established via the T-S modelling methodology and impulsive technology. Based on the new model, the control conditions of asymptotical stability and exponential stability for PMSMs have been derived by the Lyapunov method. Finally, an illustrated example is also given to show the effectiveness of the obtained results
Fixed-Time Stability Analysis of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors with Novel Adaptive Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maoxing Liu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We firstly investigate the fixed-time stability analysis of uncertain permanent magnet synchronous motors with novel control. Compared with finite-time stability where the convergence rate relies on the initial permanent magnet synchronous motors state, the settling time of fixed-time stability can be adjusted to desired values regardless of initial conditions. Novel adaptive stability control strategy for the permanent magnet synchronous motors is proposed, with which we can stabilize permanent magnet synchronous motors within fixed time based on the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, some simulation and comparison results are given to illustrate the validity of the theoretical results.
Rotor compound concept for designing an industrial HTS synchronous motor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashani, M.; Hosseina, M.; Sarrafan, K.; Darabi, A.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • The superconducting tapes are used in the industrial synchronous motor winding due to their electrical characteristics. • The high magnetic field with no electric loss is obtainable by using the superconducting rotor coils. • The rotor core can be replaced by light non-magnetic materials which drops the rotor total weight up to 50%. • Decreasing the rotor weight was verified by FEM analyses for a sample motor. -- Abstract: Recently, producing power with smaller amount of losses become as a goal in our daily life. Today, large amount of energy waste in power networks all around the world. The main reason is “resistive electric equipments” of power networks. Since early 1980s, simultaneous with the development of high temperature superconductive (HTS) technology, superconductors gently attracted the mankind attentions. Using superconductive equipments instead of conventional resistive ones are result in salient electric loss reduction in power systems. Especially to reduce losses in power networks superconductive industrial rotating machines can potentially perform a significant role. In early recent century, first generation of HTS rotating machines was born. But unfortunately they have long way to penetrate the commercial markets yet. In HTS rotating machines the conventional copper made windings are replaced with the HTS superconductors. In this paper an industrial HTS synchronous motor with YBCO coated conductor field windings was designed. As a new approach, model was equipped with a compound rotor that includes both magnetic and non-magnetic materials. So, large amount of heavy iron made part was replaced by light non-magnetic material such as G-10 fiberglass. Furthermore, in this structure iron loss in rotor could be reduced to its lowest value. Also less weight and more air gap energy density were the additional advantages. Regarding zero electric loss production in field windings and less iron loss in rotor construction, this model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Byungtaek Kim
2017-11-01
Full Text Available This study deals with the core design of a PM vernier machine considering modulation flux effects, and the comparative investigation on volume and performance characteristics of the vernier over conventional PM machines are addressed. To these ends, for a PM vernier machine in operation at the base-speed, the flux density equations for teeth and yokes considering the flux modulation effects are derived, where the air gap harmonic permeance function is used. Using the derived equations, a PM vernier motor with specified yoke flux densities is designed. To identify the predicted flux yoke densities, the flux distribution and iron losses in core parts are analyzed through time-step finite element (FE simulations. Through Fourier series expansion of the air gap flux waves obtained by FE analysis at several specified times, the harmonic components constituting the flux waves are investigated and their speeds are also evaluated in numerical ways. Finally, to estimate the competitiveness of vernier machines versus conventional machines, the designed PM vernier motor is compared against two different conventional PM motors designed through the same design procedures in various aspects such as volume, torque capacity, efficiency, and power factor, in which, in particular, the core losses are included in efficiency calculation.
CALCULATION OF INDUCTANCE OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phyong Le Ngo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM refers to salient-pole synchronous motors, characterized by inequality of inductances of longitudinal (d and transverse (q axes. Electromagnetic torque of IPMSM consists of two components: active torque and reactive torque; the latter depends on inductances of d and q axes. An analytical method to calculate own inductances and mutual inductances of a three-phase IPMSM is presented. Distributed windings of the stator are substituted by equivalent sine distributed windings. An interior permanent magnets rotor is substituted by an equivalent salient-pole rotor. Sections of a magnetic circuit comprising interior permanent magnets, air barriers and steel bridges are substituted by equivalent air-gap. The expressions of the magnetic induction created by current of the stator windings at each point of the air gap as well as of magnetic flux linkage of the stator windings have been obtained. The equations of the self-inductances of phases A, B, C, and of inductance of mutual induction are determined from magnetic flux linkage. The inductance of the d and q axes have been obtained as a result of transformation of the axes abc–dq. The results obtained with the use of the proposed analytical method and the finite element method are presented in the form of a graph; the calculations that have been obtained by these two methods were compared.
Sliding observer-based demagnetisation fault-tolerant control in permanent magnet synchronous motors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Changfan Zhang
2017-04-01
Full Text Available This study proposes a fault-tolerant control method for permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs based on the active flux linkage concept, which addresses permanent magnet (PM demagnetisation faults in PMSMs. First, a mathematical model for a PMSM is established based on active flux linkage, and then the effect of PM demagnetisation on the PMSM is analysed. Second, the stator current in the static coordinate is set as the state variable, an observer is designed based on a sliding-mode variable structure, and an equation for active flux linkage is established for dynamic estimation based on the equivalent control principle of sliding-mode variable structure. Finally, the active flux linkage for the next moment is predicted according to the operating conditions of the motor and the observed values of the current active flux linkage. The deadbeat control strategy is applied to eliminate errors in the active flux linkage and realise the objective of fault-tolerant control. A timely and effective control for demagnetisation faults is achieved using the proposed method, which validity and feasibility are verified by the simulation and experiment results.
DOGAN, Zafer
2016-01-01
Recently, Line Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor have been commonly utilized in industrial areas because of their high efficiency. Motor faults during operation cause losses of production and high maintenance and repair expenditures. In this study, the effect of static eccentricity fault on line start permanent magnet synchronous motor was investigated. The simulation models of motor belonging to healthy and fault status were formed via Finite Elements Method. The analyses in time doma...
Dynamics and Stability of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ren He
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the dynamic characteristics and stability of the permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM. PMSM equilibrium local stability condition and Hopf bifurcation condition, pitchfork bifurcation condition, and fold bifurcation condition have been derived by using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion and the bifurcation theory, respectively. Bifurcation curves of the equilibrium with single and double parameters are obtained by continuation method. Numerical simulations not only confirm the theoretical analysis results but also show one kind of codimension-two-bifurcation points of the equilibrium. PMSM, with or without external load, can exhibit rich dynamic behaviors in different parameters regions. It is shown that if unstable equilibrium appears in the parameters regions, the PMSM may not be able to work stably. To ensure the PMSMs work stably, the inherent parameters should be designed in the region which has only one stable equilibrium.
Magnetically nonlinear dynamic model of synchronous motor with permanent magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadziselimovic, Miralem; Stumberger, Gorazd; Stumberger, Bojan; Zagradisnik, Ivan
2007-01-01
This paper deals with a magnetically nonlinear two-axis dynamic model of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The geometrical and material properties of iron core and permanent magnets, the effects of winding distribution, saturation, cross-saturation and slotting effects are, for the first time, simultaneously accounted for in a single two-axis dynamic model of a three-phase PMSM. They are accounted for by current- and position-dependent characteristics of flux linkages. These characteristics can be determined either experimentally or by the finite element (FE) computations. The results obtained by the proposed dynamic model show a very good agreement with the measured ones and those obtained by the FE computation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Swierczynski, Dariusz; Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; Blaabjerg, Frede
2002-01-01
DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)......DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)...
Adam Głowacz; Witold Głowacz; Andrzej Głowacz
2010-01-01
The paper presents method of diagnostics of imminent failure conditions of synchronous motor. This method is based on a study ofacoustic signals generated by synchronous motor. Sound recognition system is based on algorithms of data processing, such as MFCC andNearest Mean classifier with cosine distance. Software to recognize the sounds of synchronous motor was implemented. The studies werecarried out for four imminent failure conditions of synchronous motor. The results confirm that the sys...
Rotor compound concept for designing an industrial HTS synchronous motor
Kashani, M.; Hosseina, M.; Sarrafan, K.; Darabi, A.
2013-06-01
Recently, producing power with smaller amount of losses become as a goal in our daily life. Today, large amount of energy waste in power networks all around the world. The main reason is “resistive electric equipments” of power networks. Since early 1980s, simultaneous with the development of high temperature superconductive (HTS) technology, superconductors gently attracted the mankind attentions. Using superconductive equipments instead of conventional resistive ones are result in salient electric loss reduction in power systems. Especially to reduce losses in power networks superconductive industrial rotating machines can potentially perform a significant role. In early recent century, first generation of HTS rotating machines was born. But unfortunately they have long way to penetrate the commercial markets yet. In HTS rotating machines the conventional copper made windings are replaced with the HTS superconductors. In this paper an industrial HTS synchronous motor with YBCO coated conductor field windings was designed. As a new approach, model was equipped with a compound rotor that includes both magnetic and non-magnetic materials. So, large amount of heavy iron made part was replaced by light non-magnetic material such as G-10 fiberglass. Furthermore, in this structure iron loss in rotor could be reduced to its lowest value. Also less weight and more air gap energy density were the additional advantages. Regarding zero electric loss production in field windings and less iron loss in rotor construction, this model potentially is more effective than the other iron made HTS motors.
Novel Motion Sensorless Control of Single Phase Brushless D.C. PM Motor Drive, with experiments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lepure, Liviu Ioan; Boldea, Ion; Andreescu, Gheorghe Daniel
2010-01-01
A motion sensorless control for single phase permanent magnet brushless d.c. (PM-BLDC) motor drives, based on flux integration and prior knowledge of the PM flux/position characteristic is proposed here and an adequate correction algorithm is adopted, in order to increase the robustness to noise...
MAGNETIC CIRCUIT EQUIVALENT OF THE SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR WITH INCORPORATED MAGNETS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fyong Le Ngo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Magnetic circuitry computation is one of the central stages of designing a synchronous motor with incorporated magnets, which can be performed by means of a simplified method of the magnetic-circuits equivalent modeling. The article studies the magnetic circuit of the motor with the rotor-incorporated magnets, which includes four sectors: constant magnets with the field pole extension made of magnetically soft steel, magniflux dispersion sections containing air barriers and steel bridges; the air gap; the stator grooves, cogs and the frame yoke. The authors introduce an equivalent model of the magnetic circuit. High-energy magnets with a linear demagnetization curve are employed in the capacity of constant magnets. Two magnets create the magnetic flux for one pole. The decline of magnetic potential in the steel of the pole is negligible consequent on the admission that the poles magnetic inductivity µ = ∞. The rotor design provides for the air barriers and the steel bridges that close leakage flux. The induction-permeability curve linearization serves for the bridges magnetic saturation accountability and presents a polygonal line consisting of two linear sections. The estimation of the magnet circuit section including the cogs and the frame yoke is executed with account of the steel saturation, their magnetic conductivities thereat being dependent on the saturation rate. Relying on the equivalent model of the magnetic circuit, the authors deduce a system of two equations written from the first and the second Kirchhoff laws of the magnetic circuits. These equations allow solving two problems: specifying dimensions of the magnets by the preset value of the magnetic flow in the clearance and determining the clearance magnetic flow at the preset motor rotor-and-stator design.
Composite synchronization of three eccentric rotors driven by induction motors in a vibrating system
Kong, Xiangxi; Chen, Changzheng; Wen, Bangchun
2018-03-01
This paper addresses the problem of composite synchronization of three eccentric rotors (ERs) driven by induction motors in a vibrating system. The composite synchronous motion of three ERs is composed of the controlled synchronous motion of two ERs and the self-synchronous motion of the third ER. Combining an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) algorithm with a modified master-slave control structure, the controllers are designed to implement controlled synchronous motion of two ERs with zero phase difference. Based on Lyapunov stability theorem and Barbalat's lemma, the stability of the designed controllers is verified. On basis of controlled synchronization of two ERs, self-synchronization of the third ER is introduced to implement composite synchronous motion of three ERs. The feasibility of the proposed composite synchronization method is analyzed by numerical method. The effects of motor and structure parameters on composite synchronous motion are discussed. Experiments on a vibrating test bench driven by three ERs are operated to validate the effectiveness of the proposed composite synchronization method, including a comparison with self-synchronization method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcel Torrent
2018-06-01
Full Text Available In this work we proposed to study the use of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM for railway traction in the high-speed trains (HST of Renfe Operadora (the Spanish national railway operator. Currently, induction motors (IM are used in AVE classes 102–112 trains, so, the IM used as a traction motor in these trains has been studied and characterized by comparing the results with data provided by Renfe. A PMSM of equivalent power to the IM has been dimensioned, and different electromagnetic structures of the PMSM rotor have been evaluated. The simulation by the finite element method and analysis of the equivalent electrical circuit used in all the motors have been studied to evaluate the performance of the motors in this application. Efficiency is calculated at different operating points due to its impact on the energy consumption of railway traction. The implementation of the PMSM evaluated is recommended, mainly due to the improvements achieved in efficiency as compared with the IM currently used.
Kazmin, Evgeny; Lomonova, E.A.; Paulides, J.J.H.
2008-01-01
A concept design approach for the brushless PM traction motor, which has crucial constraints on volume envelope and on the drive, is presented. The considered motor drive is the three-phase DC/AC converter, which is commercially available on the modern market of the standard variable frequency
76 FR 72404 - Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets in Submitted PM10
2011-11-23
... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9495-4] Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets in Submitted PM 10 Maintenance Plan for Sacramento County; CA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... found that the motor vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) for particulate matter with an aerodynamic...
Structural optimization of the Halbach array PM rim thrust motor
Cao, Haichuan; Chen, Weihu
2018-05-01
The Rim-driven Thruster (RDT) integrates the thrust motor and the propeller, which can effectively reduce the space occupied by the propulsion system, improve the propulsion efficiency, and thus has important research value and broad market prospects. The Halbach Permanent Magnet Rim Thrust Motor (HPMRTM) can improve the torque density of the propulsion motor by utilizing the unilateral magnetic field of the Halbach array. In this paper, the numerical method is used to study the electromagnetic performance of the motor under different Halbach array parameters. The relationship between motor parameters such as air-gap flux density, electromagnetic torque and Halbach array parameters is obtained, and then the motor structure is optimized. By comparing with Common Permanent Magnet RTM, the advantages of HPMRTM are verified.
ADAPTIVE FLUX OBSERVER FOR PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Bobtsov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the observer design problem for a flux in permanent magnet synchronous motors. It is assumed that some electrical parameters such as resistance and inductance are known numbers. But the flux, the angle and the speed of the rotor are unmeasurable. The new robust approach to design an adaptive flux observer is proposed that guarantees globally boundedness of all signals and, moreover, exponential convergence to zero of observer error between the true flux value and an estimate obtained from the adaptive observer. The problem of an adaptive flux observer design has been solved with using the trigonometrical properties and linear filtering which ensures cancellation of unknown terms arisen after mathematical calculations. The key idea is the new parameterization of the dynamical model containing unknown parameters and depending on measurable current and voltage in the motor. By applying the Pythagorean trigonometric identity the linear equation has found that does not contain any functions depending on angle or angular velocity of the rotor. Using dynamical first-order filters the standard regression model is obtained that consists of unknown constant parameters and measurable functions of time. Then the gradient-like estimator is designed to reconstruct unknown parameters, and it guarantees boundedness of all signals in the system. The proposition is proved that if the regressor satisfies the persistent excitation condition, meaning the “frequency-rich” signal, then all errors in observer exponentially converges to zero. It is shown that observer error for the flux explicitly depends on estimator errors. Exponential convergence of parameter estimation errors to zero yields exponential convergence of the flux observer error to zero. The numerical example is considered.
Reducing torque ripples in permanent magnet synchronous motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rihab Abdelmoula
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs are exceptionally promising thanks to their many advantages compared with other types of electrical machines. Indeed, PMSMs are characterized by their important torque density, light weight, high air gap flux density, high acceleration, high efficiency and strong power-to-weight ratio. A surface-mounted PMSM (SPMSM is used in this work. The SPMSM is built using a 2D finite element method (FEM. Cogging torque, torque ripples and back-EMF are examined during the design process in order to obtain sinusoidal back-EMF and to minimise torque ripples which are one of the major problems with PMSMs. Two procedures are used to reduce the cogging torque of SPMSM: the effect of slot opening and the influence of skewing the stator laminations. Cogging torque factor tc and the torque ripples factor tr have been calculated to compare the two configurations (open slots and closed slots. Then, the configuration with closed slots is utilised with skewing the stator laminations for different angle 0°, 10° and 15°.
Kline, Joshua C; De Luca, Carlo J
2016-01-01
Synchronous motor unit firing instances have been attributed to anatomical inputs shared by motoneurons. Yet, there is a lack of empirical evidence confirming the notion that common inputs elicit synchronization under voluntary conditions. We tested this notion by measuring synchronization between motor unit action potential trains (MUAPTs) as their firing rates progressed within a contraction from a relatively low force level to a higher one. On average, the degree of synchronization decreased as the force increased. The common input notion provides no empirically supported explanation for the observed synchronization behavior. Therefore, we investigated a more probable explanation for synchronization. Our data set of 17,546 paired MUAPTs revealed that the degree of synchronization varies as a function of two characteristics of the motor unit firing rate: the similarity and the slope as a function of force. Both are measures of the excitation of the motoneurons. As the force generated by the muscle increases, the firing rate slope decreases, and the synchronization correspondingly decreases. Different muscles have motor units with different firing rate characteristics and display different amounts of synchronization. Although this association is not proof of causality, it consistently explains our observations and strongly suggests further investigation. So viewed, synchronization is likely an epiphenomenon, subject to countless unknown neural interactions. As such, synchronous firing instances may not be the product of a specific design and may not serve a specific physiological purpose. Our explanation for synchronization has the advantage of being supported by empirical evidence, whereas the common input does not. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuan Minh Tran
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The axial flux permanent magnet synchronous motor (AFPM motor using magnet bearings instead of ball-bearings at both two shaft ends could allow rotational speed of shaft much greater than nominal speed. One of the solutions to increase motor speed higher than its nameplate speed is reducing rotor’s pole magnetic flux of rotor (Yp. This paper proposes a method to boost the speed of AFPM motor above nominal speed by adding a reversed current isd of (Yp.
Synchronization of lower limb motor unit activity during walking in human subjects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Naja L; Hansen, S; Christensen, L. O. D.
2001-01-01
lateralis and medialis of quadriceps), but not or rarely for paired recordings from ankle and knee muscles. The data demonstrate that human motor units within a muscle as well as synergistic muscles acting on the same joint receive a common synaptic drive during human gait. It is speculated that the common...... drive responsible for the motor unit synchronization during gait may be similar to that responsible for short-term synchronization during tonic voluntary contraction....
Chaos synchronization and parameter identification of three time scales brushless DC motor system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ge, Z.-M.; Cheng, J.-W.
2005-01-01
Chaotic anticontrol and chaos synchronization of brushless DC motor system are studied in this paper. Nondimensional dynamic equations of three time scale brushless DC motor system are presented. Using numerical results, such as phase diagram, bifurcation diagram, and Lyapunov exponent, periodic and chaotic motions can be observed. Then, chaos synchronization of two identical systems via additional inputs and Lyapunov stability theory are studied. And further, the parameter of the system is traced via adaptive control and random optimization method
Pole Shape Optimization of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Using the Reduced Basis Technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Jabbari
2010-03-01
Full Text Available In the present work, an integrated method of pole shape design optimization for reduction of torque pulsation components in permanent magnet synchronous motors is developed. A progressive design process is presented to find feasible optimal shapes. This method is applied on the pole shape optimization of two prototype permanent magnet synchronous motors, i.e., 4-poles/6-slots and 4-poles-12slots.
FEM analysis of an single stator dual PM rotors axial synchronous machine
Tutelea, L. N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Popa, G. N.
2017-01-01
The actual e - continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors. The proposed topologies, the magneto-motive force analysis and quasi 3D-FEM analysis are the core of the paper.
Novel rotating characteristics of a squirrel-cage-type HTS induction/synchronous motor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, T; Ogama, Y; Miyake, H; Nagao, K; Nishimura, T
2007-01-01
This paper describes the rotating characteristics of a high-T c superconducting induction/synchronous motor, which possesses both asynchronous and synchronous torques even though its structure is exactly the same as the squirrel-cage-type induction motor. Two kinds of Bi-2223/Ag multifilamentary tapes were utilized for the secondary windings. A commercialized motor (1.5 kW) was subjected to this study. A conventional (normal conducting) stator (three-phase, four-pole) was directly utilized, and only the squirrel-cage windings were replaced with the superconducting tapes. The tests were performed after the fabricated motor was immersed in liquid nitrogen. The operating temperature was also varied by pumping out the liquid nitrogen. It is shown that the motor is successfully synchronized for the temperature range from 65 to 77 K. Detailed discussions for such novel rotating characteristics are reported based on the electrical equivalent circuit
Magnetic Circuit Model of PM Motor-Generator to Predict Radial Forces
McLallin, Kerry (Technical Monitor); Kascak, Peter E.; Dever, Timothy P.; Jansen, Ralph H.
2004-01-01
A magnetic circuit model is developed for a PM motor for flywheel applications. A sample motor is designed and modeled. Motor configuration and selection of materials is discussed, and the choice of winding configuration is described. A magnetic circuit model is described, which includes the stator back iron, rotor yoke, permanent magnets, air gaps and the stator teeth. Iterative solution of this model yields flux linkages, back EMF, torque, power, and radial force at the rotor caused by eccentricity. Calculated radial forces are then used to determine motor negative stiffness.
Drive equipment of the TRANSRAPID 06 with an iron bearing synchronous long stator motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parsch, C P; Ciessow, G
1981-01-01
For the testing of an application orientated Maglev the TRANSRAPID test center Emsland is being installed by the joint venture TRANSRAPID. The drive of the vehicle TRANSRAPID 06 is realized by an iron bearing synchronous long stator motor. A description is given of the principle of this drive, the output of traction motor and substation and of the dynamics of vehicle movement's calculations.
Fatigue-related changes in motor-unit synchronization of quadriceps muscles within and across legs
Boonstra, T.W.; Daffertshofer, A.; van Ditshuizen, J.C.; van den Heuvel, M.R.C.; Hofman, C.; Willigenburg, N.W.; Beek, P.J.
2008-01-01
Two experiments were conducted to examine effects of muscle fatigue on motor-unit synchronization of quadriceps muscles (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis) within and between legs. We expected muscle fatigue to result in an increased common drive to different motor units of
Analysis of Single Coil PM-BLDC Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boguslaw Grzesik
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is FEM analysis of single coil BLDC motor operated as drive of small piston pump. The paper contains analysis of design, distribution of magnetic field, forces and torque under static and dynamic conditions. Voltages, currents, signals waveforms are also given as the results of analysis. The cogging torque and total torque are discussed in the paper.
Nonlinear performance characteristics of flux-switching PM motors
Ilhan, E.; Kremers, M.F.J.; Motoasca, T.E.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.
2013-01-01
Nonlinear performance characteristics of 3-phase flux-switching permanent magnet motors (FSPM) are overviewed. These machines show advantages of a robust rotor structure and a high energy density. Research on the FSPM is predominated by topics such as modeling and machine comparison, with little
A novel method for estimating the initial rotor position of PM motors without the position sensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rostami, Alireza; Asaei, Behzad
2009-01-01
Permanent magnet (PM) motors have been used widely in the industrial applications. However, a need of the position sensor is a drawback of their control system. The sensorless methods using the back-EMF (electromotive force) cannot detect the rotor position at a standstill; recently, a few methods proposed to detect the initial rotor position, but they have high estimation error which reduces starting torque of the motor. Therefore, in this paper, a novel method to detect the initial rotor position of the PM motors is proposed, first, by using a space vector model, response of the stator current space vector to the saturation of the stator core is analyzed; then a novel method based on the saturation effect is presented that estimates the initial rotor position and the maximum estimation error is less than 3.8 deg. Simulation results confirm this method is effective and precise, and variation of the motor parameters does not affect its precision.
A novel method for estimating the initial rotor position of PM motors without the position sensor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rostami, Alireza; Asaei, Behzad [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)
2009-08-15
Permanent magnet (PM) motors have been used widely in the industrial applications. However, a need of the position sensor is a drawback of their control system. The sensorless methods using the back-EMF (electromotive force) cannot detect the rotor position at a standstill; recently, a few methods proposed to detect the initial rotor position, but they have high estimation error which reduces starting torque of the motor. Therefore, in this paper, a novel method to detect the initial rotor position of the PM motors is proposed, first, by using a space vector model, response of the stator current space vector to the saturation of the stator core is analyzed; then a novel method based on the saturation effect is presented that estimates the initial rotor position and the maximum estimation error is less than 3.8. Simulation results confirm this method is effective and precise, and variation of the motor parameters does not affect its precision. (author)
Speed Synchronization of Multi Induction Motors with Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
HACHEMI Glaoui
2013-05-01
Full Text Available A continuous web winding system is a large-scale, complex interconnected dynamic system with numerous tension zones to transport the web while processing it. There are two control schemes for large-scale system control: the centralized scheme and the decentralized scheme. Centralized control is the traditional control method, which considers all the information about the system to be a single dynamic model and design a control system for this model. Aspeed synchronization control strategy for multiple induction motors, based on adjacent cross-coupling control structure, is developed by employing total sliding mode control method. The proposed controlstrategy is to stabilize speed tracking of each induction motor while synchronizing its speed with the speed of the other motors so as to make speed synchronization error amongst induction motors converge to zero. The global stability and the convergence of the designedcontroller are proved by using Lyapunov method. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Nonlinear Performance Characteristics of Flux-Switching PM Motors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Ilhan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear performance characteristics of 3-phase flux-switching permanent magnet motors (FSPM are overviewed. These machines show advantages of a robust rotor structure and a high energy density. Research on the FSPM is predominated by topics such as modeling and machine comparison, with little emphasis given on its performance and limits. Performance characteristics include phase flux linkage, phase torque, and phase inductance. In the paper, this analysis is done by a cross-correlation of rotor position and armature current. Due to the high amount of processed data, which cannot be handled analytically within an acceptable time period, a multistatic 2D finite element model (FEM is used. For generalization, the most commonly discussed FSPM topology, 12/10 FSPM, is chosen. Limitations on the motor performance due to the saturation are discussed on each characteristic. Additionally, a focused overview is given on energy conversion loops and dq-axes identification for the FSPM.
Field oriented control of permanent magnet synchronous motors with time constant adaption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afsharnia, S.; Vahedi, A.
2001-01-01
In this paper, initially, we present a method for on-line identifying of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine electrical parameters, then these parameters will be used in the vector control structure of motors. Simulation results show the efficiency of this method to parameters identifying of machine even in the presence of saturation, variation of temperature and etc. Because of simplicity and being economic, this method can be used by electro motors constructors to identify motor parameters for different operating points
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chih-Hong Lin
2016-06-01
Full Text Available A permanent magnet (PM synchronous generator system driven by wind turbine (WT, connected with smart grid via AC-DC converter and DC-AC converter, are controlled by the novel recurrent Chebyshev neural network (NN and amended particle swarm optimization (PSO to regulate output power and output voltage in two power converters in this study. Because a PM synchronous generator system driven by WT is an unknown non-linear and time-varying dynamic system, the on-line training novel recurrent Chebyshev NN control system is developed to regulate DC voltage of the AC-DC converter and AC voltage of the DC-AC converter connected with smart grid. Furthermore, the variable learning rate of the novel recurrent Chebyshev NN is regulated according to discrete-type Lyapunov function for improving the control performance and enhancing convergent speed. Finally, some experimental results are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control method for a WT driving a PM synchronous generator system in smart grid.
Detection of Eccentricity Faults in Five-Phase Ferrite-PM Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Machines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos López-Torres
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Air gap eccentricity faults in five-phase ferrite-assisted synchronous reluctance motors (fPMa-SynRMs tend to distort the magnetic flux in the air gap, which in turn affects the spectral content of both the stator currents and the ZSVC (zero-sequence voltage component. However, there is a lack of research dealing with the topic of fault diagnosis in multi-phase PMa-SynRMs, and in particular, those focused on detecting eccentricity faults. An analysis of the spectral components of the line currents and the ZSVC allows the development of fault diagnosis algorithms to detect eccentricity faults. The effect of the operating conditions is also analyzed, since this paper shows that it has a non-negligible impact on the effectivity and sensitivity of the diagnosis based on an analysis of the stator currents and the ZSVC. To this end, different operating conditions are analyzed. The paper also evaluates the influence of the operating conditions on the harmonic content of the line currents and the ZSVC, and determines the most suitable operating conditions to enhance the sensitivity of the analyzed methods. Finally, fault indicators employed to detect eccentricity faults, which are based on the spectral content of the stator currents and the ZSVC, are derived and their performance is assessed. The approach presented in this work may be useful for developing fault diagnosis strategies based on the acquisition and subsequent analysis and interpretation of the spectral content of the line currents and the ZSVC.
Adaptive sensorless field oriented control of PM motors including zero speed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.
2004-01-01
This paper presents a simple control method for controlling permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) in a wide speed range without a shaft sensor. An adaptive observer is used for estimation of the rotor position and speed of a permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM). The observer compensates...... for voltage offsets and permanent magnet strength variations. The adaption structure for estimating the strength of the permanent magnet is determined from a Lyapunov stability proof. The control method is made robust at zero and low speed by changing the direct vector current component to a value different...... from zero. In order to verify the applicability of the method the controller has been implemented and tested on a 800 W motor....
In-wheel PM motor : compromise between high power density and extended speed capability
Lomonova, E.; Kazmin, Evgeny; Tang, Y.; Paulides, J.J.H.
2011-01-01
Purpose – Today's brushless permanent magnet (PM) drive systems usually adopt motors including the advancements in magnet technology, e.g. better thermal characteristics and higher magnetic strength. By this means, they become capable in the roughest applications yet maintain a high accuracy at
Geometry optimization of five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors using Bees algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R Ilka
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Among all types of electrical motors, permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs are reliable and efficient motors in industrial applications. Because of their superiority over other kinds of motors, they are replacing conventional electric motors. On the other hand, high-phase PMSMs are good candidates to be used in certain industrial and military projects such as electric vehicles, spacecrafts, naval systems and etc. In these cases, the motor has to be designed with minimum volume and high torque and efficiency. Design optimization can improve their features noticeably, thus reduce volume and enhance performance of motors. In this paper, a new method for optimum design of a five-phase surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor is presented to achieve minimum permanent magnets (PMs volume with an increased torque and efficiency. Design optimization is performed in search for optimum dimensions of the motor and its permanent magnets using Bees Algorithm (BA. The design optimization results in a motor with great improvement regarding the original motor which is compared with two well-known evolutionary algorithms i.e. GA and PSO. Finally, finite element method simulation is utilized to validate the accuracy of the design.
Design optimization of a linear permanent magnet synchronous motor for extra low force pulsations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isfahani, Aarsh Hassanpour; Vaez-Zadeh, Sadegh
2007-01-01
Air cored linear permanent magnet synchronous motors have essentially low force pulsations due to the lack of the primary iron core and teeth. However, a motor design with much lower force pulsations is required for many precise positioning systems, as in fabrication of microelectronic chips. This paper presents the design optimization of an air cored linear permanent magnet synchronous motor with extra low force pulsations for such applications. In order to achieve the goal, an analytical layer model of the machine is developed. A very effective objective function regarding force pulsations is then proposed; while the selected motor dimensions are regarded as the design variables. A genetic algorithm is used to find the optimal motor dimensions. This results in a substantial ninety percent reduction in the force pulsations. The design optimization is verified by a finite element method
Speed Sensorless Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors in Mine Electric Locomotive Drive
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yudong LI
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel sensorless control method of permanent magnet synchronous motors a low speed based on a high-frequency voltage signal injection. The approach superimposes a persistent HF voltage signal into the estimated d-axis to get the rotor position error angle-related signal by detecting the corresponding voltage response and current response. Then the rotor position and motor speed are obtained. Theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the approach can achieve sensorless control of permanent magnet synchronous motors at zero and low speed, ensure good dynamic and static performances, and achieve effective control when applied to servo system. Finally, a test prototype system which used a digital signal processor and space vector pulse width modulation technology has been developed. Experimental results show that the system has better static, the effectiveness and dynamic performance of the adaptive test signals in a sensorless controlled surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machines.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soltani, J.; Fath Abadi, A.M.
2003-01-01
This paper describes the application of static var compensators, on an electrical distribution network containing two large synchronous motors, one of which is excited via a three-phase thyristor bridge rectifier. The second machine is excited via a diode bridge rectifier. Based on linear optimization control, the measurable feedback signals are applied to the control system loops of static var compensators and the excitation control loop of the first synchronous motor. The phase equations method was used to develop a computer program to model the distribution network. Computer results were obtained to demonstrate the system performance for some abnormal modes of operation. These results show that employing static var compensators based on the linear optimization control design for electrical distribution networks containing large synchronous motors is beneficial and may be considered a first stage of the system design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moosavi, S.S., E-mail: anchepoli@gmail.com [University of Technology Belfort Montbeliard (UTBM), Laboratory of IRTES-SET, Belfort (France); Engineering Department, Amol University of Special Modern Technology, Amol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Djerdir, A. [University of Technology Belfort Montbeliard (UTBM), Laboratory of IRTES-SET, Belfort (France); Amirat, Y.Ait. [Laboratory of Femto-ST, University of Franche-Comte (France); Khaburi, D.A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-10-01
There are a lot of research activities on developing techniques to detect permanent magnet (PM) demagnetization faults (DF). These faults decrease the performance, the reliability and the efficiency of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive systems. In this work, we draw a broad perspective on the status of these studies. The advantages, disadvantages of each method, a deeper view investigated and a comprehensive list of references are reported. - Highlights: • A review of state of the art on demagnetization fault diagnosis was studied deeply. • Critical points in fault diagnosis are discussed aiming to safety and cost management. • Critical comparison on all existent demagnetization diagnosis methods was done. • It is proved that DE and UL have the same signature frequencies as partial demagnetization. • MCSA have some limitations in frequency component under uniform demagnetization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moosavi, S.S.; Djerdir, A.; Amirat, Y.Ait.; Khaburi, D.A.
2015-01-01
There are a lot of research activities on developing techniques to detect permanent magnet (PM) demagnetization faults (DF). These faults decrease the performance, the reliability and the efficiency of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive systems. In this work, we draw a broad perspective on the status of these studies. The advantages, disadvantages of each method, a deeper view investigated and a comprehensive list of references are reported. - Highlights: • A review of state of the art on demagnetization fault diagnosis was studied deeply. • Critical points in fault diagnosis are discussed aiming to safety and cost management. • Critical comparison on all existent demagnetization diagnosis methods was done. • It is proved that DE and UL have the same signature frequencies as partial demagnetization. • MCSA have some limitations in frequency component under uniform demagnetization
Subdividing the beat: auditory and motor contributions to synchronization
Loehr, J.D.; Palmer, C.
2009-01-01
THE CURRENT STUDY EXAMINED HOW AUDITORY AND kinematic information influenced pianists' ability to synchronize musical sequences with a metronome. Pianists performed melodies in which quarter-note beats were subdivided by intervening eighth notes that resulted from auditory information (heard tones),
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen
2008-01-01
) synchronous motors. This paper presents an AC+DC measurement method for determination of the d-axis and q-axis high frequency inductance profiles of SMPM synchronous motors. This method uses DC currents to set a desired magnetic working point on the motor laminations, and then superimpose balanced small AC......Accurate knowledge of the high frequency inductance profile plays an important role in many designs of sensorless controllers for Surface inductance. A special algorithm is used to decouple the cross-coupling effects between the d-axis and the q-axis, which allows Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM...... signals to measure the incremental a separate determination of the d, q inductance profiles as functions of the d, q currents. Experimental results on a commercial SMPM motor using the proposed method are presented in this paper....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stumberger, Bojan; Stumberger, Gorazd; Hadziselimovic, Miralem; Hamler, Anton; Gorican, Viktor; Jesenik, Marko; Trlep, Mladen
2007-01-01
The paper presents a comparison of torque capability of three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors with different permanent magnet arrangement. Motors with the following permanent magnet topologies were accounted for in the comparison: the surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor (SMPMSM), the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), the permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance motor (PMASRM) and the flux reversal permanent magnet motor (FRPMM). Finite element method analysis is employed to determine the performance of each motor. Calculated performance of four-pole IPMSM determined by finite element method calculation is confirmed with the measurements at nearly constant nominal output power in the range of speed 3000-10,000 rpm
Shevchenko, A. F.; Shevchenko, L. G.
2017-10-01
Results of the electromagnetic torque calculation for the synchronous motor with modulated magnetic flux and a smooth harmonic rotor are presented in this paper. The value of the torque is determined from the electromagnetic forces, which appear due to interaction of magnetic field in the gap with the rotor surface elements. The obtained analytical expression makes it possible to determine easily the electromagnetic torque for the considered motor in the MathCAD environment.
Regarding the NVH Behaviour of the more Electric Vehicles. Study Case of a Small PM Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florin Lazăr
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The noise and vibration behaviour of electric and hybrid vehicles is dramatically different from conventional vehicles. The noise and vibration mechanisms of the individual components (combustion engine, electric motor, transmission etc. are known in principle, but an electric or hybrid powertrain features additional and different components as well as new operation modes compared to a conventional powertrain. This results in new interactions which are uncommon in this form for conventional vehicles. In the case of the electric traction, the electric motor becomes an important noise and vibrations source. Depending on the design of the motor, the electromagnetic (EM pulses and corresponding torque pulses from the motor can be very strong. These can be radiated as noise directly from the motor housing and can also be transmitted structurally to the support structure through the motor mounts. However, the EM forces are generally lower than the combustion and reciprocating mass forces of an IC engine, and significantly, they are at a much higher frequency. On the other side, the electric drives are quite numerous in cars. Lot of smaller motors are involved in X-by-wire systems or other comfort oriented systems. As a study case, the paper is focused on the NVH produced by a 0.25kW PM motor.
Novel Position and Speed Estimator for PM Single Phase Brushless D.C. Motor Drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lepure, Liviu I.; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel; Iles, Doris
2010-01-01
A novel position and speed estimator for single phase permanent magnet brushless d.c. (PMBLDC) motor drives, based on flux integration and prior knowledge of ΨPM (θ) is proposed here and an adequate correction algorithm is adopted in order to increase the robustness to noise and to reduce...... the sensitivity to accuracy of flux linkage estimation. A speed and current close loop control is employed based on the Hall signal and the motor is controlled at different speeds in order to validate the proposed estimation algorithm with satisfying results. The position correction effect is analyzed...
Direct torque control via feedback linearization for permanent magnet synchronous motor drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lascu, Cristian; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede
2012-01-01
The paper describes a direct torque controlled (DTC) permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive that employs feedback linearization and uses sliding-mode and linear controllers. We introduce a new feedback linearization approach that yields a decoupled linear PMSM model with two state...
