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Sample records for plutonium oxide samples

  1. Plutonium oxides and uranium and plutonium mixed oxides. Carbon determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Determination of carbon in plutonium oxides and uranium plutonium mixed oxides, suitable for a carbon content between 20 to 3000 ppm. The sample is roasted in oxygen at 1200 0 C, the carbon dioxide produced by combustion is neutralized by barium hydroxide generated automatically by coulometry [fr

  2. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  3. Tabulated Neutron Emission Rates for Plutonium Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shores, Erik Frederick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-24

    This work tabulates neutron emission rates for 80 plutonium oxide samples as reported in the literature. Plutonium-­238 and plutonium-­239 oxides are included and such emission rates are useful for scaling tallies from Monte Carlo simulations and estimating dose rates for health physics applications.

  4. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO 2 typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO 2 produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO 2 in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO 2 With uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO 2 with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO 2 materials may warrant further study

  5. Uranium plutonium oxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Leggett, R.D.; Weber, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium plutonium oxide is the principal fuel material for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's) throughout the world. Development of this material has been a reasonably straightforward evolution from the UO 2 used routinely in the light water reactor (LWR's); but, because of the lower neutron capture cross sections and much lower coolant pressures in the sodium cooled LMFBR's, the fuel is operated to much higher discharge exposures than that of a LWR. A typical LMFBR fuel assembly is shown. Depending on the required power output and the configuration of the reactor, some 70 to 400 such fuel assemblies are clustered to form the core. There is a wide variation in cross section and length of the assemblies where the increasing size reflects a chronological increase in plant size and power output as well as considerations of decreasing the net fuel cycle cost. Design and performance characteristics are described

  6. Studies on O/M ratio determination in uranium oxide, plutonium oxide and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampath, S.; Chawla, K.L.

    1975-01-01

    Thermogravimetric studies were carried out in unsintered and sintered samples of uranium oxide, plutonium oxide and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide under different atmospheric conditions (air, argon and moist argon/hydrogen). Moisture loss was found to occur below 200 0 C for uranium dioxide samples, upto 700 0 C for sintered plutonium dioxide and negligible for sintered samples. The O/M ratios for non-stoichiometric uranium dioxide (sintered and unsintered), plutonium dioxide and mixed uranium and plutonium oxides (sintered) could be obtained with a precision of +- 0.002. Two reference states UOsub(2.000) and UOsub(2.656) were obtained for uranium dioxide and the reference state MOsub(2.000) was used for other cases. For unsintered plutonium dioxide samples, accurate O/M ratios could not be obtained of overlap of moisture loss with oxygen loss/gain. (author)

  7. Plutonium oxide shipment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    While following procedures for unloading shipping containers containing plutonium oxide, SRP personnel experienced problems. While using a pipe cutter to cut through the wall of the inner container, the pipe section fell to the floor. Three empty food cans in the bottom of the inner canister also fell to the floor and a puff of smoke was observed. Personnel were evacuated and contamination was detected in the room. As a result of the investigations conducted by Westinghouse and SRP, thermal effects, food can coatings, and fuel volatiles were eliminated as the cause of the problem. Helium used to leak test the RL070 shipping container seals entered the inner canister through two weld defects resulting in a pressurization of the contents. When the end cap was removed, the inner canister vented rapidly, the food cans did not, thus creating a differential pressure across the food cans. This caused the food cans to swell. It was recommended that a dye penetrant test of all inner container welds be added. Additional unloading procedures were also recommended

  8. Precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and calcination to plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Orosco, E.H.; Cassaniti, P.; Greco, L.; Adelfang, P.

    1989-01-01

    The plutonium based fuel fabrication requires the conversion of the plutonium nitrate solution from nuclear fuel reprocessing into pure PuO2. The conversion method based on the precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and subsequent calcination has been studied in detail. In this procedure, plutonium (III) oxalate is precipitated, at room temperature, by the slow addition of 1M oxalic acid to the feed solution, containing from 5-100 g/l of plutonium in 1M nitric acid. Before precipitation, the plutonium is adjusted to trivalent state by addition of 1M ascorbic acid in the presence of an oxidation inhibitor such as hydrazine. Finally, the precipitate is calcinated at 700 deg C to obtain PuO2. A flowsheet is proposed in this paper including: a) A study about the conditions to adjust the plutonium valence. b) Solubility data of plutonium (III) oxalate and measurements of plutonium losses to the filtrate and wash solution. c) Characterization of the obtained products. Plutonium (III) oxalate has several potential advantages over similar conversion processes. These include: 1) Formation of small particle sizes powder with good pellets fabrication characteristics. 2) The process is rather insensitive to most process variables, except nitric acid concentration. 3) Ambient temperature operations. 4) The losses of plutonium to the filtrate are less than in other conversion processes. (Author) [es

  9. Robotic sample preparation for radiochemical plutonium and americium analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalnaker, N.; Beugelsdijk, T.; Thurston, A.; Quintana, J.

    1985-01-01

    A Zymate robotic system has been assembled and programmed to prepare samples for plutonium and americium analyses by radioactivity counting. The system performs two procedures: a simple dilution procedure and a TTA (xylene) extraction of plutonium. To perform the procedures, the robotic system executes 11 unit operations such as weighing, pipetting, mixing, etc. Approximately 150 programs, which require 64 kilobytes of memory, control the system. The system is now being tested with high-purity plutonium metal and plutonium oxide samples. Our studies indicate that the system can give results that agree within 5% at the 95% confidence level with determinations performed manually. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Oxidation-state maxima in plutonium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2013-01-01

    Maxima in the fractions of the trivalent and hexavalent oxidation states of plutonium are inherent in the algebra of its disproportionation reactions. The maxima do not support overall disproportionation equations as satisfactory representations of aqueous plutonium. (author)

  11. Plutonium spot of mixed oxide fuel, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yukio; Maruishi, Yoshihiro; Satoh, Masaichi; Aoki, Toshimasa; Muto, Tadashi

    1974-01-01

    In a fast reactor, the specification for the homogeneity of plutonium in plutonium-uranium mixed-oxide fuel is mainly dependent on the nuclear characteristics, whereas in a thermal reactor, on thermal characteristics. This homogeneity is measured by autoradiography as the plutonium spot size of the specimens which are arbitrarily chosen fuel pellets from a lot. Although this is a kind of random sampling, it is difficult to apply this method to conventional digital standards including JIS standards. So a special sampling inspection method was studied. First, it is assumed that the shape of plutonium spots is spherical, the size distribution is logarithmic normal, and the standard deviation is constant. Then, if standard deviation and mean spot size are given, the logarithmic normal distribution is decided unitarily, and further if the total weight of plutonium spots for a lot of pellets is known, the number of the spots (No) which does not conform to the specification can be obtained. Then, the fraction defective is defined as No devided by the number of pellets per lot. As to the lot with such fraction defective, the acceptance coefficient of the lot was obtained through calculation, in which the number of sampling, acceptable diameter limit observed and acceptable conditions were used as parameters. (Tai, I.)

  12. Minutes of the 28th Annual Plutonium Sample Exchange Meeting. Part II: metal sample exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Contents of this publication include the following list of participating laboratories; agenda; attendees; minutes of October 25 and 26 meeting; and handout materials supplied by speakers. The handout materials cover the following: statistics and reporting; plutonium - chemical assay 100% minus impurities; americium neptunium, uranium, carbon and iron data; emission spectroscopy data; plutonium metal sample exchange; the calorimetry sample exchange; chlorine determination in plutonium metal using phyrohydrolysis; spectrophotometric determination of 238-plutonium in oxide; plutonium measurement capabilities at the Savannah River Plant; and robotics in radiochemical laboratory

  13. Review Of Plutonium Oxidation Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korinko, P.

    2009-01-01

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles ( 250 (micro)m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

  14. Experience with a routine fecal sampling program for plutonium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bihl, D.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Sula, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    A quarterly fecal sampling program was conducted at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford site for congruent to 100 workers at risk for an intake of plutonium oxide and other forms of plutonium. To our surprise, we discovered that essentially all of the workers were excreting detectable activities of plutonium. Further investigation showed that the source was frequent, intermittent intakes at levels below detectability by normal workplace monitoring, indicating the extraordinary sensitivity of fecal sampling. However, the experience of this study also indicated that the increased sensitivity of routine fecal sampling relative to more common bioassay methods is offset by many problems. These include poor worker cooperation; difficulty in distinguishing low-level chronic intakes from a more significant, acute intake; difficulty in eliminating interference from ingested plutonium; and difficulty in interpreting what a single void means in terms of 24-h excretion. Recommendations for a routine fecal program include providing good communication to workers and management about reasons and logistics of fecal sampling prior to starting, using annual (instead of quarterly) fecal sampling for class Y plutonium, collecting samples after workers have been away from plutonium exposure for a least 3 d, and giving serious consideration to improving urinalysis sensitivity rather than going to routine fecal sampling

  15. An analytical method for the determination of plutonium in autopsy samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santori, G.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive method for the determination of plutonium in autopsy samples is described. After a suitable chemical pretreatment of the samples the plutonium is separated by extraction chromatography with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) supported on microporus polyethylene. After electrodeposition of plutonium the activity is counted by alpha spectroscopy. The global yield was 75-80%. The reagent blank activity was such to allow the determination of some femtocuries of plutonium

  16. Investigation on the attribute detection of plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Suping; Hao Fanhua; Gong Jian; Wu Huailong; Hu Guangchun; Hu Yongbo

    2006-01-01

    A long-term detection of the 871 keV gamma-ray emitted from two PuO 2 samples (100 g recovered powder and 8 g pure powder) has been conduced with a high resolution HPGe spectrometer in a lead-shielded chamber. An on-site detection of the 871 keV gamma-ray emitted from 200 g recovered PuO 2 powder has also been performed. Although the 871 keV peak can be observed in all 3 samples, other characteristic gamma-rays related to the existence of oxygen are not seen. The 871 keV peak is absent in spectra acquired from metal plutonium samples, which can answer whether the plutonium material in a sealed container is metal plutonium or plutonium oxide, i.e. the 871 keV gamma-ray can be an evidence for the absence of metal plutonium. The 871 keV peak is strong in the spectrum of 200 g recovered PuO 2 sample. A software of plutonium abundance and age analysis developed by ourselves can identify the 871 keV peak from a spectrum of 10 min. If the system is appropriately improved, it can be used to detect attribute of plutonium oxide through identifying 871 keV gamma-ray peak. (authors)

  17. The effect of albedo neutrons on the neutron multiplication of small plutonium oxide samples in a PNCC chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Bourva, L C A; Weaver, D R

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes how to evaluate the effect of neutrons reflected from parts of a passive neutron coincidence chamber on the neutron leakage self-multiplication, M sub L , of a fissile sample. It is shown that albedo neutrons contribute, in the case of small plutonium bearing samples, to a significant part of M sub L , and that their effect has to be taken into account in the relationship between the measured coincidence count rates and the sup 2 sup 4 sup 0 Pu effective mass of the sample. A simple one-interaction model has been used to write the balance of neutron gains and losses in the material when exposed to the re-entrant neutron flux. The energy and intensity profiles of the re-entrant flux have been parameterised using Monte Carlo MCNP sup T sup M calculations. This technique has been implemented for the On Site Laboratory neutron/gamma counter within the existing MEPL 1.0 code for the determination of the neutron leakage self-multiplication. Benchmark tests of the resulting MEPL 2.0 code with MC...

  18. Materials identification and surveillance project item evaluation: Items, impure plutonium oxide (ATL27960) and pure plutonium oxide (PEOR3258)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.; Appert, Q.; Davis, C.

    1997-03-01

    In this report, Los Alamos scientists characterize properties relevant to storage of an impure plutonium oxide (74 mass % plutonium) in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) standard DOE-STD-3013-96. This oxide is of interest because it is the first impure plutonium oxide sample to be evaluated and it is similar to other materials that must be stored. Methods used to characterize the oxide at certain points during calcination include surface-area analyses, mass loss-on-ignition (LOI) measurements, elemental analysis, moisture-adsorption measurements, and quantitative supercritical-CO 2 extraction of adsorbed water. Significant decreases in the LOI and surface area occurred as the oxide was calcined at progressively increasing temperatures. Studies indicate that supercritical-CO 2 extraction is an effective method for removing adsorbed water from oxides. We extracted the water from powdered oxides (high-purity ZrO 2 , pure PuO 2 , and impure plutonium oxide) using CO 2 at 3000 psi pressure and 75 degrees C, and we quantitatively determined it by using gravimetric and dew-point procedures. The effectiveness of the extraction method is demonstrated by good agreement between the amounts of water extracted from pure zirconium and plutonium dioxides and the mass changes obtained from LOI analyses. However, the amount of moisture (0.025 mass %) extracted from the impure plutonium oxide after it had been calcined at 950 degrees C and stored for a period of months is much less than the LOI value (0.97 mass %). These results imply that the impure plutonium oxide is free of adsorbed water after calcination at 950 degrees C, even though the sample does not satisfy the LOI requirement of <0.50 mass % for storage

  19. Metallographic preparation of sintered oxides, carbides and nitrides of uranium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.; Arles, L.

    1967-12-01

    We describe the methods of polishing, attack and coloring used at the section of plutonium base ceramics studies. These methods have stood the test of experience on the uranium and plutonium carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides as well on the mixed uranium and plutonium oxides. These methods have been particularly adapted to fit to the low dense and sintered samples [fr

  20. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the life-span dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. The tissue distribution of plutonium, radiation effects in the lung and hematologic changes in plutonium-exposed beagles with lung tumors were evaluated

  1. Experiences of shipper-receiver differences in plutonium oxide transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinburn, K.A.; McGowan, I.R.

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium oxide has the property of absorbing moisture, carbon dioxide etc., to the extent that it is necessary to take special steps to determine the plutonium content in such a way as to avoid shipper-receiver differences. This paper describes a method used internationally for several years for correcting for any absorption. The consignee witnesses the weighing of the bulk material (D kg) at the time of blending and sampling at the consignor's Works, and also the weighing of the sample (C g). Immediately before analysis the sample is reweighed (B g) and assayed for plutonium (A%). The weight of plutonium is then (A/100)x(B/C)xD kg. The accepted weight is the average between consignor's and consignee's figures after both have used the formula indicated. It goes on to give actual assay and fissile content figures obtained by BNFL and its consignees for the international transactions already referred to, and concludes that the method of approach results cumulatively in a negligible shipper-receiver difference. Individual transactions are shown to be commercially acceptable and, it is considered, also acceptable for safeguards purposes. It is suggested that for safeguarded material the safeguards inspectors might also be able to be present at, and themselves witness, the blending, sampling and weighing operations, and at the same time take their own samples for analysis. It is further suggested that the principle could be extended to accoutancy for plutonium in plutonium nitrate solutions provided leakage does not occur from the sample vials. (author)

  2. Measurements of plutonium in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alberti, F; Risposi, L [Instituto di Fisica Applicata, University of Milan, Milan (Italy)

    1996-01-01

    Within the activities connected with the start up of the PETRA Laboratory (Processo per l'Estrazione di Terre Rare ed Attinidi, i.e. process for extraction of rare earths and actinides), the Radiation Protection Unit of the J.R.C.-Ispra has carried out a well planned set of experimental measurements aimed at evaluating the zero point of the isotopes of plutonium in environmental samples by alfa spectrometry. After the International Moratorium in 1963, no release of plutonium has occurred in the environment apart from the burn up of SNAP 9A satellite in April 1964. Since then the plutonium concentration in air and in fallout samples has been continuously decreasing requiring, therefore, optimization of both instrumentation and experimental measurement procedures in order to obtain better sensibilities. In this work, the experimental methodology followed at the J.R.C.-Ispra for measurements of plutonium concentration in air, deposition and soil is described and the plutonium behaviour in these samples is reported and discussed starting from 1961.

  3. Measurements of plutonium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alberti, F.; Risposi, L.

    1996-01-01

    Within the activities connected with the start up of the PETRA Laboratory (Processo per l'Estrazione di Terre Rare ed Attinidi, i.e. process for extraction of rare earths and actinides), the Radiation Protection Unit of the J.R.C.-Ispra has carried out a well planned set of experimental measurements aimed at evaluating the zero point of the isotopes of plutonium in environmental samples by alfa spectrometry. After the International Moratorium in 1963, no release of plutonium has occurred in the environment apart from the burn up of SNAP 9A satellite in April 1964. Since then the plutonium concentration in air and in fallout samples has been continuously decreasing requiring, therefore, optimization of both instrumentation and experimental measurement procedures in order to obtain better sensibilities. In this work, the experimental methodology followed at the J.R.C.-Ispra for measurements of plutonium concentration in air, deposition and soil is described and the plutonium behaviour in these samples is reported and discussed starting from 1961

  4. Precipitation of plutonium from acidic solutions using magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Magnesium oxide will be used as a neutralizing agent for acidic plutonium-containing solutions. It is expected that as the magnesium oxide dissolves, the pH of the solution will rise, and plutonium will precipitate. The resulting solid will be tested for suitability to storage. The liquid is expected to contain plutonium levels that meet disposal limit requirements

  5. Plutonium oxides analysis. Sulfur potentiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Total sulfur determination (sulfur, sulfates, sulfides ...) in plutonium oxides, suitable for sulfate ion content between 0.003 percent to 0.2 percent, by dissolution in nitric hydrofluoric acid, nitrates elimination, addition of hydrochloric acid and reduction in hydrogen sulfide which is carried by an inert gas and neutralized by sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulfide is titrated with mercuric acetate by constant intensity potentiometry [fr

  6. Dry sample storage system for an analytical laboratory supporting plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treibs, H.A.; Hartenstein, S.D.; Griebenow, B.L.; Wade, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Special Isotope Separation (SIS) plant is designed to provide removal of undesirable isotopes in fuel grade plutonium by the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. The AVLIS process involves evaporation of plutonium metal, and passage of an intense beam of light from a laser through the plutonium vapor. The laser beam consists of several discrete wavelengths, tuned to the precise wavelength required to ionize the undesired isotopes. These ions are attracted to charged plates, leaving the bulk of the plutonium vapor enriched in the desired isotopes to be collected on a cold plate. Major portions of the process consist of pyrochemical processes, including direct reduction of the plutonium oxide feed material with calcium metal, and aqueous processes for purification of plutonium in residues. The analytical laboratory for the plant is called the Material and Process Control Laboratory (MPCL), and provides for the analysis of solid and liquid process samples

  7. Fluorine and chlorine determination in mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel and plutonium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinson, S.V.; Zemlyanukhina, N.A.; Pavlova, I.V.; Filatkina, V.P.; Tsvetkova, V.T.

