WorldWideScience

Sample records for plutonium recycling quarterly

  1. Physics of plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The commercial recycling of plutonium as PuO 2 /UO 2 mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel is an established practice in pressurised water reactors (PWRs) in several countries, the main motivation being the consumption of plutonium arising from spent fuel reprocessing. Although the same motivating factors apply in the case of boiling water reactors (BWRs), they have lagged behind PWRs for various reasons, and MOX utilisation in BWRs has been implemented in only a few reactors to date. One of the reasons is that the nuclear design of BWR MOX assemblies (or bundles) is more complex than that of PWR assemblies. Recognizing the need and the timeliness to address this issue at the international level, the OECD/NEA Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles (WPPR) conducted a physics code benchmark test for a BWR assembly. This volume reports on the benchmark results and conclusions that can be drawn from it. (authors)

  2. The economics of plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    The individual cost components and the total fuel cycle costs for natural uranium and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycles for CANDU-PHW reactors are discussed. A calculation is performed to establish the economic conditions under which plutonium recycle would be economically attractive. (auth)

  3. Plutonium recycling in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youinou, G.; Girieud, R.; Guigon, B.

    2000-01-01

    Two concepts of 100% MOX PWR cores are presented. They are designed such as to minimize the consequences of the introduction of Pu on the core control. The first one has a high moderation ratio and the second one utilizes an enriched uranium support. The important design parameters as well as their capabilities to multi recycle Pu are discussed. We conclude with the potential interest of the two concepts. (author)

  4. Plutonium recycle. In-core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, F.; Berthet, A.; Le Bars, M.

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium recycle in France will concern a dozen of PWR 900 MWe controlled in gray mode till 1995. This paper presents the main characteristics of fuel management with plutonium recycle. The organization of management studies will be copied from this developed for classical management studies. Up these studies, a ''feasibility report'' aims at establishing at each stage of the fuel cycle, the impact of the utilization of fuel containing plutonium [fr

  5. Plutonium re-cycle in HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desoisa, J. A.

    1974-03-15

    The study of plutonium cycles in HTRs using reprocessed plutonium from Magnox and AGR fuel cycles has shown that full core plutonium/uranium loadings are in general not feasible, burn-up is limited due the need for lower loadings of plutonium to meet reload core reactivity limits, on-line refueling is not practicable due to the need for higher burnable poison loadings, and low conversion rates in the plutonium-uranium cycles cannot be mitigated by axial loading schemes so that fissile make-up is needed if HTR plutonium recycle is desired.

  6. Physics of Plutonium Recycling in Thermal Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinchin, G.H.

    1967-01-01

    A substantial programme of experimental reactor physics work with plutonium fuels has been carried out in the UK; the purpose of this paper is to review the experimental and theoretical work, with emphasis on plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. Although the main incentive for some of the work may have been to study plutonium build-up in uranium-fuelled reactors, it is nevertheless relevant to plutonium recycling and no distinction is drawn between build-up and enrichment studies. A variety of techniques have been for determining reactivity, neutron spectrum and reaction rates in simple assemblies of plutonium-aluminium fuel with water, graphite and beryllia moderators. These experiments give confidence in the basic data and methods of calculation for near-homogeneous mixtures of plutonium and moderator. In the practical case of plutonium recycling it is necessary to confirm that satisfactory predictions can be made for heterogeneous lattices enriched with plutonium. In this field, experiments have been carried out with plutonium-uranium metal and oxide-cluster fuels in graphite-moderated lattices and in SGHW lattices, and the effects of 240 Pu have been studied by perturbation measurements with single fuel elements. The exponential and critical experiments have used tonne quantities of fuel with plutonium contents ranging from 0.25 to 1.2% and the perturbation experiments have extended both the range of plutonium contents and the range of isotopic compositions of plutonium. In addition to reactivity and reactivity coefficients, such as the temperature coefficients, attention has been concentrated on relative reaction rate distributions which provide evidence for variations of neutron spectrum. .Theoretical comparisons, together with similar comparisons for non-uniform lattices, establish the validity of methods of calculation which have been used to study the feasibility of plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. (author)

  7. Physics of Plutonium Recycling in Thermal Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinchin, G. H. [Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1967-09-15

    A substantial programme of experimental reactor physics work with plutonium fuels has been carried out in the UK; the purpose of this paper is to review the experimental and theoretical work, with emphasis on plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. Although the main incentive for some of the work may have been to study plutonium build-up in uranium-fuelled reactors, it is nevertheless relevant to plutonium recycling and no distinction is drawn between build-up and enrichment studies. A variety of techniques have been for determining reactivity, neutron spectrum and reaction rates in simple assemblies of plutonium-aluminium fuel with water, graphite and beryllia moderators. These experiments give confidence in the basic data and methods of calculation for near-homogeneous mixtures of plutonium and moderator. In the practical case of plutonium recycling it is necessary to confirm that satisfactory predictions can be made for heterogeneous lattices enriched with plutonium. In this field, experiments have been carried out with plutonium-uranium metal and oxide-cluster fuels in graphite-moderated lattices and in SGHW lattices, and the effects of {sup 240}Pu have been studied by perturbation measurements with single fuel elements. The exponential and critical experiments have used tonne quantities of fuel with plutonium contents ranging from 0.25 to 1.2% and the perturbation experiments have extended both the range of plutonium contents and the range of isotopic compositions of plutonium. In addition to reactivity and reactivity coefficients, such as the temperature coefficients, attention has been concentrated on relative reaction rate distributions which provide evidence for variations of neutron spectrum. .Theoretical comparisons, together with similar comparisons for non-uniform lattices, establish the validity of methods of calculation which have been used to study the feasibility of plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. (author)

  8. Multiple recycling of plutonium in advanced PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.

    1998-04-01

    The influence of the moderator-to-fuel ratio in MOX fueled PWRs on the moderator void coefficient, the fuel temperature coefficient, the moderator temperature coefficient, the boron reactivity worth, the critical boron concentration, the mean neutron generation time and the effective delayed neutron fraction has been assessed. Increasing the moderator-to-fuel ratio to values larger than three, gives a moderator void coefficient sufficiently large to recycle the plutonium at least four times. Scenario studies show that four times recycling of plutonium in PWRs reduces the plutonium mass produced with a factor of three compared with a reference once-through reactor park, but that the americium and curium production triple. If the minor actinides and the remaining plutonium after four times recycling are disposed of, the reduction of the radiotoxicity reaches only a factor of two. This factor increases to five at the maximum when the plutonium is further recycled. Recycling of americium and curium is needed to further reduce the radiotoxicity of the spent fuel. 4 refs

  9. Political influences in plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patak, H.N.

    1982-01-01

    The history of plutonium safeguards is one of political error and misunderstandings, as well as a lack of technical knowledge. Although there was widespread support for preventing the proliferation of nuclear explosives, with over 100 nations signing the Nonproliferation Treaty of 1969, India's 1974 nuclear test brought renewed political activity to prevent another such occurrence. Opposition has been directed only at how to pursue this goal, but the status of four major experiments aimed at minimizing weapons proliferation is one of failure, intensified by a weakening of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). If the link between plutonium power and weapons production can be broken through on-site reprocessing, the situation could improve. One course would be for the nuclear power industry to adopt its own system for safe guarding plutonium

  10. Economic assessment of plutonium recycle to LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This paper presents an economic evaluation of plutonium recycle in LWR's using published estimates of the cost of the various fuel cycle operations. Total, discounted and levelized fuel cycle costs are computed for four national nuclear power growth pattern scenarios; ''super large'' (>100GW(e) by 2000), ''large'' (60-70GW(e) by 2000) ''medium'' (20-25 GW(e) by 2000) and ''small'' (5-10GW(e) by 2000). It is concluded that in the ''super-large'' and ''large'' cases recycle of uranium and plutonium would have a slight economic advantage over the once-through cycle. In the ''medium'' and ''small'' cases there would be no economic advantage up to the year 2000. The uncertainty in unit fuel cycle costs is large compared with the differences between the two fuel cycles and different conclusions can easily be drawn based on different unit cost assumptions

  11. Dresden 1 plutonium recycle program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresnick, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    This is the final report on the Dresden 1 Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program. It covers the work performed from July 1, 1978 to completion, which includes in-pool inspection of two fuel assemblies, removal of two fuel rods, and post-irradiation examination (PIE) of six fuel rods. Appendix A describes the inspection and rod removal operations, and Appendix B describes the PIE work

  12. Experience with thermal recycle of plutonium and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, O.; Schlosser, G.; Spielvogel, F.

    1985-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) decided to close the fuel cycle by erecting the reprocessing plant WA350 at Wackersdorf. As long as the plutonium supply from reprocessing plants exceeds the plutonium demand of fast breeder reactors, recycling of plutonium in LWR's is a convenient solution by which a significant advanced uranium utilization is achieved. The demonstration of plutonium recycling performed to date in the FRG in BWR's and PWR's shows that thermal plutonium recycling on an industrial scale is feasible and that the usual levels of reliability and safety can be achieved in reactor operation. The recycling of reprocessed uranium is presently demonstrated in the FRG, too. As regards fuel cycle economy thermal recycling allows savings in natural uranium and separative work. Already under present cost conditions the fuel cycle costs for mixed oxide or enriched reprocessed uranium fuel assemblies are equal or even lower than for usual uranium fuel assemblies

  13. Physics of plutonium recycling: volume V. Plutonium recycling in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    As part of a programme proposed by the OECD/NEA Working Party on Physics of Plutonium Recycling (WPPR) to evaluate different scenarios for the use of plutonium, fast reactor physics benchmarks were developed. In this report, the multi-recycle performance of the metal-fuelled benchmark is evaluated. Benchmark results assess the reactor performance and toxicity behaviour in a closed nuclear fuel cycle for a parametric variation of the conversion ratio between 0.5 and 1.0. Results indicate that a fast burner reactor closed fuel cycle can be utilised to significantly reduce the radiotoxicity originating in the LWR cycle which would otherwise be destined for burial. (Author). tabs., figs., refs

  14. The plutonium recycle for PWR reactors from brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the material requirements of the nuclear fuel cycle with plutonium recycle. The study starts with the calculation of a reference reactor and has flexibility to evaluate the demand under two alternatives of nuclear fuel cycle for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR): Without plutonium recycle; and with plutonium recycle. Calculations of the reference reactor have been carried out with the CELL-CORE codes. Variations in the material requirements were studied considering changes in the installed nuclear capacity of PWR reactors, the capacity factor of these reactors, and the introduction of fast breeders. Recycling plutonium produced inside the system can reach economies of about 5% U 3 O 8 and 6% separative work units if recycle is assumed only after the fifth operation cycle of the thermal reactors. (author)

  15. Plutonium recycle in PWR reactors (Brazilian Nuclear Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.A.

    1978-02-01

    An evaluation is made of the material requirements of the nuclear fuel cycle with plutonium recycle. It starts from the calculation of a reference reactor and allows the evaluation of demand under two alternatives of nuclear fuel cycle for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR): without plutonium recycle; and with plutonium recycle. Calculations of the reference reactor have been carried out with the CELL-CORE codes. For plutonium recycle, the concept of uranium and plutonium homogeneous mixture has been adopted, using self-produced plutonium at equilibrium, in order to get minimum neutronic perturbations in the reactor core. The refueling model studied in the reference reactor was the 'out-in' scheme with a constant number of changed fuel elements (approximately 1/3 of the core). Variations in the material requirements were studied considering changes in the installed nuclear capacity of PWR reactors, the capacity factor of these reactors, and the introduction of fast breeders. Recycling plutonium produced inside the system can reach economies of about 5%U 3 O 8 and 6% separative work units if recycle is assumed only after the 5th operation cycle of the thermal reactors. The cumulative amount of fissile plutonium obtained by the Brazilian Nuclear Program of PWR reactors by 1991 should be sufficient for a fast breeder with the same capacity as Angra 2. For the proposed fast breeder programs, the fissile plutonium produced by thermal reactors is sufficient to supply fast breeder initial necessities. Howewer, U 3 O 8 and SWU economy with recycle is not significant when the proposed fast breeder program is considered. (Author) [pt

  16. Study of plutonium recycling physics in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, Paul

    1979-10-01

    A stock of plutonium from the reprocessing of thermal neutron reactor fuel is likely to appear in the next few years. The use of this plutonium as fuel replacing 235 U in thermal reactors is probably more interesting than simple stock-piling storage: immobilization of a capital which moreover would deteriorate by radioactive decay of isotope 241 also fissile and present to an appreciable extend in plutonium from reprocessing (half-life 15 years); recycling, on the other hand, will supply energy without complete degradation of the stock for fast neutron reactor loads, the burned matter having been partially renewed by conversion; furthermore the use of plutonium will meet the needs created by a temporary pressure on the naturel and/or enriched uranium market. For these two reasons the recycling of plutonium in thermal neutron reactors is being considered seriously today. The present work is confined to neutronic aspects and centres mainly on pressurized water-moderated reactors, the most highly developed at present in France. Four aspects of the problem are examined: 1. the physics of a plutonium-recycling reactor special features of neutronic phenomena with respect to the 'conventional' scheme of the 235 U burning reactor; 2. calculation of a plutonium-recycling reactor: adaptation of standard methods; 3. qualification of these calculations from the viewpoint of both data and inevitable approximations; 4. the fuel cycle and particularly the equivalence of fissile matters [fr

  17. Implications of plutonium and americium recycling on MOX fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, A.; Pilate, S.; Maldague, Th.; La Fuente, A.; Evrard, G.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of the multiple recycling of plutonium in power reactors on the radiation dose rates is analyzed for the most critical stage in a MOX fuel fabrication plant. The limitation of the number of Pu recycling in light water reactors would rather stem from reactor core physics features. The case of recovering americium with plutonium is also considered and the necessary additions of shielding are evaluated. A comparison between the recycling of Pu in fast reactors and in light water reactors is presented. (author)

  18. Plutonium recycling and the problem of nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.; Feiveson, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    A typical 1-gigawatt light water reactor (LWR), the dominant commercial power reactor type today, operating at 70% capacity factor, generates approximately 250 kilograms of plutonium annually. This plutonium, which is produced in the reactor through neutron capture by uranium-238, is then discharged from the reactor along with the other constituents of the spent fuel. About 70% of the plutonium, or 175 kilograms, consists of fissile (odd-numbered) plutonium isotopes. As long as the plutonium discharged from the reactor is left intermixed with the highly radioactive fission products also contained in the spent fuel, it cannot readily be used for power or for weapons. However, upon chemical separation from the radioactive fission products and other components of the spent reactor fuel, the plutonium produced each year in a gigawatt reactor could be used, either in recycled fuel (to replace about 175 kilograms of U-235 in a power reactor) or to provide the fissile material for more than 25 nuclear warheads. Commercial separation of plutonium and the introduction of nuclear fuel cycles using recycled plutonium, which are now impending in several countries, force one to balance the probable increased risks of nuclear proliferation due to these activities against various economic and other motives that have been forwarded in their defense. The authors undertake an assessment of this balancing in this article

  19. Plutonium multi-recycling in increased moderating ratio reactors (IMR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbrault, P.; Larderet, P.

    1998-01-01

    The large core of the future jointly defined European PWR (EPR), would be compatible with an increased Moderating Ratio (MR) enabling better plutonium burnout. The purpose of current work on the subject is to assess plutonium multi-recycling possibilities in IMR reactors. What additional operating constraints would be involved under normal and accidental conditions and are they acceptable? The conclusion is that Plutonium multi-recycling in a PWR of the type envisaged for the EPR raises no major problems under the following conditions: use of an IMR MOX core, enhancing both plutonium burnout and absorber efficiency; use of enriched boron in both the primary coolant soluble boron and the B4C boron carbide in the control rods. Deeper investigation should be performed concerning the partial or total core drain-out, in view of the high total Pu concentrations involved (13%) and the types of core considered (100% MOX). (author)

  20. Plutonium recycle concept for RCC - type PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet, H.; Charlier, A.; Deramaix, P.; Vanderberg, C.

    1975-01-01

    Self-generated Pu recycling schemes in RCC-type PWRs have been defined. The main results of survey studies performed to compare the relative merits of various Pu recycle strategies and the merits of alternative solutions of the assembly design such as the Pu-island assembly or the all-Pu assembly are presented [fr

  1. Assessment studies on plutonium recycle in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This paper describes the CANDU reactor system in detail and goes on to explore the potential for using the system with plutonium recycle fuelling to improve fuel utilisation and to meet the long-term challenge of economic supplies of nuclear fuel. The paper includes comments on costs and non-proliferation aspects. It concludes that: recycle fuelling is feasible with little modification to the reactor design and no degradation of safety, and could offer over 50% savings in uranium requirements. However, recycle fuelling costs do not appear competitive with natural uranium in the CANDU system under current economic conditions

  2. Strategies for plutonium recycle in a system of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaver, D.E.W.

    1976-01-01

    A methodology is developed to allow a utility fuel manager to determine economic strategies for recycling plutonium in a system of light water reactors. One possible plutonium recycle strategy would be self-generated recycle, in which plutonium discharged from a reactor is recycled back to that same reactor as soon as possible. Another possible strategy is to recycle all the plutonium discharged from several reactors into one reactor. Such a strategy might be advantageous if the reactor receiving the plutonium were of a type that utilized plutonium more effectively than other reactors in the system. There are several considerations which affect the economics of recycling a batch of plutonium to one reactor or cycle vs. another, or which would favor a special recycling strategy. Among these are cycle energy, length of time that plutonium is stored prior to recycle, and isotopes of the plutonium. The methodology developed is used to quantitatively illustrate the effect on recycle strategy of these parameters. The problem of choosing the plutonium recycle strategy which results in the minimum fuel cost is formulated as a mathematical programming problem. The objective function for this problem is the total discounted fuel cost for the reactor system over a specified planning period. The savings of an optimal recycle strategy over self-generated recycle would be typically one million dollars per year for a utility with several large PWRs

  3. Different possible scenarios for plutonium recycling in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouiller, J.P.; Doriath, J.Y.; Vasile, A.; Zaetta, A.; Guillet, J.L.; Greneche, D.

    2001-01-01

    Stabilisation of the Pu inventory in the electronuclear fleet (cycle reactors and facilities) is achieved through multi-recycling which can be carried out in current PWR through rod design or standard assembly composition modifications. The aim of this paper is to present the range of technical solutions which may be envisioned in current PWRs from a strictly physical point of view. It aims to give a preview of scientific feasibility of the various options bearing in mind that technological feasibility and, to an even greater extent, economic assessment would be premature at this moment and that industrialists would be responsible for this. Currently once through cycling of Plutonium is carried out in pressurised water reactors (PWR) in a MOX assembly partially loaded core. These current reactors (900 MW), initially licensed to use Uranium enriched UOX fuel, were therefore slightly adapted to accept plutonium. For a more efficient and less limiting use of plutonium in a PWR several fuel concepts are currently being examined. The objective of these innovative fuel concepts is to facilitate core management in a Pu multi-recycling strategy, to increase fuel burn up performances, keeping safety margins which has to be the same of to current UOX fuel loaded PWR reactors. (author)

  4. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium quarterly technical progress report, August 1, 1997--October 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report summarizes activities of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium during the quarter. The report describes the Electronic Resource Library; DOE support activities; current and future environmental health and safety programs; pollution prevention and pollution avoidance; communication, education, training, and community involvement programs; and nuclear and other material studies, including plutonium storage and disposition studies.

  5. Economic analysis of self-generated plutonium recycling in light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Morimoto; Hirabayashi, Fumio; Yumoto, Ryozo

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes on the economics of plutonium recycle to light water reactors (LWRs). In the situation that plutonium market does not exist, it is realistic for utilities to recycle the self-generated plutonium to their own reactors. The economic incentive to recycle self-generated plutonium, plutonium fuel fabrication penalty, and the dependence of fuel cycle cost on fuel cycle cost parameters are considered. In recycling self-generated plutonium, two alternatives for fuel element design are feasible. Those are the all-plutonium design and the island design. In the present analysis, the all-plutonium design was chosen for PWRs. The calculation of reactivity variation along with burnup for both uranium fuel and plutonium fuel was done with LASER-PNC code. Plutonium inventory and other nuclear data were calculated with CHAIN code. It is expected that equilibrium composition is reached after 5 or 6 times of recycling. For the calculation of fuel cycle cost, MITCOST code was used. The recent increase in the prices of uranium ore, enrichment and reprocessing services was taken into account. The fuel cycle cost of plutonium recycle is lower than that of uranium fuel cycle within a certain limit of plutonium fabrication penalty. It is shown that the fabrication penalty of about 1250 dollar/kgHM for each plutonium successive recycle reduces the cost difference to zero. The change in other cost components affects break-even fabrication penalty, in which the fuel cycle cost of plutonium recycle is equal to that of uranium cycle. (Kato, T.)

  6. 309 plutonium recycle test reactor ion exchanger vault deactivitation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.W.

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the deactivation of the ion exchanger vault at the 309 Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) Facility in the 300 Area. The vault deactivation began in May 1995 and was completed in June 1995. The final site restoration and shipment of the low-level waste for disposal was finished in September 1995. The ion exchanger vault deactivation project involved the removal and disposal of twelve ion exchangers and decontaminating and fixing of residual smearable contamination on the ion exchanger vault concrete surfaces

  7. ERDA activities related to reprocessing and plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurgeon, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA has redirected its program in support of the LWR fuel cycle from one emphasizing the commercialization of existing fuel cycle technology to a broader based assessment of alternative fuel cycle concepts with the emphasis on safeguardability and avoidance of proliferation risks. As part of this program, ERDA will evaluate a number of possible technical and institutional options to reduce proliferation risks. ERDA will continue its current program of LWR fuel reprocessing R and D with added emphasis on improved safeguards capability as well as the applicability of conventional reprocessing technology to large multinational plants. These activities and supporting design studies will provide the basis for a decision regarding the design of an optimized system for the management of spent LWR fuel. Such a system would provide a model for the development of future domestic and foreign facilities and programs. A recently completed ERDA study of the benefits of LWR reprocessing and recycle would also be expected to be factored into such a decision. The study concluded that based on currently available data, recycle of uranium and plutonium in LWR's is attractive from the standpoint of economics and resource utilization relative to the discarding of spent fuel. The LWR reprocessing/recycle picture today is clouded by several unresolved policy issues. These include the need for adequate spent fuel storage capacity for both domestic and foreign reactors; the possibility of foreign reprocessing of U.S. produced fuel; the possibility of the disposal of foreign fuel in the U.S.; the possible need to dispose of wastes generated by multinational reprocessing plants; and finally, determination of the optimum balance between recycling recovered plutonium and saving it for the breeder

  8. Reduction of uranium and plutonium oxides by aluminum. Application to the recycling of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallay, J.

    1968-01-01

    A process for treating plutonium oxide calcined at high temperatures (1000 to 2000 deg. C) with a view to recovering the metal consists in the reduction of this oxide dissolved in a mixture of aluminium, sodium and calcium fluorides by aluminium at about 1180 deg. C. The first part of the report presents the results of reduction tests carried out on the uranium oxides UO 2 and U 3 O 8 ; these are in agreement with the thermodynamic calculations of the exchange reaction at equilibrium. The second part describes the application of this method to plutonium oxides. The Pu-Al alloy obtained (60 per cent Pu) is then recycled in an aqueous medium. (author) [fr

  9. Study of plutonium multi-recycle in high moderation LWR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Toru; Ueji, Masao; Hibi, Koki; Aoyama, Motoo; Sakurada, Koichi

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has been studying advanced cores that are dedicated to enhance the plutonium consumption per recycling for effective use of plutonium. In this study, a fissile plutonium consumption rate is adopted as an index of the effective use of plutonium, which is defined as a ratio of consumption to loading of fissile plutonium in a core. High moderation core concepts have been studied in order to increase this index based on full MOX cores in the latest designs of LWRs in Japan that are the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) and the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (APWR). As a part of this study, core performance in the case of plutonium multi-recycling has been surveyed with these higher moderation cores aiming further effective use of plutonium. The design and analyses for equilibrium cores show that nuclear and thermal hydraulics parameters satisfy design criteria, and a fissile plutonium consumption rate increases up to 20% for ABWRs and 30% for APWRs even in plutonium multi-recycling condition. It was confirmed that the high moderation cores are feasible from a viewpoint of nuclear and thermal hydraulics, safety and plutonium consumption in the condition of plutonium multi-recycling. (author)

  10. Feasibility study of plutonium recycling in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, Hideoto

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of plutonium recycling in light water reactors has been studied by the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, MITI. As the first step of the feasibility study, it was planned to charge two fuel assemblies, containing uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MO 2 ), in the core of the Tsuruga nuclear power plant (BWR) for testing. The design of fuel the safety of these fuel and the operating characteristics of these special fuel assemblies were evaluated. The specifications of MO 2 fuel pin and fuel assembly are compared to those of present uranium oxide (UO 2 ) fuel. The weight of fissile plutonium in one MO 2 fuel assembly is 2.22 kg. The characteristics of MO 2 fuel assemblies, such as reactivity, control rod worth and power distribution can be kept similar to UO 2 fuel. The plutonium isotope ratio of the MO 2 fuel is assumed as that obtained in the fuel taken out of the Tokai No. 1 gas cooled reactor. The temperature distribution in the fuel pellets is shown, compared to that of UO 2 fuel. The linear power density is 440 w/cm at the beginning of the fuel life and 360 w/cm after the burn-up of 44,000 Mwd/t. The stress in the cladding tubes of MO 2 fuel is not different from that of UO 2 fuel. The pellet-cladding interaction (PCM1) was analyzed, utilizing the FEM code, FEAST. Concerning the calculation of resonance absorption, the space dependence of thermal neutron spectra and the nuclear behavior of hollow pellets the methods of design calculation were checked up. It was recognized that regarding the nuclear characteristics of MO 2 fuel, no special technical question remains. (Nakai, Y.)

  11. PWR benchmarks. From OECD working party on physics of plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernnat, W.; Lutz, D.; Sartori, E.; Schlosser, G.; Cathalau, S.; Soldevila, M.

    1995-01-01

    A two year study organised by the OECD/NEACOGEMA on the physics of plutonium recycle (Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Recycle - WPPR) has just completed its final report. The study reviewed the important aspects of the physics of plutonium recycle in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs), Bolling Water reactors (BWRs) and fast reactors. The final report includes a description and analysis of the results of three physical benchmark exercises which were specified for PWRs and two for fast reactors. This paper presents a summary of the most important observations and conclusions from the PWR benchmark exercises. (authors)

  12. Aspects of physics and computation of plutonium recycling in PWRs: Full MOX loading and void effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruna, G.B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper collects and summarizes excerpts of the lectures on Core Design and Computational Chains dealing with some physical and computational aspects of the recycling of Plutonium in PWRs. (author)

  13. Plutonium and minor actinides recycle in equilibrium fuel cycles of pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waris, A.; Sekimoto, H. [Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    A study on plutonium and minor actinides (MA) recycle in equilibrium fuel cycles of pressurized water reactors (PWR) has been performed. The calculation results showed that the enrichment and the required amount of natural uranium decrease significantly with increasing number of confined plutonium and MA when uranium is discharged from the reactor. However, when uranium is totally confined, the enrichment becomes extremely high. The recycle of plutonium and MA together with discharging uranium can reduce the radio-toxicity of discharged heavy metal (HM) waste to become less than that of loaded uranium. (author)

  14. Programme of research and development on plutonium recycling in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This is the third annual progress report concerning the programme on plutonium recycling in light-water reactors (indirect action) of the Commission of the European Communities. It covers the year 1978 and follows the annual reports for 1977 (EUR 6002 EN) and 1976 (EUR 5780). The preliminary results obtained under the 1975-79 programme indicate that: (a) assuming that plutonium recycling in light-water reactors is industrially developed by the end of the century, the foreseeable radiological impact on both workers and the general public can be maintained within the limits of current radiation protection standards; (b) on the whole, there is a good knowledge and mastery of the specific aspects involved in the plutonium recycling in light-water reactors and in particular they indicate that plutonium fuels have a similar behaviour to uranium fuels

  15. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Plutonium, which was obtained and identified for the first time in 1941 by chemist Glenn Seaborg - through neutron irradiation of uranium 238 - is closely related to the history of nuclear energy. From the very beginning, because of the high radiotoxicity of plutonium, a tremendous amount of research work has been devoted to the study of the biological effects and the consequences on the environment. It can be said that plutonium is presently one of the elements, whose nuclear and physico-chemical characteristics are the best known. The first part of this issue is a survey of the knowledge acquired on the subject, which emphasizes the sanitary effects and transfer into the environment. Then the properties of plutonium related to energy generation are dealt with. Fissionable, like uranium 235, plutonium has proved a high-performance nuclear fuel. Originally used in breeder reactors, it is now being more and more widely recycled in light water reactors, in MOX fuel. Reprocessing, recycling and manufacturing of these new types of fuel, bound of become more and more widespread, are now part of a self-consistent series of operations, whose technical, economical, industrial and strategical aspects are reviewed. (author)

  16. Optimal management of weapons plutonium through MOX recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurphy, M.A.; Bastard, G. le

    1995-01-01

    Beyond the satisfaction of witnessing the end of the nuclear arms race, the availability of large quantities of plutonium from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in Russia and the US can be perceived as a challenge and an opportunity. A challenge because poor management of this material would maintain a problematic situation in terms of proliferation; an opportunity because such plutonium represents a high value energy source that the civilian industry is capable of using efficiently, actually turning it from swords to plowshares. The object of this paper is to describe the main characteristics of the use of weapons plutonium in the civilian cycle to produce electricity through the use of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX), or moxification. A comparison with the main alternate solution--plutonium vitrification--is offered, in particular with regard to industrial availability, energy resource management, economy, environment and proliferation

  17. Benefit/cost analysis of plutonium recycle options in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenberg, H.; Burnham, J.B.; Fisher, F.; Ray, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Predictable effects of the recycle of plutonium and uranium recovered from spent LWR fuels were assessed in a final environmental statement (GESMO). Five alternative dispositions of LWR-produced plutonium ranging from prompt recycle of recovered plutonium and uranium to no recovery and no recycle are compared. The assessments consider cumulative effects for the period 1975 through 2000, and are centered on a conservative low growth rate resulting in about 500 LWR's in the U.S. in 2000. A more optimistic growth projection resulting in about 800 LWR's in 2000 is also analyzed in order to assess the effects of industry size upon the impacts. Demands for fuel cycle services were calculated with an ERDA program, NUFUEL, which was modified to include penalties for 236 U and 242 Pu. Unit cost data, including a simulation of market place reaction to supply-demand functions for uranium costs, were combined with the NUFUEL demand data in an economics code, NUCOST. Environmental impacts were also based upon NUFUEL demand data and were developed using a model plant industry concept. Using the most likely unit costs with a 10% discount rate, present worth incentives for prompt recycle over no recycle of $3.2 billion for the lower growth and about $6 billion for the higher growth were indicated. Present worth costs of delays in recycle of up to 5 years were less than $1 billion. Sensitivity of the economic assessments to unit cost variations and discount rates were also evaluated. Environmental impacts other than radiological were lowest for prompt Pu recycle and highest for no recycle. Radiological impacts for the total world wide total body exposure from U.S. industry for the 26 year period were estimated to be: - No recycle-8.2 million person-rem; U only recycle-9.5 million person-rem; Pu and U recycle-8.8 million person-rem. Comparison of the decreased radiological impact of the no recycle option with its increased costs relative to prompt plutonium recycle resulted in a

  18. Removal of the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor - 13031

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, C. Brad; Guercia, Rudolph; LaCome, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The 309 Facility housed the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), an operating test reactor in the 300 Area at Hanford, Washington. The reactor first went critical in 1960 and was originally used for experiments under the Hanford Site Plutonium Fuels Utilization Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned in 1988-1989, and the facility was deactivated in 1994. The 309 facility was added to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response actions as established in an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) and Action Memorandum (AM). The IROD directs a remedial action for the 309 facility, associated waste sites, associated underground piping and contaminated soils resulting from past unplanned releases. The AM directs a removal action through physical demolition of the facility, including removal of the reactor. Both CERCLA actions are implemented in accordance with U.S. EPA approved Remedial Action Work Plan, and the Remedial Design Report / Remedial Action Report associated with the Hanford 300-FF-2 Operable Unit. The selected method for remedy was to conventionally demolish above grade structures including the easily distinguished containment vessel dome, remove the PRTR and a minimum of 300 mm (12 in) of shielding as a single 560 Ton unit, and conventionally demolish the below grade structure. Initial sample core drilling in the Bio-Shield for radiological surveys showed evidence that the Bio-Shield was of sound structure. Core drills for the separation process of the PRTR from the 309 structure began at the deck level and revealed substantial thermal degradation of at least the top 1.2 m (4LF) of Bio-Shield structure. The degraded structure combined with the original materials used in the Bio-Shield would not allow for a stable structure to be extracted. The water used in the core drilling process proved to erode the sand mixture of the Bio-Shield leaving the steel aggregate to act as ball bearings against the

  19. Programme of research and development on plutonium recycling in light-water reactors; indirect nuclear action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report is a summary of the results obtained during the five-year programme 'Plutonium recycle in LWRs' (1975-79) which has been made possible after the completion of the synthesis studies on 'Control and Safety' and on the 'Environmental impact'. The work performed during the programme is reported; the contracts concluded and their main results and conclusions are summarized. The activity was devoted to studies of general interest and to R and D in order to improve the scientific and technical knowledge of plutonium recycling. General studies included an assessment of the environmental impact of plutonium recycling in the EC as well as research aimed at reducing this impact. Improvements were achieved on neutron-physics parameters of the actinides, on neutron computer codes for plutonium-fuelled LWRs, on control and safety and on the in-pile behaviour of mixed-oxide fuels. The conclusions state that, while fostering a fruitful exchange of information in the Community, the programme has contributed to demonstrating the feasibility of plutonium recycling in LWRs

  20. Prospects for plutonium recycling in light-water reactors in the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of a forecast on nuclear power installation programmes and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing capacities in the European Community, an assessment has been made of the developmnt of the plutonium handling industry up to the year 1990. Data on plutonium recovered in the reprocessing plants, requirements for fuelling the fast-breeder reactors and the remaining stockpile have been evaluated. A possible strategy for recycling the plutonium surplus in light-water reactors has been developed and its effects as regards saving on requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services have been estimated

  1. Is it possible to recycle nuclear wastes? Costs, risks and stakes of the plutonium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document, published by the French association 'Sortir du nucleaire' (Get out of nuclear), gives some information on the chain reaction from uranium to plutonium, the difference between reprocessing (which does not reduce waste volumes but multiply waste types) and recycling, the high risks associated with plutonium transport, La Hague as the most dangerous nuclear site in France, reprocessing as the alibi for the French nuclear industry, Areva as an expert in propaganda, reprocessing as an absurd world strategy, plutonium as a fuel for proliferation, the myth of unlimited energy with the breeder reactors, and so on

  2. Safety problems relating to plutonium recycling in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.; Frison, J.M.; Mercier, J.P.; Revais, J.P

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the specific nature, as regards safety, of the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel cycle, with the exception of safety problems relating to the operation of nuclear power plants. These specific characteristics are due mainly to the presence of plutonium in fresh fuel and to the higher plutonium and transuranic element content in spent fuel assemblies. The fuel cycle steps analysed here are the transport of plutonium oxide, the manufacture of MOX fuel assemblies, the transport of fresh and spent fuel assemblies and the processing of spent fuel assemblies. (author) [fr

  3. Safety problems relating to plutonium recycling in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.; Frison, J.M.; Mercier, J.P.; Revais, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the specific nature, as regards safety, of the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel cycle, with the exception of safety problems relating to the operation of nuclear power plants. These specific characteristics are due mainly to the presence of plutonium in fresh fuel and to the higher plutonium and transuranic element content in spent fuel assemblies. The fuel cycle steps analysed here are the transport of plutonium oxide, the manufacture of MOX fuel assemblies, the transport of fresh and spent fuel assemblies and the processing of spent fuel assemblies

  4. Benefit/cost analysis of plutonium recycle options in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenberg, H.; Burnham, J.B.; Fisher, F.D.; Ray, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Beginning in 1973, the USAEC started the analysis of the benefit/cost balance of Pu recycling in light-water reactors and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has continued this effort to the present time. A study of the United States nuclear industry from 1975 until 2000 was summarized in a final environmental statement called GESMO - Generic Environmental Statement on Mixed Oxide, NUREG-0002. Cumulative environmental and economic effects for several industry growth patterns were determined. Five alternatives were evaluated, covering the basic options of recycling uranium and plutonium; recycling uranium; and no recycling. The NRC findings, excluding consideration of proliferation and safeguards questions, are: the safety of reactors and fuel-cycle facilities are not significantly affected by recycle; excluding consideration of radiological effects, the environmental effects of recycle are slightly less than those from a non-recycle system; plutonium recycling extends uranium resources and reduces environmental impacts at the same time requiring reprocessing and Pu-handling facilities; despite uncertainties, recycling has probable economic advantages over other fuel concepts; differences in health effects attributable to recycling provide no basis for selecting a particular fuel-cycle option; no waste-management considerations appear that could be a basis for the selection of any particular option. The NRC studies on health, safety and environmental considerations of Pu recycling in the United States of America show that the differences in benefits/costs between the alternative fuel cycles are small and hence do not provide a clear basis for a decision on Pu recycle at this time. Safeguards and international proliferation implications appear to be the controlling factors in reaching a decision. President Carter's statement indefinitely deferring reprocessing and Pu recycle in the United States of America has resulted in a re-evaluation by NRC of its programme to

  5. FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, Ehud; Todreas, Neil; Taiwo, Temitope

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this DOE NERI program sponsored project was to assess the feasibility of improving the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) recycling capabilities of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by using hydride instead of oxide fuels. There are four general parts to this assessment: (1) Identifying promising hydride fuel assembly designs for recycling Pu and MAs in PWRs; (2) Performing a comprehensive systems analysis that compares the fuel cycle characteristics of Pu and MA recycling in PWRs using the promising hydride fuel assembly designs identified in Part 1 versus using oxide fuel assembly designs; (3) Conducting a safety analysis to assess the likelihood of licensing hydride fuel assembly designs; and (4) Assessing the compatibility of hydride fuel with cladding materials and water under typical PWR operating conditions Hydride fuel was found to offer promising transmutation characteristics and is recommended for further examination as a possible preferred option for recycling plutonium in PWRs

  6. FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, Ehud; Todreas, Neil; Taiwo, Temitope

    2009-03-10

    The objective of this DOE NERI program sponsored project was to assess the feasibility of improving the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) recycling capabilities of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by using hydride instead of oxide fuels. There are four general parts to this assessment: 1) Identifying promising hydride fuel assembly designs for recycling Pu and MAs in PWRs 2) Performing a comprehensive systems analysis that compares the fuel cycle characteristics of Pu and MA recycling in PWRs using the promising hydride fuel assembly designs identified in Part 1 versus using oxide fuel assembly designs 3) Conducting a safety analysis to assess the likelihood of licensing hydride fuel assembly designs 4) Assessing the compatibility of hydride fuel with cladding materials and water under typical PWR operating conditions Hydride fuel was found to offer promising transmutation characteristics and is recommended for further examination as a possible preferred option for recycling plutonium in PWRs.

  7. Control rod effects with plutonium recycle in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, G.; Muehl, G.J.; Gibson, I.H.

