WorldWideScience

Sample records for pm precursor gases

  1. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  2. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on

  3. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Charles E. Kolb

    2008-03-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants designed to understand the atmospheric chemistry and aerosol particle microphysics impacting air quality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its urban plume. The overall effort, titled MCMA- 2006, focused on: 1) the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles and 2) the measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine particular matter (PM) production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA). MCAM-2006 pursued it goals through three main activities: 1) performance and publication of detailed analyses of extensive MCMA trace gas and fine PM measurements made by the collaborating groups and others during earlier MCMA field campaigns in 2002 and 2003; 2) deployment and utilization of extensive real-time trace gas and fine PM instrumentation at urban and downwind MCMA sites in support of the MAX-Mex/MILAGRO field measurements in March, 2006; and, 3) analyses of the 2006 MCMA data sets leading to further publications that are based on new data as well as insights from analysis and publication of the 2002/2003 field data. Thirteen archival publications were coauthored with other MCMA-2003 participants. Documented findings included a significantly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles, a greatly enhanced understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds, a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources, a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distributions and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models, and evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for ozone and nitrogen

  4. Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source apportionment and possible futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kiesewetter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing emission controls, particulate matter (PM has remained a critical issue for European air quality in recent years. The various sources of PM, both from primary particulate emissions as well as secondary formation from precursor gases, make this a complex problem to tackle. In order to allow for credible predictions of future concentrations under policy assumptions, a modelling approach is needed that considers all chemical processes and spatial dimensions involved, from long-range transport of pollution to local emissions in street canyons. Here we describe a modelling scheme which has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model to assess compliance with PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter 10 across Europe. Furthermore, we analyse the predicted evolution of PM10 concentrations in the European Union until 2030 under different policy scenarios. Significant improvements in ambient PM10 concentrations are expected assuming successful implementation of already agreed legislation; however, these will not be large enough to ensure attainment of PM10 limit values in hot spot locations such as Southern Poland and major European cities. Remaining issues are largely eliminated in a scenario applying the best available emission control technologies to the maximal technically feasible extent.

  5. DETERMINACIÓN DE PRECURSORES DE DIOXINAS Y FURANOS DE LOS GASES PROCEDENTES DE UN INCINERADOR EN UN REACTOR FOTOCATALÍTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mario Giraldo

    Full Text Available Se presenta un método cromatográfico para la determinación de dioxinas y furanos a partir de uno de sus precursores, tanto en estándares de medición como en muestras reales de gases tomadas en una empresa incineradora de Itagüí, Colombia. La técnica empleada permite realizar estudios que pueden dar aproximaciones acertadas de los contenidos de dioxinas y furanos antes de realizar un muestreo certificado en equipos de alta resolución. Además, se emplea la tecnología de fotocatálisis como método para lograr la eliminación de precursores de dioxinas y furanos de los gases emitidos por un incinerador, con lo cual se disminuye la cantidad de reactivos utilizados en el proceso de depuración.

  6. Measurement of fine particulate matter water-soluble inorganic species and precursor gases in the Alberta Oil Sands Region using an improved semicontinuous monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Clair, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    developed world due to the extent of oil extraction activities. Because of this, it is important to accurately assess the effect of these operations on regional air quality. In this study, we compare a new analytical approach, AIM-IC, with more standard analytical approaches to understand how local anthropogenic and nonanthropogenic sources (e.g., forest fires) impact regional air quality. With this approach, we also better characterize PM2.5 composition and its precursor gases to understand secondary aerosol formation mechanisms and to better identify possible control techniques if needed.

  7. Stratospheric aerosols and precursor gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were made of the aerosol size, height and geographical distribution, their composition and optical properties, and their temporal variation with season and following large volcanic eruptions. Sulfur-bearing gases were measured in situ in the stratosphere, and studied of the chemical and physical processes which control gas-to-particle conversion were carried out in the laboratory.

  8. Emissão de PM2,5 e gases em sistemas domésticos de queima de biomassa

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Ana Patrícia da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Realizou-se uma série de testes para determinar a composição gasosa e a constituição química das emissões de PM2,5 resultantes da combustão doméstica em lareira e fogão. Queimaram-se 7 espécies lenhosas representativas da floresta Portuguesa (Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acácia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europea, Quercus ilex rotundifolia) e briquetes de resíduos de biomassa. A amostragem de gases foi realizada junto à exaustão da chaminé do fogão e da lareira...

  9. Chemical composition of ambient PM2. 5 over China and relationship to precursor emissions during 2005-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Guannan; Zhang, Qiang; Tong, Dan; Li, Meng; Zheng, Yixuan; Wang, Siwen; He, Kebin

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we presented the characteristics of PM2. 5 chemical composition over China for the period of 2005-2012 by synthesis of in situ measurement data collected from literatures and satellite-based estimates using aerosol optical depth (AOD) data and the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We revealed the spatiotemporal variations in PM2. 5 composition during 2005-2012 and investigated the driving forces behind the variations by examining the changes in precursor emissions using a bottom-up emission inventory. Both in situ observations and satellite-based estimates identified that secondary inorganic aerosols (i.e., sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium; SNA) ranked as the highest fraction of dust-free PM2. 5 concentrations, followed by organic matter (OM) and black carbon (BC). For instance, satellite-based estimates found that SNA, OM, and BC contributed to 59, 33, and 8 %, respectively, of national population-weighted mean dust-free PM2. 5 concentrations during 2005-2012. National population-weighted mean PM2. 5 concentration increased from 63.9 µg m-3 in 2005 to 75.2 µg m-3 in 2007 and subsequently decreased to 66.9 µg m-3 from 2007 to 2012. Variations in PM2. 5 concentrations are mainly driven by the decrease in sulfate and the increase in nitrate. Population-weighted mean sulfate concentration decreased by 2.4 % yr-1 during 2005-2012 (from 14.4 to 12.9 µg m-3), while population-weighted mean nitrate concentration increased by 3.4 % yr-1 during 2005-2012 (from 9.8 to 12.2 µg m-3), largely offsetting the decrease in sulfate concentrations. By examining the emission data from the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC), we found that the changes in sulfate and nitrate concentrations were in line with the decrease in SO2 emissions and the increase in NOx emissions during the same period. The desulfurization regulation in power plants enforced around 2005 has been the primary contributor to the SO2 emission reduction since 2006. In contrast

  10. Analysis of electron interactions in dielectric gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivet, Aurelio; Duque, Daniel; Vega, Lourdes F.

    2007-01-01

    We present and discuss results concerning electron interactions processes of dielectric gases and their relationship with the macroscopic behavior of these gases, in particular, with their dielectric strength. Such analysis is based on calculating energies of reactions for molecular ionization, dissociative ionization, parent negative ion formation, and dissociative electron attachment processes. We hypothesize that the estimation of the required energy for a reduced number of processes that take place in electrically stressed gases could be related to the gas' capability to manage the electron flow during an electrical discharge. All calculations were done with semiempirical quantum chemistry methods, including an initial optimization of molecular geometry and heat of formation of the dielectric gases and all of species that appear during electron interaction reactions. The performance of semiempirical methods Austin model 1 and Parametric model 3 (PM3) was compared for several compounds, PM3 being superior in most cases. Calculations performed for a sample of nine dielectric gases show that electron attachment and detachment processes occur in different energy bands that do not overlap for any value of the dielectric strength. We have also analyzed the relationship between dielectric strength and two physical properties: electron affinity and ionization energy. Calculations performed for 43 dielectric gases show no clear correlation between them, although certain guidelines for the qualitative estimation of dielectric strength can still be assessed

  11. Application of Positive Matrix Factorization in the Identification of the Sources of PM2.5 in Taipei City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yuan Ho

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 has a small particle size, which allows it to directly enter the respiratory mucosa and reach the alveoli and even the blood. Many countries are already aware of the adverse effects of PM2.5, and determination of the sources of PM2.5 is a critical step in reducing its concentration to protect public health. This study monitored PM2.5 in the summer (during the southwest monsoon season of 2017. Three online monitoring systems were used to continuously collect hourly concentrations of key chemical components of PM2.5, including anions, cations, carbon, heavy metals, and precursor gases, for 24 h per day. The sum of the concentrations of each compound obtained from the online monitoring systems is similar to the actual PM2.5 concentration (98.75%. This result suggests that the on-line monitoring system of this study covers relatively complete chemical compounds. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was adopted to explore and examine the proportion of each source that contributed to the total PM2.5 concentration. According to the source contribution analysis, 55% of PM2.5 can be attributed to local pollutant sources, and the remaining 45% can be attributed to pollutants emitted outside Taipei City. During the high-PM2.5-concentration (episode period, the pollutant conversion rates were higher than usual due to the occurrence of vigorous photochemical reactions. Moreover, once pollutants are emitted by external stationary pollutant sources, they move with pollution air masses and undergo photochemical reactions, resulting in increases in the secondary pollutant concentrations of PM2.5. The vertical monitoring data indicate that there is a significant increase in PM2.5 concentration at high altitudes. High-altitude PM2.5 will descend to the ground and thereby affect the ground-level PM2.5 concentration.

  12. Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source apportionment and possible futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, G.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Schöpp, W.; Heyes, C.; Thunis, P.; Bessagnet, B.; Terrenoire, E.; Fagerli, H.; Nyiri, A.; Amann, M.

    2015-02-01

    Despite increasing emission controls, particulate matter (PM) has remained a critical issue for European air quality in recent years. The various sources of PM, both from primary particulate emissions as well as secondary formation from precursor gases, make this a complex problem to tackle. In order to allow for credible predictions of future concentrations under policy assumptions, a modelling approach is needed that considers all chemical processes and spatial dimensions involved, from long-range transport of pollution to local emissions in street canyons. Here we describe a modelling scheme which has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model to assess compliance with PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter dispersion calculations, and a traffic increment calculation wherever applicable. At each monitoring station fulfilling a few data coverage criteria, measured concentrations in the base year 2009 are explained to the extent possible and then modelled for the past and future. More than 1850 monitoring stations are covered, including more than 300 traffic stations and 80% of the stations which exceeded the EU air quality limit values in 2009. As a validation, we compare modelled trends in the period 2000-2008 to observations, which are well reproduced. The modelling scheme is applied here to quantify explicitly source contributions to ambient concentrations at several critical monitoring stations, displaying the differences in spatial origin and chemical composition of urban roadside PM10 across Europe. Furthermore, we analyse the predicted evolution of PM10 concentrations in the European Union until 2030 under different policy scenarios. Significant improvements in ambient PM10 concentrations are expected assuming successful implementation of already agreed legislation; however, these will not be large enough to ensure attainment of PM10 limit values in hot spot locations such as Southern Poland and major European cities. Remaining issues are

  13. [Characterization of water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 and PM1.0 in summer in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Zhang, Ren-jian; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Li-hua; Han, Jing-lei; Xu, Zhen-cheng

    2010-07-01

    PM2.5 and PM1.0 samples were collected simultaneously during July of 2008 in Guangzhou. The concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, F-, Cl-, NO3-, and SO4(2-)) were determined by ion chromatography. Meteorological parameters, atmospheric scattering, visibility, and concentrations of trace gases (SO2, NO2, and O3) for this period were also recorded. The results showed the total water-soluble inorganic ions concentrations were (25.5 +/- 10.9) microg x m(-1) and (22. 7 +/- 10.5) microg x m(-3) in PM2.5 and PM1.0, which occupied (47.9 +/- 4.3)% and (49.3 +/- 4.3)% of PM mass respectively. Sulfate was the most abundant ion and contributed (25.8 +/- 4.0)% of PM2.5 mass and (27.5 +/- 4.5)% of PM1.0 mass respectively. High temperature and high ozone level favored the formation of sulfate from sulfur dioxide, while the high relative humidity favored the formation of nitrate were observed. Moreover, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium in PM2.5 and PM1.0 had great impact on the scattering coefficient and visibility degradation.

  14. 78 FR 65590 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Indiana PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Indiana's state implementation plan as requested by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management....5 ) by establishing definitions related to PM 2.5 , defining PM 2.5 increment levels, and setting PM... changes define ``direct PM 2.5 ,'' addresses precursors to ozone and PM 2.5 , and revises existing...

  15. Chemical characteristics and influence of continental outflow on PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 measured at Tuoji island in the Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junmei; Yang, Lingxiao; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Wen, Liang; Yang, Yumeng; Gao, Ying; Jiang, Pan; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-12-15

    To investigate the chemical characteristics and sources of size-segregated particles in the background region, PM 1.0 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 samples were collected in Tuoji Island (TI) during the winter of 2014. Water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) including Na + , NH 4 + , K + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cl - , NO 3 - and SO 4 2- , organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were analysed. The average mass concentrations of PM 1.0 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 were 44.5μg/m 3 , 62.0μg/m 3 and 94.4μg/m 3 , respectively, and particles were importantly enriched in PM 1.0 . Secondary WSIIs (NH 4 + , NO 3 - and SO 4 2- ) were the most abundant species, and their contribution was highest in PM 1.0 . The average values of NOR and SOR were more than 0.1 in PM 1.0 , suggesting that secondary formation of SO 4 2- and NO 3 - from the gas precursors SO 2 and NO 2 occurred in PM 1.0 . Secondary organic carbon accounted for 62.3% in PM 1.0 , 61.9% in PM 1.0-2.5 and 48.9% in PM 2.5-10 of OC, formed mainly in the fine mode. The particles concentrations were mainly affected by air mass from the North China Plain, especially the air mass from the southwest of Shandong province, which had low speed and altitude. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1.0—Emissions from industrial plants—Results from measurement programmes in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, C.; Noll, G.; Kalkoff, W.-D.; Baumbach, G.; Dreiseidler, A.

    Emission measurement programmes were carried out at industrial plants in several regions of Germany to determine the fine dust in the waste gases; the PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 fractions were sampled using a cascade impactor technique. The installations tested included plants used for: combustion (brown coal, heavy fuel oil, wood), cement production, glass production, asphalt mixing, and processing plants for natural stones and sand, ceramics, metallurgy, chemical production, spray painting, wood processing/chip drying, poultry farming and waste treatment. In addition waste gas samples were taken from small-scale combustion units, like domestic stoves, firing lignite briquettes or wood. In total 303 individual measurement results were obtained during 106 different measurement campaigns. In the study it was found that in more than 70% of the individual emission measurement results from industrial plants and domestic stoves the PM 10 portion amounted to more than 90% and the PM 2.5 portion between 50% and 90% of the total PM (particulate matter) emission. For thermal industrial processes the PM 1.0 portion constituted between 20% and 60% of the total PM emission. Typical particle size distributions for different processes were presented as cumulative frequency distributions and as frequency distributions. The particle size distributions determined for the different plant types show interesting similarities and differences depending on whether the processes are thermal, mechanical, chemical or mixed. Consequently, for the groups of plant investigated, a major finding of this study has been that the particle size distribution is a characteristic of the industrial process. Attempts to correlate particle size distributions of different plants to different gas cleaning technologies did not lead to usable results.

  17. Development of a personal multi-pollutant exposure sampler for particulate matter and criteria gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, I.T.; Sarnat, J.; Wolfson, J.M.; Rojas-Bracho, L.; Suh, H.H.; Koutrakis, P. [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States). School of Public Health

    1999-12-01

    A novel personal sampler is reported which allows simultaneous measurement of PM{sub 2,5}, and PM{sub 10}, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. This method combines previously used samplers for personal mass measurement with passive samplers for criteria gases and uses a single pump. Preliminarily results are reported for laboratory chamber tests and field comparisons with reference methods for both mass and criteria gases. These results demonstrate the suitability of this sampler of exposure assessment studies. (authors)

  18. The role of precursor gases and meteorology on temporal evolution of O₃ at a tropical location in northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar; Bharali, Chandrakala; Pathak, Binita; Kalita, Gayatry

    2014-05-01

    South Asia, particularly the Indo-Gangetic Plains and foothills of the Himalayas, has been found to be a major source of pollutant gases and particles affecting the regional as well as the global climate. Inventories of greenhouse gases for the South Asian region, particularly the sub-Himalayan region, have been inadequate. Hence, measurements of the gases are important from effective characterization of the gases and their climate effects. The diurnal, seasonal, and annual variation of surface level O3 measured for the first time in northeast India at Dibrugarh (27.4° N, 94.9° E, 111 m amsl), a sub-Himalayan location in the Brahmaputra basin, from November 2009 to May 2013 is presented. The effect of the precursor gases NO x and CO measured simultaneously during January 2012-May 2013 and the prevailing meteorology on the growth and decay of O3 has been studied. The O3 concentration starts to increase gradually after sunrise attaining a peak level around 1500 hours LT and then decreases from evening till sunrise next day. The highest and lowest monthly maximum concentration of O3 is observed in March (42.9 ± 10.3 ppb) and July (17.3 ± 7.0 ppb), respectively. The peak in O3 concentration is preceded by the peaks in NO x and CO concentrations which maximize during the period November to March with peak values of 25.2 ± 21.0 ppb and 1.0 ± 0.4 ppm, respectively, in January. Significant nonlinear correlation is observed between O3 and NO, NO2, and CO. National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory back-trajectory and concentration weighted trajectory analysis carried out to delineate the possible airmass trajectory and to identify the potential source region of NO x and O3 concentrations show that in post-monsoon and winter, majority of the trajectories are confined locally while in pre-monsoon and monsoon, these are originated at the Indo-Gangetic plains, Bangladesh, and Bay of Bengal.

  19. Field characterization of the PM2.5 Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor: insights into the composition, sources, and processes of fine particles in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunjiang; Tang, Lili; Croteau, Philip L.; Favez, Olivier; Sun, Yele; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Wang, Zhuang; Couvidat, Florian; Albinet, Alexandre; Zhang, Hongliang; Sciare, Jean; Prévôt, André S. H.; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2017-12-01

    A PM2.5-capable aerosol chemical speciation monitor (Q-ACSM) was deployed in urban Nanjing, China, for the first time to measure in situ non-refractory fine particle (NR-PM2.5) composition from 20 October to 19 November 2015, along with parallel measurements of submicron aerosol (PM1) species by a standard Q-ACSM. Our results show that the NR-PM2.5 species (organics, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) measured by the PM2.5-Q-ACSM are highly correlated (r2 > 0.9) with those measured by a Sunset Lab OC  /  EC analyzer and a Monitor for AeRosols and GAses (MARGA). The comparisons between the two Q-ACSMs illustrated similar temporal variations in all NR species between PM1 and PM2.5, yet substantial mass fractions of aerosol species were observed in the size range of 1-2.5 µm. On average, NR-PM1-2.5 contributed 53 % of the total NR-PM2.5, with sulfate and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) being the two largest contributors (26 and 27 %, respectively). Positive matrix factorization of organic aerosol showed similar temporal variations in both primary and secondary OAs between PM1 and PM2.5, although the mass spectra were slightly different due to more thermal decomposition on the capture vaporizer of the PM2.5-Q-ACSM. We observed an enhancement of SOA under high relative humidity conditions, which is associated with simultaneous increases in aerosol pH, gas-phase species (NO2, SO2, and NH3) concentrations and aerosol water content driven by secondary inorganic aerosols. These results likely indicate an enhanced reactive uptake of SOA precursors upon aqueous particles. Therefore, reducing anthropogenic NOx, SO2, and NH3 emissions might not only reduce secondary inorganic aerosols but also the SOA burden during haze episodes in China.

  20. Relationships of relative humidity with PM2.5 and PM10 in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Cairong; Liu, Hongyu; Li, Yufeng; Peng, Yan; Wang, Juan; Dai, Lingjun

    2017-10-23

    Severe particulate matter (PM, including PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) pollution frequently impacts many cities in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in China, which has aroused growing concern. In this study, we examined the associations between relative humidity (RH) and PM pollution using the equal step-size statistical method. Our results revealed that RH had an inverted U-shaped relationship with PM 2.5 concentrations (peaking at RH = 45-70%), and an inverted V-shaped relationship (peaking at RH = 40 ± 5%) with PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 . The trends of polluted-day number significantly changed at RH = 70%. The very-dry (RH humidity (RH = 60-70%) conditions positively affected PM 2.5 and exerted an accumulation effect, while the mid-humidity (RH = 70-80%), high-humidity (RH = 80-90%), and extreme-humidity (RH = 90-100%) conditions played a significant role in reducing particle concentrations. For PM 10 , the accumulation and reduction effects of RH were split at RH = 45%. Moreover, an upward slope in the PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratio indicated that the accumulation effects from increasing RH were more intense on PM 2.5 than on PM 10 , while the opposite was noticed for the reduction effects. Secondary transformations from SO 2 and NO 2 to sulfate and nitrate were mainly responsible for PM 2.5 pollution, and thus, controlling these precursors is effective in mitigating the PM pollution in the YRD, especially during winter. The conclusions in this study will be helpful for regional air-quality management.

  1. Improved mapping of tropospheric air quality gases based on the Copernicus Sentinel 5 Precursor/TROPOMI mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roozendael, Michel; De Smedt, Isabelle; Theys, Nicolas; Danckaert, Thomas; Yu, Huan; Lerot, Christophe; van Gent, Jeroen; Vlietinck, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    Scheduled for launch in summer 2017, the Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) mission having onboard the TROPOMI payload will fly on a sun-synchronous polar orbit and provide daily global early-afternoon observations of a number of key atmospheric trace gases at the unprecedented spatial resolution of 7x3.5 km2. By the early 2020's, S5P will be complemented by geostationary observations from the Sentinel 4 UVN instrument to be delivered at hourly resolution over Europe, and by mid-morning global observations from the low-earth orbiting Sentinel 5 mission. Altogether these missions will form a constellation serving the needs of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Services (CAMS). Owing to their unprecedented spatial resolution and spectral performance, TROPOMI/S5P and the subsequent Sentinel 4 and 5 missions will significantly push forward monitoring capabilities addressing anthropogenic and natural emissions of air quality-related trace gases. They will also extend the long-term datasets from past and existing UV-Vis sensors (GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, GOME-2, OMPS). In this presentation, we explore the potential of S5P to improve on several aspects of the monitoring of tropospheric pollutants, with a focus on the short-lived species NO2, SO2 and HCHO. Based on algorithms designed at BIRA as part of TROPOMI/S5P and S4/S5 level-2 development projects, and their application to the current OMI and GOME-2 sensors, we illustrate and discuss the expected ability of the new sensors to detect smaller scale point sources with better accuracy and selectivity. The retrieval challenges associated with higher resolution measurements are also addressed.

  2. Field characterization of the PM2.5 Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor: insights into the composition, sources, and processes of fine particles in eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A PM2.5-capable aerosol chemical speciation monitor (Q-ACSM was deployed in urban Nanjing, China, for the first time to measure in situ non-refractory fine particle (NR-PM2.5 composition from 20 October to 19 November 2015, along with parallel measurements of submicron aerosol (PM1 species by a standard Q-ACSM. Our results show that the NR-PM2.5 species (organics, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium measured by the PM2.5-Q-ACSM are highly correlated (r2 > 0.9 with those measured by a Sunset Lab OC  /  EC analyzer and a Monitor for AeRosols and GAses (MARGA. The comparisons between the two Q-ACSMs illustrated similar temporal variations in all NR species between PM1 and PM2.5, yet substantial mass fractions of aerosol species were observed in the size range of 1–2.5 µm. On average, NR-PM1−2.5 contributed 53 % of the total NR-PM2.5, with sulfate and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs being the two largest contributors (26 and 27 %, respectively. Positive matrix factorization of organic aerosol showed similar temporal variations in both primary and secondary OAs between PM1 and PM2.5, although the mass spectra were slightly different due to more thermal decomposition on the capture vaporizer of the PM2.5-Q-ACSM. We observed an enhancement of SOA under high relative humidity conditions, which is associated with simultaneous increases in aerosol pH, gas-phase species (NO2, SO2, and NH3 concentrations and aerosol water content driven by secondary inorganic aerosols. These results likely indicate an enhanced reactive uptake of SOA precursors upon aqueous particles. Therefore, reducing anthropogenic NOx, SO2, and NH3 emissions might not only reduce secondary inorganic aerosols but also the SOA burden during haze episodes in China.

  3. Inverse modeling and mapping US air quality influences of inorganic PM2.5 precursor emissions using the adjoint of GEOS-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, D. K.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Shindell, D. T.

    2009-08-01

    Influences of specific sources of inorganic PM2.5 on peak and ambient aerosol concentrations in the US are evaluated using a combination of inverse modeling and sensitivity analysis. First, sulfate and nitrate aerosol measurements from the IMPROVE network are assimilated using the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) method into the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model in order to constrain emissions estimates in four separate month-long inversions (one per season). Of the precursor emissions, these observations primarily constrain ammonia (NH3). While the net result is a decrease in estimated US~NH3 emissions relative to the original inventory, there is considerable variability in adjustments made to NH3 emissions in different locations, seasons and source sectors, such as focused decreases in the midwest during July, broad decreases throughout the US~in January, increases in eastern coastal areas in April, and an effective redistribution of emissions from natural to anthropogenic sources. Implementing these constrained emissions, the adjoint model is applied to quantify the influences of emissions on representative PM2.5 air quality metrics within the US. The resulting sensitivity maps display a wide range of spatial, sectoral and seasonal variability in the susceptibility of the air quality metrics to absolute emissions changes and the effectiveness of incremental emissions controls of specific source sectors. NH3 emissions near sources of sulfur oxides (SOx) are estimated to most influence peak inorganic PM2.5 levels in the East; thus, the most effective controls of NH3 emissions are often disjoint from locations of peak NH3 emissions. Controls of emissions from industrial sectors of SOx and NOx are estimated to be more effective than surface emissions, and changes to NH3 emissions in regions dominated by natural sources are disproportionately more effective than regions dominated by anthropogenic sources. NOx controls are most effective in northern states in

  4. 76 FR 41561 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; California; 2007 South Coast PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... formed in the atmosphere as a result of various chemical reactions from precursor emissions of nitrogen... the emissions inventories; air quality modeling; reasonably available control measures/reasonably... Quality Modeling in the South Coast 2007 AQMP 3. PM 2.5 Precursors Addressed in the South Coast 2007 AQMP...

  5. Acidic gases, ammonia and water-soluble ions in PM 2.5 at a coastal site in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Wu, Zhijun; Slanina, J.; Lin, Peng; Liu, Shang; Zeng, Limin

    Real-time measurements of acidic trace gases (HCl, HNO 3, HONO, and SO 2), ammonia, and water-soluble ions in PM 2.5 were conducted at Xinken, a coastal site downwind of Guangzhou, from 4 October to 4 November 2004, as part of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) intensive field campaign. The average concentrations of HCl, HONO, HNO 3, SO 2, and NH 3 are 2.8, 2.9, 6.3, 55.4, and 7.3 μg m -3, respectively, and 2.4, 7.2, 24.1, and 9.2 μg m -3 for Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, and NH 4+ in PM 2.5. The diurnal variations of both HCl and HNO 3 showed higher concentrations during daytime and lower concentrations at night, and aerosol Cl - and NO 3- showed an opposite diurnal patterns to HCl and HNO 3. The diurnal variation of NH 3 showed the similar pattern to that of aerosol NH 4+ with lower concentration during daytime and higher concentration at night. The average concentration of SO 2 during daytime was higher than that at night. The transportation of urban plumes to the sampling site could explain the higher concentration of SO 2 during daytime. HONO showed a clear diurnal variation with lower concentration during daytime and higher concentration at night. The HONO concentrations were positively correlated with the particle surface area concentrations, suggesting the formation of HONO through the heterogeneous conversion on particle surfaces could be significant. The ionic charge balance analysis included the cations derived from filter measurements indicates that the contribution of the cations in fine particle (PM 1.8) to the charge balance is not pronounced. The theoretical equilibrium constant ( Ke) of NH 4NO 3 is higher than the observed concentration product ( Km=[NH 3]×[HNO 3]) during daytime, and lower than Km at night. This indicates that the atmospheric conditions during the sampling period did not favor the formation of NH 4NO 3 during daytime.

  6. Cloud Processing of Gases and Aerosols in Air Quality Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiming Zhang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The representations of cloud processing of gases and aerosols in some of the current state-of-the-art regional air quality models in North America and Europe are reviewed. Key processes reviewed include aerosol activation (or nucleation scavenging of aerosols, aqueous-phase chemistry, and wet deposition/removal of atmospheric tracers. It was found that models vary considerably in the parameterizations or algorithms used in representing these processes. As an emerging area of research, the current understanding of the uptake of water soluble organics by cloud droplets and the potential aqueous-phase reaction pathways leading to the atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation is also reviewed. Sensitivity tests using the AURAMS model have been conducted in order to assess the impact on modeled regional particulate matter (PM from: (1 the different aerosol activation schemes, (2 the different below-cloud particle scavenging algorithms, and (3 the inclusion of cloud processing of water soluble organics as a potential pathway for the formation of atmospheric SOA. It was found that the modeled droplet number concentrations and ambient PM size distributions were strongly affected by the use of different aerosol activation schemes. The impact on the modeled average ambient PM mass concentration was found to be limited in terms of averaged PM2.5 concentration (~a few percents but more significant in terms of PM1.0 (up to 10 percents. The modeled ambient PM was found to be moderately sensitive to the below-cloud particle scavenging algorithms, with relative differences up to 10% and 20% in terms of PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, when using the two different algorithms for the scavenging coefficient (Λ corresponding to the lower and upper bounds in the parameterization for Λ. The model simulation with the additional cloud uptake and processing of water-soluble organic gases was shown to improve the evaluation statistics for modeled PM2.5 OA

  7. LHCb: Evidence of CP violation in charmless three-body decays $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm K^+K^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^+ K^-\\pi^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm\\rightarrow \\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$

    CERN Multimedia

    Lopes, J H

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of CP violation in charmless three-body decays $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm K^+K^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^+ K^-\\pi^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm\\rightarrow \\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$

  8. Variability in ozone and its precursor gases over the Bay of Bengal during post-monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Chinmay; Lal, Shyam; Venkataramani, Sethuram; Naja, Manish; Ojha, Narendra

    2013-04-01

    O3 and precursor gases were measured during a ship campaign over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) during 28 October -17 November, 2010. The measurements revealed the large spatial heterogeneity in trace gas levels over the BoB during post-monsoon months. The heterogeneity was attributed to unique transport patterns over north and south BoB during this period. Four distinct types of air-masses influenced by heavy pollution from nearby source regions (49% time over North-West Myanmar, East Bangladesh and North-East India), mixed type (25% time over Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam and 75% time over East BoB), affected by long-range transport of pollutants (59% time over continental South Myanmar, Vietnam and Hong-Kong region of China) and pristine marine (99% time over oceanic regions) were identified. Among these, the continental air masses were fresher compared to marine air masses. High O3 and CO levels were observed in air masses coming from South-East Asia. O3, C4H10 and alkenes were highest in air masses arriving from eastern IGP, Bangladesh, Myanmar via the North BoB. The C2H2 to CO slope of 0.004 and C3H8 to CO slope of 0.003 indicated predominance of biofuel/biomass burning in air masses from South-East Asia. The i-C4H10 to n- C4H10 value of 0.62 indicated contributions of urban/industrial sources in air masses arriving from Bangladesh, India and North-West Myanmar. 'Potential Source Contribution Function' analysis indicated fire impacted South of Myanmar and Thailand regions as potential contributors to high CO levels above 260 ppbv measured on 14 November. Observed enhancements in surface CO during 2-3 November were attributed to the faster transport of continental pollutants associated with cyclonic winds. The O3 e-fold time of 2.3 days indicated the higher rate of O3 destruction over the BoB due to higher precursor levels. Principle component analysis indicated that transport from continental source regions played a major role in determining the chemical composition

  9. Comparative evaluation of the impact of WRF/NMM and WRF/ARW meteorology on CMAQ simulations for PM2.5 and its related precursors during the 2006 TexAQS/GoMACCS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Rao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a comparative evaluation of the impact of WRF-NMM and WRF-ARW meteorology on CMAQ simulations of PM2.5, its composition and related precursors over the eastern United States with the intensive observations obtained by aircraft (NOAA WP-3, ship and surface monitoring networks (AIRNow, IMPROVE, CASTNet and STN during the 2006 TexAQS/GoMACCS study. The results at the AIRNow surface sites show that both ARW-CMAQ and NMM-CMAQ reproduced day-to-day variations of observed PM2.5 and captured the majority of observed PM2.5 within a factor of 2 with a NMB value of −0.4% for ARW-CMAQ and −18% for NMM-CMAQ. Both models performed much better at the urban sites than at the rural sites, with greater underpredictions at the rural sites. Both models consistently underestimated the observed PM2.5 at the rural IMPROVE sites by −1% for the ARW-CMAQ and −19% for the NMM-CMAQ. The greater underestimations of SO42−, OC and EC by the NMM-CMAQ contributed to increased underestimation of PM2.5 at the IMPROVE sites. The NMB values for PM2.5 at the STN urban sites are 15% and −16% for the ARW-CMAQ and NMM-CMAQ, respectively. The underestimation of PM2.5 at the STN sites by the NMM-CMAQ mainly results from the underestimations of the SO42−, NH4+ and TCM components, whereas the overestimation of PM2.5 at the STN sites by the ARW-CMAQ results from the overestimations of SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+. The Comparison with WP-3 aircraft measurements reveals that both ARW-CMAQ and NMM-CMAQ have very similar model performance for vertical profiles for PM2.5 chemical components (SO42−, NH4+ and related gaseous species (HNO3, SO2, NH3, isoprene, toluene, terpenes as both models used the same chemical mechanisms and emissions. The results of ship along the coast of southeastern Texas over the Gulf of Mexico show that both models captured the temporal variations and broad synoptic change seen in the observed HCHO and acetaldehyde with the means NMB 2.

  10. Manganite perovskite ceramics, their precursors and methods for forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, David Alan; Clothier, Brent Allen

    2015-03-10

    Disclosed are a variety of ceramics having the formula Ln.sub.1-xM.sub.xMnO.sub.3, where 0.Itoreq.x.Itoreq.1 and where Ln is La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu or Y; M is Ca, Sr, Ba, Cd, or Pb; manganite precursors for preparing the ceramics; a method for preparing the precursors; and a method for transforming the precursors into uniform, defect-free ceramics having magnetoresistance properties. The manganite precursors contain a sol and are derived from the metal alkoxides: Ln(OR).sub.3, M(OR).sub.2 and Mn(OR).sub.2, where R is C.sub.2 to C.sub.6 alkyl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.9 alkoxyalkyl, or C.sub.6 to C.sub.9 aryl. The preferred ceramics are films prepared by a spin coating method and are particularly suited for incorporation into a device such as an integrated circuit device.

  11. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 1: Simple VOCs and model PM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    This is the first of a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOC), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model indicators. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. The exposure systems permit virtually gas-only- or PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure. Our simple experiments in this part of the study were designed to eliminate many competing atmospheric processes to reduce ambiguity in our results. Simple volatile and semi-volatile organic gases that have inherent cellular toxic properties were tested individually for biological effect in the dark (at constant humidity). Airborne mixtures were then created with each compound to which we added PM that has no inherent cellular toxic properties for another cellular exposure. Acrolein and p-tolualdehyde were used as model VOCs and mineral oil aerosol (MOA) was selected as a surrogate for organic-containing PM. MOA is appropriately complex in composition to represent ambient PM, and exhibits no inherent cellular toxic effects and thus did not contribute any biological detrimental effects on its own. Chemical measurements, combined with the responses of our biological exposures, clearly demonstrate that gas-phase pollutants can modify the composition of PM (and its resulting detrimental effects on lung cells). We observed that, even if the gas-phase pollutants are not

  12. PM2.5 and tropospheric ozone in China: overview of situation and responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua

    This work reviewed the observational status of PM2.5 and tropospheric ozone in China. It told us the observational facts on the ratios of typical types of aerosol components to the total PM2.5/PM10, and daily and seasonal change of near surface ozone concentration at different cities of China; the global concentration distribution of tropospheric ozone observed by satellite in 2010-2013 was also given for comparison; the PM2.5 concentration distribution and their seasonal change in China region were simulated by an aerosol chemistry-global climate modeling system. Different contribution from five kinds of aerosols to the simulated PM2.5 was analyzed. Then, it linked the emissions of aerosol and greenhouse gases and their radiative forcing and thus gave their climatic effect by reducing their emissions on the basis of most recently published IPCC AR5. Finally it suggested policies on reducing emissions of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) (such as PM2.5 and tropospheric ozone) in China from protecting both climate and environment.

  13. Measurement of Selected Organic Trace Gases During TRACE-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Elliot

    2004-01-01

    Major goals of the TRACE-P mission were: 1) to investigate the chemical composition of radiatively important gases, aerosols, and their precursors in the Asian outflow over the western Pacific, and 2) to describe and understand the chemical evolution of the Asian outflow as it is transported and mixed into the global troposphere. The research performed as part of this proposal addressed these major goals with a study of the organic chemical composition of gases in the TRACE-P region. This work was a close collaboration with the Blake/Rowland research group at UC-Irvine, and they have provided a separate report for their funded effort.

  14. Observation of the suppressed ADS modes $B^\\pm \\to [\\pi^\\pm K^\\mp \\pi^+\\pi^-]_D K^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm \\to [\\pi^\\pm K^\\mp \\pi^+\\pi^-]_D \\pi^\\pm$

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258707; Abellan Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Oyanguren Campos, M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lohn, S; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Mcnab, A; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of $B^{\\pm}\\to DK^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm}\\to D\\pi^{\\pm}$ decays is presented where the $D$ meson is reconstructed in the four-body final state $K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp} \\pi^+ \\pi^-$. Using LHCb data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $1.0{\\rm \\,fb}^{-1}$, first observations are made of the suppressed ADS modes $B^{\\pm}\\to [\\pi^{\\pm} K^{\\mp}\\pi^+\\pi^-]_D K^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm}\\to [\\pi^{\\pm} K^{\\mp} \\pi^+\\pi^- ]_D\\pi^{\\pm}$ with a significance of $5.1\\sigma$ and greater than $10\\sigma$, respectively. Measurements of $CP$ asymmetries and $CP$-conserving ratios of partial widths from this family of decays are also performed. The magnitude of the ratio between the suppressed and favoured $B^{\\pm}\\to DK^{\\pm}$ amplitudes is determined to be $r^K_B = 0.097 \\pm{0.011}$.

  15. Impact of Oxidant Gases on the Relationship between Outdoor Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Nonaccidental, Cardiovascular, and Respiratory Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Scott; Pinault, Lauren L; Burnett, Richard T

    2017-11-27

    Outdoor fine particulate air pollution (PM 2.5 ) is known to increase mortality risk and is recognized as an important contributor to global disease burden. However, less is known about how oxidant gases may modify the chronic health effects of PM 2.5 . In this study, we examined how the oxidant capacity of O 3 and NO 2 (using a redox-weighted average, O x ) may modify the relationship between PM 2.5 and mortality in the 2001 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort. In total, 2,448,500 people were followed over a 10.6-year period. Each 3.86 µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 was associated with nonaccidental (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.095, 95% CI: 1.077, 1.112), cardiovascular (HR = 1.088, 95% CI: 1.059, 1.118), and respiratory mortality (HR = 1.110, 95% CI: 1.051, 1.171) in the highest tertile of O x whereas weaker/null associations were observed in the middle and lower tertiles. Analysis of joint non-linear concentration-response relationships for PM 2.5 and O x suggested threshold concentrations between approximately 23 and 25 ppb with O x concentrations above these values strengthening PM 2.5 -mortality associations. Overall, our findings suggest that oxidant gases enhance the chronic health risks of PM 2.5 . In some areas, reductions in O x concentrations may have the added benefit of reducing the public health impacts of PM 2.5 even if mass concentrations remain unchanged.

  16. Will PM control undermine China's efforts to reduce soil acidification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yu; Duan Lei; Lei Yu; Xing Jia; Nielsen, Chris P.; Hao Jiming

    2011-01-01

    China's strategies to control acidifying pollutants and particulate matter (PM) may be in conflict for soil acidification abatement. Acidifying pollutant emissions are estimated for 2005 and 2020 with anticipated control policies. PM emissions including base cations (BCs) are evaluated with two scenarios, a base case applying existing policy to 2020, and a control case including anticipated tightened measures. Depositions of sulfur (S), nitrogen (N) and BCs are simulated and their acidification risks are evaluated with critical load (CL). In 2005, the area exceeding CL covered 15.6% of mainland China, with total exceedance of 2.2 Mt S. These values decrease in the base scenario 2020, implying partial recovery from acidification. Under more realistic PM control, the respective estimates are 17.9% and 2.4 Mt S, indicating increased acidification risks due to abatement of acid-neutralizing BCs. China's anthropogenic PM abatement will have potentially stronger chemical implications for acidification than developed countries. - Highlights: → We model the emission and deposition of base cations and acid precursors in China. → Soil acidification in China is analyzed with exceedance of critical load. → China's PM control increases the acidification risk even with reduced SO 2 emission. → The impact of PM for acidification is stronger than that in developed countries. - The control of anthropogenic PM emission in China will increase the risk of soil acidification even with reduced SO 2 emission. Such implication is stronger than that in developed countries.

  17. Indoor PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations in primary schools in Sari, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadyan, Mahmoud; Shabankhani, Bijan

    2013-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the distribution of particles in classrooms in primary schools located in the centre of the city of Sari, Iran and identify the relationship between indoor classroom particle levels and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations. Outdoor PM2.5 and indoor PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were monitored using a real-time Micro Dust Pro monitor and a GRIMM monitor, respectively. Both monitors were calibrated by gravimetric method using filters. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that all indoor and outdoor data fitted normal distribution. Mean indoor PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations for all of the classrooms were 17.6 μg m(-3), 46.6 μg m(-3), 400.9 μg m(-3), and 36.9 μg m(-3), respectively. The highest levels of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured at the Shahed Boys School (69.1 μg m(-3) and 115.8 μg m(-3), respectively). The Kazemi school had the lowest levels of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 (29.1 μg m(-3) and 15.5 μg m(-3), respectively). In schools located near both main and small roads, the association between indoor fine particle (PM2.5 and PM1) and outdoor PM2.5 levels was stronger than that between indoor PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 levels. Mean indoor PM2.5 and PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 were higher than the standards for PM2.5 and PM10, and there was a good correlation between indoor and outdoor fine particle concentrations.

  18. Identification of an indigo precursor from leaves of Isatis tinctoria (Woad).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugard, T; Enaud, E; Choisy, P; Legoy, M D

    2001-11-01

    Indole is presumably a product of indole-3-glycerol phosphate catabolism in Isatis tinctoria. It is oxidized into indoxyl and stored in young leaves as indigo precursor. Further oxidation and dimerization of indoxyl produces indigoid pigments. In this work, we describe an HPLC method dedicated to the identification and quantification of indigoid pigments (indigo, indirubin, isoindigo and isoindirubin) and indigo precursors produced in I. tinctoria (Woad). This work, carried out with two cultivars of I. tinctoria, has confirmed that the quantity of indigo precursors is dependent on the species and the harvest period. In addition we have shown for the first time that young leaves of I. tinctoria, harvested in June contained a new indigo precursor in addition to isatan B (indoxyl-5-ketogluconate) and indican (indoxyl-beta-D-glucoside). We suggest the name "isatan C" for this new indigo precursor in I. tinctoria. Its chemical characteristics point to an dioxindole ester with PM of 395. We have shown that isatan C reacts with isatan B increasing the red pigment production.

  19. Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) Model - An Unified Concept for Earthquake Precursors Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulinets, S.; Ouzounov, D.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a conception of complex multidisciplinary approach to the problem of clarification the nature of short-term earthquake precursors observed in atmosphere, atmospheric electricity and in ionosphere and magnetosphere. Our approach is based on the most fundamental principles of tectonics giving understanding that earthquake is an ultimate result of relative movement of tectonic plates and blocks of different sizes. Different kind of gases: methane, helium, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide leaking from the crust can serve as carrier gases for radon including underwater seismically active faults. Radon action on atmospheric gases is similar to the cosmic rays effects in upper layers of atmosphere: it is the air ionization and formation by ions the nucleus of water condensation. Condensation of water vapor is accompanied by the latent heat exhalation is the main cause for observing atmospheric thermal anomalies. Formation of large ion clusters changes the conductivity of boundary layer of atmosphere and parameters of the global electric circuit over the active tectonic faults. Variations of atmospheric electricity are the main source of ionospheric anomalies over seismically active areas. Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) model can explain most of these events as a synergy between different ground surface, atmosphere and ionosphere processes and anomalous variations which are usually named as short-term earthquake precursors. A newly developed approach of Interdisciplinary Space-Terrestrial Framework (ISTF) can provide also a verification of these precursory processes in seismically active regions. The main outcome of this paper is the unified concept for systematic validation of different types of earthquake precursors united by physical basis in one common theory.

  20. Use of organosilicate precursors for transparent coatings on organic substrates by plasma CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasorsa, C; Versaci, R; Perillo, P

    2006-01-01

    This work discusses the production of transparent coatings of SiOxCy on substrates polycarbonated by PECVD at temperatures below 80 o C, with a gaseous mixture using different precursors with which, in similar processes produced the same results with respect to the coating obtained, with the same excellent quality and in accordance with international standards for optic coatings. Chlorinated precursors were excluded because they are highly corrosive as well as those with operating risks (toxic or explosive). The precursors used were tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), tetramethylsilanete (TMS,) tetramethoxy silane (TMOS), hexamethyldisilizane (HMDS), and methyltrimethoxysilane (Z6070), with the contribution of O 2 and methane as reactive gases. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used as well as X-ray generated photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA). The functional groups were studied together with the film elements and its mechanical properties, transparency and refraction index. Irregardless of the precursor used, by properly modifying the process variables (pressure of the gaseous mixture, radio frequency power, relationship of processing gases and their flow), similar coatings can be chemically obtained, having the same morphology and, therefore, with identical adherence, structural and optic properties. None of the works consulted refer to the possibility of the indistinct use of different precursors for obtaining the same coating. These results are relevant when considering the difference in costs and their market availability. The influence of the addition of methane was studied in two processing variants, a) with oxygen and methane and b) with oxygen alone. For all the precursors used and with identical processing conditions, the carbon contributed by the addition of methane increased the concentration of carbon compounds, considerably reducing the presence of silanol, which being absorbent produces structural instability and cracking of the

  1. Revealing driving factors of China's PM2.5 pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, Q.; Geng, G.; Tong, D.; Peng, L.; He, K.

    2017-12-01

    China's rapid economic development and intensive energy consumption are deteriorating the air quality significantly. Understanding the key driving factors behind China's growing emissions of air pollutants and the accompanying PM2.5 pollution is critical for the development of China's clean air policies and also provides insight into how other emerging economies may develop a clear sky future. Here we reveal the socioeconomic drivers of the variations of China's PM2.5 concentrations during 2002-2012 by using an interdisciplinary framework that integrates an emission inventory model, an index decomposition analysis model, and a regional air quality model. The decomposition results demostrate that the improvements in emission efficiency and energy efficiency failed to offset the increased emissions of both primary PM2.5 and gaseous PM2.5 precursors (including SO2 NOx, and volatile organic compounds) triggered by the surging economic growth during 2002-2012. During the same time, the effects of energy structure, production structure and population growth were relatively less significant to all pollutants, which indicates the potential of large emission abatements through energy structure and production structure adjustment. Sensitivity simulations by the air quality model based on the provincial decomposition results also show that the economic growth have outpaced efficiency improvements in the increments of PM2.5 concentrations during the study years. As China continues to develop rapidly, future policies should promote further improvements in efficiency and accelerate the adjustments toward clean energy and production structures, which are critical for reducing China's emissions and alleviating the severe PM2.5 pollution.

  2. Measurement of the charge asymmetry in $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}$ and search for $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Cheung, S -F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-01-01

    The CP-violating charge asymmetry in $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}$ decays is measured in a sample of $pp$ collisions at 7 TeV centre-of-mass energy, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb experiment. The result is $\\mathcal{A}_{CP}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}) = \\rm 0.022\\pm 0.021 \\pm 0.009$, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. In addition, a search for the $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi \\pi^{\\pm}$ decay mode is performed, using the $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}$ decay rate for normalization. An upper limit on the branching fraction $\\mathcal{B}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi \\pi^{\\pm})< 1.5\\times 10^{-7}$ is set at 90% confidence level.

  3. Search for $CP$ violation in $D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}$ and $D^{\\pm}_{s}\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves Jr, A.A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R.B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J.J.; Badalov, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R.J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjornstad, P.M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N.H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L.Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H.V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G.A.; Craik, D.C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P.N.Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; de Miranda, J.M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, RF.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gavrilov, G.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani', S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V.V.; Gobel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gandara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L.A.; Grauges, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grunberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S.C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S.T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C.R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T.M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R.F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V.N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R.W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I.V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J.F.; Marconi, U.; Benito, C.Marin; Marino, P.; Marki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martin Sanchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Minard, M.N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M.J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A.B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Muller, K.; Muresan, R.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A.D.; Nguyen, T.D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D.P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J.M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B.K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C.J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G.D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilar, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J.H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M.S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M.M.; dos Reis, A.C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D.A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A.B.; 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Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V.K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M.T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Garcia, M.Ubeda; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vazquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J.J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; Voss, H.; de Vries, J.A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D.R.; Watson, N.K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M.P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F.F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S.A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2014-10-03

    A search for $CP$ violation in Cabibbo-suppressed $D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}$ and $D^{\\pm}_{s}\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays is performed using $pp$ collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3~fb$^{-1}$, recorded by the LHCb experiment. The individual $CP$-violating asymmetries are measured to be \\begin{eqnarray*} \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}} & = & (+0.03 \\pm 0.17 \\pm 0.14) \\% \\\\ \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}_s\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}} & = & (+0.38 \\pm 0.46 \\pm 0.17) \\%, \\end{eqnarray*} assuming that $CP$ violation in the Cabibbo-favoured decays is negligible. A combination of the measured asymmetries for the four decay modes $D^{\\pm}_{(s)}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}$ and $D^{\\pm}_{(s)}\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}$ gives the sum \\[ \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}}+ \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}_s\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}} = (+0.41 \\pm 0.49 \\pm 0.26) \\%. \\] In all cases, the first uncertainties are statistical and the second sys...