Spectral element model for 2-D electrostatic fields in a linear synchronous motor
van Beek, T.A.; Curti, M.; Jansen, J.W.; Gysen, B.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.
2017-01-01
This paper presents a fast and accurate 2-D spectral element model for analyzing electric field distributions in linear synchronous motors. The electric field distribution is derived using the electric scalar potential for static cases. The spatial potential and electric field distributions obtained
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruiz, Jordi-Roger Riba [EUETII, Dept. d' Enginyeria Electrica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Placa del Rei 15, 08700 Igualada, Barcelona (Spain); Garcia Espinosa, Antonio [Dept. d' Enginyeria Electrica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya C/Colom 1, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Romeral, Luis; Cusido, Jordi [Dept. d' Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya C/Colom 1, 08222 Terrassa (Spain)
2010-10-15
Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) are applied in high performance positioning and variable speed applications because of their enhanced features with respect to other AC motor types. Fault detection and diagnosis of electrical motors for critical applications is an active field of research. However, much research remains to be done in the field of PMSM demagnetization faults, especially when running under non-stationary conditions. This paper presents a time-frequency method specifically focused to detect and diagnose demagnetization faults in PMSMs running under non-stationary speed conditions, based on the Hilbert Huang transform. The effectiveness of the proposed method is proven by means of experimental results. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikhov M.
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The performance of a two-coordinate drive system with permanent magnet synchronous motors is analyzed and discussed in this paper. Both motors have been controlled in brushless DC motor mode in accordance with the rotor positions. Detailed study has been carried out by means of mathematical modeling and computer simulation for the respective transient and steady-state regimes at various load and work conditions. The research carried out as well as the results obtained can be used in the design, optimization and tuning of such types of drive systems. They could be also applied in the teaching process.
Speed estimator for induction motor drive based on synchronous ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
During the last few years, speed-sensorless control of induction motor (IM) has been ..... estimator, these changes (rise and fall) in the magnitude of θs are noted and .... mechanical load having a drum and spring-balance arrangement.
Optimal Rotor Design of Line Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor by Genetic Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bui Minh Dinh
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Line start permanent magnet synchronous motor (LSPMSM is one of the highest efficiency motors due to no rotor copper loss at synchronous speed and self-starting. LSPMSM has torque characteristics of both induction motor IM and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor-PMSM. Using Genetic Algorithm (GA for balancing magnetic cost and for copper loss minimization, the magnetic sizes and geometry parameter of stator and rotor are found and manufactured for industrial evaluation. This article is also taking account practical manufacturing factors to minimize mass production cost. In order to maximize efficiency, an optimal design method of cage-bars and magnet shape has to be considered. The geometry parameters of stator and rotor can be obtained by an analytical model method and validated by FEM simulation. This paper presents the optimal rotor design of a three-phase line-start permanent magnet motor (LSPM considering the starting torque and efficiency. To consider nonlinear characteristics, the design process is comprised of the FEM and analytical method. During this study, permanent-magnets and cage bars were designed using the magnetic equivalent circuit method and the barriers that control all magnetic flux were designed using the FEM, and the tradeoff of starting torque and efficiency is controlled by weight function in Taguchi method simulation. Finally, some practical results have been obtained and analyzed based on a LSPMSM test bench.
Thrust Reduction of Magnetic Levitation Vehicle Driven by Long Stator Linear Synchronous Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wan-Tsun Tseng
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The propulsion technology of long stator linear synchronous motors is used to drive high-speed maglev trains. The linear synchronous motor stator is divided into sections placed on guideway. The electric power supplies to stator sections in which the train just passes in change-step mode for long-distance operation. However, a thrust drop will be caused by change-step machinery for driving magnetic vehicle. According to the train speed and vehicle data, the change-step mode has three types of operation, namely premature commutation, simultaneous commutation, and late commutation. Each type of operation has a different thrust drop which can be affected by several parameters such as jerk, running speed, motor section length, and vehicle data. This paper focuses on determining the thrust drop of the change-step mode. The study results of this paper can be used to improve the operation system of high-speed maglev trains.
Chaos anticontrol and synchronization of three time scales brushless DC motor system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ge Zhengming; Cheng Juiwen; Chen Yensheng
2004-01-01
Chaos anticontrol of three time scale brushless dc motors and chaos synchronization of different order systems are studied. Nondimensional dynamic equations of three time scale brushless DC motor system are presented. Using numerical results, such as phase diagram, bifurcation diagram, and Lyapunov exponent, periodic and chaotic motions can be observed. By adding constant term, periodic square wave, the periodic triangle wave, the periodic sawtooth wave, and kx vertical bar x vertical bar term, to achieve anticontrol of chaotic or periodic systems, it is found that more chaotic phenomena of the system can be observed. Then, by coupled terms and linearization of error dynamics, we obtain the partial synchronization of two different order systems, i.e. brushless DC motor system and rate gyroscope system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atlam, Ozcan; Kolhe, Mohan
2013-01-01
Photovoltaic (PV) powered directly coupled electro-mechanical system has wide applications (e.g. PV powered cooling fans in green houses, PV water pumping system, solar vehicles). The objective of this work is to analyse the operation of directly PV powered DC PM (direct current permanent magnet) motor – propeller system for selection of motor parameters. The performance of such system mainly depends on the incident solar radiation, operating cell temperature, DC motor and propeller load parameters. It is observed that the operating points of the PV DC PM motor – propeller system matches very closely with the maximum power points (MPPs) of the PV array, if the DC PM motor – propeller parameters have been properly selected. It is found that for a specific application of such type of system, matching of torque–speed operating points with respect to the maximum power points of PV array are very important. It is ascertained through results that the DC PM motor's armature resistance, magnetic field constant, starting current to overcome the starting torque and torque coefficient are the main parameters. In designing a PV powered DC PM motor for a specific application, selection of these parameters are important for maximum utilization of the PV array output. The results of this system are useful for designing of directly PV powered DC PM motor's for aerodynamic applications. - Highlights: • We analyse the performance of directly PV powered DC PM motor – propeller system. • We examine PV electro-mechanical system for selection of DC motor parameters. • Matching of torque–speed curve to maximum power points of PV array is important
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cemil Ocak
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Engineers think that pole embrace size of a PM BLDC motor affects directly the efficiency and the torque. Dealing with theexperimental research, in the studywe have investigated the effects of narrowing rotor pole embrace step by step by changing sizes parametrically. By doing so, high efficiency and low cogging torque would have been obtained for a 20 W PM BLDC motor. In order to do this,pole arc to pole pitch ratio of magnets at the rotor poles has been changed parametrically (0.5 to 1 by genetic algorithm methodfirst. Then the electromagnetic field dispersions, output parameters of the motor, new rotor constructions have been obtained; and new pole embrace has been derived from the variation of pole arc to pole pitch ratio. We have also calculatedthe magnetic flux distribution, output power, torque, cogging torque and efficiency values analytically and the effects of new pole embrace to motor efficiency and torque have been simulated. The developed 18 slots, 6 poles, surface mounted inner runner configuration rotor machine is proposed as to be used insmall dentistry apparatus.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bharadvaj, Bimmi; Saini, Surendra Singh; Swaroop, Teja Tumapala; Sarkar, Ushnish; Ray, Debashish Datta
2016-01-01
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM) are widely used as actuators because of high torque density, high efficiency and reliability. Robotic Manipulator designed for specific task generally requires actuators with very high intermittent torque and speed for their operation in limited space. Hence accurate performance characteristics of PMSM must be known beforehand under these conditions as it may damage the motor. Therefore an advanced mathematical model of PMSM is required for its control synthesis and performance analysis over wide operating range. The existing mathematical models are developed considering ideal motor without including the geometrical deviations that occur during manufacturing process of the motor or its components. These manufacturing tolerance affect torque ripple, operating current range etc. thereby affecting motor performance. In this work, the magnetically non-linear dynamic model is further exploited to refine the FE model using a proposed algorithm to iteratively compensate for the experimentally observed deviations due to manufacturing. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donabauer, Fred [ABB Automation Products GmbH, Ladenburg (Germany); Lendenmann, Heinz [ABB AB, Vaesteras (Sweden)
2011-07-01
The drive package consisting of a synchronous reluctance motor and a frequency converters with Direct Torque Control (DTC) reaches a high level of efficiency and can make a substantial contribution to energy saving in many drive applications. The motor needs no permanent magnets or excitation system. The synchronous reluctance motor is up to two sizes smaller than an induction motor with a similar output and its power density is up to 40% higher than that of an induction motor. A frequency converter with DTC enables exact speed control without requiring an encoder. (orig.)
GENETIC ALGORITHM IN OPTIMIZATION DESIGN OF INTERIOR PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phuong Le Ngo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Classical method of designing electric motors help to achieve functional motor, but doesn’t ensure minimal cost in manufacturing and operating. Recently optimization is becoming an important part in modern electric motor design process. The objective of the optimization process is usually to minimize cost, energy loss, mass, or maximize torque and efficiency. Most of the requirements for electrical machine design are in contradiction to each other (reduction in volume or mass, improvement in efficiency etc.. Optimization in design permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is a multi-objective optimization problem. There are two approaches for solving this problem, one of them is evolution algorithms, which gain a lot of attentions recently. For designing PMSM, evolution algorithms are more attractive approach. Genetic algorithm is one of the most common. This paper presents components and procedures of genetic algorithms, and its implementation on computer. In optimization process, analytical and finite element method are used together for better performance and precision. Result from optimization process is a set of solutions, from which engineer will choose one. This method was used to design a permanent magnet synchronous motor based on an asynchronous motor type АИР112МВ8.
Sensorless interior permanent magnet synchronous motor control with rotational inertia adjustment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongle Mao
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Mechanical model is generally required in high dynamic sensorless motor control schemes for zero phase lag estimation of rotor position and speed. However, the rotational inertia uncertainty will cause dynamic estimation errors, eventually resulting in performance deterioration of the sensorless control system. Therefore, this article proposes a high dynamic performance sensorless control strategy with online adjustment of the rotational inertia. Based on a synthetic back electromotive force model, the voltage equation of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is transformed to that of an equivalent non-salient permanent magnet synchronous motor. Then, an extended nonlinear observer is designed for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor in the stator-fixed coordinate frame, with rotor position, speed and load torque simultaneously estimated. The effect of inaccurate rotational inertia on the estimation of rotor position and speed is investigated, and a novel rotational inertia adjustment approach that employs the gradient descent algorithm is proposed to suppress the dynamic estimation errors. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is demonstrated by experimental tests.
Study on a high thrust force bi-double-sided permanent magnet linear synchronous motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Tong
2016-03-01
Full Text Available A high thrust force bi-double-sided permanent magnet linear synchronous motor used in gantry-type five-axis machining center is designed and its performance was tested in this article. This motor is the subproject of Chinese National Science and Technology Major Project named as “development of domestic large thrust linear motor used in high-speed gantry-type five-axis machining center project” jointly participated by enterprises and universities. According to the requirement of the application environment and motor performance parameters, the linear motor’s basic dimensions, form of windings, and magnet arrangement are preliminarily specified through theoretical analysis and calculation. To verify the correctness of the result of the calculation, the finite element model of the motor is established. The static and dynamic characteristics of the motor are studied and analyzed through the finite element method, and the initial scheme is revised. The prototype of the motor is manufactured based on the final revised structure parameters, and the performance of the motor is fully tested using the evaluation platform for direct-drive motor component. Experimental test results meet the design requirements and show the effectiveness of design method and process.
Phase synchronization for two Brownian motors with bistable coupling on a ratchet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mateos, Jose L.; Alatriste, F.R.
2010-01-01
Graphical abstract: We study phase synchronization for a walker with two Brownian motors with bistable coupling on a ratchet and show a connection between synchronization and optimal transport. - Abstract: We study phase synchronization for a walker on a ratchet potential. The walker consist of two particles coupled by a bistable potential that allow the interchange of the order of the particles while moving through a one-dimensional asymmetric periodic ratchet potential. We consider the deterministic and the stochastic dynamics of the center of mass of the walker in a tilted ratchet potential with an external periodic forcing, in the overdamped case. The ratchet potential has to be tilted in order to obtain a rotator or self-sustained nonlinear oscillator in the absence of external periodic forcing. This oscillator has an intrinsic frequency that can be entrained with the frequency of the external driving. We introduced a linear phase through a set of discrete time events and the associated average frequency, and show that this frequency can be synchronized with the frequency of the external driving. In this way, we can properly characterize the phenomenon of synchronization through Arnold tongues and show that the local maxima in the average velocity of the center of mass of the walker, both in the deterministic case and in the presence of noise, correspond to the borders of these Arnold tongues. In this way, we established a connection between optimal transport in ratchets and the phenomenon of phase synchronization.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Asghar Gholamian
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Permanent magnet synchronous motors are efficient motors which have widespread applications in electric industry due to their noticeable features. One of the interesting applications of such motors is in underwater vehicles. In these cases, reaching to minimum volume and high torque of the motor are the major concern. Design optimization can enhance their merits considerably, thus reduce volume and improve performance of motors. In this paper, a new method for optimum design of a five-phase surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motor is presented to achieve minimum loss and magnet volume with an increased torque. A multi-objective optimization is performed in search for optimum dimensions of the motor and its permanent magnets using particle swarm optimization. The design optimization results in a motor with great improvement regarding the original motor. Finally, finite element analysis is utilized to validate the accuracy of the design.
Van Vugt, Floris T.; Ritter, Juliane; Rollnik, Jens D.; Altenmüller, Eckart
2014-01-01
Background: Music-supported therapy has been shown to be an effective tool for rehabilitation of motor deficits after stroke. A unique feature of music performance is that it is inherently social: music can be played together in synchrony. Aim: The present study explored the potential of synchronized music playing during therapy, asking whether synchronized playing could improve fine motor rehabilitation and mood. Method: Twenty-eight patients in neurological early rehabilitation after stroke with no substantial previous musical training were included. Patients learned to play simple finger exercises and familiar children's songs on the piano for 10 sessions of half an hour. Patients first received three individual therapy sessions and then continued in pairs. The patient pairs were divided into two groups. Patients in one group played synchronously (together group) whereas the patients in the other group played one after the other (in-turn group). To assess fine motor skill recovery the patients performed standard clinical tests such as the nine-hole-pegboard test (9HPT) and index finger-tapping speed and regularity, and metronome-paced finger tapping. Patients' mood was established using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Results: Both groups showed improvements in fine motor control. In metronome-paced finger tapping, patients in both groups improved significantly. Mood tests revealed reductions in depression and fatigue in both groups. During therapy, patients in the in-turn group rated their partner as more sympathetic than the together-group in a visual-analog scale. Conclusions: Our results suggest that music-supported stroke rehabilitation can improve fine motor control and mood not only individually but also in patient pairs. Patients who were playing in turn rather than simultaneously tended to reveal greater improvement in fine motor skill. We speculate that patients in the former group may benefit from the opportunity to learn from observation. PMID
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baral, Andreas [FHWT - Private Fachhochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Technik, Oldenburg (Germany). Elektrische Maschinen und Antriebstechnik
2011-01-15
The contribution explains the principle of permanent-magnet-excited synchronous motors. They are used as positioning drives in many automation applications, usually in combination with a servo-controller.
Luo, Bingyang; Chi, Shangjie; Fang, Man; Li, Mengchao
2017-03-01
Permanent magnet synchronous motor is used widely in industry, the performance requirements wouldn't be met by adopting traditional PID control in some of the occasions with high requirements. In this paper, a hybrid control strategy - nonlinear neural network PID and traditional PID parallel control are adopted. The high stability and reliability of traditional PID was combined with the strong adaptive ability and robustness of neural network. The permanent magnet synchronous motor will get better control performance when switch different working modes according to different controlled object conditions. As the results showed, the speed response adopting the composite control strategy in this paper was faster than the single control strategy. And in the case of sudden disturbance, the recovery time adopting the composite control strategy designed in this paper was shorter, the recovery ability and the robustness were stronger.
A COMPENSATOR APPLICATION USING SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR WITH A PI CONTROLLER BASED ON PIC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramazan BAYINDIR
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, PI control of a synchronous motor has been realized by using a PIC 18F452 microcontroller and it has been worked as ohmic, inductive and capacitive with different excitation currents. Instead of solving integral operation of PI control which has difficulties with conversion to the digital system, summation of all error values of a defined time period are multiplied with the sampling period. Reference values of the PI algorithm are determined with Ziegler-Nicholas method. These parameters are calculated into the microcontroller and changed according to the algorithm. In addition, this work designed to provide visualization for the users. Current, voltage and power factor data of the synchronous motor can be observed easily on the LCD instantly.
Impulsive control for permanent magnet synchronous motors with uncertainties: LMI approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, Li; Shi-Long, Wang; Xiao-Hong, Zhang; Dan, Yang
2010-01-01
A permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) may have chaotic behaviours under certain working conditions, especially for uncertain values of parameters, which threatens the security and stability of motor-driven operation. Hence, it is important to study methods of controlling or suppressing chaos in PMSMs. In this paper, the stability of a PMSM with parameter uncertainties is investigated. After uncertain matrices which represent the variable system parameters are formulated through matrix analysis, a novel asymptotical stability criterion is established by employing the method of Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequality technology. An example is also given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Kenji; Saito, Kenichi; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Ichinokura, Osamu
2005-01-01
Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSMs) have high efficiency and torque, since the motors can utilize reluctance torque in addition to magnet torque. The IPMSMs are widely used for electric household appliances and electric bicycles and vehicles. A quantitative analysis method of dynamic characteristics of the IPMSMs, however, has not been clarified fully. For optimum design, investigation of dynamic characteristics considering magnetic nonlinearity is needed. This paper presents a new nonlinear magnetic circuit model of an IPMSM, and suggests a dynamic analysis method using the proposed magnetic circuit model
Control for stabilizing the alignment position of the rotor of the synchronous motor
Donley, L.I.
1985-03-12
A method and apparatus is described for damping oscillations in the rotor load angle of a synchronous motor to provide stable rotational alignment in high precision applications. The damping method includes sensing the angular position of the rotor and utilizing the position signal to generate an error signal in response to changes in the period of rotation of the rotor. The error signal is coupled to phase shift amplifiers which shift the phase of the motor drive signal in a direction to damp out the oscillations in the rotor load angle.
Self-Commissioning for sensorless Field Oriented Control of PM motors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik
2004-01-01
currents. Inverter parameters, stator resistance and inductance are measured at stand-still before the initial start-up of the drive. The strength of the permanent magnet is measured during a initial manual start-up of the drive. The measured parameters are used in a field oriented control system......Methods for estimation of the parameters in the inverter and the PM motor, based on special designed experiments, are given. Input to the system is the reference values for the stator voltages given as duty cycles for the Pulse With Modulated power device. The system output is the measured stator...
Self-commisioning for Sensorless Field Oriented Control of PM Motors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik
2004-01-01
currents. Inverter parameters, stator resistance and inductance are measured at stand-still before the initial start-up of the drive. The strength of the permanent magnet is measured during a initial manual start-up of the drive. The measured parameters are used in a field oriented control system......Methods for estimation of the parameters in the inverter and the PM motor, based on special designed experiments, are given. Input to the system is the reference values for the stator voltages given as duty cycles for the Pulce With Modulated power device. The system output is the measured stator...
Self-commissioning for sensorless Field Oriented Control of PM Motors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik
2004-01-01
currents. Inverter parameters, stator resistance and inductance are measured at stand-still before the initial start-up of the drive. The strength of the permanent magnet is measured during a initial manual start-up of the drive. The measured parameters are used in a field oriented control system......Methods for estimation of the parameters in the inverter and the PM motor, based on special designed experiments, are given. Input to the system is the reference values for the stator voltages given as duty cycles for the Pulse With Modulated power device. The system output is the measured stator...
Improved state observers for sensorless single phase BLDC-PM motor drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lepure, Liviu L.; Boldea, Ion; Andreescu, Gheorghe Daniel
2010-01-01
Two methods of extracting the rotor position and speed for a sensorless single phase BLDC-PM motor drive by measuring only the phase current are presented here. Both methods are based on a generated orthogonal flux system. The first method extracts the position information by using the tan−1...... function and then an improved observer is created by adding a 4th order harmonic term in the estimated position, while the second method uses a phase locked loop structure. The proposed state observers are detailed using simulation results and then validated by experimental results....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hong Junjie, E-mail: hongjjie@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li Liyi, E-mail: liliyi@hit.edu.cn [Dept. Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150000 (China); Zong Zhijian; Liu Zhongtu [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)
2011-10-15
Highlights: {yields} The structure of the permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (SW-PMLSM) is new. {yields} A new current control method CEVPC is employed in this motor. {yields} The sectional power supply method is different to the others and effective. {yields} The performance gets worse with voltage and current limitations. - Abstract: To include features such as greater thrust density, higher efficiency without reducing the thrust stability, this paper proposes a section winding permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (SW-PMLSM), whose iron core is continuous, whereas winding is divided. The discrete system model of the motor is derived. With the definition of the current error vector and selection of the value function, the theory of the current error vector based prediction control (CEVPC) for the motor currents is explained clearly. According to the winding section feature, the motion region of the mover is divided into five zones, in which the implementation of the current predictive control method is proposed. Finally, the experimental platform is constructed and experiments are carried out. The results show: the current control effect has good dynamic response, and the thrust on the mover remains constant basically.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ting Yan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Considering the inherent disadvantages that severely affect driving comfortability during the shift process in HEVs, a dynamic shift coordinated control based on motor active speed synchronization is proposed to improve shift quality by reduction of shift vibration. The whole control scheme is comprised of three phases, preparatory phase, speed regulation phase, and synchronization phase, which are implemented consecutively in order. The key to inhibiting impact and jerk depends on the speed regulation phase, where motor active speed synchronization is utilized to reach the minimum speed difference between the two ends of synchronizer. A new hybrid system with superior performances is applied to present the validity of the adopted control algorithm during upshift or downshift, which can represent planetary gear system and conventional AMT shift procedure, respectively. Bench test, simulation, and road test results show that, compared with other methods, the proposed dynamic coordinated control can achieve shifting control in real time to effectively improve gear-shift comfort and shorten power interruption transients, with robustness in both conventional AMT and planetary gear train.
Mathematical Modelling and Predictive Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Belda, Květoslav
2013-01-01
Roč. 2, č. 4 (2013), s. 114-120 ISSN 1805-3386 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0437 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Permanent magnet synchronous motor * mathematical modelling * discrete predictive control * multistep explicit control law * square-root optimization Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/AS/belda-0422285.pdf
Liu Yue; Zhou Shuo
2016-01-01
To improve the dynamic performance of permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM) drive system, a adaptive nonsingular terminal sliding model control((NTSMC) strategy was proposed. The proposed control strategy presents an adaptive variable-rated exponential reaching law which the L1 norm of state variables is introduced. Exponential and constant approach speed can adaptively adjust according to the state variables’ distance to the equilibrium position.The proposed scheme can shorten the reachin...
A COMPENSATOR APPLICATION USING SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR WITH A PI CONTROLLER BASED ON PIC
Ramazan BAYINDIR; Alper GÖRGÜN
2009-01-01
In this paper, PI control of a synchronous motor has been realized by using a PIC 18F452 microcontroller and it has been worked as ohmic, inductive and capacitive with different excitation currents. Instead of solving integral operation of PI control which has difficulties with conversion to the digital system, summation of all error values of a defined time period are multiplied with the sampling period. Reference values of the PI algorithm are determined with Ziegler-Nicholas method. These ...
Kline, Joshua C.
2014-01-01
Over the past four decades, various methods have been implemented to measure synchronization of motor-unit firings. In this work, we provide evidence that prior reports of the existence of universal common inputs to all motoneurons and the presence of long-term synchronization are misleading, because they did not use sufficiently rigorous statistical tests to detect synchronization. We developed a statistically based method (SigMax) for computing synchronization and tested it with data from 17,736 motor-unit pairs containing 1,035,225 firing instances from the first dorsal interosseous and vastus lateralis muscles—a data set one order of magnitude greater than that reported in previous studies. Only firing data, obtained from surface electromyographic signal decomposition with >95% accuracy, were used in the study. The data were not subjectively selected in any manner. Because of the size of our data set and the statistical rigor inherent to SigMax, we have confidence that the synchronization values that we calculated provide an improved estimate of physiologically driven synchronization. Compared with three other commonly used techniques, ours revealed three types of discrepancies that result from failing to use sufficient statistical tests necessary to detect synchronization. 1) On average, the z-score method falsely detected synchronization at 16 separate latencies in each motor-unit pair. 2) The cumulative sum method missed one out of every four synchronization identifications found by SigMax. 3) The common input assumption method identified synchronization from 100% of motor-unit pairs studied. SigMax revealed that only 50% of motor-unit pairs actually manifested synchronization. PMID:25210152
Klotz, Rosa; Govindan, Rathinaswamy B.; Scholten, Marlieke; Naros, Georgios; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Bunjes, Friedemann; Meisner, Christoph; Plewnia, Christian; Krüger, Rejko
2015-01-01
Dynamic modulations of large-scale network activity and synchronization are inherent to a broad spectrum of cognitive processes and are disturbed in neuropsychiatric conditions including Parkinson’s disease. Here, we set out to address the motor network activity and synchronization in Parkinson’s disease and its modulation with subthalamic stimulation. To this end, 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease with subthalamic nucleus stimulation were analysed on externally cued right hand finger movements with 1.5-s interstimulus interval. Simultaneous recordings were obtained from electromyography on antagonistic muscles (right flexor digitorum and extensor digitorum) together with 64-channel electroencephalography. Time-frequency event-related spectral perturbations were assessed to determine cortical and muscular activity. Next, cross-spectra in the time-frequency domain were analysed to explore the cortico-cortical synchronization. The time-frequency modulations enabled us to select a time-frequency range relevant for motor processing. On these time-frequency windows, we developed an extension of the phase synchronization index to quantify the global cortico-cortical synchronization and to obtain topographic differentiations of distinct electrode sites with respect to their contributions to the global phase synchronization index. The spectral measures were used to predict clinical and reaction time outcome using regression analysis. We found that movement-related desynchronization of cortical activity in the upper alpha and beta range was significantly facilitated with ‘stimulation on’ compared to ‘stimulation off’ on electrodes over the bilateral parietal, sensorimotor, premotor, supplementary-motor, and prefrontal areas, including the bilateral inferior prefrontal areas. These spectral modulations enabled us to predict both clinical and reaction time improvement from subthalamic stimulation. With ‘stimulation on’, interhemispheric cortico
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
OCAK, C.
2018-02-01
Full Text Available This study deals with analyzing, designing and fabricating of a 1 kW PM synchronous generator for gearless and direct drive off-grid wind turbines. Performance characteristics of this generator have been calculated analytically in collaboration with dynamic transient coupled-field analysis. All specifications of the PMSG have been investigated and optimized by using finite element method and parametric multi-criterion design approach. At the end of research, a prototype has been fabricated based on the optimized dimensions. Furthermore, the analytical calculations present along with experimental studies carried out for different shaft speeds and load levels. The comparative experimental studies have verified effectiveness of the optimized designing and dynamic co-simulations.
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Ogbuka Cosmas
2016-03-01
Full Text Available A comprehensive comparison of the dynamic and steady state performance characteristics of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM with interior and surface rotor magnets for line-start operation is presented. The dynamic model equations of the PMSM, with damper windings, are utilized for dynamic studies. Two typical loading scenarios are examined: step and ramp loading. The interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM showed superior asynchronous performance under no load, attaining faster synchronism compared to the surface permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM. With step load of 10 Nm at 2 s the combined effect of the excitation and the reluctance torque forced the IPMSM to pull into synchronism faster than the SPMSM which lacks saliency. The ability of the motors to withstand gradual load increase, in the synchronous mode, was examined using ramp loading starting from zero at 2 s. SPMSM lost synchronism at 12 s under 11 Nm load while the IPMSM sustained synchronism until 41 seconds under 40 Nm load. This clearly suggests that the IPMSM has superior load-withstand capability. The superiority is further buttressed with the steady state torque analysis where airgap torque in IPMSM is enhanced by the reluctance torque within 90° to 180° torque angle.
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Chengming Zhang
2017-12-01
Full Text Available To improve the endurance mileage of electric vehicles (EVs, it is important to decrease the energy consumption of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM drive system. This paper proposes a novel loss optimization control strategy named system efficiency improvement control which can optimize both inverter and motor losses. A nonlinear power converter loss model is built to fit the nonlinear characteristics of power devices. This paper uses double Fourier integral analysis to analytically calculate the fundamental and harmonic components of motor current by which the fundamental motor loss and harmonic motor loss can be accurately analyzed. From these loss models, a whole-frequency-domain system loss model is derived and presented. Based on the system loss model, the system efficiency improvement control method applies the genetic algorithm to adjust the motor current and PWM frequency together to optimize the inverter and motor losses by which the system efficiency can be significantly improved without seriously influence on the system stability over the whole operation range of EVs. The optimal effects of system efficiency is verified by the experimental results in both Si-IGBT-based PMSM system and SiC-MOSFET-based system.
CONFIRMATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL ADEQUACY OF A LINEAR SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. F. Novikov
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose.To reduce labor costs and the amount of computer time in the design of linear synchronous motors with excitation from a source of a constant magnetic field of high-speed ground transportation it is necessary to use engineering methods. The purpose of this study is to confirm the adequacy of the previously proposed mathematical model of this engine and assumptions. It is also intended to confirm the possibility of applying the method of calculation of traction that occurs in the engine in the interaction of the permanent magnetic field of the excitation system of a vehicle with a coil track structure.Methodology. As for empirical theories the positive result of the experiment is not absolute proof of the truth, for an unambiguous conclusion about the adequacy of the developed model and the effectiveness of the developed methods need to be tested for falsification. In accordance with this criterion, it is necessary to conduct an experiment, the results of which will coincide with the calculation but you also need to avoid errors caused by random coincidences. For this purpose the experiments with varying parameters are conducted. Findings. In a critical experiment configuration changes of the excitation system were held so that the shape dependence of traction from displacement is differed significantly. The comparison of the results of the calculated and experimental values of traction for different configurations showed that the differences are minor and easily explained by measurement error and uneven gaps between the poles and excitation coils of the track structure. Originality. The adequacy of the mathematical model of a linear synchronous motor without a ferromagnetic magnetic circuit and the assumptions and applicability of the calculation method of traction forces involved in it, at the interaction of a permanent magnetic field of the excitation system of a vehicle with a coil track structure were proved. This proof is built on
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pyrhoenen, O
1999-12-31
Direct torque control (DTC) is a new control method for rotating field electrical machines. DTC controls directly the motor stator flux linkage with the stator voltage, and no stator current controllers are used. With the DTC method very good torque dynamics can be achieved. Until now, DTC has been applied to asynchronous motor drives. The purpose of this work is to analyse the applicability of DTC to electrically excited synchronous motor drives. Compared with asynchronous motor drives, electrically excited synchronous motor drives require an additional control for the rotor field current. The field current control is called excitation control in this study. The dependence of the static and dynamic performance of DTC synchronous motor drives on the excitation control has been analysed and a straightforward excitation control method has been developed and tested. In the field weakening range the stator flux linkage modulus must be reduced in order to keep the electro motive force of the synchronous motor smaller than the stator voltage and in order to maintain a sufficient voltage reserve. The dynamic performance of the DTC synchronous motor drive depends on the stator flux linkage modulus. Another important factor for the dynamic performance in the field weakening range is the excitation control. The field weakening analysis considers both dependencies. A modified excitation control method, which maximises the dynamic performance in the field weakening range, has been developed. In synchronous motor drives the load angle must be kept in a stabile working area in order to avoid loss of synchronism. The traditional vector control methods allow to adjust the load angle of the synchronous motor directly by the stator current control. In the DTC synchronous motor drive the load angle is not a directly controllable variable, but it is formed freely according to the motor`s electromagnetic state and load. The load angle can be limited indirectly by limiting the torque
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pyrhoenen, O.
1998-12-31
Direct torque control (DTC) is a new control method for rotating field electrical machines. DTC controls directly the motor stator flux linkage with the stator voltage, and no stator current controllers are used. With the DTC method very good torque dynamics can be achieved. Until now, DTC has been applied to asynchronous motor drives. The purpose of this work is to analyse the applicability of DTC to electrically excited synchronous motor drives. Compared with asynchronous motor drives, electrically excited synchronous motor drives require an additional control for the rotor field current. The field current control is called excitation control in this study. The dependence of the static and dynamic performance of DTC synchronous motor drives on the excitation control has been analysed and a straightforward excitation control method has been developed and tested. In the field weakening range the stator flux linkage modulus must be reduced in order to keep the electro motive force of the synchronous motor smaller than the stator voltage and in order to maintain a sufficient voltage reserve. The dynamic performance of the DTC synchronous motor drive depends on the stator flux linkage modulus. Another important factor for the dynamic performance in the field weakening range is the excitation control. The field weakening analysis considers both dependencies. A modified excitation control method, which maximises the dynamic performance in the field weakening range, has been developed. In synchronous motor drives the load angle must be kept in a stabile working area in order to avoid loss of synchronism. The traditional vector control methods allow to adjust the load angle of the synchronous motor directly by the stator current control. In the DTC synchronous motor drive the load angle is not a directly controllable variable, but it is formed freely according to the motor`s electromagnetic state and load. The load angle can be limited indirectly by limiting the torque
Jiang, Chao; Qiao, Mingzhong; Zhu, Peng
2017-12-01
A permanent magnet synchronous motor with radial magnetic circuit and built-in permanent magnet is designed for the electric vehicle. Finite element numerical calculation and experimental measurement are adopted to obtain the direct axis and quadrature axis inductance parameters of the motor which are vital important for the motor control. The calculation method is simple, the measuring principle is clear, the results of numerical calculation and experimental measurement are mutual confirmation. A quick and effective method is provided to obtain the direct axis and quadrature axis inductance parameters of the motor, and then improve the design of motor or adjust the control parameters of the motor controller.
Mohr, Maurice; Nann, Marius; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Eskofier, Bjoern; Nigg, Benno Maurus
2015-01-01
Motor unit activity is coordinated between many synergistic muscle pairs but the functional role of this coordination for the motor output is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term modality of coordinated motor unit activity-the synchronized discharge of individual motor units across muscles within time intervals of 5ms-for the Vastus Medialis (VM) and Lateralis (VL). Furthermore, we studied the task-dependency of intermuscular motor unit synchronization between VM and VL during static and dynamic squatting tasks to provide insight into its functional role. Sixteen healthy male and female participants completed four tasks: Bipedal squats, single-leg squats, an isometric squat, and single-leg balance. Monopolar surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record motor unit activity of VM and VL. For each task, intermuscular motor unit synchronization was determined using a coherence analysis between the raw EMG signals of VM and VL and compared to a reference coherence calculated from two desynchronized EMG signals. The time shift between VM and VL EMG signals was estimated according to the slope of the coherence phase angle spectrum. For all tasks, except for singe-leg balance, coherence between 15-80Hz significantly exceeded the reference. The corresponding time shift between VM and VL was estimated as 4ms. Coherence between 30-60Hz was highest for the bipedal squat, followed by the single-leg squat and the isometric squat. There is substantial short-term motor unit synchronization between VM and VL. Intermuscular motor unit synchronization is enhanced for contractions during dynamic activities, possibly to facilitate a more accurate control of the joint torque, and reduced during single-leg tasks that require balance control and thus, a more independent muscle function. It is proposed that the central nervous system scales the degree of intermuscular motor unit synchronization according to the requirements of the movement task at hand.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maurice Mohr
Full Text Available Motor unit activity is coordinated between many synergistic muscle pairs but the functional role of this coordination for the motor output is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term modality of coordinated motor unit activity-the synchronized discharge of individual motor units across muscles within time intervals of 5ms-for the Vastus Medialis (VM and Lateralis (VL. Furthermore, we studied the task-dependency of intermuscular motor unit synchronization between VM and VL during static and dynamic squatting tasks to provide insight into its functional role.Sixteen healthy male and female participants completed four tasks: Bipedal squats, single-leg squats, an isometric squat, and single-leg balance. Monopolar surface electromyography (EMG was used to record motor unit activity of VM and VL. For each task, intermuscular motor unit synchronization was determined using a coherence analysis between the raw EMG signals of VM and VL and compared to a reference coherence calculated from two desynchronized EMG signals. The time shift between VM and VL EMG signals was estimated according to the slope of the coherence phase angle spectrum.For all tasks, except for singe-leg balance, coherence between 15-80Hz significantly exceeded the reference. The corresponding time shift between VM and VL was estimated as 4ms. Coherence between 30-60Hz was highest for the bipedal squat, followed by the single-leg squat and the isometric squat.There is substantial short-term motor unit synchronization between VM and VL. Intermuscular motor unit synchronization is enhanced for contractions during dynamic activities, possibly to facilitate a more accurate control of the joint torque, and reduced during single-leg tasks that require balance control and thus, a more independent muscle function. It is proposed that the central nervous system scales the degree of intermuscular motor unit synchronization according to the requirements of the movement
Sensorless Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors by Neural Network Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming-Shyan Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The sliding mode control has the merits with respect to the variation of the disturbance and robustness. In this paper, the sensorless sliding-mode observer with least mean squared error approach for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM to detect the rotor position by counter electromotive force and then compute motor speed is designed and implemented. In addition, the neural network control is also used to compensate the PI gain tuning to increase the speed accuracy without regarding the errors of the current measurement and motor noise. In this paper, a digital signal processor TMS320F2812 utilizes its high-speed ADC module to get current feedback information and thus to estimate the rotor position and takes advantage of the built-in modules to achieve SVPWM current control so that the senseless speed control will be accomplished. The correctness and effectiveness of the proposed control system will be verified from the experimental results.
Efficiency Optimization Control of IPM Synchronous Motor Drives with Online Parameter Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sadegh Vaez-Zadeh
2011-04-01
Full Text Available This paper describes an efficiency optimization control method for high performance interior permanent magnet synchronous motor drives with online estimation of motor parameters. The control system is based on an input-output feedback linearization method which provides high performance control and simultaneously ensures the minimization of the motor losses. The controllable electrical loss can be minimized by the optimal control of the armature current vector. It is shown that parameter variations except at near the nominal conditions have undesirable effect on the controller performance. Therefore, a parameter estimation method based on the second method of Lyapunov is presented which guarantees the stability and convergence of the estimation. The extensive simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed controller and observer and their desirable performances.
Performance test of a 1 MW class HTS synchronous motor for industrial application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, Y.K.; Kim, H.M.; Baik, S.K.; Lee, E.Y.; Lee, J.D.; Kim, Y.C.; Lee, S.H.; Hong, J.P.; Jo, Y.S.; Ryu, K.S.