    1979-03-01

    A study has been made on a PWR loaded partly and wholly with plutonium to determine the changes in shutdown margin compared with an enriched uranium core. Lattice calculations are used to generate cell constants for core calculations. Three fuel loadings were considered, all uranium, 30% (approximately) of the assemblies plutonium in natural uranium, and all plutonium. The equilibrium fuel management schemes adopted in each case are based on the standard three cycle equal size batch scheme. Detailed calculations of power and irradiation distributions through the cycles have been carried out to provide a starting point for the control rod worth and requirement calculations. Control rod worths are reduced in a plutonium core because of the harder spectrum and higher fuel absorption cross sections. Furthermore, the control rod requirements for shutdown increase because of the increase in fuel and moderator temperature coefficients. This results in a reduction in shutdown margin. The magnitude of these changes is fully analysed in the report. The significance of these reductions depends on the detail of the safety argument but reductions of these sizes are unlikely to be acceptable. The data provided in this report could be used to give a first estimate of the plutonium loading acceptable given the safety assessment of the normal uranium core. (U.K.)

  8. Dresden 1 Plutonium Recycle Program report, January 1, 1976--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, M.Y.

    1977-01-01

    This report on the Dresden 1 Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program covers the period from January 1, 1976 through June 30, 1976. Included are a summary of reactor operations, power and exposure histories for each mixed-oxide assembly, and the plans and schedule for the remainder of the program

  9. Programme of research and development on plutonium recycling in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The state of progress on 31 December 1977 of the work relating to the research and development programme on plutonium recycling in light-water nuclear power stations is presented in this second annual report. Since almost the entire programme is in the process of implementation, the report contains either the technical specifications and the objectives of recently concluded contracts or the initial results obtained. The prime objective of the programme is to facilitate the acceptance of the plutonium industry in the Community. Among the projects necessary to attain this prime objective is a forward analysis of plutonium utilization and of its impact on the environment. Various preliminary projects have been implemented in order to lessen this impact. The second objective is aimed at improving scientific and technical knowledge of the basic neutron physics of the higher isotopes of plutonium and transplutonium elements, of the behavior of the power station (static and dynamic) and of the fuel

  10. Comparative study on plutonium and MA recycling in equilibrium burnup and standard burnup of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waris, Abdul; Kurniadi, Rizal; Su'ud, Zaki; Permana, Sidik

    2005-01-01

    The equilibrium burnup model is a powerful method since its can handle all possible generated nuclides in any nuclear system. Moreover, this method is a simple time independent method. Hence the equilibrium burnup method could be very useful for evaluating and forecasting the characteristics of any nuclear fuel cycle, even the strange one, e.g. all nuclides are confined in the reactor. However, this method needs to be verified since the method is not a standard tool. The present study aimed to compare the characteristics of plutonium recycling and plutonium and minor actinides (MA) recycling in PWR with the equilibrium burnup and the standard burnup. In order to become more comprehensive study, an influence of moderator-to-fuel volume ratio (MFR) changes by changing the pin-pitch of fuel cell has been evaluated. The MFR ranges from 0.5 to 4.0. For the equilibrium burnup we used equilibrium cell-burnup code. We have employed 1368 nuclides in the equilibrium calculation with 129 of them are heavy metals (HMs). For standard burnup, SRAC2002 code has been utilized with 26 HMs and 66 fission products (FPs). The JENDL 3.2 library has been employed for both burnup schemes. The uranium, plutonium and MA vector, which resulted from the equilibrium burnup are directly used as fuel input composition for the standard burnup calculation. Both burnup results demonstrate that plutonium recycling and plutonium and MA recycling can be conducted safer in tight lattice core. They are also show the similar trend in neutron spectrum, which become harder with the increasing number of recycled heavy nuclides as well as the decreasing of the MFR values. However, there are some discrepancy on the effective multiplication factor and the conversion ratio, especially for the reactor core for MFR ≥ 2.0. (author)

  11. Plutonium and minor actinides recycling in PWRs with new APA concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golfier, H.; Rohart, M.; Aniel, S.; Bergeron, J.; Deffain, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of the studies required by the French law of 1991, CEA have launched a wide range of assessments on waste management for different reactors (PWR, FBR). Considerable R and D work has already been performed in order to improve the use of Plutonium (Pu) in PWRs. In this context, the Advanced Plutonium Assembly (APA) aims to improve the use of Plutonium (Pu) in PWRs while minimizing Minor Actinides (MA) production, with only slight modifications of the core design. From a neutronic point of view, the overall studied cases lead to the stabilization of the Pu inventory with approximately 30% of the park refueled with APA assemblies in full APA cores. Multi-recycling could satisfy the stabilization of Pu+ (Am+Cm) inventory by the implementation of approximately 40% APA reactors in a conventional PWRs park. After 7 or 8 recycles, the equilibrium is reached. The Pu inventory in the fuel cycle ranges from 210 tons to 270 tons for Pu multi-recycling, and from 240 tons to 290 tons for Pu+(Am+Cm) multi-recycling. The saving in Natural Uranium and Separative Work Units (SWU) due to the use of APA reactors would be between 30% and 15% in comparison with the UO 2 open cycle. This paper presents a selection of the main preliminary Pu recycling results of the joint study program COGEMA-CEA. (author)

  12. The calculation of annual limits of intake for plutonium-239 in man using a bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.; Hunt, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    Values of the annual limit intake (ALI) for plutonium-239 in man have been calculated using committed dose equivalent limits as recommended by ICRP in Publication 26. The calculations were made using a multicompartment bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling in the skeleton. In one skeletal compartment, the growing surfaces of cortical bone, it is assumed that plutonium deposits are retained and are not subject to resorption or recycling. In the trabecular bone compartment plutonium is taken to be resorbed with either subsequent redeposition onto bone surfaces or retention in the bone marrow. ALIs for plutonium-239 have been calculated assuming a range of rates of bone accretion (0 to 32 μm yr -1 ), different amounts of plutonium retained in the marrow (0 to 60%) and a 20%, 45% or 70% deposition of plutonium in the skeleton from the blood. The calculations made using this bone model suggest that 750 Bq (20 nCi) is an appropriate ALI for the inhalation of class W and class Y plutonium compounds and that 830 kBq and 5 MBq (23 μCi and 136 μCi) are the appropriate ALIs for the ingestion of soluble and insoluble forms of plutonium respectively. (author)

  13. The calculation of annual limits of intake for plutonium-239 in man using a bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, N D; Hunt, B W

    1979-05-01

    Values of the annual limit of intake (ALI) for plutonium-239 in man have been calculated using committed dose equivalent limits as recommended by ICRP in Publication 26. The calculations were made using a multicompartment bone model which allows for plutonium burial and recycling in the skeleton. In one skeletal compartment, the growing surfaces of cortical bone, it is assumed that plutonium deposits are retained and are not subject to resorption or recycling. In the trabecular bone compartment plutonium is taken to be resorbed with either subsequent redeposition onto bone surfaces or retention in the bone marrow. ALIs for plutonium-239 have been calculated assuming a range of rates of bone accretion (0-32 micron yr-1), different amounts of plutonium retained in the marrow (0-60%) and a 20%, 45% or 70% deposition of plutonium in the skeleton from the blood. The calculations made using this bone model suggest that 750 Bq (20 nCi) is an appropriate ALI for the inhalation of class W and class Y plutonium compounds and that 830 kBq and 5 MBq (23 muCi and 136 muCi) are the appropriate ALIs for the ingestion of soluble and insoluble forms of plutonium respectively.

  14. Fast burner reactor benchmark results from the NEA working party on physics of plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Wade, D.C.; Palmiotti, G.

    1995-01-01

    As part of a program proposed by the OECD/NEA Working Party on Physics of Plutonium Recycling (WPPR) to evaluate different scenarios for the use of plutonium, fast reactor physics benchmarks were developed; fuel cycle scenarios using either PUREX/TRUEX (oxide fuel) or pyrometallurgical (metal fuel) separation technologies were specified. These benchmarks were designed to evaluate the nuclear performance and radiotoxicity impact of a transuranic-burning fast reactor system. International benchmark results are summarized in this paper; and key conclusions are highlighted

  15. Recycling of plutonium and uranium in water reactor fuel. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on Recycling of Plutonium and Uranium in Water Reactor Fuel was recommended by the International Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT). Its aim was to obtain an overall picture of MOX fabrication capacity and technology, actual performance of this kind of fuel, and ways explored to dispose of the weapons grade plutonium. The subject of this meeting had been reviewed by the International Atomic Energy Agency every 5 to 6 years and for the first time the problem of weapons grade plutonium disposal was included. The papers presented provide a summary of experience on MOX fuel and ongoing research in this field in the participating countries. The meeting was hosted by British Nuclear Fuels plc, at Newby Bridge, United Kingdom, from 3 to 7 July 1995. Fifty-six participants from twelve countries or international organizations took part. Refs, figs, tabs

  16. The economics of plutonium-uranium recycling to the nuclear program in the country of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzig, W.F.; Serradell, V.

    1982-01-01

    The increasing uncertainty of oil supplies and the rapid price changes associated with this uncertainty have encouraged some nations to turn increasingly to nuclear energy to produce electricity. The economic penalty associated with no spent fuel reprocessing for the country of Spain is determined, and this serves as an example of one of the consequences of a nonproliferation policy of a ''throw-away'' fuel cycle. The growth rate of electricity is forecast, and the Spanish plan for the addition of nuclear plants is examined. The neutronics of the ''throw-away'', the uranium recycle, and the uranium and plutonium cycle systems are reviewed and the economics of each system compared. There is a definite economic advantage to the uranium and plutonium recycle system being employed as early as possible. Such employment will have favorable foreign trade imbalance implications and foster national independence of imported oil

  17. Plutonium recycle in LWRs - The programme of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This paper explains that in accordance with the Federal Republic of Germany's nuclear energy policy, spent fuel from their large programme of LWRs will be stored for some years in an interim storage pool until capacity for reprocessing, which is essential on environmental grounds, becomes available after 1990. The residual fissile content (uranium and plutonium) of the spent fuel can then be recovered and either be recycled into thermal LWRs or later on be burnt in Fast Reactors. A comprehensive R, D and D programme for plutonium recycle was launched in 1971. Up to the end of 1978 about 10,000 MOX fuel rods were designed, specified, fabricated and irradiated in several nuclear power plants. The methods used in this work and the results are described

  18. Comparison of actinides and fission products recycling scheme with the normal plutonium recycling scheme in fast reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahuddin Asif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple recycling of actinides and non-volatile fission products in fast reactors through the dry re-fabrication/reprocessing atomics international reduction oxidation process has been studied as a possible way to reduce the long-term potential hazard of nuclear waste compared to that resulting from reprocessing in a wet PUREX process. Calculations have been made to compare the actinides and fission products recycling scheme with the normal plutonium recycling scheme in a fast reactor. For this purpose, the Karlsruhe version of isotope generation and depletion code, KORIGEN, has been modified accordingly. An entirely novel fission product yields library for fast reactors has been created which has replaced the old KORIGEN fission products library. For the purposes of this study, the standard 26 groups data set, KFKINR, developed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, has been extended by the addition of the cross-sections of 13 important actinides and 68 most important fission products. It has been confirmed that these 68 fission products constitute about 95% of the total fission products yield and about 99.5% of the total absorption due to fission products in fast reactors. The amount of fissile material required to guarantee the criticality of the reactor during recycling schemes has also been investigated. Cumulative high active waste per ton of initial heavy metal is also calculated. Results show that the recycling of actinides and fission products in fast reactors through the atomics international reduction oxidation process results in a reduction of the potential hazard of radioactive waste.

  19. High conversion ratio plutonium recycle in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlund, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    The use of Pu light water reactors in such a way as to minimise the depletion of Pu needed for future use, and therefore to reduce projected demands for U ore and U enrichment is envisaged. Fuel utilisation in PWRs could be improved by tightly-packed fuel rod lattices with conversion ratios of 0.8 to 0.9 compared with ratios of about 0.5 in Pu recycle designs using fuel to water volume ratios of currently operating PWRs. A conceptual design for the Babcock and Wilcox Company reactors now in operation is presented and for illustrative purposes thermalhydraulic design considerations and the reactor physics are described. Principle considerations in the mechanical design of the fuel assemblies are the effect of hydraulic forces, thermal expansion, and fission gas release. The impact of high conversion ratio plutionium recycle in separative work and natural U requirements for PWRs likely to be in operation by 1985 are examined. (U.K.)

  20. A review of multiple recycle of plutonium in LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the current status of the nuclear physics of multiple recycle in Light Water Reactors (LWRs). The paper draws attention to the principal nuclear physics issues of relevance and highlights where present knowledge is inadequate. This paper reviews the existing literature critically and provides a clearer picture of the assumptions underlying the past work and will highlight areas where past work has been deficient. From this comes a concise analysis of the technicalities of multiple MOX recycle and the areas of uncertainty which remain. The paper concludes that at present the question remains one for which there is as yet no satisfactory answer, largely because the basic nuclear data and lattice codes essential to define the technical limits are not yet sufficiently developed and validated. 6 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  1. The Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly progress detailed report, 1 November 1996--31 January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Progress for this quarter is given for each of the following Center programs: (1) plutonium information resource; (2) advisory function (DOE and state support); (3) environmental, public health and safety; (3) communication, education, and training; and (4) nuclear and other material studies. Both summaries of the activities and detailed reports are included.

  2. Plutonium bearing oxide fuels for recycling in thermal reactors and fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    Programs carried out in the past two decades have established the technical feasibility of using plutonium as a fuel material in both water-cooled power reactors and sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors. The problem facing the technical community is basically one of demonstrating plutonium fuel recycle under strict conditions of public safety, accountability, personnel exposure, waste management, transportation and diversion or theft which are still evolving. In this paper only technical and economic aspects of high volume production and the demonstration program required are discussed. This paper discusses the role of mixed oxide fuels in light water reactors and the objectives of the LMFBR required for continual growth of nuclear power during the next century. The results of studies showing the impact of using plutonium on uranium requirements, power costs, and the market share of nuclear power are presented. The influence of doubling time and the introduction date of LMFBRs on the benefits to be derived by its commercial use are discussed. Advanced fuel development programs scoped to meet future commerical LMFBR fuel requirements are described. Programs designed to provide the basic technology required for using plutonium fuels in a manner which will satisfy all requirements for public acceptance are described. Included are the high exposure plutonium fabrication development program centered around the High Performance Fuels Laboratory being built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory and the program to confirm the technology required for the production of mixed oxide fuels for light water reactors which is being coordinated by Savannah River Laboratories

  3. Plutonium recycling in LWRs in F.R. Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibbert, H.J.; Huber, J.; Winnik, S.

    1988-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, there is strong commitment to closing the nuclear fuel cycle and reprocessing spent fuel. Increasing amounts of plutonium are supplied by reprocessing contractors in relationship to the increasing volume of spent fuel discharged annually in the FRG helped by increasing capacities of the reprocessing facilities. In the 1960s, utilities and the nuclear industry in Germany, supported by government-funded programs, started to investigate the possibilities for use of Pu as a fissile material in BWRs, PWRs and PHWRs. These efforts led to the design and manufacture of BWR, PWR and PHWR Mox fuel assemblies which were operated not only in test reactors but also in several commercial power plants. Due to the considerable investments necessary for the Pu processing and Mox fuel fabrication system which are compounded by German licensing requirements, the specific fabrication cost for Mox fuel assemblies is determined largely by plant throughput. A major achievement of the Utility-Industry Cooperation Program was to show that, after its completion, an Alkem throughput will have been achieved that yields overall LWR Mox fuel assembly costs comparable to those of uranium fuel assemblies. For the Alkem throughput expected for the late 1990s, model calculations show an overall cost advantage for the LWR Mox fuel assembly over the LWR uranium fuel assembly of almost a factor of two. This represents a significantly positive Pu equivalence value. 2 refs., 1 fig

  4. International collaborations about fuel studies for reactor recycling of military quality plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, H.; Chaudat, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    In November 1992, an agreement was signed between the French and Russian governments to use in Russia and for pacific purposes the plutonium recovered from the Russian nuclear weapons dismantling. This plutonium will be transformed into mixed oxide fuels (MOX) for nuclear power production. The French Direction of Military Applications (DAM) of the CEA is the operator of the French-Russian AIDA program. The CEA Direction of Fuel Cycle (DCC) and Direction of Nuclear Reactors (DRN) are involved in the transformation of metallic plutonium into sinterable oxide powder for MOX fuel manufacturing. The Russian TOMOX (Treatment of MOX powder Metallic Objects) and DEMOX (MOX Demonstration) plants will produce the MOX fuel assemblies for the 4 VVER 1000 reactors of Balakovo and the fast BN 600 reactor. The second part of the program will involve the German Siemens and GRS companies for the safety studies of the reactors and fuel cycle plants. The paper gives also a brief analysis of the US policy concerning the military plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  5. Evaluation of nuclear fuel reprocessing strategies. 2. LWR fuel storage, recycle economics and plutonium logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, B.E.; Hadley, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part report intended as a critical review of certain issues involved with closing the Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel cycle and establishing the basis for future transition to commercial breeder applications. The report is divided into four main sections consisting of (1) a review of the status of the LWR spent fuel management and storage problem; (2) an analysis of the economic incentives for instituting reprocessing and recycle in LWRs; (3) an analysis of the time-dependent aspects of plutonium economic value particularly as related to the LWR-breeder transition; and (4) an analysis of the time-dependent aspects of plutonium requirements and supply relative to this transition

  6. Direct oxide reduction (DOR) solvent salt recycle in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Davis, C.C.; McCormick, E.D.

    1987-02-01

    One method used at Los Alamos for producing plutonium metal is to reduce the oxide with calcium metal in molten CaCl 2 at 850 0 C. The solvent CaCl 2 from this reduction step is currently discarded as low-level radioactive waste because it is saturated with the reaction by-product, CaO. We have developed and demonstrated a molten salt technique for rechlorinating the CaO, thereby regenerating the CaCl 2 and incorporating solvent recycle into the batch PuO 2 reduction process. We discuss results from the process development experiments and present our plans for incorporating the technique into an advanced design for semicontinuous plutonium metal production

  7. Heterogeneous assembly for plutonium multi recycling in PWRs: the Corail concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youinou, G.; Zaetta, A.; Vasile, A.; Delpech, M.; Rohart, M.; Guillet, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The CORAIL assembly is a standard 17 x 17 PWR fuel assembly containing 180 UO 2 rods and 84 MOX rods located at the periphery to limit the hot-channel factor. After many recycling, the plutonium content stabilizes around 8% and the U 235 enrichment around 4.8% (for a 3 u 15000 MWd/t fuel cycle length). An all-CORAIL park would have a zero plutonium mass balance, and compared with an all-UO 2 park the gain in terms of Separating Work Units and natural uranium would be between 15% and 20%. Detailed calculations of a 1300 MWe PWR loaded with such assemblies show that its control would not require the use of enriched boron. Burnable poison is necessary to limit the hot-channel factor. (author)

  8. Recycling of nuclear matters. Myths and realities. Calculation of recycling rate of the plutonium and uranium produced by the French channel of spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeytaux, X.; Schneider, M.

    2000-05-01

    The recycling rate of plutonium and uranium are: from the whole of the plutonium separated from the spent fuel ( inferior to 1% of the nuclear matter content) attributed to France is under 50% (under 42 tons on 84 tons); from the whole of plutonium produced in the French reactors is less than 20% (42 tons on 224 tons); from the whole of the uranium separated from spent fuels attributed to France is about 10 % (1600 tons on 16000 tons); from the whole of the uranium contained in the spent fuel is slightly over 5%. (N.C.)

  9. Economical aspects of multiple plutonium and uranium recycling in VVER reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, P.N.; Bobrov, E.A.; Dudnikov, A.A.; Teplov, P.S. [National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The basic strategy of Russian Nuclear Energy development is the formation of the closed fuel cycle based on fast breeder and thermal reactors, as well as the solution of problems of spent nuclear fuel accumulation and availability of resources. Three options of multiple Pu and U recycling in VVER reactors are considered in this work. Comparison of MOX and REMIX fuel recycling approaches for the closed fuel cycle involving thermal reactors is presented. REMIX fuel is supposed to be fabricated from non-separated mixture of uranium and plutonium obtained in spent fuel reprocessing with further makeup by enriched U. These options make it possible to recycle several times the total amount of Pu and U obtained from spent fuel. The main difference is the full or partial fuel loading of the core by assemblies with recycled Pu. The third option presents the concept of heterogeneous arrangement of fuel pins made of enriched uranium and MOX in one fuel assembly. It should be noted that fabrication of all fuel assemblies with Pu requires the use of expensive manufacturing technology. These three options of core loading can be balanced with respect to maximum Pu and U involvement in the fuel cycle. Various physical and economical aspects of Pu and U multiple recycling for selected options are considered in this work.

  10. Advanced concept of reduced-moderation water reactor (RMWR) for plutonium multiple recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, T.; Iwamura, T.; Takeda, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Okada, H.

    2001-01-01

    An advanced water-cooled reactor concept named the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has been proposed to attain a high conversion ratio more than 1.0 and to achieve the negative void reactivity coefficient. At present, several types of design concepts satisfying both the design targets have been proposed based on the evaluation for the fuel without fission products and minor actinides. In this paper, the feasibility of the RMWR core is investigated for the plutonium multiple recycling under advanced reprocessing schemes with low decontamination factors as proposed for the FBR fuel cycle. (author)

  11. Is it possible to recycle nuclear wastes? Costs, risks and stakes of the plutonium industry; Peut-on recycler les dechets nucleaires? Couts, risques et enjeux de l'industrie du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document, published by the French association 'Sortir du nucleaire' (Get out of nuclear), gives some information on the chain reaction from uranium to plutonium, the difference between reprocessing (which does not reduce waste volumes but multiply waste types) and recycling, the high risks associated with plutonium transport, La Hague as the most dangerous nuclear site in France, reprocessing as the alibi for the French nuclear industry, Areva as an expert in propaganda, reprocessing as an absurd world strategy, plutonium as a fuel for proliferation, the myth of unlimited energy with the breeder reactors, and so on

  12. The differential radiological impact of plutonium recycle in the light-water reactor fuel cycle: effluent discharges during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouville, A.; Guetat, P.; Jones, J.A.; Kelly, G.N.; Legrand, J.; White, I.F.

    1980-01-01

    The radiological impact of a light-water reactor fuel cycle utilizing enriched uranium fuel may be altered by the recycle of plutonium. Differences in impact may arise during various operations in the fuel cycle: those which arise from effluents discharged during normal operation of the various installations comprising the fuel cycle are evaluated in this study. The differential radiological impact on the population of the European Communities (EC) of effluents discharged during the recycling of 10 tonnes of fissile plutonium metal is evaluated. The contributions from each stage of the fuel cycle, i.e. fuel fabrication, reactor operation and fuel reprocessing and conversion, are identified. Separate consideration is given to airborne and liquid effluents and account is taken of a wide range of environmental conditions, representative of the EC, in estimating the radiological impact. The recycle of plutonium is estimated to result in a reduction in the radiological impact from effluents of about 30% of that when using enriched uranium fuel

  13. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, May 1, 1997--July 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Progress summaries are provided from the Amarillo National Center for Plutonium. Programs include the plutonium information resource center, environment, public health, and safety, education and training, nuclear and other material studies.

  14. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, February 1, 1998--April 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Activities from the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium are described. Areas of work include materials science of nuclear and explosive materials, plutonium processing and handling, robotics, and storage.

  15. Radiological implications of plutonium recycle and the use of thorium fuels in power reactor operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, H. F.

    1976-01-15

    As economically attractive sources of natural uranium are gradually depleted attention will turn to recycling plutonium or to the use of thorium fuels. The radiological implications of these fuel cycles in terms of fuel handling and radioactive waste disposal are investigated in relation to a conventional /sup 235/U enriched oxide fuel. It is suggested that a comparative study of this nature may be an important aspect of the overall optimization of future fuel cycle strategies. It is shown that the use of thorium based fuels has distinct advantages in terms of neutron dose rates from irradiated fuels and long term proportional to decay heating commitment compared with conventional uranium/plutonium fuels. However, this introduces a ..gamma.. dose rate problem in the fabrication and handling of unirradiated /sup 233/U fuels. For both plutonium and thorium fuels these radiological problems increase during storage of the fuel prior to reactor irradiation. The novel health physics problems which arise in the handling and processing of thorium fuels are reviewed in an appendix.

  16. Reduction of uranium and plutonium oxides by aluminum. Application to the recycling of plutonium; Reduction des oxydes d'uranium et de plutonium par l'aluminium application au recyclage du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallay, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Valduc (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-07-01

    A process for treating plutonium oxide calcined at high temperatures (1000 to 2000 deg. C) with a view to recovering the metal consists in the reduction of this oxide dissolved in a mixture of aluminium, sodium and calcium fluorides by aluminium at about 1180 deg. C. The first part of the report presents the results of reduction tests carried out on the uranium oxides UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}; these are in agreement with the thermodynamic calculations of the exchange reaction at equilibrium. The second part describes the application of this method to plutonium oxides. The Pu-Al alloy obtained (60 per cent Pu) is then recycled in an aqueous medium. (author) [French] Un procede de traitement de l'oxyde de plutonium calcine a haute temperature (1000 deg. C a 2000 deg. C), en vue de la recuperation du metal, consiste a reduire cet oxyde dissous dans un melange de fluorures d'aluminium, de sodium et de calcium, par l'aluminium vers 1180 deg. C. Une premiere partie du rapport presente les resultats des essais de reduction des oxydes d'uranium UO{sub 2} et U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, en accord avec les resultats du calcul thermodynamique de la reaction d'echange a l'equilibre. Une seconde partie rend compte de l'application de cette methode a l'oxyde de plutonium. L'alliage Pu-Al obtenu (60 pour cent Pu) est ensuite recycle par voie aqueuse. (auteur)

  17. Prospects for the establishment of plutonium recycle in thermal reactors in the Foratom countries. Status and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.; Melches, C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews the technical status of plutonium recycle in thermal reactors in the Foratom countries and assesses the prospect for it becoming established in the future with the implicit assumptions that uranium oxide reprocessing capacity will be installed commensurate with the projected programmes for thermal reactor installation and that there will be no insuperable environmental, security or safeguards obstacles to the use of plutonium as a fuel. It is argued that the feasibility of using plutonium as an alternative to 235 U as the fuel for thermal reactors, particularly LWRs, has been extensively demonstrated by a number of Foratom countries and the main problem areas are fuel fabrication and fuel reprocessing. Mixed-oxide fuel fabrication has been well established on the prototype plant scale using low-irradiation plutonium, but it is recognized that the future design of production-scale plants will need to cater for the significantly higher radiation levels from high burnup plutonium and meet stricter environmental requirements on operator dosage and waste arisings. The main constraint on the establishment of recycle up to now has been the lack of available plutonium owing to the absence of significant uranium-oxide fuel reprocessing capacity. An assessment of the plutonium arisings in Europe, based on the projected uranium-oxide reprocessing capacity, shows that by 1990 plutonium, surplus to FBR requirements, should be accumulating by about 10t/a, sufficient to fuel about 8000MW(e) of LWRs. A further constraint would then be the availability and technical problems of mixed-oxide reprocessing, which is one of the areas identified for international collaboration. It is concluded that whilst there is unlikely to be substantial recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors in the Foratom countries before the early 1990s, an incentive could possibly arise about that time. The strength of this incentive will depend on a number of factors including the status of

  18. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) plutonium recycle test reactor graphite cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.

    1997-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) provides the evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) Graphite Cask meets the requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for transfer of Type B, fissile, non-highway route controlled quantities of radioactive material within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The scope of this SEP includes risk, shieldling, criticality, and.tiedown analyses to demonstrate that onsite transportation safety requirements are satisfied. This SEP also establishes operational and maintenance guidelines to ensure that transport of the PRTR Graphite Cask is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14. This SEP is valid until October 1, 1999. After this date, an update or upgrade to this document is required

  19. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) plutonium recycle test reactor graphite cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) provides the evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) Graphite Cask meets the requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for transfer of Type B, fissile, non-highway route controlled quantities of radioactive material within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The scope of this SEP includes risk, shieldling, criticality, and.tiedown analyses to demonstrate that onsite transportation safety requirements are satisfied. This SEP also establishes operational and maintenance guidelines to ensure that transport of the PRTR Graphite Cask is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14. This SEP is valid until October 1, 1999. After this date, an update or upgrade to this document is required.

  20. Safety Evaluation for Packaging for onsite Transfer of plutonium recycle test reactor ion exchange columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to authorize the use of three U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 7A, Type A metal boxes (Capital Industries Part No. S 0600-0600-1080- 0104) to package 12 Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange columns as low-level waste (LLW). The packages will be transferred from the 309 Building in the 300 Area to low level waste burial in the 200 West Area. Revision 1 of WHC-SD-TP-SEP-035 (per ECN No. 621467) documents that the boxes containing ion exchange columns and grout will maintain the payload under normal conditions of transport if transferred without the box lids

  1. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1989-03-01

    This report contains with regard to 'plutonium' statements on chemistry, occurrence and reactions in the environment, handling procedures in the nuclear fuel cycle, radiation protection methods, biokinetics, toxicology and medical treatment to make available reliable data for the public discussion on plutonium especially its use in nuclear power plants and its radiological assessment. (orig.) [de

  2. Final generic environmental statement on the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    This environmental statement assesses the impacts of the implementation of plutonium recycle in the LWR industry. It is based on assumptions that are intended to reflect conservatively an acceptable level of the application of current technology. It is not intended to be a representation of the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) philosophy. This generic environmental statement discusses the anticipated effects of recycling plutonium in light water nuclear power reactors. It is based on about 30 years of experience with the element in the context of a projected light water nuclear power industry that is already substantial. A background perspective on plutonium, its safety, and its recycling as a reactor fuel is presented

  3. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Discovery of the neutron made it easy to create elements which do not exist in nature. One of these is plutonium, and its isotope with mass number 239 has nuclear properties which make it both a good fuel for nuclear power reactors and a good explosive for nuclear weapons. Since it was discovered during a war the latter characteristic was put to use, but it is now evident that use of plutonium in a particular kind of nuclear reactor, the fast breeder reactor, will allow the world's resources of uranium to last for millennia as a major source of energy. Plutonium is very radiotoxic, resembling radium in this respect. Therefore the widespread introduction of fast breeder reactors to meet energy demands can be contemplated only after assurances on two points; that adequate control of the radiological hazard resulting from the handling of very large amounts of plutonium can be guaranteed, and that diversion of plutonium to illicit use can be prevented. The problems exist to a lesser degree already, since all types of nuclear reactor produce some plutonium. Some plutonium has already been dispersed in the environment, the bulk of it from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. (author)

  4. Multi-recycling of plutonium and incineration of americium, curium, and technetium in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golfier, H.; Bergeron, J.; Puill, A.; Rohart, M.

    2000-01-01

    The future of nuclear power requires a clear strategy for radwaste and Plutonium management. Pressurized water reactors (PWR) and the associated fuel cycle installations represent the largest part of the French power plants (and are partly paid off). The reactors in service produce an annual 10 tons of Pu, 1.4 tons of minor actinides (MA), and 3.8 tons of long-lived fission products (LLFP). The spent fuel is reprocessed in La Hague plant to recover the energetic elements U and Pu. The latter was initially dedicated to power Fast Breeder Reactors that converted the depleted and reprocessed, thus ensuring a significant part of the French national energy resources. The shut-down of Super-Phenix, the postponement of building of Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) and the relaxed need for stretching natural U resources raise the issue of Pu management. In fact, the Pu mono-recycling practiced in France since 1987 (St Laurent B1) only slows down the Pu accumulation in spent nuclear fuel, yet it is unable to stabilize the Pu inventory. Beyond the cooperation with its industrial partners, CEA investigates solutions for short and medium term Pu management thus contributing to research required for keeping nuclear power as an energy option. The range of these investigations shall cover both adaptations for light water reactors to facilitate Pu recycling and more innovative solutions concerning reactors, fuel and fuel cycle. The aim of using Pu more efficiently in PWR has led, not only for economic and non-proliferation reasons, but also for considerations related to the optimization of Pu and MA management. The mastery of Pu inventory is a requirement for all long-lived radwaste management methods. In this context, the potential of innovative PWRs has been investigated to control the Pu fluxes and to make them a milestone on the way to clean nuclear power. This paper presents the most recent results related to Pu utilization and MA and LLFP incineration like (Am+Cm) and Tc. To

  5. Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miner, William N

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses plutonium from discovery to its production, separation, properties, fabrication, handling, and uses, including use as a reactor fuel and use in isotope power generators and neutron sources.

  6. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium quarterly technical progress report, August 1--October 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes activities of the Center under the following topical sections: Electronic resource library; Environmental restoration and protection; Health and safety; Waste management; Communication program; Education program; Training; Analytical development; Materials science; Plutonium processing and handling; and Storage.

  7. Final generic environmental statement on the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    An assessment is presented of the health, safety and environmental effects of the entire light water reactor fuel cycle, considering the comparative effects of three major alternatives: no recycle, recycle of uranium only, and recycle of both uranium and plutonium. The assessment covers the period from 1975 through the year 2000 and includes the cumulative effects for the entire period as well as projections for specific years. Topics discussed include: the light water reactor with plutonium recycle; mixed oxide fuel fabrication; reprocessing plant operations; supporting uranium fuel cycle; transportation of radioactive materials; radioactive waste management; storage of plutonium; radiological health assessment; extended spent fuel storage; and blending of plutonium and uranium at reprocessing plants

  8. Radiological impact of plutonium recycle in the fuel cycle of LWR type reactors: professional exposure during mormal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, I.F.; Kelly, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological impact of the fuel cycle of light water type reactors using enriched uranium may be changed by plutonium recycle. The impact on human population and on the persons professionally exposed may be different according to the different steps of the fuel cycle. This report analyses the differential radiological impact on the different types of personnel involed in the fuel cycle. Each step of the fuel cycle is separately studied (fuel fabrication, reactor operation, fuel reprocessing), as also the transport of the radioactive materials between the different steps. For the whole fuel cycle, one estimates that, with regard to the fuel cycle using enriched uranium, the plutonium recycle involves a small increase of the professional exposure

  9. quarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Are there many words combining both space and time? A quarter is one of such rare words: it means both a part of the city space and a period of the year. A regular city has parts bordered by four streets. For example, Chita is a city with an absolutely orthogonal historical center. This Utopian city was designed by Decembrists in the depth of Siberian ore-mines (120. The 130 Quarter in Irkutsk is irregular from its inception because of its triangular form. Located between two roads, the forked quarter was initially bordered by flows along the west-east axis – the main direction of the country. That is why it appreciated the gift for the 350 anniversary of its transit existence – a promenade for an unhurried flow of pedestrians. The quarter manages this flow quite well, while overcoming the difficulties of new existence and gathering myths (102. Arousing many expectations, the “Irkutsk’s Quarters” project continues the theme that was begun by the 130 Quarter and involved regeneration, revival and search for Genius Loci and the key to each single quarter (74. Beaded on the trading axis, these shabby and unfriendly quarters full of rubbish should be transformed for the good of inhabitants, guests and the small business. The triptych by Lidin, Rappaport and Nevlyutov is about happiness of urbanship and cities for people, too (58. The City Community Forum was also devoted to the urban theme (114. Going through the last quarter of the year, we hope that Irkutsk will keep to the right policy, so that in the near future the wooden downtown quarters will become its pride, and the design, construction and investment complexes will join in desire to increase the number of comfortable and lively quarters in our city. The Baikal Beam will get one more landmark: the Smart School (22 for Irkutsk’s children, including orphans, will be built in several years on the bank of Chertugeevsky Bay.

  10. Physics of plutonium and americium recycling in PWR using advanced fuel concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, E.

    2004-01-01

    PWR waste inventory management is considered in many countries including Frances as one of the main current issues. Pu and Am are the 2 main contents both in term of volume and long term radio-toxicity. Waiting for the Generation IV systems implementation (2035-2050), one of the mid-term solutions for their transmutation involves the use of advanced fuels in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). These have to require as little modification as possible of the core internals, the cooling system and fuel cycle facilities (fabrication and reprocessing). The first part of this paper deals with some neutronic characteristics of Pu and/or Am recycling. In a second part, 2 technical solutions MOX-HMR and APA-DUPLEX-84 are presented and the third part is devoted to the study of a few global strategies. The main neutronic parameters to be considered for Pu and Am recycling in PWR are void coefficient, Doppler coefficient, fraction of delayed neutrons and power distribution (especially for heterogeneous configurations). The modification of the moderation ratio, the opportunity to use inert matrices (targets), the optimisation of Uranium, Plutonium and Americium contents are the key parameters to play with. One of the solutions (APA-DUPLEX-84) presented here is a heterogeneous assembly with regular moderation ratio composed with both target fuel rods (Pu and Am embedded in an inert matrix) and standard UO 2 fuel rods. An EPR (European Pressurised Reactor) type reactor, loaded only with assemblies containing 84 peripheral targets, can reach an Americium consumption rate of (4.4; 23 kg/TWh) depending on the assembly concept. For Pu and Am inventories stabilisation, the theoretical fraction of reactors loaded with Pu + Am or Pu assemblies is about 60%. For Americium inventory stabilisation, the fraction decreases down to 16%, but Pu is produced at a rate of 18.5 Kg/TWh (-25% compared to one through UOX cycle)

  11. Experience and activities in the field of plutonium recycling in civilian nuclear power plants in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decressin, A.; Gambier, D.J.; Lehmann, J.-P.; Nietzold, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    The European Union industry has established a world-wide leadership position in manufacturing and exploiting plutonium bearing fuel (MOX). About 15 to 20 tons of plutonium have been manufactured in the MOX fuel fabrication plants of E.U. companies. The current capacity of about 60 tons of MOX fuel per year is being upgraded to reach 400 tons/year by the year 2000. As a result, the excess amounts of separated plutonium, presently stored in the European Union, should no longer raise but should steadily decrease to converge to zero. Studies by the European Commission have indicated that the best use at present of weapons-grade and reactor-grade plutonium is to burn it in operating and future planned nuclear reactors. Disposing of plutonium by blending it with fission products or immobilising it into synthetic matrices appears to be far from being an industrially viable option. Following this path would mean to continue storing the excess plutonium of both military and civilian origin for an unknown, but very long period of time. For these and other reasons, the European Commission is striving to foster international cooperation between the European Union companies, having a long industrial experience accumulated in the field of recycling plutonium, and, so far, the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. This cooperation is aiming at supporting projects that could be mutually beneficial to all parties involved. To meet this objective, several programmes have been established either bilaterally or multilaterally, in particular within the framework of the International Science and Technology Centre (I.S.T.C.) in Moscow. Some examples of such collaborations will be described. (author)

  12. Analyzing the reprocessing decision: plutonium recycle and nuclear proliferation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.; Connolly, T.J.

    1978-11-01

    The United States decision to defer indefinitely the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is examined in this thesis. Bayesian decision analysis is applied to develop a rational framework for the assessment of alternatives. Benefits and costs for each alternative are evaluated and compared in dollar terms to determine the optimal decision. A fuel cycle simulation model is constructed to assess the economic value of reprocessing light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and recycling plutonium. In addition, a dynamic fuel substitution model is used to estimate the economic effects of the reprocessing decision's influence on the introduction date of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). The analysis of benefits and costs is extended to include the social costs due to technological risks, such as accident risk, nuclear theft and/or sabotage, and international nuclear proliferation. These social costs are expressed in dollar terms for comparison with the conventional economic values. Results of the analysis indicate that the domestic social costs are less than the economic benefits by more than three orders of magnitude, and that the permit option dominates those of delay or prohibit. An examination of proliferation risk indicates a factor of approximately 7 between cost-benefits. Thus, on the basis of this analysis, it appears that to permit reprocessing is optimal over delaying or prohibiting the technology

  13. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Christiansen, K.; Wollesen, M.