  4. Measurement of CP violation in the phase space of $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow K^{+} K^{-} \\pi^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-} \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Adrover, Cosme; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Bauer, Thomas; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Mar-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Callot, Olivier; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coca, Cornelia; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bonis, Isabelle; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dogaru, Marius; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; van Eijk, Daan; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farry, Stephen; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garofoli, Justin; Garosi, Paola; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorbounov, Petr; Gordon, Hamish; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hartmann, Thomas; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hicks, Emma; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Huse, Torkjell; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Iakovenko, Viktor; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Wallaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Kochebina, Olga; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Li Gioi, Luigi; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Ian; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luisier, Johan; Luo, Haofei; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Maratas, Jan; Marconi, Umberto; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Martynov, Aleksandr; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Maurice, Emilie; Mazurov, Alexander; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Moran, Dermot; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mountain, Raymond; Mous, Ivan; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Muryn, Bogdan; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nomerotski, Andrey; Novoselov, Alexey; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrick, Glenn; Patrignani, Claudia; Pavel-Nicorescu, Carmen; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Phan, Anna; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Polok, Grzegorz; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Powell, Andrew; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redford, Sophie; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Alexander; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Roberts, Douglas; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Sabatino, Giovanni; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sapunov, Matvey; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Senderowska, Katarzyna; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Oksana; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Teodorescu, Eliza; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Webber, Adam Dane; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiechczynski, Jaroslaw; Wiedner, Dirk; Wiggers, Leo; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The charmless decays $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow K^{+}K^{-}\\pi^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{\\pm}$ are reconstructed in a data set, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ of pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, collected by LHCb in 2011. The inclusive charge asymmetries of these modes are measured to be $A_{CP}(B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow K^{+}K^{-}\\pi^{\\pm}) =-0.141 \\pm 0.040 (stat) \\pm 0.018 (syst) \\pm 0.007 (J/\\psi K^{\\pm})$ and $A_{CP}(B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{\\pm}) = 0.117 \\pm 0.021 (stat) \\pm 0.009 (syst) \\pm 0.007 (J/\\psi K^{\\pm})$, where the third uncertainty is due to the CP asymmetry of the $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow J/\\psi K^{\\pm}$ reference mode. In addition to the inclusive CP asymmetries, larger asymmetries are observed in localized regions of phase space.

  5. Filtration of Oil-furnace Carbon Black Dust Particles from the Tail Gases by Filter Bags With PTFE Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čuzela, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the industrial production of oil furnace carbon black, tail gases containing oil-furnace carbon black dust particles are emitted to the atmosphere. In the carbon black plant, Petrokemija d. d., there are six exhaust stacks for tail gases. Each of them has installed process equipment for cleaning tail gases. Efficiency of cleaning mainly depends on equipment construction and cleaning technology. The vicinity of the town, quality of the air in the region of Kutina, regarding floating particles PM10, and corporate responsibility for further enviromental improvement, imposes development of new methods that will decrease the emmision of oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in the air. Combining centrifugal percipitator and filter, special construction of cyclofilter for filtration of oil-furnace carbon black dust particles from tail gases by using PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene membrane filter bags, was designed. Developed filtration technique provides η = 99.9 % efficiency of filtration. Construction part of the filter contains the newest generation of PTFE membrane filter bags with the ability of jet pulse cleaning. Using the PTFE membrane filter bags technology, filtration efficiency for oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in tail gases of maximum γ=5mgm-3can be achieved. The filtration efficiency was monitored continuously measuring the concentration of the oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in the tail gases with the help of in situ electronic probe. The accomplished filtration technology is the base for the installation of the PTFE membrane filter bags in the main operation filters which will provide better protection of the air in the town of Kutina against floating particles PM10.

  6. Sectoral emission inventories of greenhouse gases for 1990 on a per country basis as well as on 1°×1°

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, J.G.J.; Bouwman, A.F.; Berdowski, J.J.M.; Veldt, C.; Bloos, J.P.J.; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Maas, C.W.M. van der; Zandveld, P.Y.J.

    1999-01-01

    A set of global greenhouse gas emission inventories has been compiled per source category for the 1990 annual emissions of the direct greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O, as well as of the indirect greenhouse gases (ozone precursors) CO, NOx and NMVOC, and of SO2. The inventories are available by

  7. Comparison of PM collection efficiency of Gent and Airmatrics MiniVol portable air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K.

    2005-01-01

    Gent PM sampler was developed as an integral part of several International Atomic Energy Agency sponsored coordinated research programmes (CRP) for collecting air particulate samples. On the other hand, the MiniVol Portable Air Sampler is a commercial ambient air sampler for particulate matter and non-reactive gases used by different agencies. Air quality management system requires comparable air quality data to be collected by different stake holders for assessment and regulatory purposes. In order to compare the characteristics of Gent sampler with the MiniVol Portable Air Sampler, the reproducibility of the sample mass collection efficiency were examined and the measured mass concentrations were compared. It was found that in case of PM 10 both samplers collect almost same fraction of PM 10 mass when the Gent sampler was operated at 16 litre per minute flow rate. But in case of fine fraction, Portable sampler collects 70% higher PM 2.5 mass concentration compared to the Gent PM 2.2 mass concentrations. This is because, the Gent sampler was typically operated at 16 to 17 lpm resulting in an estimated 50% cut point of 2.2 μm.(author)

  8. Measurement of $C\\!P$ violation in the phase space of $B^{\\pm} \\to K^{\\pm} \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ and $B^{\\pm} \\to K^{\\pm} K^{+} K^{-}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258707; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Holtrop, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; Mc Skelly, B; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Van Dijk, M; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    The charmless decays $B^{\\pm}\\to K^{\\pm}\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $B^{\\pm}\\to K^{\\pm}K^+K^-$ are reconstructed using data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$, collected by LHCb in 2011. The inclusive charge asymmetries of these modes are measured as $A_{C\\!P}(B^{\\pm}\\to K^{\\pm}\\pi^+\\pi^-) = 0.032 \\pm 0.008 {\\mathrm{\\,(stat)}} \\pm 0.004 {\\mathrm{\\,(syst)}} \\pm 0.007 (J/\\psi K^{\\pm})$ and $A_{C\\!P}(B^{\\pm}\\to K^{\\pm}K^+K^-) = -0.043 \\pm 0.009 {\\mathrm{\\,(stat)}} \\pm 0.003 {\\mathrm{\\,(syst)}} \\pm 0.007 (J/\\psi K^{\\pm})$, where the third uncertainty is due to the $C\\!P$ asymmetry of the $B^{\\pm}\\to J/\\psi K^{\\pm}$ reference mode. The significance of $A_{C\\!P}(B^{\\pm}\\to K^{\\pm}K^+K^-)$ exceeds three standard deviations and is the first evidence of an inclusive $C\\!P$ asymmetry in charmless three-body $B$ decays. In addition to the inclusive $C\\!P$ asymmetries, larger asymmetries are observed in localised regions of phase space.

  9. Directed assembly of nanomaterials for miniaturized sensors by dip-pen nanolithography using precursor inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming

    The advent of nanomaterials with enhanced properties and the means to pattern them in a controlled fashion have paved the way to construct miniaturized sensors for improved detection. However it remains a challenge for the traditional methods to create such sensors and sensor arrays. Dip pen nanolithography (DPN) can form nanostructures on a substrate by controlling the transfer of molecule inks. However, previous DPN can not pattern solid materials on insulating surfaces, which are necessary to form functional electronic devices. In the dissertation, the concept of reactive precursor inks for DPN is developed for the generation of solid functional nanostructures of the following materials: organic molecule, sol-gel material, and conducting polymer. First, the covalent bonding is unnecessary for DPN as shown in the colored ink DPN; therefore the numbers of molecules that can be patterned is extended beyond thiol or thiolated molecules. Subsequently, a reactive precursor strategy (sol) is developed to pattern inorganic or organic/inorganic composite nanostructures on silicon based substrates. The method works by hydrolysis of metal precursors in the water meniscus and allows the preparation of solid structures with controlled geometry beyond the individual molecule level. Then the SnO 2 nanostructures patterned between the gaps of electrodes are tested as gas sensors. Proof-of-concept experiments are demonstrated on miniaturized sensors that show fast response and recovery to certain gases. Furthermore, an eight-unit sensor array is fabricated on a chip using SnO2 sols that are doped with different metals. The multiplexed device can recognize different gases by comparing the response patterns with the reference patterns of known gases generated on the same array. At last, the idea of precursor ink for DPN is extended to construct conducting polymer based devices. By using an acid promoted polymerization approach, conducting polymers are patterned on silicon dioxide

  10. Renewable energies for reduction of greenhouse gases in the Mexican electricity generation in 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas, J; Manzini, F; Martinez, M [Centre for Energy Research, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This study presents three scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the energy policy path that was in effect until 1990. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-90's as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The three scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG). [Spanish] Este estudio presenta tres escenarios relacionados de los futuros ambientales de generacion de electricidad en Mexico hasta el ano 2025. El primer escenario enfatiza la utilizacion de productos del petroleo, particularmente el combustoleo, y representa el curso de la politica de energia vigente hasta 1990. El segundo escenario da prioridad al uso de gas natural, reflejando el patron de consumo de energia que surgio a mediados de los 90's como resultado de reformas en el sector energetico. En el tercer escenario, la alta participacion de las fuentes renovables de energia es considerada factible desde los puntos de vista tecnico y economico. Los tres escenarios son evaluados hasta el ano 2025 en terminos de los gases de efecto invernadero (GHG) y de gases precursores de lluvia acida (ARPG).

  11. Winter mass concentrations of carbon species in PM10, PM 2.5 and PM1 in Zagreb air, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Ranka; Čačković, Mirjana; Šega, Krešimir; Bešlić, Ivan

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to examine the mass concentrations of EC, OC and TC (EC + OC) in PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1) particle fractions. Daily PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1) samples were collected at an urban background monitoring site in Zagreb during winter 2009. Average OC and EC mass concentrations were 11.9 and 1.8 μg m(-3) in PM(10), 9.0 and 1.4 μg m(-3) in PM(2.5), and 5.5 and 1.1 μg m(-3) in PM(1). Average OC/EC ratios in PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) were 7.4, 6.9 and 5.4, respectively.

  12. Measurements of the branching fractions and $C\\!P$ asymmetries of $B^{\\pm} \\to J\\!/\\!\\psi\\, \\pi^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm} \\to \\psi(2S) \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    A study of $B^{\\pm} \\to J\\!/\\!\\psi\\, \\pi^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm} \\to \\psi(2S) \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays is performed with data corresponding to $0.37\\,{\\rm fb}^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7\\,\\mathrm{Te\\kern -0.1em V}$. Their branching fractions are found to be \\begin{eqnarray*} \\mathcal{B}(B^{\\pm} \\to J\\!/\\!\\psi\\, \\pi^{\\pm}) &=& (3.88 \\pm 0.11 \\pm 0.15) \\times 10^{-5}\\ {\\rm and}\\\\ \\mathcal{B}(B^{\\pm} \\to \\psi(2S) \\pi^{\\pm}) &=& (2.52 \\pm 0.26 \\pm 0.15) \\times 10^{-5}, \\end{eqnarray*} where the first uncertainty is related to the statistical size of the sample and the second quantifies systematic effects. The measured $C\\!P$ asymmetries in these modes are \\begin{eqnarray*} A_{CP}^{J\\!/\\!\\psi\\, \\pi} &=& 0.005 \\pm 0.027 \\pm 0.011\\ {\\rm and} \\\\ A_{CP}^{\\psi(2S) \\pi} &=& 0.048 \\pm 0.090 \\pm 0.011 \\end{eqnarray*} with no evidence of direct $C\\!P$ violation seen.

  13. Fine particulate matter (PM) and organic speciation of fireplace emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, C.R.; McCrillis, R.C.; Kariher, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of fireplace particle size and organic speciation data gathered to date in an ongoing project. Tests are being conducted in a residential wood combustion (RWC) laboratory on three factory-built fireplaces. RWC wood smoke particles <10 microm (PM10) consist primarily of a mixture of organic compounds that have condensed into droplets; therefore, the size distribution and total mass are influenced by temperature of the sample during its collection. During the series 1 tests (15 tests), the dilution tunnel used to cool and dilute the stack gases gave an average mixed gas temperature of 47.3 C and an average dilution ration of 4.3. Averages for the PM2.5 (particles <2.5 microm) and PM10 fractions were 74 and 84%, respectively. For the series 2 tests, the dilution tunnel was modified, reducing the average mixed gas temperatures to 33.8 C and increasing the average dilution ratio to 11.0 in tests completed to date. PM2.5 and PM10 fractions were 83 and 91%, respectively. Since typical winter-time mixed gas temperatures would usually be less than 10 C, these size fraction results probably represent the lower bound; the PM10 and PM2.5 size fraction results might be higher at typical winter temperatures. The particles collected on the first stage were light gray and appeared to include inorganic ash. Particles collected on the remainder of the stages were black and appeared to be condensed organics because there was noticeable lateral bleeding of the collected materials into the filter substrate. Total particulate emission rates ranged from 10.3 to 58.4 g/h; corresponding emission factors ranged from 3.3 to 14.9 g/kg of dry wood burned. A wide range of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 8270 semivolatile organic compounds were found in the emissions; of the 17 target compounds quantified, major constituents are phenol, 2-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, and naphthalene

  14. Quantifying PM2.5-Meteorology Sensitivities in a Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.; Tai, A. P. K.; Fiore, A. M.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change can influence fine particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5) through changes in air pollution meteorology. Knowledge of the extent to which climate change can exacerbate or alleviate air pollution in the future is needed for robust climate and air pollution policy decision-making. To examine the influence of climate on PM2.5, we use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Coupled Model version 3 (GFDL CM3), a fully-coupled chemistry-climate model, combined with future emissions and concentrations provided by the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). For each of the RCPs, we conduct future simulations in which emissions of aerosols and their precursors are held at 2005 levels while other climate forcing agents evolve in time, such that only climate (and thus meteorology) can influence PM2.5 surface concentrations. We find a small increase in global, annual mean PM2.5 of about 0.21 micro-g/cu m3 (5%) for RCP8.5, a scenario with maximum warming. Changes in global mean PM2.5 are at a maximum in the fall and are mainly controlled by sulfate followed by organic aerosol with minimal influence of black carbon. RCP2.6 is the only scenario that projects a decrease in global PM2.5 with future climate changes, albeit only by -0.06 micro-g/cu m (1.5%) by the end of the 21st century. Regional and local changes in PM2.5 are larger, reaching upwards of 2 micro-g/cu m for polluted (eastern China) and dusty (western Africa) locations on an annually averaged basis in RCP8.5. Using multiple linear regression, we find that future PM2.5 concentrations are most sensitive to local temperature, followed by surface wind and precipitation. PM2.5 concentrations are robustly positively associated with temperature, while negatively related with precipitation and wind speed. Present-day (2006-2015) modeled sensitivities of PM2.5 to meteorological variables are evaluated against observations and found to agree reasonably well with observed sensitivities (within 10e50

  15. Trace gases, aerosols and their interactions with synoptic weather: An overview of in-situ measurements at the SORPES Station in the western Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, A.; Fu, C.; Yang, X.; Petaja, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5pollution in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Observation during the typical biomass burning seasons also shows clear air pollution - weather interactions. For the typical episode occurred on 10 June, 2012, the measurement suggest that the mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70 %, of sensible heat flux over 85 %, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change 10 of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions, and

  16. A comparative analysis of methodology for inventory of greenhouse gases emissions - IPCC and CORINAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, Kh.

    1998-01-01

    The inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG) is performed by two accepted methods - CORINAIR (of EU) and IPCC (of UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes). The first one is applied only in European countries, the second is conformable to GHG emissions from all over the world. The versions IPCC-95 and CORINAIR94 are compared from theoretical and methodological point of view. In Bulgaria the version CORINAIR95 is not applied yet and the inventory analysis for 1994 uses CORINAIR90. The emissions of main GHG and gases-precursors are compared. The main elements of inventory are analyzed. The values recommended by CORINAIR94 are taken into account. A table for accordance between the two methods is used. The differences concerning transport vehicles are taken into account also. Differences between the two methods are noticed in the following directions: nomenclature of the activities emitting GHG; organization of the inventory guides; kind of the activities and technologies included. The qualitative comparison are done for energy sector and for industry separately. The results show too big differences in the volume of the emitted GHG and the reasons could be classified as methodological ones and differences in the kind and values of the emission coefficients. For their determining standard values for Eastern Europe from IPCC guide have been applied as well as data from experimental investigations. Respectively, in the method CORINAIR emission coefficients CORINAIR90 are used. The differences between the emission coefficients determined in the two methods are as big as twice or even more for CO at solid fuels, i.g. at energy production; as big as three times at NO x and up to twenty times at methane also at solid fuels. The two methods do not read the emissions of gases-precursors at some industrial processes. This disadvantage is overcome at IPCC96 and it is necessary to complement the emission coefficients in the data base, especially for gases-precursors regarding the

  17. Search for direct CP violating charge asymmetries in $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^0\\pi^0$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J Richard; Kalmus, George Ernest; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Slater, M W; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Bocquet, G; Cabibbo, Nicola; Ceccucci, A; Cundy, Donald C; Falaleev, V; Fidecaro, Maria; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Kubischta, Werner; Norton, A; Maier, A; Patel, M; Peters, A; Balev, S; Frabetti, P L; Goudzovski, E; Khristov, P Z; Kekelidze, V D; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D T; Marinova, E; Molokanova, N A; Polenkevich, I; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A I; Monnier, E; Swallow, E; Winston, R; Rubin, P; Walker, A; Baldini, W; Cotta-Ramusino, A; Dalpiaz, P; Damiani, C; Fiorini, M; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Savrié, M; Scarpa, M; Wahle, H; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Celeghini, E; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Martelli, F; Ruggiero, G; Veltri, M; Behler, M; Eppard, K; Kleinknecht, K; Marouelli, P; Masetti, L; Moosbrugger, U; Morales-Morales, C; Renk, B; Wache, M; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Coward, D; Dabrowski, A; Fonseca-Martin, T; Shieh, M; Szleper, M; Velasco, M; Wood, M D; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Nappi, A; Pepé, M; Petrucci, M C; Piccini, M; Raggi, M; Valdata-Nappi, M; Cerri, C; Collazuol, G; Costantini, F; Di Lella, L; Doble, N; Fantechi, R; Fiorini, L; Giudici, S; Lamanna, G; Mannelli, I; Michetti, A; Pierazzini, G M; Sozzi, M; Bloch-Devaux, B; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; De Beer, M; Derré, J; Marel, Gérard; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; Bifani, S; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Clemencic, M; Goy-Lopez, S; Marchetto, F; Dibon, Heinz; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Mikulec, I; Neuhofer, G; Widhalm, L

    2007-01-01

    A measurement of the direct CP violating charge asymmetries of the Dalitz plot linear slopes $A_g=(g^+-g^-)/(g^++g^-)$ in $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^0\\pi^0$ decays by the NA48/2 experiment at CERN SPS is presented. A new technique of asymmetry measurement involving simultaneous $K^+$ and $K^-$ beams and a large data sample collected allowed a result of an unprecedented precision. The charge asymmetries were measured to be $A^c_g=(-1.5\\pm2.1)\\times10^{-4}$ with $3.11\\times 10^9$ $K^{\\pm}\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays, and $A^n_g=(1.8\\pm1.8)\\times10^{-4}$ with $9.13\\times 10^7$ $K^{\\pm}\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^0\\pi^0$ decays. The precision of the results is limited mainly by the size of the data sample.

  18. Climatology of atmospheric PM10 concentration in the Po Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, A.; Ghermandi, G.

    2014-01-01

    The limits to atmospheric pollutant concentration set by the European Commission provide a challenging target for the municipalities in the Po Valley, because of the characteristic climatic conditions and high population density of this region. In order to assess climatology and trends in the concentration of atmospheric particles in the Po Valley, a dataset of PM10 data from 41 sites across the Po Valley have been analysed, including both traffic and background sites (either urban, suburban or rural). Of these 41 sites, 18 with 10 yr or longer record have been analysed for long term trend in de-seasonalized monthly means, in annual quantiles and in monthly frequency distribution. A widespread significant decreasing trend has been observed at most sites, up to few percent per year, by Generalised Least Square and Theil-Sen method. All 41 sites have been tested for significant weekly periodicity by Kruskal-Wallis test for mean anomalies and by Wilcoxon test for weekend effect magnitude. A significant weekly periodicity has been observed for most PM10 series, particularly in summer and ascribed mainly to anthropic particulate emissions. A cluster analysis has been applied in order to highlight stations sharing similar pollution conditions over the reference period. Five clusters have been found, two gathering the metropolitan areas of Torino and Milano and their respective nearby sites and the other three clusters gathering north-east, north-west and central Po Valley sites respectively. Finally the observed trends in atmospheric PM10 have been compared to trends in provincial emissions of particulates and PM precursors, and analysed along with data on vehicular fleet age, composition and fuel sales. Significant basin-wide drop in emissions occurred for gaseous pollutants, contrarily to emissions of PM10 and PM2.5, whose drop resulted low and restricted to few provinces. It is not clear whether the decrease for only gaseous emissions is sufficient to explain the

  19. Final report for "Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez

    2009-05-18

    The objectives of this funded project were (a) to further analyze the data collected by our group and collaborators in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 field campaign, with the goal of further our understanding of aerosol sources and processes; and (b) to deploy several advanced instruments, including the newly developed high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and thermal-denuder (TD), during the MILAGRO/MAX-Mex/MCMA-2006 field campaign, and to analyze those data (together with the 2003 data) to provide additional insights on the formation and transformation of aerosols in the Mexico City area. These goals were addressed in collaboration with our project partners, MIT/Molina Center, and Aerodyne Research. Overall this project was very successful, resulting on 22+ journal papers including six “highly cited papers” and three papers that are the most cited in their respective journals (out of several thousand papers) since the year in which they were published. Multiple discoveries, such as the the underestimation of SOA in urban areas even for short photochemical ages, the demonstration that urban POA is of similar or higher volatility than urban SOA, and the first analysis of organic aerosol elemental composition in real-time have been recently published. Several dozen presentations at major US and international conferences and seminars also acknowledged this grant.

  20. Observation of $C\\!P$ violation in $B^\\pm \\to D K^\\pm$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; 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Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of $B^{\\pm}\\to DK^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm}\\to D\\pi^{\\pm}$ decays is presented where the $D$ meson is reconstructed in the two-body final states:$K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}$, $K^+K^-$, $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $\\pi^{\\pm}K^{\\mp}$. Using $1.0{\\rm \\,fb}^{-1}$ of LHCb data, measurements of several observables are made including the first observation of the suppressed mode $B^{\\pm}\\to[\\pi^{\\pm}K^{\\mp}]_DK^{\\pm}$. $C\\!P$ violation in $B^{\\pm}\\to DK^{\\pm}$ decays is observed with $5.8\\,\\sigma$ significance.

  1. Observation of photon polarization in $B^\\pm \\to K^\\pm\\pi^\\mp\\pi^\\pm\\gamma$ decays

    CERN Multimedia

    Veneziano, G

    2014-01-01

    A study of the flavor-changing neutral current radiative $B^{\\pm} \\to K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}\\pi^{\\pm}\\gamma$ decays performed using data collected in proton-proton collisions with the LHCb detector at $7$ and $8\\,$TeV center-of-mass energies is presented. In this sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$, nearly $14\\,000$ signal events are reconstructed and selected, containing all possible intermediate resonances with a $K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}\\pi^{\\pm}$ final state in the $[1.1, 1.9]$\\,GeV/$c^{2}$ mass range. The distribution of the angle of the photon direction with respect to the plane defined by the final-state hadrons in their rest frame is studied in intervals of $K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}\\pi^{\\pm}$ mass and the asymmetry between the number of signal events found on each side of the plane is obtained. The first direct observation of the photon polarization in the $b \\to s\\gamma$ transition is reported with a significance of $5.2\\,\\sigma$.

  2. Wintertime indoor air levels of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at public places and their contributions to TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangsheng; Chen, Rui; Shen, Xingxing; Mao, Xiaoling

    2004-04-01

    From 26 October 2002 to 8 March 2003, particulate matter (PM) concentrations (total suspended particles [TSP], PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) were measured at 49 public places representing different environments in the urban area of Beijing. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the indoor PM concentrations in public places, (2) to evaluate the potential indoor sources and (3) to investigate the contribution of PM10 to TSP and the contributions of PM2.5 and PM1 to PM10. Additionally, The indoor and outdoor particle concentrations in the same type of indoor environment were employed to investigate the I/O level, and comparison was made between I/O levels in different types of indoor environment. Construction activities and traffic condition were the major outdoor sources to influence the indoor particle levels. The contribution of PM10 to TSP was even up to 68.8%, while the contributions of PM2.5 and PM1 to PM10 were not as much as that of PM10 to TSP.

  3. Estimating State-Specific Contributions to PM2.5- and O3-Related Health Burden from Residential Combustion and Electricity Generating Unit Emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Stefani L; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Woody, Matthew; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; Tripodis, Yorghos; Levy, Jonathan I

    2017-03-01

    Residential combustion (RC) and electricity generating unit (EGU) emissions adversely impact air quality and human health by increasing ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone (O 3 ). Studies to date have not isolated contributing emissions by state of origin (source-state), which is necessary for policy makers to determine efficient strategies to decrease health impacts. In this study, we aimed to estimate health impacts (premature mortalities) attributable to PM 2.5 and O 3 from RC and EGU emissions by precursor species, source sector, and source-state in the continental United States for 2005. We used the Community Multiscale Air Quality model employing the decoupled direct method to quantify changes in air quality and epidemiological evidence to determine concentration-response functions to calculate associated health impacts. We estimated 21,000 premature mortalities per year from EGU emissions, driven by sulfur dioxide emissions forming PM 2.5 . More than half of EGU health impacts are attributable to emissions from eight states with significant coal combustion and large downwind populations. We estimate 10,000 premature mortalities per year from RC emissions, driven by primary PM 2.5 emissions. States with large populations and significant residential wood combustion dominate RC health impacts. Annual mortality risk per thousand tons of precursor emissions (health damage functions) varied significantly across source-states for both source sectors and all precursor pollutants. Our findings reinforce the importance of pollutant-specific, location-specific, and source-specific models of health impacts in design of health-risk minimizing emissions control policies. Citation: Penn SL, Arunachalam S, Woody M, Heiger-Bernays W, Tripodis Y, Levy JI. 2017. Estimating state-specific contributions to PM 2.5 - and O 3 -related health burden from residential combustion and electricity generating unit emissions in the United States. Environ

  4. Caveolin-1 interacts with the Gag precursor of murine leukaemia virus and modulates virus production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koester Mario

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retroviral Gag determines virus assembly at the plasma membrane and the formation of virus-like particles in intracellular multivesicular bodies. Thereby, retroviruses exploit by interaction with cellular partners the cellular machineries for vesicular transport in various ways. Results The retroviral Gag precursor protein drives assembly of murine leukaemia viruses (MLV at the plasma membrane (PM and the formation of virus like particles in multivesicular bodies (MVBs. In our study we show that caveolin-1 (Cav-1, a multifunctional membrane-associated protein, co-localizes with Gag in a punctate pattern at the PM of infected NIH 3T3 cells. We provide evidence that Cav-1 interacts with the matrix protein (MA of the Gag precursor. This interaction is mediated by a Cav-1 binding domain (CBD within the N-terminus of MA. Interestingly, the CBD motif identified within MA is highly conserved among most other γ-retroviruses. Furthermore, Cav-1 is incorporated into MLV released from NIH 3T3 cells. Overexpression of a GFP fusion protein containing the putative CBD of the retroviral MA resulted in a considerable decrease in production of infectious retrovirus. Moreover, expression of a dominant-negative Cav-1 mutant affected retroviral titres significantly. Conclusion This study demonstrates that Cav-1 interacts with MLV Gag, co-localizes with Gag at the PM and affects the production of infectious virus. The results strongly suggest a role for Cav-1 in the process of virus assembly.

  5. Submicrometer aerosol in rural and urban backgrounds in southern Poland: primary and secondary components of PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Klejnowski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Diurnal samples of PM(1) (submicrometer particles, having aerodynamic diameters not greater than 1 μm) were collected at an urban background site in Zabrze (from 01.08. to 31.12.2009) and a rural background site in Racibórz (from 01.08. to 31.12.2010). The samples were analyzed for carbon (organic and elemental), water soluble ions (Na(+), NH(4) (+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-)) and concentrations of 21 elements by using, respectively, a Sunset Laboratory carbon analyzer, a Herisau Metrohm AG ion chromatograph, a PANalitycal Epsilon 5 spectrometer. To perform the monthly mass closure calculations for PM(1), the chemical components were categorized into organic matter (OM), elemental carbon (EC), secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA), crustal matter (CM), marine components (MC), other elements (OE) and unidentified matter (UM). The mass contributions of secondary (SOM) and primary (POM) organic matter to PM(1) were also estimated. In average, 50 % of PM(1) in Zabrze and 40 % in Racibórz were secondary aerosol coming from the transformations of its gaseous precursors. High concentrations and mass contributions of EC and OM to PM, and probable PM acidic nature in Zabrze, indicate particularly high hazard from the ambient submicrometer particles to the inhabitants of southern Poland.

  6. Partitioning of magnetic particles in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 aerosols in the urban atmosphere of Barcelona (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revuelta, María Aránzazu; McIntosh, Gregg; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    A combined magnetic-chemical study of 15 daily, simultaneous PM 10 –PM 2.5 –PM 1 urban background aerosol samples has been carried out. The magnetic properties are dominated by non-stoichiometric magnetite, with highest concentrations seen in PM 10 . Low temperature magnetic analyses showed that the superparamagnetic fraction is more abundant when coarse, multidomain particles are present, confirming that they may occur as an oxidized outer shell around coarser grains. A strong association of the magnetic parameters with a vehicular PM 10 source has been identified. Strong correlations found with Cu and Sb suggests that this association is related to brake abrasion emissions rather than exhaust emissions. For PM 1 the magnetic remanence parameters are more strongly associated with crustal sources. Two crustal sources are identified in PM 1 , one of which is of North African origin. The magnetic particles are related to this source and so may be used to distinguish North African dust from other sources in PM 1 . - Highlights: • Magnetic properties of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1 defined for a Mediterranean urban site. • Vehicular source of magnetic particles dominates in PM 10 . • Crustal source of magnetic particles dominates in PM 1 . • Magnetic remanence may distinguish between North African and regional dust in PM 1 . - Capsule abstract two sources of magnetic atmospheric particles have been identified in Barcelona, a vehicular source which dominates in PM 10 and a crustal source that dominates in PM 1

  7. A study of CP violation in $B^\\pm \\to D K^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm \\to D \\pi^\\pm$ decays with $D \\to K^0_{\\rm S} K^\\pm \\pi^\\mp$ final states

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Bauer, Thomas; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Callot, Olivier; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coca, Cornelia; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bonis, Isabelle; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dorosz, Piotr; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Esen, Sevda; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farry, Stephen; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gordon, Hamish; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Hafkenscheid, Tom; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hartmann, Thomas; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Iakovenko, Viktor; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Wallaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Kochebina, Olga; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Ian; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luisier, Johan; Luo, Haofei; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manzali, Matteo; Maratas, Jan; Marconi, Umberto; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Moran, Dermot; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Muryn, Bogdan; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pavel-Nicorescu, Carmen; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Polok, Grzegorz; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Powell, Andrew; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redford, Sophie; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Alexander; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Roberts, Douglas; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Sabatino, Giovanni; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sapunov, Matvey; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Senderowska, Katarzyna; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Oksana; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spinella, Franco; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teodorescu, Eliza; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Webber, Adam Dane; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiechczynski, Jaroslaw; Wiedner, Dirk; Wiggers, Leo; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A first study of CP violation in the decay modes $B^\\pm\\to [K^0_{\\rm S} K^\\pm \\pi^\\mp]_D h^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm\\to [K^0_{\\rm S} K^\\mp \\pi^\\pm]_D h^\\pm$, where $h$ labels a $K$ or $\\pi$ meson and $D$ labels a $D^0$ or $\\overline{D}^0$ meson, is performed. The analysis uses the LHCb data set collected in $pp$ collisions, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb$^{-1}$. The analysis is sensitive to the CP-violating CKM phase $\\gamma$ through seven observables: one charge asymmetry in each of the four modes and three ratios of the charge-integrated yields. The results are consistent with measurements of $\\gamma$ using other decay modes.

  8. Canonical partition functions: ideal quantum gases, interacting classical gases, and interacting quantum gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi-Chun; Dai, Wu-Sheng

    2018-02-01

    In statistical mechanics, for a system with a fixed number of particles, e.g. a finite-size system, strictly speaking, the thermodynamic quantity needs to be calculated in the canonical ensemble. Nevertheless, the calculation of the canonical partition function is difficult. In this paper, based on the mathematical theory of the symmetric function, we suggest a method for the calculation of the canonical partition function of ideal quantum gases, including ideal Bose, Fermi, and Gentile gases. Moreover, we express the canonical partition functions of interacting classical and quantum gases given by the classical and quantum cluster expansion methods in terms of the Bell polynomial in mathematics. The virial coefficients of ideal Bose, Fermi, and Gentile gases are calculated from the exact canonical partition function. The virial coefficients of interacting classical and quantum gases are calculated from the canonical partition function by using the expansion of the Bell polynomial, rather than calculated from the grand canonical potential.

  9. Indoor pollution: PM2.5 and PM10 from cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chianese, E.; Barone, G.; Castaldo, R.M.; Riccio, A.

    2009-01-01

    This work is aimed to establishing the temporal and spatial dispersion of PM 10 and PM 2.5 particulate matter fractions generated by cigarettes smoking in an indoor ambient. To this purpose, PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations were collected with a mobile instrument positioned in a room accommodating a smoking machine. [it

  10. Characteristics of PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10, and Their Relation to Black Carbon in Wuhan, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hourly average monitoring data for mass concentrations of PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and black carbon (BC were measured in Wuhan from December 2013 to December 2014, which has a flourishing steel industry, to analyze the characteristics of PM and their relation to BC, using statistical methods. The results indicate that variations in the monthly average mass concentrations of PM have similar concave parabolic shapes, with the highest values occurring in January and the lowest values appearing in August or September. The correlation coefficient of the linear regression model between PM1 and PM2.5 is quite high, reaching 0.99. Furthermore, the proportion of PM1 contained within PM2.5 is roughly 90%, directly proving that ultrafine particles whose diameter less than 1 μm may be a primary component of PM2.5 in Wuhan. Additionally, better seasonal correlation between PM and BC occurs only in summer and autumn, due to multiple factors such as topography, temperature, and the atmosphere in winter and spring. Finally, analysis of the diurnal variation of PM and BC demonstrates that the traffic emissions during rush hour, exogenous pollutants, and the shallow PBLH with stagnant atmosphere, all contribute to the severe pollution of Wuhan in winter.

  11. Local contribution of wood combustion to PM10 and PM2.5; Lokale bijdrage van houtverbranding aan PM10 en PM2,5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, G.; Weijers, E. [ECN Biomassa, Kolen en Milieuonderzoek, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    In February 2009 the concentration of wood smoke in a residential area in Schoorl (Noord-Holland, Netherlands) was investigated over a period of three weeks. The aim was to assess the effect of local particulate matter (PM) emissions - caused by heating with wood stoves in this area - on local PM concentration. [Dutch] In februari 2009 zijn in Schoorl in Noord-Holland concentraties houtrook bepaald door levoglucosanmetingen (een voor houtrook kenmerkende koolwaterstofverbinding). Lokale houtrook draagt daar significant bij aan de concentratie fijn stof: tussen 9% en 27% voor PM10 en tussen 30% en 39% voor PM2,5.

  12. Characterization of PM2.5 particles originating from a modern waste incineration plant by factor analysis of chemical data, mass and black carbon in ambient aerosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aboh, J. K.; Henriksson, Dag; Laursen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    are subject to restrictions are well below the allowed limits as stated by Swedish and European standards. The aim of the present work is to study the particle pollutants with emphasis on PM2.5 in the ambient air and to identify the specific contribution from the new incineration plant. Many different sources...... contribute to PM2.5 in urban air. Thus, the general problem is to characterise and identify the particle pollution, which can be attributed to gases and/or particles emitted by the waste incineration plant. For this reason aerosol samples, PM2.5, were collected and analyzed for concentrations of twenty...

  13. New measurement of the $K^{\\pm} \\to \\pi^{\\pm}\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J.R.; Lazzeroni, C.; Munday, D.J.; Slater, M.W.; Wotton, S.A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bocquet, G.; Cabibbo, N.; Ceccucci, A.; Cundy, D.; Falaleev, V.; Fidecaro, M.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Kubischta, W.; Norton, A.; Maier, A.; Patel, M.; Peters, A.; Balev, S.; Frabetti, P.L.; Goudzovski, E.; Hristov, P.; Kekelidze, V.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Madigozhin, D.; Marinova, E.; Molokanova, N.; Polenkevich, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Monnier, E.; Swallow, E.; Winston, R.; Rubin, P.; Walker, A.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Damiani, C.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Scarpa, M.; Wahl, H.; Bizzeti, A.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Calvetti, M.; Celeghini, E.; Iacopini, E.; Ruggiero, G.; Behler, M.; Eppard, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Marouelli, P.; Masetti, L.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Renk, B.; Wache, M.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Coward, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Shieh, M.; Szleper, M.; Velasco, M.; Wood, M.D.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Petrucci, M.C.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Nappi, A.; Piccini, M.; Raggi, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Collazuol, G.; Di Lella, L.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Michetti, A.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Fiorini, L.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheze, J.B.; De Beer, M.; Derre, J.; Marel, G.; Mazzucato, E.; Peyaud, B.; Vallage, B.; Holder, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Marchetto, F.; Bifani, S.; Clemencic, M.; Goy Lopez, S.; Dibon, H.; Jeitler, M.; Markytan, M.; Mikulec, I.; Neuhofer, G.; Widhalm, L.

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 3120 $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\mu^+\\mu^-$ decay candidates with $(3.3\\pm0.7)$% background contamination has been collected by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS, allowing a detailed study of the decay properties. The branching ratio was measured to be ${\\rm BR}=(9.62\\pm0.25)\\times 10^{-8}$. The form factor $W(z)$, where $z=(M_{\\mu\\mu}/M_K)^2$, was parameterized according to several models. In particular, the slope of the linear form factor $W(z)=W_0(1+\\delta z)$ was measured to be $\\delta=3.11\\pm0.57$. Upper limits of $2.9\\times 10^{-2}$ and $2.3\\times 10^{-2}$ on possible charge asymmetry and forward-backward asymmetry were established at 90% CL. An upper limit ${\\rm BR}(K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\mp\\mu^\\pm\\mu^\\pm)<1.1\\times 10^{-9}$ was established at 90% CL for the rate of the lepton number violating decay.

  14. Measurements of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 at Nordic background stations using low-cost equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferm, Martin; Areskoug, Hans; Makkonen, Ulla

    Mass concentrations of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 in air were measured at four EMEP stations in the Nordic countries during 2006. All stations used the same low-cost equipment for sampling PM1, but used different techniques for the other size fractions. The PM1 filters were analysed for inorganic ions...... for the first half of June. PM1 constituted on average more than half of the PM2.5 concentrations, but was on average less than half of the PM10 concentrations. There were two episodes of high PM1 concentrations during the year, one in May-June and another one in August-September. The highest PM1 concentrations...... on a daily basis. The PM2.5 concentration, which is the parameter that should be measured within EU, correlated fairly well with the concentration of accumulation mode particles (PM1). In June only a minor fraction of PM1 consisted of inorganic ions. Only ammonium and sulphate ions of the measured ions in PM...

  15. Assessment of annual air pollution levels with PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and associated heavy metals in Algiers, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbi, Abdelhamid; Kerchich, Yacine; Kerbachi, Rabah; Boughedaoui, Ménouèr

    2018-01-01

    Concentrations of particulate matter less than 1  μm, 2.5  μm, 10 μm and their contents of heavy metals were investigated in two different stations, urban and roadside at Algiers (Algeria). Sampling was conducted during two years by a high volume samplers (HVS) equipped with a cascade impactor at four levels stage, for one year sampling. The characterization of the heavy metals associated to the particulate matter (PM) was carried out by X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (XRF). The annual average concentration of PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 in both stations were 18.24, 32.23 and 60.01 μg m -3 respectively. The PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations in roadside varied from 13.46 to 25.59 μg m -3 , 20.82-49.85 μg m -3 and 45.90-77.23 μg m -3 respectively. However in the urban station, the PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations varied from 10.45 to 26.24 μg m -3 , 18.53-47.58 μg m -3 and 43.8-91.62 μg m -3 . The heavy metals associated to the PM were confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses (SEM-EDX). The different spots of PM 2.5 analysis by SEM-EDX shows the presence of nineteen elements with anthropogenic and natural origins, within the heavy metal detected, the lead was found with maximum of 5% (weight percent). In order to determine the source contributions of PM levels at the two sampling sites sampling, principal compound analysis (PCA) was applied to the collected data. Statistical analysis confirmed anthropogenic source with traffic being a significant source and high contribution of natural emissions. At both sites, the PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratio is lower than that usually recorded in developed countries. The study of the back-trajectories of the air masses starting from Sahara shows that desert dust influences the concentration and the composition of the PM measured in Algiers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The local contribution of wood burning to PM10 and PM2.5; De lokale bijdrage van houtverbranding aan PM10 en PM2,5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, G.; Weijers, E. [ECN Biomassa, Kolen en Milieuonderzoek, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    In January 2009, the concentrations of wood smoke in Schoorl, the Netherlands, were established by means of levoglucosan measurements (a hydrocarbon compound that is characteristic for wood smoke). Local wood smoke contributes significantly to the concentration of particulate matter: between 9% and 27% for PM10 and between 30% and 29% for PM2.5. [Dutch] In februari 2009 zijn in Schoorl in Noord-Holland concentraties houtrook bepaald door levoglucosanmetingen (een voor houtrook kenmerkende koolwaterstofverbinding). Lokale houtrook draagt daar significant bij aan de concentratie fijn stof: tussen 9% en 27% voor PM10 en tussen 30% en 39% voor PM2,5.

  17. Spacetime Distributions of Wildfire Areas and Emissions of Carbon-Containing Gases and Aerosols in Northern Eurasia according to Satellite-Monitoring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondur, V. G.; Gordo, K. A.; Kladov, V. L.

    2017-12-01

    Based on online wildfire satellite-monitoring data, distributions of burned-out areas, as well as emission volumes of carbon-containing gases (CO and CO2) and fine aerosols (PM2.5), for different regions and months in 2005-2016 (across the territory of Russia) and in 2010-2016 (northern Eurasia) are analyzed. Distinctive features of the seasonal behavior of wildfires and emission volumes of carbon-containing gases and fine aerosols for different regions of northern Eurasia are determined. It is shown that between 2005 and 2016 the annual area of territories burned out during wildfires in Russia decreased by almost a factor of 2.6 owing to early detection and suppression of fire sources. It is determined that in 2014-2016 the relative size of burned-out areas in Ukraine increased 6-9-fold and volumes of CO, CO2, and PM2.5 emissions by more than a factor of 6.5-7.5 times when compared to earlier years and these characteristics for other European countries.

  18. Diagnosis of Dust- and Pollution- Impacted PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 Aerosols Observed at Gosan Climate Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, X.; Lee, M.; LIM, S.; Gustafsson, O.; Lee, G.; Chang, L.

    2017-12-01

    In East Asia, dust is prevalent and used to be mixed with various pollutants during transportation, causing a large uncertainty in estimating the climate forcing of aerosol and difficulty in making environmental policy. In order to diagnose the influence of dust particles on aerosol, we conducted a long-term measurement of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 for mass, water-soluble ions, and carbonaceous compounds at Gosan Climate Observatory, South Korea from August 2007 to February 2012. The result of principle component analysis reveals that anthropogenic, typical soil dust, and saline dust impact explain 46 %, 16 %, and 9 % of the total variance for all samples, respectively. The mode analysis of mass distributions provides the criteria to distinguish these principle factors. The anthropogenic impact was most pronounced in PM1 and diagnosed by the PM1 mass higher than mean+σ. If PM10 mass was greater than mean+σ, it was highly likely to be affected by typical soil dust. This criterion is also applicable for PM2.5 mass, which was enhanced by both haze and dust particles, though. In the present study, saline dust was recognized by relatively high concentrations of Na and Cl ions in PM1.0. However, their existence was not manifested by increased mass in any of three PM types.

  19. Spatiotemporal patterns of particulate matter (PM and associations between PM and mortality in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengying Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies on air pollution exposure and its associations with human health in China have focused on the heavily polluted industrial areas and/or mega-cities, and studies on cities with comparatively low air pollutant concentrations are still rare. Only a few studies have attempted to analyse particulate matter (PM for the vibrant economic centre Shenzhen in the Pearl River Delta. So far no systematic investigation of PM spatiotemporal patterns in Shenzhen has been undertaken and the understanding of pollution exposure in urban agglomerations with comparatively low pollution is still limited. Methods We analyze daily and hourly particulate matter concentrations and all-cause mortality during 2013 in Shenzhen, China. Temporal patterns of PM (PM2.5 and PM10 with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 (10 μm or less (or less (including particles with a diameter that equals to 2.5 (10 μm are studied, along with the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10. Spatial distributions of PM10 and PM2.5 are addressed and associations of PM10 or PM2.5 and all-cause mortality are analyzed. Results Annual average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 61.3 and 39.6 μg/m3 in 2013. PM2.5 failed to meet the Class 2 annual limit of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard. PM2.5 was the primary air pollutant, with 8.8 % of days having heavy PM2.5 pollution. The daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios were high. Hourly PM2.5 concentrations in the tourist area were lower than downtown throughout the day. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were higher in western parts of Shenzhen than in eastern parts. Excess risks in the number of all-cause mortality with a 10 μg/m3 increase of PM were 0.61 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.50–0.72 for PM10, and 0.69 % (95 % CI: 0.55–0.83 for PM2.5, respectively. The greatest ERs of PM10 and PM2.5 were in 2-day cumulative measures for the all-cause mortality, 2-day lag for females and the young (0–65 years, and L02 for males and the elder (>65

  20. Chemical composition and sources of PM1 and PM2.5 in Beijing in autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyun; Lang, Jianlei; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Shengyue; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Dongsheng; Zhang, Hanyu; Wang, Haiyan

    2018-02-20

    Beijing, the capital of China, suffers from severe atmospheric aerosol pollution; nevertheless, a comprehensive study of the constituents and sources of PM 1 is still lacking, and the differences between PM 1 and PM 2.5 are still unclear. In this study, an intensive observation was conducted to reveal the pollution characteristics of PM 1 and PM 2.5 in Beijing in autumn. Positive matrix factorization (PMF), backward trajectories and a potential source contribution function (PSCF) model were used to identify the source categories and source areas of PM 1 and PM 2.5 . The results showed that the average concentrations of PM 1 and PM 2.5 reached 78.20μg/m 3 and 95.47μg/m 3 during the study period, respectively. PM 1 contributed greatly to PM 2.5 . The PM 1 /PM 2.5 value increased from 73.6% to 90.1% with PM 1 concentration growing from 150μg/m 3 . Higher secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) proportions (31.3%-70.8%) were found in PM 1 . The higher fraction of SIA, OC, EC and typical elements in PM 1 illustrated that anthropogenic components accumulated more in smaller size particles. Three typical weather patterns causing the heavy pollution in autumn were found as follows: (1) Siberian high and uniform high pressure field, (2) cold front and low-voltage system, and (3) uniform low pressure field. A PMF analysis indicated that secondary aerosols and coal combustion, vehicle, industry, biomass burning, and dust were the important sources of PM, accounting for 53.8%, 8.0%, 13.0%, 13.2% and 12.0% of PM 1 , respectively, and for 47.5%, 9.9%, 12.4%, 8.4% and 21.8% of PM 2.5 , respectively. The HYSPLIT and chemical components analysis indicated the potential contribution from biomass burning and fertilization ammonia emissions to PM 1 in autumn. The source areas were similar for PM 1 and PM 1-2.5 under general polluted conditions, but during the heavily polluted periods, the source areas were distributed in farther regions from Beijing for PM 1 than for PM 1-2.5 . Copyright

  1. Partitioning of magnetic particles in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 aerosols in the urban atmosphere of Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, María Aránzazu; McIntosh, Gregg; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés

    2014-05-01

    A combined magnetic-chemical study of 15 daily, simultaneous PM10-PM2.5-PM1 urban background aerosol samples has been carried out. The magnetic properties are dominated by non-stoichiometric magnetite, with highest concentrations seen in PM10. Low temperature magnetic analyses showed that the superparamagnetic fraction is more abundant when coarse, multidomain particles are present, confirming that they may occur as an oxidized outer shell around coarser grains. A strong association of the magnetic parameters with a vehicular PM10 source has been identified. Strong correlations found with Cu and Sb suggests that this association is related to brake abrasion emissions rather than exhaust emissions. For PM1 the magnetic remanence parameters are more strongly associated with crustal sources. Two crustal sources are identified in PM1, one of which is of North African origin. The magnetic particles are related to this source and so may be used to distinguish North African dust from other sources in PM1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentration in Khorramabad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamed Mirhosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this study, the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in eight station of Khorramabad city was analyzed. Materials and Methods: For this study, the data were taken from April 2010 to March 2011. The eight sampling point were chosen in account to Khorramabad maps. During this period, 240 daily PM samples including coarse particle (PM 10 and fine particle (PM 2.5 were collected. A two-part sampler was used to collect samples of PM. According to one-way ANOVA, multiple comparisons Scheffe, the obtained data were analyzed and then compared with the Environment protection organization standard rates. Khorramabad Results: The results revealed that during measuring the maximum concentration of PM 10 and PM 2.5 was respectively 120.9 and 101.09 μ/m 3 at Shamshirabad station. There was a significant difference between the mean values of PM 10 concentration (μg/m 3 in the seasons of summer. In addition, the mean concentrations of PM 10 in warmer months exceeded to the maximum permissible concentration. Conclusions: Year comparison of PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentration with standard were revealed particle matter concentration in summer season was higher than standard. Although total mean of particle matter was less than standard concentration.