2008-01-01
This paper deals with development activities of high temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor at DOOSAN heavy industry and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) in Korea, and is sponsored by DAPAS program which is supported by Korean government. The final aim of the project is realization of HTS motor in the field of industry such as large driving pumps, fans and compressors for utility and industrial environments. At present time, 1 MW HTS motor is developed for the purpose to fully represent the design and manufacturing issues for the larger capacity machine. The number of pole and rotating speed of machine are 2 pole and 3600 rpm. The HTS field coil of the developed motor is cooled by way of neon thermosyphon mechanism and the stator coil is cooled by water through hollow copper conductor. This paper describes status of 1 MW HTS motor development, such as design, fabrication and performance test results, which was conducted at steady state in generator mode and motor mode
Wang, Minlin; Ren, Xuemei; Chen, Qiang
2018-01-01
The multi-motor servomechanism (MMS) is a multi-variable, high coupling and nonlinear system, which makes the controller design challenging. In this paper, an adaptive robust H-infinity control scheme is proposed to achieve both the load tracking and multi-motor synchronization of MMS. This control scheme consists of two parts: a robust tracking controller and a distributed synchronization controller. The robust tracking controller is constructed by incorporating a neural network (NN) K-filter observer into the dynamic surface control, while the distributed synchronization controller is designed by combining the mean deviation coupling control strategy with the distributed technique. The proposed control scheme has several merits: 1) by using the mean deviation coupling synchronization control strategy, the tracking controller and the synchronization controller can be designed individually without any coupling problem; 2) the immeasurable states and unknown nonlinearities are handled by a NN K-filter observer, where the number of NN weights is largely reduced by using the minimal learning parameter technique; 3) the H-infinity performances of tracking error and synchronization error are guaranteed by introducing a robust term into the tracking controller and the synchronization controller, respectively. The stabilities of the tracking and synchronization control systems are analyzed by the Lyapunov theory. Simulation and experimental results based on a four-motor servomechanism are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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V. S. Malyar
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Development of a mathematical model that enables to detect resonance modes during asynchronous startup of salient-pole synchronous motors, in which capacitors are switched on to increase the electromagnetic moment in the circuit of the excitation winding. Methodology. The asynchronous mode is described by a system of differential equations of the electric equilibrium of motor circuits written in orthogonal coordinate axes. The basis of the developed algorithm is the mathematical model of the high-level adequacy motor and the projection method for solving the boundary value problem for the equations of the electric equilibrium of the circuits written in orthogonal coordinate axes, taking into account the presence of capacitors in the excitation winding. The coefficients of differential equations are the differential inductances of the motor circuits, which are determined on the basis of the calculation of its magnetic circuit. As a result of the asymmetry of the rotor windings in the asynchronous mode, the current coupling and currents change according to the periodic law. The problem of its definition is solved as a boundary one. Results. A mathematical model for studying the asynchronous characteristics of synchronous motors with capacitors in an excitation winding is developed, by means of which it is possible to investigate the influence of the size of the capacity on the motor's starting properties and the resonance processes which may arise in this case. Scientific novelty. The developed method of mathematical modeling is based on a fundamentally new mathematical basis for the calculation of stationary dynamic modes of nonlinear electromagnetic circuits, which enables to obtain periodic coordinate dependencies, without resorting to the calculation of the transients. The basis of the developed algorithm is based on the approximation of state variables by cubic splines, the projection method of decomposition for the boundary value
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abootorabi Zarchi, H.; Arab Markadeh, Gh.R.; Soltani, J.
2010-01-01
In this paper, a nonlinear speed tracking controller is introduced for three-phase synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM) on the basis of input-output feedback linearization (IOFL), considering the different control strategies (maximum torque per Ampere, high efficiency and minimum KVA rating for the inverter) related to this motor. The proposed control approach is capable of decoupling control of stator flux and motor generated torque. The validity and effectiveness of the method is verified by simulation and experimental results.
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Qiu Hongbo
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In order to compare the performance difference of the permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM with different rotor structure, two kinds of rotor magnetic circuit structure with surface-mounted radial excitation and tangential excitation are designed respectively. By comparing and analyzing the results, the difference of the motor performance was determined. Firstly, based on the finite element method (FEM, the motor electromagnetic field performance was studied, and the magnetic field distribution of the different magnetic circuit structure was obtained. The influence mechanism of the different magnetic circuit structure on the air gap flux density was obtained by using the Fourier theory. Secondly, the cogging torque, output torque and overload capacity of the PMSM with different rotor structure were studied. The effect mechanism of the different rotor structure on the motor output property difference was obtained. The motor prototype with two kinds of rotor structure was manufactured, and the experimental study was carried out. By comparing the experimental data and simulation data, the correctness of the research is verified. This paper lays a foundation for the research on the performance of the PMSM with different magnetic circuit structure.
IMPROVED MOTOR-TIMING: EFFECTS OF SYNCHRONIZED METRO-NOME TRAINING ON GOLF SHOT ACCURACY
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Louise Rönnqvist
2009-12-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of synchronized metronome training (SMT on motor timing and how this training might affect golf shot accuracy. Twenty-six experienced male golfers participated (mean age 27 years; mean golf handicap 12.6 in this study. Pre- and post-test investigations of golf shots made by three different clubs were conducted by use of a golf simulator. The golfers were randomized into two groups: a SMT group and a Control group. After the pre-test, the golfers in the SMT group completed a 4-week SMT program designed to improve their motor timing, the golfers in the Control group were merely training their golf-swings during the same time period. No differences between the two groups were found from the pre-test outcomes, either for motor timing scores or for golf shot accuracy. However, the post-test results after the 4-weeks SMT showed evident motor timing improvements. Additionally, significant improvements for golf shot accuracy were found for the SMT group and with less variability in their performance. No such improvements were found for the golfers in the Control group. As with previous studies that used a SMT program, this study's results provide further evidence that motor timing can be improved by SMT and that such timing improvement also improves golf accuracy
Optimization Design and Performance Analysis of a PM Brushless Rotor Claw Pole Motor with FEM
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Zhenyang Zhang
2016-07-01
Full Text Available A new type of permanent magnet (PM brushless claw pole motor (CPM with soft magnetic composite (SMC core is designed and analyzed in this paper. The PMs are mounted on the claw pole surface, and the three-phase stator windings are fed by variable-frequency three-phase AC currents. The advantages of the proposed CPM are that the slip rings on the rotor are cast off and it can achieve the efficiency improvement and higher power density. The effects of the claw-pole structure parameters, the air-gap length, and the PM thinner parameter of the proposed CPM on the output torque are investigated by using three-dimensional time-stepping finite element method (3D TS-FEM. The optimal rotor structure of the proposed CPM is obtained by using the response surface methodology (RSM and the particle swarm optimization (PSO method and the comparison of full-load performances of the proposed CPM with different material cores (SMC and silicon steel is analyzed.
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Iman Yousefi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents parameter estimation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM using a combinatorial algorithm. Nonlinear fourth-order space state model of PMSM is selected. This model is rewritten to the linear regression form without linearization. Noise is imposed to the system in order to provide a real condition, and then combinatorial Orthogonal Projection Algorithm and Recursive Least Squares (OPA&RLS method is applied in the linear regression form to the system. Results of this method are compared to the Orthogonal Projection Algorithm (OPA and Recursive Least Squares (RLS methods to validate the feasibility of the proposed method. Simulation results validate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm.
Nonlinear Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Salient Poles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Kyslan
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the speed control of permanent magnet synchronous motor with salient poles based on two-step linearization method. In the first step, the direct compensation of the nonlinearities in the equations of current is used. In the second step, the input-output linearization in the state space is used for the decoupling of flux and torque axis. Simulated results are compared to the field oriented vector control structure with PI controllers in order to show differences in the performance of both approaches.
Control of chaos in permanent magnet synchronous motor by using optimal Lyapunov exponents placement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ataei, Mohammad, E-mail: ataei@eng.ui.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal Code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kiyoumarsi, Arash, E-mail: kiyoumarsi@eng.ui.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal Code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghorbani, Behzad, E-mail: behzad.ghorbani63@gmail.co [Department of Control Engineering, Najafabad Azad University, Najafabad, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-09-13
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) experiences chaotic behavior for a certain range of its parameters. In this case, since the performance of the PMSM degrades, the chaos should be eliminated. In this Letter, the control of the undesirable chaos in PMSM using Lyapunov exponents (LEs) placement is proposed that is also improved by choosing optimal locations of the LEs in the sense of predefined cost function. Moreover, in order to provide the physical realization of the method, nonlinear parameter estimator for the system is suggested. Finally, to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, the simulation results for applying this control strategy are provided.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tat-Bao-Thien Nguyen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, based on fuzzy neural networks, we develop an adaptive sliding mode controller for chaos suppression and tracking control in a chaotic permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM drive system. The proposed controller consists of two parts. The first is an adaptive sliding mode controller which employs a fuzzy neural network to estimate the unknown nonlinear models for constructing the sliding mode controller. The second is a compensational controller which adaptively compensates estimation errors. For stability analysis, the Lyapunov synthesis approach is used to ensure the stability of controlled systems. Finally, simulation results are provided to verify the validity and superiority of the proposed method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiwaki, H [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Watada, M [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Torii, S [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Ebihara, D [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)
1996-12-31
In the permanent magnet levitation system, it is impossible to stabilize the motion of the vehicle in both levitation and guidance directions only by permanent magnet. Therefore, the authors proposed the combined system of permanent magnet for levitation and coreless linear synchronous motor (coreless LSM). To design the coreless coils for LSM, the method to calculate the spring coefficient between coreless coil and permanent magnet for LSM is shown. By using this method, the spring coefficients of the three coil arrangements are compared and coreless coil is designed. Furthermore, the authors showed the possibility of stabilizing the motion of the levitation system with coreless LSM. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Z.; Lu, K.; Ye, Y.
2011-01-01
According to saliency of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), the information of rotor position is implied in performance of stator inductances due to the magnetic saturation effect. Researches focused on the initial rotor position estimation of PMSM by injecting modulated pulse voltage...... vectors. The relationship between the inductance variations and voltage vector positions was studied. The inductance variation effect on estimation accuracy was studied as well. An improved five-pulses injection method was proposed, to improve the estimation accuracy by choosing optimaized voltage vectors...
Sensorless control of interior permanent-magnet synchronous motors with compressor load
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Shoudao; Gao, Jian; Xiao, Lei
2013-01-01
This paper analyzes the mathematical model of the interior permanent-magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM). Through the mathematical deformation, the paper proposes the new sensorless method based on sliding mode observer for a IPMSM. The model is only associated with the q-axis inductance, and without...... the d-axis inductance. Dual filter is set series to extract the electromotive force information, and then filter phase shift is measured real-time at different speeds for angle compensation. An I-F strategy is adopted to start the IPMSM with compressor load. Finally, the experimental proves the validity...
Online MTPA Control Approach for Synchronous Reluctance Motor Drives Based on Emotional Controller
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Daryabeigi, Ehsan; Zarchi, Hossein Abootorabi; Markadeh, G. R. Arab
2015-01-01
In this paper, speed and torque control modes (SCM and TCM) of synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM) drives are proposed based on emotional controllers and space vector modulation under an automatic search of the maximum-torque-per-ampere (MTPA) strategy. Furthermore, in order to achieve an MTPA...... strategy at any operating condition, after recognition of transient state by two new indicators, a search algorithm changes the stator flux magnitude automatically. The indicators operate based on slip effect generated at transient conditions in a SynRM with cage. The performance of the proposed controller...
Xu, Meimei; Liu, Guohai; Zhao, Wenxiang; Aamir, Nazir
2018-05-01
Torque ripple is one of the important issues for ferrite assisted synchronous reluctance motors (FASRMs). In this paper, an asymmetrical stator is proposed for the FASRM to reduce its torque ripple. In the proposed FASRM, an asymmetrical stator is designed by appropriately choosing the angle of the slot-opening shift. Meanwhile, its analytical torque expressions are derived. The results show that the proposed FASRM has an effective reduction in the cogging torque, reluctance torque ripple and total torque ripple. Moreover, it is easy to implement while the average torque is not sacrificed.
Numerical assessment of efficiency and control stability of an HTS synchronous motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xian Wei; Yuan Weijia; Coombs, T A, E-mail: wx210@cam.ac.u [Electronic, Power and Energy Conversion Group, Engineering Department, Cambridge University, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)
2010-06-01
A high temperature superconducting (HTS) permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is designed and developed in Cambridge University. It is expected to become cost competitive with the conventional PMSM owing to its high efficiency, high power density, high torque density, etc. The structure and parameters of HTS PMSM are detailed. Both AC losses by transport current and applied filed in stator armature winding of HTS PMSM are also analyzed. Computed and simulated results of the characteristics of the HTS PMSM and conventional PMSM are compared. The improvement on stability of direct torque control (DTC) on the HTS PMSM is estimated, and proved by simulation on Matlab/Simulink.
Computer-aided design studies of the homopolar linear synchronous motor
Dawson, G. E.; Eastham, A. R.; Ong, R.
1984-09-01
The linear induction motor (LIM), as an urban transit drive, can provide good grade-climbing capabilities and propulsion/braking performance that is independent of steel wheel-rail adhesion. In view of its 10-12 mm airgap, the LIM is characterized by a low power factor-efficiency product of order 0.4. A synchronous machine offers high efficiency and controllable power factor. An assessment of the linear homopolar configuration of this machine is presented as an alternative to the LIM. Computer-aided design studies using the finite element technique have been conducted to identify a suitable machine design for urban transit propulsion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Vittek
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Closed-loop position control of mechanisms directly driven by linear synchronous motors with permanent magnets is presented. The control strategy is based on forced dynamic control, which is a form of feedback linearisation, yielding a non-liner multivariable control law to obtain a prescribed linear speed dynamics together with the vector control condition of mutal orthogonality between the stator current and magnetic flux vectors (assuming perfect estimates of the plant parameters. Outer position control loop is closed via simple feedback with proportional gain. Simulations of the design control sysstem, including the drive with power electronic switching, predict the intended drive performance.
Controlling chaos in permanent magnet synchronous motor based on finite-time stability theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du-Qu, Wei; Bo, Zhang
2009-01-01
This paper reports that the performance of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) degrades due to chaos when its systemic parameters fall into a certain area. To control the undesirable chaos in PMSM, a nonlinear controller, which is simple and easy to be constructed, is presented to achieve finite-time chaos control based on the finite-time stability theory. Computer simulation results show that the proposed controller is very effective. The obtained results may help to maintain the industrial servo driven system's security operation. (general)
Pole-shape optimization of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor for reduction of thrust ripple
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tavana, Nariman Roshandel, E-mail: nroshandel@ee.iust.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shoulaie, Abbas, E-mail: shoulaie@iust.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-01-15
In this paper, we have used magnet arc shaping technique in order to improve the performance of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM). At first, a detailed analytical modeling based on Maxwell equations is presented for the analysis and design of PMLSM with the arc-shaped magnetic poles (ASMPs). Then the accuracy of presented method is verified by finite-element method. Very close agreement between the analytical and finite-element results shows the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, a magnet shape design is carried out based on the analytical method to enhance the motor developed thrust. Pertinent evaluations on the optimal design performance demonstrate that shape optimization leads to a design with extra low thrust ripple.
Qiang, Jiang; Meng-wei, Liao; Ming-jie, Luo
2018-03-01
Abstract.The control performance of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor will be affected by the fluctuation or changes of mechanical parameters when PMSM is applied as driving motor in actual electric vehicle,and external disturbance would influence control robustness.To improve control dynamic quality and robustness of PMSM speed control system, a new second order integral sliding mode control algorithm is introduced into PMSM vector control.The simulation results show that, compared with the traditional PID control,the modified control scheme optimized has better control precision and dynamic response ability and perform better with a stronger robustness facing external disturbance,it can effectively solve the traditional sliding mode variable structure control chattering problems as well.
The design, magnetization and control of a superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Xian, W; Hong, Z; Coombs, T A [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yj222@cam.ac.uk
2008-06-15
This paper describes in detail the method of magnetization of a superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor. The rotor of the motor consists of 60 superconducting pucks, which are magnetized by two additional copper windings. The pulse field magnetization (PFM) method is considered and the resulted distribution of the magnetizing flux linkage from the rotor is not a perfect sine wave in the air gap, which leads to a large torque ripple and harmonics of the stator currents. In order to suppress the torque ripple, an iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm is used in addition to the former field-oriented control method. The results show the ILC algorithm can largely reduce the torque ripple.
2D analytical modeling of a wholly superconducting synchronous reluctance motor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Male, G; Lubin, T; Mezani, S; Leveque, J
2011-01-01
An analytical computation of the magnetic field distribution in a wholly superconducting synchronous reluctance motor is proposed. The stator of the studied motor consists of three-phase HTS armature windings fed by AC currents. The rotor is made with HTS bulks which have a nearly diamagnetic behavior under zero field cooling. The electromagnetic torque is obtained by the interaction between the rotating magnetic field created by the HTS windings and the HTS bulks. The proposed analytical model is based on the resolution of Laplace's and Poisson's equations (by the separation-of-variables technique) for each sub-domain, i.e. stator windings, air-gap, holes between HTS bulks and exterior iron shield. For the study, the HTS bulks are considered as perfect diamagnetic materials. The boundary and continuity conditions between the sub-domains yield to the global solution. Magnetic field distributions and electromagnetic torque obtained by the analytical method are compared with those obtained from finite element analyses.
Pole-shape optimization of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor for reduction of thrust ripple
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tavana, Nariman Roshandel; Shoulaie, Abbas
2011-01-01
In this paper, we have used magnet arc shaping technique in order to improve the performance of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM). At first, a detailed analytical modeling based on Maxwell equations is presented for the analysis and design of PMLSM with the arc-shaped magnetic poles (ASMPs). Then the accuracy of presented method is verified by finite-element method. Very close agreement between the analytical and finite-element results shows the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, a magnet shape design is carried out based on the analytical method to enhance the motor developed thrust. Pertinent evaluations on the optimal design performance demonstrate that shape optimization leads to a design with extra low thrust ripple.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeid Haghbin
2014-06-01
Full Text Available A novel integrated motor drive and non-isolated battery charger based on a split-phase permanent magnet (PM motor is presented and described for a plug-in vehicle. The motor windings are reconfigured by a relay for the traction and charging operation. In traction mode, the motor is like a normal three-phase motor, whereas in the charging mode, after windings reconnection, the system is a three-phase Boost rectifier. One important challenge to use the motor as three inductors in charger circuit is to have it in standstill during the battery charging. Based on the presented mathematical model of a split-phase PM motor, the zero-torque condition of the motor is explained which led to a proper windings reconnection for the charging. Simulation and experimental results of two separate practical systems are provided to verify the proposed integrated battery charger. Some practical limitations and design recommendations are provided to achieve a more realistic practical system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas WALDSCHIK
2008-12-01
Full Text Available In this work, we report on the development of several synchronous motors with rotatory or linear movements. The synchronous micro motors are brushless DC motors or stepper motors with electrically controlled commutation consisting of a stator and a rotor. The rotor is mounted onto the stator and is adjusted by an integrated guidance. Inside the stator different coil systems are realized, like double layer sector coils or special nested coils. The coil systems can be controlled by three or six phases depending on the operational mode. Furthermore, inorganic insulation layers were used in order to reduce the thickness of the system. By this means four layers of electrical conductors can be realized especially for the 2D devices. The smallest diameter of the rotatory motor is 1 mm and could be successfully driven.
Numerical analysis and finite element modelling of an HTS synchronous motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ainslie, M.D., E-mail: mda36@cam.ac.u [University of Cambridge, Department of Electrical Engineering (Division B), CAPE Building, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Jiang, Y.; Xian, W.; Hong, Z.; Yuan, W.; Pei, R.; Flack, T.J.; Coombs, T.A. [University of Cambridge, Department of Electrical Engineering (Division B), CAPE Building, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)
2010-11-01
This paper investigates the electromagnetic properties of high-temperature superconductors with a particular focus on the AC loss in coils made from YBCO superconductors. The numerical analysis and finite element modelling of the YBCO superconductors used in Cambridge's superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor currently in development is described. The stack of tapes in the superconducting coils is modelled using the direct H formulation, a B-dependent critical current density and a bulk approximation. Magnetic boundary conditions for this model are derived from a 2D finite element method (FEM) motor model. The combination of these models allows the total AC loss (combined transport and magnetisation losses) in the HTS coils used in an all-superconducting machine design to be estimated. The raw AC loss figures are compared to the output power of the motor for two test cases, and it is found that the AC loss contributes significantly to the total loss and therefore efficiency. An experimental rig is also described, which has been built in order to test the electromagnetic properties and performance of the motor. It is explained how this rig will be used to investigate the magnetisation of the rotor and carry out AC loss measurements on the stator coils.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huangqiu Zhu
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Bearingless permanent magnet synchronous motors (BPMSMs, with all advantages of permanent magnet motors (PMSMs and magnetic bearings, have become an important research direction in the bearingless motor field. To realize a stable suspension for the BPMSM, accurate decoupling control between the electromagnetic torque and radial suspension force is indispensable. In this paper, a concise and reliable analysis method based on a magnetic field equivalent current is presented. By this analysis method, the operation principle is analyzed theoretically, and the necessary conditions to produce a stable radial suspension force are confirmed. In addition, mathematical models of the torque and radial suspension force are established which is verified by the finite element analysis (FEA software ANSYS. Finally, an experimental prototype of a 2-4 poles surface-mounted BPMSM is tested with the customized control strategy. The simulation and experimental results have shown that the motor has good rotation and suspension performance, and validated the accuracy of the proposed analysis method and the feasibility of the control strategy.
Serrano Guillén, Isabel; Bermejo Fernández, Álvaro
2013-01-01
In electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, the utility grid charges the vehicle battery through a battery charger. Different solutions have been proposed to reduce the size and cost of the charger. One solution to achieve this is to include the devices used in the traction circuit in the charger circuit; this is called an integrated motor drive and battery charger. A split-phase PM motor, a motor with double set of windings, gives the opportunity to implement different wind...
Development of Digital Control for High Power Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming-Hung Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the development of digital control system for high power permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM to yield good speed regulation, low current harmonic, and stable output speed. The design of controller is conducted by digitizing the mathematical model of PMSM using impulse invariance technique. The predicted current estimator, which is insensitive to motor feedback currents, is proposed to function under stationary frame for harmonic current suppression. In the AC/DC power converter, mathematical model and dc-link voltage limit of the three-phase switch-mode rectifier are derived. In addition, a current controller under synchronous frame is introduced to reduce the current harmonics and increase the power factor on the input side. A digital control system for 75 kW PMSM is realized with digital signal processor (R5F5630EDDFP. Experimental results indicate that the total harmonic distortion of current is reduced from 4.1% to 2.8% for 50 kW output power by the proposed predicted current estimator technique.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ge Zhengming; Chang Chingming; Chen Yensheng
2006-01-01
Anti-control of chaos of single time scale brushless dc motors (BLDCM) and chaos synchronization of different order systems are studied in this paper. By addition of an external nonlinear term, we can obtain anti-control of chaos. Then, by addition of the coupling terms, by the use of Lyapunov stability theorem and by the linearization of the error dynamics, chaos synchronization between a third-order BLDCM and a second-order Duffing system are presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Illiano, Enzo [ETH Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigung; Brusa Elektronik AG, Sennfeld (Switzerland)
2013-08-15
The separately excited synchronous motor has several advantages which make this topology a very promising traction drive for electric vehicles. The comparison of the separately excited motor with other common topologies also shows the proper regulation of the current in the rotor will rise the complexity of the entire system. In addition the presence of a rotor current has a negative effect on the continuous power of the motor, as the investigations of ETH Zuerich and Brusa show. An optimised motor regulation and an accurate rotor shape design are indispensible to reduce the power deficit. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Munteanu, A.; Agarlita, S. C.; Blaabjerg, Frede
2012-01-01
The present paper introduces a novel six-step commutation strategy for sensorless control applied for a surface permanent magnet synchronous motor that implies only dc link measurement (battery current and battery voltage). The control strategy makes use of a modified I-f starting procedure and t......-crossing of the back-emf are obtained from an observer that uses both current and battery voltage. The case study is represented by a surface permanent magnet synchronous motor prototype (6 /8 configuration), designed for the automotive air conditioning compressor drive....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Nabil Fathy Ibrahim
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This paper compares four prototype Synchronous Reluctance Motors (SynRMs having an identical geometry of iron lamination stacks in the stator and rotor. Two different stator winding layouts are employed: a conventional three-phase star connection and a combined star–delta winding. In addition, two rotors are considered: a conventional rotor without magnets and a rotor with ferrite magnets. The performance of the four SynRMs is evaluated using a two-dimensional (2D Finite Element Model (FEM. For the same copper volume and current, the combined star–delta-connected stator with Permanent Magnets (PMs in the rotor corresponds to an approximately 22% increase in the output torque at rated current and speed compared to the conventional machine. This improvement is mainly thanks to adding ferrite PMs in the rotor as well as to the improved winding factor of the combined star–delta winding. The torque gain increases up to 150% for low current. Moreover, the rated efficiency is 93.60% compared to 92.10% for the conventional machine. On the other hand, the impact on the power factor and losses of SynRM when using the star–delta windings instead of the star windings is merely negligible. The theoretical results are experimentally validated using four identical prototype machines with identical lamination stacks but different rotors and winding layouts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Jan Bood
Full Text Available Acoustic stimuli, like music and metronomes, are often used in sports. Adjusting movement tempo to acoustic stimuli (i.e., auditory-motor synchronization may be beneficial for sports performance. However, music also possesses motivational qualities that may further enhance performance. Our objective was to examine the relative effects of auditory-motor synchronization and the motivational impact of acoustic stimuli on running performance. To this end, 19 participants ran to exhaustion on a treadmill in 1 a control condition without acoustic stimuli, 2 a metronome condition with a sequence of beeps matching participants' cadence (synchronization, and 3 a music condition with synchronous motivational music matched to participants' cadence (synchronization+motivation. Conditions were counterbalanced and measurements were taken on separate days. As expected, time to exhaustion was significantly longer with acoustic stimuli than without. Unexpectedly, however, time to exhaustion did not differ between metronome and motivational music conditions, despite differences in motivational quality. Motivational music slightly reduced perceived exertion of sub-maximal running intensity and heart rates of (near-maximal running intensity. The beat of the stimuli -which was most salient during the metronome condition- helped runners to maintain a consistent pace by coupling cadence to the prescribed tempo. Thus, acoustic stimuli may have enhanced running performance because runners worked harder as a result of motivational aspects (most pronounced with motivational music and more efficiently as a result of auditory-motor synchronization (most notable with metronome beeps. These findings imply that running to motivational music with a very prominent and consistent beat matched to the runner's cadence will likely yield optimal effects because it helps to elevate physiological effort at a high perceived exertion, whereas the consistent and correct cadence induced by
Bood, Robert Jan; Nijssen, Marijn; van der Kamp, John; Roerdink, Melvyn
2013-01-01
Acoustic stimuli, like music and metronomes, are often used in sports. Adjusting movement tempo to acoustic stimuli (i.e., auditory-motor synchronization) may be beneficial for sports performance. However, music also possesses motivational qualities that may further enhance performance. Our objective was to examine the relative effects of auditory-motor synchronization and the motivational impact of acoustic stimuli on running performance. To this end, 19 participants ran to exhaustion on a treadmill in 1) a control condition without acoustic stimuli, 2) a metronome condition with a sequence of beeps matching participants' cadence (synchronization), and 3) a music condition with synchronous motivational music matched to participants' cadence (synchronization+motivation). Conditions were counterbalanced and measurements were taken on separate days. As expected, time to exhaustion was significantly longer with acoustic stimuli than without. Unexpectedly, however, time to exhaustion did not differ between metronome and motivational music conditions, despite differences in motivational quality. Motivational music slightly reduced perceived exertion of sub-maximal running intensity and heart rates of (near-)maximal running intensity. The beat of the stimuli -which was most salient during the metronome condition- helped runners to maintain a consistent pace by coupling cadence to the prescribed tempo. Thus, acoustic stimuli may have enhanced running performance because runners worked harder as a result of motivational aspects (most pronounced with motivational music) and more efficiently as a result of auditory-motor synchronization (most notable with metronome beeps). These findings imply that running to motivational music with a very prominent and consistent beat matched to the runner's cadence will likely yield optimal effects because it helps to elevate physiological effort at a high perceived exertion, whereas the consistent and correct cadence induced by auditory-motor
Bood, Robert Jan; Nijssen, Marijn; van der Kamp, John; Roerdink, Melvyn
2013-01-01
Acoustic stimuli, like music and metronomes, are often used in sports. Adjusting movement tempo to acoustic stimuli (i.e., auditory-motor synchronization) may be beneficial for sports performance. However, music also possesses motivational qualities that may further enhance performance. Our objective was to examine the relative effects of auditory-motor synchronization and the motivational impact of acoustic stimuli on running performance. To this end, 19 participants ran to exhaustion on a treadmill in 1) a control condition without acoustic stimuli, 2) a metronome condition with a sequence of beeps matching participants’ cadence (synchronization), and 3) a music condition with synchronous motivational music matched to participants’ cadence (synchronization+motivation). Conditions were counterbalanced and measurements were taken on separate days. As expected, time to exhaustion was significantly longer with acoustic stimuli than without. Unexpectedly, however, time to exhaustion did not differ between metronome and motivational music conditions, despite differences in motivational quality. Motivational music slightly reduced perceived exertion of sub-maximal running intensity and heart rates of (near-)maximal running intensity. The beat of the stimuli –which was most salient during the metronome condition– helped runners to maintain a consistent pace by coupling cadence to the prescribed tempo. Thus, acoustic stimuli may have enhanced running performance because runners worked harder as a result of motivational aspects (most pronounced with motivational music) and more efficiently as a result of auditory-motor synchronization (most notable with metronome beeps). These findings imply that running to motivational music with a very prominent and consistent beat matched to the runner’s cadence will likely yield optimal effects because it helps to elevate physiological effort at a high perceived exertion, whereas the consistent and correct cadence induced by
Electrical performance analysis of HTS synchronous motor based on 3D FEM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baik, S.K.; Kwon, Y.K.; Kim, H.M.; Lee, J.D.; Kim, Y.C.; Park, G.S.
2010-01-01
A 1-MW class superconducting motor with High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) field coil is analyzed and tested. This machine is a prototype to make sure applicability aimed at generator and industrial motor applications such as blowers, pumps and compressors installed in large plants. This machine has the HTS field coil made of Bi-2223 HTS wire and the conventional copper armature (stator) coils cooled by water. The 1-MW class HTS motor is analyzed by 3D electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) to get magnetic field distribution, self and mutual inductance, and so forth. Especially excitation voltage (Back EMF) is estimated by using the mutual inductance between armature and field coils and compared with experimental result. Open and short circuit tests were conducted in generator mode while a 1.1-MW rated induction machine was rotating the HTS machine. Electrical parameters such as mutual inductance and synchronous inductance are deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM.
Performance Analysis of Regenerative Braking in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew Adib
2018-02-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the design and analysis of a regenerative braking system for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM drive for electric vehicle (EV applications. First studied is the principle for electric braking control of a PMSM motor under field-oriented control (FOC. Next, the maximum braking torque in the regeneration mode as well as the braking torque for the maximum regeneration power, respectively, are deduced. Additionally, an optimum switching scheme for the inverter is developed with the objective of maximizing energy recovery during regenerative braking to the DC-bus capacitor. The integration of an ultra-capacitor module with the battery allows for the efficient and high power transfer under regenerative braking. It was important to manage the power flow to the DC-bus as this is a key issue that affects the efficiency of the overall system. Finally, the amounts of braking energy that can be recovered, and the efficiency with which it can be returned to the battery/ultra-capacitor, is analyzed for a PMSM coupled with a DC motor as the load. The results of the analysis are validated through experimentation.
Knypiński, Łukasz
2017-12-01
In this paper an algorithm for the optimization of excitation system of line-start permanent magnet synchronous motors will be presented. For the basis of this algorithm, software was developed in the Borland Delphi environment. The software consists of two independent modules: an optimization solver, and a module including the mathematical model of a synchronous motor with a self-start ability. The optimization module contains the bat algorithm procedure. The mathematical model of the motor has been developed in an Ansys Maxwell environment. In order to determine the functional parameters of the motor, additional scripts in Visual Basic language were developed. Selected results of the optimization calculation are presented and compared with results for the particle swarm optimization algorithm.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, T; Yamada, Y; Nishio, H; Sugano, M; Amemiya, N; Kajikawa, K; Wakuda, T; Takahashi, M; Okada, M
2012-01-01
In this paper, a fundamental study of the rotating characteristics of a induction/synchronous motor by use of superconducting MgB 2 cage windings is carried out based on analysis and experiment. Current transport properties of the produced monofilamentary MgB 2 wires are firstly characterized, and then utilized for the determination of the current carrying capacity of the rotor bars. Then, the motor model is designed and fabricated with the aid of conventional (copper) stator windings. We successfully observe the synchronous rotation of the fabricated motor at a rotation speed range from 300 to 1800 rpm. We can also realize an almost constant torque versus speed curve, and this characteristic is explained from the steep take-off of the electric field versus the current density curve, based on the nonlinear electrical equivalent circuit. These results are promising for the practical applications of a high efficiency motor for a liquid hydrogen circulation pump.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Mahdiuon-Rad
2013-08-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates both static and dynamic eccentricities in single phase brushless DC (BLDC motors and analyzes the effect of the PM magnetization field on unbalanced magnetic forces acting on the rotor. Three common types of PM magnetization field patterns including radial, parallel and sinusoidal magnetizations are considered. In both static and dynamic eccentricities, harmonic components of the unbalanced magnetic forces on the rotor are extracted and analyzed. Based on simulation results, the magnetization fields that produce the lowest and highest unbalanced magnetic forces are determined in rotor eccentricity conditions.
Neural network-based adaptive dynamic surface control for permanent magnet synchronous motors.
Yu, Jinpeng; Shi, Peng; Dong, Wenjie; Chen, Bing; Lin, Chong
2015-03-01
This brief considers the problem of neural networks (NNs)-based adaptive dynamic surface control (DSC) for permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) with parameter uncertainties and load torque disturbance. First, NNs are used to approximate the unknown and nonlinear functions of PMSM drive system and a novel adaptive DSC is constructed to avoid the explosion of complexity in the backstepping design. Next, under the proposed adaptive neural DSC, the number of adaptive parameters required is reduced to only one, and the designed neural controllers structure is much simpler than some existing results in literature, which can guarantee that the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. Then, simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness and potential of the new design technique.
Yu, Jinpeng; Shi, Peng; Yu, Haisheng; Chen, Bing; Lin, Chong
2015-07-01
This paper considers the problem of discrete-time adaptive position tracking control for a interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) based on fuzzy-approximation. Fuzzy logic systems are used to approximate the nonlinearities of the discrete-time IPMSM drive system which is derived by direct discretization using Euler method, and a discrete-time fuzzy position tracking controller is designed via backstepping approach. In contrast to existing results, the advantage of the scheme is that the number of the adjustable parameters is reduced to two only and the problem of coupling nonlinearity can be overcome. It is shown that the proposed discrete-time fuzzy controller can guarantee the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin and all the signals are bounded. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness and the potentials of the theoretic results obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Shaohua [School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China and College of Mechanical Engineering, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Hunan 415000 (China)
2014-09-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control (DSC) for the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) system with chaotic behavior, disturbance and unknown control gain and parameters. Nussbaum gain is adopted to cope with the situation that the control gain is unknown. And the unknown items can be estimated by fuzzy logic system. The proposed controller guarantees that all the signals in the closed-loop system are bounded and the system output eventually converges to a small neighborhood of the desired reference signal. Finally, the numerical simulations indicate that the proposed scheme can suppress the chaos of PMSM and show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.
Adaptive PIF control for permanent magnet synchronous motors based on GPC.
Lu, Shaowu; Tang, Xiaoqi; Song, Bao
2012-12-24
To enhance the control performance of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs), a generalized predictive control (GPC)-based proportional integral feedforward (PIF) controller is proposed for the speed control system. In this new approach, firstly, based on the online identification of controlled model parameters, a simplified GPC law supplies the PIF controller with suitable control parameters according to the uncertainties in the operating conditions. Secondly, the speed reference curve for PMSMs is usually required to be continuous and continuously differentiable according to the general servo system design requirements, so the adaptation of the speed reference is discussed in details in this paper. Hence, the performance of the speed control system using a GPC-based PIF controller is improved for tracking some specified signals. The main motivation of this paper is the extension of GPC law to replace the traditional PI or PIF controllers in industrial applications. The efficacy and usefulness of the proposed controller are verified through experimental results.
Permanent magnet synchronous motor servo system control based on μC/OS
Shi, Chongyang; Chen, Kele; Chen, Xinglong
2015-10-01
When Opto-Electronic Tracking system operates in complex environments, every subsystem must operate efficiently and stably. As a important part of Opto-Electronic Tracking system, the performance of PMSM(Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor) servo system affects the Opto-Electronic Tracking system's accuracy and speed greatly[1][2]. This paper applied embedded real-time operating system μC/OS to the control of PMSM servo system, implemented SVPWM(Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation) algorithm in PMSM servo system, optimized the stability of PMSM servo system. Pointing on the characteristics of the Opto-Electronic Tracking system, this paper expanded μC/OS with software redundancy processes, remote debugging and upgrading. As a result, the Opto- Electronic Tracking system performs efficiently and stably.
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Xuan Wu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In order to control the permanent-magnet synchronous motor system (PMSM with different disturbances and nonlinearity, an improved current control algorithm for the PMSM systems using recursive model predictive control (RMPC is developed in this paper. As the conventional MPC has to be computed online, its iterative computational procedure needs long computing time. To enhance computational speed, a recursive method based on recursive Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (RLMA and iterative learning control (ILC is introduced to solve the learning issue in MPC. RMPC is able to significantly decrease the computation cost of traditional MPC in the PMSM system. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified by simulation and experimental results.
State Estimation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Improved Square Root UKF
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Bo Xu
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on an improved square root unscented Kalman filter (SRUKF and its application for rotor speed and position estimation of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM. The approach, which combines the SRUKF and strong tracking filter, uses the minimal skew simplex transformation to reduce the number of the sigma points, and utilizes the square root filtering to reduce computational errors. The time-varying fading factor and softening factor are introduced to self-adjust the gain matrices and the state forecast covariance square root matrix, which can realize the residuals orthogonality and force the SRUKF to track the real state rapidly. The theoretical analysis of the improved SRUKF and implementation details for PMSM state estimation are examined. The simulation results show that the improved SRUKF has higher nonlinear approximation accuracy, stronger numerical stability and computational efficiency, and it is an effective and powerful tool for PMSM state estimation under the conditions of step response or load disturbance.
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Baghdad BELABES
2008-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid controller combining a linear model following controller (LMFC and fuzzy logic control (FLC for speed vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is described on this study. The FLC is introduced at the adaptive mechanism level. First, an LMFC system is designed to allow the plant states to be controlled to follow the states produced by a reference model. In the nominal conditions, the model following is perfect and the adaptive mechanism based on the fuzzy logic is idle. Secondly, when parameter variations or external disturbances occur, an augmented signal will be generated by FLC mechanism to preserve the desired model following control performance. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by some simulation results.