    1979-01-01

    As emotions and fear of plutonium are neither useful for the non-professionals nor for the political decision makers and the advantages and disadvantages of plutonium can only put against each other under difficulties, the paper wants to present the most essential scientific data of plutonium in a generally understandable way. Each of the individual sections is concluded and they try to give an answer to the most discussed questions. In order to make understanding easier, the scientific facts are only brought at points where it cannot be done without for the correctness of the presentation. Many details were left out knowingly. On the other hand, important details are dealt with several times if it seems necessary for making the presentation correct. The graphical presentations and the figures in many cases contain more than said in the text. They give the interested reader hints to scientific-technical coherences. The total material is to enable the reader to form his own opinion on plutonium problems which are being discussed in public. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, May 1--July 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Progress is reported on research projects related to the following: Electronic resource library; Environment, safety, and health; Communication, education, training, and community involvement; Nuclear and other materials; and Reporting, evaluation, monitoring, and administration. Technical studies investigate remedial action of high explosives-contaminated lands, radioactive waste management, nondestructive assay methods, and plutonium processing, handling, and storage.

  15. Final generic environmental statement on the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    Information concerning the use of plutonium recycle in water cooled reactors is presented under the following chapter headings: probable adverse environmental effects that cannot be avoided; means for mitigating adverse environmental effects; alternative dispositions of plutonium; relationship between local short term uses of man's environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long term productivity; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; and economic analysis and cost-benefit balancing

  16. Analysis of fuel cycles with natural uranium, Phase I, Economic analysis of plutonium recycling in BHWR; Analiza gorivnih ciklusa sa prirodnim uranom, II faza - Ekonomska analiza recikliranja plutonijuma u BHWR reaktorima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisic, N; Bosevski, T [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za fiziku i dinamiku reaktora, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1965-11-15

    The objective of this analysis was establishing a method for determination of the fuel price fraction in the total cost of nuclear power production. Special attention was devoted to recycling of plutonium in natural uranium reactors, plutonium to be used in the same reactor type. The adopted method would enable economic comparison of different types of fuel cycles for different reactors.

  17. Nuclear recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses two aspects of the economics of recycling nuclear fuel: the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved; and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium. The authors review the relevant physical and chemical processes involved in the recycling process. Recovery of uranium and plutonium is discussed. Fuel recycling in LWRs is examined and a table presents the costs of reprocessing and not reprocessing. The subject of plutonium in fast reactors is addressed. Safeguards and weapons proliferation are discussed

  18. The use tri-n-butyl phosphate in plutonium extraction. Radiolysis and recycling of the solvent (1963); Le phosphate de tri-n-butyle dans l'extraction du plutonium. Radiolyse et recyclage du solvant (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The work concerns the radiolysis and recycling of tri-n-butyl phosphate used as extraction solvent for plutonium. The radiolysis is studied on an industrial solvent using a cobalt 60 source. Figures are given for the yield of the mono- and di-butyl-phosphoric acids formed from the dry and water-saturated solvents and the influence of nitric acid on the formation of dibutyl-phosphoric acid is indicated. The recycling treatment of the solvent is reconsidered with a view to lowering the residual contamination due to fission products. The tests carried out on a solvent from the plutonium extraction plant at Marcoule show the efficiency of the sodium carbonate treatment. Of all the products studied, only caustic soda led to a better decontamination than sodium carbonate; in all cases however, the elimination of ruthenium is always incomplete. (author) [French] L'etude porte sur la radiolyse et le recyclage du phosphate de tri-n-butyle utilise comme solvant d'extraction du plutonium. La radiolyse est etudiee sur un solvant industriel a l'aide d'une source de cobalt 60. On donne les rendements de formation des acides mono- et dlbutylphosphoriques a partir de solvants secs et satures d'eau, et on montre l'influence de l'acide nitrique sur la formation de l'acide dibutylphosphorique. Le traitement de recyclage du solvant est repris en vue d'abaisser la contamination residuelle en produits de fission. Les essais, effectues sur un solvant provenant de l'usine d'extraction du plutonium de Marcoule, montrent l'efficacite du traitement au carbonate de sodium. De tous les reactifs etudies, seule la soude a donne une decontamination superieure au carbonate de sodium; mais dans tous les cas, l'elimination du ruthenium est toujours incomplete. (auteur)

  19. The plutonium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Ang, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000-MW water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural uranium, fast-breder reactors, gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium and highly enriched uranium, and gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium, plutonium and recycled uranium. The radioactivity quantities of plutonium, americium and curium processed yearly in these fuel cycles are greatest for the water reactors fueled with natural uranium and recycled plutonium. The total amount of actinides processed is calculated for the predicted future growth of the U.S. nuclear power industry. For the same total installed nuclear power capacity, the introduction of the plutonium breeder has little effect upon the total amount of plutonium in this century. The estimated amount of plutonium in the low-level process wastes in the plutonium fuel cycles is comparable to the amount of plutonium in the high-level fission product wastes. The amount of plutonium processed in the nuclear fuel cycles can be considerably reduced by using gas-cooled reactors to consume plutonium produced in uranium-fueled water reactors. These, and other reactors dedicated for plutonium utilization, could be co-located with facilities for fuel reprocessing ad fuel fabrication to eliminate the off-site transport of separated plutonium. (author)

  20. Plutonium (Pu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the properties and uses of plutonium: where does it come from, the history of its discovery, its uses and energy content, its recycling and reuse in MOX fuels, its half-life, toxicity and presence in the environment. (J.S.)

  1. [Establish and manage a National Resource Center for plutonium, Quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, R.

    1995-06-27

    The initial phase of the Plutonium Information Resource is well under way. Board members developed linkages with Russian scientists and engineers and obtained names of technical team members. Nuclear proposals were reviewed by the Nuclear Review Group, and the proposals were modified to incorporate the review group`s comments. Portions of the proposals were approved by the Governing Board. Proposals for education and outreach were reviewed by the Education Proposal Review Group, considered by the Governing Board and approved. The Senior Technical Review Group met to consider the R&D programs associated with fissile materials disposal. A newsletter was published. Progress continued on the high explosives demonstration project, on site-specific environmental work, and the multiattribute utility analysis. Center offices in Amarillo were furnished, equipment was purchased, and the lease was modified.

  2. [Establish and manage a National Resource Center for plutonium, Quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.

    1995-01-01

    The initial phase of the Plutonium Information Resource is well under way. Board members developed linkages with Russian scientists and engineers and obtained names of technical team members. Nuclear proposals were reviewed by the Nuclear Review Group, and the proposals were modified to incorporate the review group's comments. Portions of the proposals were approved by the Governing Board. Proposals for education and outreach were reviewed by the Education Proposal Review Group, considered by the Governing Board and approved. The Senior Technical Review Group met to consider the R ampersand D programs associated with fissile materials disposal. A newsletter was published. Progress continued on the high explosives demonstration project, on site-specific environmental work, and the multiattribute utility analysis. Center offices in Amarillo were furnished, equipment was purchased, and the lease was modified

  3. Status of plutonium recycle from mixed oxide fuel fabrication wastes (U,Pu)O2 facility activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, Calixto A.; Adelfang, Pablo; Greiner, G.; Orlando, Oscar S.; Mathot, Sergio R.

    1999-01-01

    Within the specific subject of mixed oxides corresponding to the Fuel Cycle activities performed at CNEA, the recovery of plutonium from wastes originated during tests and pre-fabrication stages is performed. (author)

  4. Civil plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, B.; Zaetta, A.

    2004-01-01

    During 1960 and 1970 the researches on the plutonium recycling in fast neutrons reactors were stimulated by the fear of uranium reserves diminishing. At the beginning of 1980, the plutonium mono-recycling for water cooled reactors is implementing. After 1990 the public opinion concerning the radioactive wastes management and the consequences of the disarmament agreements between Russia and United States, modified the context. This paper presents the today situation and technology associated to the different options and strategical solutions of the plutonium management: the plutonium use in the world, the neutronic characteristics, the plutonium effect on the reactors characteristics, the MOX behavior in the reactors, the MOX fabrication and treatment, the possible improvements to the plutonium use, the concepts performance in a nuclear park. (A.L.B.)

  5. Learning more about plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This digest brochure explains what plutonium is, where it comes from, how it is used, its recycling into Mox fuel, its half life, historical discovery, its presence in the environment, toxicity and radioactivity. (J.S.)

  6. Strategies for the plutonium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.; Lima, J.O.V.; Sakamoto, L.H.

    1981-11-01

    A review of the activities involving plutonium (its recycle, utilization and technological status and perspectives) is done. These informations are useful for an economic viability study for the plutonium utilization in thermal reactors (recycling) and in fast breeders reactor (FBR), trying to collect the major number of informations about these subjects. The initial phase describes the present status and projections of plutonium accumulation and requirements. Then, the technological process are described and some strategies are analyzed. (E.G.) [pt

  7. World status report: plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dircks, W.

    1992-01-01

    In a recent speech in Japan, the Deputy Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) said that the economic case for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel had been severely eroded. An edited version of the speech is given. The changed prospects for nuclear energy is given as the reason why the demand for plutonium has declined sharply. The oil crisis of the 1970s reduced the demand for electric power and the economic justification for the use of recycled plutonium. The stockpile of isolated plutonium is growing rapidly giving rise to worries about its security. From this point of view, isolated plutonium is best kept in reactor fuel not separated out. In this connection the IAEA has offered to help in the storage of plutonium so that vigorous safety and security requirements are met. In Japan there is a debate about the plutonium which is dependent on the future of the fast breeder reactor programme. (UK)

  8. Stop plutonium; Stop plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  9. Computational benchmark on the void reactivity effect in MOX lattices. Contribution to a NEA-NSC benchmark study organized by the Working Party on Plutonium Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenreich, W.E.; Aaldijk, J.K.

    1994-08-01

    The Working Party on Plutonium Recycling of the Nuclear Science Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency has initiated a benchmark study on the calculation of the void reactivity effect in MOX lattices. The results presented here were obtained with the continuous energy, generalized geometry Monte Carlo transport code MCNP. The cross-section libraries used were processed from the JEF-2.2 evaluation taking into account selfshielding in the unresolved resonance ranges (selfshielding in the resolved resonance ranges is treated by MCNP). For an infinite lattice of unit cells a positive void reactivity effect was found only for the MOX fuel with the largest Pu content. For an infinite lattice of macro cells (voidable inner zone with different fuel mixtures surrounded by an outer zone of UO 2 fuel with moderator) a positive void reactivity effect was obtained for the three MOX fuel types considered. The results are not representative for MOX-loaded power reactor lattices, but serve only to intercompare reactor physics codes and libraries. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear fuel cycle risk assessment: survey and computer compilation of risk-related literature. [Once-through Cycle and Plutonium Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, K.R.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rudolph, A.W.

    1982-10-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated the Fuel Cycle Risk Assessment Program to provide risk assessment methods for assistance in the regulatory process for nuclear fuel cycle facilities other than reactors. Both the once-through cycle and plutonium recycle are being considered. A previous report generated by this program defines and describes fuel cycle facilities, or elements, considered in the program. This report, the second from the program, describes the survey and computer compilation of fuel cycle risk-related literature. Sources of available information on the design, safety, and risk associated with the defined set of fuel cycle elements were searched and documents obtained were catalogued and characterized with respect to fuel cycle elements and specific risk/safety information. Both US and foreign surveys were conducted. Battelle's computer-based BASIS information management system was used to facilitate the establishment of the literature compilation. A complete listing of the literature compilation and several useful indexes are included. Future updates of the literature compilation will be published periodically. 760 annotated citations are included.

  11. Learning more about plutonium; En savoir plus sur le plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This digest brochure explains what plutonium is, where it comes from, how it is used, its recycling into Mox fuel, its half life, historical discovery, its presence in the environment, toxicity and radioactivity. (J.S.)

  12. Plutonium use in foreign countries (03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2004-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experiences of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2003 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which plans to recycle a part of plutonium: Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels: The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories: The data and information of plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  13. Plutonium use in foreign countries (01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2002-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2001 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which recently appears the move of recycling a part of plutonium. Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels. The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories. The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  14. Plutonium use in foreign countries (99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2000-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 1999 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which recently appears the move to recycling a part of plutonium backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels. The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories. The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign counties were collected. (author)

  15. Plutonium use in foreign countries (02)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2003-02-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2002 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which recently appears the move of recycling a part of plutonium. Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oside (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels. The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories. The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  16. Plutonium use in foreign countries. (04)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2005-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2004 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, the U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which plans to recycle a limited amount of plutonium: Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels: The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories: The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  17. Japan's fuel recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has formulated Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan for the next 20 years, based on the idea that the supply and demand of plutonium should be balanced mainly through the utilization of plutonium for LWRs. The plan was approved by AEC, and is to be incorporated in the 'Long term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy' up for revision next year. The report on 'Nuclear fuel recycling in Japan' by the committee is characterized by Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan and the supply-demand situation for plutonium, the principle of the possession of plutonium not more than the demand in conformity with nuclear nonproliferation attitude, and the establishment of a domestic fabrication system of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel. The total plutonium supply up to 2010 is estimated to be about 85 t, on the other hand, the demand will be 80-90 t. The treatment of plutonium is the key to the recycling and utilization of nuclear fuel. By around 2000, the private sector will commercialize the fabrication of the MOX fuel for LWRs at the annual rate of about 100 t. Commitment to nuclear nonproliferation, future nuclear fuel recycling program in Japan, MOX fuel fabrication system in Japan and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  18. Recovery studies for plutonium machining oil coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Baldwin, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Lathe coolant oil, contaminated with plutonium and having a carbon tetrachloride diluent, is generated in plutonium machining areas at Rocky Flats. A research program was initiated to determine the nature of plutonium in this mixture of oil and carbon tetrachloride. Appropriate methods then could be developed to remove the plutonium and to recycle the oil and carbon tetrachloride. Studies showed that the mixtures of spent oil and carbon tetrachloride contained particulate plutonium and plutonium species that are soluble in water or in oil and carbon tetrachloride. The particulate plutonium was removed by filtration; the nonfilterable plutonium was removed by adsorption on various materials. Laboratory-scale tests indicated the lathe-coolant oil mixture could be separated by distilling the carbon tetrachloride to yield recyclable products

  19. Radionuclide compositions of spent fuel and high level waste for the uranium and plutonium fuelled PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairclough, M.P.; Tymons, B.J.

    1985-06-01

    The activities of a selection of radionuclides are presented for three types of reactor fuel of interest in radioactive waste management. The fuel types are for a uranium 'burning' PWR, a plutonium 'burning' PWR using plutonium recycled from spent uranium fuel and a plutonium 'burning' PWR using plutonium which has undergone multiple recycle. (author)

  20. Japan's plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Japan's plutonium economy is based on the most efficient use of nuclear energy, as envisioned under the Atoms for Peace program of the 1950s and 1960s. The nuclear pioneers assumed that all nations would want to take full advantage of atomic energy, recycling waste into new fuel to derive as much energy as possible from this resource

  1. A methodology for the analysis and selection of alternatives for the disposition of surplus plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is currently involved in the development of a comprehensive approach to the long-term storage and disposition of fissile materials. A major objective of this effort is to provide a framework for US efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. This will entail both the elimination of excess highly enriched uranium and plutonium, and the insurance of the highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability. The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is supporting an Interagency Working Group that has initiated a comprehensive review of alternatives for plutonium disposition which takes into account non-proliferation, economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. These alternatives were identified by the development of screening criteria as a guide to the selection of alternatives that best achieve the fissile nuclear material long-term storage and disposition goals of the US Government

  2. Plutonium fires; Incendies de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, E.

    1959-06-23

    The author reports an information survey on accidents which occurred when handling plutonium. He first addresses accidents reported in documents. He indicates the circumstances and consequences of these accidents (explosion in glove boxes, fires of plutonium chips, plutonium fire followed by filter destruction, explosion during plutonium chip dissolution followed by chip fire). He describes hazards associated with plutonium fires: atmosphere and surface contamination, criticality. The author gives some advices to avoid plutonium fires. These advices concern electric installations, the use of flammable solvents, general cautions associated with plutonium handling, venting and filtration. He finally describes how to fight plutonium fires, and measures to be taken after the fire (staff contamination control, atmosphere control)

  3. Stop plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  4. ZZ WPPR, Pu Recycling Benchmark Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, D.; Mattes, M.; Delpech, Marc; Juanola, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Description of program or function: The NEA NSC Working Party on Physics of Plutonium Recycling has commissioned a series of benchmarks covering: - Plutonium recycling in pressurized-water reactors; - Void reactivity effect in pressurized-water reactors; - Fast Plutonium-burner reactors: beginning of life; - Plutonium recycling in fast reactors; - Multiple recycling in advanced pressurized-water reactors. The results have been published (see references). ZZ-WPPR-1-A/B contains graphs and tables relative to the PWR Mox pin cell benchmark, representing typical fuel for plutonium recycling, one corresponding to a first cycle, the second for a fifth cycle. These computer readable files contain the complete set of results, while the printed report contains only a subset. ZZ-WPPR-2-CYC1 are the results from cycle 1 of the multiple recycling benchmarks

  5. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-01-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through (a) process modifications, (b) use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, (c) acid recycling, and (d) judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future

  6. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1995-01-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through process modifications, use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, acid recycling, and judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor , not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  7. Using Biomolecules to Separate Plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolski, Jarrod

    Used nuclear fuel has traditionally been treated through chemical separations of the radionuclides for recycle or disposal. This research considers a biological approach to such separations based on a series of complex and interdependent interactions that occur naturally in the human body with plutonium. These biological interactions are mediated by the proteins serum transferrin and the transferrin receptor. Transferrin to plutonium in vivo and can deposit plutonium into cells after interacting with the transferrin receptor protein at the cell surface. Using cerium as a non-radioactive surrogate for plutonium, it was found that cerium(IV) required multiple synergistic anions to bind in the N-lobe of the bilobal transferrin protein, creating a conformation of the cerium-loaded protein that would be unable to interact with the transferrin receptor protein to achieve a separation. The behavior of cerium binding to transferrin has contributed to understanding how plutonium(IV)-transferrin interacts in vivo and in biological separations.

  8. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated

  9. Plutonium controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  10. Experiments of progressive replacement in Cesar at operation temperature. Uranium-plutonium fuels. Study performed within the frame of the CEA-EURATOM - No. 002 64 9 TRUF contract - 'Plutonium recycling'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosser, Roland; Cuny, Gerard; Hoffmann, Alain; Langlet, Gerard; Laponche, Bernard; Morier, Francis; Penet, Francois; Charbonneau, Serge

    1969-08-01

    Experiments of progressive replacement (or substitution) of uranium-plutonium alloy fuels are part of a general program of experimental studies which are aimed at testing the methods used by the CEA to calculate the evolution of nuclear power reactors (calculation of spectrum in plutonium-containing fuels and validity of data used in these calculations, calculation of cross sections). Such progressive replacements have been performed in Aquilon (with heavy water as moderator) and measurements have been performed by oscillation in Marius and Cesar (graphite moderator). Herein reported experiments have been performed at 20, 100 and 200 C during a first campaign in 1966, and at 300, 400 and 450 C during a second campaign in 1968. Measurements are interpreted by means of the Coregraf 2 code. The report presents experimental conditions in Cesar, the measurement principle and the interpretation method (substitution experiments, enriched uranium calibration, interpretation steps, and temperature coefficient measurement), the obtained results and their discussion [fr

  11. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  12. Nuclear recycling: costs, savings, and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter discusses the economics, physical and chemical processes, and safety of nuclear fuel recycling. The spent fuel must be chemically reprocessed in order to recover uranium and plutonium. Topics considered include indifference costs, recycling in light water reactors (LWRs), plutonium in fast reactors, the choice between recycling and storage, safeguards, and weapons proliferation. It is shown that the economics of recycling nuclear fuel involves the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved, and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium

  13. Plutonium use - present status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dievoet, J. van; Fossoul, E.; Jonckheere, E.; Bemden, E. van den

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium is being produced in increasing quantities in the so-called proven reactors, which are mostly of the light-water type. Evaluation of this production on a world scale shows that it would be theoretically possible to construct a large number of breeders and thus to make the best use of the intrinsic qualities of plutonium as a fissionable material, while considerably reducing the consumption of uranium. This source of plutonium is nevertheless dependent on an essential stage of the fuel cycle, namely reprocessing of irradiated fuel. The long delays in installing an adequate world reprocessing capacity are substantially weakening the prospects for the introduction of breeders. Furthermore, the critical situation as regards reprocessing may delay the development of complementary reprocessing methods for fuels with a high plutonium content and high burn-up. When it is recalled that fast reactors themselves may suffer some delay in their technological development, if only because of the intention to build power plants of very high unit capacity immediately, it must be concluded that another use will have to be considered for the plutonium available in future -use in thermal reactors, i.e. recycling. The recycling of plutonium is a well-known technique today and the objections which could be raised against it hardly stand up to analysis. Utilization of plutonium offers an appreciable saving in terms of uranium and separative work units, the consumption being of a low order of magnitude in comparison with the total amount of plutonium needed for the eventual fabrication of the first fast reactor cores. It can also be shown that immediate reprocessing of the recycling fuel is not essential for the economics of the concept. Temporary storage of recycled fuel has the advantage of concentrating plutonium in a particularly safe form, namely in irradiated plutonium-bearing fuel assemblies. Lastly, recycling offers such flexibility that it does not in practice represent

  14. Monitoring of wastes containing plutonium. Necessity and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.; Pottier, P.

    1979-01-01

    Importance of problems set by wastes containing plutonium is rapidly growing. Plutonium is not a waste, recycling limits heavily the quantity of plutonium to be stored with wastes. Optimized waste management must take definitive storage and economical limits of plutonium recovery into account. Waste monitoring is a must for safety, economy and waste management. Methods used require reliability, simplicity, sensibility and accuracy particularly for threshold detection [fr

  15. Civil plutonium held in France in December 31, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    Spent fuels comprise about 1% of plutonium which is separated during the reprocessing and recycled to prepare the mixed uranium-plutonium fuel (MOX), which in turn is burnt in PWRs. Plutonium can be in a non-irradiated or separated form, or in an irradiated form when contained in the spent fuel. Each year, in accordance with the 1997 directives relative to the management of plutonium, France has to make a status of its civil plutonium stock and communicate it to the IAEA using a standard model form. This short document summarizes the French plutonium stocks at the end of 1999 and 2000. (J.S.)

  16. Overview of the amounts of plutonium generated against the background of the fixed electricity amount regulated by law in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, B.; Broeders, C.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Plutonium production in the German reactor park under the actual political guidelines is studied. The influence of different options (once-through scenario, single and double MOX recycling scenario) on the residual plutonium masses are analysed and compared to a close-to-reality scenario. Additionally an insight into the consequences of a postulated lifetime extension on the residual plutonium mass is given and the plutonium reduction and the change of the plutonium composition due to double recycling are demonstrated. (authors)

  17. Effects on potential once-through improvements on the uranium utilisation in the closed LWR cycle assuming self-generated recycling of uranium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the mode of operation of a reference 1300 MW(e) PWR operating on self-generating U/Pu recycle and then considers the uranium saving which might be achieved by introducing a number of improvements in design and operation which have been suggested for the once-through cycle. These are: Increased burnup, lattice changes, spectrum shift, enrichment zoning including blankets, full use of early batches of start-up core, improved fuel management and control design, end of cycle coastdown, reconstitution and inversion of BWR fuel, more frequent refueling. The paper concludes that if both the once-through cycle and recycle in the SGR mode were improved to the optimum extent recycle would offer 25-30% uranium savings compared to the once-through cycle

  18. MOX recycling-an industrial reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallo, G.D.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reprocessing and plutonium recycling have now attained industrial maturity in France and Europe. Specifically, mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel is fabricated and used in light water reactors (LWRs) in satisfactory operating conditions. The utilities and the fuel cycle industry experience no technical difficulties, and European recycling programs are growing steadily, from 18 reactors in operation today up to 50 expected around the year 2000, putting the system reprocessing-recycling in coherence: 25 t of plutonium will then be used each year to produce the electricity equivalence of 25 millions tons of oil. Plutonium recycling in MOX fuel in current LWRs proves to be technically safe and economically competitive and meets natural resource savings and environmental protection objectives. And recycling responds properly to the nonproliferation concerns. Such an industrial experience gives a unique reference for weapons plutonium disposition through MOX use in reactors

  19. Recent trends of plutonium facilities and their control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, T [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1974-02-01

    Much interest has been focussed on Pu recycle since the oil crisis because of an expected shortage of enriched uranium. Plutonium handling techniques and plutonium fuel fabricating facilities should be developed to meet the future demand of plutonium, but the radioactive property of plutonium to be reprocessed from spent fuel and recycled plutonium is remarkably different, and it has to be handled safely. Technical criteria for plutonium facilities are specified in the USAEC regulatory guides and other rules. Some of these criteria are location condition, quality of confinement, protection against accidents and so on. The control conditions for plutonium facilities are exposure control, criticality control, measurement control and new system of safeguard. These problems are under development to meet the future requirement for the safe handling of Pu material.

  20. Reduction of worldwide plutonium inventories using conventional reactors and advanced fuels: A systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Chodak, P. III

    1997-01-01

    The potential for reducing plutonium inventories in the civilian nuclear fuel cycle through recycle in LWRs of a variety of mixed-oxide forms is examined by means of a cost-based plutonium-flow systems model that includes an approximate measure of proliferation risk. The impact of plutonium recycle in a number of forms is examined, including the introduction of nonfertile fuels into conventional (LWR) reactors to reduce net plutonium generation, to increase plutonium burnup, and to reduce exo-reactor plutonium inventories

  1. Effects of potential once-through improvements on the uranium utilization in the closed LWR cycle assuming self generated recycling of uranium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    This paper is concerned with potential improvements to the resource utilization of current generation light water reactors operating on a closed U/Pu fuel cycle. Only those modifications to existing systems layout and fuel cycle practise are discussed that have been considered in Working Group 8 A for the once-through cycle. The objective is to give an impression how much the difference in resource utilization between the once-through and the closed U/Pu cycle were changed if both cycles were reoptimized independantly from each other with respect to uranium consumption. No commercial recycling of U/Pu has been taken place to date in 1300 MWe light water reactors. The feasibility of thermal recycling has been demonstrated however on an industrial scale in reactors of the 300 MWe class. (Obrigheim, Gundremmingen). From this experience and from extensive design calculations it has been concluded that for Pu bearing fuel assemblies of 1300 MWe plants it would be favorable to use the same structural layout and similar fuel management procedures as for uranium assemblies. This would result in plant life-time averaged uranium savings on the order of 35 - 40 % relative to the once-through cycle in case of the Self Generated Recycling Mode

  2. Plutonium use - Present status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dievoet, J. van; Fossoul, E.; Jonckheere, E.; Bemden, E. van den

    1977-01-01

    The use of plutonium in thermal and fast reactors is a demonstrated, if not proven, technology. Moreover, plutonium is being produced in increasing quantities. Evaluation of this production on a world scale shows that it would be theoretically possible to construct numerous breeders and thus to make the best use of plutonium, while considerably reducing uranium consumption. This source of plutonium is nevertheless dependent on the reprocessing of irradiated fuel. Long delays in installing and adequate world reprocessing capacity are weakening the prospects for introducing breeders. Furthermore, the critical situation regarding reprocessing may delay the development of complementary reprocessing methods for fuels with a high plutonium content and high burnup. The recycling of plutonium is now a well-known technique and any objections to it hardly bear analysis. Utilization of plutonium offers an appreciable saving in terms of uranium and separative work units; and it can also be shown that immediate reprocessing of the recycling fuel is not essential for the economics of the concept. Temporary storage of recycled fuel is a particularly safe form of concentrating plutonium, namely in irradiated plutonium-bearing fuel assemblies. Finally, recycling offers such flexibility that it represents no obstacle to fuel management at power plants with light-water reactors. These strategic considerations imply that the technology of using plutonium for fabricating thermal or fast reactor fuels is both technically reliable and economically viable. The methods used in industrial facilities are fully reassuring in this respect. Although various unsolved problems exist, none seems likely to impede current developments, while the industrial experience gained has enabled the economics and reliability of the methods to be improved appreciably. Apart from the techno-economic aspects, the plutonium industry must face extremely important problems in connection with the safety of personnel

  3. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofman, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    If the world chooses to seek a solution to the energy dilemma through nuclear energy, the element plutonium will become an article of commerce to be handled in quantities of thousands of tonnes annually. Plutonium is a uniquely potent inhalation carcinogen, the potential induction of lung cancer dwarfing other possible toxic effects. For reasons to be presented here, it is the author's opinion that plutonium's carcinogenicity has been very seriously underestimated. If one couples the corrected carcinogenicity with the probable degree of industrial containment of the plutonium, it appears that the commercialization of a plutonium-based energy economy is not an acceptable option for society. Sagan's statement that ''the experience of 30 years supports the contention that plutonium can be used safely'' is manifestly indefensible. No meaningful epidemiological study of plutonium-exposed workers for that 30-year period has ever been done. Since thousands of those possibly exposed have left the industry and are not even available to follow-up, it is doubtful that any meaningful study of ''the experience of 30 years'' will ever be accomplished

  4. Achievement and future plan on plutonium use in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Kunihiko

    1998-05-01

    The plutonium recycle option has been supported from the early stage of nuclear development by Japanese Government because of the very weak structure of energy supplying system. Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has been developing the plutonium recycling technology such as fast breeder reactor, MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing technologies based on the decision of the government. The paper describes the obtained result of technical development and the future R and D program in the field of plutonium recycle. (J.P.N.)

  5. Plutonium production and utilization forecasts in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.

    1976-01-01

    The planned accelerated growth of nuclear energy generation in the near future will lead to a large production of plutonium in the thermal reactors. Therefore, up to 1985, the major part of the available plutonium will be plutonium recovered from spent uranium-metal, particularly in the United Kingdom and in France. Because of the low demand for fuelling the fast breeder reactors within the near future, a surplus of fissile plutonium will be accumulated in Europe. Even if the planned availability of the oxide reprocessing capacity will be delayed with two or three years, a plutonium surplus will still exist in Europe, e.g.; in 1985: 25-20 tons. On longer term, up to 2000, the plutonium production in thermal reactors will be sufficient to meet the estimated demand for fast breeder reactors at their commercial introduction foreseen for the nineties. That means that all the plutonium surplus needs not to be stocked for use in fast breeder reactors later on but could be recycled in thermal reactors. The magnitude of the available fissionable materials give an idea of the importance to promote, on an industrial scale, the plutonium recycling technology

  6. Plutonium solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdomnech, I.; Bruno, J.

    1991-02-01

    Thermochemical data has been selected for plutonium oxide, hydroxide, carbonate and phosphate equilibria. Equilibrium constants have been evaluated in the temperature range 0 to 300 degrees C at a pressure of 1 bar to T≤100 degrees C and at the steam saturated pressure at higher temperatures. Measured solubilities of plutonium that are reported in the literature for laboratory experiments have been collected. Solubility data on oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and phosphates have been selected. No solubility data were found at temperatures higher than 60 degrees C. The literature solubility data have been compared with plutonium solubilities calculated with the EQ3/6 geochemical modelling programs, using the selected thermodynamic data for plutonium. (authors)

  7. MOX fuel reprocessing and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the reprocessing of MOX fuel in UP2-800 plant at La Hague, and to the MOX successive reprocessing and recycling. 1. MOX fuel reprocessing. In a first step, the necessary modifications in UP2-800 to reprocess MOX fuel are set out. Early in the UP2-800 project, actions have been taken to reprocess MOX fuel without penalty. They consist in measures regarding: Dissolution; Radiological shieldings; Nuclear instrumentation; Criticality. 2. Mox successive reprocessing and recycling. The plutonium recycling in the LWR is now a reality and, as said before, the MOX fuel reprocessing is possible in UP2-800 plant at La Hague. The following actions in this field consist in verifying the MOX successive reprocessing and recycling possibilities. After irradiation, the fissile plutonium content of irradiated MOX fuel is decreased and, in this case, the re-use of plutonium in the LWR need an important increase of initial Pu enrichment inconsistent with the Safety reactor constraints. Cogema opted for reprocessing irradiated MOX fuel in dilution with the standard UO2 fuel in appropriate proportions (1 MOX for 4 UO2 fuel for instance) in order to save a fissile plutonium content compatible with MOX successive recycling (at least 3 recyclings) in LWR. (author). 2 figs

  8. Implications of plutonium utilization strategies on the transition from a LWR economy to a breeder economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.F.; Fleischman, R.M.; White, M.K.

    1977-02-01

    The plutonium interface between the LWR and LMFBR fuel cycles is examined for typical nuclear growth projections both with and without plutonium recycle in LWRs. In order to guarantee a fuel supply for projected LMFBR growth rates, significant multiple Pu recycle in LWRs will not be possible. However, about 78% of the benefit of multiple plutonium recycle between now and the turn of the century is realized by one recycle and then stockpiling spent MOX for the LMFBR. LMFBR reprocessing schecules are estimated based on accumulation of reprocessing load. These schedules are used to estimate the amount of plutonium recovered from LMFBR fuels and determine the residual LWR plutonium required to meet LMFBR demand. The stockpile of LWR produced plutonium in spent MOX is sufficient to fuel the LMFBR until commercial LMFBR reprocessing can be justified. After that time, recycle of plutonium in LWRs will be significantly limited by a continuing LMFBR demand for LWR plutonium due to the projected high LMFBR growth rate. LWR reprocessing requirements are estimated for the assumed condition that LWR plutonium recycle is not approved, but the LMFBR is still pursued as an energy option. The uncertainties presented by this condition are addressed qualitatively. However, in our judgment these uncertainties in the plutonium market would likely delay LMFBR growth to levels significantly below current projections

  9. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Phenomenology of the behavior of nuclear fuels containing plutonium in the cycles of water reactors. Development of a model on the equivalence of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzoug, D.

    1990-05-01

    In the scope of fuel recycling, in nuclear reactors with water cooling systems, a model concerning the plutonium equivalence and adapted to the thermal spectra is proposed. The physical phenomena involving the plutonium isotopes are studied. A method based on the sensitivity analysis allows the understanding of the plutonium isotope behavior. An equivalence model of plutonium for thermal spectre is established. The validity of the model for different cycle lengths and supports is proved [fr

  11. Mox fuels recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will firstly emphasis that the first recycling of plutonium is already an industrial reality in France thanks to the high degree of performance of La Hague and MELOX COGEMA's plants. Secondly, recycling of spent Mixed OXide fuel, as a complete MOX fuel cycle, will be demonstrated through the ability of the existing plants and services which have been designed to proceed with such fuels. Each step of the MOX fuel cycle concept will be presented: transportation, reception and storage at La Hague and steps of spent MOX fuel reprocessing. (author)

  12. Recycling of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randl, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Since nuclear power was first exploited in the Federal Republic of Germany, the philosophy underlying the strategy of the nuclear fuel cycle has been to make optimum use of the resource potential of recovered uranium and plutonium within a closed fuel cycle. Apart from the weighty argument of reprocessing being an important step in the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, permitting their optimum ecological conditioning after the reprocessing step and subsequent storage underground, another argument that, no doubt, carried weight was the possibility of reducing the demand of power plants for natural uranium. In recent years, strategies of recycling have emerged for reprocessed uranium. If that energy potential, too, is to be exploited by thermal recycling, it is appropriate to choose a slightly different method of recycling from the one for plutonium. While the first generation of reprocessed uranium fuel recycled in the reactor cuts down natural uranium requirement by some 15%, the recycling of a second generation of reprocessed, once more enriched uranium fuel helps only to save a further three per cent of natural uranium. Uranium of the second generation already carries uranium-232 isotope, causing production disturbances, and uranium-236 isotope, causing disturbances of the neutron balance in the reactor, in such amounts as to make further fabrication of uranium fuel elements inexpedient, even after mixing with natural uranium feed. (orig./UA) [de

  13. Fuel cycles using adulterated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksbank, R.E.; Bigelow, J.E.; Campbell, D.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Lindauer, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Adjustments in the U-Pu fuel cycle necessitated by decisions made to improve the nonproliferation objectives of the US are examined. The uranium-based fuel cycle, using bred plutonium to provide the fissile enrichment, is the fuel system with the highest degree of commercial development at the present time. However, because purified plutonium can be used in weapons, this fuel cycle is potentially vulnerable to diversion of that plutonium. It does appear that there are technologically sound ways in which the plutonium might be adulterated by admixture with 238 U and/or radioisotopes, and maintained in that state throughout the fuel cycle, so that the likelihood of a successful diversion is small. Adulteration of the plutonium in this manner would have relatively little effect on the operations of existing or planned reactors. Studies now in progress should show within a year or two whether the less expensive coprocessing scheme would provide adequate protection (coupled perhaps with elaborate conventional safeguards procedures) or if the more expensive spiked fuel cycle is needed as in the proposed civex pocess. If the latter is the case, it will be further necessary to determine the optimum spiking level, which could vary as much as a factor of a billion. A very basic question hangs on these determinations: What is to be the nature of the recycle fuel fabrication facilities. If the hot, fully remote fuel fabrication is required, then a great deal of further development work will be required to make the full cycle fully commercial

  14. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.; Leon-Vintro, L.; Smith, K.; Mitchell, P.I.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  15. CONVERSION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE TO PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, S.; Davidson, N.R.

    1957-09-10

    A large proportion of the trifluoride of plutonium can be converted, in the absence of hydrogen fluoride, to the tetrafiuoride of plutonium. This is done by heating plutonium trifluoride with oxygen at temperatures between 250 and 900 deg C. The trifiuoride of plutonium reacts with oxygen to form plutonium tetrafluoride and plutonium oxide, in a ratio of about 3 to 1. In the presence of moisture, plutonium tetrafluoride tends to hydrolyze at elevated temperatures and therefore it is desirable to have the process take place under anhydrous conditions.

  16. Rapid dissolution of plutonium metal in sulfamic acid followed by conversion to a nitric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    Plutonium metal that does not meet product purity specifications and aged plutonium metal into which /sup 241/Am has grown must be recycled through a recovery and purification process. At the Savannah River Plant (SRP), the initial recycle step is dissolution of the metal. Since about 1962, sulfamic acid has been the accepted dissolvent in the SRP process. This paper dicusses the dissolving of plutonium metal in sulfamic aid. 4 refs

  17. A utility analysis of MOX recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaeffli, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents the advantages of recycling of plutonium and uranium from spent reactor fuel assemblies as follows: natural uranium and enrichment savings, mixed oxide fuel (MOX) fuel assembly cost, MOX compatibility with plant operation, high burnups, spent MOX reprocessing, and non-proliferation aspects.Disadvantages of the recycling effort are noted as well: plutonium degradation with time, plutonium availability, in-core fuel management, administrative authorizations by the licensings authorities, US prior consent, and MOX fuel fabrication capacity. Putting the advantages and disadvantages in perspective, it is concluded that the recycling of MOX in light water reactors represents, under the current circumstances, the most appropriate way of making use of the available plutonium

  18. Learning more about plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document offers chemical, metallurgical and economical information on the plutonium, a hard white radioelement. It deals also on the plutonium formation in the earth, the plutonium use in the nuclear industry, the plutonium in the environment and the plutonium toxicity. (A.L.B.)

  19. Plutonium in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium in nature comes from natural sources and anthropogenic ones. Plutonium at the earth surface comes principally from anthropogenic sources. It is easily detectable in environment. The plutonium behaviour in environment is complex. It seems necessary for the future to reduce releases in environment, to improve predictive models of plutonium behaviour in geosphere, to precise biological impact of anthropogenic plutonium releases

  20. Individual economical value of plutonium isotopes and analysis of the reprocessing of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, I.C.; Rubini, L.A.; Barroso, D.E.G.

    1983-01-01

    An economical analysis of plutonium recycle in a PWR reactor, without any modification, is done, supposing an open market for the plutonium. The individual value of the plutonium isotopes is determined solving a system with four equations, which the unknow factors are the Pu-239, Pu-240, pu-241 and Pu-242 values. The equations are obtained equalizing the cost of plutonium fuel cycle of four different isotope mixture to the cost of the uranium fuel cycle. (E.G.) [pt

  1. Long time contamination from plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, M.; Patzeltova, N.; Ragan, P.; Matel, L.