  3. Monitoring and source apportionment of trace elements in PM2.5: Implications for local air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueyan; Chang, Miao; Ding, Shanshan; Wang, Shiwen; Ni, Dun; Hu, Hongtao

    2017-07-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) samples were collected simultaneously every hour in Beijing between April 2014 and April 2015 at five sites. Thirteen trace elements (TEs) in PM 2.5 were analyzed by online X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The annual average PM 2.5 concentrations ranged from 76.8 to 102.7 μg m -3 . TEs accounted for 5.9%-8.7% of the total PM 2.5 mass with Cl, S, K, and Si as the most dominant elements. Spearman correlation coefficients of PM 2.5 or TE concentrations between the background site and other sites showed that PM 2.5 and some element loadings were affected by regional and local sources, whereas Cr, Si, and Ni were attributed to substantial local emissions. Temporal variations of TEs in PM 2.5 were significant and provided information on source profiles. The PM 2.5 concentrations were highest in autumn and lowest in summer. Mn and Cr showed similar variation. Fe, Ca, Si, and Ti tended to show higher concentrations in spring, whereas concentrations of S peaked in summer. Concentrations of Cl, K, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni peaked in winter. PM 2.5 and TE median concentrations were higher on Saturdays than on weekdays. The diurnal pattern of PM 2.5 and TE median concentrations yielded similar bimodal patterns. Five dominant sources of PM 2.5 mass were identified via positive matrix factorization (PMF). These sources included the regional and local secondary aerosols, traffic, coal burning, soil dust, and metal processing. Air quality management strategies, including regional environmental coordination and collaboration, reduction in secondary aerosol precursors, restrictive vehicle emission standards, promotion of public transport, and adoption of clean energy, should be strictly implemented. High time-resolution measurements of TEs provided detailed source profiles, which can greatly improve precision in interpreting source apportionment calculations; the PMF analysis of online XRF data is a powerful tool for local air quality management. Copyright

  4. Investigation of Air Quality Index and PM10 and PM2.5 in Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fazelinia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: In this study, the air quality index and concentration of particles such as PM10 and PM2.5 were investigated in Arak. Materials and Methods: To determine the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5, 60 samples were collected by laser TSI model 8520 in summer and winter 2012. The collection site was around Arak city center. Results: during the sampling period, as a matter of PM10, the cleanest and the most polluted month were December and June with the average of 34.33 µg m-3 and 100.1 µg m-3, respectively. The concentration of PM2.5 was 12.93 and 53.17 µg m-3 for December and June, respectively. Meanwhile, in terms of air quality index (AQI, in 98.3% and 70% of cases, the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively were less than normal (AQI100. Conclusion: The concentration of PM10 in the study period was less than Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 2006 guideline. Meanwhile, the concentrations of PM2.5 in 30% of air samples were greater than EPA guideline. The average PM2.5/PM10 ratio during the sampling period was 0.41 compared to range 0.15 to 0.25 reported by EPA.

  5. Characterization of PAHs and metals in indoor/outdoor PM10/PM2.5/PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Naddafi, Kazem; Faridi, Sasan; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Momeniha, Fatemeh; Gholampour, Akbar; Arhami, Mohammad; Kashani, Homa; Zare, Ahad; Niazi, Sadegh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Ghani, Maryam; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-09-15

    In the present work, we investigated the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metal(loid)s in indoor/outdoor PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory in Tehran from May 2012 to May 2013. The results indicated that the annual levels of indoor and outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 were much higher than the guidelines issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). The most abundant detected metal(loid)s in PM were Si, Fe, Zn, Al, and Pb. We found higher percentages of metal(loid)s in smaller size fractions of PM. Additionally, the results showed that the total PAHs (ƩPAHs) bound to PM were predominantly (83-88%) found in PM2.5, which can penetrate deep into the alveolar regions of the lungs. In general, carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 40-47% of the total PAHs concentrations; furthermore, the smaller the particle size, the higher the percentage of carcinogenic PAHs. The percentages of trace metal(loid)s and carcinogenic PAHs in PM2.5 mass were almost twice as high as those in PM10. This can most likely be responsible for the fact that PM2.5 can cause more adverse health effects than PM10 can. The average BaP-equivalent carcinogenic (BaP-TEQ) levels both indoors and outdoors considerably exceeded the maximum permissible risk level of 1 ng/m(3) of BaP. The enrichment factors and diagnostic ratios indicated that combustion-related anthropogenic sources, such as gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles as well as natural gas combustion, were the major sources of PAHs and trace metal(loid)s bound to PM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Use of Principal Component Analysis for Source Identification of PM2.5 from Selected Urban and Regional Background Sites in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczak, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    The paper reports the results of the measurements of water-soluble ions and carbonaceous matter content in the fine particulate matter (PM2.5), as well as the contributions of major sources in PM2.5. Daily PM2.5 samples were collected during heating and non-heating season of the year 2013 in three different locations in Poland: Szczecin (urban background), Trzebinia (urban background) and Złoty Potok (regional background). The concentrations of PM2.5, and its related components, exhibited clear spatiotemporal variability with higher levels during the heating period. The share of the total carbon (TC) in PM2.5 exceeded 40% and was primarily determined by fluctuations in the share of OC. Sulfates (SO42-), nitrates (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) dominated in the ionic composition of PM2.5 and accounted together 34% (Szczecin), 30% (Trzebinia) and 18% (Złoty Potok) of PM2.5 mass. Source apportionment analysis, performed by PCA-MLRA model (Principal Component Analysis - Multilinear Regression Analysis), revealed that secondary aerosol, whose presence is related to oxidation of gaseous precursors emitted from fuel combustion and biomass burning, had the largest contribution in observed PM2.5 concentrations. In addition, the contribution of traffic sources together with road dust resuspension, was observed. The share of natural sources (sea spray, crustal dust) was generally lower.

  7. The Use of Principal Component Analysis for Source Identification of PM2.5 from Selected Urban and Regional Background Sites in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błaszczak Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of the measurements of water-soluble ions and carbonaceous matter content in the fine particulate matter (PM2.5, as well as the contributions of major sources in PM2.5. Daily PM2.5 samples were collected during heating and non-heating season of the year 2013 in three different locations in Poland: Szczecin (urban background, Trzebinia (urban background and Złoty Potok (regional background. The concentrations of PM2.5, and its related components, exhibited clear spatiotemporal variability with higher levels during the heating period. The share of the total carbon (TC in PM2.5 exceeded 40% and was primarily determined by fluctuations in the share of OC. Sulfates (SO42-, nitrates (NO3- and ammonium (NH4+ dominated in the ionic composition of PM2.5 and accounted together ~34% (Szczecin, ~30% (Trzebinia and ~18% (Złoty Potok of PM2.5 mass. Source apportionment analysis, performed by PCA-MLRA model (Principal Component Analysis – Multilinear Regression Analysis, revealed that secondary aerosol, whose presence is related to oxidation of gaseous precursors emitted from fuel combustion and biomass burning, had the largest contribution in observed PM2.5 concentrations. In addition, the contribution of traffic sources together with road dust resuspension, was observed. The share of natural sources (sea spray, crustal dust was generally lower.

  8. The Concentrations and Reduction of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1 at Shelterbelt Site in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter is a serious source of air pollution in urban areas, where it exerts adverse effects on human health. This article focuses on the study of subduction of shelterbelts for atmospheric particulates. The results suggest that (1 the PM mass concentration is higher in the morning or both morning and noon inside the shelterbelts and lower mass concentrations at other times; (2 the particle mass concentration inside shelterbelt is higher than outside; (3 the particle interception efficiency of the two forest belts over the three months in descending order was PM10 > PM1 > PM2.5; and (4 the two shelterbelts captured air pollutants at rates of 1496.285 and 909.075 kg/month and the major atmospheric pollutant in Beijing city is PM10. Future research directions are to study PM mass concentration variation of shelterbelt with different tree species and different configuration.

  9. LHCb: Observation of CP violation in $B^{\\pm} \\to D^0 K^{\\pm}$ decays at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Johnson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of $B^\\pm \\to DK^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm \\to D\\pi^\\pm$ decays is presented where the D meson is reconstructed in the two-body final states: $K^\\pm \\pi^\\mp$, $K^+K^−$ and $\\pi^+\\pi^-$. Using 1.0 fb$^{−1}$ of LHCb data, measurements of several observables are made including the first observation of the suppressed mode $B^\\pm \\to [\\pi^\\pm K^\\mp] DK^\\pm$. CP violation in $B^\\pm \\to DK^\\pm$ decays is observed with $5.8\\sigma$ significance. We also comment on the prospects for similar measurements using different final states.

  10. Development of a continuous monitoring system for PM10 and components of PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, M; Xiong, J Q; Li, W

    2000-01-01

    While particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters below 10 and 2.5 microns (PM10 and PM2.5) correlate with excess mortality and morbidity, there is evidence for still closer epidemiological associations with sulfate ion, and experimental exposure-response studies suggest that the hydrogen ion and ultrafine (PM0.15) concentrations may be important risk factors. Also, there are measurement artifacts in current methods used to measure ambient PM10 and PM2.5, including negative artifacts because of losses of sampled semivolatile components (ammonium nitrate and some organics) and positive artifacts due to particle-bound water. To study such issues, we are developing a semi-continuous monitoring system for PM10, PM2.5, semivolatiles (organic compounds and NH4NO3), particle-bound water, and other PM2.5 constituents that may be causal factors. PM10 is aerodynamically sorted into three size-fractions: (1) coarse (PM10-PM2.5); (2) accumulation mode (PM2.5-PM0.15); and (3) ultrafine (PM0.15). The mass concentration of each fraction is measured in terms of the linear relation between accumulated mass and pressure drop on polycarbonate pore filters. The PM0.15 mass, being highly correlated with the ultrafine number concentration, provides a good index of the total number concentration in ambient air. For the accumulation mode (PM2.5-PM0.15), which contains nearly all of the semivolatiles and particle-bound water by mass, aliquots of the aerosol stream flow into system components that continuously monitor sulfur (by flame photometry), ammonium and nitrate (by chemiluminescence following catalytic transformations to NO), organics (by thermal-optical analysis) and particle-bound water (by electrolytic hygrometer after vacuum evaporation of sampled particles). The concentration of H+ can be calculated (by ion balance using the monitoring data on NO3-, NH4+, and SO4=).

  11. Variations of PM2.5, PM10 mass concentration and health assessment in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memhood, Tariq; Tianle, Z.; Ahmad, I.; Li, X.; Shen, F.; Akram, W.; Dong, L.

    2018-04-01

    Sparse information appears in lack of awareness among the people regarding the linkage between particulate matter (PM) and mortality in Pakistan. The current study is aimed to investigate the seasonal mass concentration level of PM2.5 and PM10 in ambient air of Islamabad to assess the health risk of PM pollution. The sampling was carried out with two parallel medium volume air samplers on Whatman 47 mm quartz filter at a flow rate of 100L/min. Mass concentration was obtained by gravimetric analysis. A noticeable seasonal change in PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration was observed. In case of PM2.5, the winter was a most polluted and spring was the cleanest season of 2017 in Islamabad with 69.97 and 40.44 μgm‑3 mean concentration. Contrary, highest (152.42 μgm‑3) and lowest (74.90 μgm‑3) PM10 mass concentration was observed in autumn and summer respectively. Air Quality index level for PM2.5 and PM10 was remained moderated to unhealthy and good to sensitive respectively. Regarding health risk assessment, using national data for mortality rates, the excess mortality due to PM2.5 and PM10 exposure has been calculated and amounts to over 198 and 98 deaths annually for Islamabad. Comparatively estimated lifetime risk for PM2.5 (1.16×10-6) was observed higher than PM10 (7.32×10-8).

  12. Electronegative gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    Recent knowledge on electronegative gases essential for the effective control of the number densities of free electrons in electrically stressed gases is highlighted. This knowledge aided the discovery of new gas dielectrics and the tailoring of gas dielectric mixtures. The role of electron attachment in the choice of unitary gas dielectrics or electronegative components in dielectric gas mixtures, and the role of electron scattering at low energies in the choice of buffer gases for such mixtures is outlined

  13. PM1-Alpha ELISA: the assay of choice for the detection of anti-PM/Scl autoantibodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Michael; Fritzler, Marvin J

    2009-03-01

    A characteristic serological feature of patients suffering from the overlap polymyositis and scleroderma (PM/Scl) syndrome are antibodies to the human counterpart of the yeast exosome referred to as the PM/Scl complex. Historically, the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies was laborious and relied largely on indirect immunofluorescence and immunodiffusion techniques. In 1992 the major autoantigen PM/Scl-100 was identified and cloned. Subsequently, the major epitopes were mapped and one of these, termed PM1-Alpha, became the antigen for a novel ELISA exhibiting high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies. Comparative studies with other methods using other PM/Scl autoantigens have shown that the PM1-Alpha ELISA has higher sensitivity and specificity than assays that employed recombinant PM/Scl-75c and PM/Scl-100. Anti-PM1-Alpha antibodies were identified in 55.0% of sera from PM/Scl overlap syndrome patients, but were also seen in 7.9% of SSc and in 7.5% of PM patients. The frequency in other systemic autoimmune diseases and in infectious diseases was significant lower. In summary, the data derived from individual studies suggest that PM1-Alpha may become the "gold standard" for the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies.

  14. AIRUSE-LIFE+: a harmonized PM speciation and source apportionment in five southern European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Fulvio; Alastuey, Andrés; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Lucarelli, Franco; Nava, Silvia; Calzolai, Giulia; Severi, Mirko; Becagli, Silvia; Gianelle, Vorne L.; Colombi, Cristina; Alves, Celia; Custódio, Danilo; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mario; Pio, Casimiro; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Diapouli, Evangelia; Reche, Cristina; Cruz Minguillón, María; Manousakas, Manousos-Ioannis; Maggos, Thomas; Vratolis, Stergios; Harrison, Roy M.; Querol, Xavier

    2016-03-01

    The AIRUSE-LIFE+ project aims at characterizing similarities and heterogeneities in particulate matter (PM) sources and contributions in urban areas from southern Europe. Once the main PMx sources are identified, AIRUSE aims at developing and testing the efficiency of specific and non-specific measures to improve urban air quality. This article reports the results of the source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 conducted at three urban background sites (Barcelona, Florence and Milan, BCN-UB, FI-UB and MLN-UB), one suburban background site (Athens, ATH-SUB) and one traffic site (Porto, POR-TR). After collecting 1047 PM10 and 1116 PM2.5 24 h samples during 12 months (from January 2013 on) simultaneously at the five cities, these were analysed for the contents of OC, EC, anions, cations, major and trace elements and levoglucosan. The USEPA PMF5 receptor model was applied to these data sets in a harmonized way for each city. The sum of vehicle exhaust (VEX) and non-exhaust (NEX) contributes between 3.9 and 10.8 µg m-3 (16-32 %) to PM10 and 2.3 and 9.4 µg m-3 (15-36 %) to PM2.5, although a fraction of secondary nitrate is also traffic-related but could not be estimated. Important contributions arise from secondary particles (nitrate, sulfate and organics) in PM2.5 (37-82 %) but also in PM10 (40-71 %), mostly at background sites, revealing the importance of abating gaseous precursors in designing air quality plans. Biomass burning (BB) contributions vary widely, from 14-24 % of PM10 in POR-TR, MLN-UB and FI-UB, 7 % in ATH-SUB, to levels increase on an annual basis by 1-9 µg m-3 due to biomass burning influence. Other significant sources are the following. - Local dust, 7-12 % of PM10 at SUB and UB sites and 19 % at the TR site, revealing a contribution from road dust resuspension. In PM2.5 percentages decrease to 2-7 % at SUB-UB sites and 15 % at the TR site. - Industry, mainly metallurgy, contributing 4-11 % of PM10 (5-12 % in PM2.5), but only at BCN-UB, POR-TR and MLN

  15. AIRUSE-LIFE+: a harmonized PM speciation and source apportionment in 5 Southern European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Karanasiou, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Calzolai, G.; Severi, M.; Becagli, S.; Gianelle, V. L.; Colombi, C.; Alves, C.; Custódio, D.; Nunes, T.; Cerqueira, M.; Pio, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Diapouli, E.; Reche, C.; Minguillón, M. C.; Manousakas, M.; Maggos, T.; Vratolis, S.; Harrison, R. M.; Querol, X.

    2015-09-01

    The AIRUSE-LIFE+ project aims at characterising similarities and heterogeneities in PM sources and contributions in urban areas from the Southern Europe. Once the main PMx sources are identified, AIRUSE aims at developing and testing the efficiency of specific and non-specific measures to improve urban air quality. This article reports the results of the source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 conducted at three urban background sites (Barcelona, Florence and Milan, BCN-UB, FI-UB, MLN-UB) one sub-urban background site (Athens, ATH-SUB) and one traffic site (Porto, POR-TR). After collecting 1047 PM10 and 1116 PM2.5 24 h samples from January 2013 to February 2014 simultaneously at the 5 cities, these were analysed for the contents of OC, EC, anions, cations, major and trace elements and levoglucosan. The USEPA PMF5 receptor model was applied to these datasets in a harmonised way for each city. The sum of vehicle exhaust and non-exhaust contributes within 3.9-10.8 μg m-3 (16-32 %) to PM10 and 2.3-9.4 μg m-3 (15-36 %) to PM2.5, although a fraction of secondary nitrate is also traffic-related but could not be estimated. Important contributions arise from secondary particles (nitrate, sulphate and organics) in PM2.5 (37-82 %) but also in PM10 (40-71 %) mostly at background sites, revealing the importance of abating gaseous precursors in designing air quality plans. Biomass burning (BB) contributions vary widely, from 14-24 % of PM10 in POR-TR, MLN-UB and FI-UB, 7 % in ATH-SUB to levels increase on an annual basis by 1-9 μg m-3 due to this source. Other significant sources are: - Local dust, 7-12 % of PM10 at SUB and UB sites and 19 % at the TR site, revealing a contribution from road dust resuspension. In PM2.5 percentages decrease to 2-7 % at SUB-UB sites and 15 % at the TR site. - Industries, mainly metallurgy, contributing 4-11 % of PM10 (5-12 % in PM2.5), but only at BCN-UB, POR-TR and MLN-UB. No clear impact of industrial emissions was found in FI-UB and ATH

  16. Removing radioactive noble gases from nuclear process off-gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofredo, A.

    1977-01-01

    A system is claimed for separating, concentrating and storing radioactive krypton and xenon in the off-gases from a boiling water reactor, wherein adsorption and cryogenic distillation are both efficiently used for rapid and positive separation and removal of the radioactive noble gases, and for limiting such gases in circulation in the system to low inventory at all times, and wherein the system is self-regulating to eliminate operator options or attention

  17. Validation of PM6 & PM7 semiempirical methods on polarizability calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, P. A.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Ramamurthi, K.

    2015-06-01

    Modern semiempirical methods such as PM6 and PM7 are often used to explore the electronic structure dependent properties of molecules. In this work we report the evaluation of PM6 and PM7 methods towards linear and nonlinear optical polarizability calculations for different molecules and solid nanoclusters. The results are compared with reported experimental results as well as theoretical results from other high level theories for the same systems. It is found that both methods produce accurate results for small molecules and the accuracy increases with the increase in asymmetry of the medium sized organic molecules and accuracy reduces for solid nanoclusters.

  18. Validation of PM6 & PM7 semiempirical methods on polarizability calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen, P. A.; Babu, R. Ramesh, E-mail: rampap2k@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Growth and Thin film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli-620024, Tamilnadu (India); Ramamurthi, K. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattankulathur – 603 203, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-06-24

    Modern semiempirical methods such as PM6 and PM7 are often used to explore the electronic structure dependent properties of molecules. In this work we report the evaluation of PM6 and PM7 methods towards linear and nonlinear optical polarizability calculations for different molecules and solid nanoclusters. The results are compared with reported experimental results as well as theoretical results from other high level theories for the same systems. It is found that both methods produce accurate results for small molecules and the accuracy increases with the increase in asymmetry of the medium sized organic molecules and accuracy reduces for solid nanoclusters.

  19. Validation of PM6 & PM7 semiempirical methods on polarizability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen, P. A.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Ramamurthi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Modern semiempirical methods such as PM6 and PM7 are often used to explore the electronic structure dependent properties of molecules. In this work we report the evaluation of PM6 and PM7 methods towards linear and nonlinear optical polarizability calculations for different molecules and solid nanoclusters. The results are compared with reported experimental results as well as theoretical results from other high level theories for the same systems. It is found that both methods produce accurate results for small molecules and the accuracy increases with the increase in asymmetry of the medium sized organic molecules and accuracy reduces for solid nanoclusters

  20. Identifying precursors and aqueous organic aerosol formation pathways during the SOAS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sareen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous multiphase chemistry in the atmosphere can lead to rapid transformation of organic compounds, forming highly oxidized, low-volatility organic aerosol and, in some cases, light-absorbing (brown carbon. Because liquid water is globally abundant, this chemistry could substantially impact climate, air quality, and health. Gas-phase precursors released from biogenic and anthropogenic sources are oxidized and fragmented, forming water-soluble gases that can undergo reactions in the aqueous phase (in clouds, fogs, and wet aerosols, leading to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOAAQ. Recent studies have highlighted the role of certain precursors like glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone, and epoxides in the formation of SOAAQ. The goal of this work is to identify additional precursors and products that may be atmospherically important. In this study, ambient mixtures of water-soluble gases were scrubbed from the atmosphere into water at Brent, Alabama, during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS. Hydroxyl (OH⚫ radical oxidation experiments were conducted with the aqueous mixtures collected from SOAS to better understand the formation of SOA through gas-phase followed by aqueous-phase chemistry. Total aqueous-phase organic carbon concentrations for these mixtures ranged from 92 to 179 µM-C, relevant for cloud and fog waters. Aqueous OH-reactive compounds were primarily observed as odd ions in the positive ion mode by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. Ultra high-resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS spectra and tandem MS (MS–MS fragmentation of these ions were consistent with the presence of carbonyls and tetrols. Products were observed in the negative ion mode and included pyruvate and oxalate, which were confirmed by ion chromatography. Pyruvate and oxalate have been found in the particle phase in many locations (as salts and

  1. Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Production of Hydrogen Use of Hydrogen Greenhouse Gases Basics | | Did you know? Without naturally occurring greenhouse gases, the earth would be too cold to support life as we know it. Without the greenhouse effect, ...

  2. A multivariate study for characterizing particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) in Seoul metropolitan subway stations, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Bark; Jeong, Wootae; Park, Duckshin; Kim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2015-10-30

    Given that around eight million commuters use the Seoul Metropolitan Subway (SMS) each day, the indoor air quality (IAQ) of its stations has attracted much public attention. We have monitored the concentration of particulate matters (PMx) (i.e., PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) in six major transfer stations per minute for three weeks during the summer, autumn, and winter in 2014 and 2015. The data were analyzed to investigate the relationship between PMx concentration and multivariate environmental factors using statistical methods. The average PM concentration observed was approximately two or three times higher than outdoor PM10 concentration, showing similar temporal patterns at concourses and platforms. This implies that outdoor PM10 is the most significant factor in controlling indoor PM concentration. In addition, the station depth and number of trains passing through stations were found to be additional influences on PMx. Principal component analysis (PCA) and self-organizing map (SOM) were employed, through which we found that the number of trains influences PM concentration in the vicinity of platforms only, and PMx hotspots were determined. This study identifies the external and internal factors affecting PMx characteristics in six SMS stations, which can assist in the development of effective IAQ management plans to improve public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY IN PHOENIX: PM1 IS A BETTER INDICATOR THAN PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has obtained a 3-year database of particulate matter (PM) in Phoenix, AZ from 1995 - 1997 that includes elemental analysis by XRF of daily PM2.5. During this time period PM1 and PM2.5 TEOMs were run simultaneously for about 7 months during two periods of the year. Regressio...

  4. Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kwangsam; Biswas, Subhasis; Robertson, William; Sahay, Keshav; Okamoto, Robert; Mitchell, Alexander; Lemieux, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    As part of a broad evaluation of the environmental impacts of biodiesel and renewable diesel as alternative motor fuels and fuel blends in California, the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) Heavy-duty Diesel Emission Testing Laboratory conducted chassis dynamometer exhaust emission measurements on in-use heavy-heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDT). The results presented here detail the impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels and fuel blends as compared to CARB ULSD on particulate matter (PM), regulated gases, and two greenhouse gases emissions from a HHDDT with a 2000 C15 Caterpillar engine with no exhaust after treatment devices. This vehicle was tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the cruise portion of the California HHDDT driving schedule. Three neat blend stocks (soy-based and animal-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels, and a renewable diesel) and CARB-certified ultra-low sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD) along with their 20% and 50% blends (blended with CARB ULSD) were tested. The effects of blend level on emission characteristics were discussed on g·km-1 basis. The results showed that PM, total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were dependent on driving cycles, showing higher emissions for the UDDS cycles with medium load than the highway cruise cycle with high load on per km basis. When comparing CARB ULSD to biodiesels and renewable diesel blends, it was observed that the PM, THC, and CO emissions decreased with increasing blend levels regardless of the driving cycles. Note that biodiesel blends showed higher degree of emission reductions for PM, THC, and CO than renewable diesel blends. Both biodiesels and renewable diesel blends effectively reduced PM emissions, mainly due to reduction in elemental carbon emissions (EC), however no readily apparent reductions in organic carbon (OC) emissions were observed. When compared to CARB ULSD, soy- and animal-based biodiesel blends showed statistically

  5. Renewable energies in electricity generation for reduction of greenhouse gases in Mexico 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas, Jorge; Manzini, Fabio; Martínez, Manuel

    2002-02-01

    This study presents 4 scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the historic path of Mexico's energy policy. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-1990s as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The fourth scenario takes into account the present- and medium-term use of natural-gas technologies that the energy reform has produced, but after 2007 a high and feasible participation of renewable sources of energy is considered. The 4 scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG).

  6. Source-receptor relationships for PM2.5 during typical pollution episodes in the Pearl River Delta city cluster, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Hong, Y.; Wang, X.; Chan, P.; Chen, X.; Lai, A.; Wang, M.; Chen, X.

    2017-12-01

    Located in the Southern China monsoon region, pollution days in Pearl River Delta (PRD) were classified into "Western type", "Central type" or "Eastern type", with a relative percentage of 67%, 24% and 9%, respectively. Using this classification system, three typical pollution events were selected for numerical simulations using the WRF-Chem model. The source sensitivity method for anthropogenic emissions of PM2.5 and its precursors was applied to identify the source-receptor relationships for PM2.5 among 9 cities in PRD. For "Western type" case, the PRD region was under control of a high-pressure system with easterly prevailing winds. The PM2.5 concentrations in the western PRD region were higher than those in the eastern region, with emissions from cities in the eastern PRD region having higher contributions. Within the PRD's urban cluster, PM2.5 in Huizhou, Dongguan and Shenzhen was mainly derived from local emissions, whereas the PM2.5 in the other cities was primarily derived from external transport. For "Eastern type" case, the PRD was influenced by Typhoon Soulik with westerly prevailing winds. Emissions from cities in the western PRD region had the highest impacts on the overall PM2.5 concentration. PM2.5 in Jiangmen and Foshan was primarily derived from local emissions. Regarding "Central type" case, the PRD region was under control of a uniform pressure field with low wind speed. PM2.5 concentrations of each city were primarily caused by local emissions. Overall, wind flows played a significant role in the transport and spatial distribution of PM2.5 across the PRD region. Ideally, local governments would be wise to establish joint prevention and control measures to reduce regional atmospheric pollution, especially for "Western type" pollution.

  7. Hospital indoor PM10/PM2.5 and associated trace elements in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Bi Xinhui; Sheng Guoying; Fu Jiamo

    2006-01-01

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in the indoor environments of four hospitals and their adjacent outdoor environments in Guangzhou, China during the summertime. The concentrations of 18 target elements in particles were also quantified. The results showed that indoor PM2.5 levels with an average of 99 μg m -3 were significantly higher than outdoor PM2.5 standard of 65 μg m -3 recommended by USEPA [United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Fact Sheet. EPA's Revised Particulate Matter Standards, 17, July 1997] and PM2.5 constituted a large fraction of indoor respirable particles (PM10) by an average of 78% in four hospitals. High correlation between PM2.5 and PM10 (R 2 of 0.87 for indoors and 0.90 for outdoors) suggested that PM2.5 and PM10 came from similar particulate emission sources. The indoor particulate levels were correlated with the corresponding outdoors (R 2 of 0.78 for PM2.5 and 0.67 for PM10), demonstrating that outdoor infiltration could lead to direct transportation into indoors. In addition to outdoor infiltration, human activities and ventilation types could also influence indoor particulate levels in four hospitals. Total target elements accounted for 3.18-5.56% of PM2.5 and 4.38-9.20% of PM10 by mass, respectively. Na, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Ti were found in the coarse particles, while K, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb, As and Se existed more in the fine particles. The average indoor concentrations of total elements were lower than those measured outdoors, suggesting that indoor elements originated mainly from outdoor emission sources. Enrichment factors (EF) for trace element were calculated to show that elements of anthropogenic origins (Zn, Pb, As, Se, V, Ni, Cu and Cd) were highly enriched with respect to crustal composition (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn). Factor analysis was used to identify possible pollution source-types, namely street dust, road traffic and

  8. Hospital indoor PM10/PM2.5 and associated trace elements in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2006-07-31

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in the indoor environments of four hospitals and their adjacent outdoor environments in Guangzhou, China during the summertime. The concentrations of 18 target elements in particles were also quantified. The results showed that indoor PM2.5 levels with an average of 99 microg m(-3) were significantly higher than outdoor PM2.5 standard of 65 microg m(-3) recommended by USEPA [United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Fact Sheet. EPA's Revised Particulate Matter Standards, 17, July 1997] and PM2.5 constituted a large fraction of indoor respirable particles (PM10) by an average of 78% in four hospitals. High correlation between PM2.5 and PM10 (R(2) of 0.87 for indoors and 0.90 for outdoors) suggested that PM2.5 and PM10 came from similar particulate emission sources. The indoor particulate levels were correlated with the corresponding outdoors (R(2) of 0.78 for PM2.5 and 0.67 for PM10), demonstrating that outdoor infiltration could lead to direct transportation into indoors. In addition to outdoor infiltration, human activities and ventilation types could also influence indoor particulate levels in four hospitals. Total target elements accounted for 3.18-5.56% of PM2.5 and 4.38-9.20% of PM10 by mass, respectively. Na, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Ti were found in the coarse particles, while K, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb, As and Se existed more in the fine particles. The average indoor concentrations of total elements were lower than those measured outdoors, suggesting that indoor elements originated mainly from outdoor emission sources. Enrichment factors (EF) for trace element were calculated to show that elements of anthropogenic origins (Zn, Pb, As, Se, V, Ni, Cu and Cd) were highly enriched with respect to crustal composition (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn). Factor analysis was used to identify possible pollution source-types, namely street dust, road traffic

  9. Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also produced by human activities. Some, such as industrial gases, are exclusively human made. What are the types ... Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Industrial gases: Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 Nitrogen ...

  10. [Gases in vitreoretinal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janco, L; Vida, R; Bartos, M; Villémová, K; Izák, M

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the importance and benefits of using gases in vitreoretinal surgery. The gases represent a wide group of substances used in eye surgery for more than 100 years. The role of intraocular gases in vitreoretinal surgery is irreplaceable. Their use is still considered to be the "gold standard". An important step in eye surgery was the introduction of expanding gases--sulfur hexafluoride and perfluorocarbons into routine clinical practice. The most common indications for the use of intraocular gases are: retinal detachment, idiopathic macular hole, complications of vitreoretinal surgery and others. The introduction of intraocular gases into routine clinical practice, along with other modern surgical techniques resulted in significant improvement of postoperative outcomes in a wide range of eye diseases. Understanding the principles of intraocular gases use brings the benefits to the patient and physician as well. Due to their physical and chemical properties they pose far the best and most appropriate variant of intraocular tamponade. Gases also bring some disadvantages, such as difficulties in detailed fundus examination, visual acuity testing, ultrasonographic examination, difficulties in application of intravitreal drugs or reduced possibility of retina laser treatment. The gases significantly change optical system properties of the eye. The use of gases in vitreoretinal surgery has significantly increased success rate of retinal detachment surgery, complicated posterior segment cases, trauma, surgery of the macula and other diseases.

  11. Impacts of Energy Sector Emissions on PM2.5 Air Quality in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karambelas, A. N.; Kiesewetter, G.; Heyes, C.; Holloway, T.

    2015-12-01

    India experiences high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and several Indian cities currently rank among the world's most polluted cities. With ongoing urbanization and a growing economy, emissions from different energy sectors remain major contributors to air pollution in India. Emission sectors impact ambient air quality differently due to spatial distribution (typical urban vs. typical rural sources) as well as source height characteristics (low-level vs. high stack sources). This study aims to assess the impacts of emissions from three distinct energy sectors—transportation, domestic, and electricity—on ambient PM2.5­­ in northern India using an advanced air quality analysis framework based on the U.S. EPA Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Present air quality conditions are simulated using 2010 emissions from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interaction and Synergies (GAINS) model. Modeled PM2.5 concentrations are compared with satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2010. Energy sector emissions impacts on future (2030) PM2.5 are evaluated with three sensitivity simulations, assuming maximum feasible reduction technologies for either transportation, domestic, or electricity sectors. These simulations are compared with a business as usual 2030 simulation to assess relative sectoral impacts spatially and temporally. CMAQ is modeled at 12km by 12km and include biogenic emissions from the Community Land Model coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols in Nature (CLM-MEGAN), biomass burning emissions from the Global Fires Emissions Database (GFED), and ERA-Interim meteorology generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for 2010 to quantify the impact of modified anthropogenic emissions on ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Energy sector emissions analysis supports decision-making to improve future air quality and public health in

  12. Inhalation Exposure to PM-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Released from Barbecue Grills Powered by Gas, Lump Charcoal, and Charcoal Briquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyda, Artur J; Widziewicz, Kamila; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Majewski, Grzegorz; Jureczko, Izabela

    2018-01-01

    The present study seeks to define the possible cancer risk arising from the inhalation exposure to particle (PM)-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in barbecue emission gases and to compare the risk depending on the type of fuel used for grill powering. Three types of fuel were compared: liquid propane gas, lump charcoal, and charcoal briquettes. PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-100 were collected during grilling. Subsequently, 16 PAHs congeners were extracted from the PM samples and measured quantitatively using gas chromatography. The content of PM-bound PAHs was used to calculate PAHs deposition in the respiratory tract using the multiple path particle dosimetry model. Finally, a probabilistic risk model was developed to assess the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) faced by people exposed to PAHs. We found a distinctly greater PAHs formation in case of grills powered by charcoal briquettes. The summary concentration of PAHs (Σ16PAH) ranged from inhale barbecue particles for 5 h a day, 40 days a year exceeds the acceptable level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We conclude that the type of heat source used for grilling influences the PM-bound PAHs formation. The greatest concentration of PAHs is generated when grilling over charcoal briquettes. Loading grills with food generates conspicuously more PAHs emissions. Traditional grilling poses cancer risk much above the acceptable limit, as opposed to much less risk involving gas powered grills.

  13. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-4 Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and...

  14. Ecotoxicity of water-soluble PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols at Gosan Climate Observatory (GCO) in Jeju, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. A.; Lee, M.; Yoon, H. O.; Bae, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The water-soluble components of aerosols are rapidly permeated to various biosurfaces through the deposition process due to their high solubility and have profound effects on ecosystem functioning as well as human health. In this context, the ecotoxicity of atmospheric aerosol was assessed, particularly for water-soluble components. For measurements of ecotoxicity of water soluble components, ambient aerosols of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were collected on filters at Gosan Climate Observatory (GCO), Jeju, Korea in May, August, October 2010, March and July 2011. The ecotoxicity was estimated using Vibrio fischeri based on bioluminescence inhibition bioassay. In this study, EC10 (10% effective concentration) value was used as an ecotoxicity indicator. The EC10 value was generally in good relation with major water-soluble constituents such as SO42-, NH4+, and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). The characteristics of ecotoxicity was different in PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 aerosols. The EC10 of PM10 was correlated well with SO42- (r=-0.53) and Mg2+(r=-0.52). The ecotoxicity was relatively high in smaller particles with either high NO3-/SO42- ratio or WSOC concentration. The high ecotoxicity was found in outflows mostly from nearby lands especially under stagnant condition.

  15. Model independent measurement of the leptonic kaon decay $K^\\pm \\to \\mu^\\pm \

    CERN Document Server

    Bizzeti, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Two recent results on rare kaon decays are presented, based on $\\sim 2 \\times 10^{11} K^{\\pm}$ decays recorded by the NA48/2 experiment at CERN SPS in 2003 and 2004. The branching ratio of the rare leptonic decay $K^{\\pm} \\to \\mu^{\\pm} \

  16. Model independent measurement of the leptonic kaon decay $K^\\pm \\to \\mu^\\pm \

    CERN Document Server

    Bizzeti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Two recent results on rare kaon decays are presented, based on $\\sim 2 \\times 10^{11} K^{\\pm}$ decays recorded by the NA48/2 experiment at CERN SPS in 2003 and 2004. The branching ratio of the rare leptonic decay $K^{\\pm} \\to \\mu^{\\pm} \

  17. Measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ from a combination of $B^{\\pm} \\to Dh^{\\pm}$ analyses

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258707; Abellan Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; Mc Skelly, B; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    A combination of three LHCb measurements of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ is presented. The decays $B^\\pm\\to DK^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm\\to D\\pi^\\pm$ are used, where $D$ denotes an admixture of $D^0$ and $\\overline{D^0}$ mesons, decaying into $K^+K^-$, $\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $K^\\pm \\pi^\\mp$, $K^\\pm \\pi^\\mp \\pi^\\pm \\pi^\\mp$, $K_S\\pi^+\\pi^-$, or $K_S K^+K^-$ final states. All measurements use a dataset corresponding to 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ of data. Combining results from $B^\\pm\\to DK^\\pm$ decays alone a best-fit value of $\\gamma = 72.0^\\circ$ is found, and confidence intervals are set \\begin{align*} \\gamma \\in [56.4,86.7]^\\circ \\quad &{\\rm at\\ 68\\%\\,CL}\\,,\\\\ \\gamma \\in [42.6,99.6]^\\circ \\quad &{\\rm at\\ 95\\%\\,CL}\\,. \\end{align*} The best-fit value of $\\gamma$ found from a combination of results from $B^\\pm\\to D\\pi^\\pm$ decays alone, is $\\gamma = 18.9^\\circ$, and the confidence intervals \\begin{align*} \\gamma \\in [7.4,99.2]^\\circ \\quad \\cup \\quad [167.9,176.4]^\\circ \\quad &{\\rm at\\ 68\\%\\,CL}\\, \\end{align*} are set, without constrai...

  18. Air Pollution Quality Index (AQI and Density of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 in the Air of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdari M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Air pollution has broad social, economical, political and technical aspects. one of the major issues in this regard is taking measures to prevent its increase. Since suspended particles are among the standard pollutants, the present study was carried out with the aim of measuring the amounts of these particles.Methods: In the present study, the suspended particles ( PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were measured at two sites in Qom city. For each of them, 60 samples were selected with the Enviro Check during five consecutive months during summer (2 months and fall.Results: During sampling, PM10 in the period between October 22'th to November 22nd 2007 had the maximum amount with the mean of 117µg/m3 and in the period between September 22'th to October 22nd 2007 it had the minimum amount with the mean of 83µg/m3. PM2.5 in the period between November 22nd to December 22nd 2007 with the mean of 33µg/m3 had the maximum amount and in the period between July 22nd to October 22nd 2007 it had the minimum amount with the mean of 8µg/m3. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, the densities of suspended particles PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were below the standard levels on most occasions. The amounts of AQI for them were normal and acceptable.

  19. A measurement of the ratio of branching fractions: $\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow D K^{\\pm})}{\\mathcal{B}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow D\\pi^{\\pm})}$ for $D\\rightarrow K\\pi$, $KK$, $K\\pi\\pi\\pi$ and $K^0_S\\pi\\pi$

    CERN Document Server

    The LHCb Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Using the 36.5~pb$^{-1}$ of data collected by the LHCb experiment in 2010, the ratio of two $B_u$ hadronic branching fractions: ${\\cal B}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow D K^{\\pm})\\ /\\ {\\cal B}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow D \\pi^{\\pm})$ is measured for events in which the $D$ meson is reconstructed in one of four final states. In the Cabibbo-favoured decays $D^0\\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}$ and $D^{0}\\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{+}$, this ratio is measured as $(6.30\\pm0.38\\pm0.40)\\%$. It is determined to be $(9.31\\pm1.89\\pm0.53)\\%$ in the $CP$ eigenstate mode $D\\rightarrow K^{+} K^{-}$ and $(12\\,^{+6}_{-5}\\pm1)\\%$ in the $D\\rightarrow K^0_{\\rm\\scriptscriptstyle S}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ channel. From this work, two observables are measured: \\begin{eqnarray*} R_{CP+} &=& 1.48 \\pm 0.31 (stat.) \\pm 0.12 (syst.)\\\\ A_{CP+} &=& 0.07 \\pm 0.18 (stat.) \\pm 0.07 (syst.) \\end{eqnarray*}

  20. Indoor air quality modeling for PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1.0 in naturally ventilated classrooms of an urban Indian school building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Radha; Khare, Mukesh

    2011-05-01

    Assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms of school buildings is of prime concern due to its potential effects on student's health and performance as they spend a substantial amount of their time (6-7 h per day) in schools. A number of airborne contaminants may be present in urban school environment. However, respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) is of great significance as they may significantly affect occupants' health. The objectives of the present study are twofold, one, to measure the concentrations of PM(10) (building located near a heavy-traffic roadway (9,755 and 4,296 vehicles/hour during weekdays and weekends, respectively); and second, to develop single compartment mass balance-based IAQ models for PM(10) (NVIAQM(pm10)), PM(2.5) (NVIAQM(pm2.5)), and PM(1.0) (NVIAQM(pm1.0)) for predicting their indoor concentrations. Outdoor RSPM levels and classroom characteristics, such as size, occupancy level, temperature, relative humidity, and CO(2) concentrations have also been monitored during school hours. Predicted indoor PM(10) concentrations show poor correlations with observed indoor PM(10) concentrations (R (2) = 0.028 for weekdays, and 0.47 for weekends). However, a fair degree of agreement (d) has been found between observed and predicted concentrations, i.e., 0.42 for weekdays and 0.59 for weekends. Furthermore, NVIAQM(pm2.5) and NVIAQM(pm1.0) results show good correlations with observed concentrations of PM(2.5) (R(2) = 0.87 for weekdays and 0.9 for weekends) and PM(1.0) (R(2) = 0.86 for weekdays and 0.87 for weekends). NVIAQM(pm10) shows the tendency to underpredict indoor PM(10) concentrations during weekdays as it does not take into account the occupant's activities and its effects on the indoor concentrations during the class hours. Intense occupant's activities cause resuspension or delayed deposition of PM(10). The model results further suggests conductance of experimental and physical simulation studies on dispersion of

  1. Asthma and PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmour M Ian

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract PM10 (the mass of particles present in the air having a 50% cutoff for particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm is the standard measure of particulate air pollution used worldwide. Epidemiological studies suggest that asthma symptoms can be worsened by increases in the levels of PM10. Epidemiological evidence at present indicates that PM10 increases do not raise the chances of initial sensitisation and induction of disease, although further research is warranted. PM10 is a complex mixture of particle types and has many components and there is no general agreement regarding which component(s could lead to exacerbations of asthma. However pro-inflammatory effects of transition metals, hydrocarbons, ultrafine particles and endotoxin, all present to varying degrees in PM10, could be important. An understanding of the role of the different components of PM10 in exacerbating asthma is essential before proper risk assessment can be undertaken leading to advice on risk management for the many asthmatics who are exposed to air pollution particles.

  2. Spatial distribution of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in Seoul Metropolitan Subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Roh, Young Man; Lee, Cheol Min; Kim, Chi Nyon

    2008-06-15

    The aims of this study are to examine the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in areas within the Seoul Metropolitan Subway network and to provide fundamental data in order to protect respiratory health of subway workers and passengers from air pollutants. A total of 22 subway stations located on lines 1-4 were selected based on subway official's guidance. At these stations both subway worker areas (station offices, rest areas, ticket offices and driver compartments) and passengers areas (station precincts, subway carriages and platforms) were the sites used for measuring the levels of PM. The mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were relatively higher on platforms, inside subway carriages and in driver compartments than in the other areas monitored. The levels of PM10 and PM2.5 for station precincts and platforms exceeded the 24-h acceptable threshold limits of 150 microg/m3 for PM10 and 35 microg/m3 for PM2.5, which are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, levels measured in station and ticket offices fell below the respective threshold. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on platforms located underground were significantly higher than those at ground level (p<0.05).

  3. Biomass burning emissions and potential air quality impacts of volatile organic compounds and other trace gases from fuels common in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Warneke, C.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive suite of instruments was used to quantify the emissions of over 200 organic gases, including methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and 9 inorganic gases from 56 laboratory burns of 18 different biomass fuel types common in the southeastern, southwestern, or northern US. A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrument provided extensive chemical detail of discrete air samples collected during a laboratory burn and was complemented by real-time measurements of organic and inorganic species via an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) instrument and three different chemical ionization-mass spectrometers. These measurements were conducted in February 2009 at the US Department of Agriculture's Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana and were used as the basis for a number of emission factors reported by Yokelson et al. (2013). The relative magnitude and composition of the gases emitted varied by individual fuel type and, more broadly, by the three geographic fuel regions being simulated. Discrete emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO) were used to characterize the composition of gases emitted by mass; reactivity with the hydroxyl radical, OH; and potential secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors for the 3 different US fuel regions presented here. VOCs contributed less than 0.78 % ± 0.12 % of emissions by mole and less than 0.95 % × 0.07 % of emissions by mass (on average) due to the predominance of CO2, CO, CH4, and NOx emissions; however, VOCs contributed 70-90 (±16) % to OH reactivity and were the only measured gas-phase source of SOA precursors from combustion of biomass. Over 82 % of the VOC emissions by mole were unsaturated compounds including highly reactive alkenes and aromatics and photolabile oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) such as formaldehyde. OVOCs contributed 57-68 % of the VOC mass emitted, 41-54 % of VOC-OH reactivity, and aromatic-OVOCs such as benzenediols, phenols, and benzaldehyde

  4. Using support vector regression to predict PM10 and PM2.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizhen, Hou; Zhengqiang, Li; Yuhuan, Zhang; Hua, Xu; Ying, Zhang; Kaitao, Li; Donghui, Li; Peng, Wei; Yan, Ma

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machine (SVM), as a novel and powerful machine learning tool, can be used for the prediction of PM 10 and PM 2.5 (particulate matter less or equal than 10 and 2.5 micrometer) in the atmosphere. This paper describes the development of a successive over relaxation support vector regress (SOR-SVR) model for the PM 10 and PM 2.5 prediction, based on the daily average aerosol optical depth (AOD) and meteorological parameters (atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, air temperature, wind speed), which were all measured in Beijing during the year of 2010–2012. The Gaussian kernel function, as well as the k-fold crosses validation and grid search method, are used in SVR model to obtain the optimal parameters to get a better generalization capability. The result shows that predicted values by the SOR-SVR model agree well with the actual data and have a good generalization ability to predict PM 10 and PM 2.5 . In addition, AOD plays an important role in predicting particulate matter with SVR model, which should be included in the prediction model. If only considering the meteorological parameters and eliminating AOD from the SVR model, the prediction results of predict particulate matter will be not satisfying

  5. Preliminary analysis of variability in concentration of fine particulate matter - PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in area of Poznań city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sówka Izabela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known, that suspended particulate matter pose a threat to human life and health, negatively influence the flora, climate and also materials. Especially dangerous is the presence of high concentration of particulate matter in the area of cities, where density of population is high. The research aimed at determining the variability of suspended particulate matter concentration (PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in two different thermal seasons, in the area of Poznań city. As a part of carried out work we analyzed the variability of concentrations and also performed a preliminary analysis of their correlation. Measured concentrations of particulate matter were contained within following ranges: PM10 – 8.7-69.6 μg/m3, PM2.5 – 2.2-88.5 μg/m3, PM1.0 – 2.5-22.9 μg/m3 in the winter season and 1.0-42.8 μg/m3 (PM10, 1.2-40.3 μg/m3 (PM2.5 and 2.7-10.4 (PM1.0 in the summer season. Preliminary correlative analysis indicated interdependence between the temperature of air, the speed of wind and concentration of particulate matter in selected measurement points. The values of correlation coefficients between the air temperature, speed of wind and concentrations of particulate matter were respectively equal to: for PM10: -0.59 and -0.55 (Jana Pawła II Street, -0.53 and -0.53 (Szymanowskiego Street, for PM2.5: -0.60 and -0.53 (Jana Pawła II Street and for PM1.0 -0.40 and -0.59 (Jana Pawła II Street.

  6. Source Apportionment and Elemental Composition of PM2.5 and PM10 in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodeir, Mamdouh; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Zhong, Mianhua; Sun, Hong; Costa, Max; Chen, Lung-Chi; Maciejczyk, Polina

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the first comprehensive investigation of PM2.5 and PM10 composition and sources in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a multi-week multiple sites sampling campaign in Jeddah between June and September, 2011, and analyzed samples by XRF. The overall mean mass concentration was 28.4 ± 25.4 μg/m 3 for PM2.5 and 87.3 ± 47.3 μg/m 3 for PM10, with significant temporal and spatial variability. The average ratio of PM2.5/PM10 was 0.33. Chemical composition data were modeled using factor analysis with varimax orthogonal rotation to determine five and four particle source categories contributing significant amount of for PM2.5 and PM10 mass, respectively. In both PM2.5 and PM10 sources were (1) heavy oil combustion characterized by high Ni and V; (2) resuspended soil characterized by high concentrations of Ca, Fe, Al, and Si; and (3) marine aerosol. The two other sources in PM2.5 were (4) Cu/Zn source; (5) traffic source identified by presence of Pb, Br, and Se; while in PM10 it was a mixed industrial source. To estimate the mass contributions of each individual source category, the CAPs mass concentration was regressed against the factor scores. Cumulatively, resuspended soil and oil combustion contributed 77 and 82% mass of PM2.5 and PM10, respectively.

  7. PM levels in urban area of Bejaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaissa, Fatima; Maesano, Cara Nichole; Alkama, Rezak; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is not routinely measured in Bejaia City, Algeria, an urban area of around 200,000 inhabitants. We present first time measurements of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations for this city (PM10, PM7, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1) over the course of one week, from July 8 to July 14, 2015. This study covered eight urban sampling sites and 169 measurements were obtained to determine mass concentration levels. Air pollution is not routinely measured in Bejaia City, Algeria, an urban area of around 200,000 inhabitants. We present first time measurements of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations for this city (PM10, PM7, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1) over the course of one week, from July 8 to July 14, 2015. This study covered eight urban sampling sites and 169 measurements were obtained to determine mass concentration levels. The average city-wide PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations measured during this sampling were 87.8 ± 33.9 and 28.7 ± 10.6 µg/m3 respectively. These results show that particulate matter levels are high and exceed Algerian ambient air quality standards (maximum 80 µg/m3, without specifying the particle size). Further, PM10 and PM2.5 averages were well above the prescribed 24-hour average World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines (WHO AQG) (50 µg/m3 for PM10 and 25 µg/m3 for PM2.5). The PM1, PM2,5, PM4 and PM7 fractions accounted for 15%, 32 %, 56% and 78% respectively of the PM10 measurements. Our analysis reveals that PM concentration variations in the study region were influenced primarily by traffic. In fact, lower PM10 concentrations (21.7 and 33.1 µg/m3) were recorded in residential sites while higher values (53.1, and 45.2 µg/m3) were registered in city centers. Keywords: Particulate matter, Urban area, vehicle fleet, Bejaia.