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Liu Yue
2016-01-01
Full Text Available To improve the dynamic performance of permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM drive system, a adaptive nonsingular terminal sliding model control((NTSMC strategy was proposed. The proposed control strategy presents an adaptive variable-rated exponential reaching law which the L1 norm of state variables is introduced. Exponential and constant approach speed can adaptively adjust according to the state variables’ distance to the equilibrium position.The proposed scheme can shorten the reaching time and weaken system chatting. The method was applied to the PMSM speed servo system, and compared with the traditional terminal-sliding-mode regulator and PI regulator. Simulation results show that the proposed control strategy can improve dynamic, steady performance and robustness.
Nonlinear Dynamics of Permanent-magnet Synchronous Motor with v/f Control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Du-Qu; Luo Xiao-Shu; Zhang Bo; Qiu Dong-Yuan
2013-01-01
The nonlinear dynamics of permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with v/f control signals is investigated intensively. First, the equilibria and steady-state characteristics of the system are formulated by analytical analysis. Then, some of its basic dynamical properties, such as characteristic eigenvalues, Lyapunov exponents and phase trajectories are studied by varying the values of system parameters. It is found that when the values of the system parameters are smaller, the PMSM operates in stable domains, no matter what the values of control gains are. With the values of parameters increasing, the unstability appears and PMSM falls into chaotic operation. Furthermore, the complex dynamic behaviors are verified by means of simulation. (general)
Speed Control Design of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor using TakagiSugeno Fuzzy Logic Control
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Ahmad Asri Abd Samat
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a speed control design of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM using Field Oriented Control (FOC. The focus is to design a speed control using Takagi — Sugeno Fuzzy Logic Control (T-S FLS. These systems will replace the conventional method which is proportional-integral (PI. The objective of this paper is to study the T—S Fuzzy Inference System (FIS speed regulator and acceleration observer for PMSM. The scope of study basically is to design and analyse the Takagi Sugeno FLC and the PMSM. This paper also will describe the methodology and process of modelling the PMSM including data analysis. The simulation work is implemented in Matlab-Simulink to verify the control method. The effectiveness of this proposed control method was confirmed through various range of speed and torque variation.
Bood, R.J.; Nijssen, M; van der Kamp, J.; Roerdink, M.
2013-01-01
Acoustic stimuli, like music and metronomes, are often used in sports. Adjusting movement tempo to acoustic stimuli (i.e., auditory-motor synchronization) may be beneficial for sports performance. However, music also possesses motivational qualities that may further enhance performance. Our
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ancuti, Mihaela Codruta; Tutelea, Lucian; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel
2014-01-01
This article introduces a control strategy to obtain near-maximum available torque in a wide speed range with sensorless operation via the active flux concept for permanent magnet-reluctance synchronous motor drives. A new torque dq current reference calculator is proposed, with reference torque...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agarlita, Sorin-Christian; Fatu, M.; Tutelea, L. N.
2010-01-01
This paper presents a novel, hybrid, motion sensorless control of an axially laminated anisotropic (ALA) reluctance synchronous machine (RSM). By separately controlling Id and Iq currents with the reference currents Id*, Iq* being held constant, and ramping the reference frequency, the motor starts...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subramanian, A.R.; Palani, R.A.A.
1992-01-01
The 20K41 compressor in Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin is compressing medium pressure synthesis gas to high pressure. The compressor is driven by synchronous motor of capacity 850 kW at 3.3 kV. The synchronous motor had been selected for operating a reciprocating compressor because of the compressor's low speed, higher capacity, vibration level etc. Partially it helps for power factor improvement and constant compression of the gas. This paper describes the details of the motor, stator and rotor, method of repair and rewinding of synchronous motor. (author)
Force Analysis and Energy Operation of Chaotic System of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor
Qi, Guoyuan; Hu, Jianbing
2017-12-01
The disadvantage of a nondimensionalized model of a permanent-magnet synchronous Motor (PMSM) is identified. The original PMSM model is transformed into a Kolmogorov system to aid dynamic force analysis. The vector field of the PMSM is analogous to the force field including four types of torque — inertial, internal, dissipative, and generalized external. Using the feedback thought, the error torque between external torque and dissipative torque is identified. The pitchfork bifurcation of the PMSM is performed. Four forms of energy are identified for the system — kinetic, potential, dissipative, and supplied. The physical interpretations of the decomposition of force and energy exchange are given. Casimir energy is stored energy, and its rate of change is the error power between the dissipative energy and the energy supplied to the motor. Error torque and error power influence the different types of dynamic modes. The Hamiltonian energy and Casimir energy are compared to find the function of each in producing the dynamic modes. A supremum bound for the chaotic attractor is proposed using the error power and Lagrange multiplier.
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Jian-wei Yang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Taking advantage of the high reliability, multiphase permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs, such as five-phase PMSM and six-phase PMSM, are widely used in fault-tolerant control applications. And one of the important fault-tolerant control problems is fault diagnosis. In most existing literatures, the fault diagnosis problem focuses on the three-phase PMSM. In this paper, compared to the most existing fault diagnosis approaches, a fault diagnosis method for Interturn short circuit (ITSC fault of five-phase PMSM based on the trust region algorithm is presented. This paper has two contributions. (1 Analyzing the physical parameters of the motor, such as resistances and inductances, a novel mathematic model for ITSC fault of five-phase PMSM is established. (2 Introducing an object function related to the Interturn short circuit ratio, the fault parameters identification problem is reformulated as the extreme seeking problem. A trust region algorithm based parameter estimation method is proposed for tracking the actual Interturn short circuit ratio. The simulation and experimental results have validated the effectiveness of the proposed parameter estimation method.
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Dongbin Lu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM has high efficiency and high torque density. Field oriented control (FOC is usually used in the motor to achieve maximum efficiency control. In the electric vehicle (EV application, the PMSM efficiency model, combined with the EV and road load system model, is used to study the optimal energy-saving control strategy, which is significant for the economic operation of EVs. With the help of GPS, IMU, and other information technologies, the road conditions can be measured in advance. Based on this information, the optimal velocity of the EV driven by PMSM can be obtained through the analytical algorithm according to the efficiency model of PMSM and the vehicle dynamic model in simple road conditions. In complex road conditions, considering the dynamic characteristics, the economic operating velocity trajectory of the EV can be obtained through the dynamic programming (DP algorithm. Simulation and experimental results show that the minimum energy consumption and global energy optimization can be achieved when the EV operates in the economic operation area.
2D analytical modeling of a wholly superconducting synchronous reluctance motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Male, G; Lubin, T; Mezani, S; Leveque, J, E-mail: gael.male@green.uhp-nancy.fr [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, Universite Henri Poincare, Faculte des Sciences et Technologies BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy CEDEX (France)
2011-03-15
An analytical computation of the magnetic field distribution in a wholly superconducting synchronous reluctance motor is proposed. The stator of the studied motor consists of three-phase HTS armature windings fed by AC currents. The rotor is made with HTS bulks which have a nearly diamagnetic behavior under zero field cooling. The electromagnetic torque is obtained by the interaction between the rotating magnetic field created by the HTS windings and the HTS bulks. The proposed analytical model is based on the resolution of Laplace's and Poisson's equations (by the separation-of-variables technique) for each sub-domain, i.e. stator windings, air-gap, holes between HTS bulks and exterior iron shield. For the study, the HTS bulks are considered as perfect diamagnetic materials. The boundary and continuity conditions between the sub-domains yield to the global solution. Magnetic field distributions and electromagnetic torque obtained by the analytical method are compared with those obtained from finite element analyses.
Ma, Lei; Sanada, Masayuki; Morimoto, Shigeo; Takeda, Yoji; Kaido, Chikara; Wakisaka, Takeaki
Loss evaluation is an important issue in the design of electrical machines. Due to the complicate structure and flux distribution, it is difficult to predict the iron loss in the machines exactly. This paper studies the iron loss in interior permanent magnet synchronous motors based on the finite element method. The iron loss test data of core material are used in the fitting of the hysteresis and eddy current loss constants. For motors in practical operation, additional iron losses due to the appearance of rotation of flux density vector and harmonic flux density distribution makes the calculation data deviates from the measured ones. Revision is made to account for these excess iron losses which exist in the practical operating condition. Calculation results show good consistence with the experimental ones. The proposed method provides a possible way to predict the iron loss of the electrical machine with good precision, and may be helpful in the selection of the core material which is best suitable for a certain machine.
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Qixin Zhu
2014-10-01
Full Text Available For the problems of buffeting and phase delay in traditional rotor detection in sensorless vector control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM, the Sigmoid function is proposed to replace sign function and the approach of piecewise linearization is proposed to compensate phase delay. To the problem that the output of traditional low pass filter contains high- order harmonic, two-stage filter including traditional low-pass filter and Kalman filter is proposed in this paper. Based on the output of traditional first-order low-pass filter, the Kalman filter is used to get modified back-EMF. The phase-locked loop control of rotor position is adopted to estimate motor position and speed. A Matlab/Simulink simulation model of PMSM position servo control system is established. The simulation analysis of the new sliding mode observer’s back-EMF detection, position and speed estimation, load disturbance and dynamic process are carried out respectively. Simulation results verify feasibility of the new sliding mode observer algorithm.
Multi-objective Optimal Design of a Five-Phase Fault-Tolerant Axial Flux PM Motor
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SAAVEDRA, H.
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Electric motors used for traction purposes in electric vehicles (EVs must meet several requirements, including high efficiency, high power density and fault-tolerance. Among them, permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs highlight. Especially, five-phase axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM synchronous motors are particularly suitable for in-wheel applications with enhanced fault-tolerant capabilities. This paper is devoted to optimally design an AFPM for in-wheel applications. The main geometric, electric and mechanical parameters of the designed AFPM are calculated by applying an iterative method based on a set of analytical equations, which is assisted by means of a reduced number of three-dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM simulations to limit the computational burden. To optimally design the AFPM, a constrained multi-objective optimization process based on a genetic algorithm is applied, in which two objective functions are considered, i.e. the power density and the efficiency. Several fault-tolerance constraints are settled during the optimization process to ensure enhanced fault-tolerance in the resulting motor design. The accuracy of the best solution attained is validated by means of 3D-FEM simulations.
Universal adaptive torque control for PM motors for field-weakening region operation
Royak, Semyon [Beachwood, OH; Harbaugh, Mark M [Richfield, OH; Breitzmann, Robert J [South Russel, OH; Nondahl, Thomas A [Wauwatosa, WI; Schmidt, Peter B [Franklin, WI; Liu, Jingbo [Milwaukee, WI
2011-03-29
The invention includes a motor controller and method for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by, among other things, receiving a torque command, determining a normalized torque command by normalizing the torque command to a characteristic current of the motor, determining a normalized maximum available voltage, determining an inductance ratio of the motor, and determining a direct-axis current based upon the normalized torque command, the normalized maximum available voltage, and the inductance ratio of the motor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, T; Nagao, K; Nishimura, T; Matsumura, K
2009-01-01
We propose hybrid double-cage rotor windings that consist of a high temperature superconductor (HTS) and a normal conductor, which are introduced into an HTS induction/synchronous motor (HTS-ISM). The motor rotates as a conventional induction motor when the operating temperature of the hybrid rotor is above the critical temperature of the HTS bars, i.e., in the normal conducting state. On the other hand, the HTS-ISM rotates as a synchronous motor when the temperature is below the critical temperature, i.e., in the superconducting (zero resistance) state. In other words, we do not always need to take care of the cooling conditions, if the HTS-ISM is automatically, as well as appropriately, controlled, depending upon the rotation mode. Namely, the above-mentioned hybrid double-cage HTS-ISM is possibly a breakthrough in solving the cooling problems of HTS rotating machines, especially for industrial applications. The experimental results of the aforementioned motor are reported. An example of an operation flowchart of the motor is also presented and discussed.
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Qiu Hongbo
2017-06-01
Full Text Available At present, the drivers with different control methods are used in most of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM. A current outputted by a driver contains a large number of harmonics that will cause the PMSM torque ripple, winding heating and rotor temperature rise too large and so on. In this paper, in order to determine the influence of the current harmonics on the motor performance, different harmonic currents were injected into the motor armature. Firstly, in order to study the influence of the current harmonic on the motor magnetic field, a novel decoupling method of the motor magnetic field was proposed. On this basis, the difference of harmonic content in an air gap magnetic field was studied, and the influence of a harmonic current on the air gap flux density was obtained. Secondly, by comparing the fluctuation of the motor torque in the fundamental and different harmonic currents, the influence of harmonic on a motor torque ripple was determined. Then, the influence of different current harmonics on the eddy current loss of the motor was compared and analyzed, and the influence of the drive harmonic on the eddy current loss was obtained. Finally, by using a finite element method (FEM, the motor temperature distribution with different harmonics was obtained.
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Quanwu Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available High reliability is required for the permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PM-BLDCM in an electrical pump of hypersonic vehicle. The PM-BLDCM is a short-time duty motor with high-power-density. Since thermal equilibrium is not reached for the PM-BLDCM, the temperature distribution is not uniform and there is a risk of local overheating. The winding is a main heat source and its insulation is thermally sensitive, so reducing the winding temperature rise is the key to the improvement of the reliability. In order to reduce the winding temperature rise, an electromagnetic-thermal integrated design optimization method is proposed. The method is based on electromagnetic analysis and thermal transient analysis. The requirements and constraints of electromagnetic and thermal design are considered in this method. The split ratio and the maximum flux density in stator lamination, which are highly relevant to the windings temperature rise, are optimized analytically. The analytical results are verified by finite element analysis (FEA and experiments. The maximum error between the analytical and the FEA results is 4%. The errors between the analytical and measured windings temperature rise are less than 8%. It can be proved that the method can obtain the optimal design accurately to reduce the winding temperature rise.
Brazhnik, Elena; Cruz, Ana V; Avila, Irene; Wahba, Marian I; Novikov, Nikolay; Ilieva, Neda M; McCoy, Alex J; Gerber, Colin; Walters, Judith R
2012-06-06
Excessive beta frequency oscillatory and synchronized activity has been reported in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian patients and animal models of the disease. To gain insight into processes underlying this activity, this study explores relationships between oscillatory activity in motor cortex and basal ganglia output in behaving rats after dopamine cell lesion. During inattentive rest, 7 d after lesion, increases in motor cortex-substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) coherence emerged in the 8-25 Hz range, with significant increases in local field potential (LFP) power in SNpr but not motor cortex. In contrast, during treadmill walking, marked increases in both motor cortex and SNpr LFP power, as well as coherence, emerged in the 25-40 Hz band with a peak frequency at 30-35 Hz. Spike-triggered waveform averages showed that 77% of SNpr neurons, 77% of putative cortical interneurons, and 44% of putative pyramidal neurons were significantly phase-locked to the increased cortical LFP activity in the 25-40 Hz range. Although the mean lag between cortical and SNpr LFPs fluctuated around zero, SNpr neurons phase-locked to cortical LFP oscillations fired, on average, 17 ms after synchronized spiking in motor cortex. High coherence between LFP oscillations in cortex and SNpr supports the view that cortical activity facilitates entrainment and synchronization of activity in basal ganglia after loss of dopamine. However, the dramatic increases in cortical power and relative timing of phase-locked spiking in these areas suggest that additional processes help shape the frequency-specific tuning of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network during ongoing motor activity.
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Ao Zhang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The vibration and noise of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM are mainly caused by unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP. This paper aims to investigate nonlinear vibration in PMSMs. Firstly, the analytical model of the air-gap magnetic field with an eccentric rotor in PMSM is studied, and the analytical model is verified by the finite element method. Then the dynamic model of an offset rotor-bearing system is established, and the gyroscopic effect, nonlinear bearing force and UMP are taken into consideration. Finally, the dynamic characteristics of different static displacement eccentricities, rotor offsets and radial clearances are investigated in both the time domain and the frequency domain. The results show that the amplitudes of dynamic responses increase with the static displacement eccentricity and rotor offset and high integer multiples of rotating frequency appear with the increase of displacement eccentricity. The coupling effects of bearing force, unbalanced mass force and UMP are observed in the frequency domain, and the frequency components in the dynamic responses indicate that the bearings have an effect on the system.
Zheng, Shiqi; Tang, Xiaoqi; Song, Bao; Lu, Shaowu; Ye, Bosheng
2013-07-01
In this paper, a stable adaptive PI control strategy based on the improved just-in-time learning (IJITL) technique is proposed for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive. Firstly, the traditional JITL technique is improved. The new IJITL technique has less computational burden and is more suitable for online identification of the PMSM drive system which is highly real-time compared to traditional JITL. In this way, the PMSM drive system is identified by IJITL technique, which provides information to an adaptive PI controller. Secondly, the adaptive PI controller is designed in discrete time domain which is composed of a PI controller and a supervisory controller. The PI controller is capable of automatically online tuning the control gains based on the gradient descent method and the supervisory controller is developed to eliminate the effect of the approximation error introduced by the PI controller upon the system stability in the Lyapunov sense. Finally, experimental results on the PMSM drive system show accurate identification and favorable tracking performance. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Winter, J. R.
1984-01-01
For economic reasons, the steam drive for a large compressor was replaced by a large synchronous electric motor. Due to the resulting large increase in mass and because the unit was mounted on a steel frame approximately 18 feet above ground level, it was deemed necessary to determine if a steady state or transient vibration problem existed. There was a definite possibility that a resonant or near resonant condition could be encountered. The ensuing analysis, which led to some structural changes as the analysis proceeded, did not reveal any major steady state vibration problems. However, the analysis did indicate that the system would go through several natural frequencies of the support structure during start-up and shutdown. This led to the development of special start-up and shutdown procedures to minimize the possibility of exciting any of the major structural modes. A coast-down could result in significant support structure and/or equipment damage, especially under certain circumstances. In any event, dynamic field tests verified the major analytical results. The unit has now been operating for over three years without any major vibration problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obe, Emeka S.; Binder, A.
2011-01-01
A detailed model in direct-phase variables of a synchronous reluctance motor operating at mains voltage and frequency is presented. The model includes the stator and rotor slot openings, the actual winding layout and the reluctance rotor geometry. Hence, all mmf and permeance harmonics are taken into account. It is seen that non-negligible harmonics introduced by slots are present in the inductances computed by the winding function procedure. These harmonics are usually ignored in d-q models. The machine performance is simulated in the stator reference frame to depict the difference between this new direct-phase model including all harmonics and the conventional rotor reference frame d-q model. Saturation is included by using a polynomial fitting the variation of d-axis inductance with stator current obtained by finite-element software FEMAG DC (registered) . The detailed phase-variable model can yield torque pulsations comparable to those obtained from finite elements while the d-q model cannot.
A Phase Current Reconstruction Approach for Three-Phase Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive
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Hao Yan
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Three-phase permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs are widely used in renewable energy applications such as wind power generation, tidal energy and electric vehicles owing to their merits such as high efficiency, high precision and high reliability. To reduce the cost and volume of the drive system, techniques of reconstructing three-phase current using a single current sensor have been reported for three-phase alternating current (AC control system using the power converts. In existing studies, the reconstruction precision is largely influenced by reconstructing dead zones on the Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM plane, which requires other algorithms to compensate either by modifying PWM modulation or by phase-shifting of the PWM signal. In this paper, a novel extended phase current reconstruction approach for PMSM drive is proposed. Six novel installation positions are obtained by analyzing the sampling results of the current paths between each two power switches. By arranging the single current sensor at these positions, the single current sensor is sampled during zero voltage vectors (ZVV without modifying the PWM signals. This proposed method can reconstruct the three-phase currents without any complex algorithms and is available in the sector boundary region and low modulation region. Finally, this method is validated by experiments.
Kwon, Chung-Jin; Kim, Sung-Joong; Han, Woo-Young; Min, Won-Kyoung
2005-12-01
The rotor position and speed estimation of permanent-magnet synchronous motor(PMSM) was dealt with. By measuring the phase voltages and currents of the PMSM drive, two diagonally recurrent neural network(DRNN) based observers, a neural current observer and a neural velocity observer were developed. DRNN which has self-feedback of the hidden neurons ensures that the outputs of DRNN contain the whole past information of the system even if the inputs of DRNN are only the present states and inputs of the system. Thus the structure of DRNN may be simpler than that of feedforward and fully recurrent neural networks. If the backpropagation method was used for the training of the DRNN the problem of slow convergence arise. In order to reduce this problem, recursive prediction error(RPE) based learning method for the DRNN was presented. The simulation results show that the proposed approach gives a good estimation of rotor speed and position, and RPE based training has requires a shorter computation time compared to backpropagation based training.
Phase-Inductance-Based Position Estimation Method for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
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Xin Qiu
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a phase-inductance-based position estimation method for interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSMs. According to the characteristics of phase induction of IPMSMs, the corresponding relationship of the rotor position and the phase inductance is obtained. In order to eliminate the effect of the zero-sequence component of phase inductance and reduce the rotor position estimation error, the phase inductance difference is employed. With the iterative computation of inductance vectors, the position plane is further subdivided, and the rotor position is extracted by comparing the amplitudes of inductance vectors. To decrease the consumption of computer resources and increase the practicability, a simplified implementation is also investigated. In this method, the rotor position information is achieved easily, with several basic math operations and logical comparisons of phase inductances, without any coordinate transformation or trigonometric function calculation. Based on this position estimation method, the field orientated control (FOC strategy is established, and the detailed implementation is also provided. A series of experiment results from a prototype demonstrate the correctness and feasibility of the proposed method.
Adaptive PIF Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Based on GPC
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Shaowu Lu
2012-12-01
Full Text Available To enhance the control performance of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs, a generalized predictive control (GPC-based proportional integral feedforward (PIF controller is proposed for the speed control system. In this new approach, firstly, based on the online identification of controlled model parameters, a simplified GPC law supplies the PIF controller with suitable control parameters according to the uncertainties in the operating conditions. Secondly, the speed reference curve for PMSMs is usually required to be continuous and continuously differentiable according to the general servo system design requirements, so the adaptation of the speed reference is discussed in details in this paper. Hence, the performance of the speed control system using a GPC-based PIF controller is improved for tracking some specified signals. The main motivation of this paper is the extension of GPC law to replace the traditional PI or PIF controllers in industrial applications. The efficacy and usefulness of the proposed controller are verified through experimental results.
Detection of Inter-turn Faults in Five-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
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SAAVEDRA, H.
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs have inherent fault-tolerant capabilities. This paper analyzes the detection of inter-turn short circuit faults in five-phase PMSMs in their early stage, i.e. with only one turn in short circuit by means of the analysis of the stator currents and the zero-sequence voltage component (ZSVC spectra. For this purpose, a parametric model of five-phase PMSMs which accounts for the effects of inter-turn short circuits is developed to determine the most suitable harmonic frequencies to be analyzed to detect such faults. The amplitudes of these fault harmonic are analyzed in detail by means of finite-elements method (FEM simulations, which corroborate the predictions of the parametric model. A low-speed five-phase PMSM for in-wheel applications is studied and modeled. This paper shows that the ZSVC-based method provides better sensitivity to diagnose inter-turn faults in the analyzed low-speed application. Results presented under a wide speed range and different load levels show that it is feasible to diagnose such faults in their early stage, thus allowing applying a post-fault strategy to minimize their effects while ensuring a safe operation.
Zhong, Chongquan; Lin, Yaoyao
2017-11-01
In this work, a model reference adaptive control-based estimated algorithm is proposed for online multi-parameter identification of surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machines. By taking the dq-axis equations of a practical motor as the reference model and the dq-axis estimation equations as the adjustable model, a standard model-reference-adaptive-system-based estimator was established. Additionally, the Popov hyperstability principle was used in the design of the adaptive law to guarantee accurate convergence. In order to reduce the oscillation of identification result, this work introduces a first-order low-pass digital filter to improve precision regarding the parameter estimation. The proposed scheme was then applied to an SPM synchronous motor control system without any additional circuits and implemented using a DSP TMS320LF2812. For analysis, the experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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Jeong-Min Jo
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In the case of a long-stator linear drive, unlike rotative drives for which speed or position sensors are a single unit attached to the shaft, these sensors extend along the guideway. The position signals transmitted from a maglev vehicle cannot meet the need of the real-time propulsion control in the on-ground inverter power substations. In this paper the design of the propulsion inverter control system with a position estimator for driving a long-stator synchronous motor in a high-speed maglev train is proposed. The experiments have been carried out at the 150 m long guideway at the O-song test track. To investigate the performance of the position estimator, the propulsion control system with, and without, the position estimator are compared. The result confirms that the proposed strategy can meet the dynamic property needs of the propulsion inverter control system for driving long-stator linear synchronous motors.
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Andreas WALDSCHIK
2009-09-01
Full Text Available In this work, we present a contactless micro position and angular sensor system which consists of fixed commercial magnetic sensor elements, such as hall sensors and a movable part with integrated micro structured polymer magnets. This system serves particularly for linear and rotatory synchronous micro motors which we have developed and successfully tested. In order to achieve high precision and control of these motors an integration of the special micro position and angular sensors is pursued to increase the resolution and accuracy of the devices.
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Nicolae Digă
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present a case study in which was analyzed by finite element method a permanent magnet synchronous motor for driving a bicycle using the analysis and simulation software ANSYS Electromagnetics Low Frequency of ANSYS Inc. Company. Modelling and simulation with ANSYS ® Maxwell 2D of electromagnetic field in the studied motor was conducted for different initial positions (internal angle rotor-stator configured (set δ1. It was identified the internal angle for which the performances of PMSM are very close to those obtained by computation.
Kondo, Ryota; Sugimoto, Maki; Minamizawa, Kouta; Hoshi, Takayuki; Inami, Masahiko; Kitazaki, Michiteru
2018-05-15
Body ownership can be modulated through illusory visual-tactile integration or visual-motor synchronicity/contingency. Recently, it has been reported that illusory ownership of an invisible body can be induced by illusory visual-tactile integration from a first-person view. We aimed to test whether a similar illusory ownership of the invisible body could be induced by the active method of visual-motor synchronicity and if the illusory invisible body could be experienced in front of and facing away from the observer. Participants observed left and right white gloves and socks in front of them, at a distance of 2 m, in a virtual room through a head-mounted display. The white gloves and socks were synchronized with the observers' actions. In the experiments, we tested the effect of synchronization, and compared this to a whole-body avatar, measuring self-localization drift. We observed that visual hands and feet were sufficient to induce illusory body ownership, and this effect was as strong as using a whole-body avatar.
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Renato RIZZO
2012-08-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with Permanent Magnet Brushless Motors. In particular is proposed a new set of control algorithm expressions that is realized taking into account resistive parameters of the motor, differently from simplified models of this type of motors where these parameters are usually neglected. The control is set up and an analysis of the performance is reported in the paper, where the validation of the new expressions is done with reference to a motor prototype particularly compact because is foreseen for application on tram propulsion drives. The results are evidenced in the last part of the paper.
Electromagnetic Spacecraft Propulsion Motor and a Permanent Magnet (PM-Drive) Thruster
Ahmadov, B. A.
2018-04-01
Ion thrusters are designed to be used for realization of a Mars Sample Return mission. The competing technologies with ion thrusters are electromagnetic spacecraft propulsion motors. I'm an engineer and engage in the creation of the new electromagnetic propulsion motors.
Transient thermal analysis of flux switching PM machines
Ilhan, E.; Kremers, M.F.J.; Motoasca, T.E.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.
2013-01-01
Flux switching permanent magnet (FSPM) machines bring together the merits of switched reluctance and PM synchronous motors. FSPM employs armature windings and PMs together in the stator region, therefore the proximity of the windings PMs makes a thermal model mandatory. In literature, thermal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benchabane, F.; Titaouine, A.; Guettaf, A.; Yahia, K.; Taibi, D.; Bennis, O.
2012-01-01
This paper presents an analysis by which the dynamic performances of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) motor is controlled through a hysteresis current loop and an outer speed loop with different controllers. The dynamics of the wind turbine pumping drive system with (PI) and a fuzzy sliding mode (FSM) speed controllers are presented. In order to optimize the overall system efficiency, a maximum power point tracker is also used. Simulation is carried out by formatting the mathematical model for wind turbine generator, motor and pump load. The results for such complicated and nonlinear system, with fuzzy sliding mode speed controller show improvement in transient response of the PMSM drive over conventional PI. The effectiveness of the FSM controller is also demonstrated. (author)
Development of super-synchronization speed control assembly for 2500 kW double-fed motor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Huajun; Xuan Weimin; Peng Jianfei; Hu Haotian; Wang Shujing; Kang Li; Xu Lirong; Huang Zhaorong; Wang Xiaoping; Du Cang; Liu Ling
2007-01-01
The super-synchronization speed control assemblies for the two 2500 kW induction motors have been developed successfully in order to meet the need for toroidal field increasing in HL-2A tokamak. Based on the a.c./a.c. cycloconverter, the speed of each 2500 kW motor has been regulated by means of vector control technology for double-fed motor. The highest rotate speed of the two 80 MVA generator sets have been increased from 1488 rpm rated speed to 1650 rpm and the released energy of each generator set in one pulse discharge can reach 500 MJ. Therefore the toroidal field system is able to reach 2.8T for experiment. (authors)
Open-Phase Fault Tolerance Techniques of Five-Phase Dual-Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
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Jing Zhao
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Multi-phase motors are gaining more attention due to the advantages of good fault tolerance capability and high power density, etc. By applying dual-rotor technology to multi-phase machines, a five-phase dual-rotor permanent magnet synchronous motor (DRPMSM is researched in this paper to further promote their torque density and fault tolerance capability. It has two rotors and two sets of stator windings, and it can adopt a series drive mode or parallel drive mode. The fault-tolerance capability of the five-phase DRPMSM is researched. All open circuit fault types and corresponding fault tolerance techniques in different drive modes are analyzed. A fault-tolerance control strategy of injecting currents containing a certain third harmonic component is proposed for five-phase DRPMSM to ensure performance after faults in the motor or drive circuit. For adjacent double-phase faults in the motor, based on where the additional degrees of freedom are used, two different fault-tolerance current calculation schemes are adopted and the torque results are compared. Decoupling of the inner motor and outer motor is investigated under fault-tolerant conditions in parallel drive mode. The finite element analysis (FMA results and co-simulation results based on Simulink-Simplorer-Maxwell verify the effectiveness of the techniques.
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Borzou Yousefi
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM have special applications in which highly accurate speed and torque control of the motor are a strong requirement. Direct Torque Control (DTC is a suitable method for the driver structure of these motors. If in this method, instead of using a common five-phase voltage source inverter, a three-phase to five-phase matrix converter is used, the low-frequency current harmonics and the high torque ripple are limited, and an improved input power factor is obtained. Because the input voltages of such converters are directly supplied by input three-phase supply voltages, an imbalance in the voltages will cause problems such as unbalanced stator currents and electromagnetic torque fluctuations. In this paper, a new method is introduced to remove speed and torque oscillator factors. For this purpose, motor torque equations were developed and the oscillation components created by the unbalanced source voltage, determined. Then, using the active and reactive power reference generator, the controller power reference was adjusted in such a way that the electromagnetic torque of the motor did not change. By this means, a number of features including speed, torque, and flux of the motor were improved in terms of the above-mentioned conditions. Simulations were analyzed using Matlab/Simulink software.
Torque limit of PM motors for field-weakening region operation
Royak, Semyon [Beachwood, OH; Harbaugh, Mark M [Richfield, OH
2012-02-14
The invention includes a motor controller and technique for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by receiving a torque command, determining a physical torque limit based on a stator frequency, determining a theoretical torque limit based on a maximum available voltage and motor inductance ratio, and limiting the torque command to the smaller of the physical torque limit and the theoretical torque limit. Receiving the torque command may include normalizing the torque command to obtain a normalized torque command, determining the physical torque limit may include determining a normalized physical torque limit, determining a theoretical torque limit may include determining a normalized theoretical torque limit, and limiting the torque command may include limiting the normalized torque command to the smaller of the normalized physical torque limit and the normalized theoretical torque limit.
Synchronous Spike Patterns in Macaque Motor Cortex during an Instructed-Delay Reach-to-Grasp Task.
Torre, Emiliano; Quaglio, Pietro; Denker, Michael; Brochier, Thomas; Riehle, Alexa; Grün, Sonja
2016-08-10
a method to extend this type of investigation to larger data. Here, we apply it to simultaneous recordings of hundreds of neurons from the motor cortex of macaque monkeys performing a motor task. Our analysis reveals groups of neurons selectively synchronizing their activity in relation to behavior, which sheds new light on the role of synchrony in information processing in the cerebral cortex. Copyright © 2016 Torre, et al.
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Hui Li
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Three-motor synchronous coordination system is a MI-MO nonlinear and complex control system. And it often works in poor working condition. Advanced control strategies are required to improve the control performance of the system and to achieve the decoupling between main motor speed and tension. Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller coupled with Active Disturbance Rejection Control (CMAC-ADRC control strategy is proposed. The speed of the main motor and tensions between two motors is decoupled by extended state observer (ESO in ADRC. ESO in ADRC is used to compensate internal and external disturbances of the system online. And the anti interference of the system is improved by ESO. And the same time the control model is optimized. Feedforward control is implemented by the adoption of CMAC neural network controller. And control precision of the system is improved in reason of CMAC. The overshoot of the system can be reduced without affecting the dynamic response of the system by the use of CMAC-ADRC. The simulation results show that: the CMAC- ADRC control strategy is better than the traditional PID control strategy. And CMAC-ADRC control strategy can achieve the decoupling between speed and tension. The control system using CMAC-ADRC have strong anti-interference ability and small regulate time and small overshoot. The magnitude of the system response incited by the interference using CMAC-ADRC is smaller than the system using conventional PID control 6.43 %. And the recovery time of the system with CMAC-ADRC is shorter than the system with traditional PID control 0.18 seconds. And the triangular wave tracking error of the system with CMAC-ADRC is smaller than the system with conventional PID control 0.24 rad/min. Thus the CMAC-ADRC control strategy is a good control strategy and is able to fit three-motor synchronous coordinated control.
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Guo Hong
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel fault tolerant control with torque limitation based on the fault mode for the ten-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM under various open-circuit and short-circuit fault conditions, which includes the optimal torque control and the torque limitation control based on the fault mode. The optimal torque control is adopted to guarantee the ripple-free electromagnetic torque operation for the ten-phase motor system under the post-fault condition. Furthermore, we systematically analyze the load capacity of the ten-phase motor system under different fault modes. And a torque limitation control approach based on the fault mode is proposed, which was not available earlier. This approach is able to ensure the safety operation of the faulted motor system in long operating time without causing the overheat fault. The simulation result confirms that the proposed fault tolerant control for the ten-phase motor system is able to guarantee the ripple-free electromagnetic torque and the safety operation in long operating time under the normal and fault conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujimura, Hiroshi [Corporate Research and Development Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., 1-8 Fuso-cho, Amagasaki 660-0891 (Japan)], E-mail: fujimura-hrs@sumitomometals.co.jp; Nitomi, Hirokatsu; Yashiki, Hiroyoshi [Corporate Research and Development Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., 1-8 Fuso-cho, Amagasaki 660-0891 (Japan)
2008-10-15
The torque characteristics of interior-permanent-magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), in which core materials were our conventional non-oriented electrical steel 35SX250 and our developed steels 35SXH, 27SXH with high permeability, were measured by a pulse wave modulation (PWM) inverter control. The torque characteristics of the motor with developed steels were superior to that of conventional steel. The advantage of developed steels was remarkable in the high-toque region. Experimental torque separation using current phase control showed that reluctance torque was strongly affected by the magnetic properties of core materials. And we did magnetic field analysis of the motors by finite element method (FEM). The flux density in the teeth of the stator core was higher in the high permeability steels than that in the conventional steel under the same current condition. The developed steels are expected to be suited to the stator material of IPMSM used as drive motors for electric vehicles and compressor motors for air conditioner.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimura, Hiroshi; Nitomi, Hirokatsu; Yashiki, Hiroyoshi
2008-01-01
The torque characteristics of interior-permanent-magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), in which core materials were our conventional non-oriented electrical steel 35SX250 and our developed steels 35SXH, 27SXH with high permeability, were measured by a pulse wave modulation (PWM) inverter control. The torque characteristics of the motor with developed steels were superior to that of conventional steel. The advantage of developed steels was remarkable in the high-toque region. Experimental torque separation using current phase control showed that reluctance torque was strongly affected by the magnetic properties of core materials. And we did magnetic field analysis of the motors by finite element method (FEM). The flux density in the teeth of the stator core was higher in the high permeability steels than that in the conventional steel under the same current condition. The developed steels are expected to be suited to the stator material of IPMSM used as drive motors for electric vehicles and compressor motors for air conditioner
Yao, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Takaya; Odawara, Shunya; Fujisaki, Keisuke
2018-05-01
We report core loss properties of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) with amorphous magnetic materials (AMM) core under inverter and sinusoidal excitations. To discuss the core loss properties of AMM core, a comparison with non-oriented (NO) core is also performed. In addition, based on both experiments and numerical simulations, we estimate higher (time and space) harmonic components of the core losses under inverter and sinusoidal excitations. The core losses of PMSM are reduced by about 59% using AMM stator core instead of NO core under sinusoidal excitation. We show that the average decrease obtained by using AMM instead of NO in the stator core is about 94% in time harmonic components.
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Shaohua Luo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on an adaptive dynamic surface control based on the Radial Basis Function Neural Network for a fourth-order permanent magnet synchronous motor system wherein the unknown parameters, disturbances, chaos, and uncertain time delays are presented. Neural Network systems are used to approximate the nonlinearities and an adaptive law is employed to estimate accurate parameters. Then, a simple and effective controller has been obtained by introducing dynamic surface control technique on the basis of first-order filters. Asymptotically tracking stability in the sense of uniformly ultimate boundedness is achieved in a short time. Finally, the performance of the proposed control has been illustrated through simulation results.
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Limei Zhao
2005-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a DSP-based controller for a super high-speed (>80,000 rpm permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM. The PMSM is a key component of the centrifugal compressor drive of a reverse Brayton cryocooler that is currently under development for NASA and Florida Solar Energy Center. The design of the PMSM open-loop control is presented. Experimental results with open-loop control schemes are presented. System optimization and analysis are also illustrated. They verify the effectiveness of the controller design and the optimization scheme.
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Bart Wymeersch
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Line start permanent magnet synchronous motors (LS-PMSM are energy-efficient synchronous motors that can start asynchronously due to a squirrel cage in the rotor. The drawback, however, with this motor type is the chance of failure to synchronize after start-up. To identify the problem, and the stable operation limits, the synchronization at various parameter combinations is investigated. For accurate knowledge of the operation limits to assure synchronization with the utility grid, an accurate classification of parameter combinations is needed. As for this, many simulations have to be executed, a rapid evaluation method is indispensable. To simulate the dynamic behavior in the time domain, several modeling methods exist. In this paper, a discussion is held with respect to different modeling methods. In order to include spatial factors and magnetic nonlinearities, on the one hand, and to restrict the computation time on the other hand, a magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC modeling method is developed. In order to accelerate numerical convergence, a mesh-based analysis method is applied. The novelty in this paper is the implementation of support vector machine (SVM to classify the results of simulations at various parameter combinations into successful or unsuccessful synchronization, in order to define the synchronization capability limits. It is explained how these techniques can benefit the simulation time and the evaluation process. The results of the MEC modeling correspond to those obtained with finite element analysis (FEA, despite the reduced computation time. In addition, simulation results obtained with MEC modeling are experimentally validated.