    1995-01-01

    Plutonium isotopes in the organism of the patient (who had participated in the liquidation works after the Chernobyl accident; for three month he had stayed in the epicenter, where he acted as a chauffeur driving a radioactive material to the place of destination) from urine were determined. For determination of the concentration of Pu-239, Pu-240 in urine a modified radiochemical method was used. After mineralization the sample was separated as an anion-nitrate complex with contact by the anion form of the resin in the column. The resin was washed by 8 M HNO 3 , the 8 M HCl with 0.3 M HNO 3 for removing the other radionuclides. The solution 0.36 M HCl with 0.01 M HF was used for the elution of plutonium. Using the lanthanum fluoride technique the sample was filtrated through a membrane filter. The plutonium was detected in the dry sample. The Pu-239 tracer was used for the evaluation of the plutonium separation efficiency. The alpha spectrometric measurements were carried out with a large area silicon detector. The samples were measured and evaluated in the energy region 4.98-5.18 MeV. The detection limit of alpha spectrometry measurements has been 0.01 Bq dm -3 . The concentration of plutonium in the 24-hour urine was determined three times in the quarter year intervals. The results are: 54 mBq, 63.2 mBq, 53 mBq, with average 56,7 mBq. From the results of the analyses of plutonium depositions calculated according to ICRP 54 the intake of this radionuclide for the patient was 56.7 kBq. To estimate a committed effective dose (50 years) from the intake of plutonium was used a conversion factor 6.8.10 -5 Sv.Bq -1 (class W). So the expressed committed effective dose received from the plutonium intake is 3.8 Sv. This number is relatively high and all the effective dose will be higher, because the patient was exposed to the other radionuclides too. For example the determination of the rate radionuclides Am-241/Pu-239,Pu-240 was 32-36 % in the fallout after the Chernobyl

  2. The plutonium ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    'Nuclear Power Issues and Choices' is the title of a recent report which has been performed by a study group sponsored by the Ford Foundation and administered by the MITRE Corporation. The main concern of this study is to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Since the reprocessing of spent fuel elements yields among others plutonium of bomb quality, the report of the Ford Foundation comes to the conclusion that the USA should defer the closing of the fuel cycle, defer the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, deposit the spent fuel elemenets as a whole, and defer the breeder which can not run without fuel reprocessing. The German attitude however is that we can not relinquish on reprocessing and recycling of nuclear fuel because we are lacking such rich resources of coal, oil and uranium as the USA have. Furthermore, the deposition of spent fuel elements may be more dangerous than the deposition of the radioactive waste from reprocessing plants. (orig.) [de

  3. Plutonium-enriched thermal fuel production experience in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Taking into account the strategic aspects of nuclear energy such as availability and sufficiency of resources and independence of energy supply, most countries planning to use plutonium look mainly to its use in fast reactors. However, by recycling the recovered uranium and plutonium in light water reactors, the saving of the uranium that would otherwise be required could already be higher than 35%. Therefore, until fast reactors are introduced, for macro- or microeconomic reasons, the plutonium recycle option seems to be quite valuable for countries having the plutonium technology. In Belgium, Belgonucleaire has been developing the plutonium technology for more than 20 yr and has operated a mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant since 1973. The past ten years of plant operation have provided for many improvements and relevant new documented experiences establishing a basis for new modifications that will be beneficial to the intrinsic quality, overall safety, and economy of the fuel

  4. Plutonium uniqueness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A standard is suggested against which the putative uniqueness of plutonium may be tested. It is common folklore that plutonium is unique among the chemical elements because its four common oxidation states can coexist in the same solution. Whether this putative uniqueness appears only during transit to equilibrium, or only at equilibrium, or all of the time, is not generally made clear. But while the folklore may contain some truth, it cannot be put to test until some measure of 'uniqueness' is agreed upon so that quantitative comparisons are possible. One way of measuring uniqueness is as the magnitude of the product of the mole fractions of the element at equilibrium. A 'coexistence index' is defined and discussed. (author)

  5. Plutonium story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope 238 Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope 239 Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements

  6. Actinide recycle in LMFBRs as a waste management alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaman, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A strategy of actinide burnup in fast reactor systems has been investigated as an approach for reducing the long term hazards and storage requirements of the actinide waste elements and their decay daughters. The actinide recycle studies also included plutonium burnup studies in the event that plutonium is no longer required as a fuel. Particular emphasis was placed upon the timing of the recycle program, the requirements for separability of the waste materials, and the impact of the actinides on the reactor operations and performance. It is concluded that actinide recycle and plutonium burnout are attractive alternative waste management concepts. 25 refs., 14 figs., 34 tabs

  7. NST Quarterly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in nuclear science and technology in Malaysia. It keeps readers informed on the progress of research, services, application of nuclear science and technology, and other technical news. It highlights MINT activities and also announces coming events

  8. NST Quarterly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in nuclear science and technology in Malaysia. It keeps readers informed on the progress of research, services, application of nuclear science and technology, and other technical news. It highlights MINT activities and also announces coming events.

  9. Long time contamination from plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fueloep, M; Patzeltova, N; Ragan, P [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia); Matel, L [Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Department of Nuclear Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    Plutonium isotopes in the organism of the patient (who had participated in the liquidation works after the Chernobyl accident; for three month he had stayed in the epicenter, where he acted as a chauffeur driving a radioactive material to the place of destination) from urine were determined. For determination of the concentration of Pu-239, Pu-240 in urine a modified radiochemical method was used. After mineralization the sample was separated as an anion-nitrate complex with contact by the anion form of the resin in the column. The resin was washed by 8 M HNO{sub 3}, the 8 M HCl with 0.3 M HNO{sub 3} for removing the other radionuclides. The solution 0.36 M HCl with 0.01 M HF was used for the elution of plutonium. Using the lanthanum fluoride technique the sample was filtrated through a membrane filter. The plutonium was detected in the dry sample. The Pu-239 tracer was used for the evaluation of the plutonium separation efficiency. The alpha spectrometric measurements were carried out with a large area silicon detector. The samples were measured and evaluated in the energy region 4.98-5.18 MeV. The detection limit of alpha spectrometry measurements has been 0.01 Bq dm{sup -3}. The concentration of plutonium in the 24-hour urine was determined three times in the quarter year intervals. The results are: 54 mBq, 63.2 mBq, 53 mBq, with average 56,7 mBq. From the results of the analyses of plutonium depositions calculated according to ICRP 54 the intake of this radionuclide for the patient was 56.7 kBq. To estimate a committed effective dose (50 years) from the intake of plutonium was used a conversion factor 6.8.10{sup -5} Sv.Bq{sup -1} (class W). So the expressed committed effective dose received from the plutonium intake is 3.8 Sv. This number is relatively high and all the effective dose will be higher, because the patient was exposed to the other radionuclides too. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large investment. For it to be accepted by the public, safety must be the highest priority and will be pursued at a great cost if necessary. In its history, Japan has learned that as technology advances, costs will come down. The Japanese utility industry will continue investment in technology without compromising safety until the recycling option becomes more competitive with other options. This effort will be equally applied to the development of the commercial FBRs. The Japanese utility industry is confident that Japan's stable policy and strong objective to develop competitive and peaceful technology will contribute to the global economy and the environment without increasing the threat of plutonium proliferation

  11. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1961-01-17

    A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

  12. Radiological safety aspects of handling plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Department of Atomic Energy in its scheme of harnessing the nuclear energy for electrical power generation and strategic applications has given a huge role to utilization of plutonium. In the power production programme, fast reactors with plutonium as fuel are expected to play a major role. This would require establishing fuel reprocessing plants to handle both thermal and fast reactor fuels. So in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities variety of chemical, metallurgical, mechanical operations have to be carried out involving significant inventories of "2"3"9 Pu and associated radionuclides. Plutonium is the most radiotoxic radionuclide and therefore any facility handling it has to be designed and operated with utmost care. Two problems of major concern in the protection of persons working in plutonium handling facilities are the internal exposure to the operating personnel from uptake of plutonium and transplutonic nuclides as they are highly radiotoxic and the radiation exposure of hands and eye lens during fuel fabrication operations especially while handling recycled high burn up plutonium. In view of the fact that annual limit for intake is very small for "2"3"9Pu and its radiation emission characteristics are such that it is a huge challenge for the health physicists to detect Pu in air and in workers. This paper discusses the principles and practices followed in providing radiological surveillance to workers in plutonium handling areas. The challenges in protecting the workers from receiving exposures to hands and eye lens in handling high burn up plutonium are also discussed. The sites having Pu fuel cycle facilities should have trained medical staff to handle cases involving excessive intake of plutonium. (author)

  13. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  14. Environmental aspects of recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansma, R.; Van Gemert, F.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced recycling options were studied. Emphasis was on the production of high-level waste. All other impacts, e.g. emissions, were considered to be of minor importance, since from a technical point of view they can be limited to any desired extent. An objective was to gather data from the industry and to use them in a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of several fuel cycle options. It was necessary to complete our data set with literature data. At the end of our project we could benefit from the results of several Expert Working Groups of OECD/NEA. Detailed information was available for the once-through fuel cycle (OFC) and the fuel cycle with mono recycling of MOX. For the other more advanced fuel cycle options information was of a more qualitative nature. The established set of data was sufficient to conduct a streamlined LCA with focus on waste production for final disposal. Some remarks should be made before comparing the various fuel cycle options studied. The first relates to plutonium that contributes to more than 90% of the radiotoxicity of the spent fuel for more than 1000 centuries. Large concern for transmutation of minor actinides will disproportional if plutonium itself is not eliminated. The second remark is that the fission products contribute potentially very little to the radiotoxicity especially when some long-lived radionuclides after separation are imprisoned in stable matrices to prevent them to be carried by underground water. From all nuclear fuel cycles considered, the MIX cycle in LWRs, with recycling of plutonium and minor actinides has the lowest minor actinides production (0.018 kg/TW e h) and the plutonium production is also quite low (0.06 kg/TW e h). The MIX cycle without minor actinides recycling performs a little better with respect to plutonium production (0.04 kg/TW e h) but has a relatively high minor actinides production (8.7 kg/TW e h). Another conclusion is that burning of minor actinides in fast reactors (MA 0.28 kg/TW e h, Pu 0

  15. Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company process technology and process development. Quarterly report, July 1976--September 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-01

    This quarterly report is the second in a series intended to provide information on research and engineering activities being performed to improve the processing of irradiated reactor fuels, the production of plutonium, and the management of resultant chemical wastes.

  16. Medical and Health Divisions Quarterly Report October 1947 To Jan. 1948

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1948-02-04

    This quarterly report discusses the following topics: (1) the metabolic properties of plutonium and allied materials; (2) biological studies of radiation effects; (3) biological effects of radiation from external and internal zones; and (4) health chemistry.

  17. Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, Marc; Frot, Patricia; Gambini, Denis-Jean; Gauron, Christine; Moureaux, Patrick; Herbelet, Gilbert; Lahaye, Thierry; Pihet, Pascal; Rannou, Alain

    2014-06-01

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Plutonium-239

  18. Appraisal of BWR plutonium burners for energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    The design of BWR cores with plutonium loadings beyond the self-generation recycle (SGR) level is investigated with regard to their possible role as plutonium burners in a nuclear energy center. Alternative plutonium burner approaches are also examined including the substitution of thorium for uranium as fertile material in the BWR and the use of a high-temperature gas reactor (HTGR) as a plutonium burner. Effects on core design, fuel cycle facility requirements, economics, and actinide residues are considered. Differences in net fissile material consumption among the various plutonium-burning systems examined were small in comparison to uncertainties in HTGR, thorium cycle, and high plutonium-loaded LWR technology. Variation in the actinide content of high-level wastes is not likely to be a significant factor in determining the feasibility of alternate systems of plutonium utilization. It was found that after 10,000 years the toxicity of actinide high-level wastes from the plutonium-burning fuel cycles was less than would have existed if the processed natural ores had not been used for nuclear fuel. The implications of plutonium burning and possible future fuel cycle options on uranium resource conservation are examined in the framework of current ERDA estimates of minable uranium resources

  19. International and institutional aspects of reprocessing and plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Various institutional alternatives applicable to reprocessing, plutonium management and recycle are considered, not as a definitive analysis but rather as a basis for identifying the institutional approaches and measures which the Working Group might wish to examine more thoroughly. Seven alternatives arrangements for reprocessing are presented. These range from suspending the operation of existing reprocessing plants through placing national facilities under safeguards to limiting reprocessing to a few large facilities subject to plutonium management, multinational or international control. Finally, the comprehensive alternative of an International Nuclear Fuel Authority with worldwide responsibility for reprocessing and plutonium management is considered. Plutonium management alternatives to complement the reprocessing options, are then outlined. These include national discretion on the separation and disposition of plutonium under safeguards, an agreed Code of Practice for plutonium management at national facilities and the international storage of plutonium. The advantages and disadvantages of the alternative are discussed tentatively. It is recognised that the alternatives are presented in a simplified form and that their elements can be combined or separated in many ways. Although strengthening the institutions relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is imperative and can contribute to non-proliferation, such arrangements might open other proliferation risks through the spread of sensitive materials, facilities and technology. While there are risks with any fuel cycle, where plutonium in quantity is separated these risks are of a high order. Although these can be mitigated, they will have to be set against the energy and economic case for reprocessing and alternatives other than plutonium considered

  20. A UK perspective on recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.

    1991-01-01

    The United Kingdom, through the recycling of depleted uranium from Magnox reactors into Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) fuel, has already recycled significant quantities of reprocessed material in reactors owned by Nuclear Electric plc and Scottish Nuclear Limited. This AGR fuel has been satisfactorily irradiated and discharged over a decade or more, and will be reprocessed in the new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP), currently under construction in the UK. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) and the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) have also been exploiting the potential of plutonium recycled in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, which they have been making since 1963. All of the UK nuclear companies are committed to further recycling of Magnox depleted uranium during the 1990s, and it is anticipated that oxide recycling will also become firmly established during the next decade. British Nuclear Fuels and Urenco Ltd, as the providers of fuel cycle services, are developing an infrastructure to close the fuel cycle for oxide nuclear fuel, using both the uranium and plutonium arising from reprocessing. (author)

  1. Plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved. (orig.) [de

  2. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  3. Plutonium biokinetics in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.; Ham, G.; McCarthy, W.; Lands, C.

    1994-01-01

    By using an 'unusual' isotope it is possible to carry out experiments with plutonium in volunteers at minimal radiation dose levels. Measurements have been made of the gut transfer factor and the urinary excretion of plutonium after intravenous injection. (author)

  4. Plutonium in uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Aguilar, R.; Attrep, M. Jr.; Roensch, F.

    1992-01-01

    Plutonium-239 (t 1/2 , 24,100 yr) is one of the most persistent radioactive constituents of high-level wastes from nuclear fission power reactors. Effective containment of such a long-lived constituent will rely heavily upon its containment by the geologic environment of a repository. Uranium ore deposits offer a means to evaluate the geochemical properties of plutonium under natural conditions. In this paper, analyses of natural plutonium in several ores are compared to calculated plutonium production rates in order to evaluate the degree of retention of plutonium by the ore. The authors find that current methods for estimating production rates are neither sufficiently accurate nor precise to provide unambiguous measures of plutonium retention. However, alternative methods for evaluating plutonium mobility are being investigated, including its measurement in natural ground waters. Preliminary results are reported and establish the foundation for a comprehensive characterization of plutonium geochemistry in other natural environments

  5. Plutonium metal burning facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausburg, D.E.; Leebl, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    A glove-box facility was designed to convert plutonium skull metal or unburned oxide to an oxide acceptable for plutonium recovery and purification. A discussion of the operation, safety aspects, and electrical schematics are included

  6. Plutonium Training Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolkov, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-26

    This report was created to examine the current state of plutonium training in the United States and to discover ways in which to ensure that the next generation of plutonium workers are fully qualified.

  7. General consideration of effective plutonium utilization in future LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Tsutomu

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the potential of mixed oxide fueled light water reactors (MOX-LWRs), especially focusing on the high conversion type LWRs (HC-LWRs) such as FLWR are evaluated in terms of both economic aspect and effective use of plutonium. For economics consideration, relative economics positions of MOX-LWRs are clarified comparing the cost of electricity for uranium fueled LWRs (U-LWRs), MOX-LWRs and fast breeder reactors (FBRs) assuming future natural uranium price raise and variation of parameters such as construction cost and capacity factor. Also the economic superiority of MOX utilization against the uranium use is mentioned from the view point of plutonium credit concerning to the front-end fuel cycle cost. In terms of effective use of plutonium, comparative evaluations on plutonium mass balance in the cases of HC-LWR and high moderation type LWRs (HM-LWRs) taking into account plutonium quality (ratio of fissile to total plutonium) constraint in multiple recycling are performed as representative MOX utilization cases. Through this evaluation, the advantageous features of plutonium multiple recycling by HC-LWR are clarified. From all these results, merits of the introduction of HC-LWRs are discussed. (author)

  8. Optimization and plutonium equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The sequential simplex method has been used to estimate the extent of disproportionation of tetravalent plutonium in dilute acid. A method for simulating potentiometric titrations is proposed, and this method suggests that the stoichiometric end point and the inflection point may not always correspond in the potentiometric titration of plutonium. A possible characteristic equation for the nitrite-plutonium reaction is illustrated, and the method of proportional equations is extended to the iron-plutonium reaction

  9. The generation of denatured reactor plutonium by different options of the fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, C.H.M.; Kessler, G. [Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Research Center Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Denatured (proliferation resistant) reactor plutonium can be generated in a number of different fuel cycle options. First denatured reactor plutonium can be obtained if, instead of low enriched U-235 PWR fuel, re-enriched U-235/U-236 from reprocessed uranium is used (fuel type A). Also the envisaged existing 2,500 t of reactor plutonium (being generated world wide up to the year 2010), mostly stored in intermediate fuel storage facilities at present, could be converted during a transition phase into denatured reactor plutonium by the options fuel type B and D. Denatured reactor plutonium could have the same safeguards standard as present low enriched (<20% U-235) LWR fuel. It could be incinerated by recycling once or twice in PWRs and subsequently by multi-recycling in FRs (CAPRA type or IFRs). Once denatured, such reactor plutonium could remain denatured during multiple recycling. In a PWR, e.g., denatured reactor plutonium could be destroyed at a rate of about 250 kg/GWey. While denatured reactor plutonium could be recycled and incinerated under relieved IAEA safeguards, neptunium would still have to be monitored by the IAEA in future for all cases in which considerable amounts of neptunium are produced. (orig.)

  10. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  11. Optimizing Plutonium stock management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niquil, Y.; Guillot, J.

    1997-01-01

    Plutonium from spent fuel reprocessing is reused in new MOX assemblies. Since plutonium isotopic composition deteriorates with time, it is necessary to optimize plutonium stock management over a long period, to guarantee safe procurement, and contribute to a nuclear fuel cycle policy at the lowest cost. This optimization is provided by the prototype software POMAR

  12. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  13. Plutonium, nuclear fuel; Le plutonium, combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay

    1960-07-01

    A review of the physical properties of metallic plutonium, its preparation, and the alloys which it forms with the main nuclear metals. Appreciation of its future as a nuclear fuel. (author) [French] Apercu sur les proprietes physiques du plutonium metallique, sa preparation, ses alliages avec les principaux metaux nucleaires. Consideration sur son avenir en tant que combustible nucleaire. (auteur)

  14. Plutonium economy. Plutonium-Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traube, K

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved.

  15. The use of plutonium rapides surregenerateurs aspects techniques et economiques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, H.; Delayre, R.; Mougniot, J.C.; Ferrari, A.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear energy production utilizing U 235 and U 238 inevitably results in the formation of plutonium. Some of this is directly used by the reactor in power production. Some reactors, e.g. the Candu type, burn most of their plutonium ''in situ''. However the surplus quantity of plutonium produced is increasing, and by 1990 the world stock of plutonium is predicted to be about 1000 tons (300 tons in Europe and 400 in the USA). This represents approximately 0.1 Q of potential power, where Q=10 21 joules. Proposals for dealing with this plutonium include its storage, either as irradiated fuel or as a refined substance (plutonium nitrate or oxide); its use in thermal reactors as a substitute for U 235 ; its use in fast breeder reactors which can act as consumers of plutonium as well as producers and which can therefore regulate the world's plutonium stocks. Leaving aside the question of storage, certain technical conditions must be fulfilled. It is essential that reprocessing plants should be operational and available in adequate numbers. An industry able to make use of plutonium should be developed with large capacity units. There seem to be no problems with plutonium use in reactors: conclusive experiments have proved the accuracy of calculations regarding plutonium recycling in thermal reactors and a number of fast breeders have proved the possibility of using plutonium in them. Experience acquired during the past ten years permits us to deal with the safety and safeguards problem of using plutonium. Many economic questions remain, however, including questions affecting the utilization of plutonium, such as the cost of regenerating irradiated fuel and of making fuel, and questions affecting the strategy of using plutonium in different ways, such as the price at which it should be sold. Also the cost of producing electricity using plutonium is not yet clear. It is unavoidable that plutonium will be used in nuclear power development. The technical and economic problems

  16. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  17. Japan's spent fuel and plutonium management challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuta, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    2011-01-01

    Japan's commitment to plutonium recycling has been explicitly stated in its long-term program since 1956. Despite the clear cost disadvantage compared with direct disposal or storage of spent fuel, the Rokkasho reprocessing plant started active testing in 2006. Japan's cumulative consumption of plutonium has been only 5 tons to date and its future consumption rate is still uncertain. But once the Rokkasho reprocessing plant starts its full operation, Japan will separate about 8 tons of plutonium annually. Our analysis shows that, with optimum use of available at-reactor and away-from-reactor storage capacity, there would be no need for reprocessing until the mid-2020s. With an additional 30,000 tons of away-from-reactor (AFR) spent-fuel storage capacity reprocessing could be avoided until 2050. Deferring operation of the Rokkasho plant, at least until the plutonium stockpile had been worked down to the minimum required level, would also minimize international concern about Japan's plutonium stockpile. The authors are happy to acknowledge Frank von Hippel, Harold Feiveson, Jungming Kang, Zia Mian, M.V. Ramana, and other IPFM members, as well as the generous grant from the MacArthur Foundation for helping make this research possible.

  18. The use of plutonium in Swedish reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, H.

    1982-09-01

    The report deals with the utilization of plutonium in Swedish nuclear power plants. The plutonium content of the mixed oxide fuel will normally be 3-7 per cent. The processing of spent nuclear fuel will produce about 6 ton plutonium. The use of mixed oxide fuel in Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3 is discussed. The fuel cycle will start with the manufacturing of the fuel elements abroad and proceeds with transport and utilization, storing of spent fuel about 40 years in Sweden followed by direct disposal. The manufacture and use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is based on well-known techniques. Approximately 20 000 MOX fuel rods have been irradiated and the fuel is essentially equivalent to uranium oxide fuel. 30-50 per cent of the core may be composed of MOX-fuel without any effect on the operation and safety of the reactor which has been originally designed for uranium fuel. The evaluation of international fuel cycle (INFCE) states that the proliferation risks are very small. The recycling of plutonium will reduce demand for enriched uranium and the calculations show that 6.3 ton plutonium will replace the enrichment of 600 ton natural uranium. (G.B.)

  19. The plutonium society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mez, L.; Richter, M.

    1981-01-01

    The lectures of an institute are reported on, which took place between 25th and 27th January 1980 in Berlin. The subsequent public panel discussion with representations from the political parties is then documentated in a few press-reports. The themes of the 8 lectures are: views and facts on plutonium, plutonium as an energy resource, military aspects of the production of plutonium, economic aspects of the plutonium economy, the position of the trade unions on the industrial reconversion, the alleged inevitability of a plutonium society and the socio-political alternatives and perspectives of nuclear waste disposal. (UA) [de

  20. Evaluation of fuel cycle options for plutonium utilization: 1977 study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardue, W.M.; Madia, W.J.; Pobereskin, M.; Tripplett, M.B.; Waddell, J.D.

    1977-05-01

    This is the third in a series of three reports on the analysis of plutonium recycle. Analyses are based upon an October, 1976, middle case ERDA forecast of nuclear growth which predicts 510 GWe of nuclear capacity in the year 2000. Four fuel cycle options were reviewed, ranging from no LWR recycle of uranium of plutonium to recycle options both with and without breeder reactors. A special effort was devoted to the review of various estimates of the costs of reprocessing nuclear fuels, with a resulting value of $190/kg of heavy metal (deflated 1975 dollars). The associated range is estimated to $125/kg to $250/kg. Sensitivity analysis of reprocessing costs, uranium consumption, average generation costs, and total discounted costs of electricity indicate that the long-term economic advantages of plutonium recycle are quite conclusive. Nuclear scenarios which project low growth rates and which delay the start of recycle and introduction of a breeder reactor postpone the apparent economic advantages

  1. Simulation and control synthesis for a pulse column separation system for plutonium--uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCutcheon, E.B.

    1975-05-01

    Control of a plutonium-uranium partitioning column was studied using a mathematical model developed to simulate the dynamic response and to test postulated separation mechanisms. The column is part of a plutonium recycle flowsheet developed for the recovery of plutonium and uranium from metallurgical scrap. In the first step of the process, decontamination from impurities is achieved by coextracting plutonium and uranium in their higher oxidation states. In the second step, reduction of the plutonium to a lower oxidation state allows partitioning of the plutonium and uranium. The use of hydroxylamine for the plutonium reduction in this partitioning column is a unique feature of the process. The extraction operations are carried out in pulse columns. (U.S.)

  2. The use of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1980-01-01

    The use of plutonium as a vital energy source producing maximum economic benefit with minimum proliferation risks is discussed. Having considered the production of plutonium, several possible plutonium fuel cycle options are identified and the economic value to be attached to plutonium for each examined. It is shown how the use of plutonium in fast reactors gives an opportunity for a non-proliferation policy not available when plutonium is used only in thermal reactors. From the technical considerations reviewed concerning plutonium and fast reactors it is shown that an economic regime involving international trade in spent thermal reactor fuel is possible which benefits equally those countries with fast reactors and those without and also assists in avoiding the proliferation of nuclear weapons. (U.K.)

  3. Experience with a routine fecal sampling program for plutonium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bihl, D.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Sula, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    A quarterly fecal sampling program was conducted at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford site for congruent to 100 workers at risk for an intake of plutonium oxide and other forms of plutonium. To our surprise, we discovered that essentially all of the workers were excreting detectable activities of plutonium. Further investigation showed that the source was frequent, intermittent intakes at levels below detectability by normal workplace monitoring, indicating the extraordinary sensitivity of fecal sampling. However, the experience of this study also indicated that the increased sensitivity of routine fecal sampling relative to more common bioassay methods is offset by many problems. These include poor worker cooperation; difficulty in distinguishing low-level chronic intakes from a more significant, acute intake; difficulty in eliminating interference from ingested plutonium; and difficulty in interpreting what a single void means in terms of 24-h excretion. Recommendations for a routine fecal program include providing good communication to workers and management about reasons and logistics of fecal sampling prior to starting, using annual (instead of quarterly) fecal sampling for class Y plutonium, collecting samples after workers have been away from plutonium exposure for a least 3 d, and giving serious consideration to improving urinalysis sensitivity rather than going to routine fecal sampling

  4. Plutonium in nature; Le plutonium dans la nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madic, C.

    1994-12-31

    Plutonium in nature comes from natural sources and anthropogenic ones. Plutonium at the earth surface comes principally from anthropogenic sources. It is easily detectable in environment. The plutonium behaviour in environment is complex. It seems necessary for the future to reduce releases in environment, to improve predictive models of plutonium behaviour in geosphere, to precise biological impact of anthropogenic plutonium releases.

  5. Experience with civil plutonium management: Technology and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarimpas, N.; Stevens, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Recent NEA work on plutonium has been, essentially, targeted at economic and scientific aspects and the need to identify suitable technical solutions, despite the existing political uncertainties associated with their implementation. Such studies provide the facts and current views concerning plutonium and its civil use; address questions influencing the choice of fuel cycle options and illustrate how economic and logistic assessments of the alternatives could be undertaken. An ad-hoc expert group, with a membership drawn from fifteen countries and three international organisations, which was formed in early 1994 under the auspices of the NEA, with the task of identifying, examining and evaluating the broad technical questions related to plutonium management, has just published its work. This paper discusses the work and main conclusions of the expert group and focuses on the following two topics: Technologies, already implemented, which provide for short and medium-term storage of plutonium or for recycling the plutonium through reactors. A brief review is provided of experience gained with them and technical commentaries are made on their potential future deployment; Such technologies may, in the longer term, be joined by a further range which are, in some cases, already under development. Attention is drawn to those additional options that may become available. Another NEA expert group studied in detail the economics of the open and closed fuel cycles and reported, in 1994, its main findings: Some economic considerations of importance to various aspects of plutonium recycling are also presented in this paper. (author)

  6. Theme 1: fuel cycle and waste management. 1.3 the nuclear fuel cycle in the future. 1.3.1. thermal recycle of plutonium ''Ongoing industrialization of Purex'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakem, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Purex process has been developed over many years from a process supporting military programmes in the years 1940 with the emphasis on production of a single product to today sophisticated large scale commercial plants designed to separate Uranium and Plutonium as high quality products. The plants have been designed, and are operated so as to discharge minimal aerial and liquid effluents whilst at the same time minimising arisings of liquid and solid waste. The scope of the facilities includes treatment of such wastes to create a form that is suitable for interim storage prior to final disposal. Typical of such plants are Thorp at Sellafield and UP3 at Cap La Hague, where plutonium dioxide is separated for the production of Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX). The paper demonstrates the practical application of improvements to the Purex process at an industrial scale with the constraints imposed by technical, regulatory and commercial requirements. Successful examples will be addressed which illustrate the logical progression from technical concept, strategic decision and option taking, front end engineering definition, design and initial safety approval, regulatory approval leading to effective plant implementation and proving. (author)

  7. Safely disposing and controlling the various forms of excess military plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.

    1991-01-01

    The growing surplus of plutonium will continue to pose safety, health, and verification problems. Although long term storage and disposal of plutonium seems technically feasible, or at least comparable in technical difficulty to commercial spent fuel disposal, significant political obstacles within the government and the public, may make it difficult to solve this problem. Although options to build verifiable warhead dismantlement facilities or to recycle plutonium in reactors and thus convert separated plutonium into irradiated fuel are straight forward concepts, their realization remains difficult for economic and political reasons. The plutonium recycle option also raises additional proliferation concerns about its impact on civilian nuclear programs. In the absence of a long term solution, the United States can implement various storage or interim disposal options that involve minimal processing, but that ease verification problems and provide adequate safety and protection of public health

  8. Properties of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jin Su; Yoon, Hwan Ki; Min, Kyung Sik; Kim, Hyun Tae; Ahn, Jong Sung; Kwag, Eon Ho; Ryu, Keon Joong

    1996-03-01

    Plutonium has unique chemical and physical properties. Its uniqueness in use has led to rare publications, in Korea. This report covers physical aspects of phase change of metal plutonium, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, etc, chemical aspects of corrosion, oxidation, how to produce plutonium from spent fuels by describing various chemical treatment methods, which are currently used and were used in the past. It also contains characteristics of the purex reprocessing process which is the most widely used nowadays. And show processes to purify and metalize from recovered plutonium solution. Detection and analysis methods are introduced with key pints for handling, critical safety, toxicity, and effects on peoples. This report gives not only a general idea on what plutonium is, rather than deep technical description, but also basic knowledge on plutonium production and safeguards diversion from the view point of nonproliferation. 18 refs. (Author) .new

  9. Properties of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jin Su; Yoon, Hwan Ki; Min, Kyung Sik; Kim, Hyun Tae; Ahn, Jong Sung; Kwag, Eon Ho; Ryu, Keon Joong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    Plutonium has unique chemical and physical properties. Its uniqueness in use has led to rare publications, in Korea. This report covers physical aspects of phase change of metal plutonium, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, etc, chemical aspects of corrosion, oxidation, how to produce plutonium from spent fuels by describing various chemical treatment methods, which are currently used and were used in the past. It also contains characteristics of the purex reprocessing process which is the most widely used nowadays. And show processes to purify and metalize from recovered plutonium solution. Detection and analysis methods are introduced with key pints for handling, critical safety, toxicity, and effects on peoples. This report gives not only a general idea on what plutonium is, rather than deep technical description, but also basic knowledge on plutonium production and safeguards diversion from the view point of nonproliferation. 18 refs. (Author) .new.

  10. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, D.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE's stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities

  11. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  12. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Because cigarette smokers constitute a large fraction of the population, a synergistic effect of plutonium and cigarette smoke might influence estimates of the health risk for plutonium and other transuranics released to the environment

  13. Unconventional recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K.M.

    1996-05-01

    Despite advances made in recycling technology and markets for materials over the past few years, recycling at convention centers, particularly on the show floor itself, can be a vexing problem. Part of the problem lies in the fact that recycling at convention centers has more to do with logistics than it does with these industry trends. However, given the varied nature of convention centers, and the shows they book, a rigid approach to recycling at convention centers is not always feasible. Like the numerous different curbside programs serving communities across the country, what works for one convention center--and one show--many not work for another. These difficulties notwithstanding, more convention centers are offering recycling programs today, and more groups booking conventions these days have begun requesting recycling services.

  14. Perspective on plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is intended as a brief overview on the element plutonium. Plutonium is the first primarily man-made element to play a significant role not only in technological development, but also in the economic growth of many countries. The importance of plutonium centers around its enormous energy making it ideal for wide-scale use in reactors, while the nuclear industry continues to work toward improving safety and efficiency of plutonium as a reactor fuel politicians and the public still debate over the safety and benefits of nuclear power. (30 refs.)

  15. Development of recycling processes for clean rejected MOX fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khot, P.M.; Singh, G.; Shelke, B.K.; Surendra, B.; Yadav, M.K.; Mishra, A.K.; Afzal, Mohd.; Panakkal, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry and wet (MWDD) methods were developed for 100% recycling of CRO (0.4–44% PuO 2 ). • Dry method showed higher productivity and comparable powder/product characteristics. • MWDD batches demonstrated improved powder/product characteristics to that of virgin. • Second/multiple recycling is possible with MWDD with better powder/product characteristics. • MWDD batches prepared by little milling showed better macroscopic homogeneity to that of virgin. - Abstract: The dry and wet recycling processes have been developed for 100% recycling of Clean Reject Oxide (CRO) generated during the fabrication of MOX fuel, as CRO contains significant amount of plutonium. Plutonium being strategic material need to be circumvented from its proliferation issues related to its storage for long period. It was difficult to recycle CRO containing higher Pu content even with multiple oxidation and reduction steps. The mechanical recycling comprising of jaw crushing and sieving has been coupled with thermal pulverization for recycling CRO with higher Pu content in dry recycling technique. In wet recycling, MicroWave Direct Denitration (MWDD) technique has been developed for 100% recycling of CRO. The powder prepared by dry and wet (MWDD) recycling techniques was characterized by XRD and BET techniques and their effects on the pellets were evaluated. (U,21%Pu)O 2 pellets fabricated from virgin powder and MWDD were characterized using optical microscopy and α-autoradiography and the results obtained were compared

  16. Nuclear recycling, RECOD 98. Proceedings of the 5. international nuclear conference on recycling, conditioning and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this conference is to study the reprocessing, industrial experience, technology development and advances make an important part. The plutonium recycling and the mixed oxide fuels are tackled. A part is devoted to the safety and environmental issues as decommissioning and site remediation. Waste management, interim storage and disposal are also studied. (N.C.)

  17. Actinide recycling in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Wiese, H.W.; Krieg, B.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is an assessment of the transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products and the incineration of plutonium for reducing the risk potential of radioactive waste from reactors in comparison to direct waste disposal. The contribution gives an interim account on homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling of 'risk nuclides' in thermal and fast reactors. Important results: - A homogeneous 5 percent admixture of minor actinides (MA) from N4-PWRs to EFR fuel would allow a transmutation not only of the EFR MA, but in addition of the MA from 5 or 6 PWRs of equal power. However, the incineration is restricted by safety considerations. - LWR have only a very low MA incineration potential, due to their disadvantageous neutron capture/fission ratio. - In order to keep the Cm inventory at a low level, it is advantageous to concentrate the Am heterogeneously in particular fuel elements or rods. (orig./HP)

  18. Study on material attractiveness aspect of spent nuclear fuel of LWR and FBR cycles based on isotopic plutonium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Saito, Masaki; Novitrian,; Waris, Abdul; Suud, Zaki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper analyzes the plutonium production of recycling nuclear fuel option. • To evaluate material attractiveness based on intrinsic feature of material barrier. • Evaluation based on isotopic plutonium composition of spent fuel LWR and FBR. • Even mass number of plutonium gives a significant contribution to material barrier, in particular Pu-238 and Pu-240. • Doping MA in FBR blanket is effective to increase material barrier from weapon grade plutonium to more than MOX fuel grade. - Abstract: Recycling minor actinide (MA) as well as used uranium and plutonium can be considered to reduce nuclear waste production as well as to increase the intrinsic aspect of nuclear nonproliferation as doping material. Plutonium production as a significant aspect of recycling nuclear fuel option, gives some advantages and challenges, such as fissile material utilization of plutonium as well as production of some even mass number plutonium. The study intends to evaluate the material attractiveness based on the intrinsic feature of material barrier such as plutonium composition, decay heat and spontaneous fission neutron components from spent fuel (SF) light water reactor (LWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) cycles. A significant contribution has been shown by decay heat (DH) and spontaneous fission neutron (SFN) of even mass number of plutonium isotopes to the total DH and SFN of plutonium element, in particular from isotopic plutonium Pu-238 and Pu-240 contributions. Longer decay cooling time and higher burnup are effective to increase the material barrier (DH and SFN) level from reactor grade plutonium level to MOX grade plutonium level. Material barrier of plutonium element from spent fuel (SF) FBR in the core regions has similarity to the material barrier profile of SF LWR which can be categorized as MOX fuel grade plutonium. Plutonium compositions, DH and SFN components are categorized as weapon grade plutonium level for FBR blanket regions with no

  19. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to determine whether cigarette smoking increases the probability of plutonium-induced lung cancer. Initial experiments, designed to characterize the effect of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of plutonium aerosols, are described

  20. Plutonium valence state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    A calculational method for ascertaining equilibrium valence state distributions of plutonium in acid solutions as a function of the plutonium oxidation number and the solution acidity is illustrated with an example. The method may be more practical for manual use than methods based upon polynomial equations. (T.G.)