    1981-01-01

    A technique of fluorine and chlorine determination in the mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel and plutonium dioxide, based on their simultaneous separation by means of pyrohydrolysis, is developed. Subsequently, fluorine is determined by photometry with alizarincomplexonate of lanthanum or according to the weakening of zirconium colouring with zylenol orange. Chlorine is determined using the photonephelometric method according to the reaction of chloride-ion interaction with silver nitrate or by spectrophotometric method according to the reaction with mercury rhodanide. The lower limit of fluorine determination is -6x10 -5 %, of chlorine- 1x10 -4 % in the sample of 1g. The relative mean quadratic deviation of the determination result (Ssub(r)), depends on the character of the material analyzed and at the content of nx10 -4 - nx10 -3 mass % is equal to from 0.05 to 0.32 for fluorine and from 0.11 to 0.35 for chlorine [ru

  8. Chemical and Radiochemical Composition of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide from the Plutonium Finishing Plant Considered as Alternate Feedstock for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, Joel M.; Jones, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    Eighteen plutonium oxide samples originating from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site were analyzed to provide additional data on the suitability of PFP thermally stabilized plutonium oxides and Rocky Flats oxides as alternate feedstock to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Radiochemical and chemical analyses were performed on fusions, acid leaches, and water leaches of these 18 samples. The results from these destructive analyses were compared with nondestructive analyses (NDA) performed at PFP and the acceptance criteria for the alternate feedstock. The plutonium oxide materials considered as alternate feedstock at Hanford originated from several different sources including Rocky Flats oxide, scrap from the Remote Mechanical C-Line (RMC) and the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF), and materials from other plutonium conversion processes at Hanford. These materials were received at PFP as metals, oxides, and solutions. All of the material considered as alternate feedstock was converted to PuO2 and thermally stabilized by heating the PuO2 powder at 950 C in an oxidizing environment. The two samples from solutions were converted to PuO2 by precipitation with Mg(OH)2. The 18 plutonium oxide samples were grouped into four categories based on their origin. The Rocky Flats oxide was divided into two categories, low- and high-chloride Rocky Flats oxides. The other two categories were PRF/RMC scrap oxides, which included scrap from both process lines and oxides produced from solutions. The two solution samples came from samples that were being tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory because all of the plutonium oxide from solutions at PFP had already been processed and placed in 3013 containers. These samples originated at the PFP and are from plutonium nitrate product and double-pass filtrate solutions after they had been thermally stabilized. The other 16 samples originated from thermal stabilization batches before canning at

  9. The spectrographic analysis of plutonium oxide or mixed plutonium oxide/uranium oxide fuel pellets by the dried residue technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarbo, G.J.; Faught, P.; Hildebrandt, B.

    1980-05-01

    An emission spectrographic method for the quantitative determination of metallic impurities in plutonium oxide and mixed plutonium oxide/uranium oxide is described. The fuel is dissolved in nitric acid and the plutonium and/or uranium extracted with tributyl phosphate. A small aliquot of the aqueous residue is dried on a 'mini' pyrolitic graphite plate and excited by high voltage AC spark in an oxygen atmosphere. Spectra are recorded in a region which has been specially selected to record simultaneously lines of boron and cadmium in the 2nd order and all the other elements of interest in the 1st order. Indium is used as an internal standard. The excitation of very small quantities of the uraniumm/plutonium free residue by high voltage spark, together with three separate levels of containment reduce the hazards to personnel and the environment to a minimum with limited effect on sensitivity and accuracy of the results. (auth)

  10. Process for recovery of plutonium from fabrication residues of mixed fuels consisting of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heremanns, R.H.; Vandersteene, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    The invention concerns a process for recovery of plutonium from fabrication residues of mixed fuels consisting of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide in the form of PuO 2 . Mixed fuels consisting of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide are being used more and more. The plants which prepare these mixed fuels have around 5% of the total mass of fuels as fabrication residue, either as waste or scrap. In view of the high cost of plutonium, it has been attempted to recover this plutonium from the fabrication residues by a process having a purchase price lower than the price of plutonium. The problem is essentially to separate the plutonium, the uranium and the impurities. The residues are fluorinated, the UF 6 and PuF 6 obtained are separated by selective absorption of the PuF 6 on NaF at a temperature of at least 400 0 C, the complex obtained by this absorption is dissolved in nitric acid solution, the plutonium is precipitated in the form of plutonium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, and the precipitated plutonium oxalate is calcined

  11. Determination of plutonium in air and smear samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, E.R. Jr.; Tucker, W.O.

    1981-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of plutonium in air samples and smear samples that were collected on filter papers. The sample papers are digested in nitric acid, extracted into 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA)-xylene, and evaporated onto stainless steel disks. Alpha spectrometry is employed to determine the activity of each plutonium isotope. Each sample is spiked with plutonium-236. All glassware used in the procedure is disposable. The detection limits are 3 and 5 dpm (disintegrations per minute) for air and smear samples, respectively, with an average recovery of 87%

  12. The determination of plutonium isotopes in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siripirom, Lopchai.

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of plutonium in environmental samples such as soil, water, and surface air in the middle part of Thailand were studied. The surface air were collected only at the fifth floor of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP). Plutonium-242 was used as a tracer. Soil and air samples were dissolved by pyrosulphate fusion, and plutonium was co-precipitated with barium sulfate. Then dissolved the precipitate in perchloric acid. Plutonium was extracted out by using solvent bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP). Plutonium in water samples were coprecipitated with iron (III) hydroxide and were dissolved in 8 M. nitric acid. Then the plutonium was separated out by using anion exchange resin, Dowex 1x4. After the solvent extraction or the anion exchange, plutonium was coprecipitated with cerous hydroxide. The activities of plutonium were measured by a surface barrier detector for about 24 hours. Lower limit of detection for 1,440 minutes is 0.012 pCi. These studies showed that only plutonium-239, 240 was observed. The range of activities of plutonium-239, 240 in soil were 0.002-0.157 pCi/g (dry), in water were 0.1-81 f Ci/l, and in air were 7-330 a Ci/m 3 . However, the plutonium concentrations in these studies are far below the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for general population which is equal to 3x10 8 f Ci/l of water and 5x10 6 a Ci/m 3 of air

  13. Development of advanced mixed oxide fuels for plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, S.; Beard, C.; Buksa, J.; Butt, D.; Chidester, K.; Havrilla, G.; Ramsey, K.

    1997-06-01

    A number of advanced Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel forms are currently being investigated at Los Alamos National Laboratory that have the potential to be effective plutonium management tools. Evolutionary Mixed Oxide (EMOX) fuel is a slight perturbation on standard MOX fuel, but achieves greater plutonium destruction rates by employing a fractional nonfertile component. A pure nonfertile fuel is also being studied. Initial calculations show that the fuel can be utilized in existing light water reactors and tailored to address different plutonium management goals (i.e., stabilization or reduction of plutonium inventories residing in spent nuclear fuel). In parallel, experiments are being performed to determine the feasibility of fabrication of such fuels. Initial EMOX pellets have successfully been fabricated using weapons-grade plutonium

  14. Development of advanced mixed oxide fuels for plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, S.; Beard, C.; Buksa, J.; Butt, D.; Chidester, K.; Havrilla, G.; Ramsey, K.

    1997-01-01

    A number of advanced Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel forms are currently being investigated at Los Alamos National Laboratory that have the potential to be effective plutonium management tools. Evolutionary Mixed Oxide (EMOX) fuel is a slight perturbation on standard MOX fuel, but achieves greater plutonium destruction rates by employing a fractional nonfertile component. A pure nonfertile fuel is also being studied. Initial calculations show that the fuel can be utilized in existing light water reactors and tailored to address different plutonium management goals (i.e., stabilization or reduction of plutonium inventories residing in spent nuclear fuel). In parallel, experiments are being performed to determine the feasibility of fabrication of such fuels. Initial EMOX pellets have successfully been fabricated using weapons-grade plutonium. (author)

  15. Pressurization of Containment Vessels from Plutonium Oxide Contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensel, S.

    2012-01-01

    Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

  16. Simultaneous determination of plutonium and uranium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Shufen

    1993-01-01

    Plutonium and uranium in a plant sample ash was simultaneously determined by using anion exchange resin columns, and concentrated hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. At the final stage of the determination of the nuclides, each of them was electrodeposited together with a little amount of molybdenum carrier onto a stainless steel plate and measured by α-ray spectrometer. The recoveries of uranium and plutonium from the plant samples determined by adding internal standard 236 Pu which was 100% and 63%, respectively

  17. Determination of low level of plutonium and uranium isotopes in safeguard swipe sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Park, Jong Ho; Oh, Seong Yong; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong Ju; Song, Kyu Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    For the determination of radionuclides, the separation techniques based on the principles of anion exchange, liquid-liquid extraction or column extraction chromatography are frequently used in nuclear analytical applications. Recently, a novel extraction chromatographic resin has been developed by Horwitz and co-workers, which are capable of selective extraction of the actinides. General separation of plutonium and uranium with extraction chromatographic techniques are focused on the environmental or radioactive waste samples. Also, the chemical yields for Pu and U isotopes with extraction chromatographic method sometimes are variable. For effective extraction of Pu isotopes in the very level of plutonium sample with UTEVA resin, the valence adjustment of Pu isotopes in the sample solution requires due to unstability in the oxidation state of Pu isotopes during separation step. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a simple and robust radiochemical separation method for nano- or pico gram amounts of uranium and plutonium in safeguard swipe samples. Chemical yields of plutonium and uranium with extraction chromatographic method of Pu and U upgrades in this study were compared with several separation methods for Pu and U generally used in the radiochemistry field. Also, the redox reactions of hydrogen peroxide with plutonium in the nitric acid media were investigated by UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. Based on general extraction chromatography method with UTEVA resin, the separation method of nano- and picogram amounts of uranium and plutonium in safeguard swipe samples was developed in this study

  18. Direct separation of plutonium by thermochromatography from environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, L.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    2002-01-01

    A thermochromatographic separation was performed on plutonium from environmental soil samples. This procedure was investigated with the goal to measure low concentrations of plutonium by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The soil sample was chlorinated by thionylchloride as reactive gas at a temperature of 1400 K. The volatile chlorides were separated chromatographically and deposited in a temperature gradient tube filled with quartz grains. Results about the deposition behaviour of the elements were obtained. Two different formalisms based on the thermodynamic functions are used to describe the experimental data. One formula is used to describe the deposition behaviour of microscopic amounts of plutonium (adsorption), the other formula for macroamounts of the main matrix elements (desublimation). The calculated values are in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data. A determination of plutonium content was successfully made for a referenced sea sediment (IAEA-135) after the thermochromatographic sample preparation for ICP-MS. (orig.)

  19. MIS High-Purity Plutonium Oxide Metal Oxidation Product TS707001 (SSR123): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Narlesky, Joshua Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Max A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carillo, Alex [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-09

    A high-purity plutonium dioxide material from the Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) Program inventory has been studied with regard to gas generation and corrosion in a storage environment. Sample TS707001 represents process plutonium oxides from several metal oxidation operations as well as impure and scrap plutonium from Hanford that are currently stored in 3013 containers. After calcination to 950°C, the material contained 86.98% plutonium with no major impurities. This study followed over time, the gas pressure of a sample with nominally 0.5 wt% water in a sealed container with an internal volume scaled to 1/500th of the volume of a 3013 container. Gas compositions were measured periodically over a six year period. The maximum observed gas pressure was 138 kPa. The increase over the initial pressure of 80 kPa was primarily due to generation of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas in the first six months. Hydrogen and oxygen were minor components of the headspace gas. At the completion of the study, the internal components of the sealed container showed signs of corrosion, including pitting.

  20. Synthesis of complex plutonium oxides with alkaline-earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasufumi; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Iwai, Takashi; Ohmichi, Toshihiko; Yamawaki, Michio.

    1995-03-01

    Complex plutonium(IV) oxides with strontium and barium, SuPuO 3 and BaPuO 3 , were synthesized and their crystal structure was analyzed. Compacted mixture of plutonium dioxide powder and the carbonate of strontium or barium was heated in a stream of argon gas using a cell with a small orifice. The products obtained were found to be composed of a nearly single phase showing the structure of orthorhombic slightly distorted from cubic. (author)

  1. Simulation of uranium and plutonium oxides compounds obtained in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, Ivan Yu.; Karengin, Alexander G.; Babaev, Renat G.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to carry out thermodynamic simulation of mixed plutonium and uranium oxides compounds obtained after plasma treatment of plutonium and uranium nitrates and to determine optimal water-salt-organic mixture composition as well as conditions for their plasma treatment (temperature, air mass fraction). Authors conclude that it needs to complete the treatment of nitric solutions in form of water-salt-organic mixtures to guarantee energy saving obtainment of oxide compounds for mixed-oxide fuel and explain the choice of chemical composition of water-salt-organic mixture. It has been confirmed that temperature of 1200 °C is optimal to practice the process. Authors have demonstrated that condensed products after plasma treatment of water-salt-organic mixture contains targeted products (uranium and plutonium oxides) and gaseous products are environmental friendly. In conclusion basic operational modes for practicing the process are showed.

  2. Characterization and storage of the Rocky Flats plutonium oxide legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stakebake, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Prior to 1989, plutonium oxide storage at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) could generally be considered as short term. Packaging configurations for short-term storage consisted of slip-lid cans and sealed produce cans. Prior to packaging, most of the oxide had been stabilized by heating to ∼500 degrees C. When storage times were relatively short, few problems were attributed to either packaging or storage. However, with projected storage times extended up to 50 yr, most of the old packaging of RFETS plutonium oxide will be in two welded steel containers in compliance with the DOE Standard 3013-96, which defines processing and packaging criteria for safe, long-term storage of plutonium oxide

  3. Simulation and analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal storage containers subject to various loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, C.; Miller, R.F.

    1995-05-01

    The structural and functional requirements of the Plutonium Oxide/Metal Storage Containers are specified in the Report ''Complex 21 Plutonium Storage Facility Material Containment Team Technical Data Report'' [Complex 21, 1993]. There are no existing storage containers designed for long term storage of plutonium and current codes, standards or regulations do not adequately cover this case. As there is no extensive experience with the long term (50+ years) storage of plutonium, the design of high integrity storage containers must address many technical considerations. This analysis discusses a few potential natural phenomena that could theoretically adversely affect the container integrity over time. The plutonium oxide/metal storage container consists of a primary containment vessel (the outer container), a bagless transfer can (the inner container), two vertical plates on top of the primary containment vessel, a circular plate (the flange) supported by the two plates, tube for gas sampling operations mounted at the center of the primary containment vessel top and a spring system being inserted in the cavity between the primary containment vessel and the cap of the bagless transfer can. The dimensions of the plutonium oxide/metal storage container assembly can be found in Figure 2-1. The primary container, the bagless transfer can, and all the attached components are made of Type 304L stainless steel

  4. Radial plutonium redistribution in mixed-oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.; Schwinkendorf, K.N.; Karnesky, R.A.

    1981-10-01

    Alpha autoradiographs from all HEDL fuel pin metallography samples are evaluated and catalogued according to different plutonium distribution patterns. The data base is analyzed for effects of fabrication and operating parameters on redistribution

  5. Dissolution and transport of plutonium from oxide particles in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    This report contains a summary of methods and data on plutonium dissolution and movement in four soils, plus a copy of a manuscript describing the automatic sample changer for alpha radiation detection which has been submitted for publication

  6. Oxidation method of trivalent plutonium to tetravalent plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Masaki; Washitani, Tadahiro; Kawada, Tomio; Hayashi, Shotaro.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a Pu reoxidation step and a Pu condensation step in a purex process for recovering U and Pu in spent nuclear fuels. A nitric acid solution incorporating Pu 3+ , hydroxyl amine nitrate and hydrazine is oxidized under electrolysis. Pu 3+ is substantially completely oxidized into Pu 4+ . At the same time, also hydroxyl nitrate amine and hydrazine are substantially completely decomposed into nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas finally. Although hydroxyl nitrate amine which is a reducing agent is extremely electrochemically stable in a nitric acid solution if Pu 3+ is not present, it can be decomposed efficiently by electrolysis if Pu 3+ is present, since the latter acts as a catalyst in an electrode reaction system. (T.M.)

  7. HB-Line Plutonium Oxide Data Collection Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, R. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Varble, J. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Jordan, J. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions

    2015-05-26

    HB-Line and H-Canyon will handle and process plutonium material to produce plutonium oxide for feed to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). However, the plutonium oxide product will not be transferred to the MFFF directly from HB-Line until it is packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. In the interim, HB-Line will load plutonium oxide into an inner, filtered can. The inner can will be placed in a filtered bag, which will be loaded into a filtered outer can. The outer can will be loaded into a certified 9975 with getter assembly in compliance with onsite transportation requirement, for subsequent storage and transfer to the K-Area Complex (KAC). After DOE-STD-3013-2012 container packaging capabilities are established, the product will be returned to HB-Line to be packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. To support the transfer of plutonium oxide to KAC and then eventually to MFFF, various material and packaging data will have to be collected and retained. In addition, data from initial HB-Line processing operations will be needed to support future DOE-STD-3013-2012 qualification as amended by the HB-Line DOE Standard equivalency. As production increases, the volume of data to collect will increase. The HB-Line data collected will be in the form of paper copies and electronic media. Paper copy data will, at a minimum, consist of facility procedures, nonconformance reports (NCRs), and DCS print outs. Electronic data will be in the form of Adobe portable document formats (PDFs). Collecting all the required data for each plutonium oxide can will be no small effort for HB-Line, and will become more challenging once the maximum annual oxide production throughput is achieved due to the sheer volume of data to be collected. The majority of the data collected will be in the form of facility procedures, DCS print outs, and laboratory results. To facilitate complete collection of this data, a traveler form will be developed which

  8. Reduction of uranium and plutonium oxides by aluminum. Application to the recycling of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallay, J.

    1968-01-01

    A process for treating plutonium oxide calcined at high temperatures (1000 to 2000 deg. C) with a view to recovering the metal consists in the reduction of this oxide dissolved in a mixture of aluminium, sodium and calcium fluorides by aluminium at about 1180 deg. C. The first part of the report presents the results of reduction tests carried out on the uranium oxides UO 2 and U 3 O 8 ; these are in agreement with the thermodynamic calculations of the exchange reaction at equilibrium. The second part describes the application of this method to plutonium oxides. The Pu-Al alloy obtained (60 per cent Pu) is then recycled in an aqueous medium. (author) [fr

  9. Separation of plutonium oxide nanoparticles and colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Richard E.; Skanthakumar, S.; Soderholm, L. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2011-11-18

    Colloidal plutonium is an important component of Pu aqueous speciation. Pu colloids are problematic in nuclear separations and are a potential transport vector in the environment. Using a mixture of n-octanol and trichloroacetic acid a selective and reversible separation of these particles can be achieved by exploiting their surface reactivity. [German] Kolloidales Plutonium ist ein wichtiger Bestandteil in waessrigen Pu-Bereitungen. Pu-Kolloide sind problematisch bei der Wiederaufbereitung von Kernmaterial und bilden einen potenziellen Transportvektor in die Umwelt. Mit einem Loesungsmittelgemisch aus n-Octanol und Trichloressigsaeure gelingt die selektive und reversible Trennung dieser Partikel durch Ausnutzung ihrer Oberflaechenreaktivitaet.