Unstable patterns and robust synchronization in a model of motor pathway in birdsong
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moukam Kakmeni, F.M.; Bowong, S.; Nana, L.; Kofane, T.C.
2006-10-01
This paper investigates the fundamental dynamical mechanism responsible for transition to chaos in periodically modulated Duffing-Van der Pol oscillator. It is shown that a modulationally unstable pattern appears into an initially stable motionless state. A further spatiotemporal transition occurs with a sharp interface from the selected stable pattern to a stabilized pattern or chaotic state. Also, the synchronization of the chaotic state of the model is investigated. The results are discussed in the context of generalized synchronization. The main idea is to construct an augmented dynamical system from the synchronization error system, which is itself uncertain. The advantage of this method over existing results is that the synchronization time is explicitly computed. Numerical simulations are provided to verify the operation of the proposed algorithm. (author)
A 2MW 6-phase BLDC Generator Developed from a PM Synchronous Generator for Wind Energy Application
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Zhuihui; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Xiao
2014-01-01
rectifier is adopted. The cases the with different loads are studied. The finite element simulation shows the developed BLDC generator is better than the PMSM generator in terms of DC voltage ripple and torque ripple. Furthermore, the volume of the BLDC generator is smaller, despite of more permanent magnet......In the direct drive wind turbine application, a PMSM generator often works together with a diode rectifier, which connects to a boost converter. In this paper, a six-phase BLDC generator is developed from the prototype design of three-phase permanent magnet synchronous generator. The diode...... is required. The efficiencies and the costs are also compared. As the result shows, BLDC generators connected with the diode rectifiers are good candidates for direct drive wind turbines....
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Jing Zhao
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates of a kind of five-phase dual-rotor permanent-magnet synchronous motor (DRPMSM, which contains dual rotors and a single stator. This kind of motor has the potential advantages of high power density, high reliability and high efficiency, which make it more appropriate for using in electric vehicles (EVs. In order to evaluate the most suitable power level for this kind of structure, the electromagnetic, the thermal and the mechanical characteristics are investigated in this paper. The length to diameter ratio of motors is researched to obtain the highest power density and then the optimum ratio is obtained. Based on the optimum ratio, the thermal characteristics are researched under natural condition and forced-air cooling condition with different wind speeds. In addition, the mechanical characteristics are analyzed under no-load and different loads conditions, respectively. All of the results are analyzed by two-dimension (2-D and three-dimension (3-D finite element method (FEM simulation, which provide a good reference to select suitable power level for this kind of motor structure. Finally, a DRPMSM prototype is manufactured and tested. The experimental results effectively verify the FEM results.
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Gilberto Herrera-Ruíz
2013-03-01
Full Text Available A New Adaptive Self-Tuning Fourier Coefficients Algorithm for Periodic Torque Ripple Minimization in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM Torque ripple occurs in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs due to the non-sinusoidal flux density distribution around the air-gap and variable magnetic reluctance of the air-gap due to the stator slots distribution. These torque ripples change periodically with rotor position and are apparent as speed variations, which degrade the PMSM drive performance, particularly at low speeds, because of low inertial filtering. In this paper, a new self-tuning algorithm is developed for determining the Fourier Series Controller coefficients with the aim of reducing the torque ripple in a PMSM, thus allowing for a smoother operation. This algorithm adjusts the controller parameters based on the component’s harmonic distortion in time domain of the compensation signal. Experimental evaluation is performed on a DSP-controlled PMSM evaluation platform. Test results obtained validate the effectiveness of the proposed self-tuning algorithm, with the Fourier series expansion scheme, in reducing the torque ripple.
Gómez-Espinosa, Alfonso; Hernández-Guzmán, Víctor M; Bandala-Sánchez, Manuel; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A; Rodríguez-Reséndiz, Juvenal; Herrera-Ruíz, Gilberto
2013-03-19
A New Adaptive Self-Tuning Fourier Coefficients Algorithm for Periodic Torque Ripple Minimization in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM) Torque ripple occurs in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs) due to the non-sinusoidal flux density distribution around the air-gap and variable magnetic reluctance of the air-gap due to the stator slots distribution. These torque ripples change periodically with rotor position and are apparent as speed variations, which degrade the PMSM drive performance, particularly at low speeds, because of low inertial filtering. In this paper, a new self-tuning algorithm is developed for determining the Fourier Series Controller coefficients with the aim of reducing the torque ripple in a PMSM, thus allowing for a smoother operation. This algorithm adjusts the controller parameters based on the component's harmonic distortion in time domain of the compensation signal. Experimental evaluation is performed on a DSP-controlled PMSM evaluation platform. Test results obtained validate the effectiveness of the proposed self-tuning algorithm, with the Fourier series expansion scheme, in reducing the torque ripple.
Gd-123 bulk field pole magnets cooled with condensed neon for axial-gap type synchronous motor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sano, T.; Kimura, Y.; Sugyo, D.; Yamaguchi, K.; Izumi, M.; Ida, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Miki, M.
2008-01-01
We have conducted to develop an axial-gap type synchronous propulsion motor with Gd-bulk HTS field pole magnets. It has been established on the fundamental technology upon the liquid nitrogen cooling. In the present study, we aimed an output improvement of the motor by the magnetic flux density enhancement of the bulk HTS, in a word, the trapped magnetic flux density on the HTS bulk. The output of the motor depends on the physics of the motor, the magnetic flux density, and the electric current density flowing through the armature. We have employed a condensed neon with a helium GM refrigerator. The bulk HTS placed on the rotor disk inside the motor frame was successfully cooled down with circulating condensed neon. The temperature at the bulk HTS surface reached 38 K. Upon magnetization, we developed controlled magnetic field density distribution coil (CMDC) composed of a couple of pulsed copper armature coil. In the magnetization procedure, with decreasing magnetization temperature, minute by minute, after Sander and Kamijyo that the step cooling magnetization method was used. In addition, the CMDC coil has enabled to control the applied flux distribution. Three parameters as the temperature, the applied magnetic field, and the effective applied flux density distribution were changed within eight times pulsed magnetizations in total. Up to 4th pulsed magnetization, we kept (1st step) high temperature, and subsequent pulsed magnetizations were done at low temperature. As a result, the highest maximum trapped magnetic flux density was reached 1.31 T, about 2.5 times compared to the value obtained upon cooling with liquid nitrogen. Consequently, the output of the motor has been enhanced to 25 kW from 10 kW taken in the previous operation
Rizky, Zuly Prima; Yolla, Patricia Bebby; Ramdhan, Doni Hikmat
2016-03-01
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in both the short and long term has been known to cause deaths and health effects, especially related to the heart, blood vessels, and lungs. Based on this information, researchers conducted this study at a motor vehicle testing center unit at Pulo Gadung, in Jarkarta, to determine the concentration of PM2.5 that workers were exposed to. The major source of PM2.5 in this area is from the exhaust of gas emissions from motor vehicles, which is one of the largest contributors to the levels of PM in urban areas. Ten mechanics were picked from 16 mechanics that work in this station. Four administration workers from different posts were also picked to participate. The researcher conducted the PM2.5 personal exposure measurement during weekdays from 6 to 14 April 2015 (2 workers/day). This research was conducted to measure the particle number concentration with size Organization Air Quality Guidelines, the PM2.5 exposure of the mechanics and administrative officers exceeded the recommended exposure (25 μm/m3).
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Hélène Wilquin
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Objective: Basic temporal dysfunctions have been described in patients with schizophrenia, which may impact their ability to connect and synchronize with the outer world. The present study was conducted with the aim to distinguish between interval timing and synchronization difficulties and more generally the spatial-temporal organization disturbances for voluntary actions. A new sensorimotor synchronization task was developed to test these abilities.Method: Twenty-four chronic schizophrenia patients matched with 27 controls performed a spatial-tapping task in which finger taps were to be produced in synchrony with a regular metronome to six visual targets presented around a virtual circle on a tactile screen. Isochronous (time intervals of 500 ms and non-isochronous auditory sequences (alternated time intervals of 300/600 ms were presented. The capacity to produce time intervals accurately versus the ability to synchronize own actions (tap with external events (tone were measured.Results: Patients with schizophrenia were able to produce the tapping patterns of both isochronous and non-isochronous auditory sequences as accurately as controls producing inter-response intervals close to the expected interval of 500 and 900 ms, respectively. However, the synchronization performances revealed significantly more positive asynchrony means (but similar variances in the patient group than in the control group for both types of auditory sequences.Conclusion: The patterns of results suggest that patients with schizophrenia are able to perceive and produce both simple and complex sequences of time intervals but are impaired in the ability to synchronize their actions with external events. These findings suggest a specific deficit in predictive timing, which may be at the core of early symptoms previously described in schizophrenia.
Design Procedure for High-Speed PM Motors Aided by Optimization Algorithms
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Francesco Cupertino
2018-02-01
Full Text Available This paper considers the electromagnetic and structural co-design of superficial permanent magnet synchronous machines for high-speed applications, with the aid of a Pareto optimization procedure. The aim of this work is to present a design procedure for the afore-mentioned machines that relies on the combined used of optimization algorithms and finite element analysis. The proposed approach allows easy analysis of the results and a lowering of the computational burden. The proposed design method is presented through a practical example starting from the specifications of an aeronautical actuator. The design procedure is based on static finite element simulations for electromagnetic analysis and on analytical formulas for structural design. The final results are validated through detailed transient finite element analysis to verify both electromagnetic and structural performance. The step-by-step presentation of the proposed design methodology allows the reader to easily adapt it to different specifications. Finally, a comparison between a distributed-winding (24 slots and a concentrated-winding (6 slots machine is presented demonstrating the advantages of the former winding arrangement for high-speed applications.
Concept study of 20 MW high-speed permanent magnet synchronous motor for marine propulsion
Bogomolov, M.D.
2013-01-01
High-speed permanent magnet synchronous machines are of great interest in the applications where high utilization factor and efficiency are required. Depending on application, power requirements change from kilowatts to megawatts. To investigate power limits of high-speed machines, the present
Ono, Kentaro; Nakamura, Akinori; Maess, Burkhard
2015-01-01
For orchestra musicians, synchronized playing under a conductor’s direction is necessary to achieve optimal performance. Previous studies using simple auditory/visual stimuli have reported cortico-subcortical networks underlying synchronization and that training improves the accuracy of synchronization. However, it is unclear whether people who played regularly under a conductor and non-musicians activate the same networks when synchronizing with a conductor’s gestures. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment testing nonmusicians and musicians who regularly play music under a conductor. Participants were required to tap the rhythm they perceived from silent movies displaying either conductor’s gestures or a swinging metronome. Musicians performed tapping under a conductor with more precision than nonmusicians. Results from fMRI measurement showed greater activity in the anterior part of the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG) in musicians with more frequent practice under a conductor. Conversely, tapping with the metronome did not show any difference between musicians and nonmusicians, indicating that the expertize effect in tapping under the conductor does not result in a general increase in tapping performance for musicians. These results suggest that orchestra musicians have developed an advanced ability to predict conductor’s next action from the gestures. PMID:25883561
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Kentaro eOno
2015-04-01
Full Text Available For orchestra musicians, synchronized playing under a conductor’s direction is necessary to achieve optimal performance. Previous studies using simple auditory/visual stimuli have reported cortico-subcortical networks underlying synchronization and that training improves the accuracy of synchronization. However, it is unclear whether people who played regularly under a conductor and non-musicians activate the same networks when synchronizing with a conductor’s gestures. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment testing nonmusicians and musicians who regularly play music under a conductor. Participants were required to tap the rhythm they perceived from silent movies displaying either conductor’s gestures or a swinging metronome. Musicians performed tapping under a conductor with more precision than nonmusicians. Results from fMRI measurement showed greater activity in the anterior part of the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG in musicians with more frequent practice under a conductor. Conversely, tapping with the metronome did not show any difference between musicians and nonmusicians, indicating that the expertise effect in tapping under the conductor does not result in a general increase in tapping performance for musicians. These results suggest that orchestra musicians have developed an advanced ability to predict conductor’s next action from the gestures.
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Yumeng Li
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM, which contains dual rotors and a single stator, equivalent to two five-phase motors working together. Thus, this kind of motor has the potential of good fault tolerant capability and high torque density, which makes it appropriate for use in electric vehicles. In view of the different connection types, the inside and outside stator windings can be driven in series or parallel, which results in the different performances of the magnetomotive force (MMF and torque under open-circuit fault conditions. By decomposing the MMF, the reason that torque ripple increases after open-circuit faults is explained, and the relationship between MMF and torque is revealed. Then, the current control strategy is applied to adjust the open-circuit faults, and the electromagnetic analysis and MMF harmonics analysis are performed to interpret the phenomenon that the torque ripple is still larger than in the normal situation. The investigations are verified by finite element analysis results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mnich, P; Huebner, K D
1980-07-15
In this paper the influence of the motor current on the magnetic force is investigated by an analytical method. With the integrated synchronous linear motor the reactions of the current sheet on the excitation field are depending on the pole angle and the amplitude of the current sheet. For an undisturbed operation - current sheet and induction wave in phase - the influence of the motor current on the magnetic force can be neglected. In case of a disturbed performance, i.e. when the pole angle is changing periodically, fluctuations of the magnetic force will be found. This effect has to be compensated by a reserve magnetic force in the levitation control. With the technical data for the new magnetic levitation pilots plants (International Traffic Fair 1979 at Hamburg and Transrapid - Pilot Plant Emsland) the stated relations are evaluated. Approximated relations for the levitation force are derived. For comparison, a finite-difference computer programme from the 'Institut fuer elektrische Maschinen, Antriebe und Bahnen, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig' is applied. The approximated relations developed in this paper are verified - with a sufficient precision - by the numerical calculations.
Nondahl, T. A.; Richter, E.
1980-09-01
A design study of two types of single sided (with a passive rail) linear electric machine designs, namely homopolar linear synchronous machines (LSM's) and linear induction machines (LIM's), is described. It is assumed the machines provide tractive effort for several types of light rail vehicles and locomotives. These vehicles are wheel supported and require tractive powers ranging from 200 kW to 3735 kW and top speeds ranging from 112 km/hr to 400 km/hr. All designs are made according to specified magnetic and thermal criteria. The LSM advantages are a higher power factor, much greater restoring forces for track misalignments, and less track heating. The LIM advantages are no need to synchronize the excitation frequency precisely to vehicle speed, simpler machine construction, and a more easily anchored track structure. The relative weights of the two machine types vary with excitation frequency and speed; low frequencies and low speeds favor the LSM.
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Shaohua Luo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of the nonlinear dynamic surface control (DSC of chaos based on the minimum weights of RBF neural network for the permanent magnet synchronous motor system (PMSM wherein the unknown parameters, disturbances, and chaos are presented. RBF neural network is used to approximate the nonlinearities and an adaptive law is employed to estimate unknown parameters. Then, a simple and effective controller is designed by introducing dynamic surface control technique on the basis of first-order filters. Asymptotically tracking stability in the sense of uniformly ultimate boundedness is achieved in a short time. Finally, the performance of the proposed controller is testified through simulation results.
Zhang, BiTao; Pi, YouGuo; Luo, Ying
2012-09-01
A fractional order sliding mode control (FROSMC) scheme based on parameters auto-tuning for the velocity control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is proposed in this paper. The control law of the proposed F(R)OSMC scheme is designed according to Lyapunov stability theorem. Based on the property of transferring energy with adjustable type in F(R)OSMC, this paper analyzes the chattering phenomenon in classic sliding mode control (SMC) is attenuated with F(R)OSMC system. A fuzzy logic inference scheme (FLIS) is utilized to obtain the gain of switching control. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed FROSMC not only achieve better control performance with smaller chatting than that with integer order sliding mode control, but also is robust to external load disturbance and parameter variations. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ren, Jun-Jie; Liu, Yan-Cheng; Wang, Ning; Liu, Si-Yuan
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a sensorless speed control strategy for ship propulsion interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) based on a new sliding-mode observer (SMO). In the SMO the low-pass filter and the method of arc-tangent calculation of extended electromotive force (EMF) or phase-locked loop (PLL) technique are not used. The calculation of the rotor speed is deduced from the Lyapunov function stability analysis. In order to reduce system chattering, sigmoid functions with switching gains being adaptively updated by fuzzy logic systems are innovatively incorporated into the SMO. Finally, simulation results for a 4.088 MW ship propulsion IPMSM and experimental results from a 7.5 kW IPMSM drive are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed SMO method. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Atsushi Yao
2018-05-01
Full Text Available We report core loss properties of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM with amorphous magnetic materials (AMM core under inverter and sinusoidal excitations. To discuss the core loss properties of AMM core, a comparison with non-oriented (NO core is also performed. In addition, based on both experiments and numerical simulations, we estimate higher (time and space harmonic components of the core losses under inverter and sinusoidal excitations. The core losses of PMSM are reduced by about 59% using AMM stator core instead of NO core under sinusoidal excitation. We show that the average decrease obtained by using AMM instead of NO in the stator core is about 94% in time harmonic components.
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Nicolas Denis
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM with a stator core made of amorphous magnetic material (AMM is presented. The IPMSM is driven by a voltage source three-phase inverter with classical pulse width modulation (PWM control. The core losses under no-load condition are measured by experiment and compared to an equivalent IPMSM with a stator core made of NO steel. Under these conditions, the core losses are influenced by the stator, rotor and magnet shapes but also by the PWM carrier signal that implies a high frequency harmonic in the magnetic flux density. It is demonstrated that the AMM can reduce the core losses by about 56 %.
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Zhang Lei
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper gives detailed systematic researches on the mechanism and key factors of eddy-current losses in rotor magnets of high power-density permanent magnet synchronous motors(PMSMs. Firstly, this paper establishes quantitative mathematic model of eddy-current losses for surface-mounted PMSM based on eddy current field model and Maxwell equations. Then, a scaling index is put forward to weigh the key factors relevant to the eddy-current losses in magnets. At the same time, the principles of eddy-current losses in prototype PMSM are analyzed by the finite element analysis (FEA software. The contents researched in the paper have practical reference values for design and reliability analysis of PMSMs.
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Lisi Tian
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel position and speed estimation method for low-speed sensorless control of interior permanent-magnet synchronous machines (IPMSMs. The parameter design of the position and speed estimator is based on the sampled current rather than the motor electrical parameters. The proposed method not only simplifies the parameter design, it enables the estimator to work normally even in the condition that the electrical parameters are uncertain or varied. The adaptive filters are adopted to extract the desired high frequency current. The structure and corresponding transfer function are analyzed. To address the shortage of insufficient stop-band attenuation, the structure of the adaptive filter is modified to provide suitable bandwidth and stop-band attenuation simultaneously. The effectiveness of the proposed sensorless control strategy has been verified by simulations and experiments.
Arellano-Padilla, J.; Sumner, M.; Gerada, C.
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a monitoring scheme based on saliency tracking to assess the health condition of PMSM drives operating under non stationary conditions. The evaluated scheme is based on the INFORM methodology, which is associated to the accurate sensorless control of PM drives without zero speed limitation. The result is a monitoring scheme that is able to detect faults that would be very difficult to evaluate under nonstationary conditions. A relevant aspect of the proposed scheme is that...
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Abbasian Mohsen
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Results of theoretical and experimental research on magnetic induction distribution in the air gap of a coaxially-linear synchronous motor with reciprocal motion within the pole pitch and axial and radial direction of the permanent magnets magnetization are presented.
Schubert, T. F., Jr.; Jacobitz, F. G.; Kim, E. M.
2011-01-01
In order to meet changing curricular and societal needs, a three-phase system and synchronous motor laboratory experience for sophomore-level students in a wide variety of engineering majors was designed, implemented, and assessed. The experiment is unusual in its early placement in the curriculum, and in that it focuses primarily on basic…
Tang, Junjie; Li, Jing; Li, Xiang; Han, Le
2018-03-01
High temperature superconductor (HTS) bulks have significant potential use in linear motor application act as quasi-permanent magnet to replace traditional magnets. Force characteristic between HTS bulk magnet and traveling magnetic field was investigated with numerical simulation and experimental measurement in this paper. Influences of bulk height and number on the force characteristic were studied by the finite element model considering the nonlinear E-J relationship. Study was also made on addition of a back iron plate to the bulk magnet. Besides, force characteristic of bulk was compared with the permanent magnet results. The small initial decrease of the thrust could be explained by inside superconducting current redistribution. It was found that efficiency of linear motor did not increase by adding more bulk magnets. The bulk magnet will be remagnetized instead of erasing trapped field with the increase of the traveling magnetic field strength. The conclusions are helpful in prediction and design the linear motor with HTS bulk magnet.
Study on the application of permanent magnet synchronous motors in underground belt conveyors
Ma, S. H.
2017-12-01
This paper analyzes and compares the advantages and disadvantages of several kinds of drive devices of belt conveyors from the angle of energy saving, and summarizes the application advantages and using problems of permanent magnet motor variable frequency drive system in belt conveyors. An example is given to demonstrate the energy saving effect of this system compared with other driving methods. This paper points out the application prospect of permanent magnet motor variable frequency drive system on belt conveyors and other large mining machines in coal mine. This paper is aimed to provide the design direction for the designer and the choice basis for the user on belt conveyor.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cheng, Shuangyin; Luo, Derong; Huang, Shoudao
2015-01-01
This study presents an investigation into the control of an axial-flux permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) with contra-rotating rotors fed by a single inverter, which corresponds to two PMSM connected in series. In this study, the mathematic model of the PMSM with contra-rotating rotors...... water vehicle propulsions. The control strategy is implemented on a DSP 28335 processor featured hardware platform and is tested on a 1.2 kW prototype machine. Experimental results validate the correctness of the analysis and control strategy....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brune, Eva; Stuebig, Cornelia; Tegeler, Sebastian; Wehner, Meike; Ponick, Bernd [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebssysteme und Leistungselektronik
2011-07-01
Due to stricter efficiency legislation for electrical machines, it becomes increasingly important to predict a motor's performance with regard to start and operational behaviour correctly. In consequence of the higher efficiency required for electrical machines, permanent magnet synchronous machines become an interesting alternative also for motors with direct on-line starting. This paper describes a method to calculate these motor's behaviour reliably and accurately based on a combined analytical and numerical approach developed at the Institute for Drive Systems and Power Electronics of Leibniz Universitaet Hannover. (orig.)
A novel Back EMF observer for sensorless control of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.
2005-01-01
The paper presents a position sensing method for IPM motors based on an observer referring to the estimated frame of reference, eliminating problems with position dependent inductances. Convergence of the estimation error to zero is proofed, under the assumption that the mechanical time constant ...
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Yuan Wan
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The configuration of conventional high-speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs is usually long and thin, with overlong axial end winding lengths, which is not suitable for those applications that place severe restrictions on the axial length, such as pulsed alternators. This paper first studied the key design aspects of a flat-structure high-speed PMSM. The toroidal-windings, low-conductivity material of the retaining sleeve, large airgap and segmentation of magnets were studied to reduce the axial length of the motor. The division of the stator and the employment of a non-magnetic outer stator were used to improve overall performance. Then the losses of the prototype were calculated and the factors having an influence on the losses were also investigated, after which, their effects on the total loss were evaluated. The total loss could be effectively reduced by the decrease of strand number of conductors and the division of stator, while only being slightly reduced by epoxy resin pole fillers. Metal-stack pole fillers have the same effect on the reduction of rotor loss as epoxy resin, while maintaining the good thermal-conductivity of metal. In addition, the influence of the carrier frequency of the inverter on the losses was analyzed, and it was found that high carrier frequency was helpful to reduce rotor losses. Finally, a small-scale prototype was manufactured and the experimental results were provided.
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Mahdi Karami
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to investigating static eccentricity in a three-phase LSPMSM. The modeling of LSPMSM with static eccentricity between stator and rotor is developed using finite element method (FEM. The analytical expression for the permeance and flux components of nonuniform air-gap due to static eccentricity fault is discussed. Various indexes for static eccentricity detection using stator current signal of IM and permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM are presented. Since LSPMSM is composed of a rotor which is a combination of these two motors, the ability of these features is evaluated for static eccentricity diagnosis in LSPMSM. The simulated stator current signal of LSPMSM in the presence of static eccentricity is analyzed in frequency domain using power spectral density (PSD. It is demonstrated that static eccentricity fault generates a series of low frequency harmonic components in the form of sidebands around the fundamental frequency. Moreover, the amplitudes of these components increase in proportion to the fault severity. According to the mentioned observations, an accurate frequency pattern is specified for static eccentricity detection in three-phase LSPMSM.
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Yiguang Chen
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In the aerospace and military fields, with high reliability requirements, the dual-redundancy permanent magnet synchronous motor (DRPMSM with weak thermal coupling and no electromagnetic coupling is needed. A common fault in the DRPMSM is the inter-turn short circuit fault (ISCF. However, research on how to diagnose ISCF and the set of faulty windings in the DRPMSM is lacking. In this paper, the structure of the DRPMSM is analyzed and mathematical models of the motor under normal and faulty conditions are established. Then an on-line ISCF detection scheme, which depends on the running modes of the DRPMSM and the average values for the difference of the d-axis voltages between two sets of windings in the latest 20 sampling periods, is proposed. The main contributions of this paper are to analyze the calculation for the inductance of each part of the stator windings and propose the on-line diagnosis method of the ISCF under various operating conditions. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can quickly and effectively diagnose ISCF and determine the set of faulty windings of the DRPMSM.
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Martin Victor Sale
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS varies from trial-to-trial. Synchronous oscillations in cortical neuronal excitability contribute to this variability, however it is not known how different frequencies of stimulation influence MEP variability, and whether these oscillations are rhythmic or aperiodic. We stimulated the motor cortex with TMS at different regular (i.e., rhythmic rates, and compared this with pseudo-random (aperiodic timing. In 18 subjects, TMS was applied at three regular frequencies (0.05 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 1 Hz and one aperiodic frequency (mean 0.2 Hz. MEPs (n = 50 were recorded from three intrinsic hand muscles of the left hand with different functional and anatomical relations. MEP amplitude correlation was highest for the functionally related muscle pair, less for the anatomically related muscle pair and least for the functionally- and anatomically-unrelated muscle pair. MEP correlations were greatest with 1 Hz, and least for stimulation at 0.05 Hz. Corticospinal neuron synchrony is higher with shorter TMS intervals. Further, corticospinal neuron synchrony is similar irrespective of whether the stimulation is periodic or aperiodic. These findings suggest TMS frequency is a crucial consideration for studies using TMS to probe correlated activity between muscle pairs.
Sale, Martin V.; Rogasch, Nigel C.; Nordstrom, Michael A.
2016-01-01
The amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) varies from trial-to-trial. Synchronous oscillations in cortical neuronal excitability contribute to this variability, however it is not known how different frequencies of stimulation influence MEP variability, and whether these oscillations are rhythmic or aperiodic. We stimulated the motor cortex with TMS at different regular (i.e., rhythmic) rates, and compared this with pseudo-random (aperiodic) timing. In 18 subjects, TMS was applied at three regular frequencies (0.05 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 1 Hz) and one aperiodic frequency (mean 0.2 Hz). MEPs (n = 50) were recorded from three intrinsic hand muscles of the left hand with different functional and anatomical relations. MEP amplitude correlation was highest for the functionally related muscle pair, less for the anatomically related muscle pair and least for the functionally- and anatomically-unrelated muscle pair. MEP correlations were greatest with 1 Hz, and least for stimulation at 0.05 Hz. Corticospinal neuron synchrony is higher with shorter TMS intervals. Further, corticospinal neuron synchrony is similar irrespective of whether the stimulation is periodic or aperiodic. These findings suggest TMS frequency is a crucial consideration for studies using TMS to probe correlated activity between muscle pairs. PMID:27014031
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neumueller, H.W.; Nick, W.; Frank, M.; Massek, P.; Hasselt, P. van; Thummes, G.; Haefner, H.U.; Kummeth, P.; Werfel, F.; Frauenhofer, J.; Senger, R.; Schmidt, W.
2003-06-01
The project involved the design, construction and testing of a 3000 kW converter-fed synchronous motor as a development prototype with - HTS rotor windings, - closed-circuit cooling system, - stator air-gap winding and - high-gradient HTS magnetic bearing. The project objective was to create the conditions necessary for the construction of an application-oriented model(∼2 MW) that would be suitable for field tests and provide a starting point for subsequent series expansion. The main focus was fixed on feasibility and function issues relating to the various components, particularly during operation of the overall system in the test bay. These ambitious targets were achieved within the scope of project-based cooperation. This has been demonstrated especially in test bed operation of the machine since spring 2001, in the course of which the motor produced a maximum continuous rating of 450 kW - significantly above the specified value - while the short-time rating could be increased up to 600 kW. Throughout testing the motor demonstrated excellent performance characteristics that are markedly indifferent to load fluctuations and indicative of important operating advantages to subsequent users of such HTS motors. Loss calculations showed that, in terms of efficiency, this prototype already represents an approximately 1% improvement over the conventional motors or generators currently available. The robustness of the cooling concept developed as part of the project was also convincingly demonstrated during the comprehensive test phase, which has been ongoing since spring 2001. The innovative pulse-tube coolers developed by our partner companies Leybold and TransMIT promise further advantages over current commercial GM-coolers. Despite considerable problems with materials the team successfully built and operated a contactless HTS magnet bearing (based on YBCO stator cylinders from partner company ATZ) that is currently one of the world's largest in terms of bearing
Comparison of Unmodulated Current Control Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
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Anwar Muqorobin
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses comparison of unmodulated current controls in PMSM, more specifically, on-off, sliding mode, predictive and hybrid controls. The purpose of this study is to select the most appropriate control technique to be adopted. The comparison method is preceded by modeling the motor and entering the values of the motor parameters. PI control is used for speed control and zero d-axis current is employed. Furthermore, performing simulation for each type ofthe selected current controls and analyzing their responses in terms of dq and abc currents, q-axis current response with step reference, as well as THD. Simulation results show that the on-off control gives the best overall performance based on its abc-axis current ripple and THD at large load torque. The hybrid control shows the best response occurring only at the fastest transient time of q-axis current but its response exhibits bad qualities compared with other controls. The predictive control yields the best responses offering the smallest d-axis ripple current and THD at small load torque condition. The sliding mode control, however, does not exhibit any prominent performance compared to the others. Results presented in this paper further indicate that for the PMSM used in the simulation the most appropriate control is the predictive control.
Development and characterization of magnetic HTS bearings for a 400 kW synchronous HTS motor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kummeth, P; Ries, G; Nick, W; Neumueller, H-W
2004-01-01
Promising results of static and dynamic investigations on various journal type test bearings encouraged us to develop a scaled-up HTS bearing, able to carry the HTS rotor of a 400 kW superconducting motor. The stator, a YBCO hollow cylinder of 203 mm inner diameter and 250 mm length, is cooled by liquid nitrogen. Permanent magnet rings with a diameter of 200 mm were mounted on a shaft with alternating polarity. Characterization of the bearing capacity was performed with three different YBCO stators at temperatures between 66 and 86 K in a test set-up. A significant influence of the temperature was found. At a stator temperature of 72 K and a rotation frequency of 25 Hz (corresponding to nominal motor speed) a radial bearing force of 2700 N was measured for the shaft at centre position. Under rotation of the shaft the bearing capacity is reduced. At present our results range within the highest radial bearing capacities reported world-wide
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V. S. Malyar
2018-04-01
Full Text Available On the basis of the developed method for calculating steady-state asynchronous operation modes of salient-pole synchronous motors, a procedure of mathematical modelling of the starting characteristics is proposed. The problem of calculating the steady-state asynchronous mode is solved as a boundary value one for differential equations of motor circuit electrical equilibrium. Algebraization of the system of differential equations is carried out by approximating the equations of state using cubic spline functions on a grid of period nodes, taking into account the periodic law of variation of the coordinates. This results in the changeover from continual values to nodal ones. The starting static characteristics are calculated using the parameter continuation method. The study of the effect of the starting resistance value on the asynchronous characteristics of the motor relied on a mathematical model of the motor taking into consideration real field circuits, saturation and asymmetry of the magnetic path.
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Dandan Su
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved continuous-time model predictive control (CTMPC of permanent magnetic synchronous motors (PMSMs for a wide-speed range, including the constant torque region and the flux-weakening (FW region. In the constant torque region, the mathematic models of PMSMs in dq-axes are decoupled without the limitation of DC-link voltage. However, in the FW region, the mathematic models of PMSMs in dq-axes are cross-coupled together with the limitation of DC-link voltage. A nonlinear PMSMs mathematic model in the FW region is presented based on the voltage angle. The solving of the nonlinear mathematic model of PMSMs in FW region will lead to heavy computation load for digital signal processing (DSP. To overcome such a problem, a linearization method of the voltage angle is also proposed to reduce the computation load. The selection of transiting points between the constant torque region and FW regions is researched to improve the performance of the driven system. Compared with the proportional integral (PI controller, the proposed CTMPC has obvious advantages in dealing with systems’ nonlinear constraints and improving system performance by restraining overshoot current under step torque changing. Both simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method in achieving good steady-state performance and smooth switching between the constant torque and FW regions.
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Dong Li
2018-05-01
Full Text Available This article concentrates on the steady-state thermal characteristics of the Axial-Radial Flux-Type Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (ARFTPMSM. Firstly, the three-dimensional mathematical models for electromagnetic calculation and analyses are established, and the machine loss, including the stator loss, armature winding loss, rotor loss, and axial structure loss is calculated by using time-step Finite Element Method (FEM. Then, the loss distribution is assigned as the heat source for the thermal calculation. Secondly, the mathematical model for thermal calculation is also established. The assumptions and the boundary conditions are proposed to simplify the calculation and to improve convergence. Thirdly, the three-dimensional electromagnetic and thermal calculations of the machine, of which the armature winding and axial field winding are developed by using copper wires, are solved, from which the temperature distributions of the machine components are obtained. The experiments are carried out on the prototype with copper wires to validate the accuracy of the established models. Then, the temperature distributions of machine components under different Axial Magnetic Motive Force (AMMF are investigated. Since the machine is finally developing by using HTS wires, the temperature distributions of machine developed by utilizing High Temperature Superconducting (HTS wires, are also studied. The temperature distribution differences of the machine developed by using copper wires and HTS wires are drawn. All of these above will provide a helpful reference for the thermal calculation of the ARFTPMSM, as well as the design of the HTS coils and the cryogenic cooling system.
Shinnaka, Shinji
As a simple vector control method for sensorless drives of permanent-magnet synchronous motors, the so-called “Power-Factor-Based (PFB) Vector Control Method” has been proposed. The conventional PFB method directly estimates the phase of the quasi-optimal stator current through a control of the power factor phase, instead of the estimation of the rotor phase. The stator current is controlled in the current reference frame whose secondary axis phase is the same as the stator current phase. This paper proposes a new PEB method where the stator current is controlled in the voltage reference frame whose secondary axis phase is the same as the voltage phase rather than the current phase. It is shown that the similar quasi-optimal stator current control can be attained through the current control with appropriate current commands taking the power factor phase into account. This paper also shows a practical method for generating the current commands and a practical guideline for the design parameters of the new PFB method.
Khan, Mansoor; Yong, Wang; Mustafa, Ehtasham
2017-07-01
After the rapid advancement in the field of power electronics devices and drives for last few decades, there are different kinds of Pulse Width Modulation techniques which have been brought to the market. The applications ranging from industrial appliances to military equipment including the home appliances. The vey common application for the PWM is three phase voltage source inverter, which is used to convert DC to AC in the homes to supply the power to the house in case electricity failure, usually named as Un-interrupted Power Supply. In this paper Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation techniques is discussed and analysed under the control technique named as Field Oriented Control. The working and implementation of this technique has been studied by implementing on the three phase bridge inverter. The technique is used to control the Permanente Magnet Synchronous Motor. The drive system is successfully implemented in MATLAB/Simulink using the mathematical equation and algorithm to achieve the satisfactory results. PI type of controller is used to tuned ers of the motothe parametr i.e. torque and current.
Qiao, Wenjun; Tang, Xiaoqi; Zheng, Shiqi; Xie, Yuanlong; Song, Bao
2016-09-01
In this paper, an adaptive two-degree-of-freedom (2Dof) proportional-integral (PI) controller is proposed for the speed control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). Firstly, an enhanced just-in-time learning technique consisting of two novel searching engines is presented to identify the model of the speed control system in a real-time manner. Secondly, a general formula is given to predict the future speed reference which is unavailable at the interval of two bus-communication cycles. Thirdly, the fractional order generalized predictive control (FOGPC) is introduced to improve the control performance of the servo drive system. Based on the identified model parameters and predicted speed reference, the optimal control law of FOGPC is derived. Finally, the designed 2Dof PI controller is auto-tuned by matching with the optimal control law. Simulations and real-time experimental results on the servo drive system of PMSM are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fuerst, R [Industrieanlagen-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Magnetbahn-Versuchsanlage, Lathen/Ems (Germany)
1996-12-31
In German high-speed magnetic train technology, iron-clad synchronous long-stator linear motors of levitation stator design are used to propel and brake the vehicles. This paper uses the propulsion design of the Transrapid test facility in Emsland (TVE) to illustrate in practical terms the dimensioning parameters for thrust calculations and their interdependencies. The paper is based on description conventions common for rotating electrical machines and rail technology. (orig.)