  8. On the origin and variability of suspended particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikridas, Michael; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kizas, Christos; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Sciare, Jean

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean (EM) lies at the crossroad of three different continents (Europe, Asia, and Africa). EM is a densely populated region including several cities with 3M inhabitants or more (e.g. Athens, Istanbul, Izmir, and Cairo). It has been identified as the most polluted area in Europe with respect to particulate matter (PM) mainly due to the combination of high photochemical activity, which causes pollutants to oxidize and partitioning in the particle phase, with the elevated pollutants emissions from neighboring regions. In addition, the proximity to Africa and the Middle East allows frequent transport of dust particles. At the center of the Eastern Mediterranean lies the island of Cyprus, which has received very little attention regarding its PM levels despite being the location in Europe most frequently impacted by air masses from the Middle East. Herewith, we present a historical PM archive that spans 2 decades. It involves ongoing monitoring on a daily basis of particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 μm (PM10), 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and 1 μm (PM1) conducted in at least one, of the 12 currently existing air quality stations in Cyprus since 1997, 2005, and 2009, respectively. The most extended PM datasets correspond a) to the Agia Marina Xyliatou (AMX) monitoring station established at a remote area at the foothills of mount Troodos and b) that of the inland capital, Nicosia. Based on this long-term dataset, the diurnal, temporal and annual variability is assessed. Prior to 2010, PM10 concentration at all sites remained relatively constant, but at different levels, violating the annual EU legislated PM10 limit of 40 μg m-3. Since 2010, coarse mode levels have decreased at all sites. The reported decrease was equal to 30% at AMX. As a result, since 2010 the observed levels comply with the EU legislation threshold. Satellite observations of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA

  9. The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm8 derived from rye is suppressed by its wheat ortholog Pm3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, Severine; Brunner, Susanne; Stirnweis, Daniel; Herren, Gerhard; Peditto, David; McIntosh, Robert A; Keller, Beat

    2014-09-01

    The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm8 derived from rye is located on a 1BL.1RS chromosome translocation in wheat. However, some wheat lines with this translocation do not show resistance to isolates of the wheat powdery mildew pathogen avirulent to Pm8 due to an unknown genetically dominant suppression mechanism. Here we show that lines with suppressed Pm8 activity contain an intact and expressed Pm8 gene. Therefore, the absence of Pm8 function in certain 1BL.1RS-containing wheat lines is not the result of gene loss or mutation but is based on suppression. The wheat gene Pm3, an ortholog of rye Pm8, suppressed Pm8-mediated powdery mildew resistance in lines containing Pm8 in a transient single-cell expression assay. This result was further confirmed in transgenic lines with combined Pm8 and Pm3 transgenes. Expression analysis revealed that suppression is not the result of gene silencing, either in wheat 1BL.1RS translocation lines carrying Pm8 or in transgenic genotypes with both Pm8 and Pm3 alleles. In addition, a similar abundance of the PM8 and PM3 proteins in single or double homozygous transgenic lines suggested that a post-translational mechanism is involved in suppression of Pm8. Co-expression of Pm8 and Pm3 genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves followed by co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the two proteins interact. Therefore, the formation of a heteromeric protein complex might result in inefficient or absent signal transmission for the defense reaction. These data provide a molecular explanation for the suppression of resistance genes in certain genetic backgrounds and suggest ways to circumvent it in future plant breeding. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A novel PM motor with hybrid PM excitation and asymmetric rotor structure for high torque performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaohong Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel permanent magnet (PM motor for high torque performance, in which hybrid PM material and asymmetric rotor design are applied. The hybrid PM material is adopted to reduce the consumption of rare-earth PM because ferrite PM is assisted to enhance the torque production. Meanwhile, the rotor structure is designed to be asymmetric by shifting the surface-insert PM (SPM, which is used to improve the torque performance, including average torque and torque ripple. Moreover, the reasons for improvement of the torque performance are explained by evaluation and analysis of the performances of the proposed motor. Compared with SPM motor and V-type motor, the merit of high utilization ratio of rare-earth PM is also confirmed, showing that the proposed motor can offer higher torque density and lower torque ripple simultaneously with less consumption of rare-earth PM.

  11. Ionospheric earthquake precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulachenko, A.L.; Oraevskij, V.N.; Pokhotelov, O.A.; Sorokin, V.N.; Strakhov, V.N.; Chmyrev, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Results of experimental study on ionospheric earthquake precursors, program development on processes in the earthquake focus and physical mechanisms of formation of various type precursors are considered. Composition of experimental cosmic system for earthquake precursors monitoring is determined. 36 refs., 5 figs

  12. Evaluation of PM2.5 surface concentration simulated by Version 1 of the NASA’s MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis over Israel and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provençal, Simon; Buchard, Virginie; da Silva, Arlindo M.; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie; Elhacham, Emily; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang

    2018-01-01

    Version 1 of the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) assimilates bias-corrected aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua, and simulates particulate matter (PM) concentration data to reproduce a consistent database of AOD and PM concentration around the world from 2002 to the end of 2015. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate MERRAero’s simulation of fine PM concentration against surface measurements in two regions of the world with relatively high levels of PM concentration but with profoundly different PM composition, those of Israel and Taiwan. Being surrounded by major deserts, Israel’s PM load is characterized by a significant contribution of mineral dust, and secondary contributions of sea salt particles, given its proximity to the Mediterranean Sea, and sulfate particles originating from Israel’s own urban activities and transported from Europe. Taiwan’s PM load is composed primarily of anthropogenic particles (sulfate, nitrate and carbonaceous particles) locally produced or transported from China, with an additional contribution of springtime transport of mineral dust originating from Chinese and Mongolian deserts. The evaluation in Israel produced favorable results with MERRAero slightly overestimating measurements by 6% on average and reproducing an excellent year-to-year and seasonal fluctuation. The evaluation in Taiwan was less favorable with MERRAero underestimating measurements by 42% on average. Two likely reasons explain this discrepancy: emissions of anthropogenic PM and their precursors are largely uncertain in China, and MERRAero doesn’t include nitrate particles in its simulation, a pollutant of predominately anthropogenic sources. MERRAero nevertheless simulates well the concentration of fine PM during the summer, when Taiwan is least affected by the advection of pollution from China. PMID:29670645

  13. In vitro investigations of platinum, palladium, and rhodium mobility in urban airborne particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) using simulated lung fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zereini, Fathi; Wiseman, Clare L S; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2012-09-18

    Environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE) have been increasing since the introduction of automotive catalytic converters to control harmful emissions. Assessments of the human health risks of exposures to these elements, especially through the inhalation of PGE-associated airborne particulate matter (PM), have been hampered by a lack of data on their bioaccessibility. The purpose of this study is to apply in vitro methods using simulated human lung fluids [artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) and Gamble's solution] to assess the mobility of the PGE, platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh) in airborne PM of human health concern. Airborne PM samples (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) were collected in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. For comparison, the same extraction experiments were conducted using the standard reference material, Used Auto Catalyst (monolith) (NIST 2557). Pt and Pd concentrations were measured using isotope dilution ICP-Q-MS, while Rh was measured directly with ICP-Q-MS (in collision mode with He), following established matrix separation and enrichment procedures, for both solid (filtered residues) and extracted sample phases. The mobilized fractions measured for PGE in PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) were highly variable, which can be attributed to the heterogenic nature of airborne PM and its composition. Overall, the mobility of PGE in airborne PM samples was notable, with a mean of 51% Rh, 22% Pt, and 29% Pd present in PM(1) being mobilized by ALF after 24 h. For PM(1) exposed to Gamble's solution, a mean of 44% Rh, 18% Pt, and 17% Pd was measured in solution after 24 h. The mobility of PGE associated with airborne PM was also determined to be much higher compared to that measured for the auto catalyst standard reference material. The results suggest that PGE emitted from automotive catalytic converters are likely to undergo chemical transformations during and/or after being emitted in the environment. This study highlights the need

  14. Long-term trend and variability of atmospheric PM10 concentration in the Po Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, A.; Ghermandi, G.

    2014-05-01

    The limits to atmospheric pollutant concentration set by the European Commission provide a challenging target for the municipalities in the Po Valley, because of the characteristic climatic conditions and high population density of this region. In order to assess climatology and trends in the concentration of atmospheric particles in the Po Valley, a data set of PM10 data from 41 sites across the Po Valley have been analysed, including both traffic and background sites (either urban, suburban or rural). Of these 41 sites, 18 with 10 yr or longer record have been analysed for long-term trend in deseasonalized monthly means, in annual quantiles and in monthly frequency distribution. A widespread significant decreasing trend has been observed at most sites, up to a few percent per year, by a generalized least squares and Theil-Sen method. All 41 sites have been tested for significant weekly periodicity by Kruskal-Wallis test for mean anomalies and by Wilcoxon test for weekend effect magnitude. A significant weekly periodicity has been observed for most PM10 series, particularly in summer and ascribed mainly to anthropic particulate emissions. A cluster analysis has been applied in order to highlight stations sharing similar pollution conditions over the reference period. Five clusters have been found, two encompassing the metropolitan areas of Turin and Milan and their respective nearby sites and the other three clusters gathering northeast, northwest and central Po Valley sites respectively. Finally, the observed trends in atmospheric PM10 have been compared to trends in provincial emissions of particulates and PM precursors, and analysed along with data on vehicular fleet age, composition and fuel sales. A significant basin-wide drop in emissions occurred for gaseous pollutants, contrarily to emissions of PM10 and PM2.5, whose drop was low and restricted to a few provinces. It is not clear whether the decrease for only gaseous emissions is sufficient to explain the

  15. Chemical characterization and mass closure of PM10 and PM2.5 at an urban site in Karachi - Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ghauri, Badar M.; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2016-03-01

    A mass balance method is applied to assess main source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 levels in Karachi. Carbonaceous species (elemental carbon, organic carbon, carbonate carbon), soluble ions (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4-), saccharides (levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan, sucrose, fructose, glucose, arabitol and mannitol) were determined in atmospheric fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) aerosol samples collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March-April 2009) at an urban site in Karachi (Pakistan). The concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were found to be 75 μg/m3 and 437 μg/m3 respectively. The large difference between PM10 and PM2.5 originated predominantly from mineral dust. "Calcareous dust" and "siliceous dust" were the over all dominating material in PM, with 46% contribution to PM2.5 and 78% to PM10-2.5. Combustion particles and secondary organics (EC + OM) comprised 23% of PM2.5 and 6% of PM10-2.5. EC, as well as OC ambient levels were higher (59% and 56%) in PM10-2.5 than in PM2.5. Biomass burning contributed about 3% to PM2.5, and had a share of about 13% of ;EC + OM; in PM2.5. The impact of bioaerosol (fungal spores) was minor and had a share of 1 and 2% of the OC in the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 size fractions. In case of secondary inorganic aerosols, ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4 contributes 4.4% to PM2.5 and no detectable quantity were found in fraction PM10-2.5. The sea salt contribution is about 2% both to PM2.5 and PM10-2.5.

  16. Economic Hazardous Gases Management for SOX Removal from Flue Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaack, S.L.; Mohi, M.A.; Mohamed, S.T.

    1995-01-01

    Hazardous gases emerging from industries accumulate as pollutants in air and falls as acid rains resulting also in water and soil pollution. To minimize environmental pollution, the present process is suggested in order to desulfurize flue gases resulting from burning fuel oil in a 100/MWh steam power plant. The process makes use of the cheap Ca C O 3 powder as the alkaline material to sequistre the sulphur oxide gases. The resulting sulphur compounds, namely calcium sulphate and gypsum have a great market demand as reducing and sulphiting agents in paper industry and as an important building material. About 44000 ton of gypsum could be produced yearly when treating flue gases resulting from a 100 MWh unit burning fuel oil. Feasibility study shows that a great return on investment could be achieved when applying the process. 1 fig

  17. Source apportionment of PM2.5 across China using LOTOS-EUROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, R.; Kranenburg, R.; Manders, A.; Hendriks, C.; Segers, A.; Dammers, E.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, L.; Liu, Z.; Zeng, L.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Schaap, M.

    2017-09-01

    China's population is exposed to high levels of particulate matter (PM) due to its strong economic growth and associated urbanization and industrialization. To support policy makers to develop cost effective mitigation strategies it is of crucial importance to understand the emission sources as well as formation routes responsible for high pollution levels. In this study we applied the LOTOS-EUROS model with its module to track the contributions of predefined source sectors to China for the year 2013 using the MEIC emission inventory. It is the first application of the model system to a region outside Europe. The source attribution was aimed to provide insight in the sector and area of origin of PM2.5 for the cities of Beijing and Shanghai. The source attribution shows that on average about half of the PM2.5 pollution in both cities originates from the municipality itself. About a quarter of the PM2.5 comes from the neighbouring provinces, whereas the remaining quarter is attributed to long range transport from anthropogenic and natural components. Residential combustion, transport, and industry are identified as the main sources with comparable contributions allocated to these sectors. The importance of the sectors varies throughout the year and differs slightly between the cities. During winter, urban contributions from residential combustion are dominant, whereas industrial and traffic contributions with a larger share of regional transport are more important during summer. The evaluation of the model results against satellite and in-situ observations shows the ability of the LOTOS-EUROS model to capture many features of the variability in particulate matter and its precursors in China. The model shows a systematic underestimation of particulate matter concentrations, especially in winter. This illustrates that modelling particulate matter remains challenging as it comes to components like secondary organic aerosol and suspended dust as well as emissions and

  18. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph... hot-spot analysis in PM10 and PM2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas for FHWA/FTA projects that are...

  19. Anomalous migration of shallow groundwater and gases in the Beijing region and the 1976 Tangshan earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, H. (Seismological Brigade of Beijing, China); Cai, Z.; Gao, M.

    1980-02-01

    The character and cause of blowing out of gases and emission of sound from dry wells and of water becoming muddy and changing of level in water wells of the Beijing region immediately before the 1976 Tangshan earthquake and its strong aftershocks are investigated. These phenomena, taken as possible precursors of the earthquakes as well as the motivating force, mechanism, geological background and material sources of the anomalous migration are discussed. Besides, the paper also deals with the relation between these anomalies and the Tangshan earthquake and the significance of the study of groundwater as far as earthquake prediction is concerned. No gaseous gushing from great depth in considerable quantities appeared so that migration should be regarded only as the migration of shallow groundwater and gases. This is referred to the consequence of the action on certain hydrogeological structures of an impulse-like extra tectonic stress field on the active faults in the Beijing region under a unified regional stress field. The present authors suppose that further studies of the anomalous migration of groundwater and gases possibly may be fruitful to earthquake prediction work.

  20. Anomalous migration of shallow groundwater and gases in the Beijing region and the 1976 Tangshan earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, H.; Cai, Z.; Gao, M.

    1980-02-01

    The character and cause of blowing out of gases and emission of sound from dry wells and of water becoming muddy and changing of level in water wells of the Beijing region immediately before the 1976 Tangshan earthquake and its strong aftershocks are investigated. These phenomena, taken as possible precursors of the earthquakes as well as the motivating force, mechanism, geological background and material sources of the anomalous migration, are discussed. In addition, the paper also deals with the relation between these anomalies and the Tangshan earthquake and the significance of the study of groundwater as far as earthquake prediction is concerned. No gaseous gushing from great depth in considerable quantities appeared so that migration should be regarded only as the migration of shallow groundwater and gases. This is referred to as the consequence of the action on certain hydrogeological structures of an impulse-like extra tectonic stress field on the active faults in the Beijing region under a unified regional stress field. The present authors suppose that further studies of the anomalous migration of groundwater and gases possibly may be fruitful to earthquake prediction work.

  1. Detection of greenhouse gas precursors from ethanol powered vehicles in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Juliana R.; Sthel, Marcelo S.; Rocha, Mila V. da; Lima, Guilherme R.; Silva, Marcelo G. da; Vargas, Helion

    2014-01-01

    The use of fossil fuels on the transport sector has caused the emission of various air pollutants, which can cause numerous damages to the atmosphere and to human health. In order to minimize pollutant emission, Brazilian government has encouraged the use of alternatives fuels, such as ethanol. Ethanol can be a great ally in global warming mitigation due to its potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in its renewable cycle. Otherwise, other pollutant gases emitted during ethanol combustion can contribute directly or indirectly to intensify global warming. In this study, Photoacoustic and Electrochemical sensors were used to detect greenhouse precursor gases, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and especially ethylene, a primary pollutant in the generation of tropospheric ozone, in the exhaust of ethanol powered vehicles, in the range of ppmv. - Highlights: • Using CO 2 and Quantum Cascade Laser Photoacoustic Spectrometer, we could prove the presence of ethylene in the exhaust of ethanol vehicles for the first time. • Photoacoustic technique has proven excellent requirements, such as selectivity, sensitivity, and portability for ethylene detection in the vehicles exhaust. • Using electrochemical sensors, we could detect CO and NO x in ethanol powered vehicles in ppmV range

  2. Opportunities and challenges in green house gases reduction using high pressure direct injection of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, P.

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to reduce Greenhouse Gases, Westport Innovations is developing a high pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology for gaseous fuels. This technology adapts the diesel cycle for gaseous fuels, since the diesel cycle provides high efficiency, high low-speed torque, fast transient capabilities and reliability. Because of their high efficiency, diesels are very favorable from a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) point of view, however they remain challenged by high nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. When directly injecting natural gas, NOx and PM emissions can be reduced by approximately 50% while maintaining the performance of the diesel engine. This allows the use of abundant and historically cheaper natural gas. Because of its lower carbon content per unit energy, natural gas also offers further GHG reduction over the diesel if the efficiency is preserved and if methane emissions are low. This paper discusses development efforts at Westport for several applications including on-highway trucks, light-duty delivery trucks and power generation

  3. Quantifying the decadal changes of PM2.5 over New York through a combination of satellite, model and in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X.; Fiore, A. M.; Curci, G.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Civerolo, K.; Ku, M.; van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R.

    2017-12-01

    Ambient exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is one of the top global health concerns. Efforts have been made to regulate PM2.5 precursor emissions across the U.S.A, which are expected to mitigate the air pollution related health impacts. However, quantifying the health outcomes from emission controls requires robust estimates of PM2.5 exposures that accurately describe the spatial and temporal variability of PM2.5. Satellite remote sensing offers the potential to fill the gaps of the sparse, limited sampling of in situ measurement networks and is increasingly being used in health assessments. We provide new estimates of PM2.5 over New York State with 1 km spatial resolution that use Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) AOD and a regional air quality model (CMAQ) to estimate the AOD-PM2.5 scaling factors. Next, we evaluate three major sources of uncertainties of satellite-derived PM2.5 data and their impacts on the derived decadal changes: 1) satellite retrieval of AOD, 2) optical properties of the particles, 3) relationships between the aerosol burden in the planetary boundary layer and full atmospheric column. Finally, we analyze the decadal changes of PM2.5 over New York State using the newly developed PM2.5 data, alongside four other PM2.5 estimates including satellite-derived PM2.5 developed by van Donkelaar et al. (2015), statistical land use regression developed by Beckerman et al. (2013), CMAQ simulations, and a Bayesian fusion of CMAQ and ground-based measurements. By evaluating the decadal changes of PM2.5 from multiple datasets over areas with dense (e.g. New York City area) and sparse ground-based measurements (e.g. upstate New York), we evaluate the extent to which satellite remote sensing could help better quantify the health outcomes of emission controls. References: Beckerman et al., (2013), A Hybrid Approach to Estimating National Scale Spatiotemporal Variability of PM2.5 in the Contiguous United States, Environ. Sci

  4. Analysis of PM10, PM2.5, and PM2 5-10 concentrations in Santiago, Chile, from 1989 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrakis, Petros; Sax, Sonja N; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Coull, Brent; Demokritou, Phil; Oyola, Pedro; Garcia, Javier; Gramsch, Ernesto

    2005-03-01

    Daily particle samples were collected in Santiago, Chile, at four urban locations from January 1, 1989, through December 31, 2001. Both fine PM with da Ambient Air Quality Standards and the European Union concentration limits. Mean PM2.5 levels during the cold season (April through September) were more than twice as high as those observed in the warm season (October through March); whereas coarse particle levels were similar in both seasons. PM concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for site, weekday, month, wind speed, temperature, and RH. Results showed that PM2.5 concentrations decreased substantially, 52% over the 12-year period (1989-2000), whereas PM2.5-10 concentrations increased by approximately 50% in the first 5 years and then decreased by a similar percentage over the following 7 years. These decreases were evident even after controlling for significant climatic effects. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs developed and implemented by the Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente (CONAMA) have been effective in reducing particle levels in the Santiago Metropolitan region. However, particle levels remain high and it is thus imperative that efforts to improve air quality continue.

  5. The impact of long-range-transport on PM1 and PM2.5 at a Central Mediterranean site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, M. R.; Becagli, S.; Garcia Orza, J. A.; Vecchi, R.; Dinoi, A.; Udisti, R.; Cabello, M.

    2013-06-01

    Water soluble ions, methanesulfonate, organic and elemental carbon, and metals in PM2.5 and PM1 samples were analysed by Positive Matrix Factorization to identify and quantify major sources of fine particles at a Central Mediterranean site. The cluster analysis of four-day back trajectories was used to determine the dependence of PM2.5 and PM1 levels and composition on air-flows. The cluster analysis has identified six, six, and seven distinct air-flow types arriving at 500, 1500, and 3000 m above sea level (asl), respectively. Slow-west (Wslow) and north-eastern (NE) flows at 500 and 1500 m asl were the most frequent and were associated with the highest PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations. The PM concentrations from combustion sources including biomass burning were at their maximum under north-western (NW) flows. Similarly, the ammonium sulphate source was enhanced under Wslow and NE flows. South-eastern Mediterranean Sea air-flows were associated with the highest PM2.5 concentrations due to the heavy-oil-combustion source and the highest PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations due to the secondary marine source. PM2.5 concentrations due to the reacted dust and traffic source and PM1 concentrations due to the nitrate with reacted dust and mixed anthropogenic source showed no clear dependence on air-flows. This work highlights the different impact of aerosol sources on PM2.5 and PM1 fractions, being PM1 more adequate to control anthropogenic emissions from combustion sources.

  6. Handbook of purified gases

    CERN Document Server

    Schoen, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Technical gases are used in almost every field of industry, science and medicine and also as a means of control by government authorities and institutions and are regarded as indispensable means of assistance. In this complete handbook of purified gases the physical foundations of purified gases and mixtures as well as their manufacturing, purification, analysis, storage, handling and transport are presented in a comprehensive way. This important reference work is accompanied with a large number of Data Sheets dedicated to the most important purified gases.  

  7. Air Pollution Quality Index (AQI and Density of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 in the Air of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Azizifar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Air pollution has broad social, economical, political and technical aspects. one of the major issues in this regard is taking measures to prevent its increase. Since suspended particles are among the standard pollutants, the present study was carried out with the aim of measuring the amounts of these particles.

     

    Methods: In the present study, the suspended particles ( PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were measured at two sites in Qom city. For each of them, 60 samples were selected with the Enviro Check during five consecutive months during summer (2 months and fall.

     

    Results: During sampling, PM10 in the period between October 22'th to November 22nd 2007 had the maximum amount with the mean of 117µg/m3 and in the period between September 22'th to October 22nd 2007 it had the minimum amount with the mean of 83µg/m3. PM2.5 in the period between November 22nd to December 22nd 2007 with the mean of 33µg/m3 had the maximum amount and in the period  between July 22nd to October 22nd 2007 it had the minimum amount with the mean of 8µg/m3.

     

    Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, the densities of suspended particles PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were below the standard levels on most occasions. The amounts of AQI for them were normal and acceptable.

  8. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  9. Physicochemical properties, in vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of PM1.0 and PM2.5 from Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yajuan; Wu, Yizhao; Wang, Yali; Li, Yinsheng; Jin, Chengyu

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) links with a variety of respiratory diseases. However, compared with coarse particles (PM 10 ) and fine particles (PM 2.5 ), submicrometer particles (PM 1.0 ) may be a more important indicator of human health risks. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of PM 1.0 samples from Shanghai were examined using A549 cells, and compared with the effects of PM 2.5 , to better understand the health effects of PM 1.0 in this area. The PM 1.0 and PM 2.5 samples were characterized for morphology, water-soluble inorganic ions, organic and elemental carbon, and metal elements. The cytotoxicity of PMs was measured using cell viability and cell membrane damage assays. The genotoxic effects of PMs were determined using the comet assay, and DNA damage was quantified using olive tail moment (OTM) values. The physicochemical characterization indicated that PM 1.0 was enriched in carbonaceous elements and hazardous metals (Al, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, and V), whereas PM 2.5 was more abundant in large, irregular mineral particles. The biological results revealed that both PM 1.0 and PM 2.5 could induce significant cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in A549 cells, and that exposure to PM 1.0 caused more extensive toxic effects than exposure to PM 2.5 . The greater cytotoxic effects of PM 1.0 can be attributed to the combined effects of size and chemical composition, whereas the genotoxic effects of PM 1.0 may be mainly associated with chemical species.

  10. MUTAGENIC AND CYTOTOXIC FACTORS IN PM10 AND PM2.5 FRACTIONS IN ATMOSPHERE IN SOSNOWIEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozłowska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Air dust pollution enters human body via respiratory system. Its cytotoxic effect is surveyed using cell lines of mononuclear or pulmonary epithelial cell origins. Mutagenic properties are assessed using short-term assay on Salmonella typhimurium bacterial strains. Mutagenic and cytotoxic properties of air dust pollution – fractions PM10 and PM2.5, which were collected in autumn and in winter, were assessed using Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium strains and MTT cytoxicity assay on mononuclear cell line RAW 264.7, respectively. Samples of dust were collected on glass fiber filters by (Harvard impactor with air flow ca. 9 l/min, splitting samples to the fraction PM10 and PM2.5. Extraction of pollution was carried out using dichlorometane. Extracted samples were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO before analyses. The highest value of mutagenicity ratio (MR was observed in YG1041 strain with metabolic activation by S9 extract in the PM10 sample of dust collected in winter. The lowest one was observed in TA98 strain without activation in the PM2.5 sample of dust collected in autumn. Winter dust samples, both the fractions PM10 and PM2,5, were toxic for TA98 strain in both test conditions (5S9. MTT cytotoxicity assay using mononuclear cell line RAW 264.7 showed that fractions PM10 and PM2.5 collected in winter were of highest toxic properties. The viability of cells, which were treated with samples of 0,312 m3 air, were 1,7% and 1,6%, respectively, while for autumn samples for PM2,5 the viability was 63%.

  11. Reduction of power consumption in motor-driven applications by using PM motors; PM = Permanent Magnet; Reduktion af elforbrug til motordrift ved anvendelse af PM motorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvenegaard, C.M.; Hansen, Mads P.R.; Groenborg Nikolaisen, C. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Nielsen, Sandie B. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); Ritchie, E.; Leban, K. (Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

    2009-12-15

    The traditional asynchronous motor with aluminum rotor is today by far the most widespread and sold electric motor, but a new and more energy efficient type of engine - the permanent magnet motor (PM motor) - is expected in the coming years to win larger and larger market shares. Several engine manufacturers in Europe, USA and Asia are now beginning to market the PM motors, which can replace the traditional asynchronous motor. The project aims to uncover the pros and cons of replacing asynchronous motors including EFF1 engines with PM motors, including the price difference. Furthermore, it is identified how the efficiency of PM motors is affected by low load levels and at various forms of control. Finally, the energy savings potential is analysed, by replacing asynchronous motors with PM motors. The study includes laboratory tests of PM motors, made in a test stand at Danish Technological Institute. (ln)

  12. Biomass burning emissions and potential air quality impacts of volatile organic compounds and other trace gases from temperate fuels common in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Warneke, C.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive suite of instruments was used to quantify the emissions of over 200 organic gases, including methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and 9 inorganic gases from 56 laboratory burns of 18 different biomass fuel types common in the southeastern, southwestern, or northern United States. A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) provided extensive chemical detail of discrete air samples collected during a laboratory burn and was complemented by real-time measurements of organic and inorganic species via an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (OP-FTIR) and 3 different chemical ionization-mass spectrometers. These measurements were conducted in February 2009 at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The relative magnitude and composition of the gases emitted varied by individual fuel type and, more broadly, by the 3 geographic fuel regions being simulated. Emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO) were used to characterize the composition of gases emitted by mass; reactivity with the hydroxyl radical, OH; and potential secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors for the 3 different US fuel regions presented here. VOCs contributed less than 0.78 ± 0.12 % of emissions by mole and less than 0.95 ± 0.07 % of emissions by mass (on average) due to the predominance of CO2, CO, CH4, and NOx emissions; however, VOCs contributed 70-90 (±16) % to OH reactivity and were the only measured gas-phase source of SOA precursors from combustion of biomass. Over 82 % of the VOC emissions by mole were unsaturated compounds including highly reactive alkenes and aromatics and photolabile oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) such as formaldehyde. OVOCs contributed 57-68 % of the VOC mass emitted, 42-57 % of VOC-OH reactivity, and aromatic-OVOCs such as benzenediols, phenols, and benzaldehyde were the dominant potential SOA precursors. In addition, ambient air measurements of emissions from the Fourmile Canyon Fire

  13. Probabilistic Predictions of PM2.5 Using a Novel Ensemble Design for the NAQFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Lee, J. A.; Delle Monache, L.; Alessandrini, S.; Lee, P.

    2017-12-01

    Poor air quality (AQ) in the U.S. is estimated to cause about 60,000 premature deaths with costs of 100B-150B annually. To reduce such losses, the National AQ Forecasting Capability (NAQFC) at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) produces forecasts of ozone, particulate matter less than 2.5 mm in diameter (PM2.5), and other pollutants so that advance notice and warning can be issued to help individuals and communities limit the exposure and reduce air pollution-caused health problems. The current NAQFC, based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Community Multi-scale AQ (CMAQ) modeling system, provides only deterministic AQ forecasts and does not quantify the uncertainty associated with the predictions, which could be large due to the chaotic nature of atmosphere and nonlinearity in atmospheric chemistry. This project aims to take NAQFC a step further in the direction of probabilistic AQ prediction by exploring and quantifying the potential value of ensemble predictions of PM2.5, and perturbing three key aspects of PM2.5 modeling: the meteorology, emissions, and CMAQ secondary organic aerosol formulation. This presentation focuses on the impact of meteorological variability, which is represented by three members of NOAA's Short-Range Ensemble Forecast (SREF) system that were down-selected by hierarchical cluster analysis. These three SREF members provide the physics configurations and initial/boundary conditions for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model runs that generate required output variables for driving CMAQ that are missing in operational SREF output. We conducted WRF runs for Jan, Apr, Jul, and Oct 2016 to capture seasonal changes in meteorology. Estimated emissions of trace gases and aerosols via the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel (SMOKE) system were developed using the WRF output. WRF and SMOKE output drive a 3-member CMAQ mini-ensemble of once-daily, 48-h PM2.5 forecasts for the same four months. The CMAQ mini

  14. Temporal multiscaling characteristics of particulate matter PM 10 and ground-level ozone O3 concentrations in Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plocoste, Thomas; Calif, Rudy; Jacoby-Koaly, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    A good knowledge of the intermittency of atmospheric pollutants is crucial for air pollution management. We consider here particulate matter PM 10 and ground-level ozone O3 time series in Guadeloupe archipelago which experiments a tropical and humid climate in the Caribbean zone. The aim of this paper is to study their scaling statistics in the framework of fully developed turbulence and Kolmogorov's theory. Firstly, we estimate their Fourier power spectra and consider their scaling properties in the physical space. The power spectra computed follows a power law behavior for both considered pollutants. Thereafter we study the scaling behavior of PM 10 and O3 time series. Contrary to numerous studies where the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis is frequently applied, here, the classical structure function analysis is used to extract the scaling exponent or multifractal spectrum ζ(q) ; this function provides a full characterization of a process at all intensities and all scales. The obtained results show that PM 10 and O3 possess intermittent and multifractal properties. The singularity spectrum MS(α) also confirms both pollutants multifractal features. The originality of this work comes from a statistical modeling performed on ζ(q) and MS(α) by a lognormal model to compute the intermittency parameter μ. By contrast with PM 10 which mainly depends on puffs of Saharan dust (synoptic-scale), O3 is more intermittent due to variability of its local precursors. The results presented in this paper can help to better understand the mechanisms governing the dynamics of PM 10 and O3 in Caribbean islands context.

  15. Source influence on emission pathways and ambient PM2.5 pollution over India (2015-2050)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Chandra; Brauer, Michael; Tibrewal, Kushal; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Ma, Qiao; Cohen, Aaron; Chaliyakunnel, Sreelekha; Frostad, Joseph; Klimont, Zbigniew; Martin, Randall V.; Millet, Dylan B.; Philip, Sajeev; Walker, Katherine; Wang, Shuxiao

    2018-06-01

    India is currently experiencing degraded air quality, and future economic development will lead to challenges for air quality management. Scenarios of sectoral emissions of fine particulate matter and its precursors were developed and evaluated for 2015-2050, under specific pathways of diffusion of cleaner and more energy-efficient technologies. The impacts of individual source sectors on PM2.5 concentrations were assessed through systematic simulations of spatially and temporally resolved particulate matter concentrations, using the GEOS-Chem model, followed by population-weighted aggregation to national and state levels. We find that PM2.5 pollution is a pan-India problem, with a regional character, and is not limited to urban areas or megacities. Under present-day emissions, levels in most states exceeded the national PM2.5 annual standard (40 µg m-3). Sources related to human activities were responsible for the largest proportion of the present-day population exposure to PM2.5 in India. About 60 % of India's mean population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations come from anthropogenic source sectors, while the remainder are from other sources, windblown dust and extra-regional sources. Leading contributors are residential biomass combustion, power plant and industrial coal combustion and anthropogenic dust (including coal fly ash, fugitive road dust and waste burning). Transportation, brick production and distributed diesel were other contributors to PM2.5. Future evolution of emissions under regulations set at current levels and promulgated levels caused further deterioration of air quality in 2030 and 2050. Under an ambitious prospective policy scenario, promoting very large shifts away from traditional biomass technologies and coal-based electricity generation, significant reductions in PM2.5 levels are achievable in 2030 and 2050. Effective mitigation of future air pollution in India requires adoption of aggressive prospective regulation, currently not formulated

  16. Spatiotemporal estimation of historical PM2.5 concentrations using PM10, meteorological variables, and spatial effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianfa; Wu, Anna H.; Cheng, Iona; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Wu, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Monitoring of fine particulate matter with diameter health outcomes such as cancer. In this study, we aimed to design a flexible approach to reliably estimate historical PM2.5 concentrations by incorporating spatial effect and the measurements of existing co-pollutants such as particulate matter with diameter additive non-linear model. The spatiotemporal model was evaluated, using leaving-one-site-month-out cross validation. Our final daily model had an R2 of 0.81, with PM10, meteorological variables, and spatial autocorrelation, explaining 55%, 10%, and 10% of the variance in PM2.5 concentrations, respectively. The model had a cross-validation R2 of 0.83 for monthly PM2.5 concentrations (N = 8170) and 0.79 for daily PM2.5 concentrations (N = 51,421) with few extreme values in prediction. Further, the incorporation of spatial effects reduced bias in predictions. Our approach achieved a cross validation R2 of 0.61 for the daily model when PM10 was replaced by total suspended particulate. Our model can robustly estimate historical PM2.5 concentrations in California when PM2.5 measurements were not available.

  17. Source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in a desert region in northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorquera, Héctor; Barraza, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Estimating contributions of anthropogenic sources to ambient particulate matter (PM) in desert regions is a challenging issue because wind erosion contributions are ubiquitous, significant and difficult to quantify by using source-oriented, dispersion models. A receptor modeling analysis has been applied to ambient PM 10 and PM 2.5 measured in an industrial zone ∼ 20 km SE of Antofagasta (23.63°S, 70.39°W), a midsize coastal city in northern Chile; the monitoring site is within a desert region that extends from northern Chile to southern Perú. Integrated 24-hour ambient samples of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were taken with Harvard Impactors; samples were analyzed by X Ray Fluorescence, ionic chromatography (NO 3 − and SO 4 = ), atomic absorption (Na + , K + ) and thermal optical transmission for elemental and organic carbon determination. Receptor modeling was carried out using Positive Matrix Factorization (US EPA Version 3.0); sources were identified by looking at specific tracers, tracer ratios, local winds and wind trajectories computed from NOAA's HYSPLIT model. For the PM 2.5 fraction, six contributions were found — cement plant, 33.7 ± 1.3%; soil dust, 22.4 ± 1.6%; sulfates, 17.8 ± 1.7%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.4 ± 1.2%; Antofagasta, 8.5 ± 1.3% and copper smelter, 5.3 ± 0.8%. For the PM 10 fraction five sources were identified — cement plant, 38.2 ± 1.5%; soil dust, 31.2 ± 2.3%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.7 ± 1.7%; copper smelter, 11.5 ± 1.6% and marine aerosol, 6.5 ± 2.4%. Therefore local sources contribute to ambient PM concentrations more than distant sources (Antofagasta, marine aerosol) do. Soil dust is enriched with deposition of marine aerosol and calcium, sulfates and heavy metals from surrounding industrial activities. The mean contribution of suspended soil dust to PM 10 is 50 μg/m 3 and the peak daily value is 104 μg/m 3 . For the PM 2.5 fraction, suspended soil dust contributes with an average of 9.3

  18. Is ozone, rather than PM2.5, actually the largest contributor to premature deaths associated with trans-continental transport of air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, D. K.; Davila, Y.; Anenberg, S.; Malley, C.; Kuylenstierna, J. C. I.; Vallack, H.; Ashmore, M. R.; Turner, M.; Sudo, K.; Jonson, J. E.; Chin, M.; Doherty, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    While both ozone and PM2.5 contribute to a range of deleterious human health impacts, evaluations of regional and global burdens of disease associated with exposure to these pollutants have concluded that PM2.5 is the larger driver of premature deaths from degraded air quality. This is owing to both high PM2.5 concentrations in heavily populated areas and stronger concentration-response relationships between PM2.5 exposure and increased mortality risk. Meanwhile, both PM2.5 and O3 are formed and/or advected far downwind of their sources and contribute to long-range (trans-continental) pollution transport. Ozone most often makes greater contributions to long-range pollution transport in terms of percent changes in surface-level concentrations given its longer tropospheric lifetime than PM2.5. Combining these factors, previous works have identified PM2.5 as more frequently being the dominant long-range source of air pollution related premature deaths, closely followed by O3. Here we re-evaluate this question using several updates, drawing from ensembles of model simulations performed as part of Phase 2 of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants (HTAP) project. Most importantly, we use recently revised concentration-response relationships for respiratory (and, less confidently, cardiovascular) disease associated with long-term O3 exposure, which we have shown increases estimates of premature death owing to O3 several-fold, and integrated exposure response (IER) functions for PM2.5. Further, we attempt to overcome well-recognized biases in estimating PM2.5 exposure with global-scale models via assimilation of high resolution (0.1 x 0.1) maps of surface PM2.5 derived from satellite observations. Overall, we find that our revised estimates of long-range O3 and PM2.5 related premature deaths are most often dominated by O3. These findings provide additional incentives for considering the global-scale consequences of regional emissions controls of O3 precursors.

  19. Measurement of Ambient Air Particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) Around Candidate Location of PLTN Semenanjung Lemahabang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AgusGindo S; Budi Hari H

    2008-01-01

    Measurement analysis of ambient air particle (TSP, PM 10 , PM 2,5 ) around location candidate of PLTN (Power Station of Nuclear Energy) Semenanjung Lemahabang has been carried out. The measurement was conducted in May 2007 with a purpose to providing information about concentration of ambient air particle (TSP, PM 10 , PM 2,5 ) and diameter distribution of its air particle. The measurement was conducted in three locations i.e. 1). Balong village 2). Bayuran 3). Bondo. Concentration of TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2,5 per 24 hours in all measured locations in area candidate of PLTN exceed quality standard of national ambient air is specified by government. All measurement locations for the TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2,5 was include category of ISPU (Standard Index of Air Pollution) moderate. (author)

  20. To what extent can aerosol water explain the discrepancy between model calculated and gravimetric PM10 and PM2.5?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Tsyro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter-comparisons of European air quality models show that regional transport models, including the EMEP (Co-operative Programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe aerosol model, tend to underestimate the observed concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5. Obviously, an accurate representation of the individual aerosol constituents is a prerequisite for adequate calculation of PM concentrations. On the other hand, available measurements on the chemical characterization of ambient particles reveal that full chemical PM mass closure is rarely achieved. The fraction unaccounted for by chemical analysis can comprise as much as 30-40% of gravimetric PM10 or PM2.5 mass. The unaccounted PM mass can partly be due to non-C atoms in organic aerosols and/or due to sampling and measurement artefacts. Moreover, a part of the unaccounted PM mass is likely to consist of water associated with particles. Thus, the gravimetrically measured particle mass does not necessarily represent dry PM10 and PM2.5 mass. This is thought to be one of the reasons for models under-prediction of observed PM, if calculated dry PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are compared with measurements. The EMEP aerosol model has been used to study to what extent particle-bound water can explain the chemically unidentified PM mass in filter-based particle samples. Water content of PM2.5 and PM10 has been estimated with the model for temperature 20°C and relative humidity 50%, which are conditions required for equilibration of dust-loaded filters according to the Reference method recommended by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN. Model calculations for Europe show that, depending on particle composition, particle-bound water constitutes 20-35% of the annual mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations, which is consistent with existing experimental estimates. At two Austrian sites, in Vienna and Streithofen, where daily measurements of PM2.5 mass

  1. Radioactive gases monitor system: tritium, radon, noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egey, J.Z.; Matatagui, E.

    2015-01-01

    A system for monitoring the radioactive gases tritium, radon and noble gases is described. We present the description of the sensor and the associated electronics that have been developed to monitor the presence of radioactive gases in air or other gaseous effluents. The system has a high sensitivity and a wide range of operation. The sensor is an ionization chamber, featuring the internal circulation of the gas to monitor and the associated electronics has a resolution better than 10 E-15A (fA). It allows the detection of the individual pulses that are produced during the alpha decay of radon and its daughter elements. The measurement system is made up of a commercial data acquisition system connected to a computer. The acquired data is presented on a graphical display and it is stored for later processing and analysis. We have a system that is of simple construction and versatile. Here we present the experimental results. (authors) [es

  2. Characterization of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in outdoor/indoor PM10/PM2.5/PM1.0 in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiting; Gao, Lirong; Xia, Dan; Qiao, Lin; Wang, Runhua; Su, Guijin; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui

    2017-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were listed in the Stockholm Convention, because of their adverse health effects, persistence, bioaccumulation and ubiquitous presence in the environment. Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), chlorinated derivatives of n-alkanes, have been listed as candidate POPs under Stockholm Convention. Inhalation uptake was an important exposure pathway for non-occupational adult human and the pollution of particle matter has caused great concern. There are some studies focused on POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in different size particles. However, there were no studies that discussed CP concentrations in particulate matter (PM) with different sizes. In this study, a total of 30 PM samples were collected both outdoors and indoors at a sampling site in Beijing. These samples were used to investigate the concentrations and distributions of SCCPs and medium chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) in PM fractions of different sizes, and to evaluate inhalation exposure risks. The results showed that the average SCCPs and MCCPs in the outdoor PM 10 were 23.9 and 3.6 ng m -3 , while the mean values in indoor were 61.1 and 6.9 ng m -3 , respectively. The levels of SCCPs and MCCPs in indoor and outdoor were relatively high. SCCP and MCCP concentrations in the indoor PM 10 /PM 2.5 /PM 1.0 samples were higher than the corresponding values in the outdoor, because of the using of some products containing CPs in the indoors, like paints and coatings, leather and rubber products. In both outdoor and indoor air, CPs are mainly associated with particles ≤2.5 μm in diameter. The main homolog groups for both SCCPs and MCCPs were C 10-11 Cl 7-8 . It is assumed that SCCPs in the outdoor and indoor PM samples may mainly derive from the production and use of CP-42 and CP-52. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Process of radioactive waste gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiser, H.; Schwarz, H.; Schroter, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described in which the radiation level of waste gases from nuclear power plants containing both activation and fission gases is controlled at or below limits permitted by applicable standards by passing such gases, prior to release to the atmosphere, through an adsorptive delay path including a body of activated carbon having the relation to the throughput and character of such gases. (U.S.)

  4. On the performance of the semiempirical quantum mechanical PM6 and PM7 methods for noncovalent interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostaš, Jiří; Řezáč, Jan; Hobza, Pavel

    2013-05-01

    In this Letter, we compare the recently released semiempirical method PM7 with its predecessor, PM6 with post-SCF corrections. These corrections were introduced in order to improve the description of noncovalent interactions (dispersion, hydrogen bonds and halogen bonds) and have become an integral part of PM7. A large collection of data on noncovalent interactions, covering not only interaction energies but also conformational changes and geometries, is used as a benchmark. Among the methods tested, PM6 with the latest corrections (PM6-D3H4X) yields the best results. PM7 yields only slightly worse results but brings additional improvements in the description of other molecular properties.

  5. Seasonal variability of PM2.5 composition and sources in the Klang Valley urban-industrial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amil, Norhaniza; Talib Latif, Mohd; Firoz Khan, Md; Mohamad, Maznorizan

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) variability in the Klang Valley urban-industrial environment. In total, 94 daily PM2.5 samples were collected during a 1-year campaign from August 2011 to July 2012. This is the first paper on PM2.5 mass, chemical composition and sources in the tropical environment of Southeast Asia, covering all four seasons (distinguished by the wind flow patterns) including haze events. The samples were analysed for various inorganic components and black carbon (BC). The chemical compositions were statistically analysed and the temporal aerosol pattern (seasonal) was characterised using descriptive analysis, correlation matrices, enrichment factor (EF), stoichiometric analysis and chemical mass closure (CMC). For source apportionment purposes, a combination of positive matrix factorisation (PMF) and multi-linear regression (MLR) was employed. Further, meteorological-gaseous parameters were incorporated into each analysis for improved assessment. In addition, secondary data of total suspended particulate (TSP) and coarse particulate matter (PM10) sampled at the same location and time with this study (collected by Malaysian Meteorological Department) were used for PM ratio assessment. The results showed that PM2.5 mass averaged at 28 ± 18 µg m-3, 2.8-fold higher than the World Health Organisation (WHO) annual guideline. On a daily basis, the PM2.5 mass ranged between 6 and 118 µg m-3 with the daily WHO guideline exceeded 43 % of the time. The north-east (NE) monsoon was the only season with less than 50 % sample exceedance of the daily WHO guideline. On an annual scale, PM2.5 mass correlated positively with temperature (T) and wind speed (WS) but negatively with relative humidity (RH). With the exception of NOx, the gases analysed (CO, NO2, NO and SO2) were found to significantly influence the PM2.5 mass. Seasonal variability unexpectedly showed that rainfall, WS and wind direction (WD) did not significantly correlate

  6. Characterization of atmospheric trace gases and particulate matter in Hangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gen; Xu, Honghui; Qi, Bing; Du, Rongguang; Gui, Ke; Wang, Hongli; Jiang, Wanting; Liang, Linlin; Xu, Wanyun

    2018-02-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) is one of the most densely populated regions in China with severe air quality issues that have not been fully understood. Thus, in this study, based on 1-year (2013) continuous measurement at a National Reference Climatological Station (NRCS, 30.22° N, 120.17° E; 41.7 m a.s.l.) in the center of Hangzhou in the YRD, we investigated the seasonal characteristics, interspecies relationships, and the local emissions and the regional potential source contributions of trace gases (including O3, NOx, NOy, SO2, and CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). Results revealed that severe two-tier air pollution (photochemical and haze pollution) occurred in this region, with frequent exceedances in O3 (38 days) and PM2.5 (62 days). O3 and PM2.5 both exhibited distinct seasonal variations with reversed patterns: O3 reaching a maximum in warm seasons (May and July) but PM2.5 reaching a maximum in cold seasons (November to January). The overall results from interspecies correlation indicated a strong local photochemistry favoring the O3 production under a volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited regime, whereas it moved towards an optimum O3 production zone during warm seasons, accompanied by the formation of secondary fine particulates under high O3. The emission maps of PM2.5, CO, NOx, and SO2 demonstrated that local emissions were significant for these species on a seasonal scale. The contributions from the regional transport among inland cities (Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Anhui, and Jiangxi Province) on a seasonal scale were further confirmed to be crucial to air pollution at the NRCS site by using backward trajectory simulations. Air masses transported from the offshore areas of the Yellow Sea, East Sea, and South Sea were also found to be highly relevant to the elevated O3 at the NRCS site through the analysis of potential source contribution function (PSCF). Case studies of photochemical pollution (O3) and haze (PM2.5) episodes both suggested the

  7. Characterization of atmospheric trace gases and particulate matter in Hangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Yangtze River Delta (YRD is one of the most densely populated regions in China with severe air quality issues that have not been fully understood. Thus, in this study, based on 1-year (2013 continuous measurement at a National Reference Climatological Station (NRCS, 30.22° N, 120.17° E; 41.7 m a.s.l. in the center of Hangzhou in the YRD, we investigated the seasonal characteristics, interspecies relationships, and the local emissions and the regional potential source contributions of trace gases (including O3, NOx, NOy, SO2, and CO and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10. Results revealed that severe two-tier air pollution (photochemical and haze pollution occurred in this region, with frequent exceedances in O3 (38 days and PM2.5 (62 days. O3 and PM2.5 both exhibited distinct seasonal variations with reversed patterns: O3 reaching a maximum in warm seasons (May and July but PM2.5 reaching a maximum in cold seasons (November to January. The overall results from interspecies correlation indicated a strong local photochemistry favoring the O3 production under a volatile organic compound (VOC-limited regime, whereas it moved towards an optimum O3 production zone during warm seasons, accompanied by the formation of secondary fine particulates under high O3. The emission maps of PM2.5, CO, NOx, and SO2 demonstrated that local emissions were significant for these species on a seasonal scale. The contributions from the regional transport among inland cities (Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Anhui, and Jiangxi Province on a seasonal scale were further confirmed to be crucial to air pollution at the NRCS site by using backward trajectory simulations. Air masses transported from the offshore areas of the Yellow Sea, East Sea, and South Sea were also found to be highly relevant to the elevated O3 at the NRCS site through the analysis of potential source contribution function (PSCF. Case studies of photochemical pollution (O3 and haze (PM2.5 episodes both

  8. Extraction with supercritical gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G M; Wilke, G; Stahl, E

    1980-01-01

    The contents of this book derives from a symposium on the 5th and 6th of June 1978 in the ''Haus der Technik'' in Essen. Contributions were made to separation with supercritical gases, fluid extraction of hops, spices and tobacco, physicochemical principles of extraction, phase equilibria and critical curves of binary ammonia-hydrocarbon mixtures, a quick method for the microanalytical evaluation of the dissolving power of supercritical gases, chromatography with supercritical fluids, the separation of nonvolatile substances by means of compressed gases in countercurrent processes, large-scale industrial plant for extraction with supercritical gases, development and design of plant for high-pressure extraction of natural products.