  10. Results of Plutonium Intercalibration in Seawater and Seaweed Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Murray, C.N.

    1976-01-01

    The results of the intercalibration exercise for the measurement of plutonium-239 and 228 in two seawater samples SW-I-1 and SW-I-2 and a marine algae sample AG-I-1 are presented. Seventeen laboratories from 8 countries as well as the IAEA International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity took part. A discussion of the results and methods used in the analysis is given. It is concluded that in spite of the complicated chemical procedures involved in plutonium analysis, the scatter of the reported results was much smaller than that for fission product radionuclides such as strontium-90, ruthenium-106, cesium-137 etc. (author)

  11. Plutonium estimation in the process solutions and oxide dissolved audit samplers by potentiometry using memo titrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaraguru, K.; Shukla, Y.D.; Vijayan, K.; Ramamoorthy, N.; Jambunathan, U.; Kapoor, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Potentiometric method is employed by using memotitrator coupled with combined electrode for the estimation of plutonium. The estimations are carried out on the process samples and the acid dissolved samples for auditing, in the concentration range of 5 g/l to 20 g/l. The chemical procedure is: i)oxidising plutonium to higher oxidation state by silver oxide, ii)reducing the same by adding excess ferrous, and iii)titrating potassium dichromate against the unreacted ferrous. The plutonium content is computed from ferrous consumed in the reaction. The average percentage error of the method is +/-0.27. The values obtained are in close agreement with those obtained by coulometry. (author)

  12. Development of the plutonium oxide vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, K.M.; Marra, J.C.; Coughlin, J.T.; Calloway, T.B.; Schumacher, R.F.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Pareizs, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Repository disposal of plutonium in a suitable, immobilized form is being considered as one option for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium. Accelerated development efforts were completed in 1997 on two potential immobilization forms to facilitate downselection to one form for continued development. The two forms studied were a crystalline ceramic based on Synroc technology and a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass. As part of the glass development program, melter design activities and component testing were completed to demonstrate the feasibility of using glass as an immobilization medium. A prototypical melter was designed and built in 1997. The melter vessel and drain tube were constructed of a Pt/Rh alloy. Separate induction systems were used to heat the vessel and drain tube. A Pt/Rh stirrer was incorporated into the design to facilitate homogenization of the melt. Integrated powder feeding and off-gas systems completed the overall design. Concurrent with the design efforts, testing was conducted using a plutonium surrogate LaBS composition in an existing (near-scale) melter to demonstrate the feasibility of processing the LaBS glass on a production scale. Additionally, the drain tube configuration was successfully tested using a plutonium surrogate LaBS glass

  13. Ni(III) - a new oxidant for the potentiometric determination of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, N.; Rama Rao, G.A.; Natarajan, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    Ni(III) was employed as an oxidant for the quantitative oxidation of plutonium to its hexavalent state and this makes possible to determine plutonium concentrations potentiometrically by the Fe(II)-dichromate redox titration method. The unreacted oxidant is completely reduced by sulphamic acid prior to the determination of plutonium. (author)

  14. Minutes of the 28th annual plutonium sample exchange meeting. Part I: isotopic sample exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Contents of this publication include the following: list of participating laboratories; agenda; attendees; minutes of October 24 meeting; and handout materials supplied by speakers. The handout materials cover the following: interlaboratory comparisons of plutonium isotope ratios. The plutonium ratios considered are 240/239, 241/239, 242/239, 238/239, 239/240, 241/240, 242/240, and 238/240; carbon, uranium, iron, and nickel data; mass spectroscopy data; determination of plutonium 241 half-life; review of plutonium overplating sample loading technique; on-line measurement evaluation system for isotopic analysis; and description of a new thermal ionization mass spectrometer

  15. Resuspension of uranium-plutonium oxide particles from burning Plexiglas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, S.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear fuel materials such as Uranium-Plutonium oxide must be handled remotely in gloveboxes because of their radiotoxicity. These gloveboxes are frequently constructed largely of combustible Plexiglas sheet. To estimate the potential airborne spread of radioactive contamination in the event of a glovebox fire, the resuspension of particles from burning Plexiglas was investigated. (author)

  16. Pyro-oxidation of plutonium spent salts with sodium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, G.; Godot, A.; Valot, C.; Devillard, D.

    2001-01-01

    The purification of plutonium generates spent salts, which are temporarily stored in a nuclear building. A development programme for pyrochemical treatment is in progress to stabilize and concentrate these salts in order to reduce the quantities for long-term disposal. The treatment, inspired by work previously done by LANL, consists of a pyro-oxidation of the salt with sodium carbonate to convert the actinides into oxides, then of a vacuum distillation to separate the oxides from the volatile salt matrix. Pyro-oxidation of NaCl/KCl base spent salts first produces a 'black salt' which contains more than 97% of the initial actinides. XRD analyses indicate PuO 2 as major plutonium species and sodium plutonates or plutonium sub-oxides PuO 2-x can also be identified. Next appears a 'white salt' containing less than 500 ppm of plutonium, which meets the operational criterion for LLW discard. For these salts, the pyro-oxidation process in and of itself is expected to reduce the quantities to be stored on-site by more than one-third. The pyro-oxidation of CaCl 2 /NaCl base americium extraction salts leads to oxides PuO 2 and probably AmO 2 , but the yield of concentration in the black salt is lower and the white salt cannot be discarded as LLW. During vacuum distillation, excess carbonate can dissociate and damage the efficiency of the process. Appropriate chlorine sparging at the end of the oxidation can eliminate this carbonate. (authors)

  17. Test of a sample container for shipment of small size plutonium samples with PAT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, E.; Aigner, H.; Deron, S.

    1981-11-01

    A light-weight container for the air transport of plutonium, to be designated PAT-2, has been developed in the USA and is presently undergoing licensing. The very limited effective space for bearing plutonium required the design of small size sample canisters to meet the needs of international safeguards for the shipment of plutonium samples. The applicability of a small canister for the sampling of small size powder and solution samples has been tested in an intralaboratory experiment. The results of the experiment, based on the concept of pre-weighed samples, show that the tested canister can successfully be used for the sampling of small size PuO 2 -powder samples of homogeneous source material, as well as for dried aliquands of plutonium nitrate solutions. (author)

  18. A Calibration to Predict Concentrations of Impurities in Plutonium Oxide by Prompt Gamma Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlesky, J.E.; Kelly, E.J.; Foster, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Prompt gamma (PG) analysis has been used to identify the presence of certain impurities in plutonium oxide, which has been stored in 3013 containers. A regression analysis was used to evaluate the trends between the count rates obtained from PG analysis and the concentration of the impurities in plutonium oxide samples measured by analytical chemistry techniques. The results of the analysis were used to obtain calibration curves, which may be used to predict the concentration of Al, Be, Cl, F, Mg, and Na in the 3013 containers. The scatter observed in the data resulted from several factors including sample geometry, error in sampling for chemical assay, statistical counting error, and intimacy of mixing of impurities and plutonium. Standards prepared by mixing plutonium oxide with CaF 2 , NaCl, and KCl show that intimacy mixing and sampling error have the largest influence on the results. Although these factors are difficult to control, the calibrations are expected to yield semiquantitative results that are sufficient for the purpose of ordering or ranking

  19. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  20. Fabrication of mixed oxide fuel using plutonium from dismantled weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, H.T.; Chidester, K.; Ramsey, K.B.

    1996-01-01

    A very brief summary is presented of experimental studies performed to support the use of plutonium from dismantled weapons in fabricating mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for commercial power reactors. Thermal treatment tests were performed on plutonium dioxide powder to determine if an effective dry gallium removal process could be devised. Fabrication tests were performed to determine the effects of various processing parameters on pellet quality. Thermal tests results showed that the final gallium content is highly dependent on the treatment temperature. Fabrication tests showed that the milling process, sintering parameters, and uranium feed did effect pellet properties. 1 ref., 1 tab

  1. Ultra-small plutonium oxide nanocrystals: an innovative material in plutonium science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudry, Damien; Apostolidis, Christos; Walter, Olaf; Janssen, Arne; Manara, Dario; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Vitova, Tonya; Prüssmann, Tim; Wang, Di; Kübel, Christian; Meyer, Daniel

    2014-08-11

    Apart from its technological importance, plutonium (Pu) is also one of the most intriguing elements because of its non-conventional physical properties and fascinating chemistry. Those fundamental aspects are particularly interesting when dealing with the challenging study of plutonium-based nanomaterials. Here we show that ultra-small (3.2±0.9 nm) and highly crystalline plutonium oxide (PuO2 ) nanocrystals (NCs) can be synthesized by the thermal decomposition of plutonyl nitrate ([PuO2 (NO3 )2 ]⋅3 H2 O) in a highly coordinating organic medium. This is the first example reporting on the preparation of significant quantities (several tens of milligrams) of PuO2 NCs, in a controllable and reproducible manner. The structure and magnetic properties of PuO2 NCs have been characterized by a wide variety of techniques (powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), TEM, IR, Raman, UV/Vis spectroscopies, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry). The current PuO2 NCs constitute an innovative material for the study of challenging problems as diverse as the transport behavior of plutonium in the environment or size and shape effects on the physics of transuranium elements. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Separation of plutonium oxide nanoparticles and colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Richard E.; Skanthakumar, S.; Soderholm, L. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Oil and vinegar: Colloidal plutonium is an important component of Pu aqueous speciation. Pu colloids are problematic in nuclear separations and are a potential transport vector in the environment. Using a mixture of n-octanol and trichloroacetic acid a selective and reversible separation of these particles can be achieved by exploiting their surface reactivity (Li{sub 2}[Pu{sub 38}O{sub 56}Cl{sub 42}(H{sub 2}O){sub 20}].15H{sub 2}O). (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  4. Effect of cooling rate on achieving thermodynamic equilibrium in uranium-plutonium mixed oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C.; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Hodaj, Fiqiri

    2016-02-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction was used to study the structural changes occurring in uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x with y = 0.15; 0.28 and 0.45 during cooling from 1773 K to room-temperature under He + 5% H2 atmosphere. We compare the fastest and slowest cooling rates allowed by our apparatus i.e. 2 K s-1 and 0.005 K s-1, respectively. The promptly cooled samples evidenced a phase separation whereas samples cooled slowly did not due to their complete oxidation in contact with the atmosphere during cooling. Besides the composition of the annealing gas mixture, the cooling rate plays a major role on the control of the Oxygen/Metal ratio (O/M) and then on the crystallographic properties of the U1-yPuyO2-x uranium-plutonium mixed oxides.

  5. Oxidation-state distribution of plutonium in surface and subsurface waters at Thule, northwest Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, C.A.; Leon Vintro, L.; Mitchell, P.I.; Dahlgaard, H.

    2000-01-01

    The speciation of plutonium in Arctic waters sampled on the northwest Greenland shelf in August 1997 is discussed in this paper. Specifically, we report the results of analyses carried out on seawater sampled (a) close to the Thule air base where, in 1968, a US military aircraft carrying four nuclear weapons crashed on sea ice, releasing kilogram quantities of plutonium to the snow pack and underlying seabed sediments, and (b) at a reference station (Upernavik) located ∼400 km to the south. The data show that most of the plutonium in the dissolved phase at Thule is in the form of Pu(V, VI) (mean: 68±6%; n=6), with little if any distinction apparent between surface and bottom waters. Further, the oxidation state distribution at stations close to the accident site is similar to that measured at Upernavik, remote from this site. It is also similar to the distribution observed in shelf waters at mid-latitudes, suggesting that the underlying processes controlling plutonium speciation are insensitive to temperature over the range 0-25 deg. C. Measurements using tangential-flow ultrafiltration indicate that virtually all of the plutonium (including the fraction in a reduced chemical form) is present as fully dissolved species. Most of this plutonium would seem to be of weapons fallout origin, as the mean 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu activity ratio in the water column (dissolved phase) at Thule (0.06±0.02; n=10) is similar to the global fallout ratio at this latitude (∼0.04). Thus, there is little evidence of weapons-grade plutonium in the water column at Thule at the present time

  6. Plutonium chemistry: a synthesis of experimental data and a quantitative model for plutonium oxide solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, J.M.; Oversby, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    The chemistry of plutonium is important for assessing potential behavior of radioactive waste under conditions of geologic disposal. This paper reviews experimental data on dissolution of plutonium oxide solids, describes a hybrid kinetic-equilibrium model for predicting steady-state Pu concentrations, and compares laboratory results with predicted Pu concentrations and oxidation-state distributions. The model is based on oxidation of PuO 2 by water to produce PuO 2+x , an oxide that can release Pu(V) to solution. Kinetic relationships between formation of PuO 2+x , dissolution of Pu(V), disproportionation of Pu(V) to Pu(IV) and Pu(VI), and reduction of Pu(VI) are given and used in model calculations. Data from tests of pyrochemical salt wastes in brines are discussed and interpreted using the conceptual model. Essential data for quantitative modeling at conditions relevant to nuclear waste repositories are identified and laboratory experiments to determine rate constants for use in the model are discussed

  7. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1989-03-01

    This report contains with regard to 'plutonium' statements on chemistry, occurrence and reactions in the environment, handling procedures in the nuclear fuel cycle, radiation protection methods, biokinetics, toxicology and medical treatment to make available reliable data for the public discussion on plutonium especially its use in nuclear power plants and its radiological assessment. (orig.) [de

  8. An isotopic analysis system for plutonium samples enriched in 238Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.; Camp, D.C.

    1991-08-01

    We have designed and built a gamma-ray spectrometer system that measures the relative plutonium isotopic abundances of plutonium oxide enriched in 238 Pu. The first system installed at Westinghouse Savannah River Company was tested and evaluated on plutonium oxide in stainless steel EP60/61 containers. 238 Pu enrichments ranged from 20% to 85%. Results show that 200 grams of plutonium oxide in an EP60.61 container can be measured with ±0.3% precision and better than ±1.0% accuracy in the specific power using a counting time of 50 minutes. 3 refs., 2 figs

  9. An ab initio study of plutonium oxides surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jomard, G.; Bottin, F.; Amadon, B.

    2007-01-01

    By means of first-principles calculations, we have studied the atomic structure as well as the thermodynamic stability of various plutonium dioxide surfaces in function of their environment (in terms of oxygen partial pressure and temperature). All these simulations have been performed with the ABINIT code. It is well known that DFT fails to describe correctly plutonium-based materials since 5f electrons in such systems are strongly correlated. In order to go beyond DFT, we have treated PuO 2 and β-Pu 2 O 3 in a DFT+U framework. We show that the couple of parameters (U,J) that works well for pure Pu is also well designed for describing ground state (GS) properties of these two oxides. The major improvement with respect with DFT is that we are able to predict an insulating GS in agreement with experiments. The presence of a gap in the DOS (Density of States) of plutonium oxides should play a significant role in the predicted surface reactivity. However, performing DFT+U calculations on surfaces of plutonium oxide from scratch was too ambitious. That is why we decided, as a first step, to study the stability of the (100), (110) and (111) surfaces of PuO 2 in a DFT-GGA framework. For each of these orientations, we considered various terminations. These ab initio results have been introduced in a thermodynamic model which allows us to predict the relative stability of the different terminations as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure (p O 2 ). We conclude that at room temperature and for p O 2 ∼10 atm., the polar O 2 -(100) termination is favoured. The stabilization of such a polar stoichiometric surface is surprising and should be confirmed by DFT+U calculations before any final conclusion. (authors)

  10. Rapid screening method for plutonium in mixed waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somers, W.; Culp, T.; Miller, R.

    1987-01-01

    A waste stream sampling program was undertaken to determine those waste streams which contained hazardous constituents, and would therefore be regulated as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The waste streams also had the potential of containing radioactive material, either plutonium, americium, or depleted uranium. Because of the potential for contamination with radioactive material, a method of rapidly screening the liquid samples for radioactive material was required. A counting technique was devised to count a small aliquot of a sample, determine plutonium concentration, and allow the sample to be shipped the same day they were collected. This technique utilized the low energy photons (x-rays) that accompany α decay. This direct, non-destructive x-ray analysis was applied to quantitatively determine Pu-239 concentrations in industrial samples. Samples contained a Pu-239, Am-241 mixture; the ratio and/or concentrations of these two radionuclides was not constant. A computer program was designed and implemented to calculate Pu-239 activity and concentration (g/ml) using the 59.5 keV Am-241 peak to determine Am-241's contribution to the 17 keV region. Am's contribution was subtracted, yielding net counts in the 17 keV region due to Pu. 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Discovery of the neutron made it easy to create elements which do not exist in nature. One of these is plutonium, and its isotope with mass number 239 has nuclear properties which make it both a good fuel for nuclear power reactors and a good explosive for nuclear weapons. Since it was discovered during a war the latter characteristic was put to use, but it is now evident that use of plutonium in a particular kind of nuclear reactor, the fast breeder reactor, will allow the world's resources of uranium to last for millennia as a major source of energy. Plutonium is very radiotoxic, resembling radium in this respect. Therefore the widespread introduction of fast breeder reactors to meet energy demands can be contemplated only after assurances on two points; that adequate control of the radiological hazard resulting from the handling of very large amounts of plutonium can be guaranteed, and that diversion of plutonium to illicit use can be prevented. The problems exist to a lesser degree already, since all types of nuclear reactor produce some plutonium. Some plutonium has already been dispersed in the environment, the bulk of it from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. (author)

  12. Plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 metabolism in dairy cows following ingestion of mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Mullen, A.A.; Sutton, W.W.; Potter, G.D.; Mosley, R.E.; Efurd, D.W.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1985-01-01

    Dairy cows were given oral dosage of plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 dioxide particles in a study to determine the relative gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution of the nuclides. Two cows were given particles in which the two isotopes were homogeneously mixed within the particles. A third cow was given two batches of particles which contained either plutonium-238 or plutonium-239. Results indicate that, when the two isotopes of plutonium are homogeneous within the particles, there is no difference between plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 in the relative gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution

  13. Inhalation toxicology of industrial plutonium and uranium oxide aerosols I. Physical chemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidson, A.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    In the fabrication of mixed plutonium and uranium oxide fuel, large quantities of dry powders are processed, causing dusty conditions in glove box enclosures. Inadvertent loss of glove box integrity or failure of air filter systems can lead to human inhalation exposure. Powdered samples and aerosol samples of these materials obtained during two fuel fabrication process steps have been obtained. A regimen of physical chemical tests of properties of these materials has been employed to identify physical chemical properties which may influence their biological behavior and dosimetry. Materials to be discussed are 750 deg. C heat-treated, mixed uranium and plutonium oxides obtained from the ball milling operation and 1750 deg. C heat-treated, mixed uranium and plutonium oxides obtained from the centerless grinding of fuel pellets. Results of x-ray diffraction studies have shown that the powder generated by the centerless grinding of fuel pellets is best described as a solid solution of UO x and PuO x consistent with its temperature history. In vitro dissolution studies of both mixed oxide materials indicate a generally similar dissolution rate for both materials. In one solvent, the material with the higher temperature history dissolves more rapidly. The x-ray diffraction and in vitro dissolution results as well as preliminary results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses will be compared and the implications for the associated biological studies will be discussed. (author)

  14. Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miner, William N

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses plutonium from discovery to its production, separation, properties, fabrication, handling, and uses, including use as a reactor fuel and use in isotope power generators and neutron sources.