Park, Myoung-Ok; Lee, Sang-Heon
2018-06-01
Preservation and enhancement of cognitive function are essential for the restoration of functional abilities and independence following stroke. While cognitive-motor dual-task training (CMDT) has been utilized in rehabilitation settings, many patients with stroke experience impairments in cognitive function that can interfere with dual-task performance. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CMDT combined with auditory motor synchronization training (AMST) utilizing rhythmic cues on cognitive function in patients with stroke. The present randomized controlled trial was conducted at a single rehabilitation hospital. Thirty patients with chronic stroke were randomly divided an experimental group (n = 15) and a control group (n = 15). The experimental group received 3 CMDT + AMST sessions per week for 6 weeks, whereas the control group received CMDT only 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Changes in cognitive function were evaluated using the trail making test (TMT), digit span test (DST), and stroop test (ST). Significant differences in TMT-A and B (P = .001, P = .001), DST-forward (P = .001, P = .001), DST-backward (P = .000, P = .001), ST-word (P = .001, P = .001), and ST-color (P = .002, P = .001) scores were observed in both the control and experimental groups, respectively. Significant differences in TMT-A (P = .001), DST-forward (P = .027), DST-backward (P = .002), and ST-word (P = .025) scores were observed between the 2 groups. Performance speed on the TMT-A was faster in the CMDT + AMST group than in the CMDT group. Moreover, DST-forward and DST-backward scores were higher in the CMDT + AMST group than in the CDMT group. Although ST-color results were similar in the 2 groups, ST-word scores were higher in the CMDT + AMST group than in the CMDT group. This finding indicates that the combined therapy CMDT and AMST can be used to increase attention, memory, and executive
Bravo-Imaz, Inaki; Davari Ardakani, Hossein; Liu, Zongchang; García-Arribas, Alfredo; Arnaiz, Aitor; Lee, Jay
2017-09-01
This paper focuses on analyzing motor current signature for fault diagnosis of gearboxes operating under transient speed regimes. Two different strategies are evaluated, extensively tested and compared to analyze the motor current signature in order to implement a condition monitoring system for gearboxes in industrial machinery. A specially designed test bench is used, thoroughly monitored to fully characterize the experiments, in which gears in different health status are tested. The measured signals are analyzed using discrete wavelet decomposition, in different decomposition levels using a range of mother wavelets. Moreover, a dual-level time synchronous averaging analysis is performed on the same signal to compare the performance of the two methods. From both analyses, the relevant features of the signals are extracted and cataloged using a self-organizing map, which allows for an easy detection and classification of the diverse health states of the gears. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of both methods for diagnosing gearbox faults. A slightly better performance was observed for dual-level time synchronous averaging method. Based on the obtained results, the proposed methods can used as effective and reliable condition monitoring procedures for gearbox condition monitoring using only motor current signature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moustier, Marcel
1978-01-01
The herein reported work addressed the improvement of voltage regulation of synchronous groups (motor-alternator) which supply the electron linear accelerator (ALS) of the Saclay nuclear research centre. The design of this new regulation system is based on the experimental study of alternators. The author discusses the theoretical elements of the adjustment of a synchronous machine based on harmonic analysis, and reports the comprehensive calculation of a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller. After some generalities on semiconductors (power thyristors and transistors), the author reports the study of excitation currents for the group, and of the machine transmittance. He reports the determination of excitation amplifiers and transformers, the study of voltage regulation of the alternator, of the motor reactive power control, and of excitation transformers (the transformer for the motor and the transformer for the alternator). He finally reports and discusses results of tests and measurements when using either a thyristor-based or a transistor-based excitation for the controller [fr
Development of the cryo-rotary joint for a HTS synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miki, M; Felder, B; Tsuzuki, K; Izumi, M; Hayakawa, H
2010-01-01
We have studied a prototype of an axial-gap type synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets since 2001. At the liquid nitrogen temperature, these bulks have trapped over 1 T inside the motor after being applied the pulsed field magnetization method. Increasing the flux of the field poles is the most straightforward way of improving the output power of the motor. Cooling down the bulk HTS magnets below the liquid nitrogen temperature provides an effective alternative to increase the magnetic flux trapping. In 2007, we exchanged the cryogen from liquid nitrogen to condensed neon. The key technology of this challenge is a rotary joint, introducing a fluid cryogen into the rotating body in the motor from the static reservoir. We have successfully developed a compact rotary joint which is smaller and lighter than the existent one (1/10 volume, 1/3 length and 1/12 weight). The present joint was manufactured and evaluated with liquid nitrogen and condensed neon. We presume a total heat loss of this rotary joint of less than 10 watts. Successful cooling and rotating tests of the bulk-HTS motor with this novel rotary joint are conducted.
Development of the cryo-rotary joint for a HTS synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miki, M; Felder, B; Tsuzuki, K; Izumi, M [Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6, Etchu-jima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Hayakawa, H, E-mail: d082025@kaiyodai.ac.j [Kitano Seiki Co. Ltd., 7-17-3, Chuo, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0024 (Japan)
2010-06-01
We have studied a prototype of an axial-gap type synchronous motor with Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets since 2001. At the liquid nitrogen temperature, these bulks have trapped over 1 T inside the motor after being applied the pulsed field magnetization method. Increasing the flux of the field poles is the most straightforward way of improving the output power of the motor. Cooling down the bulk HTS magnets below the liquid nitrogen temperature provides an effective alternative to increase the magnetic flux trapping. In 2007, we exchanged the cryogen from liquid nitrogen to condensed neon. The key technology of this challenge is a rotary joint, introducing a fluid cryogen into the rotating body in the motor from the static reservoir. We have successfully developed a compact rotary joint which is smaller and lighter than the existent one (1/10 volume, 1/3 length and 1/12 weight). The present joint was manufactured and evaluated with liquid nitrogen and condensed neon. We presume a total heat loss of this rotary joint of less than 10 watts. Successful cooling and rotating tests of the bulk-HTS motor with this novel rotary joint are conducted.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agarliţă, Sorin-Cristian; Boldea, I.; Blaabjerg, Frede
2011-01-01
This paper presents a hybrid, motion sensorless control of an Axially Laminated Anisotropic (ALA) Reluctance Synchronous Machine (RSM). The zero and low speed sensorless method is a saliency based High Frequency Signal Injection technique (HFSI) that uses the motor itself as a resolver. The second...... method is based on a state observer incorporating the “active flux” concept used to deliver RSM rotor position and speed information for medium and high speed range. Even if both methods perform successfully in separate speed regions, estimation of the two algorithms is combined as a sensor fusion...... to improve performance at zero and very low speeds. Experimental results validate the proposed control strategies....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agarlita, Sorin-Cristian; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede
2012-01-01
This paper presents a hybrid, motion sensorless control of an Axially Laminated Anisotropic (ALA) Reluctance Synchronous Machine (RSM). The zero and low speed sensorless method is a saliency based High Frequency Signal Injection technique (HFSI) that uses the motor itself as a resolver. The second...... method is based on a state observer incorporating the “active flux” concept used to deliver RSM rotor position and speed information for medium and high speed range. Even if both methods perform successfully in separate speed regions, estimation of the two algorithms is combined as a sensor fusion...... to improve performance at zero and very low speeds. Experimental results validate the proposed control strategies....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popnikolova Radevska, Mirka; Cundev, Milan; Petkovska, Lidija
2002-01-01
In these paper is presented a methodology for numerical determination and complex analysis of the electromagnetic characteristics of the Solid Salient Poles Synchronous Motor, with rated data: 2.5 kW, 240 V and 1500 r.p.m.. A mathematical model and original algorithm for the nonlinear and iterative calculations by using Finite Element Method in 3D domain will be given. The program package FEM-3D will be used to perform automatically mesh generation of the finite elements in the 3D domain, calculation of the magnetic field distribution, as well as electromagnetic characteristics and Static torque in SSPSM. (Author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paicu, M. C.; Boldea, I.; Andreescu, G. D.
2009-01-01
This study is focused on very low speed performance comparison between two sensorless control systems based on the novel ‘active flux' concept, that is, the current/voltage vector control versus direct torque and flux control (DTFC) for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drives...... with space vector modulation (SVM), without signal injection. The active flux, defined as the flux that multiplies iq current in the dq-model torque expression of all ac machines, is easily obtained from the stator-flux vector and has the rotor position orientation. Therefore notable simplification...
Hybrid I-f starting and observer-based Ssnsorless control of single-phase BLDC-PM motor drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iepure, Liviu Ioan; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede
2012-01-01
A motion sensorless control for single-phase permanent magnet brushless dc motor based on an I-f starting sequence and a real-time permanent magnet flux estimation is proposed here. The special calculation for extracting the position and speed used here implies the generating of an orthogonal flux...... system, the atan2 trigonometric function, and a phase-locked loop observer. The influence of the permanent magnet flux harmonic content is presented by analytical expressions and digital simulations. The proposed sensorless control is validated by complete experimental results on a commercial small high......-speed blower-motor (40 W, 10 krpm, 12 Vdc)....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morizane Toshimitsu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available It has been proposed that a novel maglev transport system uses both of the attractive force and thrust force of the Linear Induction Motor (LIM. In our proposal, these two forces will be controlled by two different frequency components. One of the frequency components is synchronous with the motor speed (fm. Another frequency component is drive frequency (fd. Our proposed system enables the independent and simultaneous control of the attractive and thrust force of LIM. Each value of the attractive and the thrust force generated by fm and fd must be identified in order to design that LIM control system. For these purpose, a disc-shaped LIM has been developed as an experimental equipment. The force profiles, especially around zero slip, have been analyzed under experimental conditions.
Cooling of Electric Motors Used for Propulsion on SCEPTOR
Christie, Robert; Dubois, Authur; Derlaga, Joseph
2016-01-01
Benefits of Electric Power: Reduced energy consumption, Lower emissions, Less noise. Traction motors: Permanent magnet, Synchronous, High torque at low rotational speeds, High power density, (High concentration of heat). Annular inlet: Very compatible with PM motors, (Provides cooling where needed, No need for complicated ducting, Leads to a larger motor diameter which is beneficial for motor torque) Effect of prop wash on heat transfer coefficients: Assumed propeller induced turbulence would increase heat transfer coefficients, Holmes, Obara Yip reported 'propeller slipstream showed little if any apparent effect of the slip stream', Derlaga @ LaRC also found little change in heat transfer in the wake of the propeller.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kroevel, Oeystein
2011-02-15
This work presents the design of two prototype permanent magnetized electric machines for two different applications where large permanent magnet machines might be used. Existing technology have been used as the fundament for new design and adapted to new applications, contributing, hopefully, to the development of better and more environmental friendly energy conversion. The first application presented is represented with a prototype made in cooperation with the industry in which a PM-motor is integrated into a propeller unit. Both because of the industrial connection, and the integration between the PM-motor and the propeller, the choices made for the PM-motor are conservative trying to reduce the risk. The direct rim driven thruster prototype includes a surface mounted radial flux permanent magnet machine (SM RFPM) with fractional slot winding with a q around 1. Other engineering features were introduced to make the integration of propeller and motor feasible, but without the PM-machine the thruster would not have reached the performance demand. An important part of the project was to show that the SM RFPM enables this solution, providing high performance with a large air gap. The prototype has been tested in sea, under harsh conditions, and even though the magnets have been exposed directly to sea water and been visible corroded, the electric motor still performs well within the specifications. The second application is represented with a prototype PM-generator for wind turbines. This is an example of a new, very low speed high torque machine. The generator is built to test phenomena regarding concentrated coils, and as opposed to the first application, being a pure academic university project, its success is not connected to its performance, but with the prototype's ability to expose the phenomena in question. The prototype, or laboratory model, of the generator for direct driven wind turbines features SM RFPM with concentrated coils (CC). An opportunity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dal, Mehmet; Teodorescu, Remus
2011-01-01
In order to achieve and maintain the prospective benefits of sliding mode control (SMC) methodology, the phenomenon known as “chattering”, the main obstacle encountered in real-time applications, has to be suppressed. In this study, two promising switching control gain adaptation and chattering...... reduction techniques are investigated, and the effectiveness of chattering suppression for current regulation of PM DC drives is tested. The sampling rate was also examined to determine how it affects the amplitude of chattering. This paper concentrates on various combinations of observer-based methods...... in order to find the best solution for chattering reduction. To find a practical solution a tunable low-pass filter (LPF) was used to average the discontinuous control term. The validity of the existing conditions for the gain adaptation methods are examined and observer gain value was determined through...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Topor Marcel
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel brushless, single winding and single stator, dual PM rotor axial-air-gap machine capable to deliver independently torque at the two rotors by adequate dual vector control. The proposed topologies, the circuit model, controlled dynamics simulation and preliminary 3D FEM torque production on a case study constitute the core of the paper. The proposed dual mechanical port system should be instrumental in parallel (with planetary gears or series hybrid electric vehicles (HEV aiming at a more compact and efficient electric propulsion system solution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaolin KUANG
2017-08-01
Full Text Available With the development of more/all electrical aircraft technology, an electro-mechanical actuator (EMA is more and more used in an aircraft actuation system. The motor system, as the crucial part of an EMA, usually adopts the redundancy technology or fault tolerance technology to improve the reliability. To compare the performances of these two motor systems, a 10-pole/12-slot six-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is designed with the concentrated single-layer winding, which is able to operate at dual-redundant and fault tolerant modes. Furthermore, the position servo performances of the six-phase PMSM at dual-redundant and fault tolerant modes are analyzed, including the normal and fault conditions. In addition, a variable structure proportional-integral-derivative (PID control strategy is proposed to solve the performance degradation problem caused by phase current saturation. Simulation and experimental results show that the fault tolerant PMSM has a better position servo performance than the dual-redundant PMSM, and the variable structure PID control strategy is able to improve the performance due to phase current saturation.
Synchronicity from Synchronized Chaos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gregory S. Duane
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The synchronization of loosely-coupled chaotic oscillators, a phenomenon investigated intensively for the last two decades, may realize the philosophical concept of “synchronicity”—the commonplace notion that related eventsmysteriously occur at the same time. When extended to continuous media and/or large discrete arrays, and when general (non-identical correspondences are considered between states, intermittent synchronous relationships indeed become ubiquitous. Meaningful synchronicity follows naturally if meaningful events are identified with coherent structures, defined by internal synchronization between remote degrees of freedom; a condition that has been posited as necessary for synchronizability with an external system. The important case of synchronization between mind and matter is realized if mind is analogized to a computer model, synchronizing with a sporadically observed system, as in meteorological data assimilation. Evidence for the ubiquity of synchronization is reviewed along with recent proposals that: (1 synchronization of different models of the same objective process may be an expeditious route to improved computational modeling and may also describe the functioning of conscious brains; and (2 the nonlocality in quantum phenomena implied by Bell’s theorem may be explained in a variety of deterministic (hidden variable interpretations if the quantum world resides on a generalized synchronization “manifold”.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xing Liu
2016-11-01
Full Text Available A method is proposed for reducing speed ripple of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs controlled by space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM. A flux graph and mathematics are used to analyze the speed ripple characteristics of the PMSM. Analysis indicates that the 6P (P refers to pole pairs of the PMSM time harmonic of rotor mechanical speed is the main harmonic component in the SVPWM control PMSM system. To reduce PMSM speed ripple, harmonics are superposed on a SVPWM reference signal. A particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is proposed to determine the optimal phase and multiplier coefficient of the superposed harmonics. The results of a Fourier decomposition and an optimized simulation model verified the accuracy of the analysis as well as the effectiveness of the speed ripple reduction methods, respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feng Xing
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The maglev linear motor has three degrees of motion freedom, which are respectively realized by the thrust force in the x-axis, the levitation force in the z-axis and the torque around the y-axis. Both the thrust force and levitation force can be seen as the sum of the forces on the three windings. The resultant thrust force and resultant levitation force are independently controlled by d-axis current and q-axis current respectively. Thus, the commonly used dq transformation control strategy is suitable for realizing the control of the resultant force, either thrust force and levitation force. However, the forces on the three windings also generate additional torque because they do not pass the mover mass center. To realize the maglev system high-precision control, a maglev linear motor with a new structure is proposed in this paper to decrease this torque. First, the electromagnetic model of the motor can be deduced through the Lorenz force formula. Second, the analytic method and finite element method are used to explore the reason of this additional torque and what factors affect its change trend. Furthermore, a maglev linear motor with a new structure is proposed, with two sets of 90 degrees shifted winding designed on the mover. Under such a structure, the mover position dependent periodic part of the additional torque can be offset. Finally, the theoretical analysis is validated by the simulation result that the additionally generated rotating torque can be offset with little fluctuation in the proposed new-structure maglev linear motor. Moreover, the control system is built in MATLAB/Simulink, which shows that it has small thrust ripple and high-precision performance.
Zaher, Ashraf A
2008-03-01
The dynamic behavior of a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) is analyzed. Nominal and special operating conditions are explored to show that the PMSM can experience chaos. A nonlinear controller is introduced to control these unwanted chaotic oscillations and to bring the PMSM to a stable steady state. The designed controller uses a pole-placement approach to force the closed-loop system to follow the performance of a simple first-order linear system with zero steady-state error to a desired set point. The similarity between the mathematical model of the PMSM and the famous chaotic Lorenz system is utilized to design a synchronization-based state observer using only the angular speed for feedback. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller in eliminating the chaotic oscillations while using a single feedback signal. The superiority of the proposed controller is further demonstrated by comparing it with a conventional PID controller. Finally, a laboratory-based experiment was conducted using the MCK2812 C Pro-MS(BL) motion control kit to confirm the theoretical results and to verify both the causality and versatility of the proposed controller.
Won, Hoyun; Hong, Yang-Ki; Lee, Woncheol; Choi, Minyeong
2018-05-01
We used four rotor topologies of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) to investigate the effects of remanent flux density (Br) and coercivity (Hc) of permanent magnet on motor performance. Commercial strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O19: energy product, (BH)max, of 4.62 MGOe) and Nd-Fe-B ((BH)max of 38.2 MGOe) magnets were used for the rotor designs. The same machine specifications and magnet volume keep constant, while the Hc and Br vary to calculate torque and energy efficiency with the finite-element analysis. A combination of high Hc and low Br more effectively increased maximum torque of IPMSM when the hexaferrite magnet was used. For Nd-Fe-B magnet, the same combination did not affect maximum torque, but increased energy efficiency at high speed. Therefore, the Hc value of a permanent magnet is more effective than the Br in producing high maximum torque for SrM-magnet based IPMSM and high energy efficiency at high speed for Nd-Fe-B magnet based IPMSM.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azusawa, T [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
1994-05-20
The simple analysis method of persistent current induced in on-board superconducting coils was proposed for the vehicle of a superconducting magnetically-suspended train which is running in the magnetic field generated by armature coil current of a linear synchronous motor installed along a guideway, and the performance of the method is discussed through calculation based on typical models. As fluctuation of persistent current due to running was calculated with various parameter values under a normal running condition, fluctuation of persistent current induced was less then 1% of an initial magnetomotive force, having no adverse effect on the stability and reliability of superconducting magnets. Electromagnetic forces under a normal running condition could be predicted accurately enough by relatively easy-to-calculate constant current mode analysis. Double-layered armature coils were preferred to single-layered ones to enhance the stability of superconducting magnets by reducing fluctuation of persistent current. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Bailey, Jennifer Anne; Zatorre, Robert J; Penhune, Virginia B
2014-04-01
Evidence in animals and humans indicates that there are sensitive periods during development, times when experience or stimulation has a greater influence on behavior and brain structure. Sensitive periods are the result of an interaction between maturational processes and experience-dependent plasticity mechanisms. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that adult musicians who begin training before the age of 7 show enhancements in behavior and white matter structure compared with those who begin later. Plastic changes in white matter and gray matter are hypothesized to co-occur; therefore, the current study investigated possible differences in gray matter structure between early-trained (ET; 7) musicians, matched for years of experience. Gray matter structure was assessed using voxel-wise analysis techniques (optimized voxel-based morphometry, traditional voxel-based morphometry, and deformation-based morphometry) and surface-based measures (cortical thickness, surface area and mean curvature). Deformation-based morphometry analyses identified group differences between ET and LT musicians in right ventral premotor cortex (vPMC), which correlated with performance on an auditory motor synchronization task and with age of onset of musical training. In addition, cortical surface area in vPMC was greater for ET musicians. These results are consistent with evidence that premotor cortex shows greatest maturational change between the ages of 6-9 years and that this region is important for integrating auditory and motor information. We propose that the auditory and motor interactions required by musical practice drive plasticity in vPMC and that this plasticity is greatest when maturation is near its peak.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Mahmouditabar
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Permanent magnet motors have been considered for a variety of applications due to their features such as high power density and high efficiency. One of the issues that should be investigated in the design of these motors is the demagnetization problem. Usually, the demagnetization analysis is carried out in a steady state, while demagnetization effect in dynamic condition is more considerable due to pulse shaped of armature field. Based on this fact, in this paper, dynamic demagnetization is investigated for an IPM V‑shaped magnet. This study has been done for two types of magnet, each one in static & dynamic conditions and the results are compared. Moreover, the effect of flux weakening regime on demagnetization is investigated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yiguang Chen
2017-11-01
Full Text Available With the development of electric vehicles and More-Electric/All-Electric aircraft, high reliability is required in motor servo systems. The redundancy technique is one of the most effective methods to improve the reliability of motor servo systems. In this paper, the structure of dual-redundancy permanent magnet synchronous motor (DRPMSM with weak thermal coupling and no electromagnetic coupling is analyzed and the mathematical model of this motor is established. However, there is little research on how to suppress the torque ripple caused by short-circuited coils in the DRPMSM. The main contribution of this paper is to present the advantages of DRPMSM and to find a way to suppress the torque ripple caused by the short circuit fault in DRPMSM. In order to improve operation quality and enhance the reliability of DRPMSM after a short circuit occurs, the torque ripple caused by the coils inter-turn short circuit fault in DRPMSM is analyzed in detail. Then, a control method for suppressing the electromagnetic torque ripple of a short-circuited coil is proposed for the first time by using an improved adaptive proportional resonant (PR controller and a proportional integral (PI controller in parallel. PR control is a method of controlling alternating components without steady-state error, and it can be used to suppress torque ripple. DRPMSM adopts speed and current double closed-loop control strategies. An improved adaptive PR controller and a PI controller are employed in parallel for the speed loop, while traditional PI control is adopted in current loop. From the simulation and experimental results, the torque ripple is reduced from 45.4 to 5.6% when the torque ripple suppression strategy proposed in this paper is adopted, in the case that the speed is 600 r/min. The torque ripple suppression strategy based on the PR controller can quickly and effectively suppress the torque ripple caused by the short-circuited coils, which makes the motor speed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johann, Olaf; Mueller, Johannes [Brose-SEW Elektromobilitaets GmbH und Co. KG, Bruchsal (Germany)
2013-08-15
The separately excited synchronous machine (SSM) has outgrown the status of an expensive high-tech gimmick for technology enthusiasts. Brose-SEW has evaluated the basic concept of this type of E-machine with inductive rotary transmitter and the development chain required for the realisation of specific aggregates to the extent that machine development programs can already be reliably predicted and implemented today. Ongoing development projects are used for the further development of future large-series productions that can be regarded as market ready from today's point of view in terms of costs. The maintenance-free and wear-free SSM clearly outdistances all of the alternatives with respect to functional safety and control behaviour. (orig.)
Chi, Wen-Chun; Cheng, Ming-Yang
2014-03-01
Due to issues such as limited space, it is difficult if it is not impossible to employ a position sensor in the drive control of high-speed micro PMSMs. In order to alleviate this problem, this paper analyzes and implements a simple and robust position sensorless field-oriented control method of high-speed micro PMSMs based on the sliding-mode observer. In particular, the angular position and velocity of the rotor of the high-speed micro PMSM are estimated using the sliding-mode observer. This observer is able to accurately estimate rotor position in the low speed region and guarantee fast convergence of the observer in the high speed region. The proposed position sensorless control method is suitable for electric dental handpiece motor drives where a wide speed range operation is essential. The proposed sensorless FOC method is implemented using a cost-effective 16-bit microcontroller and tested in a prototype electric dental handpiece motor. Several experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hove, Michael J.; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Keller, Peter E.
2014-01-01
Synchronizing movements with a beat requires rapid compensation for timing errors. The phase-correction response (PCR) has been studied extensively in finger tapping by shifting a metronome onset and measuring the adjustment of the following tap time. How the response unfolds during the subsequent tap cycle remains unknown. Using motion capture, we examined finger kinematics during the PCR. Participants tapped with a metronome containing phase perturbations. They tapped in ‘legato’ and ‘staccato’ style at various tempi, which altered the timing of the constituent movement stages (dwell at the surface, extension, flexion). After a phase perturbation, tapping kinematics changed compared to baseline, and the PCR was distributed differently across movement stages. In staccato tapping, the PCR trajectory changed primarily during finger extension across tempi. In legato tapping, at fast tempi the PCR occurred primarily during extension, whereas at slow tempi most phase correction was already completed during dwell. Across conditions, timing adjustments occurred primarily 100-250 ms into the following tap cycle. The change in movement around 100 ms represents the time to integrate information into an already planned movement and the rapidity suggests a subcortical route. PMID:25151103
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Percy Rafael Viego Felipe
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sobre aplicaciones de los motores sincrónicos de reluctancia (MSR controlados por accionamientos de frecuencia variable (AFV, que posibilitan el ahorro de energía. Se realizó una comparación entre las características constructivas de los MSR y los motores asincrónicos de jaula (MA, evaluando las ventajas y limitaciones que aquellos presentan. Una ventaja notable del MSR es que las pérdidas en el rotor se eliminan prácticamente. Una comparación experimental evidenció que para igual momento, el MSR presenta una mayor eficiencia; y que para igual incremento de temperatura, con las mismas dimensiones IEC, se logra más potencia. Por comparaciones entre datos de un fabricante, se demostró las ventajas de utilizar, con el mismo AFV y para cargas centrífugas, un MSR de mayor clase de eficiencia que la de un MA. Un análisis económico con técnicas de descuento, evidenció una atractiva recuperación de la inversión cuando se opera todo el año. A study on applications of synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM controlled by variable frequency drives (VFD for energy saving is presented. A comparison between the basic construction elements of the SynRM and the squirrel cage induction motor (IM is carried out, evaluating advantages and disadvantages. A nearly complete elimination of rotor losses is a significant asset of the SynRM. An experimental comparison showed that at the same torque, the SynRM presents a higher efficiency than the IM; and that at the same temperature rise, more power is obtained with the same IEC frame for both motor types. Comparing data from a manufacturer, the advantages of using, with the same VFD and for centrifugal loads, a higher efficiency class SynRM than that of a lower efficiency IM was demonstrated. An economical study using discount techniques, made evident an attractive pay back when operating all year around.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J. H.; Park, S. I.; Im, S. H.; Kim, H. M.
2013-01-01
Superconducting field coils using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires with high current density generate high magnetic field of 2 to 5 [T] and electromagnetic force (Lorentz force) acting on the superconducting field coils also become a very strong from the point of view of a mechanical characteristics. Because mechanical stress caused by these powerful electromagnetic force is one of the factors which worsens the critical current performance and structural characteristics of HTS wire, the mechanical stress analysis should be performed when designing the superconducting field coils. In this paper, as part of structural design of superconducting field coils for 17 MW class superconducting ship propulsion motor, mechanical stress acting on the superconducting field coils was analyzed and structural safety was also determined by the coupling analysis system that is consists of commercial electromagnetic field analysis program and structural analysis program.
Zhang, Bitao; Pi, YouGuo
2013-07-01
The traditional integer order proportional-integral-differential (IO-PID) controller is sensitive to the parameter variation or/and external load disturbance of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). And the fractional order proportional-integral-differential (FO-PID) control scheme based on robustness tuning method is proposed to enhance the robustness. But the robustness focuses on the open-loop gain variation of controlled plant. In this paper, an enhanced robust fractional order proportional-plus-integral (ERFOPI) controller based on neural network is proposed. The control law of the ERFOPI controller is acted on a fractional order implement function (FOIF) of tracking error but not tracking error directly, which, according to theory analysis, can enhance the robust performance of system. Tuning rules and approaches, based on phase margin, crossover frequency specification and robustness rejecting gain variation, are introduced to obtain the parameters of ERFOPI controller. And the neural network algorithm is used to adjust the parameter of FOIF. Simulation and experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper not only achieve favorable tracking performance, but also is robust with regard to external load disturbance and parameter variation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Lin Li
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM with sleeves on the rotor outer surface is investigated. The purpose of sleeves is to fix the permanent magnets and protect them from being destroyed by the large centrifugal force. However, the sleeve material characteristics have a great influence on the PMSM, and therewith, most of the rotor eddy-current losses are generated in the rotor sleeve, which could increase the device temperature and even cause thermal demagnetization of the magnets. Thus, a sleeve scheme design with low eddy-current losses is necessary, and a method suppressing the local temperature peak of permanent magnets is presented. The 3-D electromagnetic finite element model of a 12.5 kW, 2000 r/min PMSM with a segmented sleeve is established, and the electromagnetic field is calculated by using the finite element method. The results show the effectiveness of the presented method in reducing the eddy current losses in the rotor. Using the thermal method, it can be found that the maximum temperature position and zone of permanent magnet will change. Thus, some strategies are comparatively analyzed in order to obtain the change rule of the position and zone. The obtained conclusions may provide a useful reference for the design and research of PMSMs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Felder, B; Miki, M; Tsuzuki, K; Izumi, M [Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6, Etchujima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Hayakawa, H, E-mail: d082028@kaiyodai.ac.j [Kitano Seiki Co. Ltd., 7-17-3, Chuo, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-0024 (Japan)
2010-06-01
The axial-gap synchronous machine developed in our laboratory is based on Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets, able to trap a part of the magnetic flux they are submitted to when cooled down below T{sub c}. At the liquid nitrogen temperature, by the Pulsed-Field Magnetization (PFM), 1.04 T was trapped in 60 mm-diameter and 20 mm-thickness magnets, leading to an output power of the motor of 10 kW at 720 rpm. To enhance this performance, we have to increase the total amount of trapped flux in the bulk, the shortest way being to decrease the temperature of the bulk HTS. Thus, we focused on the improvement of the condensed-neon cooling system, a closed-cycle thermosyphon, so that it provided enough cooling power to lead the rotor plate enclosing the magnets to a low temperature. The present study implied coming out with a new fin-oriented design of the condensation chamber; hence, the numeric calculations and FEM software (ANSYS) heat transfer simulations were conducted for various shapes and positions of the fins. The trapezoidal design offering the best efficiency was then manufactured for testing in a heat-load test configuration, leading to cooling times divided by three and a maximum heat load endured of 55 W.
Felder, B.; Miki, M.; Tsuzuki, K.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.
2010-06-01
The axial-gap synchronous machine developed in our laboratory is based on Gd-bulk HTS field-pole magnets, able to trap a part of the magnetic flux they are submitted to when cooled down below Tc. At the liquid nitrogen temperature, by the Pulsed-Field Magnetization (PFM), 1.04 T was trapped in 60 mm-diameter and 20 mm-thickness magnets, leading to an output power of the motor of 10 kW at 720 rpm. To enhance this performance, we have to increase the total amount of trapped flux in the bulk, the shortest way being to decrease the temperature of the bulk HTS. Thus, we focused on the improvement of the condensed-neon cooling system, a closed-cycle thermosyphon, so that it provided enough cooling power to lead the rotor plate enclosing the magnets to a low temperature. The present study implied coming out with a new fin-oriented design of the condensation chamber; hence, the numeric calculations and FEM software (ANSYS) heat transfer simulations were conducted for various shapes and positions of the fins. The trapezoidal design offering the best efficiency was then manufactured for testing in a heat-load test configuration, leading to cooling times divided by three and a maximum heat load endured of 55 W.
Nagorny, Aleksandr S.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Kankam, M. David
2007-01-01
This paper presents the results of an experimental performance characterization study of a high speed, permanent magnet motor/generator (M/G) and drive applied to a flywheel module. Unlike the conventional electric machine the flywheel M/G is not a separated unit; its stator and rotor are integrated into a flywheel assembly. The M/G rotor is mounted on a flywheel rotor, which is magnetically levitated and sealed within a vacuum chamber during the operation. Thus, it is not possible to test the M/G using direct load measurements with a dynamometer and torque transducer. Accordingly, a new in-situ testing method had to be developed. The paper describes a new flywheel M/G and drive performance evaluation technique, which allows the estimation of the losses, efficiency and power quality of the flywheel high speed permanent magnet M/G, while working in vacuum, over wide frequency and torque ranges. This method does not require any hardware modification nor any special addition to the test rig. This new measurement technique is useful for high-speed applications, when applying an external load is technically difficult.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo Palomar–Lever
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The basic ideas to design discrete algorithms used to calculate unmeasured mechanical or electrical variables, in order to control electrical motors in mechanical systems are presented. The main point of the paper is to simplify the algorithms by using a linear discrete time model without any variable limitations and to reduce the computing capacity requirements of the controller. Limited references, based on the discrete sliding mode for the exception of the influences of variable limitations, are proposed and designed. The main advantage of the controller presented in this paper is that a large control error does not bestow any problems. In such a case, the system always works in an area without the limitations. Original observation algorithms of both position and rotational velocity for exterior permanent magnet synchronous motors are designed. A computer simulation was performed and the results are presented, showing high dynamic accuracy.Se presentan las ideas básicas para diseñar algoritmos discretos para calcular las variables mecánicas o eléctricas, no medidas sino estimadas, para controlar motores eléctricos en sistemas mecánicos. El objetivo principal de este artículo es simplificar los algoritmos usando un modelo de tiempo discreto lineal sin ninguna limitación en las variables y reducir los requisitos de capacidad informática del controlador. Las referencias limitadas, basadas en el modo deslizante discreto para la excepción de las influencias de limitaciones de las variables, se proponen y diseñan. La ventaja principal del controlador presentada en este artículo es que un error de control grande no causa ningún problema. En dicho caso, el sistema trabaja siempre en un área sin limitaciones. Se diseñan los algoritmos de la observación originales de la posición y de la velocidad rotatoria para el imán permanente exterior de motores síncronos. Se llevó a cabo una simulación en computadora y se presentan los
Synchronous Control Method and Realization of Automated Pharmacy Elevator
Liu, Xiang-Quan
Firstly, the control method of elevator's synchronous motion is provided, the synchronous control structure of double servo motor based on PMAC is accomplished. Secondly, synchronous control program of elevator is implemented by using PMAC linear interpolation motion model and position error compensation method. Finally, the PID parameters of servo motor were adjusted. The experiment proves the control method has high stability and reliability.
Synchronous-flux-generator (SFG)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zweygbergk, S.V.; Ljungstroem, O. (ed.)
1976-01-01
The synchronous machine is the most common rotating electric machine for producing electric energy in a large scale, but it is also used for other purposes. One well known everyday example is its use as driving motor in the electric synchronous clock. One has in this connection made full use of one of the main qualities of this kind of machine--its rotating speed is bound to the frequency of the feeding voltage, either if it is working as a motor or as a generator. Characteristics are discussed.
Handbook on linear motor application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-10-01
This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emrah Cetin
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Higher efficiency is always a desire for the electric machines researchers. One serious candidate is the axial flux permanent magnet motor to achieve that. These machines have advantages on power and torque density profile. This study aims to analyse the performances of the different rotor poles’ characteristics of the axial flux permanent magnet machines. The magnetic equivalent circuit designed and placed into the single gap axial flux permanent magnet machine to fathom the machine characteristic. The proposed rotors magnet poles are investigated in the view of the torque ripple reduction, back EMF waveforms and flux density distribution by using finite element analysis. Four different designs are compared. 3D analysis is used for FEA simulations. Torque ripple, back emf and magnetic flux distribution waveforms are obtained from the 3D FEA analysis. As a result, the proposed rotors are practicable and situated for higher performance.
FreedomCAR Advanced Traction Drive Motor Development Phase I
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ley, Josh (UQM Technologies, Inc.); Lutz, Jon (UQM Technologies, Inc.)
2006-09-01
The overall objective of this program is to design and develop an advanced traction motor that will meet the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) 2010 goals and the traction motor technical targets. The motor specifications are given in Section 1.3. Other goals of the program include providing a cost study to ensure the motor can be developed within the cost targets needed for the automotive industry. The program has focused on using materials that are both high performance and low costs such that the performance can be met and cost targets are achieved. In addition, the motor technologies and machine design features must be compatible with high volume manufacturing and able to provide high reliability, efficiency, and ruggedness while simultaneously reducing weight and volume. Weight and volume reduction will become a major factor in reducing cost, material cost being the most significant part of manufacturing cost at high volume. Many motor technology categories have been considered in the past and present for traction drive applications, including: brushed direct current (DC), PM (PM) brushless dc (BLDC), alternating current (AC) induction, switched reluctance and synchronous reluctance machines. Of these machine technologies, PM BLDC has consistently demonstrated an advantage in terms of power density and efficiency. As rare earth magnet cost has declined, total cost may also be reduced over the other technologies. Of the many different configurations of PM BLDC machines, those which incorporate power production utilizing both magnetic torque as well as reluctance torque appear to have the most promise for traction applications. There are many different PM BLDC machine configurations which employ both of these torque producing mechanisms; however, most would fall into one of two categories--some use weaker magnets and rely more heavily on reluctance torque (reluctance-dominant PM machines), others use strong PMs and supplement with reluctance torque
Chalmers, B J
2013-01-01
Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyung-Hun Shin
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The shape of the magnet is essential to the performance of a slotless permanent magnet linear synchronous machine (PMLSM because it is directly related to desirable machine performance. This paper presents a reduction in the thrust ripple of a PMLSM through the use of arc-shaped magnets based on electromagnetic field theory. The magnetic field solutions were obtained by considering end effect using a magnetic vector potential and two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. The analytical solution of each subdomain (PM, air-gap, coil, and end region is derived, and the field solution is obtained by applying the boundary and interface conditions between the subdomains. In particular, an analytical method was derived for the instantaneous thrust and thrust ripple reduction of a PMLSM with arc-shaped magnets. In order to demonstrate the validity of the analytical results, the back electromotive force results of a finite element analysis and experiment on the manufactured prototype model were compared. The optimal point for thrust ripple minimization is suggested.
Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal
2015-05-01
In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okajima, H; Yoshikawa, K; Miyajima, K; Sugiyama, M [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Nakamura, M; Ito, M [Japan Powder Metallurgy Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1997-10-01
Synchronizer rings for manual transmissions are generally made of brass or molybdenum coated brass. Powder metallurgy (PM) synchronizer ring was developed for the purpose of high performance and cost reduction. This synchronizer ring consists of the high strength PM ferrous ring that needs neither special densification nor heat treatment, and it has the brass-based friction layer. New joining technique was required because of that shape and two different materials. Powder of copper-phosphorus alloy are admixed with the friction material. While sintering, that melt and migrate to the interface. Then the friction layer and the ferrous ring are joined tightly. 7 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Chu
2017-05-01
Full Text Available An open-end winding permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM has a larger range of speed regulation than normal PMSM with the same DC voltage, and the control method is more flexible. It can also manage energy distribution between two power sources without a DC/DC converter. This paper aims at an electric vehicle equipped with OW-PMSM drive system with dual power sources and dual inverters; based on analyzing the external characteristics of each winding mode, we propose a winding mode switching strategy whose torque saturation judgmental algorithm, which is insensitive to motor’s parameters, could automatically realize upswitching of the winding mode. The proposed multi-level current hysteresis modulation algorithm could set the major power source and switch it at any time in independent mode, which accomplishes energy distribution between two power sources; its two control methods, low switching frequency method and high power difference method, could achieve different energy distribution effects. Simulation results confirm the validity and effectiveness of the winding mode switching strategy and current modulation method. They also show that an electric vehicle under the proposed control methods has better efficiency than one equipped with a traditional OW-PMSM drive system under traditional control.
On Synchronization Primitive Systems.