  9. Source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 at an urban background and a street location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M. P.; Moerman, M.; Voogt, M.; Blom, M.; Weijers, E. P.; Rockmann, T.; Dusek, U.

    The contribution of regional, urban and traffic sources to PM2.5 and PM10 in an urban area was investigated in this study. The chemical composition of PM2.5 and PM10 was measured over a year at a street location and up- and down-wind of the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The C-14 content in EC

  10. Source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 at an urban background and a street location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.P.; Moerman, M.M.; Voogt, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of regional, urban and traffic sources to PM2.5 and PM10 in an urban area was investigated in this study. The chemical composition of PM2.5 and PM10 was measured over a year at a street location and up- and down-wind of the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The 14C content in EC

  11. Local PM10 and PM2.5 emission inventories from agricultural tillage and harvest in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Tong, Daniel Q; Zhang, Shichun; Zhang, Xuelei; Zhao, Hongmei

    2017-07-01

    Mineral particles or particulate matters (PMs) emitted during agricultural activities are major recurring sources of atmospheric aerosol loading. However, precise PM inventory from agricultural tillage and harvest in agricultural regions is challenged by infrequent local emission factor (EF) measurements. To understand PM emissions from these practices in northeastern China, we measured EFs of PM 10 and PM 2.5 from three field operations (i.e., tilling, planting and harvesting) in major crop production (i.e., corn and soybean), using portable real-time PM analyzers and weather station data. County-level PM 10 and PM 2.5 emissions from agricultural tillage and harvest were estimated, based on local EFs, crop areas and crop calendars. The EFs averaged (107±27), (17±5) and 26mg/m 2 for field tilling, planting and harvesting under relatively dry conditions (i.e., soil moisture agricultural dust emissions to regional air quality in northeastern China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 at an urban background and a street location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuken, M. P.; Moerman, M.; Voogt, M.; Blom, M.; Weijers, E. P.; Röckmann, T.; Dusek, U.

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of regional, urban and traffic sources to PM2.5 and PM10 in an urban area was investigated in this study. The chemical composition of PM2.5 and PM10 was measured over a year at a street location and up- and down-wind of the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The 14C content in EC and OC concentrations was also determined, to distinguish the contribution from "modern" carbon (e.g., biogenic emissions, biomass burning and wildfires) and fossil fuel combustion. It was concluded that the urban background of PM2.5 and PM10 is dominated by the regional background, and that primary and secondary PM emission by urban sources contribute less than 15%. The 14C analysis revealed that 70% of OC originates from modern carbon and 30% from fossil fuel combustion. The corresponding percentages for EC are, respectively 17% and 83%. It is concluded that in particular the urban population living in street canyons with intense road traffic has potential health risks. This is due to exposure to elevated concentrations of a factor two for EC from exhaust emissions in PM2.5 and a factor 2-3 for heavy metals from brake and tyre wear, and re-suspended road dust in PM10. It follows that local air quality management may focus on local measures to street canyons with intense road traffic.

  13. Water soluble organic carbon in aerosols (PM1, PM2.5, PM10) and various precipitation forms (rain, snow, mixed) over the southern Baltic Sea station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Agnieszka; Lewandowska, Anita U

    2016-12-15

    In the urbanized coastal zone of the Southern Baltic, complex measurements of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were conducted between 2012 and 2015, involving atmospheric precipitation in its various forms (rain, snow, mixed) and PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols. WSOC constituted about 60% of the organic carbon mass in aerosols of various sizes. The average concentration of WSOC was equal to 2.6μg∙m -3 in PM1, 3.6μg∙m -3 in PM2.5 and 4.4μg∙m -3 in PM10. The lowest concentration of WSOC was noted in summer as a result of effective removal of this compound with rainfall. The highest WSOC concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols were measured in spring, which should be associated with developing vegetation on land and in the sea. On the other hand, the highest WSOC concentrations in PM1 occurred in winter at low air temperatures and greatest atmospheric stability, when there were increased carbon emissions from fuel combustion in the communal-utility sector and from transportation. WSOC concentrations in precipitation were determined by its form. Mixed precipitation turned out to be the richest in soluble organic carbon (5.1mg·dm -3 ), while snow contained the least WSOC (1.7mg·dm -3 ). Snow and rain cleaned carbon compounds from the atmosphere more effectively when precipitation lasted longer than 24h, while in the case of mixed precipitation WSOC was removed most effectively within the first 24h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. AIRUSE-LIFE+: a harmonized PM speciation and source apportionment in five southern European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The AIRUSE-LIFE+ project aims at characterizing similarities and heterogeneities in particulate matter (PM sources and contributions in urban areas from southern Europe. Once the main PMx sources are identified, AIRUSE aims at developing and testing the efficiency of specific and non-specific measures to improve urban air quality. This article reports the results of the source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 conducted at three urban background sites (Barcelona, Florence and Milan, BCN-UB, FI-UB and MLN-UB, one suburban background site (Athens, ATH-SUB and one traffic site (Porto, POR-TR. After collecting 1047 PM10 and 1116 PM2.5 24 h samples during 12 months (from January 2013 on simultaneously at the five cities, these were analysed for the contents of OC, EC, anions, cations, major and trace elements and levoglucosan. The USEPA PMF5 receptor model was applied to these data sets in a harmonized way for each city. The sum of vehicle exhaust (VEX and non-exhaust (NEX contributes between 3.9 and 10.8 µg m−3 (16–32 % to PM10 and 2.3 and 9.4 µg m−3 (15–36 % to PM2.5, although a fraction of secondary nitrate is also traffic-related but could not be estimated. Important contributions arise from secondary particles (nitrate, sulfate and organics in PM2.5 (37–82 % but also in PM10 (40–71 %, mostly at background sites, revealing the importance of abating gaseous precursors in designing air quality plans. Biomass burning (BB contributions vary widely, from 14–24 % of PM10 in POR-TR, MLN-UB and FI-UB, 7 % in ATH-SUB, to  <  2 % in BCN-UB. In PM2.5, BB is the second most important source in MLN-UB (21 % and in POR-TR (18 %, the third one in FI-UB (21 % and ATH-SUB (11 %, but is again negligible (< 2 % in BCN-UB. This large variability among cities is mostly due to the degree of penetration of biomass for residential heating. In Barcelona natural gas is very well supplied across the city and is used as fuel in 96 % of

  15. Levels of PM2.5/PM10 and associated metal(loid)s in rural households of Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuyong; Wang, Wei; Man, Yu Bon; Chan, Chuen Yu; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-04-15

    Although a majority of China's rural residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and heating, clean energy such as electricity and liquid petroleum gas is becoming more popular in the rural area. Unfortunately, both solid fuels and clean energy could result in indoor air pollution. Daily respirable particulate matter (PM≤10 μm) and inhalable particulate matter (PM≤2.5 μm) were investigated in kitchens, sitting rooms and outdoor area in rural Henan during autumn (Sep to Oct 2012) and winter (Jan 2013). The results showed that PM (PM2.5 and PM10) and associated metal(loid)s varied among the two seasons and the four types of domestic energy used. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in kitchens during winter were 59.2-140.4% and 30.5-145.1% higher than those during autumn, respectively. Similar with the trends of PM2.5 and PM10, concentrations of As, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni and Mn in household PM2.5 and PM10 were apparently higher in winter than those in autumn. The highest mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 (368.5 and 588.7 μg m(-3)) were recorded in sitting rooms in Baofeng during winter, which were 5.7 and 3.9 times of corresponding health based guidelines for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Using coal can result in severe indoor air pollutants including PM and associated metal(loid)s compared with using crop residues, electricity and gas in rural Henan Province. Rural residents' exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 would be roughly reduced by 13.5-22.2% and 8.9-37.7% via replacing coal or crop residues with electricity. The present study suggested that increased use of electricity as domestic energy would effectively improve indoor air quality in rural China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of PM1 and PM2.5 on lung function parameters in healthy schoolchildren-a panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwozdziak, A; Sówka, I; Willak-Janc, E; Zwozdziak, J; Kwiecińska, K; Balińska-Miśkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate lung function responses to short-term indoor PM 1 and PM 2.5 concentrations, we conducted a panel study of healthy schoolchildren aged 13-14 years. The following lung function parameters FVC, FEV 1 , PEF, and mid expiratory flows MEF 25 , MEF 50 , and MEF 75 were measured in 141 schoolchildren of the secondary school in Wroclaw, Poland in years 2009-2010. On days when spirometry tests were conducted, simultaneously, PM 1 and PM 2.5 samples were collected inside the school premises. Information about differentiating factors for children including smoking parents, sex, living close to busy streets, dust, mold, and pollen allergies were collected by means of questionnaires. To account for repeated measurements, the method of generalized estimating equations (GEE) was used. The GEE models for the entire group of children revealed the adverse effects (p < 0.05) of PM 1 and PM 2.5 . Small differences in effects estimates per interquartile range (IQR) of PM 1 and PM 2.5 on MEF 25 (5.1 and 4.8 %), MEF 50 (3.7 and 3.9 %), MEF 75 (3.5 and 3.6 %) and FEV 1 (1.3 and 1.0 %) imply that PM 1 was likely the component of PM 2.5 that might have a principal health effect on these lung function parameters. However, the reduction of FVC and PEF per IQR for PM 2.5 (2.1 and 5.2 %, respectively) was higher than for PM 1 (1.0 and 4.4 %, respectively). Adjustment for potential confounders did not change the unadjusted analysis.

  17. Overview of the LADCO winter nitrate study: hourly ammonia, nitric acid and PM2.5 composition at an urban and rural site pair during PM2.5 episodes in the US Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shaw

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the LADCO (Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium Winter Nitrate Study (WNS is presented. Sampling was conducted at ground level at an urban-rural pair of sites during January–March 2009 in eastern Wisconsin, toward the western edge of the US Great Lakes region. Areas surrounding these sites experience multiday episodes of wintertime PM2.5 pollution characterized by high fractions of ammonium nitrate in PM, low wind speeds, and air mass stagnation. Hourly surface monitoring of inorganic gases and aerosols supplemented long-term 24-h aerosol chemistry monitoring at these locations. The urban site (Milwaukee, WI experienced 13 PM2.5 episodes, defined as periods where the seven-hour moving average PM2.5 concentration exceeded 27 μg m−3 for at least four consecutive hours. The rural site experienced seven episodes by the same metric, and all rural episodes coincided with urban episodes. Episodes were characterized by low pressure systems, shallow/stable boundary layer, light winds, and increased temperature and relative humidity relative to climatological mean conditions. They often occurred in the presence of regional snow cover at temperatures near freezing, when snow melt and sublimation could generate fog and strengthen the boundary layer inversion. Substantial contribution to nitrate production from nighttime chemistry of ozone and NO2 to N2O5 and nitric acid is likely and requires further investigation. Pollutant-specific urban excess during episode and non-episode conditions is presented. The largest remaining uncertainties in the conceptual model of the wintertime episodes are the variability from episode-to-episode in ammonia emissions, the balance of daytime and nighttime nitrate production, the relationship between ammonia controls, NOx controls and ammonium nitrate reductions, and the extent to which snow and fog are causal (either through meteorological or chemical processes rather than just correlated with episodes

  18. Precise measurement of the $K^{\\pm} \\to \\pi^{\\pm}e^{+}e^{−}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J.R.; Kalmus, G.; Lazzeroni, C.; Munday, D.J.; Slater, M.W.; Wotton, S.A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bocquet, G.; Cabibbo, N.; Ceccucci, A.; Cundy, D.; Falaleev, V.; Fidecaro, M.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Kubischta, W.; Norton, A.; Maier, A.; Patel, M.; Peters, A.; Balev, S.; Frabetti, P.L.; Goudzovski, E.; Hristov, P.; Kekelidze, V.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Madigozhin, D.; Marinova, E.; Molokanova, N.; Polenkevich, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Monnier, E.; Swallow, E.; Winston, R.; Rubin, P.; Walker, A.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Damiani, C.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Scarpa, M.; Wahl, H.; Bizzeti, A.; Calvetti, M.; Celeghini, E.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Martelli, F.; Ruggiero, G.; Veltri, M.; Behler, M.; Eppard, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Marouelli, P.; Masetti, L.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Renk, B.; Wache, M.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Coward, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Shieh, M.; Szleper, M.; Velasco, M.; Wood, M.D.; Anzivino, G.; Cenci, P.; Imbergamo, E.; Nappi, A.; Pepe, M.; Petrucci, M.C.; Piccini, M.; Raggi, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Collazuol, G.; DiLella, L.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Michetti, A.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Fiorini, L.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheze, J.B.; De Beer, M.; Derre, J.; Marel, G.; Mazzucato, E.; Peyaud, B.; Vallage, B.; Holder, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Bifani, S.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Clemencic, M.; Goy Lopez, S.; Marchetto, F.; Dibon, H.; Jeitler, M.; Markytan, M.; Mikulec, I.; Neuhofer, G.; Widhalm, L.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 7253 $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm e^+e^-(\\gamma)$ decay candidates with 1.0% background contamination has been collected by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS, allowing a precise measurement of the decay properties. The branching ratio in the full kinematic range was measured to be ${\\rm BR}=(3.11\\pm0.12)\\times 10^{-7}$, where the uncertainty includes also the model dependence. The shape of the form factor $W(z)$, where $z=(M_{ee}/M_K)^2$, was parameterized according to several models, and, in particular, the slope $\\delta$ of the linear form factor $W(z)=W_0(1+\\delta z)$ was determined to be $\\delta=2.32\\pm0.18$. A possible CP violating asymmetry of $K^+$ and $K^-$ decay widths was investigated, and a conservative upper limit of $2.1\\times 10^{-2}$ at 90% CL was established.

  19. Human health risk due to variations in PM10-PM2.5 and associated PAHs levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Beatriz S.; Porta, Andrés; Colman Lerner, Jorge Esteban; Banda Noriega, Roxana; Massolo, Laura

    2017-07-01

    WHO (2012) reports that chronic exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), causes the death of 7 million people, constituting the most important environmental risk for health in the world. IARC classifies contaminated outdoor air as carcinogenic, Group 1 category. However, in our countries there are few studies regarding air pollution levels and possible associated effects on public health. The current study determined PM and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in outdoor air, identified their possible emission sources and analysed health risks in the city of Tandil (Argentina). PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected using a low volume sampler (MiniVol TAS) in three areas: city centre, industrial and residential. Concentrations were determined by gravimetric methods and the content of the US EPA 16 priority PAHs was found by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Description of the main emission sources and selection of monitoring sites resulted from spatial analysis and the IVE (International Vehicle Emissions) model was used in the characterisation of the traffic flow. Median values of 35.7 μgm-3 and 9.6 μgm-3 in PM10 and PM2.5 respectively and characteristic profiles were found for each area. Local values PAHs associated to PM10 and PM2.5, in general, were lower than 10ngm-3. The estimated Unit Risk for the three areas exceeds US EPA standards (9 × 10-5). The number of deaths attributable to short term exposure to outdoor PM10 was 4 cases in children under 5 years of age, and 21 cases in total population, for a relative risk of 1.037.

  20. Spatiotemporal variation of PM1 pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gongbo; Morawska, Lidia; Zhang, Wenyi; Li, Shanshan; Cao, Wei; Ren, Hongyan; Wang, Boguang; Wang, Hao; Knibbs, Luke D.; Williams, Gail; Guo, Jianping; Guo, Yuming

    2018-04-01

    Understanding spatiotemporal variation of PM1 (mass concentrations of particles with aerodynamic diameter health, which is potentially more severe for its deeper penetrating capability into human bodies compared with larger particles. This study aimed to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of PM1 across China as well as its ratio with PM2.5 (additive models were employed to examine the relationships between PM1 and meteorological parameters. We showed that PM1 concentrations were the lowest in summer and the highest in winter. Across China, the PM1/PM2.5 ratios ranged from 0.75-0.88, reaching higher levels in January and lower in August. For spatial distribution, higher PM1/PM2.5 ratios (>0.9) were observed in North-Eastern China, North China Plain, coastal areas of Eastern China and Sichuan Basin while lower ratios (<0.7) were present in remote areas in North-Western and Northern China (e.g., Xinjiang, Tibet and Inner Mongolia). Higher PM1/PM2.5 ratios were observed on heavily polluted days and lower ratios on clean days. The high PM1/PM2.5 ratios observed in China suggest that smaller particles, PM1 fraction, are key drivers of air pollution, and that they effectively account for the majority of PM2.5 concentrations. This emphasised the role of combustion process and secondary particle formation, the sources of PM1, and the significance of controlling them.

  1. Characterization of PM-PEMS for in-use measurements conducted during validation testing for the PM-PEMS measurement allowance program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Yusuf; Johnson, Kent C.; Durbin, Thomas D.; Jung, Heejung; Cocker, David R.; Bishnu, Dipak; Giannelli, Robert

    2012-08-01

    This study provides an evaluation of the latest Particulate Matter-Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PM-PEMS) under different environmental and in-use conditions. It characterizes four PM measurement systems based on different measurement principles. At least three different units were tested for each PM-PEMS to account for variability. These PM-PEMS were compared with a UC Riverside's mobile reference laboratory (MEL). PM measurements were made from a class 8 truck with a 2008 Cummins diesel engine with a diesel particulate filter (DPF). A bypass around the DPF was installed in the exhaust to achieve a brake specific PM (bsPM) emissions level of 25 mg hp-1h-1. PM was dominated by elemental carbon (EC) during non-regeneration conditions and by hydrated sulfate (H2SO4.6H2O) during regeneration. The photo-acoustic PM-PEMS performed best, with a linear regression slope of 0.90 and R2 of 0.88 during non-regenerative conditions. With the addition of a filter, the photo-acoustic PM-PEMS slightly over reported than the total PM mass (slope = 1.10, R2 = 0.87). Under these same non-regeneration conditions, a PM-PEMS equipped with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technology performed the poorest, and had a slope of 0.22 and R2 of 0.13. Re-tests performed on upgraded QCM PM-PEMS showed a better slope (0.66), and a higher R2 of 0.25. In the case of DPF regeneration, all PM-PEMS performed poorly, with the best having a slope of 0.20 and R2 of 0.78. Particle size distributions (PSD) showed nucleation during regeneration, with a shift of particle size to smaller diameters (˜64 nm to ˜13 nm) with elevated number concentrations when compared to non-regeneration conditions.

  2. Study to determine the nature and extent of ozone and ozone precursor transport in selected areas of California. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.T.; Musarra, S.; Smith, T.B.; Lurmann, F.W.

    1992-04-01

    The project was designed to assess the contribution of transported pollutants to violations of the state ozone standard within the air basins covered by the report using existing data and advanced data analysis techniques. The objectives of the project were to determine the characteristics of ozone and ozone precursor transport within the California air basins covered by the report and to identify whether the contribution of transported pollutants to ozone violations in each downwind area was inconsequential, significant, or overwhelming, relative to locally-emitted pollutants. The precursor pollutants of interest were nitrogen oxides and reactive organic gases. The project evaluated transport to the following areas: The Broader Sacramento Area and the Upper Sacramento Valley; The North Central Coast Air Basin; The Southeast Desert Air Basin (SEDAB); and the Imperial County portion of the SEDAB

  3. Comparative Analysis of Monitoring Devices for Particulate Content in Exhaust Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Castellani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The installation and operation of continuous particulate emission monitors in industrial processes has become well developed and common practice in industrial stacks and ducts over the past 30 years, reflecting regulatory monitoring requirements. Continuous emissions monitoring equipment is installed not only for regulatory compliance, but also for the monitoring of plant performance, calculation of emissions inventories and compilation of environmental impact assessments. Particulate matter (PM entrained in flue gases is produced by the combustion of fuels or wastes. The size and quantity of particles released depends on the type of fuel and the design of the plant. The present work provides an overview of the main industrial emission sources, a description of the main types of monitoring systems offered by manufacturers and a comparative analysis of the currently available technologies for measuring dust releases to atmosphere.

  4. Inhalable microorganisms in Beijing's PM2.5 and PM10 pollutants during a severe smog event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chen; Jiang, Wenjun; Wang, Buying; Fang, Jianhuo; Lang, Jidong; Tian, Geng; Jiang, Jingkun; Zhu, Ting F

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution poses a formidable public health threat to the city of Beijing. Among the various hazards of PM pollutants, microorganisms in PM2.5 and PM10 are thought to be responsible for various allergies and for the spread of respiratory diseases. While the physical and chemical properties of PM pollutants have been extensively studied, much less is known about the inhalable microorganisms. Most existing data on airborne microbial communities using 16S or 18S rRNA gene sequencing to categorize bacteria or fungi into the family or genus levels do not provide information on their allergenic and pathogenic potentials. Here we employed metagenomic methods to analyze the microbial composition of Beijing's PM pollutants during a severe January smog event. We show that with sufficient sequencing depth, airborne microbes including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and dsDNA viruses can be identified at the species level. Our results suggested that the majority of the inhalable microorganisms were soil-associated and nonpathogenic to human. Nevertheless, the sequences of several respiratory microbial allergens and pathogens were identified and their relative abundance appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM pollution. Our findings may serve as an important reference for environmental scientists, health workers, and city planners.

  5. Investigation of air pollution of Shanghai subway stations in ventilation seasons in terms of PM2.5 and PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Erbao; Shen, Henggen; He, Lei; Zhang, Jiawen

    2017-07-01

    In November 2015, the PM 2.5 and PM 10 particulate matter (PM) levels in platforms, station halls, and rail areas of the Shangcheng and Jiashan Road Station were monitored to investigate air pollution in the Shanghai subway system. The results revealed that in subway stations, PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations were significantly higher than those in outdoor environments. In addition, particle concentrations in the platforms exceeded maximum levels that domestic safety standards allowed. Particularly on clear days, PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations in platforms were significantly higher than maximum standards levels. Owing to the piston effect, consistent time-varying trends were exhibited by PM 2.5 concentrations in platforms, station halls, and rail areas. Platform particle concentrations were higher than the amount in station halls, and they were higher on clear days than on rainy days. The time-varying trends of PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations in platforms and station halls were similar to each other. Activities within the station led to most of the inhalable particles within the station area. The mass concentration ratios of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in platforms were within 0.65-0.93, and fine particles were the dominant components.

  6. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHI, M.; Wu, H.; Zhang, S.; Li, H.; Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    In urban areas,fine particle matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 um and 10 um (PM2.5-10), and 2.5 um (PM2.5), as an important source of urban particulate matter (PM) pollutants, have significant negative effects on health, atmospheric visibility and climate. PM has increasingly become a significant index of indicating the atmospheric pollution of city. In recent years, Beijing, China has been listed as one of the most serious air pollution city in the world. In order to investigate the sources of air pollutants, a total of 283 pairs of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 samples were collected daily from July, 2010 to June, 2011 in Beijing. Mineral magnetic properties and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were measured to verify the magnetic materials. Magnetic measures for PM indicated that the major magnetic phase was coarse-grained magnetite-like material. The χlf, χarm, SIRM and χarm/SIRM series of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show seasonal dependences: high values in winter and low values in summer. In additional the parameters analyzed by Time-series methods show a strong cycle about 7 days above 95% confidence level. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show different pattern: the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5-10 show high values in mid-week, and particle sizes is steady, while the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5 show reverse a weekly cycle pattern, and particle sizes is smaller in the mid-week.Microscopy analyses reveal basically three morphologies of magnetic grains: aggregate, spherules and angular particles. The ultrafine carbonaceous particles which tend to form complex clusters and chain-like structures, most likely come from coal burning and motor vehicle exhaust. Spherical particles in PM2.5 are dominantly composed of Fe, O and C, grain-diameters of particles range from 0.3 to 2 um. Angular particles of Fe

  7. Basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 in the atmosphere of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, E; Reyes, E; Sánchez, G; Ortiz, E; Ruiz, M; Chow, J; Watson, J; Edgerton, S

    2002-03-27

    The high levels of fine particulate matter in Mexico City are of concern since they may induce severe public health effects as well as the attenuation of visible light. Sequential filter samplers were used at six different sites from 23 February to 22 March 1997. The sampling campaign was carried out as part of the project 'Investigación sobre Materia Particulada y Deterioro Atmosferico-Aerosol and Visibility Evaluation Research'. This research was a cooperative project sponsored by PEMEX and by the US Department of Energy. Sampling sites represent the different land uses along the city, the northwest station, Tlalnepantla, is located in a mixed medium income residential and industrial area. The northeast station, Xalostoc, is located in a highly industrialized area, Netzahualcoyotl is located in a mixed land use area, mainly commercial and residential. Station La Merced is located in the commercial and administrative district downtown. The southwest station is located in the Pedregal de San Angel, in a high-income neighborhood, and the southeast station located in Cerro de la Estrella is a mixed medium income residential and commercial area. Samples were collected four times a day in Cerro de la Estrella (CES), La Merced (MER) and Xalostoc (XAL) with sampling periods of 6 h. In Pedregal (PED), Tlalnepantla (TLA) and Netzahualcoyot1 (NEZ) sampling periods were every 24 h. In this paper the basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations are presented. The average results showed that 49, 61, 46, 57, 51 and 44% of the PM10 consisted of PM2.5 for CES, MER, XAL, PED, TLA and NEZ, respectively. The 24-h average highest concentrations of PM25 and PM10 were registered at NEZ (184 and 267 microg/m3) and the lowest at PED (22 and 39 microg/m3). The highest PM10 correlations were between XAL-CES (0.79), PED-TLA (0.80). In contrast, the highest PM2.5 correlations were between CES-PED (0.74), MER-CES (0.73) and TLA-PED (0.72), showing a lower correlation than the PM10

  8. Ionic and carbonaceous compositions of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 at Gosan ABC Superstation and their ratios as source signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were sampled at Gosan ABC Superstation on Jeju Island from August 2007 to September 2008. The carbonaceous aerosols were quantified with the thermal/optical reflectance (TOR method, which produced five organic carbon (OC fractions, OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, and pyrolyzed organic carbon (OP, and three elemental carbon (EC fractions, EC1, EC2, and EC3. The mean mass concentrations of PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were 13.7 μg m−3, 17.2 μg m−3, and 28.4 μg m−3, respectively. The averaged mass fractions of OC and EC were 23.0% and 10.4% for PM1.0, 22.9% and 9.8% for PM2.5, and 16.4% and 6.0% for PM10. Among the OC and EC sub-components, OC2 and EC2+3 were enriched in the fine mode, but OC3 and OC4 in the coarse mode. The filter-based PM1.0 EC agreed well with black carbon (BC measured by an Aethalometer, and PM10 EC was higher than BC, implying less light absorption by larger particles. EC was well correlated with sulfate, resulting in good relationships of sulfate with both aerosol scattering coefficient measured by Nephelometer and BC concentration. Our measurements of EC confirmed the definition of EC1 as char-EC emitted from smoldering combustion and EC2+3 as soot-EC generated from higher-temperature combustion such as motor vehicle exhaust and coal combustion (Han et al., 2010. In particular, EC1 was strongly correlated with potassium, a traditional biomass burning indicator, except during the summer, when the ratio of EC1 to EC2+3 was the lowest. We also found the ratios of major chemical species to be a useful tool to constrain the main sources of aerosols, by which the five air masses were well distinguished: Siberia, Beijing, Shanghai, Yellow Sea, and East Sea types. Except Siberian air, the continental background of the study region, Beijing plumes showed the highest EC1 (and OP to sulfate ratio, which implies that this air mass had the highest net warming by aerosols of the four air masses. Shanghai-type air, which was

  9. Household air pollution and personal inhalation exposure to particles (TSP/PM2.5/PM1.0/PM0.25) in rural Shanxi, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ye; Du, Wei; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Shen, Huizhong; Zhu, Dan; Yuan, Chenyi; Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Personal exposure to size-segregated particles among rural residents in Shanxi, China in summer, 2011 were investigated using portable carried samplers (N = 84). Household air pollution was simultaneously studied using stationary samplers in nine homes. Information on household fuel types, cooking activity, smoking behavior, kitchen ventilation conditions etc., were also collected and discussed. The study found that even in the summer period, the daily average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 in the kitchen were as high as 376 ± 573 and 288 ± 397 μg/m 3 (N = 6), that were nearly 3 times of 114 ± 81 and 97 ± 77 μg/m 3 in the bedroom (N = 8), and significantly higher than those of 64 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 μg/m 3 in the outdoor air (N = 6). The personal daily exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 were 98 ± 52 and 77 ± 47 μg/m 3 , respectively, that were lower than the concentrations in the kitchen but higher than the outdoor levels. The mass fractions of PM 2.5 in TSP were 90%, 72%, 65% and 68% on average in the kitchen, bedroom, outdoor air and personal inhalation exposure, respectively, and moreover, a majority of particles in PM 2.5 had diameters less than 1.0 μm. Calculated time-weighted average exposure based on indoor and outdoor air concentrations and time spent indoor and outdoor were positively correlated but, was ∼33% lower than the directly measured exposure. The daily exposure among those burning traditional solid fuels could be lower by ∼41% if the kitchen was equipped with an outdoor chimney, but was still 8–14% higher than those household using cleaning energies, like electricity and gas. With a ventilator in the kitchen, the exposure among the population using clean energies could be further reduced by 10–24%. - Highlights: • High inhalation exposure of fine PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 among rural residents. • Smoking prevails on cooking in increasing exposure to finer particles. • PM exposure could be reduced by

  10. Structure of odd-A Pm nuclei (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piiparinen, M.; Kortelahti, M.; Pakkanen, A.; Komppa, T.; Komu, R.

    1977-12-01

    The level structures of 141 Pm and 145 Pm were studied by methods of in-beam γ-ray and electron spectroscopy using the reactions 142 Nd(p,2n) 141 Pm, 141 Pr( 3 He,3n) 141 Pm and 146 Nd(p,2n) 145 Pm. Nineteen new levels with spins up to (19/2) were observed in 141 Pm and twenty-two new levels with spins up to 15/2 in 145 Pm. In both nuclei, a group of positive-parity levels have been identified which can be interpreted as members of multiplets of d 5 / 2 and g 7 / 2 protons coupled to the quadrupole vibrations of the core. Transition probabilities of the decay modes of isomeric h 11 / 2 states have been determined. (author)

  11. A new continuous two-step molecular precursor route to rare-earth oxysulfides Ln2O2S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Crom, N.; Devillers, M.

    2012-01-01

    A continuous two-step molecular precursor pathway is designed for the preparation of rare-earth oxysulfides Ln 2 O 2 S (Ln=Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm–Lu). This new route involves a first oxidation step leading to the rare-earth oxysulfate Ln 2 O 2 SO 4 which is subsequently reduced to the rare-earth oxysulfide Ln 2 O 2 S by switching to a H 2 –Ar atmosphere. The whole process occurs at a temperature significantly lower than usual solid state synthesis (T≤650 °C) and avoids the use of dangerous sulfur-based gases, providing a convenient route to the synthesis of the entire series of Ln 2 O 2 S. The molecular precursors consist in heteroleptic dithiocarbamate complexes [Ln(Et 2 dtc) 3 (phen)] and [Ln(Et 2 dtc) 3 (bipy)] (Et 2 dtc=N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate; phen=1,10-phenanthroline; bipy=2,2′-bipyridine) and were synthesized by a new high yield and high purity synthesis route. The nature of the molecular precursor determines the minimum synthesis temperature and influences therefore the purity of the final Ln 2 O 2 S crystalline phase. - Graphical abstract: A continuous two-step molecular precursor pathway was designed for the preparation of rare-earth oxysulfides Ln 2 O 2 S (Ln=Y, La, Pr, Nd, Sm–Lu), starting from heteroleptic dithiocarbamate complexes. The influence of the nature of the molecular precursor on the minimum synthesis temperature and on the purity of the final Ln 2 O 2 S crystalline phase is discussed. Highlights: ► A new high yield and high purity synthesis route of rare earth dithiocarbamates is described. ► These compounds are used as precursors in a continuous process leading to rare-earth oxysulfides. ► The oxysulfides are obtained under much more moderate conditions than previously described.

  12. Method for storing radioactive rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Atsushi; Nagao, Hiroyuki; Takiguchi, Yukio; Kanazawa, Toshio; Soya, Masataka.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To safely and securely store radioactive rare gases for a long period of time. Structure: The waste gases produced in nuclear power plant are cooled by a cooler and then introduced into a low temperature adsorbing device so that the gases are adsorbed by adsorbents, and then discharged into atmosphere through the purifying gas discharge line. When the radioactive rare gases reach a level of saturation in the amount of adsorption, they are heated and extracted by a suction pump and heated by a heater. The gases are then introduced into an oxygen-impurity removing device and the purified rare gases containing no oxygen and impurities are cooled by a cooler and fed into a gas holder. When the amount of radioactive rare gases stored within the gas holder reaches a given level, they are compressed and sealed by a compressure into a storing cylinder and residual gases in the piping are sucked and recovered into the gas holder, after which the cylinder is removed and stored in a fixed room. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. A third-generation dispersion and third-generation hydrogen bonding corrected PM6 method: PM6-D3H+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy C. Kromann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present new dispersion and hydrogen bond corrections to the PM6 method, PM6-D3H+, and its implementation in the GAMESS program. The method combines the DFT-D3 dispersion correction by Grimme et al. with a modified version of the H+ hydrogen bond correction by Korth. Overall, the interaction energy of PM6-D3H+ is very similar to PM6-DH2 and PM6-DH+, with RMSD and MAD values within 0.02 kcal/mol of one another. The main difference is that the geometry optimizations of 88 complexes result in 82, 6, 0, and 0 geometries with 0, 1, 2, and 3 or more imaginary frequencies using PM6-D3H+ implemented in GAMESS, while the corresponding numbers for PM6-DH+ implemented in MOPAC are 54, 17, 15, and 2. The PM6-D3H+ method as implemented in GAMESS offers an attractive alternative to PM6-DH+ in MOPAC in cases where the LBFGS optimizer must be used and a vibrational analysis is needed, e.g., when computing vibrational free energies. While the GAMESS implementation is up to 10 times slower for geometry optimizations of proteins in bulk solvent, compared to MOPAC, it is sufficiently fast to make geometry optimizations of small proteins practically feasible.

  14. Study of the $K^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{\\pm} \\gamma \\gamma$ decay by the NA62 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00100355; Romano, A.; Ceccucci, A.; Danielsson, H.; Falaleev, V.; Gatignon, L.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hallgren, B.; Maier, A.; Peters, A.; Piccini, M.; Riedler, P.; Frabetti, P.L.; Gersabeck, E.; Kekelidze, V.; Madigozhin, D.; Misheva, M.; Molokanova, N.; Movchan, S.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Rubin, P.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Norton, A.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Wahl, H.; Bizzeti, A.; Bucci, F.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Antonelli, A.; Moulson, M.; Raggi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Eppard, K.; Hita-Hochgesand, M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Renk, B.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Winston, R.; Bolotov, V.; Duk, V.; Gushchin, E.; Ambrosino, F.; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Napolitano, M.; Palladino, V.; Saracino, G.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Piandani, R.; Sergi, A.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Balev, S.; Collazuol, G.; Di, L.; Gallorini, S.; Goudzovski, E.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Ruggiero, G.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Kholodenko, S.; Kurshetsov, V.; Obraztsov, V.; Semenov, V.; Yushchenko, O.; D'Agostini, G.; Leonardi, E.; Serra, M.; Valente, P.; Fucci, A.; Salamon, A.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Peyaud, B.; Engelfried, J.; Coward, D.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bifani, S.; Biino, C.; Dellacasa, G.; Marchetto, F.; Numao, T.; Retiere, F.

    2014-05-01

    A study of the dynamics of the rare decay $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\gamma\\gamma$ has been performed on a sample of 232 decay candidates, with an estimated background of $17.4\\pm1.1$ events, collected by the NA62 experiment at CERN in 2007. The results are combined with those from a measurement conducted by the NA48/2 collaboration at CERN. The combined model-independent branching ratio in the kinematic range $z=(m_{\\gamma\\gamma}/m_K)^2>0.2$ is ${\\cal B}_{\\rm MI}(z>0.2) = (0.965 \\pm 0.063) \\times 10^{-6}$, and the combined branching ratio in the full kinematic range assuming a Chiral Perturbation Theory description is ${\\cal B}(K_{\\pi\\gamma\\gamma}) = (1.003 \\pm 0.056) \\times 10^{-6}$. A detailed comparison of the results with the previous measurements is performed.

  15. Growth, extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity, and kinetic characteristic responses of the bloom-forming toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5, PM2.5-10, and PM>10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziran; Wang, Shoubing; Wang, Yuanan; Zhang, Jie

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (APM), commonly seen and widely excited in environment, appears great enough to influence the biochemical processes in aquatic microorganisms and phytoplankton. Understanding the response of cyanobacteria to various factors is fundamental for eutrophication control. To clarify the response of cyanobacteria to APM, the effects of PM 2.5 , PM 2.5-10 , and PM >10 on Microcystis aeruginosa were researched. Variabilities in cell density, chlorophyll a, soluble protein, malondialdehyde, extracellular activity, and kinetic parameters of alkaline phosphatase were evaluated by lab-cultured experiments. Results showed that the PM 2.5 had a slight stimulation impact on the growth and enhanced both of the 48- and 72-h extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity (APA), the affinity of alkaline phosphatase for substrate, and the 72-h maximum enzymatic reaction velocity (V max ). Moreover, the stimulations in extracellular APA and V max enhanced with the increasing exposure concentrations. We also found there were no obvious distinctions on the effects of growth and alkaline phosphatase in M. aeruginosa between PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 exposure groups. Obviously, inhibitory effects on growth existed in 4.0 and 8.0 mg/L PM 2.5-10 and 8.0 mg/L PM >10 at 120 h. Furthermore, PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 exerted inhibitory effects on the extracellular APA during the 72-h exposure. Simultaneously, the V max was notably inhibited and the affinity of alkaline phosphatase for substrate was more inseparable compared with control in PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 treatments. Nevertheless, the inhibitors in extracellular APA and kinetic parameters were unrelated to PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 exposure concentrations. Two-way ANOVA results revealed that there were significant interactions between exposure concentration and diameter of APM on the 120-h cell density, soluble protein content, APA, and 72 h APA of M. aeruginosa. These results in our study would be meaningful to further

  16. Relación entre las partículas finas (PM 2.5 y respirables PM 10 en la ciudad de Medellín Relation between fine particles (PM 2.5 and breathable particles (PM 10 in Medellin city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Echeverri Londoño

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta parte de los resultados del proyecto 'Patologías respiratorias en niños preescolares y su relación con la contaminación atmosférica de Medellín', realizado por la Universidad de Medellín y la Universidad CES para la Secretaria de Salud de Medellín dentro del contrato 4700026668 de 2006. Se realizaron mediciones simultáneas de partículas finas (PM2.5 y respirables (PM10 durante el período de febrero a octubre de 2007 en varios sitios de la ciudad de Medellín, capital del departamento de Antioquia, habitada aproximadamente por 2’250.000 personas. Los resultados del análisis muestran, en la mayoría de los casos, una correlación positiva y lineal entre los dos parámetros. La relación (PM2.5/PM10 promedio para los sitios o zonas bajo consideración en este estudio fue de aproximadamente 0.67, valor bastante considerable que hace pensar que probablemente se puede cumplir con la norma anual para PM10, pero no para PM2.5. Los resultados obtenidos identifican las partículas finas como uno de los principales problemas de contaminación en la ciudad de Medellín.This article shows part of the results from the project called: 'Respiratory pathologies in pre-school children and their relation to atmospheric contamination in Medellin,' carried out by Universidad de Medellin and Universidad CES for Medellin Health Secretariat according to contract No. 4700026668, year 2006. Simultaneous measurements of fine particles (PM2.5 and breathable particles (PM10 were made from February to October, 2007 in several sites of Medellin, the capital city of Antioquia State, where about 2,250,000 inhabitants live. In almost all cases, analysis results show a positive and linear correlation between both parameters. Average ratio (PM2.5/PM10 for sites and zones tested in this study was 0.67 approximately, which is a very meaningful value, what makes us think that annual norm for PM10 can probably be accomplished, but not the one

  17. Variability of levels and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Barcelona metro system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. de Miguel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From an environmental perspective, the underground metro system is one of the cleanest forms of public transportation in urban agglomerations. Current studies report contradicting results regarding air quality in the metro systems: whereas some reveal poor air quality, others report PM levels which are lower or of the same order of magnitude than those measured in traffic sites above ground level. The present work assesses summer and winter indoor air quality and passenger exposure in the Barcelona metro, focusing on PM levels and their metal contents. In addition, the impact on indoor air quality of platform screen door systems (automated systems consisting of closed rail track and platforms is evaluated, to determine whether these systems reduce passenger exposure to PM when compared with conventional systems (open tracks and platforms. In the Barcelona metro PM levels inside the trains in summer are amongst the lowest reported for worldwide metro systems (11–32 μg m−3 PM2.5. This is most likely due to the air conditioning system working in all carriages of the Barcelona metro during the whole year. Levels were considerably higher on the platforms, reaching mean levels of 46 and 125 μg m3 in the new (L9 and old (L3 lines, respectively. PM10 data are also reported in the present study, but comparison with other metro systems is difficult due to the scarcity of data compared with PM2.5. Results showed distinct PM daily cycles, with a drastic increase from 06:00 to 07:00 a.m., a diurnal maximum from 07:00 to 10:00 p.m., and marked decrease between 10:00 p.m. and 05:00 a.m. The elements with the highest enrichment were those associated with wheel or brake abrasion products (Ba, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Sb, As, Mo, Co, Sr, among others. Laminar hematite (Fe2O3 was the dominant particle type, being mainly originated by mechanical abrasion of the rail track and wheels. Regarding passenger exposure to PM, the contribution of commuting by metro was

  18. An investigation of the sub-grid variability of trace gases and aerosols for global climate modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Qian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available One fundamental property and limitation of grid based models is their inability to identify spatial details smaller than the grid cell size. While decades of work have gone into developing sub-grid treatments for clouds and land surface processes in climate models, the quantitative understanding of sub-grid processes and variability for aerosols and their precursors is much poorer. In this study, WRF-Chem is used to simulate the trace gases and aerosols over central Mexico during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign, with multiple spatial resolutions and emission/terrain scenarios. Our analysis focuses on quantifying the sub-grid variability (SGV of trace gases and aerosols within a typical global climate model grid cell, i.e. 75×75 km2.

    Our results suggest that a simulation with 3-km horizontal grid spacing adequately reproduces the overall transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols downwind of Mexico City, while 75-km horizontal grid spacing is insufficient to represent local emission and terrain-induced flows along the mountain ridge, subsequently affecting the transport and mixing of plumes from nearby sources. Therefore, the coarse model grid cell average may not correctly represent aerosol properties measured over polluted areas. Probability density functions (PDFs for trace gases and aerosols show that secondary trace gases and aerosols, such as O3, sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate, are more likely to have a relatively uniform probability distribution (i.e. smaller SGV over a narrow range of concentration values. Mostly inert and long-lived trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC, are more likely to have broad and skewed distributions (i.e. larger SGV over polluted regions. Over remote areas, all trace gases and aerosols are more uniformly distributed compared to polluted areas. Both CO and O3 SGV vertical profiles are nearly constant within the PBL during daytime, indicating that trace gases

  19. Influence of different carrier gases on the properties of ZnO films grown by MOCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang, Jinzhong

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available ZnO films were grown on sapphire (001 substrate by atmospheric MOCVD using diethyl zinc and tertiary butanol precursors. The influence of different carrier gases (H2 and He on the properties was analyzed by their structural (XRD, microstructural (SEM and compositional (SIMS characterization. The intensity of the strongest diffraction peak from ZnO (002 plane was increased by about 2 orders of magnitude when He is used as carrier gas, indicating the significant enhancement in crystallinity. The surface of the samples grown using H2 and He carrier gases was composed of leaf-like and spherical grains respectively. Hydrogen [H] content in the film grown using H2 is higher than that using He, indicating that the [H] was influenced by the H2 carrier gas. Ultraviolet emission dominates the low temperature PL spectra. The emission from ZnO films grown using He show higher optical quality and more emission centers.

    Se depositaron películas de ZnO sobre sustratos de zafiro (001 utilizando dietil zinc y butanol terciario como precursores. La influencia de los diferentes gases portadores (H2 y He sobre las propiedades se estudió mediante la caracterización estructural (XRD, microestructural (SEM y composicional (SIMS. La intensidad del pico de difracción más importante del plano (002 del ZnO aumentó en dos órdenes de magnitud cuando se utiliza He como gas portador indicando un incremento significativo de la cristalinidad. La superficie de las muestras crecidas utilizando H2 y He está formada por granos en forma de hoja y de forma esférica respectivamente. El contenido en hidrógeno (H en la película es mayor cuando se utiliza H2 que cuando se utiliza He, indicando que la cantidad de hidrógeno está influenciada por el H2 del gas portador. La emisión ultravioleta domina el espectro PL de baja temperatura. La emisión de las películas de ZnO utilizando

  20. Chemical characterization and source identification of PM2.5 at multiple sites in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Zirui; Liu, Jingyun; Hu, Bo; Wen, Tianxue; Tang, Guiqian; Zhang, Junke; Wu, Fangkun; Ji, Dongsheng; Wang, Lili; Wang, Yuesi

    2017-11-01

    The simultaneous observation and analysis of atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5) on a regional scale is an important approach to develop control strategies for haze pollution. In this study, samples of filtered PM2.5 were collected simultaneously at three urban sites (Beijing, Tianjin, and Shijiazhuang) and at a regional background site (Xinglong) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region from June 2014 to April 2015. The PM2.5 at the four sites was mainly comprised of organic matter, secondary inorganic ions, and mineral dust. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) demonstrated that, on an annual basis, secondary inorganic aerosol was the largest PM2.5 source in this region, accounting for 29.2-40.5 % of the PM2.5 mass at the urban sites; the second-largest PM2.5 source was motor vehicle exhaust, particularly in Beijing (24.9 %), whereas coal combustion was also a large source in Tianjin (12.4 %) and Shijiazhuang (15.5 %), with particular dominance in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosol plays a vital role in the haze process, with the exception of the spring haze in Shijiazhuang and Tianjin, for which the dust source was crucial. In addition to secondary transformations, local direct emissions (coal combustion and motor vehicle exhaust) significantly contribute to the winter haze at the urban sites. Moreover, with the aggravation of haze pollution, the OC / EC mass ratio of PM2.5 decreased considerably and the nitrate-rich secondary aerosol increased during all four seasons in Beijing, both of which indicate that local motor vehicle emissions significantly contribute to the severe haze episodes in Beijing. To assess the impacts of regional transport on haze pollution, the PMF results were further processed with backward-trajectory cluster analysis, revealing that haze pollution usually occurred when air masses originating from polluted industrial regions in the south prevailed and is characterized by high PM2.5 loadings with considerable contributions from secondary

  1. Chemical characterization and source identification of PM2.5 at multiple sites in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous observation and analysis of atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5 on a regional scale is an important approach to develop control strategies for haze pollution. In this study, samples of filtered PM2.5 were collected simultaneously at three urban sites (Beijing, Tianjin, and Shijiazhuang and at a regional background site (Xinglong in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH region from June 2014 to April 2015. The PM2.5 at the four sites was mainly comprised of organic matter, secondary inorganic ions, and mineral dust. Positive matrix factorization (PMF demonstrated that, on an annual basis, secondary inorganic aerosol was the largest PM2.5 source in this region, accounting for 29.2–40.5 % of the PM2.5 mass at the urban sites; the second-largest PM2.5 source was motor vehicle exhaust, particularly in Beijing (24.9 %, whereas coal combustion was also a large source in Tianjin (12.4 % and Shijiazhuang (15.5 %, with particular dominance in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosol plays a vital role in the haze process, with the exception of the spring haze in Shijiazhuang and Tianjin, for which the dust source was crucial. In addition to secondary transformations, local direct emissions (coal combustion and motor vehicle exhaust significantly contribute to the winter haze at the urban sites. Moreover, with the aggravation of haze pollution, the OC ∕ EC mass ratio of PM2.5 decreased considerably and the nitrate-rich secondary aerosol increased during all four seasons in Beijing, both of which indicate that local motor vehicle emissions significantly contribute to the severe haze episodes in Beijing. To assess the impacts of regional transport on haze pollution, the PMF results were further processed with backward-trajectory cluster analysis, revealing that haze pollution usually occurred when air masses originating from polluted industrial regions in the south prevailed and is characterized by high PM2.5 loadings with considerable

  2. Dry sorbent injection of trona to control acid gases from a pilot-scale coal-fired combustion facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. B. Yelverton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Gaseous and particulate emissions from the combustion of coal have been associated with adverse effects on human and environmental health, and have for that reason been subject to regulation by federal and state governments. Recent regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency have further restricted the emissions of acid gases from electricity generating facilities and other industrial facilities, and upcoming deadlines are forcing industry to consider both pre- and post-combustion controls to maintain compliance. As a result of these recent regulations, dry sorbent injection of trona to remove acid gas emissions (e.g. HCl, SO2, and NOx from coal combustion, specifically 90% removal of HCl, was the focus of the current investigation. Along with the measurement of HCl, SO2, and NOx, measurements of particulate matter (PM, elemental (EC, and organic carbon (OC were also accomplished on a pilot-scale coal-fired combustion facility. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a coal-fired combustor burning bituminous coal and using dry sorbent injection were the focus of the current study. From this investigation it was shown that high levels of trona were needed to achieve the goal of 90% HCl removal, but with this increased level of trona injection the ESP and BH were still able to achieve greater than 95% fine PM control. In addition to emissions reported, measurement of acid gases by standard EPA methods were compared to those of an infrared multi-component gas analyzer. This comparison revealed good correlation for emissions of HCl and SO2, but poor correlation in the measurement of NOx emissions.