  15. Calibration of UFBC counters and their performance in the assay of large mass plutonium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrecchia, G.P.D.; Smith, B.G.R.; Cranston, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the cross-calibration of four Universal Fast Breeder reactor assembly coincidence (UFBC) counters using multi-can containers of Plutonium oxide powders with masses between 2 and 12 Kg of plutonium and a parametric study on the sensitivity of the detector response to the positioning or removal and substitution of the material with empty cans. The paper also reports on the performance of the UFBC for routine measurements on large mass, multi-can containers of plutonium oxide powders and compares the results to experience previously obtained in the measurement of fast reactor type fuel assemblies in the mass range 2 to 16 Kg of plutonium

  16. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-13

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  17. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Plutonium, which was obtained and identified for the first time in 1941 by chemist Glenn Seaborg - through neutron irradiation of uranium 238 - is closely related to the history of nuclear energy. From the very beginning, because of the high radiotoxicity of plutonium, a tremendous amount of research work has been devoted to the study of the biological effects and the consequences on the environment. It can be said that plutonium is presently one of the elements, whose nuclear and physico-chemical characteristics are the best known. The first part of this issue is a survey of the knowledge acquired on the subject, which emphasizes the sanitary effects and transfer into the environment. Then the properties of plutonium related to energy generation are dealt with. Fissionable, like uranium 235, plutonium has proved a high-performance nuclear fuel. Originally used in breeder reactors, it is now being more and more widely recycled in light water reactors, in MOX fuel. Reprocessing, recycling and manufacturing of these new types of fuel, bound of become more and more widespread, are now part of a self-consistent series of operations, whose technical, economical, industrial and strategical aspects are reviewed. (author)

  18. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  19. Screw calciner mechanical direct denitration process for plutonium nitrate to oxide conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souply, K.R.; Sperry, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes a screw calciner direct-denitration process for converting plutonium nitrate to plutonium oxide. The information should be used when making comparisons of alternative plutonium nitrate-to-oxide conversion processes or as a basis for further detailed studies. The report contains process flow sheets with a material balance; a process description; and a discussion of the process including history, advantages and disadvantages, and additional research required

  20. Effect of microorganisms on the plutonium oxidation states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukšienė, Benedikta; Druteikienė, Rūta; Pečiulytė, Dalia; Baltrūnas, Dalis; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Paškevičius, Algimantas

    2012-01-01

    Particular microbes from substrates at the low-level radioactive waste repository in the Ignalina NPP territory were exposed to 239 Pu (IV) at low pH under aerobic conditions. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) were separated and quantitatively evaluated using the modified anion exchange method and alpha spectrometry. Tested bacteria Bacillus mycoides and Serratia marcescens were more effective in Pu reduction than Rhodococcus fascians. Fungi Paecillomyces lilacinus and Absidia spinosa var. spinosa as well as bacterium Rhodococcus fascians did not alter the plutonium oxidation state. - Highlights: ► Particular microbes from low-level radioactive waste repository were exposed to Pu (IV). ► Some tested bacteria induced slight Pu (IV) reduction at low pH under aerobic conditions. ► Tested fungi did not show peculiarities to alter Pu oxidation state. ► The modified radiochemical method was applied to differentiate Pu oxidation states.

  1. Effect of microorganisms on the plutonium oxidation states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksiene, Benedikta, E-mail: bena@ar.fi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Druteikiene, Ruta [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Peciulyte, Dalia [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos street 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Baltrunas, Dalis; Remeikis, Vidmantas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Paskevicius, Algimantas [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos street 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2012-03-15

    Particular microbes from substrates at the low-level radioactive waste repository in the Ignalina NPP territory were exposed to {sup 239}Pu (IV) at low pH under aerobic conditions. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) were separated and quantitatively evaluated using the modified anion exchange method and alpha spectrometry. Tested bacteria Bacillus mycoides and Serratia marcescens were more effective in Pu reduction than Rhodococcus fascians. Fungi Paecillomyces lilacinus and Absidia spinosa var. spinosa as well as bacterium Rhodococcus fascians did not alter the plutonium oxidation state. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particular microbes from low-level radioactive waste repository were exposed to Pu (IV). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some tested bacteria induced slight Pu (IV) reduction at low pH under aerobic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tested fungi did not show peculiarities to alter Pu oxidation state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modified radiochemical method was applied to differentiate Pu oxidation states.

  2. A conceptual and calculational model for gas formation from impure calcined plutonium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, John L.; Eller, P. Gary

    2000-01-01

    Safe transport and storage of pure and impure plutonium oxides requires an understanding of processes that may generate or consume gases in a confined storage vessel. We have formulated conceptual and calculational models for gas formation from calcined materials. The conceptual model for impure calcined plutonium oxides is based on the data collected to date

  3. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Christiansen, K.; Wollesen, M.

    1979-01-01

    As emotions and fear of plutonium are neither useful for the non-professionals nor for the political decision makers and the advantages and disadvantages of plutonium can only put against each other under difficulties, the paper wants to present the most essential scientific data of plutonium in a generally understandable way. Each of the individual sections is concluded and they try to give an answer to the most discussed questions. In order to make understanding easier, the scientific facts are only brought at points where it cannot be done without for the correctness of the presentation. Many details were left out knowingly. On the other hand, important details are dealt with several times if it seems necessary for making the presentation correct. The graphical presentations and the figures in many cases contain more than said in the text. They give the interested reader hints to scientific-technical coherences. The total material is to enable the reader to form his own opinion on plutonium problems which are being discussed in public. (orig./HP) [de

  4. A case of internal contamination with plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, F.; Clemente, G.F.; Strambi, E.; Testa, C.

    1980-01-01

    A case is described of internal contamination caused by the accidental explosion of a glove box, whereby a technician was wounded in his right cheek and inhaled insoluble PuO 2 . Immediate washing of the wound with a DTPA solution and the performance of a small surgical toilet reduced the wound contamination a hundred times. Intravenous injection of DPTA was started and continued for nine days. The ''in vivo'' determination of plutonium and Am-241 lung content was performed immediately after the accident and several other times thereafter. Plutonium was determined periodically in urine and fecal samples for five months. The large Esub(f)/Esub(u) ratio and the steep slope of the Esub(f) curve in the first days indicated that the inhaled material was very insoluble and that the suspended powder particles were large. This conclusion was confirmed by the lung clearance ''in vivo'' during the first few days. The initial lung burden, calculated by the fecal excretion of plutonium in the first five days, was in very good agreement with the direct measurement of the lung content; the residual lung burden and the systemic burden were derived respectively U by the fecal and urinary excretion 100 days after the intake. The committed doses to lungs, bone, liver and kidneys were calculated and were found to be considerably lower than the maximum permissible levels. (H.K.)

  5. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heslop, M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (United States). Indian Head Div.; Wernly, K. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp. (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  6. Precipitation of plutonium from acidic solutions using magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium (IV) is only marginally soluble in alkaline solution. Precipitation of plutonium using sodium or potassium hydroxide to neutralize acidic solutions produces a gelatinous solid that is difficult to filter and an endpoint that is difficult to control. If the pH of the solution is too high, additional species precipitate producing an increased volume of solids separated. The use of magnesium oxide as a reagent has advantages. It is added as a solid (volume of liquid waste produced is minimized), the pH is self-limiting (pH does not exceed about 8.5), and the solids precipitated are more granular (larger particle size) than those produced using KOH or NaOH. Following precipitation, the raffinate is expected to meet criteria for disposal to tank farms. The solid will be heated in a furnace to dry it and convert any hydroxide salts to the oxide form. The material will be cooled in a desiccator. The material is expected to meet vault storage criteria

  7. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.

    1999-01-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible 238 Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na 2 SO 4 , Na 3 PO 4 and NaAsO 2 or Na 3 AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the 238 Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox

  8. Plutonium-containing aerosols found within containment enclosures in industrial mixed-oxide reactor fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Yeh, H.C.; Stanley, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Mixed oxide (PuO 2 and UO 2 ) nuclear reactor fuel pellets are fabricated within safety enclosures at Babcock and Wilcox's Park Township site near Apollo, PA. Forty-two sample runs of plutonium-containing aerosols were taken from within glove boxes during routine industrial operations. A small, seven-stage cascade impactor and the Lovelace Aerosol Particle Separator (LAPS) were used to determine aerodynamic size distribution and gross alpha aerosol concentration. Powder comminution and blending produced aerosols with lognormal size distributions characterized by activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMAD) of 1.89 +- 0.33 μm, sigma/sub g/ = 1.62 +- 0.09 and a gross alpha aerosol concentration range of 0.1 to 150 nCi/l. Slug pressing and grinding produced aerosols of AMAD = 3.08 +- 0.1 μm, sigma/sub g/ = 1.53 +- 0.01 and AMAD = 2.26 +- 0.16 μm, sigma/sub g/ = 1.68 +- 0.20, respectively. Gross alpha aerosol concentrations ranged from 3.4 to 450 nCi/l. Centerless grinding produced similar-sized aerosols but the gross alpha concentration ranged from 220 to 1690 nCi/l. In vitro solubility studies on selected LAPS samples in a lung fluid simulant indicate that plutonium mixed-oxide aerosols are more soluble than laboratory-produced plutonium aerosols

  9. MIS High-Purity Plutonium Oxide Hydride Product 5501579 (SSR124): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Narlesky, Joshua Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinex, Max A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carillo, Alex [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-08

    A high-purity plutonium dioxide material from the Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) Program inventory has been studied with regard to gas generation and corrosion in a storage environment. Sample 5501579 represents process plutonium oxides from hydride oxide from Rocky Flats that are currently stored in 3013 containers. After calcination to 950°C, the material contained 87.42% plutonium with no major impurities. This study followed over time, the gas pressure of a sample with nominally 0.5 wt% water in a sealed container with an internal volume scaled to 1/500th of the volume of a 3013 container. Gas compositions were measured periodically over a six year period. The maximum observed gas pressure was 124 kPa. The increase over the initial pressure of 70 kPa was primarily due to generation of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas. Hydrogen and oxygen were minor components of the headspace gas. At the completion of the study, the internal components of the sealed container showed signs of corrosion.

  10. Solid-phase extraction of plutonium in various oxidation states from simulated groundwater using N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevalov, S.A.; Malofeeva, G.I.; Kuzovkina, E.V.; Spivakov, B.Ya.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction of plutonium in different individual and mixed oxidation states from simulated groundwater (pH 8.5) was studied. The extraction of plutonium species was carried out in a dynamic mode using DIAPAK C16 cartridges modified by N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine (BPHA). It was shown that the extent of recovery depends on the oxidation state of plutonium. The extraction of Pu(IV) was at the level of 98-99% regardless of the volume and flow-rate of the sample solution. Pu(V) was extracted by 90-95% and 75-80% from 10- and 100-mL aliquots of the samples, respectively, whereas the extraction of Pu(VI) did not exceed 45-50%. An equimolar mixture of Pu(IV), Pu(V), and Pu(VI) was extracted by 74%. The distribution coefficients (K d ) and kinetic exchange capacities (S) of plutonium in various oxidation states were measured. It was found that during the sorption process, Pu(V) was reduced to Pu(IV) by 80-90% after an hour-long contact with the solid phase. Pu(VI) is reduced to Pu(V) by 34% and to Pu(IV) by 55%. In the case of mixed-valent solution of plutonium, only Pu(V) and Pu(IV) were found in the effluents. (author)

  11. Grain growth kinetics in uranium-plutonium mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, C.

    1986-01-01

    Grain growth rates were investigated in uranium-plutonium mixed oxide specimens with oxygen-to-metal ratios 1.97 and 2.0. The specimens in the form of cylindrical pellets were heated in a temperature gradient similar to that existing in a fast reactor. The results are in agreement with the cubic rate law. The mean grain size D(μm) after annealing for time t (min) is represented by D 3 -D 0 3 =1.11x10 12 . exp(-445870/RT).t and D 3 -D 0 3 =2.55x10 9 .exp(-319240/RT).t for specimens with overall oxygen-to-metal ratios 1.97 and 2.0, respectively (activation energies expressed in J/mol). An example for the influence of the oxygen-to-metal ratio on the grain growth in mixed oxide fuel during operation in a fast reactor is also given. (orig.)

  12. Stop plutonium; Stop plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  13. Melting temperature of uranium - plutonium mixed oxide fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Tetsuya; Hirosawa, Takashi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-08-01

    Fuel melting temperature is one of the major thermodynamical properties that is used for determining the design criteria on fuel temperature during irradiation in FBR. In general, it is necessary to evaluate the correlation of fuel melting temperature to confirm that the fuel temperature must be kept below the fuel melting temperature during irradiation at any conditions. The correlations of the melting temperature of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, typical FBR fuel, used to be estimated and formulized based on the measured values reported in 1960`s and has been applied to the design. At present, some experiments have been accumulated with improved experimental techniques. And it reveals that the recent measured melting temperatures does not agree well to the data reported in 1960`s and that some of the 1960`s data should be modified by taking into account of the recent measurements. In this study, the experience of melting temperature up to now are summarized and evaluated in order to make the fuel pin design more reliable. The effect of plutonium content, oxygen to metal ratio and burnup on MOX fuel melting was examined based on the recent data under the UO{sub 2} - PuO{sub 2} - PuO{sub 1.61} ideal solution model, and then formulized. (J.P.N.)

  14. Melting temperature of uranium - plutonium mixed oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Tetsuya; Hirosawa, Takashi

    1997-08-01

    Fuel melting temperature is one of the major thermodynamical properties that is used for determining the design criteria on fuel temperature during irradiation in FBR. In general, it is necessary to evaluate the correlation of fuel melting temperature to confirm that the fuel temperature must be kept below the fuel melting temperature during irradiation at any conditions. The correlations of the melting temperature of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, typical FBR fuel, used to be estimated and formulized based on the measured values reported in 1960's and has been applied to the design. At present, some experiments have been accumulated with improved experimental techniques. And it reveals that the recent measured melting temperatures does not agree well to the data reported in 1960's and that some of the 1960's data should be modified by taking into account of the recent measurements. In this study, the experience of melting temperature up to now are summarized and evaluated in order to make the fuel pin design more reliable. The effect of plutonium content, oxygen to metal ratio and burnup on MOX fuel melting was examined based on the recent data under the UO 2 - PuO 2 - PuO 1.61 ideal solution model, and then formulized. (J.P.N.)

  15. Plutonium-uranium mixed oxide characterization by coupling micro-X-ray diffraction and absorption investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degueldre, C.; Martin, M.; Kuri, G.; Grolimund, D.; Borca, C.

    2011-09-01

    Plutonium-uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The potential differences of metal redox state and microstructural developments of the matrix before and after irradiation are commonly analysed by electron probe microanalysis. In this work the structure and next-neighbor atomic environments of Pu and U oxide features within unirradiated homogeneous MOX and irradiated (60 MW d kg -1) MOX samples was analysed by micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (μ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The grain properties, chemical bonding, valences and stoichiometry of Pu and U are determined from the experimental data gained for the unirradiated as well as for irradiated fuel material examined in the center of the fuel as well as in its peripheral zone (rim). The formation of sub-grains is observed as well as their development from the center to the rim (polygonization). In the irradiated sample Pu remains tetravalent (>95%) and no (oxidation in the rim zone. Any slight potential plutonium oxidation is buffered by the uranium dioxide matrix while locally fuel cladding interaction could also affect the redox of the fuel.

  16. Field sampling, preparation procedure and plutonium analyses of large freshwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straelberg, E.; Bjerk, T.O.; Oestmo, K.; Brittain, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    This work is part of an investigation of the mobility of plutonium in freshwater systems containing humic substances. A well-defined bog-stream system located in the catchment area of a subalpine lake, Oevre Heimdalsvatn, Norway, is being studied. During the summer of 1999, six water samples were collected from the tributary stream Lektorbekken and the lake itself. However, the analyses showed that the plutonium concentration was below the detection limit in all the samples. Therefore renewed sampling at the same sites was carried out in August 2000. The results so far are in agreement with previous analyses from the Heimdalen area. However, 100 times higher concentrations are found in the lowlands in the eastern part of Norway. The reason for this is not understood, but may be caused by differences in the concentrations of humic substances and/or the fact that the mountain areas are covered with snow for a longer period of time every year. (LN)

  17. Plutonium transport for the oxide form. Air and road accidentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrange, J.P.; Hubert, P.; Pages, P.

    1989-07-01

    The aim of the study is to define the probability of accident that can be applied to a packaging for plutonium oxide transport. The analysis is designed essentially for packagings of few tons with impact resistance corresponding to a speed of 10 m/s but can be used for packagings with a resistance corresponding to IAEA tests. This work is based on analysis and processing of 2 accident files: one on road accidents, the other on air accidents. Computer codes are developed, from one hand, to obtain stress indicator distribution by Monte Carlo methods and on the other hand to link these distributions to itinerary parameters. Previous similar studies are examined and compared to figures obtained here and explained as far as possible [fr

  18. Surveillance of sealed containers with plutonium oxide materials (ms163)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worl, Laura; Berg, John; Ford, Doris; Martinez, Max; McFarlan, Jim; Morris, John; Padilla, Dennis; Rau, Karen; Smith, Coleman; Veirs, Kirk; Hill, Dallas; Prenger, Coyne

    2000-07-01

    DOE is embarking upon a program to store large quantities of plutonium-bearing materials for up to fifty years. Materials destined for long-term storage include metals and oxides that are stabilized and packaged according to the DOE storage standard, where the packaging consists of two nested, welded, stainless steel containers. We have designed instrumented storage containers that mimic the inner storage can specified in the 3013 standard at both full- and small-scale capacities (2.4 liter and 0.005 liter, respectively), Figures 1 and 2. The containers are designed to maintain the volume to material mass ratio while allowing the gas composition and pressure to be monitored over time.