The report studies the question: what synchronization primitive should be used to handle inter-process communication. A formal model is presented...between these synchronization primitives. Although only four synchronization primitives are compared, the general methods can be used to compare other... synchronization primitives. Moreover, in the definitions of these synchronization primitives, conditional branches are explicitly allowed. In addition
Pantaleone, James
2002-10-01
Synchronization is a common phenomenon in physical and biological systems. We examine the synchronization of two (and more) metronomes placed on a freely moving base. The small motion of the base couples the pendulums causing synchronization. The synchronization is generally in-phase, with antiphase synchronization occurring only under special conditions. The metronome system provides a mechanical realization of the popular Kuramoto model for synchronization of biological oscillators, and is excellent for classroom demonstrations and an undergraduate physics lab.
Synchronized dynamic dose reconstruction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Litzenberg, Dale W.; Hadley, Scott W.; Tyagi, Neelam; Balter, James M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Chetty, Indrin J.
2007-01-01
Variations in target volume position between and during treatment fractions can lead to measurable differences in the dose distribution delivered to each patient. Current methods to estimate the ongoing cumulative delivered dose distribution make idealized assumptions about individual patient motion based on average motions observed in a population of patients. In the delivery of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multi-leaf collimator (MLC), errors are introduced in both the implementation and delivery processes. In addition, target motion and MLC motion can lead to dosimetric errors from interplay effects. All of these effects may be of clinical importance. Here we present a method to compute delivered dose distributions for each treatment beam and fraction, which explicitly incorporates synchronized real-time patient motion data and real-time fluence and machine configuration data. This synchronized dynamic dose reconstruction method properly accounts for the two primary classes of errors that arise from delivering IMRT with an MLC: (a) Interplay errors between target volume motion and MLC motion, and (b) Implementation errors, such as dropped segments, dose over/under shoot, faulty leaf motors, tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf ends, and communications delays. These reconstructed dose fractions can then be combined to produce high-quality determinations of the dose distribution actually received to date, from which individualized adaptive treatment strategies can be determined
Synchronized control of spiral CT scan for security inspection device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jue; Jiang Zenghui; Wang Fuquan
2008-01-01
In security inspection system of spiral CT, the synchronization between removing and rotating, and the scan synchronization between rotating and sampling influence quality of image reconstruction, so it is difficulty and important that how to realize synchronized scan. According to the controlling demand of multi-slice Spiral CT, the method to realize synchronized scan is given. a synchronized control system is designed, in which we use a industrial PC as the control computer, use magnetic grids as position detectors, use alternating current servo motor and roller motor as drivers respectively drive moving axis and rotating axis. This method can solve the problem of synchronized scan, and has a feasibility and value of use. (authors)
Overview of Cell Synchronization.
Banfalvi, Gaspar
2017-01-01
The widespread interest in cell synchronization is maintained by the studies of control mechanism involved in cell cycle regulation. During the synchronization distinct subpopulations of cells are obtained representing different stages of the cell cycle. These subpopulations are then used to study regulatory mechanisms of the cycle at the level of macromolecular biosynthesis (DNA synthesis, gene expression, protein synthesis), protein phosphorylation, development of new drugs, etc. Although several synchronization methods have been described, it is of general interest that scientists get a compilation and an updated view of these synchronization techniques. This introductory chapter summarizes: (1) the basic concepts and principal criteria of cell cycle synchronizations, (2) the most frequently used synchronization methods, such as physical fractionation (flow cytometry, dielectrophoresis, cytofluorometric purification), chemical blockade, (3) synchronization of embryonic cells, (4) synchronization at low temperature, (5) comparison of cell synchrony techniques, (6) synchronization of unicellular organisms, and (7) the effect of synchronization on transfection.
Permanent magnet motor technology design and applications
Gieras, Jacek F
2009-01-01
Demonstrates the construction of permanent magnet (PM) motor drives and supplies ready-to-implement solutions to common roadblocks along the way. This book also supplies fundamental equations and calculations for determining and evaluating system performance, efficiency, reliability, and cost. It explores modern computer-aided design of PM motors.
Beat Synchronization across the Lifespan: Intersection of Development and Musical Experience
Thompson, Elaine C.; White-Schwoch, Travis; Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina
2015-01-01
Rhythmic entrainment, or beat synchronization, provides an opportunity to understand how multiple systems operate together to integrate sensory-motor information. Also, synchronization is an essential component of musical performance that may be enhanced through musical training. Investigations of rhythmic entrainment have revealed a developmental trajectory across the lifespan, showing synchronization improves with age and musical experience. Here, we explore the development and maintenance ...
Liu, Chengcheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Youhua; Guo, Youguang; Lei, Gang; Liu, Xiaojing
2015-05-01
This paper proposes a low-cost double rotor axial flux motor (DRAFM) with low cost soft magnetic composite (SMC) core and ferrite permanent magnets (PMs). The topology and operating principle of DRAFM and design considerations for best use of magnetic materials are presented. A 905 W 4800 rpm DRAFM is designed for replacing the high cost NdFeB permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) in a refrigerator compressor. By using the finite element method, the electromagnetic parameters and performance of the DRAFM operated under the field oriented control scheme are calculated. Through the analysis, it is shown that that the SMC and ferrite PM materials can be good candidates for low-cost electric motor applications.
Control system for several rotating mirror camera synchronization operation
Liu, Ningwen; Wu, Yunfeng; Tan, Xianxiang; Lai, Guoji
1997-05-01
This paper introduces a single chip microcomputer control system for synchronization operation of several rotating mirror high-speed cameras. The system consists of four parts: the microcomputer control unit (including the synchronization part and precise measurement part and the time delay part), the shutter control unit, the motor driving unit and the high voltage pulse generator unit. The control system has been used to control the synchronization working process of the GSI cameras (driven by a motor) and FJZ-250 rotating mirror cameras (driven by a gas driven turbine). We have obtained the films of the same objective from different directions in different speed or in same speed.
Permanent magnet synchronous motor dynamic modeling with ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Hybrid synchronous motor electromagnetic torque research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suvorkova Elena E.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic field distribution models in reluctance and permanent magnet parts were made by means of Elcut. Dependences of electromagnetic torque on torque angle were obtained.
Stages of chaotic synchronization.
Tang, D. Y.; Dykstra, R.; Hamilton, M. W.; Heckenberg, N. R.
1998-09-01
In an experimental investigation of the response of a chaotic system to a chaotic driving force, we have observed synchronization of chaos of the response system in the forms of generalized synchronization, phase synchronization, and lag synchronization to the driving signal. In this paper we compare the features of these forms of synchronized chaos and study their relations and physical origins. We found that different forms of chaotic synchronization could be interpreted as different stages of nonlinear interaction between the coupled chaotic systems. (c) 1998 American Institute of Physics.
Variation in motor output and motor performance in a centrally generated motor pattern
Norris, Brian J.; Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.
2014-01-01
Central pattern generators (CPGs) produce motor patterns that ultimately drive motor outputs. We studied how functional motor performance is achieved, specifically, whether the variation seen in motor patterns is reflected in motor performance and whether fictive motor patterns differ from those in vivo. We used the leech heartbeat system in which a bilaterally symmetrical CPG coordinates segmental heart motor neurons and two segmented heart tubes into two mutually exclusive coordination modes: rear-to-front peristaltic on one side and nearly synchronous on the other, with regular side-to-side switches. We assessed individual variability of the motor pattern and the beat pattern in vivo. To quantify the beat pattern we imaged intact adults. To quantify the phase relations between motor neurons and heart constrictions we recorded extracellularly from two heart motor neurons and movement from the corresponding heart segments in minimally dissected leeches. Variation in the motor pattern was reflected in motor performance only in the peristaltic mode, where larger intersegmental phase differences in the motor neurons resulted in larger phase differences between heart constrictions. Fictive motor patterns differed from those in vivo only in the synchronous mode, where intersegmental phase differences in vivo had a larger front-to-rear bias and were more constrained. Additionally, load-influenced constriction timing might explain the amplification of the phase differences between heart segments in the peristaltic mode and the higher variability in motor output due to body shape assumed in this soft-bodied animal. The motor pattern determines the beat pattern, peristaltic or synchronous, but heart mechanics influence the phase relations achieved. PMID:24717348
STUDYING BUSINESS CYCLES SYNCHRONIZATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Servetnyk
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The paper researches business cycles synchronization. The fluctuations in post-Soviet countries are considered. The study examines different measures of synchronization in groups of countries according to some criteria.
Clock synchronization and dispersion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo; Wong, Franco N C
2002-01-01
We present a method to defeat effects of dispersion of timing signals when synchronizing clocks. It is based on the recently proposed 'conveyor belt synchronization' scheme and on the quantum dispersion cancellation effect
The report summarizes the progress in the design and construction of automatic equipment for synchronizing cell division in culture by periodic...Concurrent experiments in hypothermic synchronization of algal cell division are reported.
Spontaneous group synchronization of movements and respiratory rhythms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erwan Codrons
Full Text Available We tested whether pre-assigned arm movements performed in a group setting spontaneously synchronized and whether synchronization extended to heart and respiratory rhythms. We monitored arm movements, respiration and electrocardiogram at rest and during spontaneous, music and metronome-associated arm-swinging. No directions were given on whether or how the arm swinging were to be synchronized between participants or with the external cues. Synchronization within 3 groups of 10 participants studied collectively was compared with pseudo-synchronization of 3 groups of 10 participants that underwent an identical protocol but in an individual setting. Motor synchronization was found to be higher in the collective groups than in the individuals for the metronome-associated condition. On a repetition of the protocol on the following day, motor synchronization in the collective groups extended to the spontaneous, un-cued condition. Breathing was also more synchronized in the collective groups than in the individuals, particularly at rest and in the music-associated condition. Group synchronization occurs without explicit instructions, and involves both movements and respiratory control rhythms.
Synchronization of Multipoint Hoists
A contractor has conceived an electrohydraulic feedback system that will provide position synchronization of four aircraft cargo hoists. To... synchronized hoist system. Test results show that the feedback system concept provides adequate synchronization control; i.e., the platform pitch and roll
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM 10 and have been...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gilmour M Ian
2000-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract PM10 (the mass of particles present in the air having a 50% cutoff for particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm is the standard measure of particulate air pollution used worldwide. Epidemiological studies suggest that asthma symptoms can be worsened by increases in the levels of PM10. Epidemiological evidence at present indicates that PM10 increases do not raise the chances of initial sensitisation and induction of disease, although further research is warranted. PM10 is a complex mixture of particle types and has many components and there is no general agreement regarding which component(s could lead to exacerbations of asthma. However pro-inflammatory effects of transition metals, hydrocarbons, ultrafine particles and endotoxin, all present to varying degrees in PM10, could be important. An understanding of the role of the different components of PM10 in exacerbating asthma is essential before proper risk assessment can be undertaken leading to advice on risk management for the many asthmatics who are exposed to air pollution particles.
Synchronization of chaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pecora, Louis M.; Carroll, Thomas L.
2015-01-01
We review some of the history and early work in the area of synchronization in chaotic systems. We start with our own discovery of the phenomenon, but go on to establish the historical timeline of this topic back to the earliest known paper. The topic of synchronization of chaotic systems has always been intriguing, since chaotic systems are known to resist synchronization because of their positive Lyapunov exponents. The convergence of the two systems to identical trajectories is a surprise. We show how people originally thought about this process and how the concept of synchronization changed over the years to a more geometric view using synchronization manifolds. We also show that building synchronizing systems leads naturally to engineering more complex systems whose constituents are chaotic, but which can be tuned to output various chaotic signals. We finally end up at a topic that is still in very active exploration today and that is synchronization of dynamical systems in networks of oscillators
Conceptual design of stepper motor replacing servo motor for control rod controller
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohd Idris Taib; Izhar Abu Hussin; Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Mohd Sabri Minhat
2010-01-01
In PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, current control rod controller are using servo motor to control the movement. Control rod is a very important safety element and measure in every nuclear reactor. So, precision is very important in measurement of security in the nuclear reactor. In this case, there are a few disadvantages when using the servo motor is measurement of the motor is not precise. One solution to overcome this is by shifting servo motor with stepper motor. A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brush less, synchronous electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps. (author)
A Method to Determine Supply Voltage of Permanent Magnet Motor at Optimal Design Stage
Matustomo, Shinya; Noguchi, So; Yamashita, Hideo; Tanimoto, Shigeya
The permanent magnet motors (PM motors) are widely used in electrical machinery, such as air conditioner, refrigerator and so on. In recent years, from the point of view of energy saving, it is necessary to improve the efficiency of PM motor by optimization. However, in the efficiency optimization of PM motor, many design variables and many restrictions are required. In this paper, the efficiency optimization of PM motor with many design variables was performed by using the voltage driven finite element analysis with the rotating simulation of the motor and the genetic algorithm.
Influence of Internal and External Noise on Spontaneous Visuomotor Synchronization.
Varlet, Manuel; Schmidt, R C; Richardson, Michael J
2016-01-01
Historically, movement noise or variability is considered to be an undesirable property of biological motor systems. In particular, noise is typically assumed to degrade the emergence and stability of rhythmic motor synchronization. Recently, however, it has been suggested that small levels of noise might actually improve the functioning of motor systems and facilitate their adaptation to environmental events. Here, the authors investigated whether noise can facilitate spontaneous rhythmic visuomotor synchronization. They examined the influence of internal noise in the rhythmic limb movements of participants and external noise in the movement of an oscillating visual stimulus on the occurrence of spontaneous synchronization. By indexing the natural frequency variability of participants and manipulating the frequency variability of the visual stimulus, the authors demonstrated that both internal and external noise degrade synchronization when the participants' and stimulus movement frequencies are similar, but can actually facilitate synchronization when the frequencies are different. Furthermore, the two kinds of noise interact with each other. Internal noise facilitates synchronization only when external noise is minimal and vice versa. Too much internal and external noise together degrades synchronization. These findings open new perspectives for better understanding the role of noise in human rhythmic coordination.
Efficiency Characteristics of Low Power Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Uffe; Ahn, Jin-Woo
2009-01-01
Switched reluctance motors (SRM) are usually considered inferior in terms of efficiency as compared to permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) and brushless DC-motors (BLDC), but less costly. This article presents a test of a 70W hybrid switched reluctance motor (HSRM), that archieves a peak...... efficiency for the motor drive of more than 74%, and an efficiency for the motor of almost 80%....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsudaira, N.; Masakik, R.; Tajima, F. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1999-02-01
The authors have developed a motor drive system for electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. This system consists of a permanent magnet type synchronous motor, an inverter using insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and a controller based on a single-chip microcomputer. To achieve a compact and light weight synchronous motor, an internal permanent magnet type rotor structure was designed. This paper presents motor control technology for electric vehicles, such as an optimization method of field weakening control and a new current control method. (author)
Simulation and Analysis of Magnetisation Characteristics of Interior Permanent Magnet Motors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. A. Walker
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Modern permanent magnet (PM synchronous brushless machines often have magnetic circuits in which the patterns of saturation are complex and highly variable with the position of the rotor. The classical phasor diagram theory of operation relies on the assumption of sinusoidal variation of flux-linkage with rotor position, and neglects the non-linear effects that arise in different operating states. The finite element method is a useful tool for detailed magnetic analysis, but it is important to verify simulation results by direct measurement of the magnetic characteristics of the motor, in terms of “magnetisation curves” of current and flux-linkage. This paper presents results from finite element simulations to determine the magnetisation in a split-phase interior permanent magnet (IPM motor. Investigation has been made to determine the effects of the rotor geometry on the synchronous reactances and airgap flux distribution. Comparisons are made with a second IPM motor with a different rotor configuration.
High-Tc superconducting electric motors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schiferl, R.; Stein, J.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the advantages and limitations of using superconductors in motors are discussed. A synchronous motor with a high temperature superconducting field winding for pump and fan drive applications is described and some of its unique design features are identified. A 10,000 horsepower superconducting motor design is presented. The critical field and current density requirements for high temperature superconducting wire in motors is discussed. Finally, recent progress in superconducting wire performance is presented
Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2014-02-01
The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.
Synchronization of Concurrent Processes
1975-07-01
Pettersen Stanford Ur.iversity Artificial Intelligence Laboratory ABSTRACT Th oaoer gives an overview of commonly used synchronization primitives and...wr.ters . ut.l.z.ng the DroDo4d synchronization primitive . The solution is simpler and shorter than other known S’ms The first sections of the paper...un reicr»» side il nrcttaary and Identity by block number) Scheduling, process scheduling, synchronization , mutual exclusion, semaphores , critical
Adaptive Backoff Synchronization Techniques
1989-07-01
Percentage of synchronization and non- synchronisation references that cause invalidations in directory schemes with 2, 3, 4, 5, and 64 pointers...processors to arrive. The slight relative increase of synchronisation overhead in all cases when going from two to five pointers is because synchronization ...MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY VLSI PUBLICATIONS q~JU VLSI Memo No. 89-547 It July 1989 Adaptive Backoff Synchronization Techniques Anant
Synchronization on effective networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Tao; Zhao Ming; Zhou Changsong
2010-01-01
The study of network synchronization has attracted increasing attentionrecently. In this paper, we strictly define a class of networks, namely effective networks, which are synchronizable and orientable networks. We can prove that all the effective networks with the same size have the same spectra, and are of the best synchronizability according to the master stability analysis. However, it is found that the synchronization time for different effective networks can be quite different. Further analysis shows that the key ingredient affecting the synchronization time is the maximal depth of an effective network: the larger depth results in a longer synchronization time. The secondary factor is the number of links. The increasing number of links connecting nodes in the same layer (horizontal links) will lead to longer synchronization time, whereas the increasing number of links connecting nodes in neighboring layers (vertical links) will accelerate the synchronization. Our analysis of the relationship between the structure and synchronization properties of the original and effective networks shows that the purely directed effective network can provide an approximation of the original weighted network with normalized input strength. Our findings provide insights into the roles of depth, horizontal and vertical links in the synchronizing process, and suggest that the spectral analysis is helpful yet insufficient for the comprehensive understanding of network synchronization.
Synchronization on effective networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou Tao [Web Sciences Center, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhao Ming [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhou Changsong, E-mail: cszhou@hkbu.edu.h [Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)
2010-04-15
The study of network synchronization has attracted increasing attentionrecently. In this paper, we strictly define a class of networks, namely effective networks, which are synchronizable and orientable networks. We can prove that all the effective networks with the same size have the same spectra, and are of the best synchronizability according to the master stability analysis. However, it is found that the synchronization time for different effective networks can be quite different. Further analysis shows that the key ingredient affecting the synchronization time is the maximal depth of an effective network: the larger depth results in a longer synchronization time. The secondary factor is the number of links. The increasing number of links connecting nodes in the same layer (horizontal links) will lead to longer synchronization time, whereas the increasing number of links connecting nodes in neighboring layers (vertical links) will accelerate the synchronization. Our analysis of the relationship between the structure and synchronization properties of the original and effective networks shows that the purely directed effective network can provide an approximation of the original weighted network with normalized input strength. Our findings provide insights into the roles of depth, horizontal and vertical links in the synchronizing process, and suggest that the spectral analysis is helpful yet insufficient for the comprehensive understanding of network synchronization.
TIME SIGNALS, * SYNCHRONIZATION (ELECTRONICS)), NETWORKS, FREQUENCY, STANDARDS, RADIO SIGNALS, ERRORS, VERY LOW FREQUENCY, PROPAGATION, ACCURACY, ATOMIC CLOCKS, CESIUM, RADIO STATIONS, NAVAL SHORE FACILITIES
Motor of the future - superconducting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moen, Odd
2001-01-01
High-temperature superconductors count as the most innovative and future-oriented technology for electric motors. When these materials are used, the engine rating can be doubled and at the same time the losses halved while retaining the same size of construction. Siemens have recently developed a synchronous motor based on a high-temperature superconducting excitation winding. The rated power of the motor is 380 kW. The high-temperature superconductor that is used in this motor requires considerably less cooling outfit than low-temperature superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Hong, Z; Jiang, Q; Coombs, T A [Cambridge University engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yj222@cam.ac.uk
2008-02-01
This paper gives a detailed description of the design of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) motor. The stator of the motor consists of six air cored HTS racetrack windings, together with an iron shield. The rotor is made of 80 superconducting YBCO pucks, which can be magnetized and equates to a four-pole permanent magnet. The whole HTS motor is cooled by liquid nitrogen to 77K, and acts as a permanent magnet synchronous motor with the power rate of 15.7 kW.
Advanced Ultra-High Speed Motor for Drilling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Impact Technologies LLC; University of Texas at Arlington
2007-03-31
Three (3) designs have been made for two sizes, 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) and 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) outer diameters, of a patented inverted configured Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) electric motor specifically for drilling at ultra-high rotational speeds (10,000 rpm) and that can utilize advanced drilling methods. Benefits of these motors are stackable power sections, full control (speed and direction) of downhole motors, flow hydraulics independent of motor operation, application of advanced drilling methods (water jetting and abrasive slurry jetting), and the ability of signal/power electric wires through motor(s). Key features of the final designed motors are: fixed non-rotating shaft with stator coils attached; rotating housing with permanent magnet (PM) rotor attached; bit attached to rotating housing; internal channel(s) in a nonrotating shaft; electric components that are hydrostatically isolated from high internal pressure circulating fluids ('muds') by static metal to metal seals; liquid filled motor with smoothed features for minimized turbulence in the motor during operation; and new inverted coated metal-metal hydrodynamic bearings and seals. PMSM, Induction and Switched Reluctance Machines (SRM), all pulse modulated, were considered, but PMSM were determined to provide the highest power density for the shortest motors. Both radial and axial electric PMSM driven motors were designed with axial designs deemed more rugged for ultra-high speed, drilling applications. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD axial inverted motor can generate 4.18KW (5.61 Hp) power at 10,000 rpm with a 4 Nm (2.95 ft-lbs) of torque for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 5.03 KW (6.74 Hp) with 4.8 Nm (3.54 ft-lb) torque at 10,000 rpm for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 2.56 KW (3.43 Hp) power with 2.44 Nm (1.8 ft-lb) torque at
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)
2018-02-13
The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernard, N.
2001-12-15
A new axial field machine with armature and field windings fixed in the air-gap is studied. A double face printed winding is presented and a new tool, using a surface permeance model is developed. A simplified current control is proposed. Finally, considering the association synchronous machine-inverter the loss minimization problem is investigated, including both geometry and command parameters. (author)
Merry, Philip
2017-01-01
LAY SUMMARY SYNCHRONICITY AND LEADERSHIP TILBURG PHD DISSERTATION, PHILIP MERRY World’s First PhD to Research Synchronicity And Leadership Using Grounded Theory OUT OF THE BLUE COINCIDENCES: research topic Most people have had the experience of thinking of someone and then, almost magically have
Synchronization of hyperchaotic oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamasevicius, A.; Cenys, A.; Mykolaitis, G.
1997-01-01
Synchronization of chaotic oscillators is believed to have promising applications in secure communications. Hyperchaotic systems with multiple positive Lyapunov exponents (LEs) have an advantage over common chaotic systems with only one positive LE. Three different types of hyperchaotic electronic...... oscillators are investigated demonstrating synchronization by means of only one properly selected variable....
RUN LENGTH SYNCHRONIZATION TECHNIQUES
An important aspect of digital communications is the problem of determining efficient methods for acquiring block synchronization . In this paper we...utilizes an N-digit sync sequence as prefix to the data blocks. The results of this study show that this technique is a practical method for acquiring block synchronization .
Note: A phase synchronization photography method for AC discharge
Wu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Qiaogen; Ma, Jingtan; Pang, Lei
2018-05-01
To research discharge physics under AC voltage, a phase synchronization photography method is presented. By using a permanent-magnet synchronous motor to drive a photography mask synchronized with a discharge power supply, discharge images in a specific phase window can be recorded. Some examples of discharges photographed by this method, including the corona discharge in SF6 and the corona discharge along the air/epoxy surface, demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Therefore, this method provides an effective tool for discharge physics researchers.
Research and simulation of the decoupling transformation in AC motor vector control
He, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Zhongjie; Liu, Ken; Zhang, Yongping; Yao, Tuozhong
2018-04-01
Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is a nonlinear, strong coupling, multivariable complex object, and transformation decoupling can solve the coupling problem of permanent magnet synchronous motor. This paper gives a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) mathematical model, introduces the permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control coordinate transformation in the process of modal matrix inductance matrix transform through the matrix related knowledge of different coordinates of diagonalization, which makes the coupling between the independent, realize the control of motor current and excitation the torque current coupling separation, and derived the coordinate transformation matrix, the thought to solve the coupling problem of AC motor. Finally, in the Matlab/Simulink environment, through the establishment and combination between the PMSM ontology, coordinate conversion module, built the simulation model of permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control, introduces the model of each part, and analyzed the simulation results.
75 FR 33614 - Adequacy Status of the Submitted 2009 PM2.5
2010-06-14
... that transportation activities will not produce new air quality violations, worsen existing violations... the Submitted 2009 PM 2.5 Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets for Transportation Conformity Purposes for..., PM 2.5 nonattainment areas to be adequate for transportation conformity purposes. The transportation...
Linear motor with contactless energy transfer
2014-01-01
An integrated electromagnetic energy conversions device is provided that includes a synchronous or brushless linear (SoBL) motor, and a transformer, where the transformer is integrated electromagnetically and topologically with the SoBL motor, where an electromagnetic field orientation of the
A linear motor as seismic horizontal vibrator
Drijkoningen, G.; Veltman, A.; Hendrix, W.H.A.; Brouwer, J.; Hemstede, A.
2006-01-01
In this paper we propose to use the concept of linear synchronous motors to act as a seismic shear-wave vibratory source. We show that a linear motor, even with a design that is not focussed on application of seismic surveying, gives seismic records that are convincing and comparable with an
Asynchronized synchronous machines
Botvinnik, M M
1964-01-01
Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv
Controller for computer control of brushless dc motors. [automobile engines
Hieda, L. S. (Inventor)
1981-01-01
A motor speed and torque controller for brushless d.c. motors provides an unusually smooth torque control arrangement. The controller provides a means for controlling a current waveform in each winding of a brushless dc motor by synchronization of an excitation pulse train from a programmable oscillator. Sensing of torque for synchronization is provided by a light beam chopper mounted on the motor rotor shaft. Speed and duty cycle are independently controlled by controlling the frequency and pulse width output of the programmable oscillator. A means is also provided so that current transitions from one motor winding to another is effected without abrupt changes in output torque.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study the synchronization of coupled dynamical systems on networks. The dynamics is .... Such a time-varying topology can occur in social networks, computer networks, WWW ... This has the effect of reducing the spread of the transverse ...
Synchronization in complex networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.
2007-12-12
Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.
DIFFRACTION SYNCHRONIZATION OF LASERS,
semiconductor lasers while suppressing parasitic generation in the plane of the mirror. The diffraction coupling coefficient of open resonators is calculated, and the stability conditions of the synchronized system is determined.
Lopes, J H
2013-01-01
Evidence of CP violation in charmless three-body decays $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm K^+K^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^+ K^-\\pi^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm\\rightarrow \\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$
Traffic signal synchronization.
Huang, Ding-wei; Huang, Wei-neng
2003-05-01
The benefits of traffic signal synchronization are examined within the cellular automata approach. The microsimulations of traffic flow are obtained with different settings of signal period T and time delay delta. Both numerical results and analytical approximations are presented. For undersaturated traffic, the green-light wave solutions can be realized. For saturated traffic, the correlation among the traffic signals has no effect on the throughput. For oversaturated traffic, the benefits of synchronization are manifest only when stochastic noise is suppressed.
Neural Synchronization and Cryptography
Ruttor, Andreas
2007-11-01
Neural networks can synchronize by learning from each other. In the case of discrete weights full synchronization is achieved in a finite number of steps. Additional networks can be trained by using the inputs and outputs generated during this process as examples. Several learning rules for both tasks are presented and analyzed. In the case of Tree Parity Machines synchronization is much faster than learning. Scaling laws for the number of steps needed for full synchronization and successful learning are derived using analytical models. They indicate that the difference between both processes can be controlled by changing the synaptic depth. In the case of bidirectional interaction the synchronization time increases proportional to the square of this parameter, but it grows exponentially, if information is transmitted in one direction only. Because of this effect neural synchronization can be used to construct a cryptographic key-exchange protocol. Here the partners benefit from mutual interaction, so that a passive attacker is usually unable to learn the generated key in time. The success probabilities of different attack methods are determined by numerical simulations and scaling laws are derived from the data. They show that the partners can reach any desired level of security by just increasing the synaptic depth. Then the complexity of a successful attack grows exponentially, but there is only a polynomial increase of the effort needed to generate a key. Further improvements of security are possible by replacing the random inputs with queries generated by the partners.
A High Torque Segmented Outer Rotor Permanent Magnet Flux Switching Motor for Motorcycle Propulsion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mbadiwe I Enwelum
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Electric scooters also known as electric motorcycle are viable and personal means of road transportation have been making their ways into the world markets now because in them, combustion engine with the use of fuel oil for propulsion have been completely eliminated for economic and environmental imperatives. Electric motor which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy is used to overcome the complication of combustion engine. As it is, everyone is opting for combustion engine free and fuel-less type of vehicle. For this reason, manufacturers have exhibited interest, making research on electric motor very attractive. Meanwhile, surface permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM has been successfully developed having output torque of 110 Nm, the assembly of motor lacked mechanical strength between the rotor yoke and the mounted permanent magnet (PM which heats up during speed operation, resulting to poor performance. To overcome the challenges laced with SPMSM, this paper presents a novel design of 24 stator 14 pole outer rotor-permanent magnet flux switching motor (SOR-PMFSM capable of high torque and high performance. It employs an unconventional segmented rotor which has short flux path flow. It also embraces alternate stator tooth windings to reduce material cost. Design specifications and restriction with input DC current are the same with SPMSM. The 2D-FEA by JMAG, version 14 is used to examine the performance of the proposed motor in terms of cogging torque, back-emf, average torque, power and efficiency. Preliminary results showed that torque, power output and efficiency of the proposed motor are 1.9Nm times, 5.8kW times more than SPMSM and efficiency of 84% thus, can sustain acceleration for long distance travel.
Synchronization of Two Asymmetric Exciters in a Vibrating System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaohui Ren
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate synchronization of two asymmetric exciters in a vibrating system. Using the modified average method of small parameters, we deduce the non-dimensional coupling differential equations of the two exciters (NDDETE. By using the condition of existence for the zero solutions of the NDDETE, the condition of implementing synchronization is deduced: the torque of frequency capture is equal to or greater than the difference in the output electromagnetic torque between the two motors. Using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion, we deduce the condition of stability of synchronization that the inertia coupling matrix of the two exciters is positive definite. A numeric result shows that the structural parameters can meet the need of synchronization stability.
Synchronous monitoring of muscle dynamics and electromyogram
Zakir Hossain, M.; Grill, Wolfgang
2011-04-01
A non-intrusive novel detection scheme has been implemented to detect the lateral muscle extension, force of the skeletal muscle and the motor action potential (EMG) synchronously. This allows the comparison of muscle dynamics and EMG signals as a basis for modeling and further studies to determine which architectural parameters are most sensitive to changes in muscle activity. For this purpose the transmission time for ultrasonic chirp signal in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 2.5 MHz passing through the muscle under observation and respective motor action potentials are recorded synchronously to monitor and quantify biomechanical parameters related to muscle performance. Additionally an ultrasonic force sensor has been employed for monitoring. Ultrasonic traducers are placed on the skin to monitor muscle expansion. Surface electrodes are placed suitably to pick up the potential for activation of the monitored muscle. Isometric contraction of the monitored muscle is ensured by restricting the joint motion with the ultrasonic force sensor. Synchronous monitoring was initiated by a software activated audio beep starting at zero time of the subsequent data acquisition interval. Computer controlled electronics are used to generate and detect the ultrasonic signals and monitor the EMG signals. Custom developed software and data analysis is employed to analyze and quantify the monitored data. Reaction time, nerve conduction speed, latent period between the on-set of EMG signals and muscle response, degree of muscle activation and muscle fatigue development, rate of energy expenditure and motor neuron recruitment rate in isometric contraction, and other relevant parameters relating to muscle performance have been quantified with high spatial and temporal resolution.
Aaij, R.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves Jr, A.A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R.B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J.J.; Badalov, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R.J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjornstad, P.M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N.H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L.Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H.V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G.A.; Craik, D.C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P.N.Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; de Miranda, J.M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, RF.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gavrilov, G.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani', S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V.V.; Gobel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gandara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L.A.; Grauges, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grunberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S.C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S.T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C.R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T.M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R.F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V.N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R.W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I.V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J.F.; Marconi, U.; Benito, C.Marin; Marino, P.; Marki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martin Sanchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Minard, M.N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M.J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A.B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Muller, K.; Muresan, R.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A.D.; Nguyen, T.D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D.P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J.M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B.K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C.J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G.D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilar, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J.H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M.S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M.M.; dos Reis, A.C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D.A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A.B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Vidal, A.Romero; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Valls, P.Ruiz; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Coutinho, R.Silva; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N.A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V.K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M.T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Garcia, M.Ubeda; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vazquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J.J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; Voss, H.; de Vries, J.A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D.R.; Watson, N.K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M.P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F.F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S.A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.
2014-10-03
A search for $CP$ violation in Cabibbo-suppressed $D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}$ and $D^{\\pm}_{s}\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays is performed using $pp$ collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3~fb$^{-1}$, recorded by the LHCb experiment. The individual $CP$-violating asymmetries are measured to be \\begin{eqnarray*} \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}} & = & (+0.03 \\pm 0.17 \\pm 0.14) \\% \\\\ \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}_s\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}} & = & (+0.38 \\pm 0.46 \\pm 0.17) \\%, \\end{eqnarray*} assuming that $CP$ violation in the Cabibbo-favoured decays is negligible. A combination of the measured asymmetries for the four decay modes $D^{\\pm}_{(s)}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}$ and $D^{\\pm}_{(s)}\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}$ gives the sum \\[ \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}}+ \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}_s\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}} = (+0.41 \\pm 0.49 \\pm 0.26) \\%. \\] In all cases, the first uncertainties are statistical and the second sys...
Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in Beijing, China
SHI, M.; Wu, H.; Zhang, S.; Li, H.; Yang, T.
2013-12-01
In urban areas,fine particle matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 um and 10 um (PM2.5-10), and 2.5 um (PM2.5), as an important source of urban particulate matter (PM) pollutants, have significant negative effects on health, atmospheric visibility and climate. PM has increasingly become a significant index of indicating the atmospheric pollution of city. In recent years, Beijing, China has been listed as one of the most serious air pollution city in the world. In order to investigate the sources of air pollutants, a total of 283 pairs of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 samples were collected daily from July, 2010 to June, 2011 in Beijing. Mineral magnetic properties and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were measured to verify the magnetic materials. Magnetic measures for PM indicated that the major magnetic phase was coarse-grained magnetite-like material. The χlf, χarm, SIRM and χarm/SIRM series of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show seasonal dependences: high values in winter and low values in summer. In additional the parameters analyzed by Time-series methods show a strong cycle about 7 days above 95% confidence level. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show different pattern: the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5-10 show high values in mid-week, and particle sizes is steady, while the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5 show reverse a weekly cycle pattern, and particle sizes is smaller in the mid-week.Microscopy analyses reveal basically three morphologies of magnetic grains: aggregate, spherules and angular particles. The ultrafine carbonaceous particles which tend to form complex clusters and chain-like structures, most likely come from coal burning and motor vehicle exhaust. Spherical particles in PM2.5 are dominantly composed of Fe, O and C, grain-diameters of particles range from 0.3 to 2 um. Angular particles of Fe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben Ahmed, H.; Feld, G.; Multon, B. [Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, Lab. SATIE, Systemes et Applications des Technologies de l' Information et de l' Energie, UMR CNRS 8029, 94 (France); Bernard, N. [Institut Universitaire de Saint-Nazaire, Institut de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nantes Atlantique (IREENA), 44 - Nantes (France)
2005-10-01
Power generation is mainly performed by synchronous rotating machines which consume about a third of the world primary energy. Electric motors used in industrial applications convert about two thirds of this electricity. Therefore, synchronous machines are present everywhere at different scales, from micro-actuators of few micro-watts to thermo-mechanical production units of more than 1 GW, and represent a large variety of structures which have in common the synchronism between the frequency of the power supply currents and the relative movement of the fixed part with respect to the mobile part. Since several decades, these machines are more and more used as variable speed motors with permanent magnets. The advances in power electronics have contributed to the widening of their use in various applications with a huge range of powers. This article presents the general principle of operation of electromechanical converters of synchronous type: 1 - electromechanical conversion in electromagnetic systems: basic laws and elementary structures (elementary structure, energy conversion cycle, case of a system working in linear magnetic regime), rotating fields structure (magneto-motive force and Ferraris theorem, superficial air gap permeance, air gap magnetic induction, case of a permanent magnet inductor, magnetic energy and electromagnetic torque, conditions for reaching a non-null average torque, application to common cases); 2 - constitution, operation modes and efficiency: constitution and main types of synchronous machines, efficiency - analysis by similarity laws (other expression of the electromagnetic torque, thermal limitation in permanent regime, scale effects, effect of pole pairs number, examples of efficiencies and domains of use), operation modes. (J.S.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hounsgaard, Jorn
2017-01-01
Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....
A Semantics of Synchronization.
1980-09-01
suggestion of having very hungry philosophers. One can easily imagine the complexity of the equivalent implementation using semaphores . Synchronization types...Edinburgh, July 1978. [STAR79] Stark, E.W., " Semaphore Primitives and Fair Mutual Exclusion," TM-158, Laboratory for Computer Science, M.I.T., Cambridge...AD-AQ91 015 MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE LAB FOR COMPUTE--ETC F/S 9/2 A SEMANTICS OF SYNCHRONIZATION .(U) .C SEP 80 C A SEAQUIST N00015-75
Pulse Synchronization System (PSS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1977-06-01
This document is intended to serve as an operations manual, as well as a documentation of the backup analyses pertinent to the design as delivered. A history of earlier unsuccessful versions of the Pulse Synchronization System (PSS) is not included. The function of the PSS is to synchronize the time of arrival at the fusion target of laser pulses that are propagated through the 20 amplifier chains of the SHIVA laser. The positional accuracy requirement is +-1.5 mm (+-5 psec), and is obtained by the PSS with a wide margin factor
Establishing a link between vehicular PM sources and PM measurements in urban street canyons.
Eisner, Alfred D; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Wiener, Russell W; Hahn, Intaek; Drake-Richman, Zora E; Ellenson, William D
2009-12-01
The Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study, conducted in Brooklyn, NY, USA, in 2005, was designed with multiple goals in mind, two of which were contaminant source characterization and street canyon transport and dispersion monitoring. In the portion of the study described here, synchronized wind velocity and azimuth as well as particulate matter (PM) concentrations at multiple locations along 33rd Street were used to determine the feasibility of using traffic emissions in a complex urban topography as a sole tracer for studying urban contaminant transport. We demonstrate in this paper that it is possible to link downwind concentrations of contaminants in an urban street canyon to the vehicular traffic cycle using Eigen-frequency analysis. In addition, multivariable circular histograms are used to establish directional frequency maxima for wind velocity and contaminant concentration.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study the synchronization of coupled dynamical systems on networks. The dynamics is governed by a local nonlinear oscillator for each node of the network and interactions connecting different nodes via the links of the network. We consider existence and stability conditions for both single- and multi-cluster ...