  1. Flexible plutonium management with IFR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    From the earliest days of the development of peaceful nuclear power, it has been recognized that efficient utilization of nuclear fuel resources requires a closed fuel cycle (recycle). With a closed cycle, essentially all the energy content of mined uranium can be used, whereas a once-through light water reactor (LWR) cycle uses only ∼0.5%. Since weapons programs have used the PUREX process to extract plutonium, it has further been assumed that this is the appropriate technology for closing the uranium fuel cycle. In the United States, these assumptions were put into question by concerns over commerce in separated plutonium and the threat of diversion of this material for weapons use

  2. The toxicity of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    Shipments of plutonium occasionally pass around the Cape coastal waters on its way to Japan from Europe. This invariably leads to a great deal of speculation of the dangers involved and of the extreme toxicity of plutonium, with the media and environmental groups claiming that (a) plutonium is the most toxic substance known to man, and that (b) a few kilograms of plutonium ground finely and dispersed in the atmosphere could kill every human being on earth. Comparisons with other poisons are drawn, e.g. common inorganic chemicals and biological agents. The original scare around the extraordinary toxicity of Pu seems to have started in 1974 with the claims of Tamplin and Cochran's hot particle theory about plutonium lodging in the sensitive portions of the lungs in small concentrated aggregates where they are much more effective in producing cancers. This theory, however, is regarded as thoroughly discredited by the experts in the field of radiotoxicity. 8 refs

  3. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  4. Plutonium roundtable discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penneman, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version

  5. Plutonium storage phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szempruch, R.

    1995-12-01

    Plutonium has been produced, handled, and stored at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities since the 1940s. Many changes have occurred during the last 40 years in the sources, production demands, and end uses of plutonium. These have resulted in corresponding changes in the isotopic composition as well as the chemical and physical forms of the processed and stored plutonium. Thousands of ordinary food pack tin cans have been used successfully for many years to handle and store plutonium. Other containers have been used with equal success. This paper addressees the exceptions to this satisfactory experience. To aid in understanding the challenges of handling plutonium for storage or immobilization the lessons learned from past storage experience and the necessary countermeasures to improve storage performance are discussed

  6. Plutonium metal preparation and purification at Los Alamos, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.; McNeese, J.A.; Fife, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    Plutonium metal preparation and purification are well established at Los Alamos. Metal is prepared by calcothermic reduction of both PuF 4 and PuO 2 . Metal is purified by halide slagging, casting, and electrorefining. The product from the production sequence is ultrapure plutonium metal. All of the processes involve high temperature operation and all but casting involve molten salt media. Development efforts are fourfold: (1) recover plutonium values from residues; (2) reduce residue generation through process improvements and changes; (3) recycle of reagents, and (4) optimize and integrate all processes into a close-loop system. Plutonium residues are comprised of oxides, chlorides, colloidal metal suspensions, and impure metal heels. Pyrochemical recovery techniques are under development to address each residue. In addition, we are looking back at each residue generation step and are making process changes to reduce plutonium content in each residue. Reagent salt is the principle media used in pyrochemical processing. The regeneration and recycle of these reagents will both reduce our waste handling and operating expense. The fourth area, process optimization, involves both existing processes and new process developments. A status of efforts in all four of these areas will be summarized

  7. Plutonium Management, Minor Actinides Partitioning and Transmutation R and D in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavedon, Jean-Marc; Courtois, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Jean-Marc Cavedon (CEA, France) then presented the developments concerning Plutonium management and minor actinides P and T research and development in France. By the 1991 law on high-level long-lived radioactive waste a research programme was launched in the areas: (i) geological disposal, (ii) conditioning and long-term storage, and (iii) radiotoxicity reduction by P and T. The results of the work in these areas will be presented to the French Government and Parliament in 2006. The control of Plutonium stocks generated by the French PWRs is proposed to increase Plutonium consumption in reactors and minimise radioactive waste production, and requires the recycling of actinides, especially Plutonium. In the long term, CEA intends to develop a new technology based on gas cooled reactors and their associated fuel cycle, including multiple recycling of Plutonium. The advantages of this development consist in the optimisation of the use of natural resources and the concentration of Plutonium in limited quantities of fuel rods. If needed, the minor actinides could also be recycled. The planned CEA developments depend on new fuel types and will lead to novel waste types (light glasses) with a reduction of long-term radiotoxicity. Radiotoxicity reductions by a factor of 3 to 5 are expected for Plutonium recycling scenarios, and by up to a factor of a few hundreds for Plutonium and minor actinides recycling scenarios. This gain is nearly independent on the reactor type used, but needs about 100 years of application to become effective in terms of making a difference in the total waste inventory to be disposed of

  8. Recycling experience in the UK - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.

    1991-01-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) has been commercially recycling uranium and developing the technology for the recycle of plutonium from reprocessing of spent fuel for more than two decades. In this article, a spokesman from British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) describes the current experience of recycling in the UK and identifies the remaining technical and strategic elements being implemented to develop fully the recycle of all the products of reprocessing. He also discusses the economic and commercial benefits of using mixed oxide fuels now and in the future. (author)

  9. A portable concentrator for processing plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Chen, L.

    1995-01-01

    A horizontal, agitated film concentrator designed to concentrate liquid streams to a high solid content slurry is briefly described. The Rototherm unit is being studied for use at US Department of Energy facilities to handle large quantities of aqueous plutonium solutions. Capabilities for evaporating more than 98% of the water present in a single pass have been demonstrated. Decontamination factors of 10 6 to 10 7 are expected. The unit may also be useful for recycling aqueous waste treatment reagents from the decontamination of gaseous diffusion plants

  10. Toxicology of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    Data are reviewed from studies on the toxicity of Pu in experimental animals. Of the several plutonium isotopes, only 238 Pu and 239 Pu have been studied well. Sufficient results have been obtained to show that the behavior of 238 Pu in biological systems and the resulting biological effects cannot be precisely predicted from studies of 239 Pu. This probably applies also to other radiologically important plutonium isotopes which have half-lives ranging from 45 days to 10 7 years and decay by β-emission, electron capture, and spontaneous fission, as well as by emission of α-particles. All the biological effects of plutonium described in this review are attributed to alpha-particle radiation emitted by the plutonium. However, since plutonium is a chemically active heavy metal, one cannot ignore the possibility of chemical toxicity of the low-specific-activity isotopes, 239 Pu, 242 Pu, and 244 Pu. The preponderance of our knowledge of plutonium toxicology has come from short-term studies of relatively high dosage levels in several animal species. The consequences of high-level internal exposures can be predicted with confidence in experimental animals and probably also in man. However, considering the care with which plutonium is handled in the nuclear industry, a high-level contamination event is unlikely. Considerably less is known about the long-term effects of low levels of contamination. (250 references) (U.S.)

  11. Plutonium fecal and urinary excretion functions: Derivation from a systematic whole-body retention function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C.; Lee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Liver-bile secretion directly influences the content of plutonium in feces. To assess the reliability of plutonium metabolic models and to improve the accuracy of interpreting plutonium fecal data, the authors developed a compartmental model that simulates the metabolism of plutonium in humans. With this model, they can describe the transport of plutonium contaminants in the systemic organs and tissues of the body, including fecal and urine excretions, without using elaborate kinetic information. The parameter values of the models, which describe the translocation rates and recycling of plutonium in the body, can be derived from a multi-term exponential systemic function for whole-body retention. The analytical derivations and algorithms for solving translocation parameter values are established for the model and illustrated by applying them to the biokinetics and bioassay of plutonium. This study describes how to (1) design a physiological model for incorporating liver biliary secretion and for obtaining a fecal-excretion function, (2) develop an analytical solution for identifying the translocation-parameter values incorporating the recycling of plutonium in the body, and (3) derive a set of urinary and fecal excretion-functions from a published systemic whole-body retention function, generally acknowledged to be accurate, as a real and practical example

  12. The plutonium danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiter, W. de

    1983-01-01

    Nobody can ignore the fact that plutonium is potentially very dangerous and the greatest danger concerning it lies in the spreading of nuclear weapons via nuclear energy programmes. The following seven different attitudes towards this problem are presented and discussed: 1) There is no connection between peaceful and military applications; 2) The problem cannot be prevented; 3) A technical solution must be found; 4) plutonium must be totally inaccessible to countries involved in acquiring nuclear weapons; 5) The use of plutonium for energy production should only occur in one multinational centre; 6) Dogmas in the nuclear industry must be enfeebled; 7) All developments in this area should stop. (C.F.)

  13. Automation of plutonium spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.J.; Boisde, G.; Goujon de Beauvivier, M.; Chevalier, G.; Isaac, M.

    1980-01-01

    Instrumentation was designed and constructed for automatic control of plutonium by molecular absorption spectrophotometry, on behalf of the reprocessing facilities, to meet two objectives: on-line measurement, of the valency state of plutonium, on by-pass, with the measured concentration covering the process concentration range up to a few mg.l -1 ; laboratory measurement of plutonium adjusted to valency VI, with operation carried out using a preparative system meeting the required containment specifications. For this two objectives, the photometer, optical cell connections are made by optical fibers resistant to β, γ radiation. Except this characteristic the devices are different according to the quality required for result [fr

  14. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy's response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department's Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B

  15. Plutonium Plant, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, J.S.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    The journey of Indian nuclear fuel reprocessing started with the commissioning of Plutonium Plant (PP) at Trombay on 22"n"d January, 1965 with an aim to reprocess the spent fuel from research reactor CIRUS. The basic process chosen for the plant was Plutonium Uranium Reduction EXtraction (PUREX) process. In seventies, the plant was subjected to major design modifications and replacement of hardware, which later met the additional demand from research reactor DHRUVA. The augmented plutonium plant has been operating since 1983. Experience gained from this plant was very much helpful to design future reprocessing plant in the country

  16. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, D. [Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.

  17. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Progress was made on two fronts during the past year. The autoradiographic technique developed from detection of plutonium on the interior surface of pulmonary airways (Annual Report, 1978) has been adapted to routine use in examining tracheas and bronchi of rats. Also, dogs exposed to cigarette smoke for over a year after inhalation of plutonium were killed and necropsied

  18. Plutonium spectrophotometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Cassaniti, P.; Orosco, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    Plutonium ions in solution have absorption spectra so different that it is possible to use them for analytical purposes. Detailed studies have been performed in nitric solutions. Some very convenient methods for the determination of plutonium and its oxidation states, especially the ratios Pu(III):Pu(IV) and Pu(IV):Pu(VI) in a mixture of both, have been developed. These methods are described in this paper, including: a) Absorption spectra for plutonium (III), (IV), (VI) and mixtures. b) Relative extinction coefficients for the above mentioned species. c) Dependences of the relative extinction coefficients on the nitric acid concentration and the plutonium VI deviation from the Beer-Lambert law. The developed methods are simple and rapid and then, suitable in process control. Accuracy is improved when relative absorbance measurements are performed or controlled the variables which have effect on the spectra and extinction coefficients. (Author) [es

  19. French plutonium management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2002-01-01

    The French plutonium management program is summarized in this paper. The program considers nuclear generation as a major component of national electric power supply and includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. (author)

  20. Plutonium safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvehlov, Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract, prepared on the basis of materials of the IAEA new leadership on the plutonium safe handling and its storage (the publication no. 9 in the Safety Reports Series), aimed at presenting internationally acknowledged criteria on the radiation danger evaluation and summarizing the experience in the safe management of great quantities of plutonium, accumulated in the nuclear states, is presented. The data on the weapon-class and civil plutonium, the degree of its danger, the measures for provision of its safety, including the data on accident radiation consequences with the fission number 10 18 , are presented. The recommendations, making it possible to eliminate the super- criticality danger, as well as ignition and explosion, to maintain the tightness of the facility, aimed at excluding the radioactive contamination and the possibility of internal irradiation, to provide for the plutonium security, physical protection and to reduce irradiation are given [ru

  1. Determination of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate gravimetric method for determining the concentration of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions and reference solutions, containing between 100 and 300 g of plutonium per litre, in a nitric acid medium. The weighed portion of the plutonium nitrate is treated with sulfuric acid and evaporated to dryness. The plutonium sulfate is decomposed and formed to oxide by heating in air. The oxide is ignited in air at 1200 to 1250 deg. C and weighed as stoichiometric plutonium dioxide, which is stable and non-hygroscopic

  2. Self-protection in dry recycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.; Wade, D.; Stanford, G.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the INFCE conclusions, the U.S. undertook development of a new dry fuel cycle. Dry recycle processes have been demonstrated to be feasible. Safeguarding such fuel cycles will be dramatically simpler than the PUREX fuel cycle. At every step of the processes, the materials meet the open-quotes spent-fuel standard.close quotes The scale is compatible with collocation of power reactors and their recycle facility, eliminating off-site transportation and storage of plutonium-bearing materials. Material diverted either covertly or overtly would be difficult (relative to material available by other means) to process into weapons feedstock

  3. Plutonium in coniferous forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Kostiainen, E.

    2002-01-01

    Our aim was to study the uptake of plutonium by trees, undervegetation and some wild foods. The ratio of 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu in soil samples was determined for comparisons of the fallout origin. In twelve years the Chernobyl derived plutonium has not reached the mineral soil. This refers to a very slow downward migration in podsolic soil. The study confirmed also the low Pu uptake by vegetation and an insignificant contribution to human doses through wild foods. (au)

  4. Analysis of nuclear proliferation resistance reprocessing and recycling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Gary Cerefice; Marcela Stacey; Steven Bakhtiar

    2011-05-01

    The PUREX process has been progressively and continuously improved during the past three decades, and these improvements account for successful commercialization of reprocessing in a few countries. The renewed interest in nuclear energy and the international growth of nuclear electricity generation do not equate – and should not be equated -with increasing proliferation risks. Indeed, the nuclear renaissance presents a unique opportunity to enhance the culture of non-proliferation. With the recent revival of interest in nuclear technology, technical methods for prevention of nuclear proliferation are being revisited. Robust strategies to develop new advanced separation technologies are emerging worldwide for sustainability and advancement of nuclear energy with enhanced proliferation resistance. On the other hand, at this moment, there are no proliferation resistance advanced technologies. . Until now proliferation resistance as it applies to reprocessing has been focused on not separating a pure stream of weapons-usable plutonium. France, as an example, has proposed a variant of the PUREX process, the COEX TM process, which does not result on a pure plutonium product stream. A further step is to implement a process based on group extraction of actinides and fission products associated with a homogeneous recycling strategy (UNEX process in the US, GANEX process in France). Such scheme will most likely not be deployable on an industrial scale before 2030 or so because it requires intensive R&D and robust flowsheets. Finally, future generation recycling schemes will handle the used nuclear fuel in fast neutron reactors. This means that the plutonium throughput of the recycling process may increase. The need is obvious for advanced aqueous recycling technologies that are intrinsically more proliferation resistant than the commercial PUREX process. In this paper, we review the actual PUREX process along with the advanced recycling technologies that will enhance

  5. Analysis of nuclear proliferation resistance reprocessing and recycling technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Cerefice, Gary; Stacey, Marcela; Bakhtiar, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The PUREX process has been progressively and continuously improved during the past three decades, and these improvements account for successful commercialization of reprocessing in a few countries. The renewed interest in nuclear energy and the international growth of nuclear electricity generation do not equate - and should not be equated - with increasing proliferation risks. Indeed, the nuclear renaissance presents a unique opportunity to enhance the culture of non-proliferation. With the recent revival of interest in nuclear technology, technical methods for prevention of nuclear proliferation are being revisited. Robust strategies to develop new advanced separation technologies are emerging worldwide for sustainability and advancement of nuclear energy with enhanced proliferation resistance. On the other hand, at this moment, there are no proliferation resistance advanced technologies. Until now proliferation resistance as it applies to reprocessing has been focused on not separating a pure stream of weapons-usable plutonium. France, as an example, has proposed a variant of the PUREX process, the COEX TM process, which does not result on a pure plutonium product stream. A further step is to implement a process based on group extraction of actinides and fission products associated with a homogeneous recycling strategy (UNEX process in the US, GANEX process in France). Such scheme will most likely not be deployable on an industrial scale before 2030 or so because it requires intensive R and D and robust flowsheets. Finally, future generation recycling schemes will handle the used nuclear fuel in fast neutron reactors. This means that the plutonium throughput of the recycling process may increase. The need is obvious for advanced aqueous recycling technologies that are intrinsically more proliferation resistant than the commercial PUREX process. In this paper, we review the actual PUREX process along with the advanced recycling technologies that will enhance

  6. Development of an expert system for analysis of plutonium processing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeringter, S.T.; Fasel, J.H.; Kornreich, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) an expert system has been developed for the analysis and assessment of plutonium processing operations. This system is based upon an object-oriented simulation environment specifically developed for the needs of nuclear material processing. The simulation environment, called the ''Process Modeling System'' (ProMoS), contains a library of over 250 plutonium-based unit process operations ranging from analytical chemistry, oxide operations, recycle and recovery, waste management, and component fabrication. (author)

  7. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 3 September 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with Switzerland's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines'), has made available a document concerning the Swiss Policy on Nuclear Energy and Recycling of Plutonium

  8. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  9. Plutonium-236 traces determination in plutonium-238 by α spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M.L.; Pottier, R.; Berger, R.

    1969-01-01

    Two methods are described in this report for the determination of plutonium-236 traces in plutonium-238 by a spectrometry using semi-conductor detectors. The first method involves a direct comparison of the areas under the peaks of the α spectra of plutonium-236 and plutonium-238. The electrolytic preparation of the sources is carried out after preliminary purification of the plutonium. The second method makes it possible to determine the 236 Pu/ 238 Pu ratio by comparing the areas of the α peaks of uranium-232 and uranium-234, which are the decay products of the two plutonium isotopes respectively. The uranium in the source, also deposited by electrolysis, is separated from a 1 mg amount of plutonium either by a T.L.A. extraction, or by the use of ion-exchange resins. The report ends with a discussion of the results obtained with plutonium of two different origins. (authors) [fr

  10. EDF research scenarios for closing the Plutonium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Mer, Joël; Garzenne, Claude; Lemasson, David

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: → There are various solutions to plutonium fuel closure; → Natural uranium consumption is reduced: • Full generation IV fleet is obviously the most efficient; • Symbiotic fleet makes a better use of its advanced reactors. → Plutonium inventory reaches an equilibrium between 700 tons and 1150 tons. • The multi-recycling of spent MOX fuel must be a long term solution in order to reduce significantly the plutonium inventory. → Spent fuel storage is reduced when MOX spent fuel are reprocessed but sodium pools are challenging. → Fast reactors are not the only solution to use MOX spent fuel: • HCPWR is a roundabout solution: – the reduction of natural uranium is limited; – the high level waste production is high. – The reprocessing plant capacity must be increased during deployment phase → R&D must be continued to improve HCPWR design

  11. Advanced plutonium assembly (apa): evolution of the concept, neutron and thermal-mechanic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, J.; Gastaldi, B.; Krakowiak-Aillaud, C.; Buffe, L.

    2002-01-01

    The APA concept was developed with the aim of increasing the PWR capacity to burn plutonium emerging from the recycling of irradiated fuels in the French park of nuclear power plants. At first, a concept using annular pins was optimised to allow a good consumption of plutonium while preserving an acceptable neutron control. To cope with the technological problems and those posed by the manufacture of these annular pins, an alternative concept is presented here. It poses as initial conditions the conservation of both the plutonium balance and the respect of the reactivity control. (authors)

  12. Conversion of metal plutonium to plutonium dioxide by pyrochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panov, A.V.; Subbotin, V.G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, ALL-Russian Science and Research Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Mashirev, V.P. [ALL-Russian Science and Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    Report contains experimental results on metal plutonium of weapon origin samples conversion to plutonium dioxide by pyrochemical method. Circuits of processes are described. Their advantages and shortcomings are shown. Parameters of plutonium dioxide powders (phase and fraction compositions, poured density) manufactured by pyrochemical method in RFNC-VNIITF are shown as well. (authors)

  13. Separation of Plutonium from Irradiated Fuels and Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Leonard W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Holliday, Kiel S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Murray, Alice [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Thompson, Major [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Thorp, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yarbro, Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Venetz, Theodore J. [Hanford Site, Benton County, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Spent nuclear fuel from power production reactors contains moderate amounts of transuranium (TRU) actinides and fission products in addition to the still slightly enriched uranium. Originally, nuclear technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuel for military purposes. Military plutonium separations had essentially ceased by the mid-1990s. Reprocessing, however, can serve multiple purposes, and the relative importance has changed over time. In the 1960’s the vision of the introduction of plutonium-fueled fast-neutron breeder reactors drove the civilian separation of plutonium. More recently, reprocessing has been regarded as a means to facilitate the disposal of high-level nuclear waste, and thus requires development of radically different technical approaches. In the last decade or so, the principal reason for reprocessing has shifted to spent power reactor fuel being reprocessed (1) so that unused uranium and plutonium being recycled reduce the volume, gaining some 25% to 30% more energy from the original uranium in the process and thus contributing to energy security and (2) to reduce the volume and radioactivity of the waste by recovering all long-lived actinides and fission products followed by recycling them in fast reactors where they are transmuted to short-lived fission products; this reduces the volume to about 20%, reduces the long-term radioactivity level in the high-level waste, and complicates the possibility of the plutonium being diverted from civil use – thereby increasing the proliferation resistance of the fuel cycle. In general, reprocessing schemes can be divided into two large categories: aqueous/hydrometallurgical systems, and pyrochemical/pyrometallurgical systems. Worldwide processing schemes are dominated by the aqueous (hydrometallurgical) systems. This document provides a historical review of both categories of reprocessing.

  14. METHOD OF PRODUCING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, W.B.; Smith, R.C.

    1959-12-15

    A process is presented for preparing plutonium tetrafluoride from plutonium(IV) oxalate. The oxalate is dried and decomposed at about 300 deg C to the dioxide, mixed with ammonium bifluoride, and the mixture is heated to between 50 and 150 deg C whereby ammonium plutonium fluoride is formed. The ammonium plutonium fluoride is then heated to about 300 deg C for volatilization of ammonium fluoride. Both heating steps are preferably carried out in an inert atmosphere.

  15. The economic and environmental benefits of reprocessing and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, R.

    1977-01-01

    Recently published reports and papers on the economic, environmental and resource conservation benefits of reprocessing and the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors provide an important background to the essentially political discussions in the United States on non-proliferation. Some of the main arguments and conclusions are presented. (author)

  16. Treatment-recycling, the 3. generation is launched

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, V.

    2006-01-01

    Areva has developed an integrated facility for the reprocessing and recycling of spent fuels. The key point of this new concept is the 'Coex' process which allows to jointly process the uranium and plutonium of MOX fuels. The first facility of this type will be built by 2020. Short paper. (J.S.)

  17. Aqueous Solution Chemistry of Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, David L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Things I have learned working with plutonium: Chemistry of plutonium is complex; Redox equilibria make Pu solution chemistry particularly challenging in the absence of complexing ligands; Understanding this behavior is key to successful Pu chemistry experiments; There is no suitable chemical analog for plutonium.

  18. Spent fuel, plutonium and nuclear waste: long-term management; Le combustible use et le plutonium en tant que dechets nucleaires: gestion a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, G

    1998-11-01

    Different options for the management of nuclear waste arising from the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Special emphasis is on reprocessing followed by geological disposal, geological disposal of reprocessing waste, direct geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, long term storage. Particular emphasis is on the management of plutonium including recycling, immobilisation and disposal, partitioning and transmutation.

  19. Plutonium microstructures. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    This report is the first of three parts in which Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory metallographers exhibit a consolidated set of illustrations of inclusions that are seen in plutonium metal as a consequence of inherent and tramp impurities, alloy additions, and thermal or mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of nonmetallic and intermetallic inclusions characteristic of major impurity elements as an aid to identifying unknowns. It also describes historical aspects of the increased purity of laboratory plutonium samples, and it gives the composition of the etchant solutions and describes the etching procedure used in the preparation of each illustrated sample. 25 figures

  20. Potentiometric titration of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    In the potentiometric titration of plutonium(III), it has been customary to take the equivalence point as the inflection point on a plot of potential vs. volume of titrant. It have not been, however, demonstrated, that the stoichiometric end point corresponds to the inflection point. Suggestions are made according to which these points may not correspond in the potentiometric titration of plutonium(III), as these titrations are ordinarily concluded in a period of time which is short compared to the time required for valence state rearrangement through disproportionation. (T.G.)

  1. Precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and calcination to plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Orosco, E.H.; Cassaniti, P.; Greco, L.; Adelfang, P.

    1989-01-01

    The plutonium based fuel fabrication requires the conversion of the plutonium nitrate solution from nuclear fuel reprocessing into pure PuO2. The conversion method based on the precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and subsequent calcination has been studied in detail. In this procedure, plutonium (III) oxalate is precipitated, at room temperature, by the slow addition of 1M oxalic acid to the feed solution, containing from 5-100 g/l of plutonium in 1M nitric acid. Before precipitation, the plutonium is adjusted to trivalent state by addition of 1M ascorbic acid in the presence of an oxidation inhibitor such as hydrazine. Finally, the precipitate is calcinated at 700 deg C to obtain PuO2. A flowsheet is proposed in this paper including: a) A study about the conditions to adjust the plutonium valence. b) Solubility data of plutonium (III) oxalate and measurements of plutonium losses to the filtrate and wash solution. c) Characterization of the obtained products. Plutonium (III) oxalate has several potential advantages over similar conversion processes. These include: 1) Formation of small particle sizes powder with good pellets fabrication characteristics. 2) The process is rather insensitive to most process variables, except nitric acid concentration. 3) Ambient temperature operations. 4) The losses of plutonium to the filtrate are less than in other conversion processes. (Author) [es

  2. Analysis of boiling water reactors capacities for the 100% MOX fuel recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoche, Dietrich

    1999-01-01

    The electro-nuclear park exploitation leads to plutonium production. The plutonium recycling in boiling water reactors performs a use possibility. The difference between the neutronic characteristics of the uranium and the plutonium need to evaluate the substitution impact of UOX fuel by MOX fuel on the reactor operating and safety. The analysis of the main points reached to the following conclusions: the reactivity coefficients are negative, during a cooling accident the re-divergence depends on the isotopic vector of the used plutonium, the efficiency lost of control cross resulting from the plutonium utilization can be compensate by the increase of the B 4C enrichment by 10 B and the change of the steel structure by an hafnium structure, the reactivity control in evolution can be obtained by the fuel poisoning (gadolinium, erbium) and the power map control by the plutonium content monitoring. (A.L.B.)

  3. Plutonium isotopes in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.

    1977-12-01

    Determination of plutonium and americium by ion exchange and alpha-spectrometry. Deposition of global fall-out and accumulated area-content of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu and 241 Am in central Sweden (62.3 deg N, 12.4 deg E), by using the lichen species Cladonia alpestris as bioindicator. Retention and distribution of plutonium in carpets of lichen and soil. Transfer of plutonium from lichen to reindeer and man. Absorbed dose in reindeer and man from plutonium. Basic studies of plutonium and americium in the western Mediterranean surface waters, with emphases on particulate form of the transuranics. (author)

  4. Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company quarterly report. Process technology and process development, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-05-01

    This quarterly report is the fourth in a series intended to provide information on research and engineering activities being performed to improve the processing of irradiated reactor fuels, the production of plutonium, and the management of resultant chemical wastes. The work reported here was performed during the period January through March 1977.

  5. Investigation of plutonium (4) hydroxoformates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andryushin, V.G.; Belov, V.A.; Galaktionov, S.V.; Kozhevnikov, P.B.; Matyukha, V.A.; Shmidt, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    Deposition processes of plutonium (4) hydroxoformates in the system Pu(NO 3 ) 4 -HNO 3 -HCoOH-N6 4 OH-H 2 O have been studied in pH range 0.2-10.7 at total plutonium concentration in the system 100 g/l. It is shown that under the conditions plutonium (4) hydrolysis takes place with the formation of hydroxoformates. A local maximum of plutonium (4) hydroxoformate solubility in the range pH=3.8-4.8, which is evidently conditioned by the formation of soluble formate complex of plutonium in the region, is pointed out. The basic plutonium (4) formates of the composition PuOsub(x)(OH)sub(y)(COOH)sub(4-2x-y)xnHsub(2)O, where 1,3 >=x >= 0.7, 1.7 >= y >= 1.0 and n=1.5-7.0, are singled out, their thermal stability being studied. Density of the crystals and plutonium dioxide, formed during their thermal decomposition, is measured. It is established that for plutonium (4) hydroxoformates common regularities of the influence of salt composition (OH - -, CHOO - - and H 2 O-group numbers in the mulecule) on position of temperature decomposition effects and on the density of compounds, which have been previously found during the study of thorium and plutonium hydroxosalts are observed. It is shown that the density of plutonium dioxide decreases with the increase of hydration and hydrolysis degree of the initial plutonium hydroxoformate

  6. International plutonium policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    As any other fissile material, the plutonium raises several utilization problems, particularly as far as diversion by sub-national groups or proliferation are concerned. The purpose of this paper is to show that these problems can be given reasonable solutions avoiding over penalties on energy production

  7. Plutonium safety training course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, H.J.

    1976-03-01

    This course seeks to achieve two objectives: to provide initial safety training for people just beginning work with plutonium, and to serve as a review and reference source for those already engaged in such work. Numerous references have been included to provide information sources for those wishing to pursue certain topics more fully. The first part of the course content deals with the general safety approach used in dealing with hazardous materials. Following is a discussion of the four properties of plutonium that lead to potential hazards: radioactivity, toxicity, nuclear properties, and spontaneous ignition. Next, the various hazards arising from these properties are treated. The relative hazards of both internal and external radiation sources are discussed, as well as the specific hazards when plutonium is the source. Similarly, the general hazards involved in a criticality, fire, or explosion are treated. Comments are made concerning the specific hazards when plutonium is involved. A brief summary comparison between the hazards of the transplutonium nuclides relative to 239 Pu follows. The final portion deals with control procedures with respect to contamination, internal and external exposure, nuclear safety, and fire protection. The philosophy and approach to emergency planning are also discussed

  8. Atomic spectrum of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, J.; Fred, M.; Gutmacher, R.G.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains plutonium wavelengths, energy level classifications, and other spectroscopic data accumulated over the past twenty years at Laboratoire Aime Cotton (LAC) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The primary purpose was term analysis: deriving the energy levels in terms of quantum numbers and electron configurations, and evaluating the Slater-Condon and other parameters from the levels

  9. Plutonium: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condit, R.H.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a summary of the history and properties of plutonium. It presents information on the atoms, comparing chemical and nuclear properties. It looks at the history of the atom, including its discovery and production methods. It summarizes the metallurgy and chemistry of the element. It also describes means of detecting and measuring the presence and quantity of the element

  10. Plutonium Disposition by Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.; DiSabatino, A.; Mitchell, M.

    2000-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize between 17 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons-usable plutonium materials in waste forms that meet the ''spent fuel'' standard and are acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. Using the ceramic can-in-canister technology selected for immobilization, surplus plutonium materials will be chemically combined into ceramic forms which will be encapsulated within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2008 and be completed within 10 years. In support of this goal, the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) is conducting development and testing (D and T) activities at four DOE laboratories under the technical leadership of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Savannah River Site has been selected as the site for the planned Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). The D and T effort, now in its third year, will establish the technical bases for the design, construction, and operation of the U. S. capability to immobilize surplus plutonium in a suitable and cost-effective manner. Based on the D and T effort and on the development of a conceptual design of the PIP, automation is expected to play a key role in the design and operation of the Immobilization Plant. Automation and remote handling are needed to achieve required dose reduction and to enhance operational efficiency

  11. Plutonium cores of zenith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, F R; Cameron, I R; Drageset, A; Freemantle, R G; Wilson, D J

    1965-03-15

    The report describes a series of experiments carried out with plutonium fuel in the heated zero power reactor ZENITH, with the aim of testing current theoretical methods, with particular reference to excess reactivity, temperature coefficients, differential spectrum and reaction rate distributions. Two cores of widely different fissile/moderator atom ratios were loaded in order to test the theory under significantly varied spectrum conditions.

  12. Plutonium and textbooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical equilibrium is not characterized by equilibrium constants alone. At least one conservation principle is necessary. Textbook descriptions of plutonium chemistry that are based on two-reaction-product disproportionation equations, or do not recognize the conservation principles, are incomplete and potentially misleading. (author)

  13. Transport of plutonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This leaflet discusses the subject under the headings: why do we need plutonium; why must we transport it; what action is carried out; how is it moved; what are the risks. The transport of the material in specially designed containers, from Dounreay in Caithness by road and sea to Sellafield in Cumbria, is described. (U.K.)

  14. Quarterly Financial Report

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    acray

    2011-06-30

    Jun 30, 2011 ... 2 IDRC QUARTERLY FINANCIAL REPORT JUNE 2011. Consolidated .... spending on capacity-building projects as well as to management's decision to restrict capacity- building ...... The investments in financial institutions.

  15. Use of plutonium for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The panel reviewed available information on various aspects of plutonium utilization, such as physics of plutonium, technology of plutonium fuels in thermal and fast reactors, behaviour of plutonium fuel under reactor irradiation, technological and economic aspects of plutonium fuel cycle. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Prospects for the Use of Plutonium in Reactors; Prospective d'Utilisation du Plutonium dans les Reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossoul, E.; Haubert, P. [BELGONUCLEAIRE (Belgium); Hirschberg, D.; Morlet, E. [International Business Machines of Belgium, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1967-09-15

    The introduction, at an increasing rate, of power reactors using slightly enriched uranium will inevitably lead to the production of considerable quantities of plutonium over the next decade. Fast reactors will not be capable of absorbing this material before 1980. The question thus arises of whether one should store the plutonium far future use in fast reactors, recycle it in existing thermal reactors, or try to sell it. The problem has been studied for an electric power generating system that does not foresee selling the plutonium produced by its reactors and does not buy plutonium outside, which enables a good approximation to be made and eliminates the major unknown quantity represented by the future market price of plutonium. Assuming within this system a programme that provides for the construction of power reactors of a given type and capacity at specific dates, the utilization of the plutonium produced can be optimized by linear programming techniques so as to minimize the discounted total cost of the power generated over a given period. A later stage consists in optimizing, by various techniques, not only the utilization but also the production of plutonium by appropriate selection of the power reactor types to be constructed. (author) [French] L'implantation, a un rythme croissant, de centrales nucleaires a uranium legerement enrichi entrainera la production ineluctable d'une quantite importante de plutonium au cours de la prochaine decennie. Les reacteurs a neutrons rapides ne seront capables d'absorber cette production qu'apres 1980. La question se pose donc de savoir s'il est preferable de stocker le plutonium en vue de son utilisation ulterieure dans les reacteurs a neutrons rapides plutot que de le recycler dans les reacteurs actuels a neutrons thermiques ou d'essayer de le vendre. Ce probleme a ete etudie dans le cadre d'un systeme de production d'energie electrique qui ne prevoirait pas la vente du plutonium produit par ses reacteurs nucleaires ni

  17. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  18. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage

  19. Recycling Lesson Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaz, Abeer Ali

    2013-01-01

    This lesson plan designed for grade 2 students has the goal of teaching students about the environmental practice of recycling. Children will learn language words related to recycling such as: "we can recycle"/"we can't recycle" and how to avoid littering with such words as: "recycle paper" and/or "don't throw…

  20. Quarterly oil statistics. First quarter 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide rapid, accurate and detailed statistics on oil supply and demand in the OECD area. Main components of the system are: complete balances of production, trade, refinery intake and output, final consumption, stock levels and changes; separate data for crude oil, NGL, feedstocks and nine product groups; separate trade data for main product groups, LPG and naphtha; imports for 41 origins; exports for 29 destinations; marine bunkers and deliveries to international civil aviation by product group; aggregates of quarterly data to annual totals; and natural gas supply and consumption.

  1. Advanced PWR Core Design with Siemens High-Plutonium-Content MOX Fuel Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieter Porsch; Gerhard Schlosser; Hans-Dieter Berger

    2000-01-01

    The Siemens experience with plutonium recycling dates back to the late 1960s. Over the years, extensive research and development programs were performed for the qualification of mixed-oxide (MOX) technology and design methods. Today's typical reload enrichments for uranium and MOX fuel assemblies and modern core designs have become more demanding with respect to accuracy and reliability of design codes. This paper presents the status of plutonium recycling in operating high-burnup pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores. Based on actual examples, it describes the validation status of the design methods and stresses current and future needs for fuel assembly and core design including those related to the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium

  2. Impact of minor actinide recycling on sustainable fuel cycle options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidet, F.; Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.