  3. Precursors prior to type IIn supernova explosions are common: Precursor rates, properties, and correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofek, Eran O.; Steinbok, Aviram; Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Tal, David; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Yaron, Ofer [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Shaviv, Nir J. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nugent, Peter E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Silverman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    There is a growing number of Type IIn supernovae (SNe) which present an outburst prior to their presumably final explosion. These precursors may affect the SN display, and are likely related to poorly charted phenomena in the final stages of stellar evolution. By coadding Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) images taken prior to the explosion, here we present a search for precursors in a sample of 16 Type IIn SNe. We find five SNe IIn that likely have at least one possible precursor event (PTF 10bjb, SN 2010mc, PTF 10weh, SN 2011ht, and PTF 12cxj), three of which are reported here for the first time. For each SN we calculate the control time. We find that precursor events among SNe IIn are common: at the one-sided 99% confidence level, >50% of SNe IIn have at least one pre-explosion outburst that is brighter than 3 × 10{sup 7} L{sub ☉} taking place up to 1/3 yr prior to the SN explosion. The average rate of such precursor events during the year prior to the SN explosion is likely ≳ 1 yr{sup –1}, and fainter precursors are possibly even more common. Ignoring the two weakest precursors in our sample, the precursors rate we find is still on the order of one per year. We also find possible correlations between the integrated luminosity of the precursor and the SN total radiated energy, peak luminosity, and rise time. These correlations are expected if the precursors are mass-ejection events, and the early-time light curve of these SNe is powered by interaction of the SN shock and ejecta with optically thick circumstellar material.

  4. Inhalable Microorganisms in Beijing’s PM2.5 and PM10 Pollutants during a Severe Smog Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution poses a formidable public health threat to the city of Beijing. Among the various hazards of PM pollutants, microorganisms in PM2.5 and PM10 are thought to be responsible for various allergies and for the spread of respiratory diseases. While the physical and chemical properties of PM pollutants have been extensively studied, much less is known about the inhalable microorganisms. Most existing data on airborne microbial communities using 16S or 18S rRNA gene sequencing to categorize bacteria or fungi into the family or genus levels do not provide information on their allergenic and pathogenic potentials. Here we employed metagenomic methods to analyze the microbial composition of Beijing’s PM pollutants during a severe January smog event. We show that with sufficient sequencing depth, airborne microbes including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and dsDNA viruses can be identified at the species level. Our results suggested that the majority of the inhalable microorganisms were soil-associated and nonpathogenic to human. Nevertheless, the sequences of several respiratory microbial allergens and pathogens were identified and their relative abundance appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM pollution. Our findings may serve as an important reference for environmental scientists, health workers, and city planners. PMID:24456276

  5. Trends in arsenic levels in PM10 and PM 2.5 aerosol fractions in an industrialized area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aleix, J R; Delgado-Saborit, J M; Verdú-Martín, G; Amigó-Descarrega, J M; Esteve-Cano, V

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element that affects human health and is widely distributed in the environment. In the area of study, the main Spanish and second largest European industrial ceramic cluster, the main source of arsenic aerosol is related to the impurities in some boracic minerals used in the ceramic process. Epidemiological studies on cancer occurrence in Spain points out the study region as one with the greater risk of cancer. Concentrations of particulate matter and arsenic content in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured and characterized by ICP-MS in the area of study during the years 2005-2010. Concentrations of PM10 and its arsenic content range from 27 to 46 μg/m(3) and from 0.7 to 6 ng/m(3) in the industrial area, respectively, and from 25 to 40 μg/m(3) and from 0.7 to 2.8 ng/m(3) in the urban area, respectively. Concentrations of PM2.5 and its arsenic content range from 12 to 14 μg/m(3) and from 0.5 to 1.4 ng/m(3) in the urban background area, respectively. Most of the arsenic content is present in the fine fraction, with ratios of PM2.5/PM10 in the range of 0.65-0.87. PM10, PM2.5, and its arsenic content show a sharp decrease in recent years associated with the economic downturn, which severely hit the production of ceramic materials in the area under study. The sharp production decrease due to the economic crisis combined with several technological improvements in recent years such as substitution of boron, which contains As impurities as raw material, have reduced the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and As in air to an extent that currently meets the existing European regulations.

  6. Seasonal variability of PM2.5 composition and sources in the Klang Valley urban-industrial environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Amil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the fine particulate matter (PM2.5 variability in the Klang Valley urban-industrial environment. In total, 94 daily PM2.5 samples were collected during a 1-year campaign from August 2011 to July 2012. This is the first paper on PM2.5 mass, chemical composition and sources in the tropical environment of Southeast Asia, covering all four seasons (distinguished by the wind flow patterns including haze events. The samples were analysed for various inorganic components and black carbon (BC. The chemical compositions were statistically analysed and the temporal aerosol pattern (seasonal was characterised using descriptive analysis, correlation matrices, enrichment factor (EF, stoichiometric analysis and chemical mass closure (CMC. For source apportionment purposes, a combination of positive matrix factorisation (PMF and multi-linear regression (MLR was employed. Further, meteorological–gaseous parameters were incorporated into each analysis for improved assessment. In addition, secondary data of total suspended particulate (TSP and coarse particulate matter (PM10 sampled at the same location and time with this study (collected by Malaysian Meteorological Department were used for PM ratio assessment. The results showed that PM2.5 mass averaged at 28 ± 18 µg m−3, 2.8-fold higher than the World Health Organisation (WHO annual guideline. On a daily basis, the PM2.5 mass ranged between 6 and 118 µg m−3 with the daily WHO guideline exceeded 43 % of the time. The north-east (NE monsoon was the only season with less than 50 % sample exceedance of the daily WHO guideline. On an annual scale, PM2.5 mass correlated positively with temperature (T and wind speed (WS but negatively with relative humidity (RH. With the exception of NOx, the gases analysed (CO, NO2, NO and SO2 were found to significantly influence the PM2.5 mass. Seasonal variability unexpectedly showed that rainfall, WS and wind direction (WD did not

  7. Chromatography related performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA: laboratory and field-based evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen

    2017-10-01

    calibration and verification of instrument accuracy by multilevel external standards is required to adequately control analytical accuracy. During the field intensive, the MARGA was able to capture rapid compositional changes in PM2.5 due to changes in meteorology and air mass history relative to known source regions of PM precursors, including a fine NO3− aerosol event associated with intrusion of Arctic air into the southeastern US.

  8. Chromatography related performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA): laboratory and field-based evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Walker, John T.; Geron, Chris

    2017-10-01

    by multilevel external standards is required to adequately control analytical accuracy. During the field intensive, the MARGA was able to capture rapid compositional changes in PM2.5 due to changes in meteorology and air mass history relative to known source regions of PM precursors, including a fine NO3- aerosol event associated with intrusion of Arctic air into the southeastern US.

  9. PM2.5 and PM10 Emission from agricultural soils by wind erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil tillage and wind erosion are a major source of particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) emission from cultivated soil. Fifteen cultivated soils collected from 5 states were tested as crushed (<2.0 mm) and uncrushed (natural aggregation) at 8, 10, and 13 m s-1 wind velocity in...

  10. Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Victor R. J. H.; Achten, Peter A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects by numerous studies. Therefore, governments have been heavily incentivising the market to switch to electric passenger cars in order to reduce air pollution. However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight. By analysing the existing literature on non-exhaust emissions of different vehicle categories, this review found that there is a positive relationship between weight and non-exhaust PM emission factors. In addition, electric vehicles (EVs) were found to be 24% heavier than equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). As a result, total PM10 emissions from EVs were found to be equal to those of modern ICEVs. PM2.5 emissions were only 1-3% lower for EVs compared to modern ICEVs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the increased popularity of electric vehicles will likely not have a great effect on PM levels. Non-exhaust emissions already account for over 90% of PM10 and 85% of PM2.5 emissions from traffic. These proportions will continue to increase as exhaust standards improve and average vehicle weight increases. Future policy should consequently focus on setting standards for non-exhaust emissions and encouraging weight reduction of all vehicles to significantly reduce PM emissions from traffic.

  11. Simultaneous monitoring and compositions analysis of PM1 and PM2.5 in Shanghai: Implications for characterization of haze pollution and source apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ting; Zhao, Mengfei; Xiu, Guangli; Yu, Jianzhen

    2016-07-01

    A year-long simultaneous observation of PM1 and PM2.5 were conducted at ECUST campus in Shanghai, the compositions were analyzed and compared. Results showed that PM2.5 was dominated by PM1 on clear days while the contribution of PM1-2.5 to PM2.5 increased on haze days, indicating that PM2.5 should be given priority to characterize or predict haze pollution. On haze days, accumulation of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and primary organic carbon (POC) in PM1-2.5 was faster than that in PM1. Humic-like substances carbon (Hulis-C) in both PM2.5 and PM1 formed faster than water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) on haze days, hence Hulis-C/WSOC increased with the intensification of haze pollution. In terms of water soluble ions, NO3(-)/SO4(2-) in PM1 increased with the aggravation of haze pollution, implying that mobile sources dominated on haze days, so is nitrogen oxidation ratio (NOR). Liquid water content (LWC) in both PM1 and PM2.5 had positive correlations with relative humidity (RH) but negative correlations with visibility, implying that hygroscopic growth might be a factor for visibility impairment, especially LWC in PM1. By comparison with multi-linear equations of LWC in PM1 and PM2.5, NO3(-) exerted a higher influence on hygroscopicity of PM1 than PM2.5, while RH, WSOC, SO4(2-) and NH4(+) had higher effects on PM2.5, especially WSOC. Source apportionment of PM2.5 was also investigated to provide reference for policy making. Cluster analysis by HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model showed that PM2.5 originated from marine aerosols, middle-scale transportation and large-scale transportation. Furthermore, PM2.5 on haze days was dominated by middle-scale transportation. In line with source apportionment by positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, PM2.5 was attributed to secondary inorganics, aged sea salt, combustion emissions, hygroscopic growth and secondary organics. Secondary formation was the principle source of

  12. Mass concentration and elemental composition of indoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 in University rooms in Thessaloniki, northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemenetzis, Panagiotis; Moussas, Panagiotis; Arditsoglou, Anastasia; Samara, Constantini

    The mass concentration and the elemental composition of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured in 40 rooms (mainly offices or mixed office-lab rooms, and photocopying places) of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. A total of 27 major, minor and trace elements were determined by ED-XRF analysis. The PM 2.5/PM 10 concentration ratios averaged 0.8±0.2, while the corresponding elemental ratios ranged between 0.4±0.2 and 0.9±0.2. The concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were significantly higher (by 70% and 50%, respectively) in the smokers' rooms compared to the non-smokers' places. The total elemental concentrations were also higher in the smokers' rooms (11.5 vs 8.2 μg m -3 for PM 2.5, and 10.3 vs 7.6 μg m -3 for PM 2.5-10). Fine particle concentrations (PM 2.5) were found to be quite proportional to smoking strength. On the contrary, the two environments exhibited similar coarse (PM 2.5-10) particle fractions not related to the number of cigarettes smoked. A slight decrease of particle concentrations with increasing the floor level was also observed, particularly for PM 2.5, suggesting that high-level floors are less impacted by near ground-level sources like traffic emissions. Finally, the removal efficiency of air purification systems was evaluated.

  13. Evidence of electroweak production of $W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}jj$ in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

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Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; 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Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; 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Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; 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Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-10-03

    This Letter presents the first study of $W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}jj$, same-electric-charge diboson production in association with two jets, using 20.3~fb$^{-1}$ of proton--proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Events with two reconstructed same-charge leptons ($e^\\pm e^\\pm$, $e^\\pm \\mu^\\pm$, and $\\mu^\\pm \\mu^\\pm$) and two or more jets are analyzed. Production cross sections are measured in two fiducial regions, with different sensitivities to the electroweak and strong production mechanisms. First evidence for $W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}jj$ production and electroweak-only $W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}jj$ production is observed with a significance of $4.5$ and $3.6$ standard deviations respectively. The measured production cross sections are in agreement with Standard Model predictions. Limits at 95\\% confidence level are set on anomalous quartic gauge couplings.

  14. Empirical parameterization of the $K^{\\pm} \\to \\pi^{\\pm}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ decay Dalitz plot

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J R

    2010-01-01

    As first observed by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS, the $\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ invariant mass ($M_{00}$) distribution from $K^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{\\pm}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ decay shows a cusp-like anomaly at $M_{00}=2m_{+}$, where $m_{+}$ is the charged pion mass. An analysis to extract the $\\pi\\pi$ scattering lengths in the isospin $I=0$ and $I=2$ states, $a_{0}$ and $a_{2}$, respectively, has been recently reported. In the present work the Dalitz plot of this decay is fitted to a new empirical parameterization suitable for practical purposes, such as Monte Carlo simulations of $K^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{\\pm}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ decays.

  15. Lifetime measurement in 136Pm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toney, D.; Zhong, Q.; De Angelis, G.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the electromagnetic transition probabilities in the doublet bands of 136 Pm. These two bands have been observed up to Iπ = (21 + ). Contrary to the case of 134 Pr, the B(M1)/B(E2) ratios take similar values within the error bars in 136 Pm. This is a strong indication that there is considerable difference between the two nuclei. However, a lifetime measurement in 136 Pm is needed to shed light on the scale and the origin of the difference

  16. Source influence on emission pathways and ambient PM2.5 pollution over India (2015–2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Venkataraman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available India is currently experiencing degraded air quality, and future economic development will lead to challenges for air quality management. Scenarios of sectoral emissions of fine particulate matter and its precursors were developed and evaluated for 2015–2050, under specific pathways of diffusion of cleaner and more energy-efficient technologies. The impacts of individual source sectors on PM2.5 concentrations were assessed through systematic simulations of spatially and temporally resolved particulate matter concentrations, using the GEOS-Chem model, followed by population-weighted aggregation to national and state levels. We find that PM2.5 pollution is a pan-India problem, with a regional character, and is not limited to urban areas or megacities. Under present-day emissions, levels in most states exceeded the national PM2.5 annual standard (40 µg m−3. Sources related to human activities were responsible for the largest proportion of the present-day population exposure to PM2.5 in India. About 60 % of India's mean population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations come from anthropogenic source sectors, while the remainder are from other sources, windblown dust and extra-regional sources. Leading contributors are residential biomass combustion, power plant and industrial coal combustion and anthropogenic dust (including coal fly ash, fugitive road dust and waste burning. Transportation, brick production and distributed diesel were other contributors to PM2.5. Future evolution of emissions under regulations set at current levels and promulgated levels caused further deterioration of air quality in 2030 and 2050. Under an ambitious prospective policy scenario, promoting very large shifts away from traditional biomass technologies and coal-based electricity generation, significant reductions in PM2.5 levels are achievable in 2030 and 2050. Effective mitigation of future air pollution in India requires adoption of aggressive prospective

  17. Comparison of Ground-Based PM2.5 and PM10 Concentrations in China, India, and the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchuan Yang

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrialization have spurred air pollution, making it a global problem. An understanding of the spatiotemporal characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively is necessary to mitigate air pollution. We compared the characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations and their trends of China, India, and the U.S. from 2014 to 2017. Particulate matter levels were lowest in the U.S., while China showed higher concentrations, and India showed the highest. Interestingly, significant declines in PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were found in some of the most polluted regions in China as well as the U.S. No comparable decline was observed in India. A strong seasonal trend was observed in China and India, with the highest values occurring in winter and the lowest in summer. The opposite trend was noted for the U.S. PM2.5 was highly correlated with PM10 for both China and India, but the correlation was poor for the U.S. With regard to reducing particulate matter pollutant concentrations, developing countries can learn from the experiences of developed nations and benefit by establishing and implementing joint regional air pollution control programs.

  18. PM Raman fiber laser at 1679 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a PM Raman fiber laser emitting light at 1679 nm. The laser has an slope efficiency of 67 % and an output power of more than 275mWwith a 27 pm linewidth.......We demonstrate a PM Raman fiber laser emitting light at 1679 nm. The laser has an slope efficiency of 67 % and an output power of more than 275mWwith a 27 pm linewidth....

  19. Primary Emission and the Potential of Secondary Aerosol Formation from Chinese Gasoline Engine Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Qin, Yanhong; Du, Zhuofei; Li, Mengjin; Zheng, Rong; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Zeng, Limin; Guo, Song; Shao, Min; Wang, Yinhui; Shuai, Shijin

    2017-04-01

    Along with the urbanization and economic growth, vehicle population in China reached 269 million, ranked the second in the world in 2015. Gasoline vehicle is identified to be the main source for urban PM2.5 in China, accounting for 15%-31%. In this study the impact of fuel components on PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from a gasoline port fuel injection (PFI) engine and a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine are discussed. Results show that, higher proportion of aromatics, alkenes or sulfur in gasoline fuel will lead to higher PM emissions. The PM from the PFI engine mainly consists of OC and a small amount of EC and inorganic ions, while the PM discharge from the GDI engine mainly consists of EC, OM and a small amount of inorganic ions. Since the GDI engines can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, and it would become more and more popular in the near future. The characteristics of POM component, emission factors and source profile were investigated from GDI engine, particularly focused on the effect of engine speed, load and the catalyst, which will be very much helpful for source identification as source indicators. Chamber experiments were conducted to quantify the potential of secondary aerosol formation from exhaust of a PFI gasoline engine and China V gasoline fuel. During 4-5 h simulation, equivalent to10 days of atmospheric photo-oxidation in Beijing, the extreme SOA production was 426 ± 85 mg/kg fuel, with high precursors and OH exposure. 14% of SOA measured in the chamber experiments could be explained through the oxidation of speciated single-ring aromatics. Unspeciated precursors, such as intermediate-volatility organic compounds and semi-volatility organic compounds, might be significant for SOA formation from gasoline VOCs. We concluded that reduction of emissions of aerosol precursor gases from vehicles is essential to mediate pollution in China.

  20. The direct influence of ship traffic on atmospheric PM2.5, PM10 and PAH in Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, D; Gambaro, A; Belosi, F; De Pieri, S; Cairns, W R L; Donateo, A; Zanotto, E; Citron, M

    2011-09-01

    The direct influence of ship traffic on atmospheric levels of coarse and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5), PM(10)) and fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been estimated in the urban area of Venice. Data analysis has been performed on results collected at three sites over the summer, when ship traffic is at a maximum. Results indicate that monitoring of the PM daily concentrations is not sufficiently detailed for the evaluation of this contribution, even though it could be useful for specific markers such as PAHs. Therefore a new methodology, based on high temporal resolution measurements coupled with wind direction information and the database of ship passages of the Harbour Authority of Venice has been developed. The sampling sites were monitored with optical detectors (DustTrack(®) and Mie pDR-1200) operating at a high temporal resolution (20s and 1s respectively) for PM(2.5) and PM(10). PAH in the particulate and gas phases were recovered from quartz fibre filters and polyurethane foam plugs using pressurised solvent extraction, the extracts were then analysed by gas chromatography- high-resolution mass spectrometry. Our results shows that the direct contribution of ships traffic to PAHs in the gas phase is 10% while the contribution to PM(2.5) and to PM(10) is from 1% up to 8%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gases and carbon in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehn, H.; Fromm, E.; Hoerz, G.

    1978-01-01

    This issue is part of a series of data on 'gases and carbon in metals'. The present survey includes results from papers dealing with gases and carbon in actinides and recommends critically selected data for each element. Firstly data od binary systems are presented, starting with hydrogen and followed by carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and rare gases. Within one metal-metalloid system the data are listed under topics such as solubility limit, dissociation pressure of compunds, vapour pressure of volatile oxides, thermodynamic data, diffusion, transport parameters (effective valence, heat of transport), permeation of gases through metals, gas adsorption and gas desorption kinetics, compound formation, precipitation kinetics, and property changes. Following the data on binary systems, the data of ternary systems are presented, beginning with systems which contain one metal and two gases or one gas and carbon and continuing with systems with two metals and one gas or carbon. Within a ternary system the topics are arranged in the same way as in binary systems. (HB) [de

  2. Measurement of $D^{*\\pm}$, $D^\\pm$ and $D_s^\\pm$ meson production cross sections in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; 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Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; 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Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Childers, John Taylor; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; 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Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; 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Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saimpert, Matthias; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    The production of $D^{*\\pm}$, $D^\\pm$ and $D_s^\\pm$ charmed mesons has been measured with the ATLAS detector in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV at the LHC, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $280\\,$nb$^{-1}$. The charmed mesons have been reconstructed in the range of transverse momentum $3.5pm}$ and $D^\\pm$ production. The next-to-leading-order QCD predictions are consistent with the data in the visible kinematic region within the large theoretical uncertainties. Using the visible $D$ cross sections and an extrapolation to the full kinematic phase space, the strangeness-suppression factor in charm fragmentation, the fraction of charged non-strange $D$ mesons produced in a vector state, and the total cross section of charm production at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV were derived.

  3. Source contributions to PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} at an urban background and a street location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keuken, M.; Voogt, M.; Moerman, M. [TNO, Utrecht (Netherlands); Blom, M.; Weijers, E.P. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Roeckmann, T.; Dusek, U. [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The contribution of regional, urban and traffic sources to PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} in an urban area was investigated in this study. The chemical composition of PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} was measured over a year at a street location and up- and down-wind of the city of Rotterdam, Netherlands. The {sup 14}C content in EC and OC concentrations was also determined, to distinguish the contribution from 'modern' carbon (e.g., biogenic emissions, biomass burning and wildfires) and fossil fuel combustion. It was concluded that the urban background of PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} is dominated by the regional background, and that primary and secondary PM emission by urban sources contribute less than 15%. The {sup 14}C analysis revealed that 70% of OC originates from modern carbon and 30% from fossil fuel combustion. The corresponding percentages for EC are, respectively 17% and 83%. It is concluded that in particular the urban population living in street canyons with intense road traffic has potential health risks. This is due to exposure to elevated concentrations of a factor two for EC from exhaust emissions in PM{sub 2.5} and a factor 2-3 for heavy metals from brake and tyre wear, and re-suspended road dust in PM{sub 10}. It follows that local air quality management may focus on local measures to street canyons with intense road traffic.

  4. Characterization of carbonaceous materials in PM2.5 and PM10 size fractions in Morogoro, Tanzania, during 2006 wet season campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkoma, Stelyus L.; Chi Xuguang; Maenhaut, Willy

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples in PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions were collected in parallel at a rural site in Morogoro during wet season in March and April 2006. All samples were analysed for the particulate matter mass, for organic, elemental, and total carbon (OC, EC, and TC), and for water-soluble OC (WSOC). The average PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and associated standard deviations were 14 ± 13 μg/m 3 and 7.3 ± 4 μg/m 3 respectively. On average, TC accounted for 33% of the PM10 mass and 44% of the PM2.5 mass for the campaign. The average OC/PM percentage ratios were 27% and 33% in PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions respectively and a larger fraction of the OC was water-soluble. The observed low EC/TC mean percentage ratios of 10-14% respectively for PM10 and PM2.5 fractions indicate that the carbonaceous aerosol originates mainly from biogenic aerosols and/or biomass burning. A simple source apportionment approach was used to apportion the OC to biofuel and charcoal burning. On average, 93% of the PM10 OC was attributed to biofuel and 7% to charcoal burning in the 2006 wet season campaign. However, it is suggested that a contribution to the OC at Morogoro could also come from other natural biogenic matter, and/or biomass burning aerosols. The results for the sources of OC at Morogoro should therefore be considered with great caution.

  5. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  6. Joint measurements of PM2. 5 and light-absorptive PM in woodsmoke-dominated ambient and plume environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K. Max; Allen, George; Yang, Bo; Chen, Geng; Gu, Jiajun; Schwab, James; Felton, Dirk; Rattigan, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    DC, also referred to as Delta-C, measures enhanced light absorption of particulate matter (PM) samples at the near-ultraviolet (UV) range relative to the near-infrared range, which has been proposed previously as a woodsmoke marker due to the presence of enhanced UV light-absorbing materials from wood combustion. In this paper, we further evaluated the applications and limitations of using DC as both a qualitative and semi-quantitative woodsmoke marker via joint continuous measurements of PM2. 5 (by nephelometer pDR-1500) and light-absorptive PM (by 2-wavelength and 7-wavelength Aethalometertext">®) in three northeastern US cities/towns including Rutland, VT; Saranac Lake, NY and Ithaca, NY. Residential wood combustion has shown to be the predominant source of wintertime primary PM2. 5 emissions in both Rutland and Saranac Lake, where we conducted ambient measurements. In Ithaca, we performed woodsmoke plume measurements. We compared the pDR-1500 against a FEM PM2. 5 sampler (BAM 1020), and identified a close agreement between the two instruments in a woodsmoke-dominated ambient environment. The analysis of seasonal and diurnal trends of DC, black carbon (BC, 880 nm) and PM2. 5 concentrations supports the use of DC as an adequate qualitative marker. The strong linear relationships between PM2. 5 and DC in both woodsmoke-dominated ambient and plume environments suggest that DC can reasonably serve as a semi-quantitative woodsmoke marker. We propose a DC-based indicator for woodsmoke emission, which has shown to exhibit a relatively strong linear relationship with heating demand. While we observed reproducible PM2. 5-DC relationships in similar woodsmoke-dominated ambient environments, those relationships differ significantly with different environments, and among individual woodsmoke sources. Our analysis also indicates the potential for PM2. 5-DC relationships to be utilized to distinguish different combustion and operating conditions of woodsmoke sources, and

  7. [Preliminary study of source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in three cities of China during spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shen; Pan, Xiao-chuan; Madaniyazi, Li-na; Xie, Juan; He, Ya-hui

    2013-09-01

    To study source apportionment of atmospheric PM10 (particle matter ≤ 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter) and PM2.5 (particle matter ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in Beijing,Urumqi and Qingdao, China. The atmospheric particle samples of PM10 and PM2.5 collected from Beijing between May 17th and June 18th, 2005, from Urumqi between April 20th and June 1st, 2006 and from Qingdao between April 4th and May 15th, 2005, were detected to trace the source apportionment by factor analysis and enrichment factor methods. In Beijing, the source apportionment results derived from factor analysis model for PM10 were construction dust and soil sand dust (contributing rate of variance at 45.35%), industry dust, coal-combusted smoke and vehicle emissions (contributing rate at 31.83%), and biomass burning dust (13.57%). The main pollution element was Pb, while the content (median (minimum value-maximum value)was 0.216 (0.040-0.795) µg/m(3)) . As for PM2.5, the sources were construction dust and soil sand dust (38.86%), industry dust, coal-combusted smoke and vehicle emissions (25.73%), biomass burning dust (13.10%) and burning oil dust (11.92%). The main pollution element was Zn (0.365(0.126-0.808) µg/m(3)).In Urumqi, source apportionment results for PM10 were soil sand dust and coal-combusted dust(49.75%), industry dust, vehicle emissions and secondary particles dust (30.65%). The main characteristic pollution element was Cd (0.463(0.033-1.351) ng/m(3)). As for PM2.5, the sources were soil sand dust and coal-combusted dust (43.26%), secondary particles dust (22.29%), industry dust and vehicle emissions (20.50%). The main characteristic pollution element was As (14.599 (1.696-36.741) µg/m(3)).In Qingdao, source apportionment results for PM10 were construction dust (30.91%), vehicle emissions and industry dust (29.65%) and secondary particles dust (28.99%). The main characteristic pollution element was Pb (64.071 (5.846-346.831) µg/m(3)). As for PM2.5, the sources were

  8. Buildup of aerosol precursor gases and sulfur-induced activation of soot in nascent jet aircraft exhaust plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B.; Hirschberg, M.M.; Fabian, P. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung; Gerz, T. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    Research issues concerning the chemical transformation of exhaust trace gases are summarized. The photochemical evolution of NO{sub x} early in the plume is strongly coupled to plume mixing. Substantial amounts of HNO{sub 3} are generated in nascent plumes even if no NO{sub 2} is emitted. The production of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} becomes very efficient if part of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. Each emitted soot particle can acquire 1-10% by mass fully oxidized sulfur molecules prior to binary homogeneous nucleation, if a few percent of the exhaust SO{sub x} are emitted as SO{sub 3}, indicating an important activation pathway for soot, and leading to a marked enhancement of new aerosol formation and growth rates. (author) 11 refs.

  9. Buildup of aerosol precursor gases and sulfur-induced activation of soot in nascent jet aircraft exhaust plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B; Hirschberg, M M; Fabian, P [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung; Gerz, T [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    Research issues concerning the chemical transformation of exhaust trace gases are summarized. The photochemical evolution of NO{sub x} early in the plume is strongly coupled to plume mixing. Substantial amounts of HNO{sub 3} are generated in nascent plumes even if no NO{sub 2} is emitted. The production of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} becomes very efficient if part of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. Each emitted soot particle can acquire 1-10% by mass fully oxidized sulfur molecules prior to binary homogeneous nucleation, if a few percent of the exhaust SO{sub x} are emitted as SO{sub 3}, indicating an important activation pathway for soot, and leading to a marked enhancement of new aerosol formation and growth rates. (author) 11 refs.

  10. Method of contacting solids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-08-06

    A continuous method is described for contacting solids and gases. The process involves passing a confined stream of gases through an extended path including a treating zone and imposing a pressure on the stream of gases at least sufficient to overcome the resistence of said path to the flow of said gases. A solid in finely divided form is then introduced into said stream of gases, maintaining a vertical column of finely divided solid in fluidized state of a height which will produce a pressure at the column bottom at least equal to the gas pressure at the point of entry of the solids into the stream. The solids then pass from the bottom of the column into the stream.

  11. UVSiPM: A light detector instrument based on a SiPM sensor working in single photon counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sottile, G.; Russo, F.; Agnetta, G. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Belluso, M.; Billotta, S. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Biondo, B. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Bonanno, G. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Catalano, O.; Giarrusso, S. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Grillo, A. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Impiombato, D.; La Rosa, G.; Maccarone, M.C.; Mangano, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Marano, D. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy); Mineo, T.; Segreto, A.; Strazzeri, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, IASF-Pa/INAF, Palermo (Italy); Timpanaro, M.C. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, OACT/INAF, Catania (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    UVSiPM is a light detector designed to measure the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the 320–900 nm wavelength range. It has been developed in the framework of the ASTRI project whose main goal is the design and construction of an end-to-end Small Size class Telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The UVSiPM instrument is composed by a multipixel Silicon Photo-Multiplier detector unit coupled to an electronic chain working in single photon counting mode with 10 nanosecond double pulse resolution, and by a disk emulator interface card for computer connection. The detector unit of UVSiPM is of the same kind as the ones forming the camera at the focal plane of the ASTRI prototype. Eventually, the UVSiPM instrument can be equipped with a collimator to regulate its angular aperture. UVSiPM, with its peculiar characteristics, will permit to perform several measurements both in lab and on field, allowing the absolute calibration of the ASTRI prototype.

  12. Monetary Valuation of PM10-Related Health Risks in Beijing China: The Necessity for PM10 Pollution Indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Xu, Linyu; Cai, Yanpeng

    2015-08-21

    Severe health risks caused by PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution have induced inevitable economic losses and have rendered pressure on the sustainable development of society as a whole. In China, with the "Polluters Pay Principle", polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers. This paper integrated an epidemiological exposure-response model with economics methods, including the Amended Human Capital (AHC) approach and the Cost of Illness (COI) method, to value the economic loss of PM10-related health risks in 16 districts and also 4 functional zones in Beijing from 2008 to 2012. The results show that from 2008 to 2012 the estimated annual deaths caused by PM10 in Beijing are around 56,000, 58,000, 63,000, 61,000 and 59,000, respectively, while the economic losses related to health damage increased from around 23 to 31 billion dollars that PM10 polluters should pay for pollution victims between 2008 and 2012. It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration. In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss.

  13. Crosstalk of PmCBFs and PmDAMs Based on the Changes of Phytohormones under Seasonal Cold Stress in the Stem of Prunus mume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants facing the seasonal variations always need a growth restraining mechanism when temperatures turn down. C-repeat binding factor (CBF genes work essentially in the cold perception. Despite lots of researches on CBFs, the multiple crosstalk is still interesting on their interaction with hormones and dormancy-associated MADS (DAM genes in the growth and dormancy control. Therefore, this study highlights roles of PmCBFs in cold-induced dormancy from different orgens. And a sense-response relationship between PmCBFs and PmDAMs is exhibited in this process, jointly regulated by six PmCBFs and PmDAM4–6. Meantime, GA3 and ABA showed negative and positive correlation with PmCBFs expression levels, respectively. We also find a high correlation between IAA and PmDAM1–3. Finally, we display the interaction mode of PmCBFs and PmDAMs, especially PmCBF1-PmDAM1. These results can disclose another view of molecular mechanism in plant growth between cold-response pathway and dormancy regulation together with genes and hormones.

  14. Comparisons of urban and rural PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and semi-volatile fractions in northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Clements

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coarse (PM10−2.5 and fine (PM2.5 particulate matter in the atmosphere adversely affect human health and influence climate. While PM2.5 is relatively well studied, less is known about the sources and fate of PM10−2.5. The Colorado Coarse Rural-Urban Sources and Health (CCRUSH study measured PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations, as well as the fraction of semi-volatile material (SVM in each size regime (SVM2.5, SVM10−2.5, from 2009 to early 2012 in Denver and comparatively rural Greeley, Colorado. Agricultural operations east of Greeley appear to have contributed to the peak PM10−2.5 concentrations there, but concentrations were generally lower in Greeley than in Denver. Traffic-influenced sites in Denver had PM10−2.5 concentrations that averaged from 14.6 to 19.7 µg m−3 and mean PM10−2.5 ∕ PM10 ratios of 0.56 to 0.70, higher than at residential sites in Denver or Greeley. PM10−2.5 concentrations were more temporally variable than PM2.5 concentrations. Concentrations of the two pollutants were not correlated. Spatial correlations of daily averaged PM10−2.5 concentrations ranged from 0.59 to 0.62 for pairs of sites in Denver and from 0.47 to 0.70 between Denver and Greeley. Compared to PM10−2.5, concentrations of PM2.5 were more correlated across sites within Denver and less correlated between Denver and Greeley. PM10−2.5 concentrations were highest during the summer and early fall, while PM2.5 and SVM2.5 concentrations peaked in winter during periodic multi-day inversions. SVM10−2.5 concentrations were low at all sites. Diurnal peaks in PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 concentrations corresponded to morning and afternoon peaks of traffic activity, and were enhanced by boundary layer dynamics. SVM2.5 concentrations peaked around noon on both weekdays and weekends. PM10−2.5 concentrations at sites located near highways generally increased with wind speeds above about 3 m s−1. Little wind speed dependence was

  15. Monitoring of PM10 and PM2.5 around primary particulate anthropogenic emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Rodriguez, Sergio; Plana, Felicià; Mantilla, Enrique; Ruiz, Carmen R.

    Investigations on the monitoring of ambient air levels of atmospheric particulates were developed around a large source of primary anthropogenic particulate emissions: the industrial ceramic area in the province of Castelló (Eastern Spain). Although these primary particulate emissions have a coarse grain-size distribution, the atmospheric transport dominated by the breeze circulation accounts for a grain-size segregation, which results in ambient air particles occurring mainly in the 2.5-10 μm range. The chemical composition of the ceramic particulate emissions is very similar to the crustal end-member but the use of high Al, Ti and Fe as tracer elements as well as a peculiar grain-size distribution in the insoluble major phases allow us to identify the ceramic input in the bulk particulate matter. PM2.5 instead of PM10 monitoring may avoid the interference of crustal particles without a major reduction in the secondary anthropogenic load, with the exception of nitrate. However, a methodology based in PM2.5 measurement alone is not adequate for monitoring the impact of primary particulate emissions (such as ceramic emissions) on air quality, since the major ambient air particles derived from these emissions are mainly in the range of 2.5-10 μm. Consequently, in areas characterised by major secondary particulate emissions, PM2.5 monitoring should detect anthropogenic particulate pollutants without crustal particulate interference, whereas PM10 measurements should be used in areas with major primary anthropogenic particulate emissions.

  16. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  17. Design of a PM Vernier Machine with Consideration for Modulation Flux and Comparison with Conventional PM motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungtaek Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the core design of a PM vernier machine considering modulation flux effects, and the comparative investigation on volume and performance characteristics of the vernier over conventional PM machines are addressed. To these ends, for a PM vernier machine in operation at the base-speed, the flux density equations for teeth and yokes considering the flux modulation effects are derived, where the air gap harmonic permeance function is used. Using the derived equations, a PM vernier motor with specified yoke flux densities is designed. To identify the predicted flux yoke densities, the flux distribution and iron losses in core parts are analyzed through time-step finite element (FE simulations. Through Fourier series expansion of the air gap flux waves obtained by FE analysis at several specified times, the harmonic components constituting the flux waves are investigated and their speeds are also evaluated in numerical ways. Finally, to estimate the competitiveness of vernier machines versus conventional machines, the designed PM vernier motor is compared against two different conventional PM motors designed through the same design procedures in various aspects such as volume, torque capacity, efficiency, and power factor, in which, in particular, the core losses are included in efficiency calculation.

  18. Elemental characterization and source apportionment of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} in the western coastal area of central Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chin-Yu; Chiang, Hung-Che [National Environmental Health Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan (China); Lin, Sheng-Lun [Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Rd., Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Chen, Mu-Jean; Lin, Tzu-Yu [National Environmental Health Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yu-Cheng, E-mail: yucheng@nhri.org.tw [National Environmental Health Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan (China); Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    ABSTRACT: This study investigated seasonal variations in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} mass and associated trace metal concentrations in a residential area in proximity to the crude oil refinery plants and industrial parks of central Taiwan. Particle measurements were conducted during winter, spring and summer in 2013 and 2014. Twenty-six trace metals in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} were analyzed using ICP-MS. Multiple approaches of the backward trajectory model, enrichment factor (EF), Lanthanum enrichment and positive matrix fraction (PMF) were used to identify potential sources of particulate metals. Mean concentrations of PM{sub 10} in winter, spring and summer were 76.4 ± 22.6, 33.2 ± 9.9 and 37.4 ± 17.0 μg m{sup −3}, respectively, while mean levels of PM{sub 2.5} in winter, spring and summer were 47.8 ± 20.0, 23.9 ± 11.2 and 16.3 ± 8.2 μg m{sup −3}, respectively. The concentrations of carcinogenic metals (Ni, As and adjusted Cr(VI)) in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} exceeded the guideline limits published by WHO. The result of EF analysis confirmed that Mo, Sb, Cd, Zn, Mg, Cr, As, Pb, Cu, Ni and V were attributable to anthropogenic emission. PMF analysis demonstrated that trace metals in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} were from the similar sources, such as coal combustion, oil combustion and traffic-related emission, except for soil dust and crustal element emissions only observed in PM{sub 10} and secondary aluminum smelter only observed in PM{sub 2.5}. Considering health-related particulate metals, the traffic-related emission and coal combustion for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively, are important to control for reducing potential carcinogenic risk. The results could aid efforts to clarify the impact of source-specific origins on human health. - Highlights: • Multiple approaches to identify sources of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} metals were used. • Four similar sources contributed to metals in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} in the study area. • Six

  19. Industrial gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.; Jackson, D.; Coeyman, M.

    1993-01-01

    Industrial gas companies have fought hard to boost sales and hold margins in the tough economic climate, and investments are well down from their 1989-'91 peak. But 'our industry is still very strong long term' says Alain Joly, CEO of industry leader L'Air Liquide (AL). By 1994, if a European and Japanese recovery follows through on one in the U.S., 'we could see major [investment] commitments starting again,' he says. 'Noncryogenic production technology is lowering the cost of gas-making possible new applications, oxygen is getting plenty of attention in the environmental area, and hydrogen also fits into the environmental thrust,' says Bob Lovett, executive v.p./gases and equipment with Air Products ampersand Chemicals (AP). Through the 1990's, 'Industrial gases could grow even faster than in the past decade,' he says. Virtually a new generation of new gases applications should become reality by the mid-1990s, says John Campbell, of industry consultants J.R. Campbell ampersand Associates (Lexington, MA). Big new oxygen volumes will be required for powder coal injection in blast furnaces-boosting a steel mill's requirement as much as 40% and coal gasification/combined cycle (CGCC). Increased oil refinery hydroprocessing needs promise hydrogen requirements

  20. EBIT spectroscopy of Pm-like tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, R.; Zou, Y.; Reyna Almandos, J.; Biedermann, C.; Radtke, R.; Greier, A.; Neu, R.

    2003-01-01

    Methods of VUV electron beam ion trap (EBIT) spectroscopy are applied to the study of Pm-like tungsten (W 13+ ). These data show that theory appears well capable of dealing with these multi-electron (61) ions, at least for high ionization stages. A comparison of other spectroscopic methods applied to the study of other ions of the Pm I sequence is also given, and finally a search for the Pm-like W lines at the ASDEX Upgrade Tokamak is mentioned

  1. Greenhouse gases and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the e nhanced greenhouse effect ? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

  2. Reduction of PM emissions from specific sources reflected on key components concentrations of ambient PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillon, M. C.; Querol, X.; Monfort, E.; Alastuey, A.; Escrig, A.; Celades, I.; Miro, J. V.

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM10 components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits (middle product for the manufacture of ceramic glaze) are produced. The PM10 emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000 to 2007 taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems (mainly bag filters) were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/CE, leading to a marked decrease in PM10 emissions. On the other hand, ambient PM10 sampling was carried out from April 2002 to July 2008 at three urban sites and one suburban site of the area and a complete chemical analysis was made for about 35 % of the collected samples, by means of different techniques (ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Ion Chromatography, selective electrode and elemental analyser). The series of chemical composition of PM10 allowed us to apply a source contribution model (Principal Component Analysis), followed by a multilinear regression analysis, so that PM10 sources were identified and their contribution to bulk ambient PM10 was quantified on a daily basis, as well as the contribution to bulk ambient concentrations of the identified key components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl). The contribution of the sources identified as the manufacture and use of ceramic glaze components, including the manufacture of ceramic frits, accounted for more than 65, 75, 58, 53, and 53% of ambient Zn, As, Pb, Cs and Tl levels, respectively (with the exception of Tl contribution at one of the sites). The important emission reductions of these sources during the study period had an impact on ambient key components levels, such that there was a high

  3. A new measurement of the $K^{\\pm} \\rightarrow \\pi^{\\pm} \\gamma \\gamma$ decay at the NA48/2 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J.R.; Lazzeroni, C.; Munday, D.J.; Slater, M.W.; Wotton, S.A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bocquet, G.; Cabibbo, N.; Ceccucci, A.; Cundy, D.; Falaleev, V.; Fidecaro, M.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Kubischta, W.; Norton, A.; Maier, A.; Patel, M.; Peters, A.; Balev, S.; Frabetti, P.L.; Gersabeck, E.; Goudzovski, E.; Hristov, P.; Kekelidze, V.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Madigozhin, D.; Molokanova, N.; Polenkevich, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Monnier, E.; Swallow, E.; Winston, R.; Rubin, P.; Walker, A.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Damiani, C.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Scarpa, M.; Wahl, H.; Bizzeti, A.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Calvetti, M.; Celeghini, E.; Iacopini, E.; Ruggiero, G.; Behler, M.; Eppard, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Marouelli, P.; Masetti, L.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Renk, B.; Wache, M.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Coward, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Shieh, M.; Szleper, M.; Velasco, M.; Wood, M.D.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Petrucci, M.C.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Nappi, A.; Piccini, M.; Raggi, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Collazuol, G.; DiLella, L.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Michetti, A.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Fiorini, L.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheze, J.B.; De Beer, M.; Derre, J.; Marel, G.; Mazzucato, E.; Peyaud, B.; Vallage, B.; Holder, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Marchetto, F.; Bifani, S.; Clemencic, M.; Goy Lopez, S.; Dibon, H.; Jeitler, M.; Markytan, M.; Mikulec, I.; Neuhofer, G.; Widhalm, L.

    2014-01-01

    The NA48/2 experiment at CERN collected two data samples with minimum bias trigger conditions in 2003 and 2004. A measurement of the rate and dynamic properties of the rare decay $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\gamma\\gamma$ from these data sets based on 149 decay candidates with an estimated background of $15.5\\pm0.7$ events is reported. The model-independent branching ratio in the kinematic range $z=(m_{\\gamma\\gamma}/m_K)^2>0.2$ is measured to be ${\\cal B}_{\\rm MI}(z>0.2) = (0.877 \\pm 0.089) \\times 10^{-6}$, and the branching ratio in the full kinematic range assuming a particular Chiral Perturbation Theory description to be ${\\cal B}(K_{\\pi\\gamma\\gamma}) = (0.910 \\pm 0.075) \\times 10^{-6}$.

  4. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for sampling stack gases emanating from the purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion cascade system utilized to enrich uranium for determining the presence and extent of uranium in the stack gases in the form of gaseous uranium hexafluoride, is described comprising the steps of removing a side stream of gases from the stack gases, contacting the side stream of the stack gases with a stream of air sufficiently saturated with moisture for reacting with and converting any gaseous uranium hexafluroide contracted thereby in the side stream of stack gases to particulate uranyl fluoride. Thereafter contacting the side stream of stack gases containing the particulate uranyl fluoride with moving filter means for continuously intercepting and conveying the intercepted particulate uranyl fluoride away from the side stream of stack gases, and continually scanning the moving filter means with radiation monitoring means for sensing the presence and extent of particulate uranyl fluoride on the moving filter means which is indicative of the extent of particulate uranyl fluoride in the side stream of stack gases which in turn is indicative of the presence and extent of uranium hexafluoride in the stack gases

  5. Assessment of the long-term impacts of PM10 and PM2.5 particles from construction works on surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant; Marsh, Daniel; Fuller, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Construction activities are common across cities; however, the studies assessing their contribution to airborne PM10 (≤10 μm) and PM2.5 (≤2.5 μm) particles on the surrounding air quality are limited. Herein, we assessed the impact of PM10 and PM2.5 arising from construction works in and around London. Measurements were carried out at 17 different monitoring stations around three construction sites between January 2002 and December 2013. Tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM 1400) and OSIRIS (2315) particle monitors were used to measure the PM10 and PM2.5 fractions in the 0.1-10 μm size range along with the ambient meteorological data. The data was analysed using bivariate concentration polar plots and k-means clustering techniques. Daily mean concentrations of PM10 were found to exceed the European Union target limit value of 50 μg m(-3) at 11 monitoring stations but remained within the allowable 35 exceedences per year, except at two monitoring stations. In general, construction works were found to influence the downwind concentrations of PM10 relatively more than PM2.5. Splitting of the data between working (0800-1800 h; local time) and non-working (1800-0800 h) periods showed about 2.2-fold higher concentrations of PM10 during working hours when compared with non-working hours. However, these observations did not allow to conclude that this increase was from the construction site emissions. Together, the polar concentration plots and the k-means cluster analysis applied to a pair of monitoring stations across the construction sites (i.e. one in upwind and the other in downwind) confirmed the contribution of construction sources on the measured concentrations. Furthermore, pairing the monitoring stations downwind of the construction sites showed a logarithmic decrease (with R(2) about 0.9) in the PM10 and PM2.5 concentration with distance. Our findings clearly indicate an impact of construction activities on the nearby downwind areas and a need

  6. Temporal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM2.2 and PM1 concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K.; Hopke, Philip K.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations and characteristics of airborne particulate matter (PM 1 , PM 2.2 and BC) on air quality have been studied at two air quality-monitoring stations in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. One site is at the Farm Gate area, a hot spot with very high pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The other site is at a semi-residential area located at the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka Campus, (AECD) with relatively less traffic. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 μm and 2.2-10 μm sizes. Samples of fine (PM 2.2 ) and coarse (PM 2.2-1 ) airborne particulate matter fractions collected from 2000 to 2003 were studied. It has been observed that fine particulate matter has a decreasing trend, from prior year measurements, because of Government policy interventions like phase-wise plans to take two-stroke three-wheelers off the roads in Dhaka and finally banned from January 1, 2003. Other policy interventions were banning of old buses and trucks to ply on Dhaka city promotion of the using compressed natural gas (CNG), introducing air pollution control devices in vehicles, etc. It was found that both local (mostly from vehicular emissions) and possibly some regional emission sources are responsible for high PM 2.2 and BC concentrations in Dhaka. PM 2.2 , PM 2.2-1 and black carbon concentration levels depend on the season, wind direction and wind speed. Transport related emissions are the major source of BC and long-range transportation from fossil fuel related sources and biomass burning could be another substantial source of BC

  7. Temporal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM2.2 and PM10 concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Bilkis A; Biswas, Swapan K; Hopke, Philip K

    2006-04-01

    Concentrations and characteristics of airborne particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.2) and BC) on air quality have been studied at two air quality-monitoring stations in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. One site is at the Farm Gate area, a hot spot with very high pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The other site is at a semi-residential area located at the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka Campus, (AECD) with relatively less traffic. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 mum and 2.2-10 mum sizes. Samples of fine (PM(2.2)) and coarse (PM(2.2-10)) airborne particulate matter fractions collected from 2000 to 2003 were studied. It has been observed that fine particulate matter has a decreasing trend, from prior year measurements, because of Government policy interventions like phase-wise plans to take two-stroke three-wheelers off the roads in Dhaka and finally banned from January 1, 2003. Other policy interventions were banning of old buses and trucks to ply on Dhaka city promotion of the using compressed natural gas (CNG), introducing air pollution control devices in vehicles, etc. It was found that both local (mostly from vehicular emissions) and possibly some regional emission sources are responsible for high PM(2.2) and BC concentrations in Dhaka. PM(2.2), PM(2.2-10) and black carbon concentration levels depend on the season, wind direction and wind speed. Transport related emissions are the major source of BC and long-range transportation from fossil fuel related sources and biomass burning could be another substantial source of BC.

  8. Levels, Composition and Sources of PM in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area During the MILAGRO Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Pey, J.; Minguillon, M. C.; Perez, N.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Bernabe, R.; Blanco, S.; Cardenas, B.