Heartbeat synchronized with ventilation
Schäfer, Carsten; Rosenblum, Michael G.; Kurths, Jürgen; Abel, Hans-Henning
1998-03-01
It is widely accepted that cardiac and respiratory rhythms in humans are unsynchronised. However, a newly developed data analysis technique allows any interaction that does occur in even weakly coupled complex systems to be observed. Using this technique, we found long periods of hidden cardiorespiratory synchronization, lasting up to 20 minutes, during spontaneous breathing at rest.
Synchronous, bilateral tonsillar carcinomas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nami Saber, Camelia; Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup
2017-01-01
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is increasing, but data on the incidence of synchronous, bilateral tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas (BiTSCCs) is sparse. In this study, we report the incidence and tumour characteristics of BiTSCCs in a population-base...
Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abrahamsen, Flemming
This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... demonstrated that energy optimal control will sometimes improve and sometimes deteriorate the stability. Comparison of small and medium-size induction motor drives with permanent magnet motor drives indicated why, and in which applications, PM motors are especially good. Calculations of economical aspects...... improvement by energy optimal control for any standard induction motor drive between 2.2 kW and 90 kW. A simple method to evaluate the robustness against load disturbances was developed and used to compare the robustness of different motor types and sizes. Calculation of the oscillatory behavior of a motor...
Injuries in synchronized skating.
Dubravcic-Simunjak, S; Kuipers, H; Moran, J; Simunjak, B; Pecina, M
2006-06-01
Synchronized skating is a relatively new competitive sport and data about injuries in this discipline are lacking. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and pattern of acute and overuse injuries in synchronized skaters. Before and during the World Synchronized Skating Championship 2004, a questionnaire inquiring about the frequency of injuries in this skating discipline was given to 23 participating teams. A total of 514 women and 14 men senior skaters completed the questionnaires (100 % response). Two hundred and eighteen (42.4 %) female and 6 (42.9 %) male skaters had suffered from acute injuries during their synchronized skating career. As some skaters had suffered from more than one injury, the total number of acute injuries in females was 398 and in males 14. In female skaters 19.8 % of acute injuries were head injuries, 7.1 % trunk, 33.2 % upper, and 39.9 % lower extremity injuries. In male skaters 14.3 % were head injuries, 28.6 % upper, and 57.1 % lower extremity injuries, with no report of trunk injuries. Sixty-nine female and 2 male skaters had low back problems and 112 female and 2 male skaters had one or more overuse syndromes during their skating career. Of 155 overuse injuries in female skaters, 102 (65.8 %) occurred during their figure skating career, while 53 injuries (34.2 %) only occurred when they skated in synchronized skating teams. In male skaters, out of 5 overuse injuries, 4 (80 %) occurred in their figure skating career, while 1 (20 %) occurred during their synchronized skating career. Out of the total of 412 injuries, 338 (82 %) occurred during on-ice practice, while 74 (18 %) happened during off-ice training. Ninety-one (26.9 %) acute injures occurred while practicing individual elements, and 247 (73.1 %) on-ice injuries occurred while practicing different team elements. We conclude that injuries in synchronized skating should be of medical concern due to an increasing number of acute injuries, especially
MPPT for PM wind generator using gradient approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Y.-Y.; Lu, S.-D.; Chiou, C.-S.
2009-01-01
This paper applies new maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) algorithms to a wind-turbine generator system (WTGS). In this paper, the WTGS is a direct-drive system and includes the wind-turbine, permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous generator, three-phase full bridge rectifier, buck-boost converter and load. The new MPPT method uses gradient approximation (GA) algorithm. Three methods based on GA for achieving MPPT are discussed in this paper: (1) full-sensor control with anemometer and tachometer, (2) rule-based method and (3) adaptive duty cycle method. The third method has merits of no PID parameters, proportional constant, anemometer, tachometer and characteristics of WTGS required. This method enables the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) to operate at variable speeds to achieve good performance. Simulation results show that the tip-speed ratio (TSR) and power coefficient obtained by the adaptive duty cycle method with GA can be almost identical to the optimal values
Instructor's guide : - synchronized skating school
Mokkila, Eveliina
2011-01-01
The starting point to the Instructor’s guide for synchronized skating school was the situation that Turun Riennon Taitoluistelu figure skating club constantly struggles to get enough skaters to the Beginner team in synchronized skating. The guidebook was written to guide the skating school instructors towards providing more synchronized skating teaching in their lessons. As a result from introducing synchronized skating more in the skating school, it is expected to have more children conti...
Winter mass concentrations of carbon species in PM10, PM 2.5 and PM1 in Zagreb air, Croatia.
Godec, Ranka; Čačković, Mirjana; Šega, Krešimir; Bešlić, Ivan
2012-11-01
The purpose of our investigation was to examine the mass concentrations of EC, OC and TC (EC + OC) in PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1) particle fractions. Daily PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1) samples were collected at an urban background monitoring site in Zagreb during winter 2009. Average OC and EC mass concentrations were 11.9 and 1.8 μg m(-3) in PM(10), 9.0 and 1.4 μg m(-3) in PM(2.5), and 5.5 and 1.1 μg m(-3) in PM(1). Average OC/EC ratios in PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) were 7.4, 6.9 and 5.4, respectively.
Observation of $C\\!P$ violation in $B^\\pm \\to D K^\\pm$ decays
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Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A
2012-01-01
An analysis of $B^{\\pm}\\to DK^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm}\\to D\\pi^{\\pm}$ decays is presented where the $D$ meson is reconstructed in the two-body final states:$K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}$, $K^+K^-$, $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $\\pi^{\\pm}K^{\\mp}$. Using $1.0{\\rm \\,fb}^{-1}$ of LHCb data, measurements of several observables are made including the first observation of the suppressed mode $B^{\\pm}\\to[\\pi^{\\pm}K^{\\mp}]_DK^{\\pm}$. $C\\!P$ violation in $B^{\\pm}\\to DK^{\\pm}$ decays is observed with $5.8\\,\\sigma$ significance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toney, D.; Zhong, Q.; De Angelis, G.
2005-01-01
The aim of the present work is to investigate the electromagnetic transition probabilities in the doublet bands of 136 Pm. These two bands have been observed up to Iπ = (21 + ). Contrary to the case of 134 Pr, the B(M1)/B(E2) ratios take similar values within the error bars in 136 Pm. This is a strong indication that there is considerable difference between the two nuclei. However, a lifetime measurement in 136 Pm is needed to shed light on the scale and the origin of the difference
Synchronizing Strategies under Partial Observability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri
2014-01-01
Embedded devices usually share only partial information about their current configurations as the communication bandwidth can be restricted. Despite this, we may wish to bring a failed device into a given predetermined configuration. This problem, also known as resetting or synchronizing words, has...... been intensively studied for systems that do not provide any information about their configurations. In order to capture more general scenarios, we extend the existing theory of synchronizing words to synchronizing strategies, and study the synchronization, short-synchronization and subset...
Ferrari, F. A. S.; Viana, R. L.; Reis, A. S.; Iarosz, K. C.; Caldas, I. L.; Batista, A. M.
2018-04-01
The cerebral cortex plays a key role in complex cortical functions. It can be divided into areas according to their function (motor, sensory and association areas). In this paper, the cerebral cortex is described as a network of networks (cortex network), we consider that each cortical area is composed of a network with small-world property (cortical network). The neurons are assumed to have bursting properties with the dynamics described by the Rulkov model. We study the phase synchronization of the cortex network and the cortical networks. In our simulations, we verify that synchronization in cortex network is not homogeneous. Besides, we focus on the suppression of neural phase synchronization. Synchronization can be related to undesired and pathological abnormal rhythms in the brain. For this reason, we consider the delayed feedback control to suppress the synchronization. We show that delayed feedback control is efficient to suppress synchronous behavior in our network model when an appropriate signal intensity and time delay are defined.
Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; 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Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A
2014-01-01
The CP-violating charge asymmetry in $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}$ decays is measured in a sample of $pp$ collisions at 7 TeV centre-of-mass energy, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb experiment. The result is $\\mathcal{A}_{CP}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}) = \\rm 0.022\\pm 0.021 \\pm 0.009$, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. In addition, a search for the $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi \\pi^{\\pm}$ decay mode is performed, using the $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}$ decay rate for normalization. An upper limit on the branching fraction $\\mathcal{B}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi \\pi^{\\pm})< 1.5\\times 10^{-7}$ is set at 90% confidence level.
Polinder, H.; Slootweg, J.G.; Hoeijmakers, M.J.; Compter, J.C.
2003-01-01
The use of linear permanent-magnet (PM) actuators increases in a wide variety of applications because of their high force density, robustness and accuracy. These linear PM motors are often heavily loaded during short intervals of high acceleration, so that magnetic saturation occurs. This paper
Kong, Shaofei; Han, Bin; Bai, Zhipeng; Chen, Li; Shi, Jianwu; Xu, Zhun
2010-09-15
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP) were sampled synchronously during three monitoring campaigns from June 2007 to February 2008 at a coastal site in TEDA of Tianjin, China. Chemical compositions including 19 elements, 6 water-solubility ions, organic and elemental carbon were determined. principle components analysis (PCA) and chemical mass balance modeling (CMB) were applied to determine the PM sources and their contributions with the assistance of NSS SO(4)(2)(-), the mass ratios of NO(3)(-) to SO(4)(2)(-) and OC to EC. Air mass backward trajectory model was compared with source apportionment results to evaluate the origin of PM. Results showed that NSS SO(4)(2)(-) values for PM(2.5) were 2147.38, 1701.26 and 239.80 ng/m(3) in summer, autumn and winter, reflecting the influence of sources from local emissions. Most of it was below zero in summer for PM(10) indicating the influence of sea salt. The ratios of NO(3)(-) to SO(4)(2)(-) was 0.19 for PM(2.5), 0.18 for PM(10) and 0.19 for TSP in winter indicating high amounts of coal consumed for heating purpose. Higher OC/EC values (mostly larger than 2.5) demonstrated that secondary organic aerosol was abundant at this site. The major sources were construction activities, road dust, vehicle emissions, marine aerosol, metal manufacturing, secondary sulfate aerosols, soil dust, biomass burning, some pharmaceutics industries and fuel-oil combustion according to PCA. Coal combustion, marine aerosol, vehicular emission and soil dust explained 5-31%, 1-13%, 13-44% and 3-46% for PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP, respectively. Backward trajectory analysis showed air parcels originating from sea accounted for 39% in summer, while in autumn and winter the air parcels were mainly related to continental origin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Dennis; Pedersen, Torben Bach
2004-01-01
The increasing availability of XML-based data sources, e.g., for publishing data on the WWW, means that more and more applications (data consumers) rely on accessing and using XML data. Typically, the access is achieved by defining views over the XML data, and accessing data through these views....... However, the XML data sources are often independent of the data consumers and may change their schemas without notification, invalidating the XML views defined by the data consumers. This requires the view definitions to be updated to reflect the new structure of the data sources, a process termed view...... synchronization. XPath is the most commonly used language for retrieving parts of XML documents, and is thus an important cornerstone for XML view definitions. This paper presents techniques for discovering schema changes in XML data sources and synchronizing XPath-based views to reflect these schema changes...
LHC synchronization test successful
The synchronization of the LHC's clockwise beam transfer system and the rest of CERN's accelerator chain was successfully achieved last weekend. Tests began on Friday 8 August when a single bunch of a few particles was taken down the transfer line from the SPS accelerator to the LHC. After a period of optimization, one bunch was kicked up from the transfer line into the LHC beam pipe and steered about 3 kilometres around the LHC itself on the first attempt. On Saturday, the test was repeated several times to optimize the transfer before the operations group handed the machine back for hardware commissioning to resume on Sunday. The anti-clockwise synchronization systems will be tested over the weekend of 22 August.Picture:http://lhc-injection-test.web.cern.ch/lhc-injection-test/
Programmable synchronous communications module
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horelick, D.
1979-10-01
The functional characteristics of a programmable, synchronous serial communications CAMAC module with buffering in block format are described. Both bit and byte oriented protocols can be handled in full duplex depending on the program implemented. The main elements of the module are a Signetics 2652 Multi-Protocol Communications Controller, a Zilog Z-808 8 bit microprocessor with PROM and RAM, and FIFOs for buffering
EPRI spearheads generic PM recommendations for infrastructure equipment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Worledge, David H.; Hinchcliffe, Glenn R.; Benak, Mark S.; Bridges, Martin
2007-01-01
All companies have at their core a vast amount of similar equipment that would benefit from solid preventive maintenance (PM) recommendations that are generic and easily adapted to meet operational conditions. The re-emergence of PM optimization methods like Reliability Centered Maintenance, further illustrates that companies in all industries recognize the positive influence that a well-focused maintenance program has on the corporate bottom line. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has long been a leader in providing universally adaptable maintenance solutions to meet the evolving needs of its membership. Nearly ten years ago, EPRI began developing the PM Basis Database, a one-of-a-kind repository of PM recommendations for basic infrastructure components (such as pumps, motors, valves, compressors), derived from equipment experts. EPRI has now made available this comprehensive body of knowledge to all industries. This paper will explore the origins and structure of the database, how these generic PM recommendations benefit every industry, and how they may be obtained. (author)
Oleschuk, Valentin; Grandi, Gabriele; Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban
2011-01-01
Novel method of space-vector-based pulse-width modulation (PWM) has been disseminated for synchronous control of four inverters feeding six-phase drive on the base of asymmetrical induction motor which has two sets of windings spatially shifted by 30 electrical degrees. Basic schemes of synchronized PWM, applied for control of four separate voltage-source inverters, allow both continuous phase voltages synchronization in the system and required power sharing between DC sources. Detailed MATLA...
Multipole superconducting electric motors for ship propulsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thullen, P.; Keim, T.A.; Minervini, J.V.
1975-01-01
While a great deal of attention has been paid to two-pole superconducting synchronous machines, very little analysis of low speed, multipole superconducting synchronous machines has been done. Such machines may prove desirable as drive motors in ship drive systems. Results are presented of an analysis which assumes a motor of sufficient size that the airgap may be considered to be flat. A power output expression is given which shows the effects of machine geometry and superconductor characteristics on machine size. Based on this expression, a 40,000 hp 120 rpm motor is sized, and the resulting machine is compared with a conventional ship drive motor. The comparison illustrates possible size reductions through the application of superconductivity
Pneumatic motor speed control by trajectory tracking fuzzy logic
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this study, trajectory tracking fuzzy logic controller (TTFLC) is proposed for the speed control of a pneumatic motor (PM). A third order trajectory is deﬁned to determine the trajectory function that has to be tracked by the PM speed. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to ﬁnd the TTFLC boundary values of membership functions ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Kim
2012-02-01
Full Text Available PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were sampled at Gosan ABC Superstation on Jeju Island from August 2007 to September 2008. The carbonaceous aerosols were quantified with the thermal/optical reflectance (TOR method, which produced five organic carbon (OC fractions, OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, and pyrolyzed organic carbon (OP, and three elemental carbon (EC fractions, EC1, EC2, and EC3. The mean mass concentrations of PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were 13.7 μg m−3, 17.2 μg m−3, and 28.4 μg m−3, respectively. The averaged mass fractions of OC and EC were 23.0% and 10.4% for PM1.0, 22.9% and 9.8% for PM2.5, and 16.4% and 6.0% for PM10. Among the OC and EC sub-components, OC2 and EC2+3 were enriched in the fine mode, but OC3 and OC4 in the coarse mode. The filter-based PM1.0 EC agreed well with black carbon (BC measured by an Aethalometer, and PM10 EC was higher than BC, implying less light absorption by larger particles. EC was well correlated with sulfate, resulting in good relationships of sulfate with both aerosol scattering coefficient measured by Nephelometer and BC concentration. Our measurements of EC confirmed the definition of EC1 as char-EC emitted from smoldering combustion and EC2+3 as soot-EC generated from higher-temperature combustion such as motor vehicle exhaust and coal combustion (Han et al., 2010. In particular, EC1 was strongly correlated with potassium, a traditional biomass burning indicator, except during the summer, when the ratio of EC1 to EC2+3 was the lowest. We also found the ratios of major chemical species to be a useful tool to constrain the main sources of aerosols, by which the five air masses were well distinguished: Siberia, Beijing, Shanghai, Yellow Sea, and East Sea types. Except Siberian air, the continental background of the study region, Beijing plumes showed the highest EC1 (and OP to sulfate ratio, which implies that this air mass had the highest net warming by aerosols of the four air masses. Shanghai-type air, which was
Development of High-Speed Switched Reluctance Motor for Electric Power Tools
Nakamura, Kenji; Kumasaka, Yuya; Ichinokura, Osamu
2017-10-01
This paper presents design and experimental evaluation of a switched reluctance (SR) motor used for electric power tools. First, characteristics of a previous designed 6/4-pole SR motor is shown and compared to a permanent magnet (PM) motor used in present electric power tools. Next, to further improve characteristics, a 12/8-pole SR motor is designed and evaluated in experiment. It is proved that the performance of the prototype 12/8-pole SR motor is almost comparable or superior to the present PM motor.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herz, Damian Marc; Florin, Esther; Christensen, Mark Schram
2014-01-01
PM to SMA and significantly strengthened coupling in the feedback connection from M1 to lPM expressed as β-β as well as θ-β coupling. Enhancement in cross-frequency θ-β coupling from M1 to lPM was correlated with levodopa-induced improvement in motor function. The results show that PD is associated...... with an altered neural communication between premotor and motor cortical areas, which can be modulated by dopamine replacement....
Exploiting Schemas in Data Synchronization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foster, J. Nathan; Greenwald, Michael B.; Kirkegaard, Christian
2005-01-01
Increased reliance on optimistic data replication has led to burgeoning interest in tools and frameworks for disconnected updates to replicated data.We have implemented a generic synchronization framework, called HARMONY, that can be used to build state-based synchronizers for a wide variety...... of tree-structureddata formats. A novel feature of this framework is that the synchronization process - in particular, the recognition of conflicts - is driven by the schema of the structures being synchronized.We formalize HARMONY's synchronization algorithm, state a simple and intuitive specification......, and illustrate, using simple address books as a case study, how it can be used to synchronize trees representing a variety of specific forms of applicationdata, including sets, records, tuples, and relations....
Content-based intermedia synchronization
Oh, Dong-Young; Sampath-Kumar, Srihari; Rangan, P. Venkat
1995-03-01
Inter-media synchronization methods developed until now have been based on syntactic timestamping of video frames and audio samples. These methods are not fully appropriate for the synchronization of multimedia objects which may have to be accessed individually by their contents, e.g. content-base data retrieval. We propose a content-based multimedia synchronization scheme in which a media stream is viewed as hierarchial composition of smaller objects which are logically structured based on the contents, and the synchronization is achieved by deriving temporal relations among logical units of media object. content-based synchronization offers several advantages such as, elimination of the need for time stamping, freedom from limitations of jitter, synchronization of independently captured media objects in video editing, and compensation for inherent asynchronies in capture times of video and audio.
Indoor PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations in primary schools in Sari, Iran.
Mohammadyan, Mahmoud; Shabankhani, Bijan
2013-09-01
This study was carried out to determine the distribution of particles in classrooms in primary schools located in the centre of the city of Sari, Iran and identify the relationship between indoor classroom particle levels and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations. Outdoor PM2.5 and indoor PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were monitored using a real-time Micro Dust Pro monitor and a GRIMM monitor, respectively. Both monitors were calibrated by gravimetric method using filters. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that all indoor and outdoor data fitted normal distribution. Mean indoor PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations for all of the classrooms were 17.6 μg m(-3), 46.6 μg m(-3), 400.9 μg m(-3), and 36.9 μg m(-3), respectively. The highest levels of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured at the Shahed Boys School (69.1 μg m(-3) and 115.8 μg m(-3), respectively). The Kazemi school had the lowest levels of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 (29.1 μg m(-3) and 15.5 μg m(-3), respectively). In schools located near both main and small roads, the association between indoor fine particle (PM2.5 and PM1) and outdoor PM2.5 levels was stronger than that between indoor PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 levels. Mean indoor PM2.5 and PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 were higher than the standards for PM2.5 and PM10, and there was a good correlation between indoor and outdoor fine particle concentrations.
Physical Layer Ethernet Clock Synchronization
2010-11-01
42 nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 77 PHYSICAL LAYER ETHERNET CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION Reinhard Exel, Georg...oeaw.ac.at Nikolaus Kerö Oregano Systems, Mohsgasse 1, 1030 Wien, Austria E-mail: nikolaus.keroe@oregano.at Abstract Clock synchronization ...is a service widely used in distributed networks to coordinate data acquisition and actions. As the requirement to achieve tighter synchronization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Erik W.
, to exist, in order to underline the cognitive basis of man's (comprehension of) existence. A theory of history (existence) is set up on the basis of the traditional dualistic sign function, and the traditional sound-law concept and sound development are reinterpreted in terms of the theory's system...... of definitions. Historical linguistics ('change') is not dependent on an arbitrary synchronic theory. The two language universals polysemy and synonymy are reinterpreted and defined in accordance with the advanced definitions. Louis Hjelmslev's glossematic theory is the general horizon of the argument...
Psychic energy and synchronicity.
Zabriskie, Beverley
2014-04-01
Given Jung's interest in physics' formulations of psychic energy and the concept of time, overlaps and convergences in the themes addressed in analytical psychology and in quantum physics are to be expected. These are informed by the active intersections between the matter of mind and mindfulness re matter. In 1911, Jung initiated dinners with Einstein. Jung's definition of libido in the pivotal 1912 Fordham Lectures reveals the influence of these conversations. Twenty years later, a significant period in physics, Wolfgang Pauli contacted Jung. Their collaboration led to the theory of synchronicity. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Laser Megajoule synchronization system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luttmann, M.; Pastor, J.F; Drouet, V.; Prat, M.; Raimbourg, J.; Adolf, A.
2011-01-01
This paper describes the synchronisation system under development on the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) in order to synchronize the laser quads on the target to better than 40 ps rms. Our architecture is based on a Timing System (TS) which delivers trigger signals with jitter down to 15 ps rms coupled with an ultra precision timing system with 5 ps rms jitter. In addition to TS, a sensor placed at the target chamber center measures the arrival times of the 3 omega nano joule laser pulses generated by front end shots. (authors)
Tang, Tao; Zhang, Tong; Du, Jun-Feng; Ren, Ge; Tian, Jing
2016-11-01
This paper proposes a dual-motor configuration to enhance closed-loop performance of a telescope control system. Two identical motors are mounted on each side of a U-type frame to drive the telescope elevation axis instead of a single motor drive, which is usually used in a classical design. This new configuration and mechanism can reduce the motor to half the size used in the former design, and it also provides some other advantages. A master-slave current control mode is employed to synchronize the two motors. Acceleration feedback control is utilized to further enhance the servo performance. Extensive experiments are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm in synchronization, disturbance attenuation and low-velocity tracking.
Accelerated testing for synchronous orbits
Mcdermott, P.
1981-01-01
Degradation of batteries during synchronous orbits is analyzed. Discharge and recharge rates are evaluated. The functional relationship between charge rate and degradation is mathematically determined.
Medical issues in synchronized skating.
Abbott, Kristin; Hecht, Suzanne
2013-01-01
Synchronized skating is a unique sport of team skating and currently represents the largest competitive discipline in U.S. Figure Skating. Synchronized skating allows skaters to compete as part of a team with opportunities to represent their country in international competitions. As the popularity of the sport continues to grow, more of these athletes will present to sports medicine clinics with injuries and illnesses related to participation in synchronized skating. The purpose of this article is to review the common injuries and medical conditions affecting synchronized skaters.
2013-04-11
... winter day emissions from point sources, residential wood combustion, road dust, and motor vehicle exhaust, brake and tire wear. The emissions inventory includes an inventory of point sources of PM 10... State's submittal. Emissions estimates for road dust and motor vehicle exhaust, brake wear, and tire...
Design of double DC motor control system based on DSP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suo WANG
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of speed control, commutation and so on in the multi-motor synchronous control system, based on automatic control technology, a control system with PC as principal computer and DSP as slave computer is designed, which can change dual DC motor speed and steering, as well as select work drive motors. Related hardware and software design of the control system are given. Through serial communication between DSP and PC using PC serial port software, digital control command is sent to the slave computer for controlling dual DC motor to do a series of preset functions. PWM pulse width modulation is used for motor speed regulation, photoelectric encoder is used to measure motor speed by T method, and the motor speed is displayed by the actual waveform. Experimental results show that the system can not only realize the synchronization of dual DC motor speed and steering adjustment, but also select the motor and achieve the dual DC motors synchronization control effect. The control system has certain reliability and effectiveness.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corvin, C.
1995-06-01
A synchronous condenser is a synchronous machine that generates reactive power that leads real power by 90 degrees in phase. The leading reactive power generated by the condenser offsets or cancels the normal lagging reactive power consumed by inductive and nonlinear loads at the accelerator complex. The quality of SLAC's utility power is improved with the addition of the condenser. The inertia of the condenser's 35,000 pound rotor damps and smoothes voltage excursions on two 12 kilovolt master substation buses, improving voltage regulation site wide. The condenser absorbs high frequency transients and noise in effect ''scrubbing'' the electric system power at its primary distribution source. In addition, the condenser produces a substantial savings in power costs. Federal and investor owned utilities that supply electric power to SLAC levy a monthly penalty for lagging reactive power delivered to the site. For the 1993 fiscal year this totaled over $285,000 in added costs for the year. By generating leading reactive power on site, thereby reducing total lagging reactive power requirements, a substantial savings in electric utility bills is achieved. Actual savings of $150,000 or more a year are possible depending on experimental operations
FPGA based fast synchronous serial multi-wire links synchronization
Pozniak, Krzysztof T.
2013-10-01
The paper debates synchronization method of multi-wire, serial link of constant latency, by means of pseudo-random numbers generators. The solution was designed for various families of FPGA circuits. There were debated synchronization algorithm and functional structure of parameterized transmitter and receiver modules. The modules were realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form.
Lifecycle Analysis of Different Motors from the Standpoint of Environmental Impact
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orlova S.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Comparative analysis is performed for different motors from the standpoint of damage inflicted by them during their lifecycle. Three types of motors have been considered: the synchronous reluctance motor, the permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance motor and the induction motor. The assessment of lifecycle has been made in terms of its four stages: manufacturing, distribution, use and end of life. The results show that the production costs of synchronous reluctance motor are lower compared to that of permanent magnet assisted motors, but due to their low efficiency they exert the greatest environmental impact. The main conclusion is that the assessment made at the early designing stage for the related environmental impact enables its reduction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chang-Seok Park
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a torque error compensation algorithm for a surface mounted permanent magnet synchronous machine (SPMSM through real time permanent magnet (PM flux linkage estimation at various temperature conditions from medium to rated speed. As known, the PM flux linkage in SPMSMs varies with the thermal conditions. Since a maximum torque per ampere look up table, a control method used for copper loss minimization, is developed based on estimated PM flux linkage, variation of PM flux linkage results in undesired torque development of SPMSM drives. In this paper, PM flux linkage is estimated through a stator flux linkage observer and the torque error is compensated in real time using the estimated PM flux linkage. In this paper, the proposed torque error compensation algorithm is verified in simulation and experiment.
POWER ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR POWER ELECTRIC VEHICLES WITH ALGORITHMS OF SYNCHRONOUS MODULATION
Oleschuk V.; Ermuratskii V.
2014-01-01
Schemes of synchronous space-vector modulation have been adapted for control of split-phase drive for electric vehicle with open-end windings of induction motor, supplied by several voltage source inverters. MATLAB-based simulation of processes in this system has been executed. It has been shown, that the use of algorithms of synchronous modulation provides symmetry of phase voltage waveforms for any ratio between the switching frequency and fundamental frequency, and for any voltage magnitud...
Interaction of synchronized dynamics in cortex and basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease.
Ahn, Sungwoo; Zauber, S Elizabeth; Worth, Robert M; Witt, Thomas; Rubchinsky, Leonid L
2015-09-01
Parkinson's disease pathophysiology is marked by increased oscillatory and synchronous activity in the beta frequency band in cortical and basal ganglia circuits. This study explores the functional connections between synchronized dynamics of cortical areas and synchronized dynamics of subcortical areas in Parkinson's disease. We simultaneously recorded neuronal units (spikes) and local field potentials (LFP) from subthalamic nucleus (STN) and electroencephalograms (EEGs) from the scalp in parkinsonian patients, and analysed the correlation between the time courses of the spike-LFP synchronization and inter-electrode EEG synchronization. We found the (non-invasively obtained) time course of the synchrony strength between EEG electrodes and the (invasively obtained) time course of the synchrony between spiking units and LFP in STN to be weakly, but significantly, correlated with each other. This correlation is largest for the bilateral motor EEG synchronization, followed by bilateral frontal EEG synchronization. Our observations suggest that there may be multiple functional modes by which the cortical and basal ganglia circuits interact with each other in Parkinson's disease: not only may synchronization be observed between some areas in cortex and the basal ganglia, but also synchronization within cortex and within basal ganglia may be related, suggesting potentially a more global functional interaction. More coherent dynamics in one brain region may modulate or activate the dynamics of another brain region in a more powerful way, causing correlations between changes in synchrony strength in the two regions. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Potential mechanisms for imperfect synchronization in parkinsonian basal ganglia.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Choongseok Park
Full Text Available Neural activity in the brain of parkinsonian patients is characterized by the intermittently synchronized oscillatory dynamics. This imperfect synchronization, observed in the beta frequency band, is believed to be related to the hypokinetic motor symptoms of the disorder. Our study explores potential mechanisms behind this intermittent synchrony. We study the response of a bursting pallidal neuron to different patterns of synaptic input from subthalamic nucleus (STN neuron. We show how external globus pallidus (GPe neuron is sensitive to the phase of the input from the STN cell and can exhibit intermittent phase-locking with the input in the beta band. The temporal properties of this intermittent phase-locking show similarities to the intermittent synchronization observed in experiments. We also study the synchronization of GPe cells to synaptic input from the STN cell with dependence on the dopamine-modulated parameters. Earlier studies showed how the strengthening of dopamine-modulated coupling may lead to transitions from non-synchronized to partially synchronized dynamics, typical in Parkinson's disease. However, dopamine also affects the cellular properties of neurons. We show how the changes in firing patterns of STN neuron due to the lack of dopamine may lead to transition from a lower to a higher coherent state, roughly matching the synchrony levels observed in basal ganglia in normal and parkinsonian states. The intermittent nature of the neural beta band synchrony in Parkinson's disease is achieved in the model due to the interplay of the timing of STN input to pallidum and pallidal neuronal dynamics, resulting in sensitivity of pallidal output to the phase of the arriving STN input. Thus the mechanism considered here (the change in firing pattern of subthalamic neurons through the dopamine-induced change of membrane properties may be one of the potential mechanisms responsible for the generation of the intermittent synchronization
Cerebellar Shaping of Motor Cortical Firing Is Correlated with Timing of Motor Actions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdulraheem Nashef
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Summary: In higher mammals, motor timing is considered to be dictated by cerebellar control of motor cortical activity, relayed through the cerebellar-thalamo-cortical (CTC system. Nonetheless, the way cerebellar information is integrated with motor cortical commands and affects their temporal properties remains unclear. To address this issue, we activated the CTC system in primates and found that it efficiently recruits motor cortical cells; however, the cortical response was dominated by prolonged inhibition that imposed a directional activation across the motor cortex. During task performance, cortical cells that integrated CTC information fired synchronous bursts at movement onset. These cells expressed a stronger correlation with reaction time than non-CTC cells. Thus, the excitation-inhibition interplay triggered by the CTC system facilitates transient recruitment of a cortical subnetwork at movement onset. The CTC system may shape neural firing to produce the required profile to initiate movements and thus plays a pivotal role in timing motor actions. : Nashef et al. identified a motor cortical subnetwork recruited by cerebellar volley that was transiently synchronized at movement onset. Cerebellar control of cortical firing was dominated by inhibition that shaped task-related firing of neurons and may dictate motor timing. Keywords: motor control, primates, cerebellar-thalamo-cortical, synchrony, noise correlation, reaction time
Synchronization dynamics of two different dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Albert C.J.; Min Fuhong
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Synchronization dynamics of two distinct dynamical systems. → Synchronization, de-synchronization and instantaneous synchronization. → A controlled pendulum synchronizing with the Duffing oscillator. → Synchronization invariant set. → Synchronization parameter map. - Abstract: In this paper, synchronization dynamics of two different dynamical systems is investigated through the theory of discontinuous dynamical systems. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the synchronization, de-synchronization and instantaneous synchronization (penetration or grazing) are presented. Using such a synchronization theory, the synchronization of a controlled pendulum with the Duffing oscillator is systematically discussed as a sampled problem, and the corresponding analytical conditions for the synchronization are presented. The synchronization parameter study is carried out for a better understanding of synchronization characteristics of the controlled pendulum and the Duffing oscillator. Finally, the partial and full synchronizations of the controlled pendulum with periodic and chaotic motions are presented to illustrate the analytical conditions. The synchronization of the Duffing oscillator and pendulum are investigated in order to show the usefulness and efficiency of the methodology in this paper. The synchronization invariant domain is obtained. The technique presented in this paper should have a wide spectrum of applications in engineering. For example, this technique can be applied to the maneuvering target tracking, and the others.
PM10 source apportionment study in Pleasant Valley, Nevada
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Egami, R.T.; Chow, J.C.; Watson, J.G.; DeLong, T.
1990-01-01
A source apportionment study was conducted between March 18 and April 4, 1988, at Pleasant Valley, Nevada, to evaluate air pollutant concentrations to which community residents were exposed and the source contributions to those pollutants. Daily PM 10 samples were taken for chemical speciation of 40 trace elements, ions, and organic and elemental carbon. This paper reports that the objectives of this case study are: to determine the emissions source composition of the potential upwind source, a geothermal plant; to measure the ambient particulate concentration and its chemical characteristics in Pleasant Valley; and to estimate the contributions of different emissions sources to PM 10 . The study found that: particulate emissions from the geothermal cooling-tower plume consisted primarily of sulfate, ammonia, chloride, and trace elements; no significant quantities of toxic inorganic species were found in the ambient air; ambient PM 10 concentrations in Pleasant Valley were within Federal standards; and source contribution to PM 10 were approximately 60% geological material; 20% motor vehicle exhaust; and 10% cooling-tower plume
Business cycle synchronization in Europe
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergman, Ulf Michael; Jonung, Lars
2011-01-01
In this paper we study business cycle synchronization in the three Scandinavian countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden prior to, during and after the Scandinavian Currency Union 1873–1913. We find that the degree of synchronization tended to increase during the currency union, thus supporting earlier...
Biologically Inspired Intercellular Slot Synchronization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Tyrrell
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The present article develops a decentralized interbase station slot synchronization algorithm suitable for cellular mobile communication systems. The proposed cellular firefly synchronization (CelFSync algorithm is derived from the theory of pulse-coupled oscillators, common to describe synchronization phenomena in biological systems, such as the spontaneous synchronization of fireflies. In order to maintain synchronization among base stations (BSs, even when there is no direct link between adjacent BSs, some selected user terminals (UTs participate in the network synchronization process. Synchronization emerges by exchanging two distinct synchronization words, one transmitted by BSs and the other by active UTs, without any a priori assumption on the initial timing misalignments of BSs and UTs. In large-scale networks with inter-BS site distances up to a few kilometers, propagation delays severely affect the attainable timing accuracy of CelFSync. We show that by an appropriate combination of CelFSync with the timing advance procedure, which aligns uplink transmission of UTs to arrive simultaneously at the BS, a timing accuracy within a fraction of the inter-BS propagation delay is retained.
Introduction to media synchronization (Mediasync)
M.A. Montagud Climent (Mario); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); F. Boronat (Fernando); A.J. Jansen (Jack)
2018-01-01
textabstractMedia synchronization is a core research area in multimedia systems. This chapter introduces the area by providing key definitions, classifications, and examples. It also discusses the relevance of different types of media synchronization to ensure satisfactory Quality of Experience
Distributed Synchronization in Communication Networks
2018-01-24
synchronization. Secondly, it is known that identical oscillators with sin() coupling functions are guaranteed to synchronize in phase on a complete...provide sufficient conditions for phase- locking , i.e., convergence to a stable equilibrium almost surely. We additionally find conditions when the
[Synchronous sigmoideum- and caecum volvulus].
Berg, Anna Korsgaard; Perdawood, Sharaf Karim
2015-09-21
This case presents a synchronous sigmoid- and caecum volvulus in a 69-year old man with Parkinson's disease, hypertension and previous history of colonic volvulus. On admission the patient had abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and constipation. The CT scan showed a sigmoid volvulus with a dilated caecum. The synchronous sigmoideum- and caecum volvulus was diagnosed intraoperatively. Total colectomy and ileostomy was performed.
Digital synchronization and communication techniques
Lindsey, William C.
1992-01-01
Information on digital synchronization and communication techniques is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include phase shift keying, modems, characteristics of open loop digital synchronizers, an open loop phase and frequency estimator, and a digital receiver structure using an open loop estimator in a decision directed architecture.
Distributed Wireless Data Acquisition System with Synchronized Data Flow
Astakhova, N V; Dikoussar, N D; Eremin, G I; Gerasimov, A V; Ivanov, A I; Kryukov, Yu S; Mazny, N G; Ryabchun, O V; Salamatin, I M
2006-01-01
New methods to provide succession of computer codes under changes of the class of problems and to integrate the drivers of special-purpose devices into application are devised. The worked out scheme and methods for constructing automation systems are used to elaborate a distributed wireless system intended for registration of the characteristics of pulse processes with synchronized data flow, transmitted over a radio channel. The equipment with a sampling frequency of 20 kHz allowed us to achieve a synchronization accuracy of up to $\\pm $ 50 $\\mu$s. Modification of part of the equipment (sampling frequency) permits one to improve the accuracy up to 0.1 $\\mu$s. The obtained results can be applied to develop systems for monitoring various objects, as well as automation systems for experiments and automated process control systems.
Comparison of 48V rare-earth-free reluctance traction motor drives for mild hybrid powertrain
Bao, J.; Boynov, K.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Wijnands, C.G.E. (Korneel); Lomonova, E.
2016-01-01
This paper provides a comparative analysis of three types of electrical drives with rare-earth- free reluctance motors for next-generation 48V mild hybrid automotive applications. The drives with switched reluctance motors (SRM), variable flux reluctance motors (VFRM) and synchronous reluctance
Voltage directive drive with claw pole motor and control without rotor position indicator
Stroenisch, Volker Ewald
Design and testing of a voltage directive drive for synchronous variable speed claw pole motor and control without rotor position indicator is described. Economic analysis of the designed regulation is performed. Computations of stationary and dynamic behavior are given and experimental operational behavior is determined. The motors can be used for electric transportation vehicles, diesel motors, and electric railway engines.