  19. Aerosol generation by oxidation and combustion of plutonium and its compounds: literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1987-09-01

    Generation of aerosols by oxidation or combustion is one of the greatest risks due to plutonium. A review is made of the most interesting documents available on this topic. Following a brief study of plutonium oxydation conditions, characteristics of aerosols generated by accidents of fires involving metallic Pu and some of its compounds are assessed. Nuclear weapons are not included in this review [fr

  20. Measurements of the oxidation state and concentration of plutonium in interstitial waters of the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.M.; Lovett, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The question of plutonium movement in interstitial waters resulting from diffusion along concentration gradients or from advective flow is addressed. The results of measurements of both the concentration and the oxidation state of plutonium in interstitial water collected from sediments near the Windscale discharge, in the solid phases of these sediments and in seawater and suspended solids collected at the coring locations are discussed

  1. Rapid and Automated Determination of Plutonium and Neptunium in Environmental Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin

    This thesis presents improved analytical methods for rapid and automated determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples using sequential injection (SI) based chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The progress of methodology development...... and optimization for rapid determination of plutonium in environmental samples using SIextraction chromatography prior to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper III); (3) Development of an SI-chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples...... for rapid and simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium within an SI system (Paper VI). The results demonstrate that the developed methods in this study are reliable and efficient for accurate assays of trace levels of plutonium and neptunium as demanded in different situations including...

  2. Determination of the plutonium contamination level in biological samples by liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemot, J.M.; Verry, M.; Lataillade, G.

    1989-01-01

    Usual radiochemical processes are unable to carry out without delay the very large number of analyses as required in plutonium toxicology studies. Liquid scintillation is the best method to quickly determine plutonium contamination levels in most various samples (bone, organs,...) [fr

  3. Gas generation over plutonium oxides in the 94-1 shelf-life surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.M.; Harradine, D.M.; Hill, D.D.; McFarlan, James T.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F. Coyne; Veirs, D.K.; Worl, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is embarking upon a program to store large quantities of plutonium-bearing materials for up to fifty years. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Shelf Life Project was established to bound the behavior of plutonium-bearing material meeting the DOE 3013 Standard. The shelf life study monitors temperature, pressure and gas composition over oxide materials in a limited number of large-scale 3013 inner containers and in many small-scale containers. For the large-scale study, baseline plutonium oxides, oxides exposed to high-humidity atmospheres, and oxides containing chloride salt impurities are planned. The first large-scale container represents a baseline and contains dry plutonium oxide prepared according to the 3013 Standard. This container has been observed for pressure, temperature and gas compositional changes for less than a year. Results indicate that no detectable changes in pressure and gas composition are observed.

  4. Stop plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  5. Sample preparation automation for dosing plutonium in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, Lucien; Ballada, Jean; Ridelle Berger, Ariane

    1969-06-01

    After having indicated that dosing urinary plutonium by using the Henry technique can be divided into three stages (plutonium concentration by precipitation, passing the solution on an anionic resin column and plutonium elution, and eluate evaporation to obtain a source of which the radioactivity is measured), and recalled that the automation of the second stage has been reported in another document, this document describes the automation of the first stage, i.e. obtaining from urine a residue containing the plutonium, and sufficiently mineralized to be analyzed by means of ion exchanging resins. Two techniques are proposed, leading to slightly different devices. The different operations to be performed are indicated. The different components of the apparatus are described: beakers, hot plate stirrers, reagent circuits, a system for supernatant suction, and a control-command circuit. The operation and use are then described, and results are given

  6. Effect of cooling rate on achieving thermodynamic equilibrium in uranium–plutonium mixed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vauchy, Romain, E-mail: romain.vauchy@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTEC, Marcoule, 30207, Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); CEA, DEN, DEC, Cadarache, 13108, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Belin, Renaud C.; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte [CEA, DEN, DEC, Cadarache, 13108, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Hodaj, Fiqiri [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, SIMAP, F-38000, Grenoble (France); CNRS, Grenoble INP, SIMAP, F-38000, Grenoble (France)

    2016-02-15

    In situ X-ray diffraction was used to study the structural changes occurring in uranium–plutonium mixed oxides U{sub 1−y}Pu{sub y}O{sub 2−x} with y = 0.15; 0.28 and 0.45 during cooling from 1773 K to room-temperature under He + 5% H{sub 2} atmosphere. We compare the fastest and slowest cooling rates allowed by our apparatus i.e. 2 K s{sup −1} and 0.005 K s{sup −1}, respectively. The promptly cooled samples evidenced a phase separation whereas samples cooled slowly did not due to their complete oxidation in contact with the atmosphere during cooling. Besides the composition of the annealing gas mixture, the cooling rate plays a major role on the control of the Oxygen/Metal ratio (O/M) and then on the crystallographic properties of the U{sub 1−y}Pu{sub y}O{sub 2−x} uranium–plutonium mixed oxides.

  7. Water bath and air bath calorimeter qualification for measuring 3013 containers of plutonium oxide at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WELSH, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present qualification data generated from water and air-bath calorimeters measuring radioactive decay heat from plutonium oxide in DOE STD-3013-2000 (3013) containers at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Published data concerning air and water bath calorimeters and especially 3013-qualified calorimeters is minimal at best. This paper will address the data from the measurement/qualification test plan, the heat standards used, and the calorimeter precision and accuracy results. The 3013 package is physically larger than earlier plutonium oxide storage containers, thereby necessitating a larger measurement chamber. To accommodate the measurements of the 3013 containers at PFP, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supplied a water bath dual-chambered unit and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provided two air-bath calorimeters. Both types of Calorimeters were installed in the analytical laboratory at PFP. The larger 3013 containers presented a new set of potential measurement problems: longer counting times, heat conductivity through a much larger container mass and wall thickness, and larger amounts of copper shot to assist sample thermal conductivity. These potential problems were addressed and included in the measurement/qualification test plan

  8. Kinetics of tetravalent plutonium oxidation by cerium (4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitina, G P; Shumakov, V G; Egorova, V P

    1975-01-01

    Stoichiometry and kinetics of the Pu(4) + Ce(4) reaction is studied by spectrophotometric method at 5-30 deg C in nitric acid solutions (..mu..=(HNO/sub 3/)+(NaNO/sub 3/) = 1.0 - 5.7; (Ce(4)) = 5.10/sup -5/ - 1.2.10/sup -3/ g-ion/1, (Pu(4)) =1.10/sup -5/ - 8.5.10/sup -4/ g-ion/1. Oxidation of one Pu(4) ion to a hexavalent state requires two Ce(4) ions. The plutonium oxidation is not complicated by by-processes. Reverse Ce(3) + PuO/sub 2//sup +/ reaction does not contribute essentially to the process at (Ce(3)) 2.6.10/sup -2/ g-ion/1. The reaction rate obeys the kinetic equation - d(Pu(4))/dt = ksub(eff)(Pu(4))(Ce(4))/a sub(+-HNO/sub 3/). The thermodynamical activation parameters are found for solutions at the varied nitric acid concentrations:..delta..Gsup(not equal) = 17.0+-0.2 and ..delta..Hsup(not equal) = 21.8+-2 kcal/mole(..mu..=1.0); ..delta..Gsup(not equal) = 19.1+-0.1 and ..delta..Hsup(not equal) = 23.1+-1 kcal/mole(..mu..=4.9). The reaction mechanism is discussed in terms of the theory of absolute reaction rates and the model of long-range charge transfer.

  9. Oxidation behaviour of plutonium rich (U, Pu)C and (U, Pu)O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sali, S.K., E-mail: sksali@barc.gov.in [Fuel Chemistry Division (India); Kulkarni, N.K.; Phatak, Rohan [Fuel Chemistry Division (India); Agarwal, Renu [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-10-15

    Oxidation behaviour of (U{sub 0.3}Pu{sub 0.7})C{sub 1.06} was investigated in air by heating samples up to 1073 K and 1273 K. Thermogravimetry (TG) of the samples and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) of the intermediate products were used to understand the phenomenon taking place during this process. Theoretical calculations were carried out to understand the multiple phase changes taking place during oxidation of carbide. Theoretical results were validated by XRD analysis of the products obtained at different stages of oxidation. The final oxidized products were found to be a single FCC phase with O/M = 2.15 (M = U + Pu). Oxidation kinetic studies of (U{sub 0.3}Pu{sub 0.7})O{sub 2} and (U{sub 0.47}Pu{sub 0.53})O{sub 2} were carried out in dry air, using thermogravimetry, under non-isothermal conditions. The activation energy of oxidation was found to be 49 and 70 kJ/mol, respectively. Lattice parameter dependence on Pu/M and O/M of plutonium rich mixed oxide (MOX) was established using combined results of XRD and TG analysis of (U{sub 0.3}Pu{sub 0.7})O{sub 2+x} and (U{sub 0.47}Pu{sub 0.53})O{sub 2+x}.

  10. An assessment of the validity of cerium oxide as a surrogate for plutonium oxide gallium removal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolman, D.G.; Park, Y.; Stan, M.; Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Butt, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    Methods for purifying plutonium metal have long been established. These methods use acid solutions to dissolve and concentrate the metal. However, these methods can produce significant mixed waste, that is, waste containing both radioactive and chemical hazards. The volume of waste produced from the aqueous purification of thousands of weapons would be expensive to treat and dispose. Therefore, a dry method of purification is highly desirable. Recently, a dry gallium removal research program commenced. Based on initial calculations, it appeared that a particular form of gallium (gallium suboxide, Ga 2 O) could be evaporated from plutonium oxide in the presence of a reducing agent, such as small amounts of hydrogen dry gas within an inert environment. Initial tests using ceria-based material (as a surrogate for PuO 2 ) showed that thermally-induced gallium removal (TIGR) from small samples (on the order of one gram) was indeed viable. Because of the expense and difficulty of optimizing TIGR from plutonium dioxide, TIGR optimization tests using ceria have continued. This document details the relationship between the ceria surrogate tests and those conducted using plutonia

  11. Study of interaction of uranium, plutonium and rare earth fluorides with some metal oxides in fluoric salt melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, V.F.; Novoselov, G.P.; Ulanov, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    Interaction of plutonium, uranium, and rare-earth elements (REE) fluorides with aluminium and calcium oxides in melts of eutectic mixture LiF-NaF has been studied at 800 deg C by X-ray diffraction method. It has been shown that tetravalent uranium and plutonium are coprecipitated by oxides as a solid solution UO 2 -PuO 2 . Trivalent plutonium in fluorides melts in not precipitated in the presence of tetravalent uranium which can be used for their separation. REE are precipitated from a salt melt by calcium oxide and are not precipitated by aluminium oxide. Thus, aluminium oxide in a selective precipitator for uranium and plutonium in presence of REE. Addition of aluminium fluoride retains trivalent plutonium and REE in a salt melt in presence of Ca and Al oxides. The mechanism of interacting plutonium and REE trifluorides with metal oxides in fluoride melts has been considered

  12. Measurement of the {sup 240}Pu concentration of a plutonium sample by the spontaneous fission method (1960); Mesure de la teneur d'un plutonium en {sup 240}Pu par la methode des fissions spontanees (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caizergues, R; Clouet d' Orval, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It is very important to know the plutonium-240 content of the plutonium formed in piles. The method of measurement described here consists in counting the number of spontaneous fissions produced in a known quantity of plutonium. This measurement is carried out in a multiple-plate ionisation chamber, the plutonium being deposited on the plates. The disintegration constant of plutonium-240 by spontaneous fission being known the plutonium-240 content in the sample can be calculated. (author) [French] La connaissance de la teneur en plutonium-240 du plutonium forme dans les piles est une question importante. La methode de mesure presentee ici consiste a compter le nombre de fissions spontanees issues d'une quantite connue de plutonium. Cette mesure est effectuee dans une chambre d'ionisation a plateaux multiples sur lesquels est depose le plutonium. La connaissance de la constante de desintegration du plutonium-240 par fissions spontanees permet de calculer la teneur en plutonium-240. (auteur)

  13. Rupture of plutonium oxide storage container, March 13, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-29

    On March 13, 1979, a plutonium oxide storage can ruptured in the 303-C storage facility, which is in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, Washington. The facility is operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL); three PNL staff members were performing the storage operation. No injuries to these staff members resulted from the occurrence. A Class C Investigation Committee was appointed on March 14, 1979, by the Director, PNL. Subsequently, when the loss estimates became available, the Manager, Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), appointed a Class B Investigation Committee in accordance with DOE Manual Chapter 0502. As requested by DOE-RL, the Committee investigated technical elements of the causal sequence and management systems that should have or could have prevented the occurrence. The investigation included: review of the use of the 303-C facilities and the transfer containers; interviews with the involved personnel and their managers; analysis of technical studies related to involved materials and procedures; review of safe operating procedures, radiation work procedures, and transfer requirements applicable to the occurrence; and use of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) and the Events and Causal Factors Charting methods. 15 figs.

  14. Effects of pressure on thermal transport in plutonium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielenberg, Patricia; Prenger, F. Coyne; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Jones, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    Radial temperature profiles in plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) powder were measured in a cylindrical vessel over a pressure range of 0.055 to 334.4 kPa with two different fill gases, helium and argon. The fine PuO 2 powder provides a very uniform self-heating medium amenable to relatively simple mathematical descriptions. At low pressures ( 2 powder has small particle sizes (on the order of 1 to 10 μm), random particle shapes, and high porosity so a more general model was required for this system. The model correctly predicts the temperature profiles of the powder over the wide pressure range for both argon and helium as fill gases. The effective thermal conductivity of the powder bed exhibits a pressure dependence at higher pressures because the pore sizes in the interparticle contact area are relatively small (less than 1 μm) and the Knudsen number remains above the continuum limit at these conditions for both fill gases. Also, the effective thermal conductivity with argon as a fill gas is higher than expected at higher pressures because the solid pathways account for over 80% of the effective powder conductivity. The results obtained from this model help to bring insight to the thermal conductivity of very fine ceramic powders with different fill gases.

  15. Study of possible changes brought about by plutonium oxide in the acid phosphatase activity of alveolar macrophages of the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouvroy, Huguette

    1970-06-01

    This report describes the various techniques used for determining the acid phosphatase activity of alveolar rabbit macrophages after inhalation of radioactive plutonium oxide particles, exposure of the animals, removal and sampling of the alveolar cells, and technical dosage. The results obtained are presented; they do not make it possible, in this particular case, to affirm that an important change in the enzymatic activity studied occurs. (author) [fr

  16. Rapid and automated determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, J.

    2011-03-01

    This thesis presents improved analytical methods for rapid and automated determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples using sequential injection (SI) based chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The progress of methodology development in this work consists of 5 subjects stated as follows: 1) Development and optimization of an SI-anion exchange chromatographic method for rapid determination of plutonium in environmental samples in combination of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection (Paper II); (2) Methodology development and optimization for rapid determination of plutonium in environmental samples using SI-extraction chromatography prior to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper III); (3) Development of an SI-chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples (Paper IV); (4) Investigation of the suitability and applicability of 242 Pu as a tracer for rapid neptunium determination using anion exchange chromatography in an SI-network coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper V); (5) Exploration of macro-porous anion exchange chromatography for rapid and simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium within an SI system (Paper VI). The results demonstrate that the developed methods in this study are reliable and efficient for accurate assays of trace levels of plutonium and neptunium as demanded in different situations including environmental risk monitoring and assessment, emergency preparedness and surveillance of contaminated areas. (Author)

  17. Rapid and automated determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, J.

    2011-03-15

    This thesis presents improved analytical methods for rapid and automated determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples using sequential injection (SI) based chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The progress of methodology development in this work consists of 5 subjects stated as follows: 1) Development and optimization of an SI-anion exchange chromatographic method for rapid determination of plutonium in environmental samples in combination of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection (Paper II); (2) Methodology development and optimization for rapid determination of plutonium in environmental samples using SI-extraction chromatography prior to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper III); (3) Development of an SI-chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples (Paper IV); (4) Investigation of the suitability and applicability of 242Pu as a tracer for rapid neptunium determination using anion exchange chromatography in an SI-network coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper V); (5) Exploration of macro-porous anion exchange chromatography for rapid and simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium within an SI system (Paper VI). The results demonstrate that the developed methods in this study are reliable and efficient for accurate assays of trace levels of plutonium and neptunium as demanded in different situations including environmental risk monitoring and assessment, emergency preparedness and surveillance of contaminated areas. (Author)

  18. Oxygen potential of uranium--plutonium oxide as determined by controlled-atmosphere thermogravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, G.C.

    1975-10-01

    The oxygen-to-metal atom ratio, or O/M, of solid solution uranium-plutonium oxide reactor fuel is a measure of the concentration of crystal defects in the oxide which affect many fuel properties, particularly, fuel oxygen potential. Fabrication of a high-temperature oxygen electrode, employing an electro-active tip of oxygen-deficient solid-state electrolyte, intended to confirm gaseous oxygen potentials is described. Uranium oxide and plutonium oxide O/M reference materials were prepared by in situ oxidation of high purity metals in the thermobalance. A solid solution uranium-plutonium oxide O/M reference material was prepared by alloying the uranium and plutonium metals in a yttrium oxide crucible at 1200 0 C and oxidizing with moist He at 250 0 C. The individual and solid solution oxides were isothermally equilibrated with controlled oxygen potentials between 800 and 1300 0 C and the equilibrated O/M ratios calculated with corrections for impurities and buoyancy effects. Use of a reference oxygen potential of -100 kcal/mol to produce an O/M of 2.000 is confirmed by these results. However, because of the lengthy equilibration times required for all oxides, use of the O/M reference materials rather than a reference oxygen potential is recommended for O/M analysis methods calibrations. (auth)

  19. Preparation of high purity plutonium oxide for radiochemistry instrument calibration standards and working standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, A.S.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1997-04-01

    Due to the lack of suitable high level National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable plutonium solution standards from the NIST or commercial vendors, the CST-8 Radiochemistry team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has prepared instrument calibration standards and working standards from a well-characterized plutonium oxide. All the aliquoting steps were performed gravimetrically. When a 241 Am standardized solution obtained from a commercial vendor was compared to these calibration solutions, the results agreed to within 0.04% for the total alpha activity. The aliquots of the plutonium standard solutions and dilutions were sealed in glass ampules for long term storage

  20. Fluid bed direct denitration process for plutonium nitrate to oxide conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souply, K.R.; Neal, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    The fluid bed direct-denitration process appears feasible for reprocessing Light Water Reactor fuel. Considerable experience with the fluid bed process exists in the denitration of uranyl nitrate and it shows promise for use in the denitration of plutonium nitrate. The process will require some development work before it can be used in a production-size facility. This report describes a fluid bed direct-denitration process for converting plutonium nitrate to plutonium oxide, and the information should be used when making comparisons of alternative processes or as a basis for further detailed studies

  1. Cleaning up the Legacy of the Cold War: Plutonium Oxides and the Role of Synchrotron Radiation Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, David Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-21

    The deceptively simple binary formula of AnO2 belies an incredibly complex structural nature, and propensity to form mixed-valent, nonstoichiometric phases of composition AnO2±x. For plutonium, the very formation of PuO2+x has challenged a long-established dogma, and raised fundamental questions for long-term storage and environmental migration. This presentation covers two aspects of Los Alamos synchrotron radiation studies of plutonium oxides: (1) the structural chemistry of laboratory-prepared AnO2+x systems (An = U, Pu; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) determined through a combination of x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) and x-ray scattering of laboratory prepared samples; and (2) the application of synchrotron radiation towards the decontamination and decommissioning of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Making the case for particle transport mechanisms as the basis of plutonium and americium mobility, rather than aqueous sorption-desorption processes, established a successful scientific basis for the dominance of physical transport processes by wind and water. The scientific basis was successful because it was in agreement with general theory on insolubility of PuO2 in oxidation state IV, results of ultrafiltration analyses of field water/sediment samples, XAFS analyses of soil, sediment, and concrete samples, and was also in general agreement with on-site monitoring data. This understanding allowed Site contractors to rapidly move to application of soil erosion and sediment transport models as the means of predicting plutonium and americium transport, which led to design and application of site-wide soil erosion control technology to help control downstream concentrations of plutonium and americium in streamflow.