    2017-11-01

    The recent Evaluation and Screening study chartered by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, has identified four fuel cycle options as being the most promising. Among these four options, the two single-stage fuel cycles rely on a fast reactor and are differing in the fact that in one case only uranium and plutonium are recycled while in the other case minor actinides are also recycled. The two other fuel cycles are two-stage and rely on both fast and thermal reactors. They also differ in the fact that in one case only uranium and plutonium are recycled while in the other case minor actinides are also recycled. The current study assesses the impact of recycling minor actinides on the reactor core design, its performance characteristics, and the characteristics of the recycled material and waste material. The recycling of minor actinides is found not to affect the reactor core performance, as long as the same cycle length, core layout and specific power are being used. One notable difference is that the required transuranics (TRU) content is slightly increased when minor actinides are recycled. The mass flows are mostly unchanged given a same specific power and cycle length. Although the material mass flows and reactor performance characteristics are hardly affected by recycling minor actinides, some differences are observed in the waste characteristics between the two fuel cycles considered. The absence of minor actinides in the waste results in a different buildup of decay products, and in somewhat different behaviors depending on the characteristic and time frame considered. Recycling of minor actinides is found to result in a reduction of the waste characteristics ranging from 10% to 90%. These results are consistent with previous studies in this domain and depending on the time frame considered, packaging conditions, repository site, repository strategy, the differences observed in the waste characteristics could be beneficial and help improve

  3. Recycling waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P I.S.

    1976-01-01

    It is being realized that if environmental quality is to be improved the amount of waste generated by man has to be substantially reduced. There are two ways this can be achieved. First, by conserving materials and energy, and sacrificing economic growth, a solution that is completely unacceptable because it would mean some form of rationing, mass unemployment, and collapse of society as it is known. The second way to reduce the volume of waste is by planned recycling, re-use, and recovery. Already the reclamation industry recovers, processes, and turns back for re-use many products used by industry and thereby reduces the UK's import bill for raw materials. In the book, the author sets out the various ways materials may be recovered from industrial and municipal wastes. The broad technology of waste management is covered and attention is focused on man's new resources lying buried in the mountains of industrial wastes, the emissions from stocks, the effluents and sludges that turn rivers into open sewers, and municipal dumps in seventeen chapters. The final chapter lists terms and concepts used in waste technology, organizations concerned with waste management, and sources of information about recycling waste. (MCW)

  4. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  5. International plutonium policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    The need to distinguish between diversion by sub-national groups and by governments is clearly stated. The paper identifies the international safeguards measures which already exist for the handling of plutonium. It proposes that the implementation of Article XII A5 of the IAEA statute concerning the international storage of plutonium could be an important additional measure. The paper also mentions the concept of using confinement as a complimentary safeguards measure and identifies the PIPEX concept. In addition, greater use is proposed of containment and surveillance procedures. The multiplication of small reprocessing plants spread over many countries is perceived as a proliferation risk. Other means such as co-location of reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities are relevant to diversion by sub-national groups

  6. The plutonium utilization in thermal and fast reactor in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanuma, T.; Uematsu, K.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear power development in Japan is rather extensive one, and the installed nuclear power capacity is expected to reach 49,000 MWe by 1985 and possibly to reach 170,000 MWe by 2000 according to a prediction. Currently istalled nuclear power is mainly based on Light Water type Reactor, and this trend is expected to persist for the time-being. The plutonium produced by LWR will be accumulated to 20 tons by 1985 and to more than 200 tons by 2000. If the produced plutonium will simply be stored, it will raise the economic pressure to utilities and the management and physical protection problems associated with plutonium storing. Therefore, it is not too wise simply to store plutonium in a locked vault. In Japan, there are three ways of solving these problems which are currently worked out. There is no doubt that the best solution is to use plutonium in fast reactors. To reach this goal, an Experimental Fast Reactor ''JOYO''has been constructed and it is waiting for criticality in very near future. A prototype fast breeder reactor ''MONJU'', which is designed for about 300 MWe, is nearing to the last stage of the design work. The start of its construction will take place in a few yesars. The domonstration fast breeder reactor will come next to ''MONJU'' and the large scale commercial use of fast breeder reactor is expected to start around 1995. To anwer the near-term need for plutonium utilization, two technologies, which are equally important to Japan, are currently developed. One is the recycle use of plutonium into LWR. This technology has long been jointly developed by research organizations and utilities. Some of fuel irradiation data are already obtained and the physics study has also been extensive. The application of this technology is expected to start about 1987. The other is to burn plutonium in an Advanced Thermal Reactor (D 2 O moderated, Boiling Water Cooled) which shows better characteristics of using plutonium. The 160 MWe ''Fugen'' is a prototype

  7. Plutonium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, A.

    2001-01-01

    The first volume of the new series, Radioactivity in the Environment, focuses on the environmental occurrence, the speciation, the behaviour, the fate, the applications and the health consequences of that much-feared and much-publicised element, plutonium. Featuring a collection of selected, peer-reviewed, up-to-date papers by leading researchers in the field, this work provides a state-of-the-art description of plutonium in the environment. This title helps to explain where present frontiers are drawn in our continuing efforts to understand the science of environmental plutonium and will help to place widespread concerns into perspective. As a whole this new book series on environmental radioactivity addresses, at academic research level, the key aspects of this socially important and complex interdisciplinary subject. Presented objectively and with the ultimate authority gained from the many contributions by the world's leading experts, the negative and positive consequences of having a radioactive world around us will be documented and given perspective. refs

  8. F. Biological hazards of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium is an unavoidable result of present nuclear power programmes. Its predominant isotopes are extremely long-lived and very toxic if absorbed in the body. In view of the increasing potential for plutonium and man to come into contact, the consequences of any plutonium release into the environment should be scientifically examined. This report is an attempt to place in one document a fully referenced account of the on-going work in many areas. There are three sections. Part 1 deals with the amounts of plutonium available in the fuel cycle, its properties and the probability of routine or accidental release. Part 2 examines the ways in which plutonium can reach man, in particular through food chains or inhalation. Part 3 details the biological effects of plutonium once it is absorbed into the body, assesses the amounts likely to be harmful and discusses the adequacy of present standards for plutonium burdens. There are two appendices. The likely differences between Pu-239, the most studied isotope, and other plutonium isotopes or transuranic nuclides are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B contains a fuller account of the ways in which the fate of ingested or inhaled plutonium have been determined

  9. Plutonium in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, N.V.; Linder, P.W.; Wade, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    The shipping of plutonium from Europe to Japan around the Cape is a contentious issue which has raised public concern that South Africa may be at risk to plutonium exposure should an accident occur. The paper describes the containers in which the plutonium (in the form of plutonium oxide, PuO 2 ) is housed and consequences of the unlikely event of these becoming ruptured. Wind-borne pollution is considered not to be a likely scenario, with the plutonium oxide particles more likely to remain practically insoluble and sediment. Plutonium aqueous and environmental chemistry is briefly discussed. Some computer modelling whereby plutonium oxide is brought into contact with seawater has been performed and the results are presented. The impact on marine organisms is discussed in terms of studies performed at marine dump sites and after the crash of a bomber carrying nuclear warheads in Thule, Greenland in 1968. Various pathways from the sea to land are considered in the light of studies done at Sellafield, a reprocessing plant in the United Kingdom. Some recent debates in the popular scientific press, such as that on the leukemia cluster at Sellafield, are described. Plutonium biochemistry and toxicity are discussed as well as medical histories of workers exposed to plutonium. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Potentiometric determination of uranium in the presence of plutonium in Hsub(2)SOsub(4) medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, N.; Rama Rao, G.A.; Manchanda, V.K.; Natarajan, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The potentiometric determination of uranium is widely carried out in phosphoric acid medium to suppress the interferences of plutonium by complexation. Owing to the complexity of the recycling plutonium from the phosphate based waste involving manifold stages of separation, a method is proposed which does not use phosphoric acid. Uranium and plutonium are reduced to U(IV) and Pu(III) in IM Hsub(2)SOsub(4) by Ti(III), and NaNOsub(2) is chosen to selectively oxidize Pu(III) and the excess of Ti(III). The unreacted NaNOsub(2) is destroyed by sulphamic acid and excess Fe(III) is added following dilution. The euqivalent amount of Fe(II) thus liberated is titrated against standard Ksub(2)Crsub(2)Osub(7). RSD obtained for the determination of uranium (1-2 mg) is 0.3% with plutonium present up to 4.0 mg. (author)

  11. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  12. Reprocessing-recycling, or the application of the selective sorting and recycling policy to nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    In France, the reprocessing of spent fuels is the solution that has been retained for the management of the end-of-cycle. The sorting of the different components of spent fuels allows the recycling of uranium and plutonium for the further production of enriched uranium and mixed oxide fuels. This paper presents Cogema's advances in this domain (facilities and plants), the transfer of Cogema's reprocessing and recycling technologies in other countries (Japan, USA, Russia), the economical and environmental advantages of the recycling of spent fuels, the economical resources provided by this activity, and the cooperation with foreign countries for the reprocessing of their spent fuels at Cogema-La Hague. (J.S.)

  13. MIMAS, setting the world-wide standard for plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergheynst Alain; Yvon Vanderborck

    2005-01-01

    Deployment of MIMAS MOX fuel irradiation started in 1985 with loading and irradiation in French 900 MWe PWR of EDF. A 20-year comprehensive R and D programme preceded it. This success was greatly facilitated by some early strategy advantages: 1) Development and licensing of a 'UO 2 -like' MOX fuel rod fully interchangeable with UO 2 rods; 2) Joint SCK/BN operation of the BR2 (MTR) and BR3 (PWR) reactors, pilot and industrial MOX fuel plants, PIE hot laboratories in the Mol/Dessel site. The period since 1985 saw the occurrence of some concurrent facts, that have incontestably led MIMAS to the world-wide leader position (99 % of actual MOX fuel is MIMAS): 1) BN-MIMAS has been selected by Cogema for its plants MELOX and Cadarache and has demonstrated to be a flexible, scalable, and industrial process. 2) MIMAS has been further selected by JNFL for its Japanese domestic MOX plant (Rokkasho-mura) and by US-DOE for its domestic MOX plant (Savannah-NC) for the disposition of 34-ton weapon-Pu. 3) Satisfactory fabrication and irradiation over 1840 metric tons of MIMAS MOX fuel. In order to face the worldwide on-going electricity market liberalisation, MIMAS makers and vendors must definitely improve the MOX performances to compete with continuously improving UO 2 fuel. The facing of this continuous challenge is also reviewed in the paper. (authors)

  14. Plutonium recycling: The point of view of Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.

    1997-01-01

    EDF has more than 25 reactor years of operating with MOX fuel. This paper presents a synthesis of the available experience feedback relating to MOX fuel management and considers the various different aspects - operations, calculations, tests and measurements. (author). 3 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Plutonium recycle test reactor characterization activities and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1997-01-01

    Report contains results of PRTR core and associated structures characterization performed in January and February of 1997. Radiation survey data are presented, along with recommendations for stabilization activities before transitioning to a decontamination and decommissioning function. Recommendations are also made about handling the waste generated by the stabilization activities, and actions suggested by the Decontamination and Decommissioning organization

  16. The unrivalled expertise for Pu recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, W.; Pouilloux, M.

    1997-01-01

    Relying on the outstanding performances of the reprocessing facilities and the growing fabrication facilities, the in-reactor Pu recycling program in France and in other European countries is steadily implemented and has reached full-scale industrial operation. The RCR strategy -Reprocessing, Conditioning and Recycling- developed by COGEMA is now a well proven industrial reality. In 1997, plutonium recycling through MOX fuel is a mature industry, with successful operational experience and large-scale fabrication plants. In this field, COGEMA is the main actor, on operating simultaneously three complete multidesign fuel production plants: MELOX plant (in Marcoule), CADARACHE plant and DESSEL plant (in Belgium). Present MOX production capacity available to COGEMA fits 175 tHM per year and will be extended to reach about 325 tHM in the year 2000, that will represent 75% of the total MOX fabrication capacity in Europe. The industrial mastery and the high production level in MOX production assured by high technology processes confers COGEMA an unrivalled expertise for Pu recycling. This allows COGEMA to be a major actor in Pu-based fuels in the coming second nuclear era with advanced fuel cycles. The paper depicts the steps of the progressive advance of COGEMA to reach the Pu recycling expertise. (author)

  17. Plutonium oxides and uranium and plutonium mixed oxides. Carbon determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Determination of carbon in plutonium oxides and uranium plutonium mixed oxides, suitable for a carbon content between 20 to 3000 ppm. The sample is roasted in oxygen at 1200 0 C, the carbon dioxide produced by combustion is neutralized by barium hydroxide generated automatically by coulometry [fr

  18. Technical report for generic site add-on facility for plutonium polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide environmental data and reference process information associated with incorporating plutonium polishing steps (dissolution, impurity removal, and conversion to oxide powder) into the genetic-site Mixed-Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MOXFF). The incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will enable the removal of undesirable impurities, such as gallium and americium, known to be associated with the plutonium. Moreover, unanticipated impurities can be removed, including those that may be contained in (1) poorly characterized feed materials, (2) corrosion products added from processing equipment, and (3) miscellaneous materials contained in scrap recycle streams. These impurities will be removed to the extent necessary to meet plutonium product purity specifications for MOX fuels. Incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will mean that the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) will need to produce a plutonium product that can be dissolved at the MOXFF in nitric acid at a suitable rate (sufficient to meet overall production requirements) with the minimal usage of hydrofluoric acid, and its complexing agent, aluminum nitrate. This function will require that if the PDCF product is plutonium oxide powder, that powder must be produced, stored, and shipped without exceeding a temperature of 600 C

  19. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: FY 2008, 3rd Quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-09-16

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  20. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  1. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  2. Liquid waste processing from plutonium (III) oxalate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Cassaniti, P.; Orosco, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    Plutonium (III) oxalate filtrates contain about 0.2M oxalic acid, 0.09M ascorbic acid, 0.05M hydrazine, 1M nitric acid and 20-100 mg/l of plutonium. The developed treatment of liquid wastes consist in two main steps: a) Distillation to reduce up to 10% of the initial volume and refluxing to destroy organic material. Then, the treated solution is suitable to adjust the plutonium at the tetravalent state by addition of hydrogen peroxide and the nitric molarity up to 8.6M. b) Recovery and purification of plutonium by anion exchange using two columns in series containing Dowex 1-X4 resin. With the proposed process, it is possible to transform 38 litres of filtrates with 40mg/l of Pu into 0.1 l of purified solution with 15-20g/l of Pu. This solution is suitable to be recycled in the Pu (III) oxalate precipitation process. This process has several potential advantages over similar liquid waste treatments. These include: 1) It does not increase the liquid volume. 2) It consumes only few reagents. 3) The operations involved are simple, requiring limited handling and they are feasible to automatization. 4) The Pu recovery factor is about 99%. (Author) [es

  3. Recycling of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstroem, Ingela

    1999-12-01

    Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is a part of the process of recycling fissile material. Extracting agents for partitioning the high level liquid waste (HLLW) from conventional PUREX reprocessing is studied. The CTH-process is based on three consecutive extraction cycles. In the first cycle protactinium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium are removed by extraction with di-2-ethylhexyl-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) from a 6 M nitric acid HLLW solution. Distribution ratios for actinides, fission products and corrosion products between HLLW and 1 M HDEHP in an aliphatic diluent have been investigated. To avoid addition of chemicals the acidity is reduced by a tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction cycle. The distribution ratios of elements present in HLLW have been measured between 50 % TBP in an aliphatic diluent and synthetic HLLW in range 0.1-6 M nitric acid. In the third extraction cycle americium and curium are extracted. To separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides a method based on selective stripping of the actinides from 1 M HDEHP is proposed. The aqueous phase containing ammonia, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and lactic acid is recycled in a closed loop after reextraction of the actinides into a second organic phase also containing 1 M HDEHP. Distribution ratios for americium and neodymium have been measured at varying DTPA and lactic acid concentrations and at varying pH. Nitrogen-donor reagents have been shown to have a potential to separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides. 2,2':6,2''-terpyridine as extractant follows the CHON-principle and can in synergy with 2-bromodecanoic acid separate americium from europium. Distribution ratios for americium and europium, in the range of 0.02-0.12 M nitric acid, between nitric acid and 0.02 M terpyridine with 1 M 2-bromodecanoic acid in tert-butylbenzene (TBB) was investigated. Comparison with other nitrogen-donor reagents show that increasing lipophilicity of the molecule, by substitution of

  4. High-temperature enthalpies of plutonium monocarbide and plutonium sesquicarbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oetting, F.L.

    1979-01-01

    The high-temperature enthalpies of plutonium monocarbide and plutonium sesquicarbide have been determined with a copper-block calorimeter of the isoperibol type. The experimental enthalpy data, which was measured relative to 298 K, covered the temperature range from 400 to 1500 K. The calculation of the temperature rise of the calorimeter takes into account the added heat evolution from the radioactive decay of the plutonium samples. These enthalpy results, combined with the heat capacity and entropy of the respective carbide at 298 K available from the literature, has made it possible to generate tables of thermodynamic functions for the plutonium carbides. The behavior of the heat capacity of both of the plutonium carbides, i.e., a relatively steep increase in the heat capacity as the temperature increases, may be attributed to a premelting effect with the formation of vacancies within the crystal lattice although a theoretical treatment of this phenomenon is not given

  5. South African Crime Quarterly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Crime Quarterly is an inter-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal that promotes professional discourse and the publication of research on the subjects of crime, criminal justice, crime prevention, and related matters including state and non-state responses to crime and violence. South Africa is the primary focus for ...

  6. English Leadership Quarterly, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1993. Articles in number 1 deal with parent involvement and participation, and include: "Opening the Doors to Open House" (Jolene A. Borgese); "Parent/Teacher Conferences: Avoiding the Collision Course" (Robert Perrin); "Expanding Human…

  7. Quarterly fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy is altered once a month. Fiscal policy is altered once a year. As a potential improvement this article examines the use of feedback control rules for fiscal policy that is altered quarterly. Following the work of Blinder and Orszag, modifications are discussed in Congressional

  8. Consolidated Reprocessing Progam. Quarterly progress report ending February 28, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    This publication continues the quarterly series presenting results of work performed under the Consolidated Reprocessing Program at General Atomic Company. Results of work on this program prior to June 1974 were included in a quarterly series on the HTGR Base Program. The work reported includes the development of unit processes and equipment for reprocessing of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel, the design and development of an integrated pilot line to demonstrate the head end of HTGR reprocessing using unirradiated fuel materials, and design work in support of Hot Engineering Tests (HET). Work is also described on trade-off studies concerning the required design of facilities and equipment for the large-scale recycle of HTGR fuels in order to guide the development activities for HTGR fuel recycle

  9. Light water reactor fuel reprocessing and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    This document was originally intended to provide the basis for an environmental impact statement to assist ERDA in making decisions with respect to possible LWR fuel reprocessing and recycling programs. Since the Administration has recently made a decision to indefinitely defer reprocessing, this environmental impact statement is no longer needed. Nevertheless, this document is issued as a report to assist the public in its consideration of nuclear power issues. The statement compares the various alternatives for the LWR fuel cycle. Costs and environmental effects are compared. Safeguards for plutonium from sabotage and theft are analyzed

  10. Determination of plutonium in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu

    1978-01-01

    Past and present methods of determining the amount of plutonium in the environment are summarized. Determination of the amount of plutonium in uranium ore began in 1941. Plutonium present in polluted environments due to nuclear explosions, nuclear power stations, etc. was measured in soil and sand in Nagasaki in 1951 and in ash in Bikini in 1954. Analytical methods of measuring the least amount of plutonium in the environment were developed twenty years later. Many studies on and reviews of these methods have been reported all over the world, and a standard analytical procedure has been adopted. A basic analytical method of measurement was drafted in Japan in 1976. The yield, treatment of samples, dissolution, separation, control of measurable ray sources determination by α spectrometry, cross-check determination, and treatment of samples containing hardly soluble plutonium were examined. At present, the amount of plutonium can be determined by all of these methods. The presence of plutonium was studied further, and the usefulness of determination of the plutonium isotope ratio is discussed. (Kumagai, S.)

  11. Work surface for soluble plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional work surface for aqueous plutonium is illustrated. It is constructed by means of estimating work as a function of the ambient pH and redox potential in a plutonium solution. The surface is useful for illustrating the chemistry of disproportionation reactions. Work expressions are easier to use than work integrals. (author)

  12. Plutonium Round Robin Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudder, G.B.; Herbillon, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and acceptable as credible. The principle objectives of the Round Robin Test are to prioritize the forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The Plutonium Round Robin has made a tremendous contribution to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the six participating international laboratories. A prioritize list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Future work will focus on a Highly Enriched Round Robin and extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The Plutonium Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability to was combined with the appropriate knowledge and database, it resulted in a demonstrated capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific nuclear fuel, reactor, and reprocessing facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in our current capabilities. These included alternative dating techniques. Light Water Reactor discrimination techniques, and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The result of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a 'recommended protocol' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases. The poster will present a summary of the results of the Plutonium Round Robin and describe the plans the subsequent Highly Enriched Uranium Round Robin Test. (author)

  13. Solvent anode for plutonium purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowersox, D.F.; Fife, K.W.; Christensen, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a technique to allow complete oxidation of plutonium from the anode during plutonium electrorefining. This will eliminate the generation of a ''spent'' anode heel which requires further treatment for recovery. Our approach is to employ a solvent metal in the anode to provide a liquid anode pool throughout electrorefining. We use molten salts and metals in ceramic crucibles at 700 0 C. Our goal is to produce plutonium metal at 99.9% purity with oxidation and transfer of more than 98% of the impure plutonium feed metal from the anode into the salt and product phases. We have met these criteria in experiments on the 100 to 1000 g scale. We plan to scale our operations to 4 kg of feed plutonium and to optimize the process parameters

  14. Cycle downstream: the plutonium question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zask, G.; Rome, M.; Delpech, M.

    1998-01-01

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 4 june 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the plutonium physics and its utilization as a nuclear fuel. This day tried to bring information to answer the following questions: do people have to keep the plutonium in the UOX fuel or in the MOX fuel in order to use it for future fast reactors? Do people have to continue obstinately the plutonium reprocessing in the MOX for the PWR type reactors? Will it be realized a underground disposal? Can it be technically developed plutonium incinerators and is it economically interesting? The plutonium physics, the experimental programs and the possible solutions are presented. (A.L.B.)

  15. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...

  16. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  17. Design and optimization of a fuel reload of BWR with plutonium and minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman A, J. R.; Francois L, J. L.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Palomera P, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work is designed and optimized a pattern of fuel reload of a boiling water reactor (BWR), whose fuel is compound of uranium coming from the enrichment lines, plutonium and minor actinides (neptunium, americium, curium); obtained of the spent fuel recycling of reactors type BWR. This work is divided in two stages: in the first stage a reload pattern designs with and equilibrium cycle is reached, where the reload lot is invariant cycle to cycle. This reload pattern is gotten adjusting the plutonium content of the assembly for to reach the length of the wished cycle. Furthermore, it is necessary to increase the concentration of boron-10 in the control rods and to introduce gadolinium in some fuel rods of the assembly, in order to satisfy the margin approach of out. Some reactor parameters are presented: the axial profile of power average of the reactor core, and the axial and radial distribution of the fraction of holes, for the one reload pattern in balance. For the design of reload pattern codes HELIOS and CM-PRESTO are used. In the second stage an optimization technique based on genetic algorithms is used, along with certain obtained heuristic rules of the engineer experience, with the intention of optimizing the reload pattern obtained in the first stage. The objective function looks for to maximize the length of the reactor cycle, at the same time as that they are satisfied their limits related to the power and the reactor reactivity. Certain heuristic rules are applied in order to satisfy the recommendations of the fuel management: the strategy of the control cells core, the strategy of reload pattern of low leakage, and the symmetry of a quarter of nucleus. For the evaluation of the parameters that take part in the objective function it simulates the reactor using code CM-PRESTO. Using the technique of optimization of the genetic algorithms an energy of the cycle of 10834.5 MW d/tHM is obtained, which represents 5.5% of extra energy with respect to the

  18. Plutonium storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Spanish study gives a more detailed analysis of a possible store for plutonium oxide. The capacity of the store is assumed to be 30 t Pu and the minimum storage time 2 years. The study includes a general description of the store and its design philosophy; comments on the quality and properties of the material stored; a detailed criticality study and comments on gas and heat generation and shielding requirements; and a brief cost evaluation. Costs are estimated to be about $110/kg PuO 2 /year

  19. Plutonium assay calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Three calorimeters were developed for the IAEA: a small-sample portable calorimeter, a bulk calorimeter for up to 2 kg Pu in cans and capable of measuring up to 25 watts, and a calorimeter for 4-m long LWR Pu-recycle fuel roads. Design parameters and performance capability are given, and the instruments are compared with those developed for NRC

  20. Is plutonium really necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, V.

    1976-01-01

    Not all activities associated with nuclear power contribute equally to proliferation potential, but some fuel-cycle activities (i.e., reprocessing) are considered too dangerous to be permitted in non-weapons countries. This paper assesses the feasibility of keeping Pu out of the nuclear fuel cycle. It is pointed out that there is no technical necessity of using Pu as nuclear fuel so long as 235 U is available. Analysis of the economics of recycling spent fuel products in LWRs in the U.S. shows that the net economic benefit of recycle is uncertain and might even be negative; it will have an insignificant effect on the cost of nuclear power. It is argued that reprocessing of spent fuel be deferred until recycle in LWRs can be shown to yield economic benefits sufficiently large to compensate for the risks, or the viability of the breeder as an important commercial source of power has been demonstrated. According to the low estimate of U requirements, the world would have enough U resources well into the 21st century, although if the high estimate is used, the world would exhaust its reserves by the year 2000. Evidence indicates that nuclear power will grow more slowly than the forecasts of the nuclear advocates. Thus, there may be no need for an early decision to undertake recycling, and research on breeder development can proceed at a slower rate

  1. Preparation of plutonium hexafluoride. Recovery of plutonium from waste dross (1962); Preparation de l'hexafluorure de plutonium. Recuperation du plutonium des scories d'elaboration (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendre, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    facteurs physiques sur la vitesse de fluoration du tetrafluorure de plutonium solide par le fluor. Dans un appareil a four horizontal et circulation de fluor a la pression atmospherique de 520 deg. C, avec un debit de fluor pur de 9 l.h{sup -1}, il est possible de transformer une charge de 3 g de tetrafluorure en hexafluorure avec un taux de transformation d'environ 100 pour cent et un rendement de recuperation superieur a 90 pour cent, en 4 a 5 h. La vitesse de fluoration est fonction de la temperature du debit de fluor, de la surface de la nacelle, de l'epaisseur de la couche de tetrafluorure et du temps de reaction. Elle ne depend pas de la diffusion du fluor dans le Solide mais est commandee par la reaction a l'interface gaz-solide et suit la loi cinetique (1 - T{sub T}){sup 1/3} = kt + 1. L'existence de fluorures intermediaires, en particulier Pu{sub 4} F{sub 17}, est confirmee par une cassure de la droite d'Arrhenius vers 370 deg. C, par des differences dans les vitesses de fluoration au sein de la couche de tetrafluorure et par des variations reversibles de coloration. La transformation en hexafluorure s'accompagne d'une purification vis-a-vis des elements etrangers entrant dans la composition de plutonium initial. Recuperation du plutonium des scories d'elaboration: L'etude est basee sur la transformation en hexafluorure gazeux des grains de plutonium occlus dans les scories d'elaboration, cet hexafluorure devant fournir par decomposition thermique un tetrafluorure directement recyclable au stade elaboration. - Dans les conditions envisagees, ce procede n'est pas utilisable industriellement. Apres broyage, une Reparation par milieu dense (iodure de methylene) permet de separer une scorie enrichie en plutonium (75 pour cent du Pu dans 2,6 pour cent du poids des scories) et une scorie pauvre. Par fluoration prolongee (16 h) des diverses portions recueillies, il est possible de recuperer environ 80 pour cent du plutonium. Un appareillage de traitement base sur la

  2. Actinide recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C; Chang, Y [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1990-07-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository.

  3. Actinide recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.; Chang, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository

  4. Quarterly environmental data summary for third quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, Stephen H. [Weldon Spring Site, St. Charles, MO (United States)

    1999-11-05

    A copy of the quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the third quarter of 1999 is enclosed. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the WSSRAP verification group and merged into the data base during the third quarter of 1999. Selected KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during the quarter are also included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  5. Fuel recycling and 4. generation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; Gauche, F.; Mathonniere, G.

    2012-01-01

    The 4. generation reactors meet the demand for sustainability of nuclear power through the saving of the natural resources, the minimization of the volume of wastes, a high safety standard and a high reliability. In the framework of the GIF (Generation 4. International Forum) France has decided to study the sodium-cooled fast reactor. Fast reactors have the capacity to recycle plutonium efficiently and to burn actinides. The long history of reprocessing-recycling of spent fuels in France is an asset. A prototype reactor named ASTRID could be entered into operation in 2020. This article presents the research program on the sodium-cooled fast reactor, gives the status of the ASTRID project and present the scenario of the progressive implementation of 4. generation reactors in the French reactor fleet. (A.C.)

  6. The toxicity of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsden, D.; Johns, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to recent publications concerned with the radiotoxicity of inhaled insoluble Pu compounds. The publications are a paper by Thorne and Vennart (Nature 263:555 (1976)), a report entitled 'The Toxicity of Plutonium', (London (HMSO), 1975), and the 'Sixth Report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution', (Cmnd. 6618, London (HMSO), 1976). Thorne and Vennart concluded that the previously accepted value for the maximum permissible annual intake (MPAI) of such compounds may be too high by a factor of about five, and a similar conclusion was reached in the other two publications. It is thought by the present authors that the methods which have been used to suggest new values for the MPAI are unduly pessimistic for high-fired PuO 2 ; calculations have been based on the lung model of ICRP Publication 19 'The Metabolism of Compounds of Plutonium and the Other Actinides', (International Commission of Radiological Protection, 1972). This involves concluding that the risks to bone and liver are comparable to those for lung. This is discussed and it is thought that the previously established idea that the lung is the critical organ remains substantially correct for the case of high-fired PuO 2 . (U.K.)

  7. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO 2 typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO 2 produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO 2 in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO 2 With uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO 2 with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO 2 materials may warrant further study

  8. Evaluation of plutonium, uranium, and thorium use in power reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasten, P.R.; Homan, F.J.

    1977-01-01

    The increased cost of uranium and separative work has increased the attractiveness of plutonium use in both uranium and thorium fuel cycles in thermal reactors. A technology, fuel utilization, and economic evaluation is given for uranium and thorium fuel cycles in various reactor types, along with the use of plutonium and 238 U. Reactors considered are LWRs, HWRs, LWBRs, HTGRs, and FBRs. Key technology factors are fuel irradiation performance and associated physical property values. Key economic factors are unit costs for fuel fabrication and reprocessing, and for refabrication of recycle fuels; consistent cost estimates are utilized. In thermal reactors, the irradiation performance of ceramic fuels appears to be satisfactory. At present costs for uranium ore and separative work, recycle of plutonium with thorium rather than uranium is preferable from fuel utilization and economic viewpoints. Further, the unit recovery cost of plutonium is lower from LWR fuels than from natural-uranium HWR fuels; use of LWR product permits plutonium/thorium fueling to compete with uranium cycles. Converting uranium cycles to thorium cycles increases the energy which can be extracted from a given uranium resource. Thus, additional fuel utilization improvement can be obtained by fueling all thermal reactors with thorium, but this requires use of highly enriched uranium; use of 235 U with thorium is most economic in HTGRs followed by HWRs and then LWRs. Marked improvement in long-term fuel utilization can be obtained through high thorium loadings and short fuel cycle irradiations as in the LWBR, but this imposes significant economic penalties. Similar operating modes are possible in HWRs and HTGRs. In fast reactors, use of the plutonium-uranium cycle gives advantageous fuel resource utilization in both LMFBRs and GCFRs; use of the thorium cycle provides more negative core reactivity coefficients and more flexibility relative to use of recycle fuels containing uranium of less than 20

  9. EDF - Quarterly Financial Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivi, Carole; Boissezon, Carine de; Hidra, Kader

    2014-01-01

    EDF's sales in the first quarter of 2014 were euro 21.2 billion, down 3.9% from the first quarter of 2013. At constant scope and exchange rates, sales were down 4.2% due to mild weather conditions, which impacted sales of electricity in France, gas sales abroad and trading activities in Europe. UK sales were nonetheless sustained by B2B sales due to higher realised wholesale market prices. In Italy, sales growth was driven by an increase in electricity volumes sold. The first quarter of 2014 also saw the strengthening of the Group's financial structure with the second phase of its multi-annual hybrid funding programme (nearly euro 4 billion equivalent) as well as the issue of two 100-year bonds in dollars and sterling aimed at significantly lengthening average debt maturity. 2014 outlook and 2014-2018 vision: - EDF Group has confirmed its financial objectives for 2014; - Group EBITDA excluding Edison: organic growth of at least 3%; - Edison EBITDA: recurring EBITDA target of euro 1 billion and at least euro 600 million in 2014 before effects of gas contract re-negotiations; - Net financial debt / EBITDA: between 2x and 2.5x; - Pay-out ratio of net income excluding non-recurring items post-hybrid: 55% to 65%. The Group has reaffirmed its goal of achieving positive cash flow after dividends, excluding Linky, in 2018

  10. Hazards of plutonium and fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    Apart from the possibility that civil plutonium may be diverted to military use the main argument against the introduction of a plutonium economy seems to be the supposedly unmanageable biological risk attached to plutonium itself. The author points out weaknesses in many of the opponents' arguments against the increased use of plutonium and argues that current safety practices are more than adequate in handling plutonium and other radioactive materials

  11. Recovery of plutonium by pyroredox processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, J.A.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.

    1985-09-01

    Using pyrochemical oxidation and reduction, we have developed a process to recover the plutonium in impure scrap with less than 95% plutonium. This plutonium metal was further purified by pyrochemical electrorefining. During development of the procedures, depleted electrorefining anodes were processed, and over 80% of the plutonium was recovered as high-purity metal in one electrorefining cycle. Over 40 kg of plutonium has been recovered from 55 kg of impure anodes with our procedures. 6 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Recovery of plutonium by pyroredox processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, J.A.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Using pyrochemical oxidation and reduction, we have developed a process to recover the plutonium in impure scrap with less than 95% plutonium. This plutonium metal was further purified by pyrochemical electrorefining. During development of the procedures, depleted electrorefining anodes were processed, and over 80% of the plutonium was recovered as high-purity metal in one electrorefining cycle. Over 40 kg of plutonium has been recovered from 55 kg of impure anodes with our procedures. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Probing phonons in plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Joe; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Occelli, F.; Schwartz, A.; Chiang, T.C.; Wall, M.; Boro, C.; Xu, Ruqing

    2010-01-01

    Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: α → β → γ → (delta) → (delta)(prime) → (var e psilon) → liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature ∼640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts, (Figure 1). Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimenta l data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter -atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single -grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc d-Pu-Ga alloy using the high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS

  14. Studies on removal of plutonium from oxalic acid containing hydrochloric acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadse, D R; Noronha, D M; Joshi, A R [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Solution containing hydrochloric acid, oxalic acid and considerable quantities of plutonium may be generated while recycling of scrap produced during the metallic fuel fabrication. Plutonium from such waste is normally recovered by anion exchange method after the destruction of oxalic acid using suitable oxidising agent. Solvent extraction and ion exchange methods are being explored in this laboratory for recovery of Pu from oxalic acid containing HCl solutions without prior destruction of oxalic acid. This paper describes the results on the determination of distribution ratios for extraction of Pu(IV) from hydrochloric acid using Aliquot-336 or HDEHP under varying experimental conditions. (author). 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  16. Actinide recycle potential in the integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1993-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle holds promise for substantial improvements in economics, diversion-resistance, and waste management. In the IFR pyroprocessing, minor actinides accompany plutonium product stream, and therefore, actinide recycle occurs naturally. The fast neutron spectrum of the IFR makes it an ideal actinide burner, as well. This paper discusses technical features of the IFR fuel cycle, its technical progress, the development status, and potential implications on long-term waste management

  17. A method for the gravimetric determination of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate concentrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, M.A.; Savage, D.J.

    1986-12-01

    Plutonium nitrate solution is treated with sulphuric acid before being heated and finally ignited. The stoichiometric plutonium dioxide so formed is weighed and hence the plutonium content is calculated. (author)

  18. Plutonium contaminated materials research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is a progress report for 1985 from the Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party (PCMWP). The PCMWP co-ordinates research and development on a national basis in the areas of management, treatment and immobilisation of plutonium contaminated materials, for the purpose of waste management. The progress report contains a review of the development work carried out in eight areas, including: reduction of arisings, plutonium measurement, sorting and packaging, washing of shredded combustible PCM, decommissioning and non-combustible PCM treatment, PCM immobilisation, treatment of alpha bearing liquid wastes, and engineering objectives. (UK)

  19. Plutonium again (smuggling and movements)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A link is discounted between nuclear proliferation and the recently discovered smuggled plutonium from the former Soviet Union at Munich airport and other places in Germany. It is argued that governments wishing to obtain nuclear materials to develop a weapons programme would not arrange to have it smuggled in a suitcase. Instead, it is speculated that a link exists between the plutonium smuggling incidents and the desire to promote the production of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. Such incidents, by further raising public anxiety, may be intended to turn public opinion in favour of MOX fuel production as a sensible way of getting rid of surplus plutonium. (UK)

  20. On recycling of nuclear fuel in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In Japan, atomic energy has become to accomplish the important role in energy supply. Recently the interest in the protection of global environment heightened, and the anxiety on oil supply has been felt due to the circumstances in Mideast. Therefore, the importance of atomic energy as an energy source for hereafter increased, and the future plan of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan must be promoted on such viewpoint. At present in Japan, the construction of nuclear fuel cycle facilities is in progress in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture. The prototype FBR 'Monju' started the general functional test in May, this year. The transport of the plutonium reprocessed in U.K. and France to Japan will be carried out in near future. This report presents the concrete measures of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan from the long term viewpoint up to 2010. The necessity and meaning of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan, the effort related to nuclear nonproliferation, the plan of nuclear fuel recycling for hereafter in Japan, the organization of MOX fuel fabrication in Japan and abroad, the method of utilizing recovered uranium and the reprocessing of spent MOX fuel are described. (K.I.)

  1. Plutonium waste container identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmierer, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the parameters of a method for identifying plutonium waste containers. This information will form the basis for a permanent committee to develop a complete identification program for use throughout the world. Although a large portion of the information will be on handwritten notebooks and may not be as extensive as is desired, it will all be helpful. The final information will be programmed into computer language and be available to all interested parties as well as a central control committee which will have the expertise to provide each government with advice on the packaging, storage, and measurement of the waste for which it is responsible. As time progresses, this central control committee should develop permanent storage sites and establish a system of records which will last for hundreds of years

  2. Uranium plutonium oxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Leggett, R.D.; Weber, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium plutonium oxide is the principal fuel material for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's) throughout the world. Development of this material has been a reasonably straightforward evolution from the UO 2 used routinely in the light water reactor (LWR's); but, because of the lower neutron capture cross sections and much lower coolant pressures in the sodium cooled LMFBR's, the fuel is operated to much higher discharge exposures than that of a LWR. A typical LMFBR fuel assembly is shown. Depending on the required power output and the configuration of the reactor, some 70 to 400 such fuel assemblies are clustered to form the core. There is a wide variation in cross section and length of the assemblies where the increasing size reflects a chronological increase in plant size and power output as well as considerations of decreasing the net fuel cycle cost. Design and performance characteristics are described

  3. Developing a physiologically based approach for modeling plutonium decorporation therapy with DTPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Manuel; Giussani, Augusto; Blanchardon, Eric; Breustedt, Bastian; Fritsch, Paul; Hoeschen, Christoph; Lopez, Maria Antonia

    2014-11-01

    To develop a physiologically based compartmental approach for modeling plutonium decorporation therapy with the chelating agent Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Ca-DTPA/Zn-DTPA). Model calculations were performed using the software package SAAM II (©The Epsilon Group, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA). The Luciani/Polig compartmental model with age-dependent description of the bone recycling processes was used for the biokinetics of plutonium. The Luciani/Polig model was slightly modified in order to account for the speciation of plutonium in blood and for the different affinities for DTPA of the present chemical species. The introduction of two separate blood compartments, describing low-molecular-weight complexes of plutonium (Pu-LW) and transferrin-bound plutonium (Pu-Tf), respectively, and one additional compartment describing plutonium in the interstitial fluids was performed successfully. The next step of the work is the modeling of the chelation process, coupling the physiologically modified structure with the biokinetic model for DTPA. RESULTS of animal studies performed under controlled conditions will enable to better understand the principles of the involved mechanisms.

  4. Impact on geologic repository usage from limited actinide recycle in pressurized light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigeland, Roald A.; Bauer, Theodore H.; Hill, Robert N.; Stillman, John A.

    2007-01-01

    A project has been conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative to evaluate the impact of limited actinide recycling in light water reactors on the utilization of a geologic repository where loading of the repository is constrained by the decay heat of the emplaced materials. In this study, it was assumed that spent PWR fuel was processed, removing the uranium, plutonium, americium, and neptunium, along with the fission products cesium and strontium. Previous work had demonstrated that these elements were responsible for limiting loading in the repository based on thermal constraints. The plutonium, americium, and neptunium were recycled in a PWR, with process waste and spent recycled fuel being sent to the repository. The cesium and strontium were placed in separate storage for 100-300 years to allow for decay prior to disposal. The study examined the effect of single and multiple recycles of the recovered plutonium, americium, and neptunium, as well as different processing delay times. The potential benefit to the repository was measured by the increase in utilization of repository space as indicated by the allowable linear loading in the repository drifts (tunnels). The results showed that limited recycling would provide only a small fraction of the benefit that could be achieved with repeated processing and recycling, as is possible in fast neutron reactors. (author)

  5. Differential spectrophotometric determination of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecat, J.

    1980-01-01

    Differential spectrophotometric method is used for determination of plutonium reduced to oxydation state III+ by ascorbic acid, at 560 nm. Concentration of solutions is 4 g/l and accuracy of the method is better than 0,3% [fr

  6. The first milligrams of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates the discovery of the different plutonium chemical extraction processes in their historical context. The first experiments started during the second world war in 1942 with the American ''Metallurgical Laboratory'' project which brought together Arthur Compton, Enrico Fermi and Glenn Seaborg. During the same period, a competitive English-Canadian project, the ''Montreal Project'', was carried out to test different plutonium solvent extraction techniques. The author participated in both projects and joined the CEA in 1946, where he was in charge of the uranium and plutonium chemistry. By the end of 1949, his team could isolate the first milligrams of French plutonium from uranium oxide pellets of the ZOE reactor. In the beginning of 1952 he developed with his team the PUREX process. (J.S.)