    2007-05-01

    Particle air pollution in urban agglomerations comes mostly from anthropogenic sources, mainly traffic, industrial processes, energy production, domestic and residential emissions, construction, but also a minor contribution from natural sources may be expected (bioaerosols, soil dust, marine aerosol). Once emitted into the atmosphere, this complex mixture of pollutants may be transformed as a function of the ambient conditions and the interaction among the different PM components, and also between PM components and gaseous pollutants. This system is especially complex in mega-cities due to the large emission volumes of PM components and gaseous precursors, the high variability and broad distribution of emission sources, and the possible long range transport of the polluted air masses. Speciation studies help to identify major sources of PM components with the end objective of applying plans and programs for PM pollution abatement. In this framework, concentration levels and compositions of particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) have been measured simultaneously at two sites in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (T0 and CENICA) and at one site 50 km away from Mexico City (T1) during the MILAGRO campaign (1st to 31st March 2006). Spatial and time (day and night) variations have been analysed. Coarse fraction levels were higher at T1 than at CENICA and T0, contrary to what was expected. This was due to the important soil re-suspension at T1, contributing significantly to the crustal load. Moreover, crustal levels were higher during daytime than during nights at all sites, while some secondary compounds (sulphate and ammonium) presented an opposite trend. Regarding trace elements, levels of Pb, Zn and Cd were higher at T0 than at CENICA and T1, probably due to traffic contribution. Arsenic levels did not show a clear pattern, being alternatively higher at CENICA and T0. Two intense episodes of Hg particulate have been recorded, more noticeable at T1 than at the urban

  9. Respiratory hospitalizations in association with fine PM and its ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite observed geographic and temporal variation in particulate matter (PM)-related health morbidities, only a small number of epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relation between PM2.5 chemical constituents and respiratory disease. Most assessments are limited by inadequate spatial and temporal resolution of ambient PM measurements and/or by their approaches to examine the role of specific PM components on health outcomes. In a case-crossover analysis using daily average ambient PM2.5 total mass and species estimates derived from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and available observations, we examined the association between the chemical components of PM (including elemental and organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and other remaining) and respiratory hospitalizations in New York State. We evaluated relationships between levels (low, medium, high) of PM constituent mass fractions, and assessed modification of the PM2.5–hospitalization association via models stratified by mass fractions of both primary and secondary PM components. In our results, average daily PM2.5 concentrations in New York State were generally lower than the 24-hr average National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Year-round analyses showed statistically significant positive associations between respiratory hospitalizations and PM2.5 total mass, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations at multiple exposure lags (0.5–2.0% per interquartile range [IQR

  10. Challenges in evaluating PM concentration levels, commuting exposure, and mask efficacy in reducing PM exposure in growing, urban communities in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Disa; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Wilson, James; Maidin, Alimin

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) contributes to an increased risk of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses, cancer, and preterm birth complications. This project assessed PM exposure in Eastern Indonesia's largest city, where air quality has not been comprehensively monitored. We examined the efficacy of wearing masks as an individual intervention effort to reduce in-transit PM exposures. Handheld particulate counters were used to investigate ambient air quality for spatial analysis, as well as the differences in exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 (μg/m(3)) by different transportation methods [e.g. motorcycle (n=97), pete-pete (n=53), and car (n=55); note: n=1 means 1m(3) of air sample]. Mask efficacy to reduce PM exposure was evaluated [e.g. surgical masks (n=39), bandanas (n=52), and motorcycle masks (n=39)]. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to provide a range of uncertainty in exposure assessment. Overall PM10 levels (91±124 μg/m(3)) were elevated compared to the World Health Organization (WHO)'s 24-hour air quality guideline (50 μg/m(3)). While average PM2.5 levels (9±14 μg/m(3)) were below the WHO's guideline (25 μg/m(3)), measurements up to 139 μg/m(3) were observed. Compared to cars, average motorcycle and pete-pete PM exposures were four and three times higher for PM2.5, and 13 and 10 times higher for PM10, respectively. Only surgical masks were consistent in lowering PM2.5 and PM10 (pmasks. Individual interventions can effectively reduce individual PM exposures; however, policy interventions will be needed to improve the overall air quality and create safer transportation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Irradiation technologies used for combustion gases and diluted sulfurous gases decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva Z, Loreto

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of irradiation technology used for ambient decontamination is presented here. The system is adequate fort gas and liquid effluents and solid wastes. In particular, the characteristics and applications of the irradiation done with an electron beam to gas effluent is described, mainly to clean combustion gases and other industrial gases containing sulfur and nitrogen oxides, S O x and N O x , respectively. This technology permits the remove of these contaminants and the acquisition of a solid byproduct, an ammonia sulfate-nitrate, apt for fertilizer applications. (author)

  12. Noble Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podosek, F. A.

    2003-12-01

    The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the

  13. Particulate pollution of PM10 and PM2.5 due to strong anthropopressure in Sosnowiec city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cembrzyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Air contamination with particulate matter causes a serious problem in large cities and urban-industrial agglomerations both in Poland and Europe. Anthropogenic sources of air pollution in urban areas are emissions from municipal, industrial and transportation sector. Many epidemiological studies have revealed that exposure to air pollution, especially the fine particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2,5 micrometer, can pose a threat to human health exposed to exceedingly high concentrations of particulate matter. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to evaluate PM10 and PM2,5 mass concentrations in autumn and winter season in the city of Sosnowiec, in relation to ambient air quality standards in Poland and the European Union. Results: The average concentrations of PM10 and PM2,5 in autumn-winter seasons in Sosnowiec city 2010–2011 were 2,1 to 2,7 times higher than limit values, specified in the legislation acts.

  14. Noble gases solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovetto, Rosa; Fernandez Prini, Roberto.

    1980-07-01

    The available experimental data of solubility of noble gases in water for temperatures smaller than 330 0 C have been critically surveyed. Due to the unique structure of the solvent, the solubility of noble gases in water decreases with temperature passing through a temperature of minimum solubility which is different for each gas, and then increases at higher temperatures. As aresult of the analysis of the experimental data and of the features of the solute-solvent interaction, a generalized equation is proposed which enables thecalculation of Henry's coefficient at different temperatures for all noble gases. (author) [es

  15. Noble Gases in Lakes and Ground Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Kipfer, Rolf; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Peeters, Frank; Stute, Marvin

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to most other fields of noble gas geochemistry that mostly regard atmospheric noble gases as 'contamination,' air-derived noble gases make up the far largest and hence most important contribution to the noble gas abundance in meteoric waters, such as lakes and ground waters. Atmospheric noble gases enter the meteoric water cycle by gas partitioning during air / water exchange with the atmosphere. In lakes and oceans noble gases are exchanged with the free atmosphere at the surface...

  16. One year online chemical speciation of submicron particulate matter (PM1) sampled at a French industrial and coastal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouwen; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Augustin, Patrick; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2015-04-01

    The harbor of Dunkirk (Northern France) is surrounded by different industrial plants (metallurgy, petrochemistry, food processing, power plant, etc.), which emit gaseous and particulate pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur (SO2), and submicron particles (PM1). These emissions are poorly characterized and their impact on neighboring urban areas has yet to be assessed. Studies are particularly needed in this type of complex environments to get a better understanding of PM1sources, especially from the industrial sector, their temporal variability, and their transformation. Several instruments, capable of real-time measurements (temporal resolution ≤ 30 min), were deployed at a site located downwind from the industrial area of Dunkirk for a one-year duration (July 2013-September 2014). An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer monitored the main chemical species in the non-refractory submicron particles and black carbon, respectively. Concomitant measurements of trace gases and wind speed and direction were also performed. This dataset was analyzed considering four wind sectors, characteristics of marine, industrial, industrial-urban, and urban influences, and the different seasons. We will present a descriptive analysis of PM1, showing strong variations of ambient concentrations, as well as evidences of SO2 to SO4 gas-particle conversion when industrial plumes reached the monitoring site. The organic fraction measured by ACSM (37% of the total mass on average) was analyzed using a source-receptor model based on Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to identify chemical signatures of main emission sources and to quantify the contribution of each source to the PM1 budget given the wind sector. Four main factors were identified: hydrocarbon organic aerosol (HOA), oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) and cooking-like organic aerosol (COA). Overall, the total PM

  17. Optical Lattice Gases of Interacting Fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-02

    interacting Fermi gases has topological properties similar to the conventional chiral p- wave state. These include a non-zero Chern number and the...interacting cold gases with broad impacts on the interfaces with condensed matter and particle physics . Applications and experiments of some of the physics ...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0016 Optical Lattice Gases of Interacting Fermions Wensheng Vincent Liu UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH Final Report 12/02/2015

  18. Meat flavor precursors and factors influencing flavor precursors--A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Jo, Cheorun; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-12-01

    Flavor is the sensory impression sensed by taste and smell buds and is a leading factor determining the meat quality and purchasing decision of the consumer. Meat flavor is characteristic of volatiles produced as a result of reactions of non-volatile components that are induced thermally. The water soluble compounds having low molecular weight and meat lipids are important precursors of cooked meat flavor. The Maillard reaction, lipid oxidation, and vitamin degradation are leading reactions during cooking which develop meat flavor from uncooked meat with little aroma and bloody taste. The pre-slaughter and postmortem factors like animal breed, sex, age, feed, aging and cooking conditions contribute to flavor development of cooked meat. The objective of this review is to highlight the flavor chemistry, meat flavor precursors and factors affecting meat flavor precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Primary gas- and particle-phase emissions and secondary organic aerosol production from gasoline and diesel off-road engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Timothy D; Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Zhang, Mang; Jathar, Shantanu H; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Massetti, John; Truong, Tin; Cicero-Fernandez, Pablo; Maddox, Christine; Rieger, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sulekha; Maldonado, Hector; Maricq, M Matti; Robinson, Allen L

    2013-12-17

    Dilution and smog chamber experiments were performed to characterize the primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gasoline and diesel small off-road engines (SOREs). These engines are high emitters of primary gas- and particle-phase pollutants relative to their fuel consumption. Two- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs emit much more (up to 3 orders of magnitude more) nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs), primary PM and organic carbon than newer on-road gasoline vehicles (per kg of fuel burned). The primary emissions from a diesel transportation refrigeration unit were similar to those of older, uncontrolled diesel engines used in on-road vehicles (e.g., premodel year 2007 heavy-duty diesel trucks). Two-strokes emitted the largest fractional (and absolute) amount of SOA precursors compared to diesel and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs; however, 35-80% of the NMOG emissions from the engines could not be speciated using traditional gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography. After 3 h of photo-oxidation in a smog chamber, dilute emissions from both 2- and 4-stroke gasoline SOREs produced large amounts of semivolatile SOA. The effective SOA yield (defined as the ratio of SOA mass to estimated mass of reacted precursors) was 2-4% for 2- and 4-stroke SOREs, which is comparable to yields from dilute exhaust from older passenger cars and unburned gasoline. This suggests that much of the SOA production was due to unburned fuel and/or lubrication oil. The total PM contribution of different mobile source categories to the ambient PM burden was calculated by combining primary emission, SOA production and fuel consumption data. Relative to their fuel consumption, SOREs are disproportionately high total PM sources; however, the vastly greater fuel consumption of on-road vehicles renders them (on-road vehicles) the dominant mobile source of ambient PM in the Los Angeles area.

  20. EVALUATION OF THE SMPS-APS SYSTEM AS A CONTINUOUS MONITOR FOR MEASURING PM2.5, PM10 AND COARSE (PM2.5-10) CONCENTRATIONS. (R827352C011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respirable particulate matter (PM) has been linked to mortality and morbidity by a variety of epidemiological studies. This research has led to the creation of a new PM standard for particles with diameters 2.5). Since the conclusion of these studie...

  1. HTR-PM Safety requirement and Licensing experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fu; Zhang Zuoyi; Dong Yujie; Wu Zongxin; Sun Yuliang

    2014-01-01

    HTR-PM is a 200MWe modular pebble bed high temperature reactor demonstration plant which is being built in Shidao Bay, Weihai, Shandong, China. The main design parameters of HTR-PM were fixed in 2006, the basic design was completed in 2008. The review of Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) of HTR-PM was started in April 2008, completed in September 2009. In general, HTR- PM design complies with the current safety requirement for nuclear power plant in China, no special standards are developed for modular HTR. Anyway, Chinese Nuclear Safety Authority, together with the designers, developed some dedicated design criteria for key systems and components and published the guideline for the review of safety analysis report of HTR-PM, based on the experiences from licensing of HTR-10 and new development of nuclear safety. The probabilistic safety goal for HTR-PM was also defined by the safety authority. The review of HTR-PM PSAR lasted for one and a half years, with 3 dialogues meetings and 8 topics meetings, with more than 2000 worksheets and answer sheets. The heavily discussed topics during the PSAR review process included: the requirement for the sub-atmospheric ventilation system, the utilization of PSA in design process, the scope of beyond design basis accidents, the requirement for the qualification of TRISO coating particle fuel, and etc. Because of the characteristics of first of a kind for the demonstration plant, the safety authority emphasized the requirement for the experiment and validation, the PSAR was licensed with certain licensing conditions. The whole licensing process was under control, and was re-evaluated again after Fukushima accident to be shown that the design of HTR-PM complies with current safety requirement. This is a good example for how to license a new reactor. (author)

  2. Bioaccessibility of selected trace metals in urban PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} samples: a model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falta, Thomas; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Division of Analytical Chemistry, Vienna (Austria); Limbeck, Andreas [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-02-15

    Bioaccessibility of trace metals originating from urban particulate matter was assessed in a worst case scenario to evaluate the uptake and thus the hazardous potential of these metals via gastric juice. Sampling was performed over a period of about two months at the Getreidemarkt in downtown Vienna. Concentrations of the assayed trace metals (Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Tl and Pb) were determined in PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} samples by ICP-MS. The metal concentrations in sampled air were in the low picogram to high nanogram per cubic metre range. The concentrations in PM{sub 2.5} samples were generally lower than those in PM{sub 10} samples. The average daily intake of these metals by inhalation for a healthy adult was estimated to be in the range of <1 ng (Tl) to >1,000 ng (Zn). To estimate the accessibility of the inhaled and subsequently ingested metals (i.e. after lung clearance had taken place) in the size range from 2.5- to 10-{mu}m aerodynamic equivalent diameter, a batch-extraction with synthetic gastric juice was performed. The data were used to calculate the bioaccessibility of the investigated trace metals. Extractable fractions ranged from 2.10% (Ti in PM{sub 2.5}) to 91.0% (Cd in PM{sub 2.5}), thus yielding bioaccessible fractions (PM{sub 2.5-10}) from 0.16 ng (Ag) to 178 ng (Cu). (orig.)

  3. Reale Gase, tiefe Temperaturen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintze, Joachim

    Wir werden uns in diesem Kapitel zunächst mit der van der Waals'schen Zustandsgleichung befassen. In dieser Gleichung wird versucht, die Abweichungen, die reale Gase vom Verhalten idealer Gase zeigen, durch physikalisch motivierte Korrekturterme zu berücksichtigen. Es zeigt sich, dass die van derWaals-Gleichung geeignet ist, nicht nur die Gasphase, sondern auch die Phänomene bei der Verflüssigung von Gasen und den kritischen Punkt zu beschreiben.

  4. Assesment of Pb concentration in PM{sub 2,5} and PM{sub 10} at Serpong area; Asesmen konsentrasi Pb pada PM{sub 2,5} dan PM{sub 10} di kawasan Serpong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rita,; Hamonangan, Esrom; Halimah Syafrul, E-mail: ritaiim@yahoo.com [Pusat Sarana Pengendalian Dampak Lingkungan, Kemenneg Lingkungan Hidup, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Santoso, Muhayatun; Lestian, Diah Dwiana [Pusat Tenaga Nuklir Bahan dan Radiometri (PTNBR) - BATAN, JI. Tamansari NO.71 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2010-11-15

    Ambient air pollution, especially Pb, in Serpong area has been detected since 1996. Pollution caused by heavy metals Pb deserve serious attention because of the impact is very influential on health such as reduced levels of intelligence, learning disability, symptoms of anemia, barriers to growth, poor cognitive development, weakened immune system, symptoms of autism, and even premature death. This study was conducted to determine Pb concentration of PM{sub 2,5} and PM{sub 10} in four residential locations in Serpong area as part of a series of comprehensive studies for the characterization and identification of sources pollution. Particulates were sampled using Gent Stacked Filter Unit Sampler at 3 housing locations and 1 office location in the period of August 25 to November 3, 2008, Samples were analyzed using nuclear analytical techniques, Proton Induced X-ray Emission. The results showed that the activity concentration of Pb in PM{sub 2,5} for the location of Setu, Pusarpedal, Batan Indah, and BSD were in the range of 33-388, 12-254, 6-282, and 5-332 ng/m{sup 3}, while for PM{sub 10} were 69-732, 59-647, 31-810, and 28718 ng/m{sup 3}, respectively, In general, Pb concentrations in Serpong area were higher than those in some other cities in Asia region. These results are expected to be used as scientific based reference in formulating, taking action, and appropriate policies to overcome environmental problems. (author)

  5. Reducing the Livestock related green house gases emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Indira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cattle rearing generate more global warming green house gases than driving cars. These green house gases leads to changes in the climate. This climate change affects the livestock, man and natural environment continuously. For this reason it is important for livestock farmers to find the ways which minimize these gases emission. In this article the causes of climate change and effects, measures to be taken by farmers and their efficiency in reducing green house gases emission were reviewed briefly to make the farmers and students aware of the reduction of global warming green house gases and measures to be taken for reducing these gases. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 244-247

  6. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  7. High-resolution atmospheric emission inventory of the argentine energy sector. Comparison with edgar global emission database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Enrique Puliafito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a 2014 high-resolution spatially disaggregated emission inventory (0.025° × 0.025° horizontal resolution, of the main activities in the energy sector in Argentina. The sub-sectors considered are public generation of electricity, oil refineries, cement production, transport (maritime, air, rail and road, residential and commercial. The following pollutants were included: greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, ozone precursors (CO, NOx, VOC and other specific air quality indicators such as SO2, PM10, and PM2.5. This work could contribute to a better geographical allocation of the pollutant sources through census based population maps. Considering the sources of greenhouse gas emissions, the total amount is 144 Tg CO2eq, from which the transportation sector emits 57.8 Tg (40%; followed by electricity generation, with 40.9 Tg (28%; residential + commercial, with 31.24 Tg (22%; and cement and refinery production, with 14.3 Tg (10%. This inventory shows that 49% of the total emissions occur in rural areas: 31% in rural areas of medium population density, 13% in intermediate urban areas and 7% in densely populated urban areas. However, if emissions are analyzed by extension (per square km, the largest impact is observed in medium and densely populated urban areas, reaching more than 20.3 Gg per square km of greenhouse gases, 297 Mg/km2 of ozone precursors gases and 11.5 Mg/km2 of other air quality emissions. A comparison with the EDGAR global emission database shows that, although the total country emissions are similar for several sub sectors and pollutants, its spatial distribution is not applicable to Argentina. The road and residential transport emissions represented by EDGAR result in an overestimation of emissions in rural areas and an underestimation in urban areas, especially in more densely populated areas. EDGAR underestimates 60 Gg of methane emissions from road transport sector and fugitive emissions from refining

  8. Throat gases against the CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2006-01-01

    The steel production needs carbon consumption and generates carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gases. It represents about 6 % of the greenhouse gases emissions in the world. That is why the steel industry began last year a research program, Ideogaz, to reduce its CO 2 releases. The first results on the throat gases recovery seems very promising: it uses 25 % less of carbon. The author presents the program and the main technical aspects of the method. (A.L.B.)

  9. Historical Trends in Pm2.5-Related Premature Mortality ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Air quality across the northern hemisphere over the past two decades has witnessed dramatic changes, with continuous improvement in developed countries in North America and Europe, but a contrasting sharp deterioration in developing regions of Asia. Objective: This study investigates the historical trend in the long-term exposure to PM2.5 and PM2.5-related premature mortality (PM2.5-mortality) and its response to changes in emission that occurred during 1990-2010 across the northern hemisphere. Implications for future trends in human exposure to air pollution in both developed and developing regions of the world are discussed. Methods: We employed the integrated exposure-response model developed by Health Effects Institute to estimate the PM2.5-mortality. The 1990-2010 annual-average PM2.5 concentrations were obtained from the simulations using WRF-CMAQ model. Emission mitigation efficiencies of SO2, NOx, NH3 and primary PM are estimated from the PM2.5-mortality responses to the emission variations. Results: Estimated PM2.5-mortalities in East Asia and South Asia increased by 21% and 85% respectively, from 866,000 and 578,000 in 1990, to 1,048,000 and 1,068,000 in 2010. PM2.5-mortalities in developed regions, i.e., Europe and high-income North America decreased substantially by 67% and 58% respectively. Conclusions: Over the past two decades, correlations between population and PM2.5 have become weaker in Europe and North America due to air pollu

  10. The stream of precursors that colonizes the thymus proceeds selectively through the early T lineage precursor stage of T cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Claudia; Martins, Vera C.; Radtke, Freddy; Bleul, Conrad C.

    2008-01-01

    T cell development in the thymus depends on continuous colonization by hematopoietic precursors. Several distinct T cell precursors have been identified, but whether one or several independent precursor cell types maintain thymopoiesis is unclear. We have used thymus transplantation and an inducible lineage-tracing system to identify the intrathymic precursor cells among previously described thymus-homing progenitors that give rise to the T cell lineage in the thymus. Extrathymic precursors were not investigated in these studies. Both approaches show that the stream of T cell lineage precursor cells, when entering the thymus, selectively passes through the early T lineage precursor (ETP) stage. Immigrating precursor cells do not exhibit characteristics of double-negative (DN) 1c, DN1d, or DN1e stages, or of populations containing the common lymphoid precursor 2 (CLP-2) or the thymic equivalent of circulating T cell progenitors (CTPs). It remains possible that an unknown hematopoietic precursor cell or previously described extrathymic precursors with a CLP, CLP-2, or CTP phenotype feed into T cell development by circumventing known intrathymic T cell lineage progenitor cells. However, it is clear that of the known intrathymic precursors, only the ETP population contributes significant numbers of T lineage precursors to T cell development. PMID:18458114

  11. Comparison of the chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 particles collected in urban environments and volcanic areas of metropolitan Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PM10 and PM2,5 were sampled simultaneously in urban and volcanic environments in the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica from October to November 2012. Higher mass concentrations (42-29 μgm-3 of PM10 and PM2,5 were found at industrial and commercial areas with high traffic flow (La Uruca, Heredia and Belen compared with those found in the volcanic areas. The daily concentrations of PM10 and PM2,5 obtained in the Poas Volcano ranged from 3 -14 μgm-3 and 2-11 μgm-3, respectively. However the acidity of the collected particles in the Poas volcano was higher than those sampled in urban environments probably due to a lower occurrence rate of neutralization. The contribution of secondary ions was more important to the volcanic PM10 composition (around 40%, unlike the PM10 collected in urban areas.

  12. Gases in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Pacer, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Interest continues to grow in the use of helium and radon detection as a uranium exploration tool because, in many instances, these radiogenic gases are the only indicators of deeply buried mineralization. The origin of these gases, their migration in the ground, the type of samples and measurement techniques are discussed. Case histories of comparative tests conducted on known uranium deposits at three geologically diverse sites in the United States of America are also presented. (author)

  13. The effects of Southeast Asia fire activities on tropospheric ozone, trace gases and aerosols at a remote site over the Tibetan Plateau of Southwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.Y.; Wong, K.H.; Li, Y.S.; Chan, L.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ), carbon monoxide (CO), total reactive nitrogen (NO y ) and aerosols (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) were measured on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau at Tengchong (25.01 deg N, 98.3 deg E, 1960 m a.s.l.) in Southwest China, where observational data is scarce, during a field campaign of the TAPTO-China (Transport of Air Pollutants and Tropospheric O 3 over China) in the spring of 2004. Fire maps derived from satellite data and backward air trajectories were used to trace the source regions and transport pathways of pollution. Ozone, CO, NO y , PM 10 and PM 2.5 had average concentrations of 26 ± 8 ppb, 179 ± 91 ppb, 2.7 ± 1.2 ppb and 34 ± 23 and 28 ± 19 μg/m 3 , respectively. The measured O 3 level is low when compared with those reported for similar longitudinal sites in Southeast (SE) Asia and northeastern Tibetan Plateau in Northwest China suggesting that there exist complex O 3 variations in the Tibetan Plateau and its neighbouring SE Asian region. High levels of pollution with hourly averages of O 3 , CO, NO y , PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations up to 59, 678 and 7.7 ppb and 158 and 137 μg/m 3 , respectively, were observed. The increase of pollutants in the lower troposphere was caused by regional built-up and transport of pollution from active fire regions of the SE Asia subcontinent and from northern South Asia. Our results showed that pollution transport from SE Asia and South Asia had relatively stronger impacts than that from Central and South China on the abundance of O 3 , trace gases and aerosols in the background atmosphere of the Tibetan Plateau of Southwest China

  14. Correction of SiPM temperature dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a high granular analogue hadronic calorimeter (AHCAL) using scintillator tiles with built-in Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) readout is reported. A muon beam is used for the minimum ionizing particle (MIP) based calibration of the single cells. The calibration chain including corrections for the non-linearity of the SiPM is presented. The voltage and temperature dependencies of the SiPM signal have been investigated using the versatile LED system of the AHCAL. Monitoring and correction methods are discussed. Measurements from the operation 2006 and 2007 at the CERN SPS test beam and data provided by the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Moscow are compared.

  15. Household air pollution and personal inhalation exposure to particles (TSP/PM2.5/PM1.0/PM0.25) in rural Shanxi, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ye; Du, Wei; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Shen, Huizhong; Zhu, Dan; Yuan, Chenyi; Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2017-12-01

    Personal exposure to size-segregated particles among rural residents in Shanxi, China in summer, 2011 were investigated using portable carried samplers (N = 84). Household air pollution was simultaneously studied using stationary samplers in nine homes. Information on household fuel types, cooking activity, smoking behavior, kitchen ventilation conditions etc., were also collected and discussed. The study found that even in the summer period, the daily average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 in the kitchen were as high as 376 ± 573 and 288 ± 397 μg/m 3 (N = 6), that were nearly 3 times of 114 ± 81 and 97 ± 77 μg/m 3 in the bedroom (N = 8), and significantly higher than those of 64 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 μg/m 3 in the outdoor air (N = 6). The personal daily exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 were 98 ± 52 and 77 ± 47 μg/m 3 , respectively, that were lower than the concentrations in the kitchen but higher than the outdoor levels. The mass fractions of PM 2.5 in TSP were 90%, 72%, 65% and 68% on average in the kitchen, bedroom, outdoor air and personal inhalation exposure, respectively, and moreover, a majority of particles in PM 2.5 had diameters less than 1.0 μm. Calculated time-weighted average exposure based on indoor and outdoor air concentrations and time spent indoor and outdoor were positively correlated but, was ∼33% lower than the directly measured exposure. The daily exposure among those burning traditional solid fuels could be lower by ∼41% if the kitchen was equipped with an outdoor chimney, but was still 8-14% higher than those household using cleaning energies, like electricity and gas. With a ventilator in the kitchen, the exposure among the population using clean energies could be further reduced by 10-24%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ANALISIS TEMPORAL Y ESPACIAL DE LA CALIDAD DEL AIRE DETERMINADO POR MATERIAL PARTICULADO PM10 Y PM2,5 EN LIMA METROPOLITANA

    OpenAIRE

    Pacsi Valdivia, Sergio A.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).

    2016-01-01

    En el presente estudio se realizó un análisis de la variación temporal y espacial de la concentración del PM2,5 y PM10 en Lima y el Callao. Se utilizaron datos de concentración de PM2,5 y PM10 medidos y analizados por la DIGESA y el SENAMHI, a través de la red de monitoreo de calidad del aire de Lima Metropolitana, durante el periodo 2001 y 2014. Los resultados muestran que los promedios diarios de PM10 no sobrepasan los Estándares de Calidad del aire (ENCA) del Perú, sin embargo los promedio...

  17. Chemical characteristics of PM1/PM2.5 and influence on visual range at the summit of Mount Tai, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Yang, Lingxiao; Yan, Weida; Zhang, Junmei; Lu, Wei; Yang, Yumeng; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2017-01-01

    Daytime and night-time PM 1 and PM 2.5 samples were simultaneously collected at the summit of Mount Tai during summer and autumn 2014. The mass concentrations and chemical compositions were analysed to determine the temporal variations of PM 1 and PM 2.5 and their contributions to visibility impairment. In summer, the average mass concentrations of PM 1 and PM 2.5 were 38.16μg/m 3 and 53.33μg/m 3 , respectively. In autumn, the values were 42.75μg/m 3 and 59.16μg/m 3 . Water-soluble inorganic ions were the most abundant species in both PM 1 and PM 2.5 , followed by organic mass (OM). Among the major water-soluble ions, SO 4 2- and NH 4 + had higher concentrations in summer than in autumn, whereas the concentration of NO 3 - showed the opposite seasonal trend. Lower concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were obtained in summer than in autumn. The water-soluble components (SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , NH 4 + and WSOC) showed a clear diurnal variation due to the specific meteorological conditions of Mount Tai. The water content in PM 1 and PM 2.5 was enhanced by the water-soluble components, especially NH 4 NO 3 . The decreased visibility resulted from the combined influence of particulate matter and relative humidity (RH). The threshold PM 2.5 concentration corresponding to a visibility of <10km was 56.60μg/m 3 , which decreased with an increase in RH. A revised IMPROVE equation was applied to estimate the light-extinction coefficient b ext , which was found to be lower for these chemicals in autumn (364Mm -1 ) than in summer (482Mm -1 ). (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 made the largest contribution to b ext in both summer and autumn, with an average rate of 56.97%. OM (17.32%) and NH 4 NO 3 (15.13%) were also important contributors, with similar contribution rates. The contribution of NH 4 NO 3 to b ext was higher during summer, and OM contributions were higher during autumn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Landfill gases and some effects on vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin B. Flower; Ida A. Leone; Edward F. Gilman; John J. Arthur

    1977-01-01

    Gases moving from refuse landfills through soil were studied in New Jersey. The gases, products of anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in the refuse, caused injury and death of peach trees, ornamentals, and commercial farm crops, and create possible hazards to life and property because of the entrance of combustible gases into residences. Remedial measures are...

  19. Preliminary PM2.5 and PM10 fractions source apportionment complemented by statistical accuracy determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samek Lucyna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of PM10 and PM2.5 fractions were collected between the years 2010 and 2013 at the urban area of Krakow, Poland. Numerous types of air pollution sources are present at the site; these include steel and cement industries, traffic, municipal emission sources and biomass burning. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the concentrations of the following elements: Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, As and Pb within the collected samples. Defining the elements as indicators, airborne particulate matter (APM source profiles were prepared by applying principal component analysis (PCA, factor analysis (FA and multiple linear regression (MLR. Four different factors identifying possible air pollution sources for both PM10 and PM2.5 fractions were attributed to municipal emissions, biomass burning, steel industry, traffic, cement and metal industry, Zn and Pb industry and secondary aerosols. The uncertainty associated with each loading was determined by a statistical simulation method that took into account the individual elemental concentrations and their corresponding uncertainties. It will be possible to identify two or more sources of air particulate matter pollution for a single factor in case it is extremely difficult to separate the sources.

  20. Kinetic theory of nonideal gases and nonideal plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Klimontovich, Yu L

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory of Nonideal Gases and Nonideal Plasmas presents the fundamental aspects of the kinetic theory of gases and plasmas. The book consists of three parts, which attempts to present some of the ideas, methods and applications in the study of the kinetic processes in nonideal gases and plasmas. The first part focuses on the classical kinetic theory of nonideal gases. The second part discusses the classical kinetic theory of fully ionized plasmas. The last part is devoted to the quantum kinetic theory of nonideal gases and plasmas. A concluding chapter is included, which presents a shor

  1. Development of gamma spectrometer using silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Kyu

    2011-02-01

    Gamma spectroscopy is used to determine the identity and quantity of gamma-emitters in nuclear physics, geochemistry and astrophysics. The scintillation detectors are being used as a gamma spectrometer generally, because of their higher gamma-ray detection efficiency and cheaper price than germanium semi-conductor detectors. A typical scintillation detector is composed of a scintillator, a window, and a photodetector. The photomultiplier (PM) tube has been the most widely used as a photodetector because of its advantages like high sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio, and wide dynamic range. Recently, the Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) is being studied as a substitute of PM tube. The SiPM has almost same performance compared to PM tube but it has additional advantages; low operating voltage, small volume, and cheap production cost. In this research, the gamma spectrometer using SiPM instead of PM tube is developed. The use of SiPM as a photodetector makes the gamma spectrometer smaller, cheaper, easier to use. For photon transport and collection from the large area scintillator to the small area SiPM, a light guide is applied in this gamma spectrometer system. Before fabrication of light guide, DETECT simulation is performed to study and prospect characteristics of light guide structure. And actual light guides are fabricated on the basis of this simulation result. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is chosen as material of light guide, 5 sample light guides are fabricated in different lengths and coatings. As a scintillator crystal, same NaI(Tl) crystal is chosen. For measurement and analysis of gamma spectrometer system, 3 gamma spectrometer systems are composed: PM tube-based system, PM tube-based system with the light guide, SiPM-based system with the light guide. Through comparison between the results of each gamma spectrometer, the performances of gamma spectrometer system are analyzed by each component. Measurement results of the second system is well

  2. Measurement of $CP$ violation and constraints on the CKM angle $\\gamma$ in $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow D K^{\\pm}$ with $D \\rightarrow K_S^0 \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gordon, Hamish; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hartmann, Thomas; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Moran, Dermot; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Powell, Andrew; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Alexander; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Sabatino, Giovanni; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sapunov, Matvey; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Senderowska, Katarzyna; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    A model-dependent amplitude analysis of $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow D K^{\\pm}$ with $D \\rightarrow K_S^0 \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ decays is performed using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $1$ fb$^{-1}$, recorded by LHCb at a centre-of-mass energy of $7$ TeV in $2011$. Values of the $CP$ violation observables $x_{\\pm}$ and $y_{\\pm}$, which are sensitive to the CKM angle $\\gamma$, are measured to be \\begin{align*} x_- &= +0.027 \\pm 0.044 ^{+0.010}_{-0.008} \\pm 0.001, \\\\ y_- &= +0.013 \\pm 0.048 ^{+0.009}_{-0.007} \\pm 0.003, \\\\ x_+ &= -0.084 \\pm 0.045 \\pm 0.009 \\pm 0.005, \\\\ y_+ &= -0.032 \\pm 0.048 ^{+0.010}_{-0.009} \\pm 0.008, \\end{align*} where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second systematic and the third arises from the uncertainty of the $D \\rightarrow K_S^0 \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ amplitude model. The value of $\\gamma$ is determined to be $(84^{+49}_{-42})^\\circ$, including all sources of uncertainty. Neutral $D$ meson mixing is found to have negligible effect.

  3. Measurement of $CP$ violation and constraints on the CKM angle $\\gamma$ in $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow D K^{\\pm}$ with $D \\rightarrow K_S^0 \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; 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    2014-01-01

    A model-dependent amplitude analysis of $B^{\\pm} \\rightarrow D K^{\\pm}$ with $D \\rightarrow K_S^0 \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ decays is performed using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $1$ fb$^{-1}$, recorded by LHCb at a centre-of-mass energy of $7$ TeV in $2011$. Values of the $CP$ violation observables $x_{\\pm}$ and $y_{\\pm}$, which are sensitive to the CKM angle $\\gamma$, are measured to be \\begin{align*} x_- &= +0.027 \\pm 0.044 ^{+0.010}_{-0.008} \\pm 0.001, \\\\ y_- &= +0.013 \\pm 0.048 ^{+0.009}_{-0.007} \\pm 0.003, \\\\ x_+ &= -0.084 \\pm 0.045 \\pm 0.009 \\pm 0.005, \\\\ y_+ &= -0.032 \\pm 0.048 ^{+0.010}_{-0.009} \\pm 0.008, \\end{align*} where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second systematic and the third arises from the uncertainty of the $D \\rightarrow K_S^0 \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ amplitude model. The value of $\\gamma$ is determined to be $(84^{+49}_{-42})^\\circ$, including all sources of uncertainty. Neutral $D$ meson mixing is found to have negligible effect.

  4. Measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ using $B^\\pm\\to DK^\\pm$ with $D\\to K_\\text{S}^0\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $K_\\text{S}^0K^+K^-$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; LHCb Collaboration; Adinolfi, Marco; Aidala, Christine Angela; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albicocco, Pietro; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Alfonso Albero, Alejandro; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Arzymatov, Kenenbek; Aslanides, Elie; Atzeni, Michele; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Baranov, Alexander; Barlow, Roger; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Beiter, Andrew; Bel, Lennaert; Beliy, Nikita; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; 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Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hilton, Martha; Hopchev, Plamen Hristov; Hu, Wenhua; Huang, Wenqian; Huard, Zachary; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Ibis, Philipp; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Ivshin, Kuzma; Jacobsson, Richard; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kazeev, Nikita; Kecke, Matthieu; Keizer, Floris; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kim, Kyung Eun; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Kopecna, Renata; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kostiuk, Igor; Kotriakhova, Sofia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreps, Michal; Kress, Felix Johannes; Krokovny, Pavel; Krupa, Wojciech; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lancierini, Davide; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Pei-Rong; Li, Tenglin; Li, Zhuoming; Liang, Xixin; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Lionetto, Federica; Lisovskyi, Vitalii; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Loi, Angelo; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lovell, George Holger; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Macko, Vladimir; Mackowiak, Patrick; Maddrell-Mander, Samuel; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Maisuzenko, Dmitrii; Majewski, Maciej Witold; Malde, Sneha; Malecki, Bartosz; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Marangotto, Daniele; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Mead, James Vincent; Meadows, Brian; Meaux, Cedric; Meier, Frank; Meinert, Nis; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Millard, Edward James; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Minzoni, Luca; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Mombächer, Titus; Monroy, Igancio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morello, Gianfranco; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Murphy, Colm Harold; Murray, Donal; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nanut, Tara; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nogay, Alla; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Ossowska, Anna; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palutan, Matteo; Panshin, Gennady; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Pereima, Dmitrii; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petrucci, Stefano; Petruzzo, Marco; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pietrzyk, Guillaume; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pili, Martina; Pinci, Davide; Pinzino, Jacopo; Pisani, Flavio; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plews, Jonathan; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poli Lener, Marco; Poluektov, Anton; Polukhina, Natalia; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Ponce, Sebastien; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Pullen, Hannah Louise; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Qin, Jia-Jia; Quagliani, Renato; Quintana, Boris; Rachwal, Bartlomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Ravonel Salzgeber, Melody; Reboud, Meril; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Reiss, Florian; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Ren, Zan; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rinnert, Kurt; Robbe, Patrick; Robert, Arnaud; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Roehrken, Markus; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Vidal, Joan; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Gras, Cristina; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarpis, Gediminas; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saur, Miroslav; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schreiner, HF; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepulveda, Eduardo Enrique; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shmanin, Evgenii; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smeaton, John Gordon; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Mark; Soares, Marcelo; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stepanova, Margarita; Stevens, Holger; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Strokov, Sergey; Sun, Jiayin; Sun, Liang; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szumlak, Tomasz; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tang, Zhipeng; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Tou, Da Yu; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, Rafael; Tournefier, Edwige; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Usachov, Andrii; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagner, Alexander; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Verlage, Tobias Anton; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitkovskiy, Arseniy; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Wang, Mengzhen; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Zhenzi; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Weisser, Constantin; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Ifan; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Winn, Michael Andreas; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xiao, Dong; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Ao; Xu, Menglin; Xu, Qingnian; Xu, Zehua; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yang, Zishuo; Yao, Yuezhe; Yeomans, Lauren Emma; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zonneveld, Jennifer Brigitta; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    A binned Dalitz plot analysis of $B^\\pm \\to D K^\\pm$ decays, with $D\\to K_\\text{S}^0\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $D\\to K_\\text{S}^0K^+K^-$, is used to perform a measurement of the CP-violating observables $x_{\\pm}$ and $y_{\\pm}$, which are sensitive to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa angle $\\gamma$. The analysis is performed without assuming any $D$ decay model, through the use of information on the strong-phase variation over the Dalitz plot from the CLEO collaboration. Using a sample of proton-proton collision data collected with the LHCb experiment in 2015 and 2016, and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.0$\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$, the values of the CP violation parameters are found to be $x_- = ( 9.0 \\pm 1.7 \\pm 0.7 \\pm 0.4) \\times 10^{-2}$, $y_- = ( 2.1 \\pm 2.2 \\pm 0.5 \\pm 1.1) \\times 10^{-2}$, $x_+ = (- 7.7 \\pm 1.9 \\pm 0.7 \\pm 0.4) \\times 10^{-2}$, and $y_+ = (- 1.0 \\pm 1.9 \\pm 0.4 \\pm 0.9) \\times 10^{-2}$. The first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is due to the uncertainty on ...

  5. Exposure of bakery and pastry apprentices to airborne flour dust using PM2.5 and PM10 personal samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier-Geyssant, Estelle; Barthélemy, Jean-François; Mouchot, Lory; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2007-11-01

    This study describes exposure levels of bakery and pastry apprentices to flour dust, a known risk factor of occupational asthma. Questionnaires on work activity were completed by 286 students. Among them, 34 performed a series of two personal exposure measurements using a PM2.5 and PM10 personal sampler during a complete work shift, one during a cold ("winter") period, and the other during a hot ("summer") period. Bakery apprentices experience greater average PM2.5 and PM10 exposures than pastry apprentices (p < 0.006). Exposure values for both particulate fractions are greater in winter (average PM10 values among bakers = 1.10 mg.m-3 [standard deviation: 0.83]) than in summer (0.63 mg.m-3 [0.36]). While complying with current European occupational limit values, these exposures exceed the ACGIH recommendations set to prevent sensitization to flour dust (0.5 mg.m-3). Over half the facilities had no ventilation system. Young bakery apprentices incur substantial exposure to known airways allergens, a situation that might elicit early induction of airways inflammation.

  6. PM Origin or Exposure Duration? Health Hazards from PM-Bound Mercury and PM-Bound PAHs among Students and Lecturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Grzegorz; Widziewicz, Kamila; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Rogula-Kopiec, Patrycja; Kociszewska, Karolina; Rozbicki, Tomasz; Majder-Łopatka, Małgorzata; Niemczyk, Mariusz

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed inhalation exposure to particulate matter (PM1)-bound mercury (Hgp) and PM1-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among university students. For this purpose, simultaneous indoor (I) and outdoor (O) measurements were taken from two Polish technical universities (in Gliwice and Warsaw) located in distinct areas with respect to ambient concentrations and major sources of PM. The indoor geometric mean concentrations of Hgp were found to be 1.46 pg·m−3 and 6.38 pg·m−3 in Warsaw and Gliwice, while the corresponding outdoor concentrations were slightly lower at 1.38 pg·m−3 and 3.03 pg·m−3, respectively. A distinct pattern was found with respect to PAH concentrations with estimated I/O values of 22.2 ng·m−3/22.5 ng·m−3 in Gliwice and 10.9 ng·m−3/11.12 ng·m−3 in Warsaw. Hazard quotients (HQs) as a result of exposure to Hgp for students aged 21 ranged from 3.47 × 10−5 (Warsaw) to 1.3 × 10−4 (Gliwice) in terms of reasonable maximum exposure (RME). The non-cancer human health risk value related to Hgp exposure was thus found to be below the acceptable risk level value of 1.0 given by the US EPA. Daily exposure values for lecture hall occupants, adjusted to the benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) toxicity equivalent (BaPeq), were 2.9 and 1.02 ng·m−3 for the Gliwice and Warsaw students, respectively. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) values with respect to exposure to PM1-bound PAHs during the students’ time of study were 5.49 × 10−8 (Warsaw) and 1.43 × 10−7 (Gliwice). Thus, students’ exposure to indoor PAHs does not lead to increased risk of lung cancer. PMID:29439524

  7. PM Origin or Exposure Duration? Health Hazards from PM-Bound Mercury and PM-Bound PAHs among Students and Lecturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Majewski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed inhalation exposure to particulate matter (PM1-bound mercury (Hgp and PM1-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs among university students. For this purpose, simultaneous indoor (I and outdoor (O measurements were taken from two Polish technical universities (in Gliwice and Warsaw located in distinct areas with respect to ambient concentrations and major sources of PM. The indoor geometric mean concentrations of Hgp were found to be 1.46 pg·m−3 and 6.38 pg·m−3 in Warsaw and Gliwice, while the corresponding outdoor concentrations were slightly lower at 1.38 pg·m−3 and 3.03 pg·m−3, respectively. A distinct pattern was found with respect to PAH concentrations with estimated I/O values of 22.2 ng·m−3/22.5 ng·m−3 in Gliwice and 10.9 ng·m−3/11.12 ng·m−3 in Warsaw. Hazard quotients (HQs as a result of exposure to Hgp for students aged 21 ranged from 3.47 × 10−5 (Warsaw to 1.3 × 10−4 (Gliwice in terms of reasonable maximum exposure (RME. The non-cancer human health risk value related to Hgp exposure was thus found to be below the acceptable risk level value of 1.0 given by the US EPA. Daily exposure values for lecture hall occupants, adjusted to the benzo(apyrene (BaP toxicity equivalent (BaPeq, were 2.9 and 1.02 ng·m−3 for the Gliwice and Warsaw students, respectively. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR values with respect to exposure to PM1-bound PAHs during the students’ time of study were 5.49 × 10−8 (Warsaw and 1.43 × 10−7 (Gliwice. Thus, students’ exposure to indoor PAHs does not lead to increased risk of lung cancer.

  8. A microscope for Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This thesis reports on a novel quantum gas microscope to investigate many-body systems of fermionic atoms in optical lattices. Single-site resolved imaging of ultracold lattice gases has enabled powerful studies of bosonic quantum many-body systems. The extension of this capability to Fermi gases offers new prospects to studying complex phenomena of strongly correlated systems, for which numerical simulations are often out of reach. Using standard techniques of laser cooling, optical trapping, and evaporative cooling, ultracold Fermi gases of 6 Li are prepared and loaded into a large-scale 2D optical lattice of flexible geometry. The atomic distribution is frozen using a second, short-scaled lattice, where we perform Raman sideband cooling to induce fluorescence on each atom while maintaining its position. Together with high-resolution imaging, the fluorescence signals allow for reconstructing the initial atom distribution with single-site sensitivity and high fidelity. Magnetically driven evaporative cooling in the plane allows for producing degenerate Fermi gases with almost unity filling in the initial lattice, allowing for the first microscopic studies of ultracold gases with clear signatures of Fermi statistics. By preparing an ensemble of spin-polarised Fermi gases, we detect a flattening of the density profile towards the centre of the cloud, which is a characteristic of a band-insulating state. In one set of experiments, we demonstrate that losses of atom pairs on a single lattice site due to light-assisted collisions are circumvented. The oversampling of the second lattice allows for deterministic separation of the atom pairs into different sites. Compressing a high-density sample in a trap before loading into the lattice leads to many double occupancies of atoms populating different bands, which we can image with no evidence for pairwise losses. We therefore gain direct access to the true number statistics on each lattice site. Using this feature, we can

  9. PM1 steganographic algorithm using ternary Hamming Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PM1 algorithm is a modification of well-known LSB steganographic algorithm. It has increased resistance to selected steganalytic attacks and increased embedding efficiency. Due to its uniqueness, PM1 algorithm allows us to use of larger alphabet of symbols, making it possible to further increase steganographic capacity. In this paper, we present the modified PM1 algorithm which utilizies so-called syndrome coding and ternary Hamming code. The modified algorithm has increased embedding efficiency, which means fewer changes introduced to carrier and increased capacity.[b]Keywords[/b]: steganography, linear codes, PM1, LSB, ternary Hamming code

  10. High spin states of 141Pm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Chanda, Somen; Bhattacharjee, Tumpa; Basu, Swapan Kumar; Bhowmik, R. K.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Ghugre, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    The high spin states in the N=80 odd- A141Pm nucleus have been investigated by in-beam γ-spectroscopic techniques following the reaction 133Cs( 12C, 4n) 141Pm at E=65 MeV using a modest γ detector array, consisting of seven Compton-suppressed high purity germanium detectors and a multiplicity ball of 14 bismuth germanate elements. Thirty new γ rays have been assigned to 141Pm on the basis of γ-ray singles and γγ-coincidence data. The level scheme of 141Pm has been extended upto an excitation energy of 5.2 MeV and spin {35}/{2}ℏ and 16 new levels have been proposed. Spin-parity assignments for most of the newly proposed levels have been made on the basis of the deduced directional correlation orientation ratios for strong transitions. The meanlives of a few excited states have been determined from the pulsed beam- γγ coincidence data using the generalised centroid-shift method. The level structure is discussed in the light of known systematics of neighbouring N=80 isotonic nuclei.

  11. Assessment of microbial communities in PM1 and PM10 of Urumqi during winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, Huange; Lu, Jianjiang; Li, Shanman; Tong, Yanbin; Xie, Chunbin; Zheng, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Recently, inhalable particulate matter has been reported to carry microorganisms responsible for human allergy and respiratory disease. The unique geographical environment and adverse weather conditions of Urumqi cause double pollution of dust and smog, but research on the microbial content of the atmosphere has not been commenced. In this study, 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing were conducted to investigate the microbial composition of Urumqi's PM 1 and PM 10 pollutants in winter. Results showed that the bacterial community is mainly composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria accounted for the most proportion which was significant difference in some aforementioned studies. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota constitute the main part of the fungal microbial community. The difference of bacterial relative abundance in sample point is greater than in particle sizes. The sequences of several pathogenic bacteria and opportunistic pathogens were also detected, such as Acinetobacter, Delftia, Serratia, Chryseobacterium, which may impact on immunocompromised populations (elderly, children and postoperative convalescence patients), and some fungal genera may cause several plant diseases. Our findings may serve an important reference value in the global air microbial propagation and air microbial research in desert. - Highlights: • Using 16 s rDNA double variable region (V3 + V4) sequencing to elucidate the bacterial communities. • Several potential microbial allergens and pathogens present in PM 1 and PM 10 were found. • Providing a great supplement to environmental science and human health assessment.

  12. Scenario Study on PM emission Reduction in Cement Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qian; Chen, Xiaojun; Xia, Xin; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Huili; Jin, Ling; Yan, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Cement industry is one of the high pollution industries in China. Evaluation of the primary particulate matter (PM) emission status and the reduction potential is not only important for our understanding of the effectiveness of current pollution control measures but also vital for future policy design. In this study, PM emitted from cement producing process in 2014 was calculated using an emission factor method. Three PM emission control scenarios were set up considering source control, process management and end-of-pipe treatment, and the PM emission reduction by 2020 under the three scenarios was predicted, respectively. In 2014, the primary PM emission from cement industry was 1.95 million tons. By 2020, the productions of cement and clinker were expected to increase by 12% and 7%, respectively, and the PM emission would increase by about 10%. By implementation of GB4915-2013 and comprehensive control of fugitive PM emission, the PM emission would probably be reduced by 34%. Another 7% decrease would be expected from source control. The second scenario can be considered as an assessment of the effectiveness of the revised emission standard, and this research can be used as a technical support to the environmental management authorities to make relevant policies.