  2. Cleaning up the Legacy of the Cold War: Plutonium Oxides and the Role of Synchrotron Radiation Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, David Lewis

    2015-01-01

    The deceptively simple binary formula of AnO 2 belies an incredibly complex structural nature, and propensity to form mixed-valent, nonstoichiometric phases of composition AnO 2±x . For plutonium, the very formation of PuO 2+x has challenged a long-established dogma, and raised fundamental questions for long-term storage and environmental migration. This presentation covers two aspects of Los Alamos synchrotron radiation studies of plutonium oxides: (1) the structural chemistry of laboratory-prepared AnO 2+x systems (An = U, Pu; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) determined through a combination of x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) and x-ray scattering of laboratory prepared samples; and (2) the application of synchrotron radiation towards the decontamination and decommissioning of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Making the case for particle transport mechanisms as the basis of plutonium and americium mobility, rather than aqueous sorption-desorption processes, established a successful scientific basis for the dominance of physical transport processes by wind and water. The scientific basis was successful because it was in agreement with general theory on insolubility of PuO 2 in oxidation state IV, results of ultrafiltration analyses of field water/sediment samples, XAFS analyses of soil, sediment, and concrete samples, and was also in general agreement with on-site monitoring data. This understanding allowed Site contractors to rapidly move to application of soil erosion and sediment transport models as the means of predicting plutonium and americium transport, which led to design and application of site-wide soil erosion control technology to help control downstream concentrations of plutonium and americium in streamflow.

  3. Improvement of sample preparation for input plutonium accountability measurement by isotope dilution gammy-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, K.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, S.; Masui, J.; Li, T.K.; Parker, J.L.; Hakkila, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    The sample preparation method for the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry (IDGS) technique has been further improved for simultaneously determining the plutonium concentration and isotopic composition of highly irradiated spent-fuel dissolver solutions. The improvement includes using ion-exchange filter papers (instead of resin beads, as in two previous experiments) for better separation and recovery of plutonium from fission products. The results of IDGS measurements for five dissolver solutions are in good agreement with those by mass spectrometry with ∼0.4% for plutonium concentration and ∼0.1% for 239 Pu isotopic composition. The precision of the plutonium concentration is ∼1% with a 1-h count time. The technique could be implemented as an alternative method for input accountability and verification measurements in reprocessing plants

  4. The Macdonald and Savage titrimetric procedure scaled down to 4 mg sized plutonium samples. P. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvik, V.; Lecouteux, C.; Doubek, N.; Ronesch, K.; Jammet, G.; Bagliano, G.; Deron, S.

    1992-01-01

    The original Macdonald and Savage amperometric method scaled down to milligram-sized plutonium samples was further modified. The electro-chemical process of each redox step and the end-point of the final titration were monitored potentiometrically. The method is designed to determine 4 mg of plutonium dissolved in nitric acid solution. It is suitable for the direct determination of plutonium in non-irradiated fuel with a uranium-to-plutonium ratio of up to 30. The precision and accuracy are ca. 0.05-0.1% (relative standard deviation). Although the procedure is very selective, the following species interfere: vanadyl(IV) and vanadate (almost quantitatively), neptunium (one electron exchange per mole), nitrites, fluorosilicates (milligram amounts yield a slight bias) and iodates. (author). 15 refs.; 8 figs.; 7 tabs

  5. Manual for the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Detector (ENMC) for Measurement of Impure MOX and Plutonium Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H. O.; Rael, C. D.; Kroncke, K. E.; DeAguero, K. J.

    2004-01-01

    We have designed a high-efficiency neutron detector for passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting of dirty scrap and bulk samples of plutonium. The counter will be used for the measurement of impure plutonium samples at the JNC MOX fabrication facility in Japan. The counter can also be used to create working standards from bulk process MOX. The detector uses advanced design "3He tubes to increase the efficiency and to shorten the neutron die-away time. The efficiency is 64% and the die-away time is 19.1 ?s. The Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) is designed for high-precision measurements of bulk plutonium samples with diameters of less than 200 mm. The average neutron energy from the sample can be measured using the ratio of the inner ring of He-3 tubes to the outer ring. This report describes the hardware, performance, and calibration for the ENMC.

  6. Uranium and plutonium distribution in unirradiated mixed oxide fuel from industrial fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanus, D.; Kleykamp, H.

    1982-01-01

    Different process variants developed in the last few years by the firm ALKEM to manufacture FBR and LWR mixed oxide fuel are given. The uranium and plutonium distribution is determined on the pellets manufactured with the help of the electron beam microprobe. The stepwise improvement of the uranium-plutonium homogeneity in the short-term developed granulate variants and in the long-term developed new processes are illustrated starting with early standard processes for FBR fuel. An almost uniform uranium-plutonium distribution could be achieved for the long-term developed new processes (OKOM, AuPuC). The uranium-plutonium homogeneity are quantified in the pellets manufactured according to the considered process variants with a newly defined quality number. (orig.)

  7. Correction for the absorption of plutonium alpha particles in filter paper used for dust sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, J G

    1956-01-01

    This sample of air-borne dust collected on a filter paper when laboratory air is monitored for plutonium with the 1195 portable dust sampling unit may be regarded, for counting purposes, as a thick source with a non-uniform distribution of alpha-active plutonium. Experiments have been carried out to determine a correction factor to be applied to the observed count on the filter paper sample to correct for internal absorption in the paper and on the dust layer. From the results obtained it is recommended that a correction factor of 2 be used.

  8. Determination of uranium in plutonium--238 metal and oxide by differential pulse polarography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, N.C.

    1976-01-01

    A differential pulse polarographic method was developed for the determination of total uranium in 238 Pu metal and oxides. A supporting electrolyte of 0.5 M ascorbic acid in 0.15 N H 2 SO 4 was found satisfactory for the determination of 500 ppM or more of uranium in 10 mg or less of plutonium. A relative standard deviation of 0.27 to 4.3 percent was obtained in the analysis of samples ranging in uranium content from 0.65 to 2.79 percent. The limit of detection was 0.18 μg ml -1 . Peak current was a linear function of uranium concentration up to at least 100 μg ml -1 . Amounts of neptunium equal to the uranium content were tolerated. The possible interference of a number of other cations and anions were investigated

  9. The growth and evolution of thin oxide films on delta-plutonium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Flores, Harry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pugmire, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The common oxides of plutonium are the dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) and the sesquioxide (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The structure of an oxide on plutonium metal under air at room temperature is typically described as a thick PuO{sub 2} film at the gas-oxide interface with a thinner PuO{sub 2} film near the oxide-metal substrate interface. In a reducing environment, such as ultra high vacuum, the dioxide (Pu{sup 4+}; O/Pu = 2.0) readily converts to the sesquioxide (Pu{sup 3+}; O/Pu = 1.5) with time. In this work, the growth and evolution of thin plutonium oxide films is studied with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) under varying conditions. The results indicate that, like the dioxide, the sesquioxide is not stable on a very clean metal substrate under reducing conditions, resulting in substoichiometric films (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y}). The Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y} films prepared exhibit a variety of stoichiometries (y = 0.2-1) as a function of preparation conditions, highlighting the fact that caution must be exercised when studying plutonium oxide surfaces under these conditions and interpreting resulting data.

  10. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalic, M.A.

    1998-02-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides the information and instructions to be used for sampling and analysis activities in the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility. The information and instructions herein are separated into three parts and address the Data Quality Objective (DQO) Summary Report, Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAP), and SAP

  11. Inventory calculations in sediment samples with heterogeneous plutonium activity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, M.; Dahlgaard, H.

    2002-01-01

    A method to determine the total inventory of a heterogeneously distributed contamination of marine sediments is described. The study site is the Bylot Sound off the Thule Airbase, NW Greenland, where marine sediments became contaminated with plutonium in 1968 after a nuclear weapons accident. The calculation is based on a gamma spectrometric screening of the 241 Am concentration in 450 one-gram aliquots from 6 sediment cores. A Monte Carlo programme then simulates a probable distribution of the activity, and based on that, a total inventory is estimated by integrating a double exponential function. The present data indicate a total inventory around 3.5 kg, which is 7 times higher than earlier estimates (0.5 kg). The difference is partly explained by the inclusion of hot particles in the present calculation. A large uncertainty is connected to this estimate, and it should be regarded as preliminary. (au)

  12. Comparison of acid leachate and fusion methods to determine plutonium and americium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.L.; Markun, F.; TenKate, T.

    1992-06-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory performs radiochemical analyses for a wide variety of sites within the Department of Energy complex. Since the chemical history of the samples may vary drastically from site to site, the effectiveness of any analytical technique may also vary. This study compares a potassium fluoride-pyrosulfate fusion technique with an acid leachate method. Both normal and high-fired soils and vegetation samples were analyzed for both americium and plutonium. Results show both methods work well, except for plutonium in high-fired soils. Here the fusion method provides higher accuracy

  13. Criticality safety analysis for plutonium dissolver using silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Miki; Sugikawa, Susumu; Nakamura, Kazuhito; Egashira, Tetsurou

    1998-08-01

    Design and construction of a plutonium dissolver using silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method are promoted in NUCEF. Criticality safety analysis for the plutonium dissolver is described in this report. The electrolytic plutonium dissolver consists of connection pipes and three pots for MOX powder supply, circulation and electrolysis. The criticality control for the dissolver is made by geometrically safe shape with mass limitation. Monte Carlo code KENO-IV using MGCL-137 library based on ENDF/B-IV was used for the criticality safety analysis for the plutonium dissolver. Considering the required size for construction and criticality safety, diameter of pot and distance between two pots were determined. On this condition, the criticality safety analysis for the plutonium dissolver with connection pipes was carried out. As the result of the criticality safety analysis, an effective neutron multiplication factor keff of 0.91 was obtained and the criticality safety of the plutonium dissolver was confirmed on the basis of criteria of ≤0.95. (author)

  14. Reduction of uranium and plutonium oxides by aluminum. Application to the recycling of plutonium; Reduction des oxydes d'uranium et de plutonium par l'aluminium application au recyclage du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallay, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Valduc (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-07-01

    A process for treating plutonium oxide calcined at high temperatures (1000 to 2000 deg. C) with a view to recovering the metal consists in the reduction of this oxide dissolved in a mixture of aluminium, sodium and calcium fluorides by aluminium at about 1180 deg. C. The first part of the report presents the results of reduction tests carried out on the uranium oxides UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}; these are in agreement with the thermodynamic calculations of the exchange reaction at equilibrium. The second part describes the application of this method to plutonium oxides. The Pu-Al alloy obtained (60 per cent Pu) is then recycled in an aqueous medium. (author) [French] Un procede de traitement de l'oxyde de plutonium calcine a haute temperature (1000 deg. C a 2000 deg. C), en vue de la recuperation du metal, consiste a reduire cet oxyde dissous dans un melange de fluorures d'aluminium, de sodium et de calcium, par l'aluminium vers 1180 deg. C. Une premiere partie du rapport presente les resultats des essais de reduction des oxydes d'uranium UO{sub 2} et U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, en accord avec les resultats du calcul thermodynamique de la reaction d'echange a l'equilibre. Une seconde partie rend compte de l'application de cette methode a l'oxyde de plutonium. L'alliage Pu-Al obtenu (60 pour cent Pu) est ensuite recycle par voie aqueuse. (auteur)

  15. Plutonium bearing oxide fuels for recycling in thermal reactors and fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    Programs carried out in the past two decades have established the technical feasibility of using plutonium as a fuel material in both water-cooled power reactors and sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors. The problem facing the technical community is basically one of demonstrating plutonium fuel recycle under strict conditions of public safety, accountability, personnel exposure, waste management, transportation and diversion or theft which are still evolving. In this paper only technical and economic aspects of high volume production and the demonstration program required are discussed. This paper discusses the role of mixed oxide fuels in light water reactors and the objectives of the LMFBR required for continual growth of nuclear power during the next century. The results of studies showing the impact of using plutonium on uranium requirements, power costs, and the market share of nuclear power are presented. The influence of doubling time and the introduction date of LMFBRs on the benefits to be derived by its commercial use are discussed. Advanced fuel development programs scoped to meet future commerical LMFBR fuel requirements are described. Programs designed to provide the basic technology required for using plutonium fuels in a manner which will satisfy all requirements for public acceptance are described. Included are the high exposure plutonium fabrication development program centered around the High Performance Fuels Laboratory being built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory and the program to confirm the technology required for the production of mixed oxide fuels for light water reactors which is being coordinated by Savannah River Laboratories

  16. Study of a plutonium oxide fuel inhalation case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, P.P.

    1991-01-01

    Lung retention, urine excretion and faecal excretion levels of plutonium fuel have been measured for an employee following a known inhalation. The employee has had no subsequent contact with the fuel material. The retention and excretion patterns are, however, complicated by a long previous history of suspected small exposures. The monitoring data are presented together with an interpretation of the data which can be compared directly with single intake retention and excretion function as given in ICRP 54. (author)

  17. Influence of cow urine in the bioavailability of plutonium oxide particles in Palomares soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, A.; Aragon, A.; De La Cruz, B.; Gutierrez, J. [CIEMAT, DIAE, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The nuclear accident that occurred in Palomares in 1966 caused the release of plutonium weapon grade particles into a Mediterranean ecosystem, and consequently, urban and farming areas were contaminated with this material. Several studies focussed on the characterization and behaviour of trans-uranides have been carried out in the area. In this work, the solubility evolution of plutonium is analysed for a period of more than 30 years, as well as the influence that the incorporation of cow urine into organic fertilizers has on the solubility of the mentioned element. The average value of the plutonium solubility in water determined in five samples was 0.008% in 1986. However, determinations carried out in samples taken in 1999 and 2000 indicated an increase of the plutonium solubility of 22 to 96 times higher. In order to check the influence of organic fertilizers on the solubility of plutonium, a solubility test was carried out using cow urine as extracting solution. The results show that the solubility of plutonium can reach a value equal to 14%, which is similar to the one obtained with sodium pyrophosphate acting as extracting solution. Thus, these results are a clear warning of what might happen if organic fertilizers are used in transuranic-contaminated soils. (author)

  18. Influence of cow urine in the bioavailability of plutonium oxide particles in Palomares soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, A.; Aragon, A.; De La Cruz, B.; Gutierrez, J.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear accident that occurred in Palomares in 1966 caused the release of plutonium weapon grade particles into a Mediterranean ecosystem, and consequently, urban and farming areas were contaminated with this material. Several studies focussed on the characterization and behaviour of trans-uranides have been carried out in the area. In this work, the solubility evolution of plutonium is analysed for a period of more than 30 years, as well as the influence that the incorporation of cow urine into organic fertilizers has on the solubility of the mentioned element. The average value of the plutonium solubility in water determined in five samples was 0.008% in 1986. However, determinations carried out in samples taken in 1999 and 2000 indicated an increase of the plutonium solubility of 22 to 96 times higher. In order to check the influence of organic fertilizers on the solubility of plutonium, a solubility test was carried out using cow urine as extracting solution. The results show that the solubility of plutonium can reach a value equal to 14%, which is similar to the one obtained with sodium pyrophosphate acting as extracting solution. Thus, these results are a clear warning of what might happen if organic fertilizers are used in transuranic-contaminated soils. (author)

  19. Static, Mixed-Array Total Evaporation for Improved Quantitation of Plutonium Minor Isotopes in Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, F. E.; Byerly, Benjamin L.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Spencer, Khalil J.

    2016-06-01

    Actinide isotope measurements are a critical signature capability in the modern nuclear forensics "toolbox", especially when interrogating anthropogenic constituents in real-world scenarios. Unfortunately, established methodologies, such as traditional total evaporation via thermal ionization mass spectrometry, struggle to confidently measure low abundance isotope ratios (evaporation techniques as a straightforward means of improving plutonium minor isotope measurements, which have been resistant to enhancement in recent years because of elevated radiologic concerns. Results are presented for small sample (~20 ng) applications involving a well-known plutonium isotope reference material, CRM-126a, and compared with traditional total evaporation methods.

  20. Determination of plutonium in environmental samples by controlled valence in anion exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Aarkrog, A.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    The title method was successfully used for collecting Pu-239, Pu-249 from 200 litres of seawater by coprecipitation with 16 g FeSO4 . 7H2O under reducing conditions without filtering. The plutonium is leached by concentrated HNO3 + HCI from the coprecipitate and the solid particles. The precipita...... stripped by H20, NaOH, 2N HNO3 and 0.5N HNO3 containing 0.01M NaNO3. The chemical yield of plutonium for a 200 l seawater sample is 60-80%. The resolution of the electroplated thin source is very good....

  1. Assessments of risk following the inhalation of plutonium oxide using observed lung clearance patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsden, D.

    1977-10-01

    Dose commitments and risk estimates for the inhalation of plutonium oxide are calculated using the lung clearance patterns observed at AEE Winfrith. These risks are compared with published data on risks arising from a lung clearance based on the ICRP Lung Model. (author)

  2. Trace analysis of plutonium in environmental samples by resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, N.; Herrmann, G.; Huber, G.; Koehler, S.; Kratz, J.V.; Mansel, A.; Nunnemann, M.; Passler, G.; Trautmann, N.; Waldek, A.

    1997-01-01

    Trace amounts of plutonium in the environment can be detected by resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS). An atomic beam of plutonium is produced after its chemical separation and deposition on a filament. The atoms are ionized by a three-step excitation using pulsed dye-lasers. The ions are mass-selectively detected in a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. With this setup a detection limit of 1·10 6 atoms of plutonium has been achieved. Furthermore, the isotopic composition can be determined. Different samples, including soil from the Chernobyl area, IAEA-certified sediments from the Mururoa Atoll and urine, have been investigated. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Analysis of trace uranium and plutonium in environmental water sample by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuemei

    2004-12-01

    The analysis of trace Uranium and Plutonium in environmental water is very important in the environment inspect. The preparation method of water samples are introduced and several common used method are compared. The analysis process and the calibration method with ICP-MS are discussed in detail considering present conditions. (author)

  4. Fractionation of plutonium in environmental and bio-shielding concrete samples using dynamic sequential extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    Fractionation of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239,240Pu) in environmental samples (i.e. soil and sediment) and bio-shielding concrete from decommissioning of nuclear reactor were carried out by dynamic sequential extraction using an on-line sequential injection (SI) system combined with a specially...