  7. Technological alternatives for plutonium transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This paper considers alternative transport modes (air, sea, road, rail) for moving (1) plutonium from a reprocessing plant to a store or a fuel fabrication facility, and (2) MOX fuel from the latter to a reactor. These transport modes and differing forms of plutonium are considered in terms of: their proliferation resistance and safeguards; environmental and safety aspects; and economic aspects. It is tentatively proposed that the transport of plutonium could continue by air or sea where long distances are involved and by road or rail over shorter distances; this would be acceptable from the non-proliferation, environmental impact and economic aspects - there may be advantages in protection if plutonium is transported in the form of mixed oxide

  8. Plutonium helps probe protein, superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Scientists are finding that plutonium can be a useful research tool that may help them answer important questions in fields as diverse as biochemistry and solid-state physics. This paper reports that U.S. research involving plutonium is confined to the Department of Energy's national laboratories and centers around nuclear weapons technology, waste cleanup and disposal, and health effects. But at Los Alamos National Laboratory, scientists also are using plutonium to probe the biochemical behavior of calmodulin, a key calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium-regulated processes in biological systems. At Argonne National Laboratory, another team is trying to learn how a superconductor's properties are affected by the 5f electrons of an actinide like plutonium

  9. An alternative plutonium disposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a feasibility study on vitrification of plutonium with high active waste concentrate, and fabrication of MOX fuel rods for direct final disposal. These are potential alternatives to the direct use of MOX fuel in a reactor. (author)

  10. Chloride removal from plutonium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution containing plutonium. Levels less than 10 ppM chloride were achieved in the supernates over the precipitated and centrifuged insoluble salts. Also, less than 0.05% loss of plutonium in the +3, +4, or +6 oxidation states was incurred via precipitate carrying. These results provide impetus for further study and development of a plant-scale process to recover plutonium from metal alloy at SRP

  11. How not to reduce plutonium stocks. The danger of MOX-fuelled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Plutonium is a radioactive by-product of nuclear reactor operation and one of the most toxic substances known. The world would be a safer place if the governments of countries with stocks of it, including Britain, would adopt effective policies for reducing and managing them. Two recent authoritative reports recommend that the British government take urgent action to reduce its 'civil' plutonium stock - currently one quarter of the world's total and set to rise to about two-thirds by the year 2010. The March 1999 House of Lords report, Management of Nuclear Waste, concludes that British government policy on plutonium 'should be the maintenance of the minimum strategic stock, and the declaration of the remainder as waste'. A report from the Royal Society, Britain's main learned society, meanwhile states that: 'In addition to disposing of some of the plutonium already in the stockpile, steps should be taken to reduce the amount added to it each year, primarily by reducing the amount of reprocessing carried out'. The government's reply to the House of Lords is expected to be followed by a public consultation before changes in legislation are proposed. But, at the same time, the government is considering an application from British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), the government-owned company which separates plutonium from spent nuclear fuel rods, for a licence to operate a new plant at Sellafield in Cumbria to produce mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear fuel from its plutonium stockpile. The nuclear industry justifies the Sellafield MOX plant as one way of reducing plutonium stocks. But critics point out that this is not a rational way to manage plutonium. This briefing aims to contribute to an informed debate during the current flurry of British government nuclear policymaking by explaining why. (author)

  12. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the life-span dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. The tissue distribution of plutonium, radiation effects in the lung and hematologic changes in plutonium-exposed beagles with lung tumors were evaluated

  13. Plutonium contamination in italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave-Bondi, G.; Merli, S.; Rogo, M.; Sgarbazzini, M.; Clemente, G.F.; Mancini, L.; Santori, G.; Tardella, Q.

    1983-01-01

    The literature data concerning the biological and the chemical physical characteristics of plutonium are summarized in the first part of the paper. The experimental results of the plutonium concentration in complete diets, single food items and some human autopsy tissues, regarding the Italian situation, are then presented and discussed. Our experimental data are in good agreement with similar data reported in several studies carried out in some countries of the north emisphere

  14. Plutonium: real and false problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemden, E. van den

    1981-01-01

    This paper deals with technical and technological state of the possibilities of using plutonium as fuel in the thermal and fast reactors. It also describes the political blockage restraining its use and the reasons for it. The accent is put on some fundamental lacks of international coordination and on some problems of commercial policy, which impede, in a certain way, the industrial use of plutonium as a fuel. (author)

  15. Monitoring the risks of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, B.

    1978-01-01

    The difficulties in monitoring the environment in work areas where plutonium is handled are identified and both continuous and personal air sampling techniques considered. Methods of estimating the amounts of plutonium retained in the body are: (1) Direct external counting over the chest of the 'soft' low energy X-rays and gamma rays emitted by the plutonium deposited in the lungs. (2) Measuring plutonium excreted in urine. (3) Analysing faeces soon after a suspected contamination. Limitation of these techniques are discussed and it is shown that estimating the amount of plutonium in the body, or a specific organ, is extremely difficult, both because of the lack of sensitivity of the measuring techniques (especially chest scanning) and because of the problems in interpreting data, stemming from a lack of knowledge of crucial characteristics of the inhaled plutonium (such as particle size and solubility). Nevertheless it is felt that the judicious integration of all the options creates a level of certainty that no individual technique can possibly inspire. (U.K.)

  16. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  17. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  18. Atomic energy policy of Japan, especially plutonium utilization policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The necessity of plutonium use in Japan is discussed. Basic policy regarding plutonium use and future plutonium utilization programme is described including such an aspect as management of plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons

  19. Rethink, Rework, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

  20. Aluminium beverage can recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinski, A von

    1985-08-01

    Canned beverages have become a controversial issue in this era of ecological sensitivity. METALL has already discussed the problem of can recycling. The present article discusses the technical aspects of aluminium can recycling. Two further articles will follow on aluminium can recycling in North America and on the results of European pilot projects.

  1. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  2. The recycling is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The recycling site currently situated near building 133 has been transferred to the car park of building 156. The site is identified by the sign “RECYCLING” and the above logo. In this new, more accessible site, you will find recycling bins for the following waste: PET (recyclable plastic bottles); Aluminium cans; Nespresso coffee capsules.  

  3. The Optimum Plutonium Inert Matrix Fuel Form for Reactor-Based Plutonium Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulenko, J.S.; Wang, J.; Acosta, C.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Florida has underway an ongoing research program to validate the economic, operational and performance benefits of developing an inert matrix fuel (IMF) for the disposition of the U.S. weapons plutonium (Pu) and for the recycle of reprocessed Pu. The current fuel form of choice for Pu disposition for the Department of Energy is as a mixed oxide (MOX) (PuO2/UO2). We will show analyses that demonstrate that a Silicon Carbide (SiC) IMF offers improved performance capabilities as a fuel form for Pu recycle and disposition. The reason that UF is reviewing various materials to serve as an inert matrix fuel is that an IMF fuel form can offer greatly reduced Pu and transuranic isotope (TRU) production and also improved thermal performance characteristics. Our studies showed that the Pu content is reduced by an order of magnitude while centerline fuel temperatures are reduced approximately 380 degrees centigrade compared to MOX. These reduced temperatures result in reduced stored heat and thermal stresses in the pellet. The reduced stored heat reduces the consequences of the loss of coolant accident, while the reduced temperatures and thermal stresses yield greatly improved fuel performance. Silicon Carbide is not new to the nuclear industry, being a basic fuel material in gas cooled reactors

  4. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) sludge recycling unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Guelph Utility Pole Company treats utility poles by immersion in pentachlorophenol (PCP) or by pressure treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The PCP treatment process involves a number of steps, each producing a certain amount of sludge and other wastes. In a plant upgrading program to improve processing and treatment of poles and to reduce and recycle waste, a PCP recovery unit was developed, first as an experimental pilot-scale unit and then as a full-scale unit. The PCP recovery unit is modular in design and can be modified to suit different requirements. In a recycling operation, the sludge is pumped through a preheat system (preheated by waste heat) and suspended solids are removed by a strainer. The sludge is then heated in a tank and at a predetermined temperature it begins to separate into its component parts: oil, steam, and solids. The steam condenses to water containing low amounts of light oil, and this water is pumped through an oil/water separator. The recovered oil is reused in the wood treatment process and the water is used in the CCA plant. The oil remaining in the tank is reused in PCP treatment and the solid waste, which includes small stones and wood particles, is removed and stored. By the third quarter of operation, the recovery unit was operating as designed, processing ca 10,000 gal of sludge. This sludge yielded 6,500 gal of water, 3,500 gal of oil, and ca 30 gal of solids. Introduction of the PCP sludge recycling system has eliminated long-term storage of PCP sludge and minimized costs of hazardous waste disposal. 4 figs

  5. The Physics of Plutonium Fuels - A Review of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, Kevin; Delpech, Marc; Sartori, Enrico

    2000-01-01

    In 1993, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency first convened the Working Group on the Physics of Plutonium Recycle (WPPR) (now renamed the Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles). Since its inception, the WPPR (whose task has now been expanded to include innovative fuel cycles) has published six volumes of detailed results from analyses of plutonium fuel in pressurized water reactors and fast reactors. A seventh volume on the physics of plutonium fuel in boiling water reactors is in preparation. The analyses have been mostly in the form of theoretical benchmark exercises for situations beyond current experience, for which multinational contributions provide a basis for comparison of diverse calculational methods and nuclear data libraries. The overall activities of the WPPR are reviewed and summarized

  6. Using the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) to dispose of excess weapons plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.; Wade, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    Plutonium is a man-made radioactive element with a long half-life. The only way to dispose of plutonium permanently is by causing it to fission. The fission process is efficient only in a fast neutron spectrum, and multiple recycle with a minimal loss is required to approach complete destruction. To be consistent with nonproliferation objectives, the process should be compatible with rigorous safeguards, and should not involve handling separated plutonium; The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) meets all of these requirements. In addition, several near-term denaturing options are available that are fully compatible with complete destruction. When coupled with electrical generation, ample revenues would be available to cover all handling, operating and safeguards costs, with a substantial residual net return on the investment. (author)

  7. Advanced plutonium management in PWR - complementarity of thorium and uranium cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernoult, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the possibility of advanced management of plutonium in existing reactors, 8 strategies for plutonium multi-recycling in PWRs are studied. Following equilibrium studies, it was shown that, by using homogeneous assemblies, the use of thorium cannot reduce the plutonium inventory of equilibrium cycle or production of americium. By distributing the different fuel types within the same assembly, some thoriated strategies allow however lower inventories and lower production americium best strategies using only the uranium cycle. However, in all cases, low fuel conversion theories in PWRs makes it impossible to lower resource consumption more than a few percent compared to strategies without thorium. To study the transition, active participation in development of the scenario code CLASS has been taken. It led to the two simulation scenarios among those studied in equilibrium with CLASS. These simulations have shown discrepancies with previously simulated scenarios. The major causes of these differences were identified and quantified. (author)

  8. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, fourth quarter 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    At the beginning of the fourth quarter of 1980, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station remained shutdown for the normally planned semiannual maintenance and testing program, initiated September 12, 1980. Operational testing began on November 7. Maximum power was achieved November 28 and was maintained throughout the remainder of the quarter except as noted. The LWBR Core has generated 19,046.07 EFPH from start-up through the end of the quarter. During this quarter, approximately 0.000025 curies of Xe 133 activity were released from the station. During the fourth quarter of 1980, 1081 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste was shipped out of state for burial. These shipments contained 0.037 curies of radioactivity.

  9. Erosional losses of fallout plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, G.R.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium from fallout after atmospheric explosion of nuclear weapons in the 1950's and 1960s is being redistributed over the landscape by soil erosion and carried on sediment by streams to oceans. Erosion rates computed with the Universal Soil Loss Equation for more than 200,000 sample points on nonfederal land across the US were used to estimate plutonium removal rates by soil erosion. On the average, only about 4% of the eroded sediment reaches the outlet of a major river. The remaining sediment is deposited en route, and because deposition is a selective process, the sediment is enriched in fine particles having the highest concentration of plutonium because of the element's strong association with clay and silt-sized sediment. Estimated enrichment ratios, sediment delivery ratios, and erosion rates were used to estimate annual delivery of fallout plutonium. These estimates ranged from 0.002% of the initial fallout plutonium inventory for the Savannah River basin to 0.01% for the Columbia River basin, to 0.02% for the Hudson and Rio Grande River basins, to 0.08% for the Mississippi River basin. If the deposition of plutonium had been uniformly 1 mCi/km 2 , the estimated plutonium activity on suspended sediment would range from about 7 fCi/g of sediment of the Savannah River basin, to 9 fCi/g for the Mississippi River basin, to 12 fCi/g for the Hudson River basin, to 14 fCi/g for the Columbia and Rio Grande River basins. 45 references, 2 figures, 17 tables

  10. Physics studies of weapons plutonium disposition in the Integral Fast Reactor closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Wade, D.C.; Liaw, J.R.; Fujita, E.K.

    1995-01-01

    The core performance impact of weapons plutonium introduction into the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) closed fuel cycle is investigated by comparing three disposition scenarios: a power production mode, a moderate destruction mode, and a maximum destruction mode, all at a constant heat rating of 840 MW(thermal). For each scenario, two fuel cycle models are evaluated: cores using weapons material as the sole source of transuranics in a once-through mode and recycle cores using weapons material only as required for a makeup feed. In addition, the impact of alternative feeds (recycled light water reactor or liquid-metal reactor transuranics) on burner core performance is assessed. Calculated results include mass flows, detailed isotopic distributions, neutronic performance characteristics, and reactivity feedback coefficients. In general, it is shown that weapons plutonium does not have an adverse effect on IFR core performance characteristics; also, favorable performance can be maintained for a wide variety of feed materials and fuel cycle strategies

  11. Plutonium focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  12. Plutonium solution analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded)

  13. Plutonium oxide shipment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    While following procedures for unloading shipping containers containing plutonium oxide, SRP personnel experienced problems. While using a pipe cutter to cut through the wall of the inner container, the pipe section fell to the floor. Three empty food cans in the bottom of the inner canister also fell to the floor and a puff of smoke was observed. Personnel were evacuated and contamination was detected in the room. As a result of the investigations conducted by Westinghouse and SRP, thermal effects, food can coatings, and fuel volatiles were eliminated as the cause of the problem. Helium used to leak test the RL070 shipping container seals entered the inner canister through two weld defects resulting in a pressurization of the contents. When the end cap was removed, the inner canister vented rapidly, the food cans did not, thus creating a differential pressure across the food cans. This caused the food cans to swell. It was recommended that a dye penetrant test of all inner container welds be added. Additional unloading procedures were also recommended

  14. Plutonium solution analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  15. Plutonium dispositioning in CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P.G.; Feinroth, H.; Luxat, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to evaluate salient technical, strategic, schedule, and cost-related parameters of using CANDU reactors for dispositioning of weapons-grade plutonium in the form of Mixed OXide (MOX) fuel. A study team, consisting of key staff from the CANDU reactor designers and researchers (AECL), operators (Ontario Hydro) and fuel suppliers, analyzed all significant factors involved in such application, with the objective of identifying an arrangement that would permit the burning of MOX in CANDU at the earliest date. One of Ontario Hydro's multi-unit stations, Bruce A nuclear generating station (4x769 MW(e)), was chosen as the reference for the study. The assessment showed that no significant modifications of reactor or process systems are necessary to operate with a full MOX core. Plant modifications would be limited to fuel handling and modifications necessary to accommodate enhanced security and safeguards requirements. No safety limitations were identified

  16. NRC quarterly [status] report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report covers the third quarter of calendar year 1987. The NRC licensing activity during the period of this report included the issuance of a full-power license for Beaver Valley 2 on August 14, 1987, and operating license restricted to five percent power for South Texas Unit 1 on August 21, 1987. Additional licensing delay for Shoreham is projected due to complex litigation. Also, licensing delay may occur for Comanche Peak Unit 1, because the duration of the hearing is uncertain. Although a license authorizing fuel loading and precriticality testing for Seabrook Unit 1 has been issued, there is a projected delay for low-power licensing. Full-power licensing for Seabrook Unit 1 will be delayed due to offsite emergency preparedness issues. The length of the delay is not known at this time. With the exception of Seabrook and Shoreham, regulatory delays in this report are not impacted by the schedules for resolving off-site emergency preparedness issues

  17. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  18. Economic considerations of plutonium utilization in the nuclear power strategy of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.; Tusa, E.; Routti, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Based on the current and predicted share of nuclear power in the national energy supply strategy, an optimal programme is developed for the exploitation of plutonium in both light-water and fast reactor systems. Assuming cost trends beyond the year 2000 for uranium, plutonium, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication and assessing the availability of plutonium from domestic power plants and from abroad, the nuclear construction programme is optimized economically in view of the estimated development in the investment costs of various plant types. Given the expected nuclear share of the energy procurement this sector is covered by the alternative production schemes, i.e. light-water reactors with and without plutonium recycle, and fast reactors. Defining the objective function in terms of minimized revenue requirement in plant amortization and operation the generated scenarios are screened off and they finally converge to the optimal policy of nuclear power construction up to the year 2000. The established technology is associated with a larger share of the domestic manufacturing and the introduction of a new fuel or reactor type is taken to correspond to a reduced domestic investment share. In the investment costs the domestic fraction is regarded competitive up to a certain marginal excess. Plutonium recycle is seen to be competitive from 1985 or as soon as the required amount of fuel has been reprocessed. The domestic accumulation of plutonium will be able to support the introduction of the LMFBR in 1997. Owing to the uncertainties prevailing in the forecasts, sensitivity studies are performed as functions of the major economic parameters and their temporal development. (author)

  19. Double shell tanks plutonium inventory assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusler, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides an evaluation that establishes plutonium inventory estimates for all DSTs based on known tank history information, the DST plutonium inventory tracking system, tank characterization measurements, tank transfer records, and estimated average concentration values for the various types of waste. These estimates use data through December 31, 1994, and give plutonium estimates as of January 1, 1995. The plutonium inventory values for the DSTs are given in Section 31. The plutonium inventory estimate is 224 kg for the DSTs and 854 kg for the SSTs for a total of 1078 kg. This value compares favorably with the total plutonium inventory value of 981 kg obtained from the total plutonium production minus plutonium recovery analysis estimates

  20. Oxidation-state maxima in plutonium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2013-01-01

    Maxima in the fractions of the trivalent and hexavalent oxidation states of plutonium are inherent in the algebra of its disproportionation reactions. The maxima do not support overall disproportionation equations as satisfactory representations of aqueous plutonium. (author)

  1. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution

  2. Environmental Biosciences Program Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2009-01-30

    Current research projects have focused Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP) talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene, low-dose ionizing radiation (gamma and neutron) and alpha radiation from plutonium. Trichloroethylene research has been conducted as a joint collaborative effort with the University of Georgia. Work on the trichloroethylene research projects has been slowed as a result of funding uncertainties. The impact of these funding uncertainties has been discussed with the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Laboratory work has been completed on several trichloroethylene risk assessment projects, and these projects have been brought to a close. Plans for restructuring the performance schedule of the remaining trichloroethylene projects have been submitted to the department. A comprehensive manuscript on the scientific basis of trichloroethylene risk assessment is in preparation. Work on the low-dose radiation risk assessment projects is also progressing at a slowed rate as a result of funding uncertainties. It has been necessary to restructure the proponency and performance schedule of these projects, with the project on Low-Dose Radiation: Epidemiology Risk Models transferred to DOE Office of Science proponency under a separate funding instrument. Research on this project will continue under the provisions of the DOE Office of Science funding instrument, with progress reported in accordance with the requirements of that funding instrument. Progress on that project will no longer be reported in quarterly reports for DE-FC09-02CH11109. Following a meeting at the Savannah River Site on May 8, 2008, a plan was submitted for development of an epidemiological cohort study and prospective medical surveillance system for the assessment of disease rates among workers at the Savannah River

  3. Plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 metabolism in dairy cows following ingestion of mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Mullen, A.A.; Sutton, W.W.; Potter, G.D.; Mosley, R.E.; Efurd, D.W.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1985-01-01

    Dairy cows were given oral dosage of plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 dioxide particles in a study to determine the relative gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution of the nuclides. Two cows were given particles in which the two isotopes were homogeneously mixed within the particles. A third cow was given two batches of particles which contained either plutonium-238 or plutonium-239. Results indicate that, when the two isotopes of plutonium are homogeneous within the particles, there is no difference between plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 in the relative gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution

  4. Plutonium Disposition Now exclamation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    A means for use of existing processing facilities and reactors for plutonium disposition is described which requires a minimum capital investment and allows rapid implementation. The scenario includes interim storage and processing under IAEA control, and fabrication into MOX fuel in existing or planned facilities in Europe for use in operating reactors in the two home countries. Conceptual studies indicate that existing Westinghouse four-loop designs can safety dispose of 0.94 MT of plutonium per calendar year. Thus, it would be possible to consume the expected US excess stockpile of about 50 MT in two to three units of this type, and it is highly likely that a comparable amount of the FSU excess plutonium could be deposed of in a few VVER-1000's. The only major capital project for this mode of plutonium disposition would be the weapons-grade plutonium processing which could be done in a dedicated international facility or using existing facilities in the US and FSU under IAEA control. This option offers the potential for quick implementation at a very low cost to the governments of the two countries

  5. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, A. [Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  6. A World made of Plutonium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1976-01-01

    This lecture by Engelbert Broda was written for the 26th Pugwash Conference in Mühlhausen, Germany, 26 – 31 August 1976: Public doubts about nuclear energy are generally directed at the problems of routine emissions of radionuclides, of catastrophic accidents, and of terminal waste disposal. Curiously, the most important problem is not being given sufficient attention: The use of plutonium from civilian reactors fpr weapons production. According to current ideas about a nuclear future, 5000 tons (order of magnitude) of plutonium are to be made annually by year 2000, and about 10 000 tons will all the time be in circulation (transport, reprocessing, reproduction of fuel elements, etc.). It is a misconception that plutonium from power reactors is unsuitable as a nuclear explosive. 5000 tons are enough for several hundred thousand (!) of bombs, Nagasaki type. By the year 2000 maybe 40 – 50 countries will have home-made plutonium. Plutonium production and proliferation are the most serious problems in a nuclear world. (author)

  7. Plutonium determination by isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.

    1980-01-01

    The principle is to add to a known amount of the analysed solution a known amount of a spike solution consisting of plutonium 242. The isotopic composition of the resulting mixture is then determined by surface ionization mass spectrometry, and the plutonium concentration in the solution is deduced, from this measurement. For irradiated fuels neutronic studies or for fissile materials balance measurements, requiring the knowledge of the ratio U/Pu or of concentration both uranium and plutonium, it is better to use the double spike isotope dilution method, with a spike solution of known 233 U- 242 Pu ratio. Using this method, the ratio of uranium to plutonium concentration in the irradiated fuel solution can be determined without any accurate measurement of the mixed amounts of sample and spike solutions. For fissile material balance measurements, the uranium concentration is determined by using single isotope dilution, and the plutonium concentration is deduced from the ratio Pu/U and U concentration. The main advantages of isotope dilution are its selectivity, accuracy and very high sensitivity. The recent improvements made to surface ionization mass spectrometers have considerably increased the precision of the measurements; a relative precision of about 0.2% to 0.3% is obtained currently, but it could be reduced to 0.1%, in the future, with a careful control of the experimental procedures. The detection limite is around 0.1 ppb [fr

  8. Production of Plutonium Metal from Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, D.A.

    2003-01-16

    The primary separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium by the Purex solvent extraction process at the Savannah River Plant produces a dilute plutonium solution containing residual fission products and uranium. A cation exchange process is used for concentration and further decontamination of the plutonium, as the first step in the final preparation of metal. This paper discusses the production of plutonium metal from the aqueous solutions.

  9. Plutonium Proliferation: The Achilles Heel of Disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Plutonium is a byproduct of nuclear fission, and it is produced at the rate of about 70 metric tons a year in the world's nuclear power reactors. Concerns about civilian plutonium ran high in the 1970s and prompted enactment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 to give the United States a veto over separating plutonium from U.S.-supplied uranium fuel. Over the years, however, so-called reactor-grade plutonium has become the orphan issue of nuclear non-proliferation, largely as a consequence of pressures from plutonium-separating countries. The demise of the fast breeder reactor and the reluctance of utilities to introduce plutonium fuel in light-water reactors have resulted in large surpluses of civilian, weapons-usable plutonium, which now approach in size the 250 tons of military plutonium in the world. Yet reprocessing of spent fuel for recovery and use of plutonium proceeds apace outside the United States and threatens to overwhelm safeguards and security measures for keeping this material out of the hands of nations and terrorists for weapons. A number of historical and current developments are reviewed to demonstrate that plutonium commerce is undercutting efforts both to stop the spread of nuclear weapons and to work toward eliminating existing nuclear arsenals. These developments include the breakdown of U.S. anti-plutonium policy, the production of nuclear weapons by India with Atoms-for-Peace plutonium, the U.S.-Russian plan to introduce excess military plutonium as fuel in civilian power reactors, the failure to include civilian plutonium and bomb-grade uranium in the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty, and the perception of emerging proliferation threats as the rationale for development of a ballistic missile defense system. Finally, immobilization of separated plutonium in high-level waste is explored as a proliferation-resistant and disarmament-friendly solution for eliminating excess stocks of civilian and military plutonium.

  10. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, third quarter 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagorski, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    At the beginning of the third quarter of 1980, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station was operating with the 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D reactor coolant loops and the 1AC and 1BD purification loops in service. During the quarter, the Station was operated for Duquesne Light Company System grid including base load and swing load operation. Twelve (12) planned swing load operations were performed on the LWBR Core this quarter to complete the LWBR operating plan of fifty (50) during this operating phase. The Station was shutdown on September 12 for the Fall 1980 Shutdown and remained in this mode through the end of the quarter. The LWBR Core has generated 18,297.98 EFPH from start-up through the end of the quarter. There were no radioactive liquid discharges from the Radioactive Waste Processing System to the river this quarter. The radioactive liquid waste effluent line to the river remained blanked off to prevent inadvertent radioactive liquid waste discharges. During the quarter, approximately 0.001 curies of Xe 133 activity were released from the station. The radioactivity released from Shippingport Station is far too small to have any measurable effect on the general background environmental radioactivity outside the plant.

  11. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  12. Civil plutonium amounts in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1994-01-01

    The experience of plutonium reprocessing in water reactors is positive and today the use of this nuclear fuel is at industrial level. Plutonium quantities in spent fuel go on increasing, plutonium stock coming from reprocessing can be controlled: according to conjuncture, it will evolve by stabilization or decreasing at the beginning of next century

  13. The use of calorimetry for plutonium assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.A.

    1982-12-01

    Calorimetry is a technique for measuring the thermal power of heat-producing substances. The technique may be applied to the measurement of plutonium-bearing materials which evolve heat as a result of alpha and beta decay. A calorimetric measurement of the thermal power of a plutonium sample, combined with a knowledge or measurement of the plutonium isotopic mass ratios of the sample provides a convenient and accurate, non-destructive measure of the total plutonium mass of the sample. The present report provides a description, and an assessment of the calorimetry technique applied to the assay of plutonium-bearing materials. Types and characteristics of plutonium calorimeters are considered, as well as calibration and operating procedures. The instrumentation used with plutonium calorimeters is described and the use of computer control for calorimeter automation is discussed. A critical review and assessment of plutonium calorimetry literature since 1970 is presented. Both fuel element and plutonium-bearing material calorimeters are considered. The different types of plutonium calorimeters are evaluated and their relative merits are discussed. A combined calorimeter and gamma-ray measurement assay system is considered. The design principles of plutonium assay calorimeters are considered. An automatic, computer-based calorimeter control system is proposed in conjunction with a general plutonium assay calorimeter design. (author)

  14. Tabulated Neutron Emission Rates for Plutonium Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shores, Erik Frederick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-24

    This work tabulates neutron emission rates for 80 plutonium oxide samples as reported in the literature. Plutonium-­238 and plutonium-­239 oxides are included and such emission rates are useful for scaling tallies from Monte Carlo simulations and estimating dose rates for health physics applications.

  15. Technological alternatives for plutonium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This paper discusses the problems of large long term storage since stores at fabrication plants may depend on the form of plutonium ultimately chosen for transport. The paper's conclusion includes: MOX can be regarded as more proliferation resistant than PUO 2 but no experience of long term storage is available, therefore further R and D is required; co-location of the store with reprocessing plants (and fuel fabrication plant) would appear to have advantages in non-proliferation, safeguards implementation, environmental protection and economic aspects; there are strong non-proliferation and security arguments for not moving plutonium away from the site where it was separated until there is an identifiable and scheduled end use. The design of the store, the form in which plutonium should be stored, particularly as MOX, and the costs and further R and D required are considered. The possible location of stores is also discussed and institutional questions briefly considered

  16. Plutonium and U-233 mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgram, M.S.

    1983-08-01

    A comparison is made among second generation reactor systems fuelled primarily with fissile plutonium and/or U-233 in uranium or thorium. This material is obtained from irradiated fuel from first generation CANDU reactors fuelled by natural or enriched uranium and thorium. Except for plutonium-thorium reactors, second generation reactors demand similar amounts of reprocessing throughput, but the most efficient plutonium burning systems require a large prior allocation of uranium. Second generation reactors fuelled by U-233 make more efficient use of resources and lead to more flexible fuelling strategies, but require development of first generation once-through thorium cycles and early demonstration of the commercial viability of thorium fuel reprocessing. No early implementation of reprocessing technology is required for these cycles

  17. Plutonium and latent nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quester, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    A country producing nuclear electric power acquires an ability to produce atomic bombs quite easily and without taking many steps beyond that which would be perfectly normal for civilian purposes. The role of plutonium in the three fold list of the gains that must be sought in arms control formulated by Schelling and Halpevin are discussed. On the first, that we should seek to reduce the likelihood of war, it can be argued that plutonium reduces the likelihood in some cases. The second, that we should seek to reduce the destruction in war, is made worse by plutonium. On the third criterion, that we should seek to reduce the burdens in peacetime of everyone's being prepared for war, the situation is confusing and depends on the prospects for nuclear electrical power. It is concluded that latent capability to produce nuclear weapons may be sufficient without the need for actual detonations and deployment of bombs. (UK)

  18. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-09-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission). This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO 2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonably small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  19. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-05-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonalby small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  20. Shielding calculational system for plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, M.G.; Thomsen, D.H.

    1975-08-01

    A computer calculational system has been developed and assembled specifically for calculating dose rates in AEC plutonium fabrication facilities. The system consists of two computer codes and all nuclear data necessary for calculation of neutron and gamma dose rates from plutonium. The codes include the multigroup version of the Battelle Monte Carlo code for solution of general neutron and gamma shielding problems and the PUSHLD code for solution of shielding problems where low energy gamma and x-rays are important. The nuclear data consists of built in neutron and gamma yields and spectra for various plutonium compounds, an automatic calculation of age effects and all cross-sections commonly used. Experimental correlations have been performed to verify portions of the calculational system. (23 tables, 7 figs, 16 refs) (U.S.)

  1. Safeguarding the Plutonium Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.J.; Lockwood, D.

    2013-01-01

    In developing a Safeguards Approach for a plutonium process facility, two general diversion and misuse scenarios must be addressed: 1) Unreported batches of undeclared nuclear material being processed through the plant and bypassing the accountancy measurement points, and 2) The operator removing plutonium at a rate that cannot be detected with confidence due to measurement uncertainties. This paper will look at the implementation of international safeguards at plutonium fuel cycle facilities in light of past lessons learned and current safeguards approaches. It will then discuss technical areas which are currently being addressed as future tools to improve on the efficiency of safeguards implementation, while maintaining its effectiveness. The discussion of new improvements will include: safeguards by design (SBD), process monitoring (PM), measurement and monitoring equipment, and data management. The paper is illustrated with the implementation of international safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant in Japan and its accountancy structure is detailed. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  2. Nukem's plutonium hitches a ride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The European repercussions of a scandal involving the illegal movement of plutonium and cobalt 60 in canisters in which it was claimed there was only low-level radioactive waste, from West Germany to the reprocessing centre at Mol, Belgium are considered. Large bribes were paid to employees of the nuclear industry and government inspectors to allow this illicit transport to carry on over a number of years. It is not yet clear where the plutonium came from or where it was going. The suggestion that it may have been sold to Libya or Pakistan for nuclear weapons is very damaging to the nuclear safety argument. Even if the plutonium was being disposed of because it could not be accounted for, the safeguard procedures do not give confidence to the European public more aware of nuclear safety than ever. (UK)

  3. Plutonium-238 Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Mike; Lechel, David J.; Leigh, C.D.

    1999-01-01

    Five transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, collectively, have more than 2,100 cubic meters of Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) TRU waste that exceed the wattage restrictions of the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-11). The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the DOE as a repository for TRU waste. With the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) opening in 1999, these sites are faced with a need to develop waste management practices that will enable the transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste to WIPP for disposal. This paper describes a decision analysis that provided a logical framework for addressing the Pu-238 TRU waste issue. The insights that can be gained by performing a formalized decision analysis are multifold. First and foremost, the very process. of formulating a decision tree forces the decision maker into structured, logical thinking where alternatives can be evaluated one against the other using a uniform set of criteria. In the process of developing the decision tree for transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste, several alternatives were eliminated and the logical order for decision making was discovered. Moreover, the key areas of uncertainty for proposed alternatives were identified and quantified. The decision analysis showed that the DOE can employ a combination approach where they will (1) use headspace gas analyses to show that a fraction of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums are no longer generating hydrogen gas and can be shipped to WIPP ''as-is'', (2) use drums and bags with advanced filter systems to repackage Pu-238 TRU waste drums that are still generating hydrogen, and (3) add hydrogen getter materials to the inner containment vessel of the TRUPACT-11to relieve the build-up of hydrogen gas during transportation of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums

  4. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    This study was concerned with plutonium contamination of grassland at the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geogrphical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for plutonium analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99% of the total plutonium was contained in the soil. The concentrations of plutonium in soil were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes. A mechanism of agglomerated submicron plutonium oxide particles and larger (1-500 μm) host soil particles was proposed. Concentrations of Pu in litter and vegetation were inversely correlated to distance from the source and directly correlated to soil concentrations at the same location. Comparatively high concentration ratios of vegetation to soil suggested wind resuspension of contamination as an important transport mechanism. Arthropod and small mammal samples were highly skewed, kurtotic, and quite variable, having coefficients of variation (standard deviation/mean) as high as 600%. Bone Pu concentrations were lower than other tissues. Hide, GI, and lung were generally not higher in Pu than kidney, liver and muscle

  5. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material

  6. The importance of recycling - Responsible recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Joens Petter

    2014-01-01

    7 times the total emissions from Sweden are saved each year by the recycling industry. It reduces CO 2 emissions and saves the environment. In fact it annually reduces global CO 2 emissions by 500 million tons, which is more than what is being emitted by the world wide aviation industry. Recycling of iron and steel saves 74% energy and reduces water and air pollution by respectively 76% and 86%, compared to primary production. It provides new raw materials and contributes to save energy. There's no sense in producing goods in a permanent material like plastics, that's supposed to be used only once. It's a huge waste of resources. Today the recycling industry provides half of the world's raw materials and this figure is set to increase. It's about environmentally sound management of resources. It's about plain common sense. There has to be a political willingness to facilitate recycling in every way. And from a corporate perspective social responsibility is becoming an increasingly important competitive edge. This is also a communication issue, it has to be a fact that is well known to the market when a company is doing valuable environmental work. We also need a well functioning global market with easy to understand regulations to facilitate global trade. The global demand for recycled materials should influence their collection and use. Fraud and theft has also to be kept at bay which calls for a close collaboration between organizations such as The International Chamber of Commerce, The International Trade Council and the International Maritime Bureau of the commercial crime services. Increasing recycling is the only way to go if we want to minimize our effect on the environment. We have to remember that recycling is essential for the environment. An increase would be a tremendous help to reduce the green house effect. Increasing recycling is not rocket science. We know how to do it, we just have to decide to go through with it

  7. Determination of plutonium-238 in plutonium by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jain, H.C.; Mathews, C.K.; Ramaniah, M.V.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 238 Pu in plutonium samples by alpha spectrometry. Various factors attributing towards the energy degradation, a problem usually encountered in alpha spectrometry, are discussed. A computer programme is given for the evaluation of peak areas when the alpha spectrum is degraded. The results are compared with those obtained by mass spectrometry. (author)

  8. Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Quarterly operating report, third quarter 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. D.

    1978-01-01

    A loss of ac power to the station occurred on July 28, 1978 caused by an interaction between Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station when the main transformer of Unit No. 1 of the Beaver Valley Power Station developed an internal failure and tripped the BVPS. Two environmental studies were continued this quarter. The first involves reduction of main unit condenser chlorination and the second, river intake screen fish impingement sampling. There were no radioactive liquid discharges from the Radioactive Waste Processing System to the river this quarter. During the third quarter of 1978, 874 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste was shipped out of state for burial. At the end of the quarter, the Fall shutdown continued with the plant heated up, the main turbine on turning gear and plant testing in progress prior to Station startup.

  9. Research of natural resources saving by design studies of Pressurized Light Water Reactors and High Conversion PWR cores with mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, V.

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of innovative neutronic conception of Pressurized Light Water Reactors (PWR) of 3. generation, saving of natural resources is of paramount importance for sustainable nuclear energy production. This study consists in the one hand to design high Conversion Reactors exploiting mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium, and in the other hand, to elaborate multi-recycling strategies of both plutonium and 233 U, in order to maximize natural resources economy. This study has two main objectives: first the design of High Conversion PWR (HCPWR) with mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium, and secondly the setting up of multi-recycling strategies of both plutonium and 233 U, to better natural resources economy. The approach took place in four stages. Two ways of introducing thorium into PWR have been identified: the first is with low moderator to fuel volume ratios (MR) and ThPuO 2 fuel, and the second is with standard or high MR and ThUO 2 fuel. The first way led to the design of under-moderated HCPWR following the criteria of high 233 U production and low plutonium consumption. This second step came up with two specific concepts, from which multi-recycling strategies have been elaborated. The exclusive production and recycling of 233 U inside HCPWR limits the annual economy of natural uranium to approximately 30%. It was brought to light that the strong need in plutonium in the HCPWR dedicated to 233 U production is the limiting factor. That is why it was eventually proposed to study how the production of 233 U within PWR (with standard MR), from 2020. It was shown that the anticipated production of 233 U in dedicated PWR relaxes the constraint on plutonium inventories and favours the transition toward a symbiotic reactor fleet composed of both PWR and HCPWR loaded with thorium fuel. This strategy is more adapted and leads to an annual economy of natural uranium of about 65%. (author) [fr

  10. Lamps recycling aiming at the environment preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamachita, Roberto Akira; Gama, Paulo Henrique R. Pereira; Haddad, Jamil; Santos, Afonso H. Moreira; Guardia, Eduardo C.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of lamps recycling in Brazil: mercury lamps recycling, recycling potential, energy conservation and environmental impacts, enterprises lamps recycling, and incentives policy

  11. Recycling of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halaszovich, S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reviews potentials and problems of disposal or recycling of concrete removed from nuclear installations. Due to the difficulties in determining radioactivity limits that are compatible with utilization of recycled material in practice, a method is proposed that takes into account inhalation of dusts, as occurring during the reprocessing or recycling of the concrete, for instance in road building. This method is based on the maximum permissible radioactivity uptake by inhalation of a nuclide mixture of unknown composition. (RB) [de

  12. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  13. Overview of reductants utilized in nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paviet-Hartmann, P. [Idaho National Laboratory, 995 University Blvd, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Riddle, C. [Idaho National Laboratory, Material and Fuel Complex, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6150 (United States); Campbell, K. [University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Las Vegas, NV 89144 (United States); Mausolf, E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Batelle Blvd, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The most widely used reductant to partition plutonium from uranium in the Purex process was ferrous sulfamate, other alternates were proposed such as hydrazine-stabilized ferrous nitrate or uranous nitrate, platinum catalyzed hydrogen, and hydrazine, hydroxylamine salts. New candidates to replace hydrazine or hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) are pursued worldwide. They may improve the performance of the industrial Purex process towards different operations such as de-extraction of plutonium and reduction of the amount of hydrazine which will limit the formation of hydrazoic acid. When looking at future recycling technologies using hydroxamic ligands, neither acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) nor formohydroxamic acid (FHA) seem promising because they hydrolyze to give hydroxylamine and the parent carboxylic acid. Hydroxyethylhydrazine, HOC{sub 2}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 3} (HEH) is a promising non-salt-forming reductant of Np and Pu ions because it is selective to neptunium and plutonium ions at room temperature and at relatively low acidity, it could serve as a replacement of HAN or AHA for the development of a novel used nuclear fuel recycling process.