  13. Bias caused by water adsorption in hourly PM measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Gyula; Imre, Kornélia; Molnár, Ágnes; Gelencsér, András

    2017-07-01

    Beta-attenuation monitors are used worldwide to monitor PM mass concentration with high temporal resolution. Hourly PM10 and PM2. 5 dry mass concentrations are publicly available with the tacit assumption that water is effectively removed prior to the measurement. However, as both the filter material of the monitor and the aerosol particles are capable of retaining a significant amount of water even at low relative humidities, the basic assumption may not be valid, resulting in significant bias in reported PM10 and PM2. 5 concentrations. Here we show that in PM10 measurement, particle-free air can produce apparent hourly average PM concentrations in the range of -13-+21 µg m-3 under conditions of fluctuating relative humidity. Positive and negative apparent readings are observed with increasing and decreasing relative humidities, respectively. Similar phenomena have been observed when the instrument filter was previously loaded with atmospheric aerosol. As a result the potential measurement biases in hourly readings arising from the interaction with water may be in the range of -53… + 69 %.

  14. Ambient levels and temporal variations of PM2.5 and PM10 at a residential site in the mega-city, Nanjing, in the western Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guo F; Yuan, Si Y; Xie, Yu N; Xia, Si J; Li, Li; Yao, Yu K; Qiao, Yue Z; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Qiu Y; Ding, Ai J; Li, Bin; Wu, Hai S

    2014-01-01

    The deteriorating air quality in eastern China including the Yangtze River Delta is attracting growing public concern. In this study, we measured the ambient PM10 and fine PM2.5 in the mega-city, Nanjing at four different times. The 24-h average PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations were 0.033-0.234 and 0.042-0.328 mg/m(3), respectively. The daily PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 2.9 (2.7-3.2, at 95% confidence interval) and 4.2 (3.8-4.6) times the WHO air quality guidelines of 0.025 mg/m(3) for PM2.5 and 0.050 mg/m(3) for PM10, respectively, which indicated serious air pollution in the city. There was no obvious weekend effect. The highest PM10 pollution occurred in the wintertime, with higher PM2.5 loadings in the winter and summer. PM2.5 was correlated significantly with PM10 and the average mass fraction of PM2.5 in PM10 was about 72.5%. This fraction varied during different sampling periods, with the lowest PM2.5 fraction in the spring but minor differences among the other three seasons.

  15. Urban aerosol in Oporto, Portugal: Chemical characterization of PM10 and PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Danilo; Ferreira, Catarina; Alves, Célia; Duarte, Mácio; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Frosini, Daniele; Colombi, Cristina; Gianelle, Vorne; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Several urban and industrial areas in Southern Europe are not capable of meeting the implemented EU standards for particulate matter. Efficient air quality management is required in order to ensure that the legal limits are not exceeded and that the consequences of poor air quality are controlled and minimized. Many aspects of the direct and indirect effects of suspended particulate matter on climate and public health are not well understood. The temporal variation of the chemical composition is still demanded, since it enables to adopt off-set strategies and to better estimate the magnitude of anthropogenic forcing on climate. This study aims to provide detailed information on concentrations and chemical composition of aerosol from Oporto city, an urban center in Southern Europe. This city is located near the coast line in the North of Portugal, being the country's second largest urban area. Moreover, Oporto city economic prospects depend heavily on a diversified industrial park, which contribute to air quality degradation. Another strong source of air pollution is traffic. The main objectives of this study are: 1) to characterize the chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 by setting up an orchestra of aerosol sampling devices in a strategic place in Oporto; 2) to identify the sources of particles exploring parameters such as organic and inorganic markers (e.g. sugars as tracers for biomass burning; metals and elemental carbon for industrial and vehicular emissions); 3) to evaluate long range transport of pollutants using back trajectory analysis. Here we present data obtained between January 2013 and January 2014 in a heavy traffic roadside sampling site located in the city center. Different PM10 and PM2.5 samplers were operated simultaneously in order to collect enough mass on different filter matrixes and to fulfill the requirements of analytical methodologies. More than 100 aerosol samples were collected and then analysed for their mass concentration and

  16. The HTR-PM Plant Full Scope Training Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junsan; Wang Yuding; Zhou Shuyong; Cai Ruizhong; Cao Jianting

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the technical aspects of the Full Scope Training Simulator developed for HTR-PM Plant in Shidao Bay, Shandong Province, China. An overview of the HTR-PM plant and simulator structure is presented. The models developed for the simulator are discussed in detail. Some important verification tests have been conducted on the HTR-PM Plant Training Simulator. (author)

  17. Source apportionment of particulate matter and trace gases near a major refinery near the Houston Ship Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Henry W.; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Flynn, James H.; Erickson, Mathew H.; Lefer, Barry L.; Griffin, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    From February 7 to 27, 2015, a mobile air quality laboratory was deployed to a location proximate to a major refinery, the Port of Houston, and several neighborhoods to conduct measurements of atmospheric trace gases and particulate matter. Two statistical models were utilized to apportion the sources of pollution impacting this site and the denizens of the nearby neighborhoods. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was performed on the organic signal of the aerosol mass spectra, resulting in five factors totaling an average of 4.1 μg/m3 of the organic aerosol: hydrocarbon-like (0.67 μg/m3), cooking (0.35 μg/m3) biomass burning (1.14 μg/m3), low-volatility oxidized (1.15 μg/m3), and semi-volatile oxidized (0.78 μg/m3). Principal component analysis was performed on daytime and nighttime data, including concentrations from PMF output, of other PM1 components, and of trace gases. This generated five daytime and five nighttime factors that explained 74.5% and 73.0% of the variance, respectively. The most important factors impacting this site were from mobile source exhaust and petrochemical aromatic compound emissions. Together these two factors also constitute most of the observed carcinogens.

  18. First observation and study of $K^\\pm \\to \\pi^\\pm \\pi^0 e^+ e^-$ decay at the NA48/2 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Misheva, M H; Arcidiacono, R; Balev, S; Batley, J R; Behler, M; Bi­fani, S; Biino, C; Bizzeti, A; Bloch-Devaux, B; Bocquet, G; Cabibbo, N; Calvetti, M; Cartiglia, N; Ceccucci, A; Cenci, P; Cerri, C; Cheshkov, C; Cheze, J B; Ciemencic, M; Collazuol, G; Costantini, F; Cotta Ramusino, A; Coward, D; Cundy, D; Dabrowski, A; Dalpiaz, P; Damiani, C; De Beer, M; Derre, J; Dibon, H; Dilella, L; Doble, N; Eppard, K; Falaleev, V; Fantechi, R; Fidecaro, M; Fiorini, L; Fiorini, M; Fonseca, T; Martin, M; Frabetti, P L; Gatignon, L; Gersabeck, E; Gianoli, A; Giudici, S; Gonidec, A; Goudzovski, E; Goy Lopez, S; Holder, M; Hris­, P; Iacopini, E; Imbergamo, E; Jeitler, M; Kalmus, G; Kekelidze, V; Kleinknecht, K; Kozhuharov, V; Kubis­, W; Lamanna, G; Lazzeroni, C; Lenti, M; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D; Maier, A; Mannelli, I; Marchetto, F; Mare, G; Markytan, M; Marouelli, P; Martini, M; Masetti, L; Mazzucato, E; Michetti, A; Mikulec, I; Molokanova, N; Monnier, E; Moosbrugger, U; Morales Morales, C; Munday, D J; Nappi, A; Neuhofer, G; Norton, A; Pa­, M; Pepe, M; Peters, A; Petrucci, F; Petrucci, M C; Peyaud, B; Piccini, M; Pierazzini, G; Polenkevich, I; Potrebenikov, Yu; Raggi, M; Renk, B; Rubin, P; Ruggiero, G; Savrie, M; Scarpa, M; Shieh, M; Slater, M W; Sozzi, M; Stoynev, S; Swallow, E; Szleper, M; Valdata-Nappi, M; Vallage, B; Velasco, M; Veltri, M; Venditti, S; Wache, M; Wahl, H; Walker, A; Wanke, R; Widhalm, L; Winhart, A; Winston, R; Wood, M D; Wotton, S A; Yushchenko, A; Zinchenko, M; Ziolkowski, M

    2015-01-01

    A sample of almost 2000 $K^\\pm \\to \\pi^\\pm \\pi^0 e^+ e^-$ rare decays with a background contamination below 3% is observed for the first time by the NA48/2 experiment at CERN/SPS. The preliminary branching ratio in the full kinematic region is obtained to be $BR(K^\\pm \\to \\pi^\\pm \\pi^0 e^+ e^-)$ = (4.06 ± 0.17) x $10^{-6}$ by analyzing the data set recorded in 3-month NA48/2 run during 2003. The measured value is in agreement with the theoretical prediction within one standard deviation.

  19. Gases and carbon in metals. Pt. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehn, H.; Speck, H.; Hehn, W.; Fromm, E.; Hoerz, G.

    1981-01-01

    This issue is part of a series of data on 'Gases and Carbon in Metals' which supplements the data compilation in the book 'Gase und Kohlenstoff in Metallen' (Gases and Carbon in Metals), edited by E. Fromm and E. Gebhardt, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1976. The present survey includes results from papers published after the copy deadline and recommends critically selected data. Furthermore, it comprises a bibliography of relevant literature. For each element, firstly data on binary systems are presented, starting with hydrogen and followed by carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and rare gases. Within one metal-metalloid system the data are listed under topics such as solubility, solubility limit, dissociation pressure of compounds, vapour pressure of volatile oxides, thermodynamic data, diffusion, transport parameters (effective valence, heat of transport), permeation of gases through metals, gas absorption and gas desorption kinetics, compound formation kinetics, precipitation kinetics, and property changes. Following the data on binary systems, the data of ternary systems are presented, beginning with systems which contain one metal and two gases or one gas and carbon and continuing with systems with two metals and one gas or carbon. (orig./GE)

  20. Automatic Carbon Dioxide-Methane Gas Sensor Based on the Solubility of Gases in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl O. Cadena-Pereda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogas methane content is a relevant variable in anaerobic digestion processing where knowledge of process kinetics or an early indicator of digester failure is needed. The contribution of this work is the development of a novel, simple and low cost automatic carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor based on the solubility of gases in water as the precursor of a sensor for biogas quality monitoring. The device described in this work was used for determining the composition of binary mixtures, such as carbon dioxide-methane, in the range of 0–100%. The design and implementation of a digital signal processor and control system into a low-cost Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA platform has permitted the successful application of data acquisition, data distribution and digital data processing, making the construction of a standalone carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor possible.

  1. Automatic carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor based on the solubility of gases in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena-Pereda, Raúl O; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Gomez-Melendez, Domingo J; Anaya-Rivera, Ely K

    2012-01-01

    Biogas methane content is a relevant variable in anaerobic digestion processing where knowledge of process kinetics or an early indicator of digester failure is needed. The contribution of this work is the development of a novel, simple and low cost automatic carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor based on the solubility of gases in water as the precursor of a sensor for biogas quality monitoring. The device described in this work was used for determining the composition of binary mixtures, such as carbon dioxide-methane, in the range of 0-100%. The design and implementation of a digital signal processor and control system into a low-cost Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform has permitted the successful application of data acquisition, data distribution and digital data processing, making the construction of a standalone carbon dioxide-methane gas sensor possible.

  2. Characteristics of the Hadronic Production of the $D^{*\\pm}$ Meson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Miranda, Jussara Marques [Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    1992-04-01

    The Fermilab experiment E769, a 250 GeV /c tagged hadron beam incident on thin target foils of Be, Al,Cu, and W, measured the $X_F$ and $p^2_t$ distributions of $D^{*\\pm}$ through the decay mode$D^{*\\pm} \\to D^0 \\pi^+, D^0 \\to K^- \\pi^+$. Fitting the distributions to the form $A(1 - X_F)^n$ and $B exp(-bp^2_t)$, we determined $n$ - 3.84 ± 0.20 ± 0.06 and $b$ = 0. 7 48 ± 0.034 ± 0.009, respectively. We observe no significant lea.ding particle ef.~ct suggested by earlier experiments. The dependence of the total cross section on the atomic mass number was determined to be $A^{0.98 \\pm 0,05 \\pm 0.04}$ . The measurements were based on 351 ± 16 fully reconstructed $D^{*\\pm}$ mesons induced by a $\\pi^{\\pm}$ and $K^{\\pm}$ beam. This is the gest available sample of hadroproduced $D^{*\\pm}$.

  3. Fugitive emission rates assessment of PM2.5 and PM10 from open storage piles in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yiqi; Liu, Tao; He, Jiao

    2018-03-01

    An assessment of the fugitive emission rates of PM2.5 and PM10 from an open static coal and mine storage piles. The experiment was conducted at a large union steel enterprises in the East China region to effectively control the fugitive particulate emissions pollution on daily work and extreme weather conditions. Wind tunnel experiments conducted on the surface of static storage piles, and it generated specific fugitive emission rates (SERs) at ground level of between ca.10-1 and ca.102 (mg/m2·s) for PM2.5 and between ca.101 and ca.103 (mg/m2·s) for PM10 under the u*(wind velocity) between ca.3.0 (m/s) and 10.0 (m/s). Research results show that SERs of different materials differ a lot. Material particulate that has lower surface moisture content generate higher SER and coal material generate higher SER than mine material. For material storage piles with good water infiltrating properties, aspersion is a very effective measure for control fugitive particulate emission.

  4. Irritant gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, J

    Acute inhalation injury can result from the use of household cleaning agents (e.g. chlorine, ammonia), industrial or combustion gases (e.g. sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) or bioterrorism. The severity of the injury is to a great extent determined by the circumstances of exposure. If exposure was

  5. Anomalous elevated radiocarbon measurements of PM2.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Fallon, Stewart J.; Zermeño, Paula; Bench, Graham; Schichtel, Bret A.

    2013-01-01

    Two-component models are often used to determine the contributions made by fossil fuel and natural sources of carbon in airborne particulate matter (PM). The models reduce thousands of actual sources to two end members based on isotopic signature. Combustion of fossil fuels produces PM free of carbon-14 ( 14 C). Wood or charcoal smoke, restaurant fryer emissions, and natural emissions from plants produce PM with the contemporary concentration of 14 C approximately 1.2 × 10 −1214 C/C. Such data can be used to estimate the relative contributions of fossil fuels and biogenic aerosols to the total aerosol loading and radiocarbon analysis is becoming a popular source apportionment method. Emissions from incinerators combusting medical or biological wastes containing tracer 14 C can skew the 14 C/C ratio of PM, however, so critical analysis of sampling sites for possible sources of elevated PM needs to be completed prior to embarking on sampling campaigns. Results are presented for two ambient monitoring sites in different areas of the United States where 14 C contamination is apparent. Our experience suggests that such contamination is uncommon but is also not rare (∼10%) for PM sampling sites.

  6. Search for the lepton-flavor violating decays $B^0_s \\rightarrow e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ and $B^0 \\rightarrow e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves Jr, A.A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R.B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J.J.; Baesso, C.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R.J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P.M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N.H.; Brown, H.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, P.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H.V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G.A.; Craik, D.C.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P.N.Y.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J.M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dogaru, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Fave, V.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L.A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S.C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S.T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C.R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T.M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khanji, B.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R.F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V.N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R.W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I.V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marconi, U.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Maurice, E.; Mazurov, A.; Mc Skelly, B.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Minard, M.-N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M.J.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Muresan, R.; Muryn, B.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Nguyen, A.D.; Nguyen, T.D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nomerotski, A.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J.M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B.K.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C.J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G.D.; Patel, M.; Patrick, G.N.; Patrignani, C.; Pavel-Nicorescu, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pessina, G.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Phan, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rademacker, J.H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rangel, M.S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reid, M.M.; dos Reis, A.C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D.A.; Robbe, P.; Roberts, D.A.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Salzmann, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Sannino, M.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schaack, P.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shatalov, P.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Sirendi, M.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N.A.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Subbiah, V.K.; Sun, L.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Teodorescu, E.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M.T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Urner, D.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Van Dijk, M.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J.J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D.R.; Watson, N.K.; Webber, A.D.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M.P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F.F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Witek, M.; Wotton, S.A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Young, R.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2013-01-01

    A search for the lepton-flavour violating decays $B^0_s \\rightarrow e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ and $B^0 \\rightarrow e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}$ is performed with a data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$, TeV, collected by the LHCb experiment. The observed number of $B^0_s \\to e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}$ and $B^0 \\to e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}$ candidates is consistent with background expectations. Upper limits on the branching fractions of both decays are determined to be $BR(B^0_s \\to e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp} 107$ TeV/c$^2$ and $M_{\\rm LQ} (B^0 \\to e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}) > 126$ TeV/c$^2$ at 95% C.L., and are a factor of two higher than the previous bounds.

  7. Origins of geothermal gases at Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Gas emissions at the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (YPVF) reflect open-system mixing of gas species originating from diverse rock types, magmas, and crustal fluids, all combined in varying proportions at different thermal areas. Gases are not necessarily in chemical equilibrium with the waters through which they vent, especially in acid sulfate terrain where bubbles stream through stagnant acid water. Gases in adjacent thermal areas often can be differentiated by isotopic and gas ratios, and cannot be tied to one another solely by shallow processes such as boiling-induced fractionation of a parent liquid. Instead, they inherit unique gas ratios (e.g., CH4/He) from the dominant rock reservoirs where they originate, some of which underlie the Quaternary volcanic rocks. Steam/gas ratios (essentially H2O/CO2) of Yellowstone fumaroles correlate with Ar/He and N2/CO2, strongly suggesting that H2O/CO2 is controlled by addition of steam boiled from water rich in atmospheric gases. Moreover, H2O/CO2 varies systematically with geographic location, such that boiling is more enhanced in some areas than others. The δ13C and 3He/CO2 of gases reflect a dominant mantle origin for CO2 in Yellowstone gas. The mantle signature is most evident at Mud Volcano, which hosts gases with the lowest H2O/CO2, lowest CH4 concentrations and highest He isotope ratios (~16Ra), consistent with either a young subsurface intrusion or less input of crustal and meteoric gas than any other location at Yellowstone. Across the YPVF, He isotope ratios (3He/4He) inversely vary with He concentrations, and reflect varied amounts of long- stored, radiogenic He added to the magmatic endmember within the crust. Similarly, addition of CH4 from organic-rich sediments is common in the eastern thermal areas at Yellowstone. Overall, Yellowstone gases reflect addition of deep, high-temperature magmatic gas (CO2-rich), lower-temperatures crustal gases (4He- and CH4-bearing), and those gases (N2, Ne, Ar) added

  8. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of a liquid Eu precursor (EuCp{sup pm}{sub 2}) allowing for valence control of Eu ions doped into GaN by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Brandon, E-mail: bmitchell@wcupa.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, PA, 19383 (United States); Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Koizumi, Atsushi; Nunokawa, Takumi; Wakamatsu, Ryuta; Lee, Dong-gun; Saitoh, Yasuhisa; Timmerman, Dolf [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Kuboshima, Yoshinori; Mogi, Takayuki; Higashi, Shintaro; Kikukawa, Kaoru [Kojundo Chemical Laboratory Co., Ltd., 5-1-28 Chiyoda, Sakado, Saitama, 350-0284 (Japan); Ofuchi, Hironori; Honma, Tetsuo [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo, 679-5198 (Japan); Fujiwara, Yasufumi, E-mail: fujiwara@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    A liquid Eu precursor, bis(normal-propyl-tetramethylcyclopentadienyl)europium has been synthesized. This precursor exists as a liquid at temperatures higher than 49 °C, has a moderately high vapor pressure, contains no oxygen in its molecular structure, and can be distilled to high purity. These properties make it ideal for doping using a chemical vapor or atomic layer deposition method, and provide a degree of control previously unavailable. As a precursor the Eu exists in the divalent valance state, however, once doped into GaN by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy, the room-temperature photoluminescence of the Eu-doped GaN exhibited the typical red emission due to the intra-4f shell transition of trivalent Eu. After variation of the growth temperature, it was found that divalent Eu could be stabilized in the GaN matrix. By tuning the Fermi level through donor doping, the ratio of Eu{sup 2+} to Eu{sup 3+} could be controlled. The change in valence state of the Eu ions was confirmed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure. - Highlights: • A liquid Eu precursor was synthesized and its properties were characterized. • Precursor has a low melting point and a moderately high vapor pressure. • Does not contain oxygen in its molecular structure. • Eu can changed its valance state when incorporated into GaN. • Valence state of Eu in GaN can be controlled by donor doping.

  10. Airborne submicron particulate (PM1) pollution in Shanghai, China: chemical variability, formation/dissociation of associated semi-volatile components and the impacts on visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Chen, Jianmin; Hu, Dawei; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xin; Wang, Xinming

    2014-03-01

    Hourly mass concentrations of water-soluble ions in PM1 and gasses (NH3, HNO3, HCl) were on-line measured with a Monitor for AeRosols and Gases Analyzer (MARGA) in Shanghai from Oct. 1 to Nov. 16, 2012. During the field campaign, 7 haze episodes (total 157 h) were identified. 845 h were identified as non-haze periods, excluding fog events and wet precipitation. The average mass concentration of PM1 and total water-soluble ions (TWSI) in PM1 in haze episodes were 78.9 ± 29.9 μg/m(3) and 47.2 ± 17.2 μg/m(3), 3.11 times (from 1.49 to 4.06 times) and 3.28 times (1.96 to 4.34 times) as those in non-haze periods, respectively. TWSI accounted for 60.4 ± 18.8% of PM1 mass loading in the whole campaign. With the ascending PM1 mass concentration from 2.5 to 125.0 μg/m(3) from non-haze periods to haze episodes, average contribution of TWSI to PM1 mass loading decreased from 86.1% to 54.2%, while different species altered. Contribution of NO3(-) increased from 14.0% to 26.8%, while SO4(2-) decreased from 39.5% to 15.0% and NH4(+) remained around 13.7%. Relationship of visibility with PM1 and TWSI was addressed in specific RH ranges. It was found that hourly TWSI mass concentration showed better correlation with visibility. Formation/dissociation of semi-volatiles (NH4NO3 and NH4Cl) was also investigated and demonstrated. NH4NO3 and NH4Cl tended to partition into gas phase in non-haze periods. Particularly, strong dissociation from 11:00 LT to 17:00 LT was observed. In haze episodes, HNO3 and HCl tended to react with NH3 to form particulate matters. Interestingly, we found that formation/dissociation of NH4NO3 and NH4Cl exerted great impacts on visibility. Excluding the strong dissociation hours (11:00 LT to 17:00 LT) in correlation analysis of PM1 and visibility, correlation coefficients (R(2)) increased from 0.5762 to 0.7738 at RHPM1 under high RH condition and contributed to visibility degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Field Measurements of Trace Gases and Aerosols Emitted by Undersampled Combustion Sources Including Wood and Dung Cooking Fires, Garbage and Crop Residue Burning, and Indonesian Peat Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, C.; Jayarathne, T. S.; Goetz, D.; Simpson, I. J.; Selimovic, V.; Bhave, P.; Blake, D. R.; Cochrane, M. A.; Ryan, K. C.; Putra, E. I.; Saharjo, B.; Stone, E. A.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Yokelson, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Field measurements were conducted in Nepal and in the Indonesian province of Central Kalimantan to improve characterization of trace gases and aerosols emitted by undersampled combustion sources. The sources targeted included cooking with a variety of stoves, garbage burning, crop residue burning, and authentic peat fires. Trace gas and aerosol emissions were studied using a land-based Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, whole air sampling, photoacoustic extinctiometers (405 and 870nm), and filter samples that were analyzed off-line. These measurements were used to calculate fuel-based emission factors (EFs) for up to 90 gases, PM2.5, and PM2.5 constituents. The aerosol optical data measured included EFs for the scattering and absorption coefficients, the single scattering albedo (at 870 and 405 nm), as well as the absorption Ångström exponent. The emissions varied significantly by source, although light absorption by both brown and black carbon (BrC and BC, respectively) was important for all non-peat sources. For authentic peat combustion, the emissions of BC were negligible and absorption was dominated by organic aerosol. The field results from peat burning were in reasonable agreement with recent lab measurements of smoldering Kalimantan peat and compare well to the limited data available from other field studies. The EFs can be used with estimates of fuel consumption to improve regional emissions inventories and assessments of the climate and health impacts of these undersampled sources.

  12. Temporal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM{sub 2.2} and PM{sub 1} concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Bilkis A. [Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre, P.O. Box-164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Biswas, Swapan K. [Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre, P.O. Box-164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Hopke, Philip K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5810 (United States)]. E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu

    2006-04-01

    Concentrations and characteristics of airborne particulate matter (PM{sub 1}, PM{sub 2.2} and BC) on air quality have been studied at two air quality-monitoring stations in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. One site is at the Farm Gate area, a hot spot with very high pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The other site is at a semi-residential area located at the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka Campus, (AECD) with relatively less traffic. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 {mu}m and 2.2-10 {mu}m sizes. Samples of fine (PM{sub 2.2}) and coarse (PM{sub 2.2-1}) airborne particulate matter fractions collected from 2000 to 2003 were studied. It has been observed that fine particulate matter has a decreasing trend, from prior year measurements, because of Government policy interventions like phase-wise plans to take two-stroke three-wheelers off the roads in Dhaka and finally banned from January 1, 2003. Other policy interventions were banning of old buses and trucks to ply on Dhaka city promotion of the using compressed natural gas (CNG), introducing air pollution control devices in vehicles, etc. It was found that both local (mostly from vehicular emissions) and possibly some regional emission sources are responsible for high PM{sub 2.2} and BC concentrations in Dhaka. PM{sub 2.2}, PM{sub 2.2-1} and black carbon concentration levels depend on the season, wind direction and wind speed. Transport related emissions are the major source of BC and long-range transportation from fossil fuel related sources and biomass burning could be another substantial source of BC.

  13. Temporal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM{sub 2.2} and PM{sub 10} concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre, P.O. Box-164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Hopke, Philip K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5810 (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Concentrations and characteristics of airborne particulate matter (PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.2} and BC) on air quality have been studied at two air quality-monitoring stations in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. One site is at the Farm Gate area, a hot spot with very high pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The other site is at a semi-residential area located at the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka Campus, (AECD) with relatively less traffic. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 {mu}m and 2.2-10 {mu}m sizes. Samples of fine (PM{sub 2.2}) and coarse (PM{sub 2.2-10}) airborne particulate matter fractions collected from 2000 to 2003 were studied. It has been observed that fine particulate matter has a decreasing trend, from prior year measurements, because of Government policy interventions like phase-wise plans to take two-stroke three-wheelers off the roads in Dhaka and finally banned from January 1, 2003. Other policy interventions were banning of old buses and trucks to ply on Dhaka city promotion of the using compressed natural gas (CNG), introducing air pollution control devices in vehicles, etc. It was found that both local (mostly from vehicular emissions) and possibly some regional emission sources are responsible for high PM{sub 2.2} and BC concentrations in Dhaka. PM{sub 2.2}, PM{sub 2.2-10} and black carbon concentration levels depend on the season, wind direction and wind speed. Transport related emissions are the major source of BC and long-range transportation from fossil fuel related sources and biomass burning could be another substantial source of BC. (author)

  14. Measurement of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ using $B^\\pm \\to D K^\\pm$ with $D \\to K^0_{\\rm S} \\pi^+\\pi^-, K^0_{\\rm S} K^+ K^-$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-10-16

    A binned Dalitz plot analysis of $B^\\pm \\to D K^\\pm$ decays, with $D \\to K^0_{\\rm S} \\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $D \\to K^0_{\\rm S} K^+ K^-$, is performed to measure the $C\\!P$-violating observables $x_{\\pm}$ and $y_{\\pm}$, which are sensitive to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa angle $\\gamma$. The analysis exploits a sample of proton-proton collision data corresponding to 3.0 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb experiment. Measurements from CLEO-c of the variation of the strong-interaction phase of the $D$ decay over the Dalitz plot are used as inputs. The values of the parameters are found to be $x_+ = ( -7.7 \\pm 2.4 \\pm 1.0 \\pm 0.4 )\\times 10^{-2}$, $x_- = (2.5 \\pm 2.5 \\pm 1.0 \\pm 0.5) \\times 10^{-2}$, $y_+ = (-2.2 \\pm 2.5 \\pm 0.4 \\pm 1.0)\\times 10^{-2}$, and $y_- = (7.5 \\pm 2.9 \\pm 0.5 \\pm 1.4) \\times 10^{-2}$. The first, second, and third uncertainties are the statistical, the experimental systematic, and that associated with the precision of the strong-phase parameters. These are the most precise measurements of these obs...

  15. Índíces de conforto térmico e concentração de gases em galpões avícolas no semiárido Paraibano Indices of thermal comfort and gases concentration in broilers houses in the semiarid region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermeval A. Furtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de determinar os índices de conforto térmico e a concentração de gases no interior de galpões avícolas e suas influencias sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte comercias, em condições de verão, na região semiárida paraibana. Utilizaram-se dois aviários, um coberto com telha de cerâmica e outro coberto com telha de fibrocimento. Observou-se que não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 entre a temperatura ambiente (TA, umidade relativa do ar (UR, temperatura da água de bebida (Tágua e da cama entre os galpões, sendo que os valores médios de TA (das 8h às 17h e UR (das 10h às 16h podem ser considerados fora do limite da zona de termoneutralidade recomendada para frangos de corte, como também a Tágua, no período diurno, ficou acima dos limites recomendados, que é de 24 ºC. Nenhum dos aviários apresentou concentrações de gases que oferecesse insalubridade para as aves e para os trabalhadores. Apesar de a Tágua e de os índices de conforto térmico, nos horários mais quentes do dia, estarem elevados, os índices produtivos ficaram dentro do estabelecido pela indústria avícola brasileira.The aim of this research is to determine the thermal comfort index, the concentration of gases inside the poultry houses and their influence on the performance of commercial broiler chickens, located in the Paraiba's semiarid region, in summer conditions. It was used two poultry houses, one of them covered with a ceramic roof and the other covered with fibrous cement roof. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05 between ambient temperature (AT, relative humidity (RH and temperature of the drinking water (Twater and the chicken litter between the warehouses, but the values average of AT (from 08:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. and RH (from10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. can be considered outside the boundary of the comfort zone recommended for chicken broilers, but also the Twater was above the recommended limits

  16. Future Development of Modular HTGR in China after HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zuoyi; Wang, Haitao; Dong Yujie; Li Fu

    2014-01-01

    The modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) is an inherently safe nuclear energy technology for efficient electricity generation and process heat applications. The MHTGR is promising in China as it may replace fossil fuels in broader energy markets. In line with China’s long-term development plan of nuclear power, the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University developed and designed a MHTGR demonstration plant, named high-temperature gas-cooled reactor-pebble bed module (HTR-PM). The HTR-PM came into the construction phase at the end of 2012. The HTR-PM aims to demonstrate safety, economic potential and modularization technologies towards future commercial applications. Based on experiences obtained from the HTR-PM project with respect to design, manufacture, construction, licensing and project management, a further step aiming to promote commercialization and market applications of the MHTGR is expected. To this purpose, INET is developing a commercialized MHTGR named HTR-PM600 and a conceptual design is under way accordingly. HTR-PM600 is a pebble-bed MHTGR power generation unit with a six-pack of 250MWth reactor modules. The objective is to cogenerate electricity and process heat flexibly and economically in order to meet a variety of market needs. The design of HTR-PM600 closely follows HTR-PM with respect to safety features, system configuration and plant layout. HTR-PM600 has the six modules feeding one steam turbine to generate electricity with capacity to extract high temperature steam from various interfaces of the turbine for further process heat applications. A standard plant consists of two HTR-PM600 units. Based on the economic information of HTR-PM, a preliminary study is carried out on the economic prospect of HTR-PM600. (author)

  17. Bias caused by water adsorption in hourly PM measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kiss

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Beta-attenuation monitors are used worldwide to monitor PM mass concentration with high temporal resolution. Hourly PM10 and PM2. 5 dry mass concentrations are publicly available with the tacit assumption that water is effectively removed prior to the measurement. However, as both the filter material of the monitor and the aerosol particles are capable of retaining a significant amount of water even at low relative humidities, the basic assumption may not be valid, resulting in significant bias in reported PM10 and PM2. 5 concentrations. Here we show that in PM10 measurement, particle-free air can produce apparent hourly average PM concentrations in the range of −13–+21 µg m−3 under conditions of fluctuating relative humidity. Positive and negative apparent readings are observed with increasing and decreasing relative humidities, respectively. Similar phenomena have been observed when the instrument filter was previously loaded with atmospheric aerosol. As a result the potential measurement biases in hourly readings arising from the interaction with water may be in the range of −53… + 69 %.

  18. Placental and lactating transfer of 147Pm in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Feng; Zhu Shoupeng

    1990-08-01

    The placental and lactating transfer of 147 Pm in late pregnant mice and lactating mice as well as the distribution of 147 Pm in some organs of mother mice were studied and compared. The pregnant mice and lactating mice had intravenous injection with 147 Pm nitrate at the 17th day of gestation and the next day of parturition respectively. The two groups were sacrified at the 1st, 4th, 9th, 14th and 21st day after the injection. The retentions of 147 Pm in the liver, right femur, uterus, spleen, placenta, fetal membrane and litter were determined by the method of liquid scintillation. The results showed that the amount of 147 Pm in litters of both groups was increasing with the days after injection. In the 1st and 4th day of injection the amount of 147 Pm in litters of lactating mice was 20 times higher than those in litters of pregnant mice. The amount of 147 Pm in livers and skeletons and the half-retention time of prenant and lactating dams were much greater than those of control group

  19. THE SYNTHESIS OF Cr2O3-PILLARED MONTMORILLONITE (CrPM AND ITS USAGE FOR HOST MATERIAL OF p-NITROANILINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Wijaya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of Cr2O3-pillared montmorillonite (CrPM and its usage for host material of p-nitroaniline have been conducted. The Cr2O3-pillared montmorillonite clays was prepared by a direct ion exchange method. First, the polyhydroxychromium as a pillaring spesies was intercalated into the interlayer region of the montmorillonite clays (purified clay in the monocation form, result in a montmorillonite-polyoxychromium intercalation compound. The precursors/pillaring spesies was not stable, hence it must be stabilized by calcination in order to transform the polyoxychromium via dehydration and dehydroxylation processes into Cr2O3. This oxide constituts the so-called pillar that prop the clay layers apart to a relatively large distance. The Cr2O3-pillared clays as a host material was added into ethanol solution saturated with p-nitroaniline, and mixture was stirred for 24 h at room temperature. The Na-montmorillonite, Cr2O3-pillared clay and p-nitroaniline-Cr2O3-pillared clay (pNA-CrPM were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Gas Sorption Analysis, Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Activated Neutron Analysis (ANA methods. The result of research showed that basal spacing (d001 of Cr2O3-pillared montmorillonite (CrPM was 18,55 Å, meanwhile the basal spacing of the hydrated Na-montmorillonite was 14,43 Å. The specific surface area of the Cr2O3-pillared montmorillonite was 174,308 m2/g, whereas p-nitroaniline-Cr2O3-pillared clay (pNA-CrPM was 133,331641 m2/g. This fact indicated that p-nitroaniline has been included into the pore of the Cr2O3-pillared clay.   Keyword: montmorillonite, pillared-clay, ion exchange, intercalate.

  20. EPRI spearheads generic PM recommendations for infrastructure equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, David H.; Hinchcliffe, Glenn R.; Benak, Mark S.; Bridges, Martin

    2007-01-01

    All companies have at their core a vast amount of similar equipment that would benefit from solid preventive maintenance (PM) recommendations that are generic and easily adapted to meet operational conditions. The re-emergence of PM optimization methods like Reliability Centered Maintenance, further illustrates that companies in all industries recognize the positive influence that a well-focused maintenance program has on the corporate bottom line. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has long been a leader in providing universally adaptable maintenance solutions to meet the evolving needs of its membership. Nearly ten years ago, EPRI began developing the PM Basis Database, a one-of-a-kind repository of PM recommendations for basic infrastructure components (such as pumps, motors, valves, compressors), derived from equipment experts. EPRI has now made available this comprehensive body of knowledge to all industries. This paper will explore the origins and structure of the database, how these generic PM recommendations benefit every industry, and how they may be obtained. (author)

  1. Temporal and spatial analyses of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and its relationship with meteorological parameters over an urban city in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolan; Ma, Yanjun; Wang, Yangfeng; Liu, Ningwei; Hong, Ye

    2017-12-01

    Temporal and spatial characteristics of atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and its relationship with meteorology over Shenyang, a city in northeast China, were statistically analyzed using hourly and daily averaged PM mass concentrations measured at 11 locations and surface meteorological parameters, from January 2014 to May 2016. Using averaged data from 11 stations in Shenyang, it was found that the monthly mean PM2.5 mass concentrations were higher in winter (97.2 ± 11.2 μg m- 3) and autumn (85.5 ± 42.9 μg m- 3), and lower in spring (62.0 ± 14.0 μg m- 3) and summer (42.5 ± 8.4 μg m- 3), similar to the seasonal variation in PM10 concentrations. The monthly ratios of PM2.5/PM10 ranged from 0.41 to 0.87, and were larger in autumn and winter but lowest in spring due to dust activities. PM pollution was concentrated mainly in the central, northern, and western areas of Shenyang in most seasons mainly due to anthropogenic activities such as traffic and residential emission and construction activity as well as natural dust emission. PM concentrations observed over different areas in all seasons generally exhibited two peaks, at 08:00-10:00 local time (LT) and 21:00-23:00 LT, with the exception of PM2.5 in summer, which showed only one peak during the daytime. In addition, PM10 concentrations peaked around 14:00 LT during spring in the western area of Shenyang because of strong thermal and dynamic turbulence, resulting in elevated dust emissions from adjacent dust sources. The relationship between daily PM concentrations and meteorological parameters showed both seasonal and annual variation. Overall, both PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were negatively correlated with atmospheric visibility, with correlation coefficients (R) of 0.71 and 0.56, respectively. In most seasons, PM concentrations also exhibited negative correlations with wind speed, but showed positive correlations with air pressure, air temperature, and relative humidity. Strong wind

  2. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  3. Toward a theory of precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freivogel, Ben; Giddings, Steven B.; Lippert, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the possible breakdown of locality in quantum gravitational systems, we pursue the identity of precursors in the context of the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence. Holography implies a breakdown of standard bulk locality which we expect to occur only at extremely high energy. We consider precursors that encode bulk information causally disconnected from the boundary and whose measurement involves nonlocal bulk processes. We construct a toy model of holography which encapsulates the expected properties of precursors and compare it with previous such discussions. If these precursors can be identified in the gauge theory, they are almost certainly Wilson loops, perhaps with decorations, but the relevant information is encoded in the high-energy sector of the theory and should not be observable by low energy measurements. This would be in accord with the locality bound, which serves as a criterion for situations where breakdown of bulk locality is expected

  4. 76 FR 73885 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 229 / Tuesday... 98 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0147; FRL-9493-9] RIN 2060-AQ85 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY... the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule to correct certain technical and editorial errors...

  5. 76 FR 47391 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 150 / Thursday...-HQ-OAR-2011-0147; FRL-9443-1] RIN 2060-AQ85 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY... provisions in the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule to correct certain technical and editorial...

  6. New boundary values for PM2.5. What is the situation in the Rijnmond area, Netherlands?; Nieuwe grenswaarden voor PM2,5. Wat is de situatie in De Rijnmond?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodink, R.; Weijers, E. [ECN Biomassa, Kolen en Milieuonderzoek, Petten (Netherlands); Schaap, M. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); De Gier, C. [DCMR Milieudienst Rijnmond, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    As of 2008 the guideline for air quality was expanded with the limits and indicative values for PM2.5. These standards were added to the existing standards for PM10. PM2.5 constitutes a significant part of PM10. The fine particles must meet demands due to new insights in the health risks of fine particles but also for pragmatic reasons: more than PM10, PM2.5 results from human activities and can therefore be more successfully influenced. [Dutch] Sinds 2008 is de richtlijn voor luchtkwaliteit uitgebreid met grens- en streefwaarden voor PM2,5. Deze staan nu naast de normen die al gelden voor PM10. PM2,5 is een substantieel deel van PM10. Aan het 'fijnere stof' worden eisen gesteld vanwege nieuwe inzichten in de gezondheidsrisico's van het fijnere stof maar ook om een pragmatische reden: PM2,5 is meer dan PM10 het gevolg van menselijk handelen en is daardoor ook beter beinvloedbaar.

  7. [Sampling methods for PM2.5 from stationary sources: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing-Kun; Deng, Jian-Guo; Li, Zhen; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2014-05-01

    The new China national ambient air quality standard has been published in 2012 and will be implemented in 2016. To meet the requirements in this new standard, monitoring and controlling PM2,,5 emission from stationary sources are very important. However, so far there is no national standard method on sampling PM2.5 from stationary sources. Different sampling methods for PM2.5 from stationary sources and relevant international standards were reviewed in this study. It includes the methods for PM2.5 sampling in flue gas and the methods for PM2.5 sampling after dilution. Both advantages and disadvantages of these sampling methods were discussed. For environmental management, the method for PM2.5 sampling in flue gas such as impactor and virtual impactor was suggested as a standard to determine filterable PM2.5. To evaluate environmental and health effects of PM2.5 from stationary sources, standard dilution method for sampling of total PM2.5 should be established.

  8. Multifaceted health impacts of Particulate Matter (PM and its management: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban air quality is becoming a serious public health concern at global scale. Particulate matter (PM pollution is intimately linked with human health. Present review describes the different human health implications associated with PM pollution. PM may derive its origin from natural and anthropogenic sources. Vehicle derived pollutants as well as industrial emissions simultaneously release deleterious fine-grained PM into the atmosphere. Fine PM especially PM2.5 and PM10 are particularly deleterious to human health. Air pollution PM is an important environmental health risk factor for several respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Further, PM is inextricably linked with genotoxicity and mutations. Literature review of the cellular and molecular basis of adverse effects associated with PM is presented in this paper. Finally, management, existing technologies and policy options to reduce or mitigate the adverse health impacts of PM pollution is discussed as an eco-sustainable approach.

  9. The influence of PM2.5 coal power plant emissions on environment PM2.5 in Jilin Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, He; Zhang, Huafei

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, in the Northeast of China, the heating period comes with large range of haze weather. All the units of coal power plants in Jilin Province have completed the cogeneration reformation; they provide local city heat energy. Many people believe that coal power plants heating caused the heavy haze. In is paper, by compared concentration of PM2.5 in environment in heating period and non heating period, meanwhile the capacity of local coal power plants, conclude that the PM2.5 emission of coal power plants not directly cause the heavy haze in Changchun and Jilin in the end of October and early November. In addition, the water-soluble iron composition of PM2.5 coal power plant emissions is compared with environment, which further proves that the heating supply in coal power plants is not the cause of high concentration of PM2.5 in Jilin province.

  10. The BCS-BEC crossover: From ultra-cold Fermi gases to nuclear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strinati, Giancarlo Calvanese; Pieri, Pierbiagio; Röpke, Gerd; Schuck, Peter; Urban, Michael

    2018-04-01

    of the theory, especially in the normal phase where they account for precursor pairing effects. After an introduction to present the key concepts of the BCS-BEC crossover, this report discusses the mean-field treatment of the superfluid phase, both for homogeneous and inhomogeneous systems, as well as for symmetric (spin- or isospin-balanced) and asymmetric (spin- or isospin-imbalanced) matter. Pairing fluctuations in the normal phase are then considered, with their manifestations in thermodynamic and dynamic quantities. The last two Sections provide a more specialized discussion of the BCS-BEC crossover in ultra-cold Fermi gases and nuclear matter, respectively. The separate discussion in the two contexts aims at cross communicating to both communities topics and aspects which, albeit arising in one of the two fields, share a strong common interest.

  11. Deviation from the Knudsen law on quantum gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babac, Gulru

    2014-01-01

    Gas flow in micro/nano scale systems has been generally studied for the Maxwell gases. In the limits of very low temperature and very confined domains, the Maxwellian approximation can break down and the quantum character of the gases becomes important. In these cases, Knudsen law, which is one of the important equations to analyze rarefied gas flows is invalid and should be reanalyzed for quantum gases. In this work, the availability of quantum gas conditions in the high Knudsen number cases is discussed and Knudsen law is analyzed for quantum gases

  12. Permeability of cork to gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, David P; Fonseca, Ana L; Pereira, Helen; Teodoro, Orlando M N D

    2011-04-27

    The permeability of gases through uncompressed cork was investigated. More than 100 samples were assessed from different plank qualities to provide a picture of the permeability distribution. A novel technique based on a mass spectrometer leak detector was used to directly measure the helium flow through the central area of small disks 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick. The permeability for nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases was measured by the pressure rise technique. Boiled and nonboiled cork samples from different sections were evaluated. An asymmetric frequency distribution ranging 3 orders of magnitude (roughly from 1 to 1000 μmol/(cm·atm·day)) for selected samples without macroscopic defects was found, having a peak below 100 μmol/(cm·atm·day). Correlation was found between density and permeability: higher density samples tend to show lower permeability. However, boiled cork showed a mean lower permeability despite having a lower density. The transport mechanism of gases through cork was also examined. Calculations suggest that gases permeate uncompressed cork mainly through small channels between cells under a molecular flow regime. The diameter of such channels was estimated to be in the range of 100 nm, in agreement with the plasmodesmata size in the cork cell walls.

  13. Assesment of Pb concentration in PM_2_,_5 and PM_1_0 at Serpong area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rita; Esrom Hamonangan; Halimah Syafrul; Muhayatun Santoso; Diah Dwiana Lestian

    2010-01-01

    Ambient air pollution, especially Pb, in Serpong area has been detected since 1996. Pollution caused by heavy metals Pb deserve serious attention because of the impact is very influential on health such as reduced levels of intelligence, learning disability, symptoms of anemia, barriers to growth, poor cognitive development, weakened immune system, symptoms of autism, and even premature death. This study was conducted to determine Pb concentration of PM_2_,_5 and PM_1_0 in four residential locations in Serpong area as part of a series of comprehensive studies for the characterization and identification of sources pollution. Particulates were sampled using Gent Stacked Filter Unit Sampler at 3 housing locations and 1 office location in the period of August 25 to November 3, 2008, Samples were analyzed using nuclear analytical techniques, Proton Induced X-ray Emission. The results showed that the activity concentration of Pb in PM_2_,_5 for the location of Setu, Pusarpedal, Batan Indah, and BSD were in the range of 33-388, 12-254, 6-282, and 5-332 ng/m"3, while for PM_1_0 were 69-732, 59-647, 31-810, and 28718 ng/m"3, respectively, In general, Pb concentrations in Serpong area were higher than those in some other cities in Asia region. These results are expected to be used as scientific based reference in formulating, taking action, and appropriate policies to overcome environmental problems. (author)

  14. Comparison of Elemental Mercury Oxidation Across Vanadium and Cerium Based Catalysts in Coal Combustion Flue Gas: Catalytic Performances and Particulate Matter Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qi; Yao, Qiang; Duan, Lei; Li, Xinghua; Zhang, Lei; Hao, Jiming

    2018-03-06

    This paper discussed the field test results of mercury oxidation activities over vanadium and cerium based catalysts in both coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB) and chain grate boiler (CGB) flue gases. The characterizations of the catalysts and effects of flue gas components, specifically the particulate matter (PM) species, were also discussed. The catalytic performance results indicated that both catalysts exhibited mercury oxidation preference in CGB flue gas rather than in CFBB flue gas. Flue gas component studies before and after dust removal equipment implied that the mercury oxidation was well related to PM, together with gaseous components such as NO, SO 2 , and NH 3 . Further investigations demonstrated a negative PM concentration-induced effect on the mercury oxidation activity in the flue gases before the dust removal, which was attributed to the surface coverage by the large amount of PM. In addition, the PM concentrations in the flue gases after the dust removal failed in determining the mercury oxidation efficiency, wherein the presence of different chemical species in PM, such as elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and alkali (earth) metals (Na, Mg, K, and Ca) in the flue gases dominated the catalytic oxidation of mercury.

  15. Chemical profiling of PM10 from urban road dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, C A; Evtyugina, M; Vicente, A M P; Vicente, E D; Nunes, T V; Silva, P M A; Duarte, M A C; Pio, C A; Amato, F; Querol, X

    2018-09-01

    Road dust resuspension is one of the main sources of particulate matter with impacts on air quality, health and climate. With the aim of characterising the thoracic fraction, a portable resuspension chamber was used to collect road dust from five main roads in Oporto and an urban tunnel in Braga, north of Portugal. The PM 10 samples were analysed for: i) carbonates by acidification and quantification of the evolved CO 2 , ii) carbonaceous content (OC and EC) by a thermo-optical technique, iii) elemental composition by ICP-MS and ICP-AES after acid digestion, and iv) organic speciation by GC-MS. Dust loadings of 0.48±0.39mgPM 10 m -2 were obtained for asphalt paved roads. A much higher mean value was achieved in a cobbled pavement (50mgPM 10 m -2 ). In general, carbonates were not detected in PM 10 . OC and EC accounted for PM 10 mass fractions up to 11% and 5%, respectively. Metal oxides accounted for 29±7.5% of the PM 10 mass from the asphalt paved roads and 73% in samples from the cobbled street. Crustal and anthropogenic elements, associated with tyre and brake wear, dominated the inorganic fraction. PM 10 comprised hundreds of organic constituents, including hopanoids, n-alkanes and other aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), alcohols, sterols, various types of acids, glycerol derivatives, lactones, sugars and derivatives, phenolic compounds and plasticizers. In samples from the cobbled street, these organic classes represented only 439μgg -1 PM 10 , while for other pavements mass fractions up to 65mgg -1 PM 10 were obtained. Except for the cobbled street, on average, about 40% of the analysed organic fraction was composed of plasticizers. Although the risk via inhalation of PAH was found to be insignificant, the PM 10 from some roads can contribute to an estimated excess of 332 to 2183 per million new cancer cases in adults exposed via ingestion and dermal contact. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determined to calibration gas tolerances by chromatographic analysis of total hydrocarbons plus impurities or.... (2) Mixtures of gases havin