  5. Validation of KENO, ANISN and Hansen-Roach cross-section set on plutonium oxide and metal fuel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tadakuni; Yumoto, Ryozo; Nakano, Koh.

    1980-01-01

    In the previous report, the authors discussed the validity of KENO, ANISN and Hansen-Roach 16 group cross-section set on the critical plutonium nitrate solution systems with various geometries, absorbers and neutron interactions. The purpose of the present report is to examine the validity of the same calculation systems on the homogeneous plutonium oxide and plutonium-uranium mixed oxide fuels with various density values. Eleven experiments adopted for validation are summarized. First six experiments were performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory of Battelle Memorial Institute, and the remaining five at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The characteristics of core fuel are given, and the isotopic composition of plutonium, the relation between H/(Pu + U) atomic ratio and fuel density as compared with the atomic ratios of PuO 2 and mixed oxides in powder storage and pellet fabrication processes, and critical core dimensions and reflector conditions are shown. The effective multiplication factors were calculated with the KENO code. In case of the metal fuels with simple sphere geometry, additional calculations with the ANISN code were performed. The criticality calculation system composed of KENO, ANISN and Hansen-Roach cross-section set was found to be valid for calculating the criticality on plutonium oxide, plutonium-uranium mixed oxide, plutonium metal and uranium metal fuel systems as well as on plutonium solution systems with various geometries, absorbers and neutron interactions. There seems to remain some problems in the method for evaluating experimental correction. Some discussions foloow. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Design of the Laboratory-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edwards, Matthew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Orton, Robert D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smart, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a design for a laboratory-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide (PuO2) for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production, as well as for use as exercise and reference materials. This capability will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including PuO2 dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and re-conversion to PuO2 by calcination.

  7. Comparison of predicted with observed biokinetics of inhaled plutonium nitrate and gadolinium oxide in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, A.; Shutt, A.L.; Etherington, G.; Hodgson, S.A.; Rance, E.; Stradling, G.N.; Youngman, M.J.; Ziesenis, A.; Kreyling, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    The absorption kinetics to blood of plutonium and gadolinium after inhalation as nitrate and oxide in humans and animals has been studied. For each material, values describing the time dependence of absorption were derived from the studies in animals and used with the ICRP human respiratory tract model to predict lung retention and cumulative amounts to blood for the volunteers inhaling the same materials. Comparison with the observed behaviour in the volunteers suggests that absorption of plutonium and gadolinium is reasonably species independent, and that data obtained from animal studies can be used to assess their biokinetic behaviour in humans. (author)

  8. Pu(V) as the stable form of oxidized plutonium in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlandini, K.A.; Penrose, W.R.; Nelson, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    This work presents analytical evidence supporting the proposition that Pu(V) is the sole or predominant form of oxidized plutonium in natural waters. Two independent methods, the selective adsorption of Pu(VI) by silica gel, and the somewhat less selective coprecipitation of Pu(V) with calcium carbonate, were developed to separate Pu(V) from Pu(VI). Measurements of ambient plutonium in several natural waters by these methods found only Pu(V). In laboratory tracer studies, Pu(VI) was shown to be highly unstable in dilute bicarbonate solution and in Lake Michigan water, reducing in first-order fashion to Pu(V). (orig.)

  9. Development of analytical methods for the separation of plutonium, americium, curium and neptunium from environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, S.

    2009-07-01

    In this work, separation methods have been developed for the analysis of anthropogenic transuranium elements plutonium, americium, curium and neptunium from environmental samples contaminated by global nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident. The analytical methods utilized in this study are based on extraction chromatography. Highly varying atmospheric plutonium isotope concentrations and activity ratios were found at both Kurchatov (Kazakhstan), near the former Semipalatinsk test site, and Sodankylae (Finland). The origin of plutonium is almost impossible to identify at Kurchatov, since hundreds of nuclear tests were performed at the Semipalatinsk test site. In Sodankylae, plutonium in the surface air originated from nuclear weapons testing, conducted mostly by USSR and USA before the sampling year 1963. The variation in americium, curium and neptunium concentrations was great as well in peat samples collected in southern and central Finland in 1986 immediately after the Chernobyl accident. The main source of transuranium contamination in peats was from global nuclear test fallout, although there are wide regional differences in the fraction of Chernobyl-originated activity (of the total activity) for americium, curium and neptunium. The separation methods developed in this study yielded good chemical recovery for the elements investigated and adequately pure fractions for radiometric activity determination. The extraction chromatographic methods were faster compared to older methods based on ion exchange chromatography. In addition, extraction chromatography is a more environmentally friendly separation method than ion exchange, because less acidic waste solutions are produced during the analytical procedures. (orig.)

  10. Determination of specific activity of americium and plutonium in selected environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebunova, T.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work was development of method for determination of americium and plutonium in environmental samples. Developed method was evaluated on soil samples and after they was applied on selected samples of fishes (smoked mackerel, herring and fillet from Alaska hake). The method for separation of americium is based on liquid separation with Aliquate-336, precipitation with oxalic acid and using of chromatographic material TRU-Spec TM .The intervals of radiochemical yields were from 13.0% to 80.9% for plutonium-236 and from 10.5% to 100% for americium-241. Determined specific activities of plutonium-239,240 were from (2.3 ± 1.4) mBq/kg to (82 ± 29) mBq/kg, the specific activities of plutonium-238 were from (14.2 ± 3.7) mBq/kg to (708 ± 86) mBq/kg. The specific activities of americium-241 were from (1.4 ± 0.9) mBq/kg to (3360 ± 210) mBq/kg. The fishes from Baltic Sea as well as from North Sea show highest specific activities then fresh-water fishes from Slovakia. Therefore the monitoring of alpha radionuclides in foods imported from territories with nuclear testing is recommended

  11. Plutonium uptake by Scenedesmus obliquus as a function of isotope and oxidation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacik, M.F.; Giesy, J.P.; Wilhite, E.L.; Corey, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Uptake of 238 Pu 4+ , 238 Pu 6+ , 239 Pu 4+ and 239 Pu 6+ by the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus (Turp) Kutz was studied to determine whether isotope or oxidation state differences affect Pu uptake from aqueous medium by algal cells. At equivalent 238 Pu and 239 PU concentrations, even when initial oxidation states differed, accumulations of these isotopes by S.obliquus were not significantly (p>0.05) different. Plutonium accumulation by S.obliquus was log-linear. (author)

  12. Estimation of trace levels of plutonium in urine samples by fission track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, P.D.; Prabhu, S.; Pendharkar, K.A.; Kalsi, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Individual monitoring of radiation workers handling Pu in various nuclear installations requires the detection of trace levels of plutonium in bioassay samples. It is necessary to develop methods that can detect urinary excretion of Pu in fraction of mBq range. Therefore, a sensitive method such as fission track analysis has been developed for the measurement of trace levels of Pu in bioassay samples. In this technique, chemically separated plutonium from the sample and a Pu standard were electrodeposited on planchettes and covered with Lexan solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) and irradiated with thermal neutrons in APSARA reactor of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. The fission track densities in the Lexan films of the sample and the standard were used to calculate the amount of Pu in the sample. The minimum amount of Pu that can be analyzed by this method using doubly distilled electronic grade (E. G.) reagents is about 12 μBq/L. (author)

  13. Comparison of the radiochemical separation procedures od plutonium applied for its determination in the environmental samples using alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komosa, A.; Michalik, S.

    2006-01-01

    Alpha spectrometry of the plutonium isotopes can be performed only after the perfect plutonium separation from other components of the matrix. So, till now numerous procedures have been elaborated and tested. The communication presents comparison of the plutonium content determination in soil, bones, eggshells and in the reference materials obtained by alpha spectrometry combined with two different separation procedures. The samples were mineralized in the concentrated HCl or HF prior to plutonium electrodeposition or coprecipitation with NdF 3 . Some other details were also tested in various variants. Quality of the spectra is discussed in terms of all these pre-treatment methods

  14. Plutonium-241 processing: from impure oxide to high purity metal target disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.; Baaso, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of three plutonium-241 metal target disks, using a precision casting technique, is described. The disks were 0.625 inch in diameter and 0.125, 0.025, and 0.010 inch thick. All three disks were prepared simultaneously in a single casting. The variation in thickness of each disk was within +-1 percent of the disk's average thickness. The plutonium-241 was highly pure, and the finished disks contained a total of only 297 parts per million of detectable impurities. Purification of the plutonium oxide ( 241 PuO 2 ) and the conversion of the purified 241 PuO 2 to metal are also described. (U.S.)

  15. Oxidation-state distribution of plutonium in surface and subsurface waters at Thule, northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMahon, C.A.; Vintró, L.L.; Mitchell, P.I.

    2000-01-01

    (V, VI) (mean, 68 +/- 6%; n = 6), with little if any distinction apparent between surface and bottom waters. Further, the oxidation state distribution at stations close to the accident site is similar to that measured at Upernavik, remote from this site. It is also similar to the distribution observed...... in shelf waters at midlatitudes, suggesting that the underlying processes controlling plutonium speciation are insensitive to temperature over the range 0-25 degrees C. Measurements using tangential-flow ultrafiltration indicate that virtually all of the plutonium (including the fraction in a reduced...... chemical form) is present as fully dissolved species. Most of this plutonium would seem to be of weapons fallout origin, as the mean Pu-238/Pu-239,Pu-240 activity ratio in the water column (dissolved phase) at Thule (0.06 +/- 0.02; n = 10) is similar to the global fallout ratio at this latitude...

  16. Investigation of environmental samples from Fukushima with respect to uranium and plutonium by AMS; Untersuchung von Umweltproben aus Fukushima in Bezug auf Plutonium und Uran mittels AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Stephanie

    2017-02-01

    In March 2011, the nuclear power plant Fukushima Dai-ichi was seriously damaged by a tsunami caused by an earthquake. During the accident large quantities of radionuclides, mainly of the volatile elements cesium and iodine, were released to the environment. In small amounts refractory elements such as plutonium and uranium have also been released. Plutonium and the uraniumisotope {sup 236}U have primarily been delivered by human activities in the environment. Large amounts were released during the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Additional sources are accidents in nuclear facilities, like Chernobyl. Every source has its own characteristic isotopic composition. It is therefore possible to determine the origin of the contamination by measuring the isotopic ratios of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U. These ratios can be determined by using accelerator mass spectrometry. Due to its high sensitivity, it is possible to measure even small amounts of plutonium and especially of {sup 236}U. These measurements were performed using the compact 500 kV facility ''TANDY'' of ETH Zurich. In 2013 and 2015 vegetation, litter and soil drill core samples were taken in the contaminated area in Fukushima prefecture. In 2015 samples were taken as close to the sampling locations of the 2013 campaign as possible. After isolation of plutonium and uranium by chemical extraction, separate targets were prepared for the measurement. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios indicate global fallout as the plutonium source for most samples. The plutonium of the reactors of Fukushima Dai-ichi is located in the upper layers like in vegetation or litter. From the uranium ratios alone the reactors could not unambigously be identified as the source of {sup 236}U. However, this is plausible in the cases were reactor plutonium was detected. None of the samples contained higher plutonium activity concentrations than in the rest of Japan, caused by global fallout. This

  17. Thorium utilization as a Pu-burner: proposal of Plutonium-Thorium Mixed Oxide (PT-MOX) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Otohiko

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a Pu-Th mixed oxide (PT-MOX) project is proposed for a thorium utilization and a plutonium burning. None of plutonium can be newly produced from PT-MOX fuel, and the plutonium mass of about 1 ton can be consumed with one reactor (total heavy metal assumed: 100 tons) for 1 year. In order to consume plutonium produced from usual Light Water Reactor, it should be better to operate one PT-MOX reactor for three to five Light Water Reactors. (author)

  18. Plutonium uptake by the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus (Turp) Kutz, as a function of isotope and oxidation state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkacik, M.F.

    1977-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of plutonium chemical valence state on the availability of small concentrations of /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/Pu to algae. The uptake experiments involved the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, grown in batch cultures. Plutonium concentrations accumulated by this alga were linearly related to plutonium concentrations. There was no significant difference (rho = 0.05) in algal plutonium accumulations, on a mass basis, of either /sup 238/Pu or /sup 239/Pu in either Pu/sup +4/ or Pu/sup +6/ oxidation state at the concentrations studied.

  19. The inhalation of insoluble iron oxide particles in the sub-micron ranges. Part II - Plutonium-237 labelled aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.; Ramsden, D.

    1971-10-01

    The results of a series of inhalation studies using iron oxide particles in the size range 0.1 to 0.3 um (count median diameter) are described. In this series the aerosols were labelled with plutonium 237. In vivo detection, excretion analysis and crude location studies were obtainable and the results compared to the earlier studies using chromium 51 labelled aerosols. Plutonium 237 can be considered as a simulator for plutonium 239 and attempts are made to extrapolate the results to the problem of the estimation of plutonium 239 in the human lung. (author)

  20. Plutonium uptake by the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus (Turp) Kutz, as a function of isotope and oxidation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacik, M.F.

    1977-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of plutonium chemical valence state on the availability of small concentrations of 238 Pu and 239 Pu to algae. The uptake experiments involved the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, grown in batch cultures. Plutonium concentrations accumulated by this alga were linearly related to plutonium concentrations. There was no significant difference (rho = 0.05) in algal plutonium accumulations, on a mass basis, of either 238 Pu or 239 Pu in either Pu +4 or Pu +6 oxidation state at the concentrations studied

  1. Survey of Worldwide Light Water Reactor Experience with Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, B.S.; Fisher, S.E.

    1999-02-01

    The US and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have recently declared quantities of weapons materials, including weapons-grade (WG) plutonium, excess to strategic requirements. One of the leading candidates for the disposition of excess WG plutonium is irradiation in light water reactors (LWRs) as mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel. A description of the MOX fuel fabrication techniques in worldwide use is presented. A comprehensive examination of the domestic MOX experience in US reactors obtained during the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s is also presented. This experience is described by manufacturer and is also categorized by the reactor facility that irradiated the MOX fuel. A limited summary of the international experience with MOX fuels is also presented. A review of MOX fuel and its performance is conducted in view of the special considerations associated with the disposition of WG plutonium. Based on the available information, it appears that adoption of foreign commercial MOX technology from one of the successful MOX fuel vendors will minimize the technical risks to the overall mission. The conclusion is made that the existing MOX fuel experience base suggests that disposition of excess weapons plutonium through irradiation in LWRs is a technically attractive option.

  2. Survey of Worldwide Light Water Reactor Experience with Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, B.S.; Fisher, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    The US and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have recently declared quantities of weapons materials, including weapons-grade (WG) plutonium, excess to strategic requirements. One of the leading candidates for the disposition of excess WG plutonium is irradiation in light water reactors (LWRs) as mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel. A description of the MOX fuel fabrication techniques in worldwide use is presented. A comprehensive examination of the domestic MOX experience in US reactors obtained during the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s is also presented. This experience is described by manufacturer and is also categorized by the reactor facility that irradiated the MOX fuel. A limited summary of the international experience with MOX fuels is also presented. A review of MOX fuel and its performance is conducted in view of the special considerations associated with the disposition of WG plutonium. Based on the available information, it appears that adoption of foreign commercial MOX technology from one of the successful MOX fuel vendors will minimize the technical risks to the overall mission. The conclusion is made that the existing MOX fuel experience base suggests that disposition of excess weapons plutonium through irradiation in LWRs is a technically attractive option

  3. Determination of plutonium in environmental samples by controlled valence in anion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qingjiang, Yu Yixuan; Nies, H.; Aarkorg, A.; Nielsen, S.P.; Dahlgaard, H.; Mandrup, K.

    1993-01-01

    The title method was successfully used for collecting 239,240 Pu from 200 litres of seawater by coprecipitation with 16 g FeSO 4 *7H 2 O under reducing conditions without filtering. The plutonium is leached by concentrated HNO 3 +HCl from the coprecipitate and solid particles. The precipitate is heated at 400 deg C and digested in aqua regia. Na 2 SO 3 and NaNO 2 have been applied to obtain Pu 4+ valence state in 0.5-1N HNO 3 for different samples. Plutonium and thorium are coadsorbed on anionic resin from 8N HNO 3 . The column is eluted with 8N HNO 3 containing fresh NaO 2 to keep the Pu 4 '+ state for uranium decontamination. The system of the column is changed from 8N HNO 3 to concentrated HCl with 50 ml concentrated HCl containing a few milligrams of NaNO 2 . Further decontamination of thorium was achieved by elution with concentrated HCl instead of 9N HCl. The plutonium is successfully stripped by H 2 O, NaOH, 2N HNO 3 and 0.5 N HNO 3 containing 0.01M NaNO 3 . The chemical yield of plutonium for a 200 l seawater sample is 60-80%. The resolution of the electroplated thin source is very good. (author) 2 refs.; 1 fig.; 6 tabs

  4. Solubilization of plutonium hydrous oxide by iron-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, P.A.; Quintana, L.; Brainard, J.R.; Strietelmeler, B.A.; Tait, C.D.; Ekberg, S.A.; Palmer, P.D.; Newton, T.W.; Clark, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    The removal of plutonium from soils id challenging because of its strong sorption to soils and limited solubility, Microbial reduction of metals is known to affect the speciation and solubility of sparingly soluble metals in the environment, notably iron and manganese. The similarity in reduction potential for α-FeOOH(s) and hydrous PuO 2 (s) suggests that iron-reducing bacteria may also reduce and solubilize plutonium. Bacillus strains were used to demonstrate that iron-reducing bacteria mediate the solubilization of hydrous PuO 2 (s) under anaerobic conditions. Up to ∼90% of the PuO 2 was biosolubilized in the presence of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) within 6-7 days. Biosolubilization occurred to a lesser extent (∼ 40%) in the absence of NTA. Little PuO 2 solubilization occurred in sterile culture media or in the presence of a non-iron-reducing Escherichia coli. These observations suggest a potentially attractive, environmentally benign strategy for the remediation of Pu-contaminated soils. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Plutonium separation by reduction stripping. Application to processing of mixed oxide (U,Pu)O2 fuel fabrication wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnal, Thierry; Cousinou, Gerard; Ganivet, Michel.