  14. Nonproliferation and safeguards aspects of fuel cycle programs in reduction of excess separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation is to explore alternatives and strategies aimed at the gradual reduction of the excess inventories of separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium (HEU) in the civilian nuclear power industry. The study attempts to establish a technical and economic basis to assist in the formation of alternative approaches consistent with nonproliferation and safeguards concerns. Reference annual mass flows and inventories for a representative 1,400 Mwe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel cycle have been investigated for three cases: the 100 percent uranium oxide UO 2 fuel loading once through cycle, and the 33 percent mixed oxide MOX loading configuration for a first and second plutonium recycle. The analysis addresses fuel cycle developments; plutonium and uranium inventory and flow balances; nuclear fuel processing operations; UO 2 once-through and MOX first and second recycles; and the economic incentives to draw-down the excess separated plutonium stores. The preliminary analysis explores several options in reducing the excess separated plutonium arisings and HEU, and the consequences of the interacting synergistic effects between fuel cycle processes and isotopic signatures of nuclear materials on nonproliferation and safeguards policy assessments

  15. Plutonium Speciation, Solubilization and Migration in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, M.; Runde, W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes research completed in the first half of a three-year project. As outlined in the authors' proposal they are focusing on (1) characterizing the plutonium at an actinide contaminated site, RFETS, including determining the origin, dispersion, and speciation of the plutonium, (2) studying environmentally important plutonium complexes, primarily hydroxides and carbonates, and (3) examining the interactions of plutonium species with manganese minerals. In the first year the authors focused on site based studies. This year they continue to characterize samples from the RFETS, study the formation and structural and spectroscopic features of environmentally relevant Pu species, and begin modeling the environmental behavior of plutonium

  16. Plutonium recovery from carbonate wash solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Reif, D.J.; Chostner, D.F.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    540Periodically higher than expected levels of plutonium are found in carbonate solutions used to wash second plutonium cycle solvent. The recent accumulation of plutonium in carbonate wash solutions has led to studies to determine the cause of that plutonium accumulation, to evaluate the quality of all canyon solvents, and to develop additional criteria needed to establish when solvent quality is acceptable. Solvent from three canyon solvent extraction cycles was used to evaluate technology required to measure tributyl phosphate (TBP) degradation products and was used to evaluate solvent quality criteria during the development of plutonium recovery processes. 1 fig

  17. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 41, 2nd Quarter, April 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    companies participated, a million more people would be actively looking for threats. Aguas de Amazonas, a subsidiary of Suez Environnement, a...9 Richard B. Myers, “A Word from the Chair- man,” Joint Force Quarterly 37 (2d Quarter 2005), 5. 10 Wald, 26. 11 “Suez— Aguas de Amazonas Water for...humanitarian duties. They have overseen over 130 humani- tarian projects worth in excess of $7.6 million and ranging from a medical center, to potable

  18. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  19. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  20. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  1. Burning weapons-grade plutonium in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.F.

    1993-06-01

    As a result of massive reductions in deployed nuclear warheads, and their subsequent dismantlement, large quantities of surplus weapons- grade plutonium will be stored until its ultimate disposition is achieved in both the US and Russia. Ultimate disposition has the following minimum requirements: (1) preclude return of plutonium to the US and Russian stockpiles, (2) prevent environmental damage by precluding release of plutonium contamination, and (3) prevent proliferation by precluding plutonium diversion to sub-national groups or nonweapons states. The most efficient and effective way to dispose of surplus weapons-grade plutonium is to fabricate it into fuel and use it for generation of electrical energy in commercial nuclear power plants. Weapons-grade plutonium can be used as fuel in existing commercial nuclear power plants, such as those in the US and Russia. This recovers energy and economic value from weapons-grade plutonium, which otherwise represents a large cost liability to maintain in safeguarded and secure storage. The plutonium remaining in spent MOX fuel is reactor-grade, essentially the same as that being discharged in spent UO 2 fuels. MOX fuels are well developed and are currently used in a number of LWRs in Europe. Plutonium-bearing fuels without uranium (non-fertile fuels) would require some development. However, such non-fertile fuels are attractive from a nonproliferation perspective because they avoid the insitu production of additional plutonium and enhance the annihilation of the plutonium inventory on a once-through fuel cycle

  2. The first weighing of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-10

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man.

  3. Spectrographic analysis of plutonium (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J.; Chaput, M.; Robichet, J.

    1960-01-01

    Various possibilities for the spectrographic determination of impurities in plutonium are considered. The application of the 'copper spark' method, of sparking on graphite and of fractional distillation in the arc are described and discussed in some detail (apparatus, accessories, results obtained). (author) [fr

  4. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800 degree C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800 degrees C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density

  5. The first weighing of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man

  6. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  7. Design of plutonium processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbyshire, W.; Sills, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Five considerations for the design of plutonium processing facilities are identified. These are: Toxicity, Radiation, Criticality, Containment and Remote Operation. They are examined with reference to reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and application is detailed both for liquid and dry processes. (author)

  8. On plutonium, journalism and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.

    1994-01-01

    This editorial comments on the furore resulting from three lay articles published by E. Welsome in the Albuquerque Tribune for 15 November 1993, concerning the injection of plutonium into humans in the 1940s, and discusses the ethics of administration of radioactive materials with and without informed consent. (Author)

  9. Management of Russian military plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleski, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose and discuss a solution which enables storing as quickly as possible all weapons-grade plutonium from Russian military program in a way which would prevent diversion. Two main conditions apply to this solution. First, it should be achieved in a manner acceptable to Russian government, notably by preserving plutonium for possible future energy production, and second, the economics of the total system should be good enough to ensure no charge or limited charge for the storage of plutonium. A proposal is made to store plutonium in a specially designed fast reactor or specially designed reactor core. This solution could be favorable in comparison to other solutions applying the above mentioned goal and conditions. Additionally the proposed solution would have the following side advantages: utilizing available personnel and installations of the Russian nuclear complex; providing possible basis for decommissioning of older and less safe Russian reactors; giving experience of construction and operation of a series of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The major problem however is the need for large capital investment with the risk of getting no adequate return on investment due to difficult political and economic situation in Russia

  10. NST Quarterly. July 1996 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in in-vitro mutagenesis of ornamental plants, soil erosion studies and animal feed production from agricultural waste

  11. NST Quarterly - January 1998 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in proposal of national networking for biotechnology culture collection centre (NNBCCC)

  12. NST Quarterly. October 1996 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in latex vulcanization (first RVNRL-based rubber gloves produced in Malaysia), tank floor scanning system (TAFLOSS), incineration and radiotherapeutic agent

  13. NST Quarterly - issue January 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. The subjects discussed are i. food and drinking water which are the major pathways of radionuclides to man and ii. nuclear techniques help to monitor sedimentation in reservoir

  14. NST Quarterly - April 1998 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in ionizing radiation as an alternative method for sanitization of herbs and spices

  15. Recycling of actinides and nuclear waste products. Annual report of the research programme 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Bakker, K.; Boerrigter, H.; Damen, P.G.M.; Gruppelaar, H.; Huntelaar, M.E.; Kloosterman, J.L.

    1998-07-01

    The research program on the title subject started in 1994 and is planned to be completed in 1998. In this period several technical and scientific aspects of recycling and transmutation are investigated in different projects. The results of the 1997 projects, carried out in the period July 1997 to June 1998, are summarized and described in this report. The 1997 projects concern (1) transmutation of actinides in inert matrices with the aim to design, test and characterize uranium-free fission materials for the transmutation of actinides, both for single as for multiple recycling strategies; (2) scenario studies for plutonium recycling with the aim to gain insight into the possibilities to reduce plutonium reserves by using plutonium as a fissionable material in reactors; (3) transmutation by means of accelerator-driven systems with the aim to analyze the options for the burning of plutonium in accelerator-driven, thorium-based systems; and (4) separation of actinides and lanthanides by means of Supported Liquid Membranes with the aim to study the possibility to extract americium from nuclear waste materials. refs

  16. Recycling of MOX fuel for LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Hyung Kook; Oh, Soo Youl

    1992-01-01

    The status and issues related to the thermal recycling of reprocessed nuclear fuels have been reviewed. It is focused on the use of reprecessed plutonium in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) for a light water reactor and the review on reprocessing and fabrication processes is beyond the scope. In spite of the difference in the nuclear characteristics between plutonium and uranium isotopes, the neutronics behavior in a core with MOX fuels is similar to that with normal uranium fuels. However, since the neutron spectrum is hardened in a core with MOX, the Doppler, viod, and moderator temperature coefficients become more negative and the control rod and boron worths are slightly reduced. Therefore, the safety will be evaluated carefully in addition to the core neutronics analysis. The MOX fuel rod behavior related to the rod performance such as the pellet to clad interaction and fission gas release is also similar to that of uranium rods, and no specific problem arises. Substituting MOX fuels for a portion of uranium fuels, it is estimated that the savings be about 25% in uranium ore and 10% in uranium enrichment service requirements. The use of MOX fuel in LWRs has been commercialized in European countries including Germany, France, Belgium, etc., and a demonstration program has been pursued in Japan for the commercial utilization in the late 1990s. Such a worldwide trend indicates that the utilization of MOX fuel in LWRs is a proven technology and meets economics criteria. (Author)

  17. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  18. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  19. Statement of incidents at nuclear installations: third quarter 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Three incidents are reported for the third quarter of 1992. During a radiological survey of British Nuclear Fuel's site at Sellafield in June, contamination of the ground under a cracked pipebridge was found. Contamination of two workers was removed by washing; the contaminated soil was removed and contained in drums. In September on the same site, a pipe failure occurred and plutonium nitrate leaked into the secondary containment cell leading to a shutdown of the reprocessing plant. However, no discharge of radioactivity to the environment and no additional radiation exposure to workers occurred. This was subsequently classified as a level 3 incident. 25 spots of radioactive contamination of a service road at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority's Winfrith site were removed and disposed of without injury or contamination. Recommendations to improve the site roads and car parks were made. (UK)

  20. Uranium, plutonium and co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerbrey, Roland; Joehnk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    To date there is no repository facility for highly radioactive and heat-generating waste in Germany. This politically ''hot'' topic is undeniably a very big, urgent problem in our society. The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers is dedicated to developing scientific solutions for such issues. It looks back on 20 years of history: In 1995 the loosely organized collective bearing the name ''Working Association of Large-Scale Research Institutes'' (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grossforschungseinrichtungen) became an association of now 18 research centers. These centers collectively work in a total of six research areas. While the HZDR has only belonged to the largest research association in Germany since 2011, repository research was already on the agenda way back when the Rossendorf research center established itself in 1992 after the fall of the Berlin Wall. A good enough reason to examine the results from about 20 years of repository research in Dresden in more detail. In this issue of ''discovered'' we will take an inside look at radiochemical, radiogeological, and microbiological labs, look over the shoulders of researchers using the ''Rossendorf Beamline'' at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, and descend hundreds of meters into Finnish, Swedish, and Swiss research labs. How do ''uranium, plutonium, and co.'' react with mineral surfaces in environments that are low in oxygen or watery? How do they interact with microorganisms deep underground? And how can host rock or other materials be used as technical barriers to prevent the spread of radioactive substances? In order to answer these and further questions, the researchers of the HZDR use a wide range of spectroscopic methods. They expose test samples to lasers, infrared light, and X-rays or use the fluorescent properties of certain compounds to learn about the behavior of actinides

  1. Uranium, plutonium and co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerbrey, Roland; Joehnk, Peter (eds.)

    2016-04-15

    To date there is no repository facility for highly radioactive and heat-generating waste in Germany. This politically ''hot'' topic is undeniably a very big, urgent problem in our society. The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers is dedicated to developing scientific solutions for such issues. It looks back on 20 years of history: In 1995 the loosely organized collective bearing the name ''Working Association of Large-Scale Research Institutes'' (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grossforschungseinrichtungen) became an association of now 18 research centers. These centers collectively work in a total of six research areas. While the HZDR has only belonged to the largest research association in Germany since 2011, repository research was already on the agenda way back when the Rossendorf research center established itself in 1992 after the fall of the Berlin Wall. A good enough reason to examine the results from about 20 years of repository research in Dresden in more detail. In this issue of ''discovered'' we will take an inside look at radiochemical, radiogeological, and microbiological labs, look over the shoulders of researchers using the ''Rossendorf Beamline'' at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, and descend hundreds of meters into Finnish, Swedish, and Swiss research labs. How do ''uranium, plutonium, and co.'' react with mineral surfaces in environments that are low in oxygen or watery? How do they interact with microorganisms deep underground? And how can host rock or other materials be used as technical barriers to prevent the spread of radioactive substances? In order to answer these and further questions, the researchers of the HZDR use a wide range of spectroscopic methods. They expose test samples to lasers, infrared light, and X-rays or use the fluorescent properties of certain compounds to learn about the behavior of actinides

  2. It’s Easy to Recycle at NCI at Frederick | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2013 through the first quarter of 2018, NCI at Frederick has recycled over 1,667 tons of material, while incinerating or landfilling over 4,273 tons of trash. This earns us a recycling rate close to 28 percent, which is below the national average of 32 percent, according to the Environmental Protection Agency, and well below our goal of 50 percent. (These numbers only

  3. Quarterly environmental data summary for fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1997 is prepared in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data presented constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the fourth quarter of 1997. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined ``above normal`` level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in response to such data. Data received and verified during the fourth quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those which are detailed.

  4. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  5. The radiological hazard of plutonium isotopes and specific plutonium mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindel, G.; Clow, J.; Inkret, W.; Miller, G.

    1995-11-01

    The US Department of Energy defines the hazard categories of its nuclear facilities based upon the potential for accidents to have significant effects on specific populations and the environment. In this report, the authors consider the time dependence of hazard category 2 (significant on-site effects) for facilities with inventories of plutonium isotopes and specific weapons-grade and heat-source mixtures of plutonium isotopes. The authors also define relative hazard as the reciprocal of the hazard category 2 threshold value and determine its time dependence. The time dependence of both hazard category 2 thresholds and relative hazards are determined and plotted for 10,000 years to provide useful information for planning long-term storage or disposal facilities

  6. Microwave calcination for plutonium immobilization and residue stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M.J.; Rising, T.L.; Roushey, W.J.; Sprenger, G.S. [Kaiser-Hill Co., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-01

    In the late 1980`s development was begun on a process using microwave energy to vitrify low level mixed waste sludge and transuranic mixed waste sludge generated in Building 374 at Rocky Flats. This process was shown to produce a dense, highly durable waste form. With the cessation of weapons production at Rocky Flats, the emphasis has changed from treatment of low level and TRU wastes to stabilizaiton of plutonium oxide and residues. This equipment is versatile and can be used as a heat source to calcine, react or vitrify many types of residues and oxides. It has natural economies in that it heats only the material to be treated, significantly reducing cycle times over conventional furnaces. It is inexpensive to operate in that most of the working components remain outside of any necessary contamination enclosure and therefore can easily be maintained. Limited testing has been successfully performed on cerium oxide (as a surrogate for plutonium oxide), surrogate electrorefining salts, surrogate residue sludge and residue ash. Future plans also include tests on ion exchange resins. In an attempt to further the usefullness of this technology, a mobile, self-contained microwave melting system is currently under development and expected to be operational at Rocky Flats Enviromental Technology Site by the 4th quarter of FY96.

  7. Microwave calcination for plutonium immobilization and residue stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.J.; Rising, T.L.; Roushey, W.J.; Sprenger, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    In the late 1980's development was begun on a process using microwave energy to vitrify low level mixed waste sludge and transuranic mixed waste sludge generated in Building 374 at Rocky Flats. This process was shown to produce a dense, highly durable waste form. With the cessation of weapons production at Rocky Flats, the emphasis has changed from treatment of low level and TRU wastes to stabilizaiton of plutonium oxide and residues. This equipment is versatile and can be used as a heat source to calcine, react or vitrify many types of residues and oxides. It has natural economies in that it heats only the material to be treated, significantly reducing cycle times over conventional furnaces. It is inexpensive to operate in that most of the working components remain outside of any necessary contamination enclosure and therefore can easily be maintained. Limited testing has been successfully performed on cerium oxide (as a surrogate for plutonium oxide), surrogate electrorefining salts, surrogate residue sludge and residue ash. Future plans also include tests on ion exchange resins. In an attempt to further the usefullness of this technology, a mobile, self-contained microwave melting system is currently under development and expected to be operational at Rocky Flats Enviromental Technology Site by the 4th quarter of FY96

  8. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  9. Plutonium vulnerability issues at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, E.; Templeton, D.W.; Tholen, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford, Washington Site was operated to produce plutonium (Pu) metal and oxide for national defense purposes. Due to the production requirements and methods utilized to meet national needs and the abrupt shutdown of the plant in the late 1980s, the plant was left in a condition that poses a risk of radiation exposure to plant workers, of accidental radioactive material release to the environment, and of radiation exposure to the public. In early 1994, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to determine the best methods for cleaning out and stabilizing Pu materials in the PFP was started. While the EIS is being prepared, a number of immediate actions have been completed or are underway to significantly reduce the greatest hazards in the PFP. Recently, increased attention his been paid to Pu risks at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities resulting in the Department-wide Plutonium Vulnerability Assessment and a recommendation by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) for DOE to develop integrated plans for managing its nuclear materials

  10. Study of the radiotoxicity of actinides recycling in boiling water reactors fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, J.L.; Guzman, J.R.; Martin-del-Campo, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the production and destruction, as well as the radiotoxicity of plutonium and minor actinides (MA) obtained from the multi-recycling of boiling water reactors (BWR) fuel are analyzed. A BWR MOX fuel assembly, with uranium (from enrichment tails), plutonium and minor actinides is designed and studied using the HELIOS code. The actinides mass and the radiotoxicity of the spent fuel are compared with those of the once-through or direct cycle. Other type of fuel assembly is also analyzed: an assembly with enriched uranium and minor actinides; without plutonium. For this study, the fuel remains in the reactor for four cycles, where each cycle is 18 months length, with a discharge burnup of 48 MWd/kg. After this time, the fuel is placed in the spent fuel pool to be cooled during 5 years. Afterwards, the fuel is recycled for the next fuel cycle; 2 years are considered for recycle and fuel fabrication. Two recycles are taken into account in this study. Regarding radiotoxicity, results show that in the period from the spent fuel discharge until 1000 years, the highest reduction in the radiotoxicity related to the direct cycle is obtained with a fuel composed of MA and enriched uranium. However, in the period after few thousands of years, the lowest radiotoxicity is obtained using the fuel with plutonium and MA. The reduction in the radiotoxicity of the spent fuel after one or two recycling in a BWR is however very small for the studied MOX assemblies, reaching a maximum reduction factor of 2.

  11. Bibliography on plutonium and its compounds; Bibliographie sur le plutonium et ses composes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirian, J; Choquet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Collection of bibliographical references on plutonium and its principal compounds from 1942 to end of 1957. (author) [French] Compilation de references bibliographiques sur le plutonium et ses principaux composes de 1942 a fin 1957. (auteur)

  12. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the fourth quarter of 1994, however, are preliminary EIA estimates or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. The EIA model is available on computer tape from the National Technical Information Service

  13. Multi-generational stewardship of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1997-01-01

    The post-cold war era has greatly enhanced the interest in the long-term stewardship of plutonium. The management of excess plutonium from proposed nuclear weapons dismantlement has been the subject of numerous intellectual discussions during the past several years. In this context, issues relevant to long-term management of all plutonium as a valuable energy resource are also being examined. While there are differing views about the future role of plutonium in the economy, there is a recognition of the environmental and health related problems and proliferation potentials of weapons-grade plutonium. The long-term management of plutonium as an energy resource will require a new strategy to maintain stewardship for many generations to come

  14. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item

  15. The chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity of plutonium chemistry was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were aqueous solution based, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, it was found that an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element will be reported

  16. Plutonium chemistry of the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folsom, T.R.

    1972-01-01

    Plutonium is a man-made element whose behavior in the marine environment is inadequately known at present. It has been studied intensively in connection with production of weapons and power sources and has been characterized as an extremely toxic substance. Nevertheless, only a few dozen measurements have been made of concentrations in seawater and in the associated organisms and sediments. The first of these were as recent as 1964. There are reasons to believe its chemical behavior in the ocean is different from what has been observed on land, and that it will be difficult to predict how plutonium will distribute itself in the ocean. The consequences of increased environmental concentrations of Pu are discussed

  17. The first milligrams of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1997-01-01

    A historical review of the development of the very first quantities of plutonium produced during World War II in the United States and in Canada, as remembered by the French nuclear chemist, Mr Goldschmidt, who participated to the various programs which were involved in the development of the atomic bomb, and to the first steps of the French atomic program after the war. Mr Goldschmidt worked especially on organic solvent extraction, with the selection, in 1945, of non volatile tri glycol dichloride, and the development of the Chalk River plant. In 1949, at the Bouchet plant, his team has isolated the first milligrams of French plutonium from uranium oxide; and in 1952, the PUREX process was developed

  18. Experimental studies to validate model calculations and maximum solubility limits for Plutonium and Americium; Experimentelle Arbeiten zur Absicherung von Modellrechnungen und Maximalkonzentrationen fuer Plutonium und Americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-02-16

    This report focuses on studies of KIT-INE to derive a significantly improved description of the chemical behaviour of Americium and Plutonium in saline NaCl, MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} brine systems. The studies are based on new experimental data and aim at deriving reliable Am and Pu solubility limits for the investigated systems as well as deriving comprehensive thermodynamic model descriptions. Both aspects are of high relevance in the context of potential source term estimations for Americium and Plutonium in aqueous brine systems and related scenarios. Americium and Plutonium are long-lived alpha emitting radionuclides which due to their high radiotoxicity need to be accounted for in a reliable and traceable way. The hydrolysis of trivalent actinides and the effect of highly alkaline pH conditions on the solubility of trivalent actinides in calcium chloride rich brine solutions were investigated and a thermodynamic model derived. The solubility of Plutonium in saline brine systems was studied under reducing and non-reducing conditions and is described within a new thermodynamic model. The influence of dissolved carbonate on Americium and Plutonium solubility in MgCl{sub 2} solutions was investigated and quantitative information on Am and Pu solubility limits in these systems derived. Thermodynamic constants and model parameter derived in this work are implemented in the Thermodynamic Reference Database THEREDA owned by BfS. According to the quality assurance approach in THEREDA, is was necessary to publish parts of this work in peer-reviewed scientific journals. The publications are focused on solubility experiments, spectroscopy of aquatic and solid species and thermodynamic data. (Neck et al., Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 81, (2009), pp. 1555-1568., Altmaier et al., Radiochimica Acta, 97, (2009), pp. 187-192., Altmaier et al., Actinide Research Quarterly, No 2., (2011), pp. 29-32.).

  19. Confinement facilities for handling plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.; McNeese, W.D.; Stafford, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    Plutonium handling on a multigram scale began in 1944. Early criteria, equipment, and techniques for confining contamination have been superseded by more stringent criteria and vastly improved equipment and techniques for in-process contamination control, effluent air cleaning and treatment of liquid wastes. This paper describes the evolution of equipment and practices to minimize exposure of workers and escape of contamination into work areas and into the environment. Early and current contamination controls are compared. (author)

  20. The Compressor Recycle System

    OpenAIRE

    Barstad, Bjørn Ove

    2010-01-01

    The compressor recycle system is the main focus of this thesis. When the mass flow through a compressor becomes too low, the compressor can plunge into surge. Surge is a term that is used for axisymmetric oscillation through a compressor and is highly unwanted. The recycle system feeds compressed gas back to the intake when the mass flow becomes too low, and thereby act as a safety system.A mathematical model of the recycle system is extended and simulated in SIMULINK. The mathematical model ...

  1. Plutonium decontamination studies using Reverse Osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plock, C.E.; Travis, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Water in batches of 45 gallons each, from a creek crossing the Rocky Flats Plant, was transferred to the Reverse Osmosis (RO) laboratory for experimental testing. The testing involved using RO for plutonium decontamination. For each test, the water was spiked with plutonium, had its pH adjusted, and was then processed by RO. At a water recovery level of 87%, the plutonium decontamination factors ranged from near 100 to 1200, depending on the pH of the processed water

  2. Safe handling of plutonium in research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The training film illustrates the main basic requirements for the safe handling of small amounts of plutonium. The film is intended not only for people setting up plutonium research laboratories but also for all those who work in existing plutonium research laboratories. It was awarded the first prize in the category ''Protection of Workers'' at the international film festival organized by the 4th World Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) in Paris in April 1977

  3. Addressing mixed waste in plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Sohn, C.L.; Reid, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The overall goal is the minimization of all waste generated in actinide processing facilities. Current emphasis is directed toward reducing and managing mixed waste in plutonium processing facilities. More specifically, the focus is on prioritizing plutonium processing technologies for development that will address major problems in mixed waste management. A five step methodological approach to identify, analyze, solve, and initiate corrective action for mixed waste problems in plutonium processing facilities has been developed

  4. Plutonium-induced lymphadenitis in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium oxide particles accumulate in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of beagles exposed by inhalation and in the popliteal lymph nodes after subcutaneous injection in the hind paws. The sequence of histopathologic changes after phagocytosis of particles included necrosis, increased numbers of macrophages, and fibroplasia. Scar tissue eventually replaced the normal architecture of the lymph nodes and sequestered the plutonium particles from surrounding parenchyma. Electron microscopy showed that plutonium particles were aggregated in phagolysosomes of macrophages

  5. Safe handling of plutonium in research laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-12-31

    The training film illustrates the main basic requirements for the safe handling of small amounts of plutonium. The film is intended not only for people setting up plutonium research laboratories but also for all those who work in existing plutonium research laboratories. It was awarded the first prize in the category ``Protection of Workers`` at the international film festival organized by the 4th World Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) in Paris in April 1977

  6. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

    1993-06-01

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO 2 -ZrO 2 -CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO 2 ) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) or europium oxide (Eu 2 O 3 ) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl 4 -Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams

  7. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heslop, M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (United States). Indian Head Div.; Wernly, K. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp. (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  8. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.

    1999-01-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible 238 Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na 2 SO 4 , Na 3 PO 4 and NaAsO 2 or Na 3 AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the 238 Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox

  9. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-08-01

    A study was made of plutonium contamination of grassland at the Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geographical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for Pu analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99 percent of the total plutonium was contained in the soil and the concentrations were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes

  10. Neutronics benchmark of a MOX assembly with near-weapons-grade plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.; Fisher, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    One of the proposed ways to dispose of surplus weapons-grade plutonium (Pu) is to irradiate the high-fissile material in light-water reactors in order to reduce the Pu enrichment to the level of spent fuels from commercial reactors. Considerable experience has been accumulated about the behavior of mixed-oxide (MOX) uranium and plutonium fuels for plutonium recycling in commercial reactors, but the experience is related to Pu enrichments typical of spent fuels quite below the values of weapons-grade plutonium. Important decisions related to the kind of reactors to be used for the disposition of the plutonium are going to be based on calculations, so the validation of computational algorithms related to all aspects of the fuel cycle (power distributions, isotopics as function of the burnup, etc.), for weapons-grade isotopics is very important. Analysis of public domain data reveals that the cycle-2 irradiation in the Quad cities boiling-water reactor (BWR) is the most recent US destructive examination. This effort involved the irradiation of five MOX assemblies using 80 and 90% fissile plutonium. These benchmark data were gathered by General Electric under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute. It is emphasized, however, that global parameters are not the focus of this benchmark, since the five bundles containing MOX fuels did not significantly affect the overall core performance. However, since the primary objective of this work is to compare against measured post-irradiation assembly data, the term benchmark is applied here. One important reason for performing the benchmark on Quad Cities irradiation is that the fissile blends (up to 90%) are higher than reactor-grade and, quite close to, weapons-grade isotopics

  11. To reprocess to recycle. The nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    After a summary of fundamental notions of radioactivity and nuclear safety, the first part of this work is devoted to the organisation in France to provide the nuclear facilities safety. The second part related to the fuel cycle describes the big steps of this cycle and particularly the stakes and objectives of the reprocessing -recycling as well as the valorization of reusable matters such plutonium and uranium. The risks identification, means to control them, in conception, realisation and operation are described in the third, fourth and fifth parts. In this last part the managements of accidental situations is treated. The sixth and last part is devoted to the environment protection, treats the control of waste release of reprocessing -recycling facilities, of these waste management that is to say every disposition made by Cogema to limit the impact of its installations on environment. In this last part are also described the safety of nuclear and radioactive matters transport, and the definitive breakdown of installations. (N.C.)

  12. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-06-26

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process.

  13. Safe handling of plutonium: a panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    This guide results from a meeting of a Panel of Experts held by the International Atomic Energy Agency on 8 to 12 November 1971. It is directed to workers in research laboratories handling plutonium in gram amounts. Contents: aspects of the physical and chemical properties of plutonium; metabolic features of plutonium; facility design features for safe handling of plutonium (layout of facility, working zones, decontamination room, etc.); glove boxes; health surveillance (surveillance of environment and supervision of workers); emergencies; organization. Annexes: types of glove boxes; tables; mobile ..cap alpha.. air sampler; aerosol monitor; bio-assay limits of detection; examples of contamination control monitors.

  14. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process

  15. Assay of low-level plutonium effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Hsue, F.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    In the plutonium recovery section at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an effluent solution is generated that contains low plutonium concentration and relatively high americium concentration. Nondestructive assay of this solution is demonstrated by measuring the passive L x-rays following alpha decay. Preliminary results indicate that an average deviation of 30% between L x-ray and alpha counting can be achieved for plutonium concentrations above 10 mg/L and Am/Pu ratios of up to 3; for plutonium concentrations less than 10 mg/L, the average deviation is 40%. The sensitivity of the L x-ray assay is approx. 1 mg Pu/L

  16. First quarter 2005 sales data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    This press release brings information on the AREVA group sales data. First quarter 2005 sales for the group were 2,496 millions of euros, up 3,6% year-on-year from 2,41 millions. The change in foreign exchange rates between the two periods show a negative impact of 22 millions euros, which is much lower than in the first quarter of 2004. It analyzes also in more details the situation of the front end, the reactors and service division, the back end division, the transmission and distribution division and the connectors division. (A.L.B.)

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  18. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Values for the second quarter of 1992, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding

  19. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Recycling of used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on used oil which is a valuable resource that should be recycled. Recycling used oil saves energy and natural resources. Used oil can be reprocessed and used as fuel in industrial burners and boilers. Unfortunately, more than 400 million gallons/year of used oil is lost through widespread dumping, partly due to lack of effective recycling procedures. Although used oil is not currently a federally listed hazardous waste, the U.S. EPA has proposed to list it as a hazardous waste, which will make recycling of used oil even more attractive. Laboratory samples, representing used oil, were used for detailed parametric studies and to determine the limitation of extending some of the current physical separation techniques such as sedimentation and centrifuging developed for oil-water and solid-liquid separation

  1. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Metals like iron and aluminium are produced from mineral ore and used for a range of products, some of which have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of municipal waste. Packaging in terms of cans, foils and containers are products with a short lifetime. Other products like...... appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  2. Reduce, reuse and recycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afrika, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the internationally accepted waste management hierarchy (Sakai et al, 1996) into South African policy has changed the focus from “end of pipe” waste management towards waste minimisation (reuse, recycling and cleaner production...

  3. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  4. A Practical Recycling Project . . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Raymond H.; Mikuska, James M.

    1973-01-01

    Descirbes a school district's recycling program of aluminum lunch trays that are collected after their use. The trays are used as scrap metal in industrial education workshop and used for sand castings. (PS)

  5. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  6. Dual recycling for GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, H; Freise, A; Malec, M; Heinzel, G; Willke, B; Lueck, H; Strain, K A; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2004-01-01

    Dual recycling is the combination of signal recycling and power recycling; both optical techniques improve the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. In addition, signal recycling can reduce the loss of light power due to imperfect interference and allows us, in principle, to beat the standard quantum limit. The interferometric gravitational-wave detector GEO 600 is the first of the kilometre-scale detectors to use signal recycling. We have recently equipped the detector with a signal-recycling mirror with a transmittance of 1%. In this paper, we present details of the detector commissioning and the first locks of the dual-recycled interferometer

  7. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  8. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the first quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  9. The plutonium challenge for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper author deal with the weapons-usable plutonium and with the possibilities of their managing. Russia has not disclosed the amount of plutonium produced, but various estimates indicate that the production was about 130 tonnes. Production has been curtailed in Russia; three dual-purpose reactors still produce weapons-grade plutonium - two at Tomsk-7 (renamed Seversk) and one at Krasnoyarsk-26 (renamed Zheleznogorsk Mining and Chemical Combine). In a 1994 United States-Russian agreement that has yet to enter into force, Russia agreed to close the remaining operating reactors by the year 2000. Treaties between the United States and Russia have already cut the number of nuclear warheads from more than 10,000 to about 6,000 under START 1, which has been ratified, and to about 3,500 under START 2, which still awaits approval. If Russia and the United States conclude START 3, that number could drop to between 2,000 and 2,500. On September 2, 1998, the Presidents of the United States and Russia signed the 'Joint statement of principles for Management and Disposition of Plutonium, Designated as No Longer Required for Defense Purposes.' In this joint statement the Presidents affirm the intention of each country to remove by stages approximately 50 metric tons of plutonium and to convert the nuclear weapons programs, and to convert this material so that it can never be used in nuclear weapons. These 100 tonne of plutonium must be managed in proper way such that it becomes neither a proliferation for an environmental risk. The United States has proposed that it manage it's 50 tonnes by a dual approach-once through MOX burning of a portion of the plutonium and immobilization in a ceramic matrix followed by en- casement in high level waste glass. Russia has proposed that it manage its full 50 tonnes by burning in a reactor. The MOX program in the United States would bum the cleaner plutonium metal and residues. Weapons components would be converted to plutonium oxide

  10. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  11. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 307-312

  12. Nuclear reactor recyclation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigawa, Yukio; Chuma, Kazuto

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the unevenness for the coolant flow rate even when abnormality occurs to one of recycling pumps. Constitution: A plurality of jet pumps disposed at an interval around the reactor core are divided circumferentially into two sets, and a pipeway is disposed to the outside of each pair including recycling pumps corresponding to each of the sets. The pipeway is connected to the recycling inlet of the jet pump by way of a manifold. The discharge portion of the recycling pumps of the loop pipeway are connected with each other by way of communication pipes, and a normally closed valve is disposed to the communication pipe and the normally closed valve of the communication pipe is opened upon detecting abnormality for one of the recycling pumps. Thus, if either one of the pair of recycling pumps shows abnormal state, coolants flows from the other of pipeway to the outside of the loop pipeway and coolants are supplied from all the jet pumps to the reactor core portion and, accordingly, the not-uniform flow rate can be prevented to eliminate undesired effect on the reactor core. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Recycling of Paper and Cardboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    waste. Recycling of paper and cardboard production waste and postconsumer waste has a long history in the pulp and paper industry. The recycled material now makes up more than half of the raw material used in European pulp and paper industry (ERPC, 2004). This chapter describes briefly how paper...... and cardboard are produced and how waste paper is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of paper recycling....

  14. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash and centrifuge sludge by peroxide fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.A.; Wheelwright, E.J.

    1975-05-01

    A technique was demonstrated for solubilizing the plutonium contained in incinerator ash and in other waste solids (such as solids accumulated by centrifugation after solvent extraction contacts in the plutonium reclamation facility at Hanford). A sodium hydroxide--sodium peroxide fusion is performed on the Pu-containing solids. The cooled melt is then dissolved in dilute nitric acid. Mild steel cans were used as ''single use'' crucibles for the fusions. Both the can and the cooled melt are dissolved in nitric acid. Fusion tests were conducted on three different cans of incinerator ash and on one can of centrifuge sludge. The series of tests demonstrated that a caustic-peroxide fusion treatment can yield 95 percent or greater recovery of plutonium from these waste solids. In most cases, quantitative recovery of the plutonium can probably be achieved by recycling the residual solids obtained in aqueous dissolution of the cooled fusion mixture. Tests with some of the incinerator ash and with the centrifuge sludge resulted in gelatinous precipitates which were difficult to separate from the nitric acid dissolver solutions. These gelatinous precipitates present what is probably the major problem to be overcome in the use of this Pu recovery method. Techniques need to be examined for making these residual solids less difficult to separate from the dissolver solution. (U.S.)

  15. Decontaminaion of metals containing plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Gerding, T.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1979-06-01

    Melt-slagging (melt-refining) techniques were evaluated as a decontamination and consolidation step for metals contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium. Experiments were performed in which mild steel, stainless steel, and nickel contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium were melted in the presence of silicate slags of various compositions. The metal products were low in contamination, with the plutonium and americium strongly fractionated to the slags. Partition coefficients (plutonium in slag/plutonium in steel) of 7 x 10 6 were measured with boro-silicate slag and of 3 x 10 6 with calcium, magnesium silicate slag. Decontamination of metals containing as much as 14,000 ppM plutonium appears to be as efficient as for metals with plutonium levels of 400 ppM. Staged extraction, that is, a remelting of processed metal with clean slag, results in further decontamination of the metal. The second extraction is effective with either resistance-furnace melting or electric-arc melting. Slag adhering to the metal ingots and in defects within the ingots is in the important contributors to plutonium retained in processed metals. If these sources of plutonium are controlled, the melt-refining process can be used on a large scale to convert highly contaminated metals to homogeneous and compact forms with very low concentrations of plutonium and americium. A conceptual design of a melt-refining process to decontaminate plutonium- and americium-contaminated metals is described. The process includes single-stage refining of contaminated metals to produce a metal product which would have less than 10 nCi/g of TRU-element contamination. Two plant sizes were considered. The smaller conceptual plant processes 77 kg of metal per 8-h period and may be portable.The larger one processes 140 kg of metal per 8-h period, is stationary, and may be near te maximum size that is practical for a metal decontamination process

  16. Development of an innovative PWR for low cost fuel recycle and waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanagawa, Takashi; Onoue, Masaaki

    2001-01-01

    In order to bear long-term and stable energy supply, it is important for nuclear power generation to realize establishment of energy security controlling dependence on natural resources and reduction of long-life radioactive wastes such as minor actinide elements (MA) and so on. For this, establishment of fast breeder reproducible on its fuel and of fuel recycling is essential and construction of the fuel recycling capable of repeatedly recycling of plutonium (Pu) and MA with low cost is required. Here were proposed a fuel recycling system combining recycling type PWR with advanced recycling system under development for Na cooling fast breeder reactor as a candidate filling such conditions, to show its characteristics and effects after its introduction. By this system, some facilities to realize flexible and low cost fuel recycling, to reduce longer-life radioactive wastes due to recycling burning of Pu and MA, and to realize an electric power supplying system independent on natural resources due to fuel breeding feature, were shown. (G.K.)

  17. Energy situation - Fourth quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggemos, Fabien; Misak, Evelyne; Mombel, David; Moreau, Sylvain

    2018-02-01

    This publication presents, first, a quarterly report of the French energy situation: primary energy consumption, energy independence and CO 2 emissions, national production, imports, exports, energy costs, average and spot prices. Data are presented separately for solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity. The methodology, the definitions and the corrections used are explained in a second part

  18. 1st quarterly report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The present report describes the activities carried out in the 1st quarter of 1977 at the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung in Karlsruhe or on its behalf in the framework of the fast breeder project (PSB). The problems and main results of the partial projects fuel rod development, materials testing, reactor physics, reactor safety and reactor technology are presented. (RW) [de

  19. NST Quarterly - issue October 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it reviews GM technology and GMOs - genetically modified organisms. The topics discussed includes the implication of GM in practice, the controversy and the prospect of GM technology. Radioactive pig - something like a ball or plug which cleanses the inner walls of the pipeline, also briefly presented

  20. NST Quarterly - October 1997 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in scientific computer modelling and simulation. A report on 2-nd FAO/IAEA research coordination meeting (RCM) of the coordinated research programme (CRP) on public acceptance of the trade development in irradiated food in Asia and the Pacific (RPFI-IV) also presented