    1978-11-01

    A procedure is described for separating plutonium from a uranium VI and plutonium IV mixture contained in an organic phase (tributyl phosphate diluted in dodecane). This separation is obtained by extracting the plutonium III using two organic reducers: hydrazine and paraminophenol. Paraminophenol has excellent reducing qualities, similar to those of ferrous sulphamate, but has the added advantage of not contaminating extracted plutonium. This procedure is currently used in processing production wastes from mixed oxide (U,Pu)O 2 fuels; the installation using this procedure is described in detail in this paper. Operating results show the remarkable efficiency of this procedure: the separated plutonium and uranium mass flows have been increased to 185 and 350 g.h -1 respectively; the uranium contains less than 0.1 ppm of plutonium on completion of the purification cycle [fr

  6. Procedure for plutonium analysis of large (100g) soil and sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.W.T.; Schweiger, J.S.; Mendoza, B.; Stone, R.

    1975-01-01

    A method for the complete dissolution of large soil or sediment samples is described. This method is in routine usage at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the analysis of fall-out levels of Pu in soils and sediments. Intercomparison with partial dissolution (leach) techniques shows the complete dissolution method to be superior for the determination of plutonium in a wide variety of environmental samples. (author)

  7. Late-occurring pulmonary pathologies following inhalation of mixed oxide (uranium + plutonium oxide) aerosol in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, N M; Van der Meeren, A; Fritsch, P; Abram, M-C; Bernaudin, J-F; Poncy, J L

    2010-09-01

    Accidental exposure by inhalation to alpha-emitting particles from mixed oxide (MOX: uranium and plutonium oxide) fuels is a potential long-term health risk to workers in nuclear fuel fabrication plants. For MOX fuels, the risk of lung cancer development may be different from that assigned to individual components (plutonium, uranium) given different physico-chemical characteristics. The objective of this study was to investigate late effects in rat lungs following inhalation of MOX aerosols of similar particle size containing 2.5 or 7.1% plutonium. Conscious rats were exposed to MOX aerosols and kept for their entire lifespan. Different initial lung burdens (ILBs) were obtained using different amounts of MOX. Lung total alpha activity was determined by external counting and at autopsy for total lung dose calculation. Fixed lung tissue was used for anatomopathological, autoradiographical, and immunohistochemical analyses. Inhalation of MOX at ILBs ranging from 1-20 kBq resulted in lung pathologies (90% of rats) including fibrosis (70%) and malignant lung tumors (45%). High ILBs (4-20 kBq) resulted in reduced survival time (N = 102; p inhalation result in similar risk for development of lung tumors as compared with industrial plutonium oxide.

  8. Modified titrimetric determination of plutonium using photometric end-point detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baughman, W.J.; Dahlby, J.W.

    1980-04-01

    A method used at LASL for the accurate and precise assay of plutonium metal was modified for the measurement of plutonium in plutonium oxides, nitrate solutions, and in other samples containing large quantities of plutonium in oxidized states higher than +3. In this modified method, the plutonium oxide or other sample is dissolved using the sealed-reflux dissolution method or other appropriate methods. Weighed aliquots, containing approximately 100 mg of plutonium, of the dissolved sample or plutonium nitrate solution are fumed to dryness with an HC1O 4 -H 2 SO 4 mixture. The dried residue is dissolved in dilute H 2 SO 4 , and the plutonium is reduced to plutonium (III) with zinc metal. The excess zinc metal is dissolved with HCl, and the solution is passed through a lead reductor column to ensure complete reduction of the plutonium to plutonium (III). The solution, with added ferroin indicator, is then titrated immediately with standardized ceric solution to a photometric end point. For the analysis of plutonium metal solutions, plutonium oxides, and nitrate solutions, the relative standard deviation are 0.06, 0.08, and 0.14%, respectively. Of the elements most likely to be found with the plutonium, only iron, neptunium, and uranium interfere. Small amounts of uranium and iron, which titrate quantitatively in the method, are determined by separate analytical methods, and suitable corrections are applied to the plutonium value. 4 tables, 4 figures

  9. Plutonium disproportionation. Hydrolysis and local oxidation-state maxima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2014-01-01

    Local maxima in the fractions of the trivalent and hexavalent oxidation states are inherent in the algebra of Pu disproportionation reactions. A new method predicts the pH and the oxidation-state fractions at maximum. Tabulated results illustrate the effects of the Pu oxidation number and Pu(IV) hydrolysis on the maxima. This method suggests a new laboratory approach for discovering Pu oxidation-state maxima. (author)

  10. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.; Case, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Beagle dogs given single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs dying due to pulmonary fibrosis-induced insufficiency during the first 3 years after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Three additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 4-1/2 years after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first two postexposure years. After inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect, occuring 0.5 to 2 years after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  11. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.; Case, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Five additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 5 yr after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 3 postexposure yr. Lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  12. CONVERSION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE TO PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, S.; Davidson, N.R.

    1957-09-10

    A large proportion of the trifluoride of plutonium can be converted, in the absence of hydrogen fluoride, to the tetrafiuoride of plutonium. This is done by heating plutonium trifluoride with oxygen at temperatures between 250 and 900 deg C. The trifiuoride of plutonium reacts with oxygen to form plutonium tetrafluoride and plutonium oxide, in a ratio of about 3 to 1. In the presence of moisture, plutonium tetrafluoride tends to hydrolyze at elevated temperatures and therefore it is desirable to have the process take place under anhydrous conditions.

  13. Plutonium metal burning facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausburg, D.E.; Leebl, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    A glove-box facility was designed to convert plutonium skull metal or unburned oxide to an oxide acceptable for plutonium recovery and purification. A discussion of the operation, safety aspects, and electrical schematics are included

  14. Plutonium measurements in Hanford DOE site waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewberry, R.A.; Boyce, W.T.

    1999-01-01

    Development work to prepare a method to measure absolute 239 Pu content and Pu-isotopics by ICP-MS in acidified Hanford DOE-site samples which are very high in 90 Sr, 99 Tc, and 137 Cs radioactivity and which are frequently high in organic carbon content is described. Samples with very large 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents have historically been difficult to analyze for Pu content by each of three alpha-counting techniques in use at SRS, and analysis by ICP-MS in these samples is complicated by the high organics content. An ion exchange chemical preparation is reported to obtain fraction of Pu that does not contain any fission product contribution and no interfering organics to allow measure of absolute 239 Pu and of 239 Pu through 241 Pu isotopics by ICP-MS. The method uses a 242 Pu spike to measure Pu recovery and is demonstrated in this paper with three distinct commercially available resins and with over 300 samples. Measured absolute 239 Pu contents in sixty-three spiked/unspiked duplicates have agreed within 15% precision. Overall 242 Pu recoveries were near 90% with 25% precision. Comparisons of absolute 239 Pu contents measured directly on three samples agreed within the quoted 25% uncertainty. (author)

  15. Status of plutonium recycle from mixed oxide fuel fabrication wastes (U,Pu)O2 facility activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, Calixto A.; Adelfang, Pablo; Greiner, G.; Orlando, Oscar S.; Mathot, Sergio R.

    1999-01-01

    Within the specific subject of mixed oxides corresponding to the Fuel Cycle activities performed at CNEA, the recovery of plutonium from wastes originated during tests and pre-fabrication stages is performed. (author)

  16. A simplified method for preparing micro-samples for the simultaneous isotopic analysis of uranium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.A.; Walker, R.L.; Eby, R.E.; Pritchard, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    In this simplified technique a basic anion resin is employed to selectively adsorb plutonium and uranium from 8M HNO 3 solutions containing dissolved spent reactor fuels. After a few beads of the resin are equilibrated with solution, a single bead is used for establishing the isotopic composition of plutonium and uranium. The resin-bead separation essentially removes all possible isobaric interference from such elements as americium and curium and at the same time eliminates most fission-product contamination in the mass spectrometer. Small aliquots of dissolver solution that contain 10 -6 g U and 10 -8 g Pu are adequate for preparing about ten resin beads. By employing a single focusing tandem magnet-type mass spectrometer, equipped with pulse counting for ion detection, simultaneous plutonium and uranium assays are obtained. The quantity of each element per bead may be as low as 10 -9 to 10 -10 g. The carburized bead, which forms as the filament is heated, acts as a reducing point source and emits a predominance of metallic ions as compared with oxide ion emission from direct solution loadings. In addition to isotopic abundance, the technique of isotope dilution can ve coupled with the ion-exchange bead separation and used effectively for measuring the total quantity of U and Pu. The technique possesses many advantages such as reduced radiation hazards from the infinitely smaller samples, thus less shielding and transport cost for sample handling; greatly simplified chemical preparations that eliminate fission products and actinide isobaric interferences; and the minor isotopes are more precisely established. (author)

  17. A simple and rapid method of purification of impure plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, K.M.; Rakshe, P.R.; Dharmpurikar, G.R.; Thite, B.S.; Lokhande, Manisha; Sinalkar, Nitin; Dakshinamoorthy, A.; Munshi, S.K.; Dey, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Impure plutonium oxides are conventionally purified by dissolution in HNO 3 in presence of HF followed by ion exchange separation and oxalate precipitation. The method is tedious and use of HF enhances corrosion of the plant equipment's. A simple and rapid method has been developed for the purification of the oxide by leaching with various reagents like DM water, NaOH and oxalic acid. A combination of DM water followed by hot leaching with 0.4 M oxalic acid could bring down the impurity levels in the oxide to the desired level required for fuel fabrication. (author)

  18. Extraction of Plutonium From Spiked INEEL Soil Samples Using the Ligand-Assisted Supercritical Fluid Extraction (LA-SFE) Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.; Holmes, R.G.G.

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction for the removal of transuranic contaminations from soils an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) silty-clay soil sample was obtained from near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex area and subjected to three different chemical preparations before being spiked with plutonium. The spiked INEEL soil samples were subjected to a sequential aqueous extraction procedure to determine radionuclide portioning in each sample. Results from those extractions demonstrate that plutonium consistently partitioned into the residual fraction across all three INEEL soil preparations whereas americium partitioned 73% into the iron/manganese fraction for soil preparation A, with the balance partitioning into the residual fraction. Plutonium and americium were extracted from the INEEL soil samples using a ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction efficiencies ranging from 14% to 19%. After a second round wherein the initial extraction parameters were changed, the plutonium extraction efficiencies increased to 60% and as high as 80% with the americium level in the post-extracted soil samples dropping near to the detection limits. The third round of experiments are currently underway. These results demonstrate that the ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique can effectively extract plutonium from the spiked INEEL soil preparations

  19. The 871 keV gamma ray from 17O and the identification of plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, Anthony; Arthur, Richard; Elovich, Robert; Geelhood, Bruce; Kouzes, Richard; Pratt, Sharon; Scheele, Randy; Sell, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Disarmament agreements and discussions between the United States and the Russian Federation for reducing the number of stockpiled nuclear weapons require verification of the origin of materials as having come from disassembled weapons. This has resulted in the identification of measurable 'attributes' that characterize such materials. It has been proposed that the 871 keV gamma ray of 17 O can be observed as an indicator of the unexpected presence of plutonium oxide, as opposed to plutonium metal, in such materials. We have shown that the observation of the 871 keV gamma ray is not a specific indicator of the presence of the oxide, but rather indicates the presence of nitrogen

  20. Data reduction for neutron scattering from plutonium samples. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment performed in August, 1993, on the Low-Q Diffractometer (LQD) at the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (MLNSC) was designed to study the formation and annealing of He bubbles in aged 239 Pu metal. Significant complications arise in the reduction of the data because of the very high total neutron cross section of 239 Pu, and also because the sample are difficult to make uniform and to characterize. This report gives the details of the data and the data reduction procedures, presents the resulting scattering patterns in terms of macroscopic cross section as a function of momentum transfer, and suggests improvements for future experiments

  1. Cleaning up the legacy of the cold war: plutonium oxides and the role of synchrotron radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will cover three aspects of Los Alamos synchrotron radiation studies of plutonium oxides: (1) the use of UHV X-ray spectroscopy techniques to gain insights into the electronic structure of the actinide dioxides; (2) the results and interpretation Pu X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectra of 24 samples of PuO 2+x ; and (3) the application of synchrotron radiation towards the decontamination and decommissioning of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS, the former nuclear weapons production site for the US). I will summarize a multidisciplinary effort to characterize the electronic structure and bonding of stoichiometric AnO 2 (U, Pu) using our screened hybrid DFT calculations for comparison with photoemission spectroscopy (PES) to measure the experimental density of states (DOS), and with oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to map the O 2p character in the unoccupied DOS. I will also describe the structural chemistry of laboratory prepared AnO 2+x systems (An = U, Pu; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) using a combination of X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) and X-ray and neutron scattering of laboratory prepared samples. All data are consistent with mixed-valent solids where plutonium exists as a mixture of Pu(IV) and Pu(V) oxidation states, and uranium exists as a mixture of U(IV) and U(VI)

  2. Studies involving direct heating of uranium and plutonium oxides by microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, G K; Malav, R K; Karande, A P; Bhargava, V K; Kamath, H S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur (India). Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility

    1997-08-01

    Nuclear fuel fabrication and recovery of nuclear materials from scraps generated during fabrication involve heating steps like dewaxing, sintering, roasting of scraps, calcination, etc. The dielectric properties of uranium and plutonium oxides place them in the category of materials which are susceptible to absorption of microwaves. The studies were carried out to explore the microwave heating technique for these steps required in nuclear fuel fabrication and scrap recovery laboratories. (author). 1 ref.

  3. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Case, A.C.; Catt, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor; nine additional dogs with body burdens of 0.6 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 6 yr after exposure. Two of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 4 yr postexposure, due to bone and lung tumors, with body burdens at death of 10 μCi. Lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of equal to or greater than 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  4. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Case, A.C.; Catt, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary-fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi; one of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Seventeen additional dogs, with body burdens of 0.2 to 1.8 μCi, died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 8 yr after exposure. Ten of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 5 1/2 yr postexposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; the body burden at death ranged from 1.5 to 10 μCi. Lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of >80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  5. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Busch, R.H.; Case, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that dies of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi; one of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Eleven additional dogs with body burdens of 0.6 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 7 yr after exposure. Four of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 4 1/2 yr postexposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; the body burden at death ranged from 6 to 10 μCi. Lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  6. The controlled-potential coulometric determination of plutonium based upon cerium oxidation and the Pu022+/Pu4+ valency change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.; Crossley, D.; Venkataramana, P.

    1977-09-01

    Conditions have been established enabling plutonium to be oxidised quantitatively to the hexavalent state in the working compartment of a controlled-potential coulometric cell using electrogenerated ceric ion or excess ceric nitrate. The excess ceric ion is reduced in situ electrochemically without reduction of the hexavalent plutonium. The plutonium is then determined controlled-potential coulometrically by reduction to Pu 3+ followed by oxidation to Pu 4+ . The first oxidation step is conducted in molar nitric acid solution containing sulphamic acid but the coulometric determination step is conducted in molar sulphuric acid solution. The results obtained in the coulometric determination step were less satisfactory following oxidation with electrogenerated ceric ion rather than with chemically added ceric nitrate. Using the recommended conditions, 6 mg quantities of plutonium can be determined with an accuracy of 100.06% and a precision of 0.12% (coefficient of variation). The behaviour of chromium, manganese and vanadium impurity is reported. (author)

  7. The analysis study of plutonium in the environmental sample by mass spectrum combined with isotopic dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jun; Fu Zhonghua; Mao Xingen; Meng Fanben

    2004-01-01

    The technology of the rhenium filament carbonization was used to increase the ionization efficiency in this paper. The plutonium in the environmental sample was analyzed by Mass Spectrum combined with isotope dilution. Analysis of the 239 Pu blank in the process: The analysis of 239 Pu from the chemical process was carried out in order to establish the influence of the 239 Pu introduced from the process. The analysis results were shown in Table 1 sample 1 was not gone through the process, sample 2 and sample 3 were gone through the process. It was clear that there was no influence of the 239 Pu from the process within the deviation. Results and Discussions: The environmental samples which were dealed with the chemical method were prepared the sample of mass spectrum, The atomic ratio of the 239 Pu and 242 Pu in the environmental samples was measured by Mass Spectrum. The atomic ratio in the tracer 242 Pu was 0.01476±0.00007.The results for nuclide content in environment were given in Table 2. The content of 239 Pu in the tracer was high, so the existing of 239 Pu in the environmental samples can be determined by the changing of the atomic ratio of 242 Pu to 239 Pu. It was clear that there was 239 Pu in the environmental samples except the cypress leaves-2 and the pine leaves-3 within the deviation, and the content of 239 Pu were given in Table 2. Conclusion: a. Plutonium was separated and purified from the impurity by the anion-exchange and the electrodeposition, it was possible to provide the eligible mass spectrum sample. b. The measurement of plutonium in the environmental samples was not influenced by the flow of the background in the experiment. c. As the technology of the rhenium carbonization was used to increase the ionization efficiency, the content of plutonium which was about 10 -13 g in the environmental sample could be quantitatively analyzed by Mass Spectrum combined with isotope dilution. (authors)

  8. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-07

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process.

  9. Manual for the Portable Handheld Neutron Counter (PHNC) for Neutron Survey and the Measurement of Plutonium Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.

    2005-01-01

    We have designed a portable neutron detector for passive neutron scanning measurement and coincidence counting of bulk samples of plutonium. The counter will be used for neutron survey applications as well as the measurement of plutonium samples for portable applications. The detector uses advanced design 3 He tubes to increase the efficiency and battery operated shift register electronics. This report describes the hardware, performance, and calibration for the system

  10. Optimization of a radiochemistry method for plutonium determination in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerchetti, Maria L.; Arguelles, Maria G.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium has been widely used for civilian an military activities. Nevertheless, the methods to control work exposition have not evolved in the same way, remaining as one of the major challengers for the radiological protection practice. Due to the low acceptable incorporation limit, the usual determination is based on indirect methods in urine samples. Our main objective was to optimize a technique used to monitor internal contamination of workers exposed to Plutonium isotopes. Different parameters were modified and their influence on the three steps of the method was evaluated. Those which gave the highest yield and feasibility were selected. The method involves: 1-) Sample concentration (coprecipitation); 2-) Plutonium purification; and 3-) Source preparation by electrodeposition. On the coprecipitation phase, changes on temperature and concentration of the carrier were evaluated. On the ion-exchange separation, changes on the type of the resin, elution solution for hydroxylamine (concentration and volume), length and column recycle were evaluated. Finally, on the electrodeposition phase, we modified the following: electrolytic solution, pH and time. Measures were made by liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry (PIPS). We obtained the following yields: 88% for coprecipitation (at 60 C degree with 2 ml of CaHPO 4 ), 71% for ion-exchange (resins AG 1x8 Cl - 100-200 mesh, hydroxylamine 0.1N in HCl 0.2N as eluent, column between 4.5 and 8 cm), and 93% for electrodeposition (H 2 SO 4 -NH 4 OH, 100 minutes and pH from 2 to 2.8). The expand uncertainty was 30% (NC 95%), the decision threshold (Lc) was 0.102 Bq/L and the minimum detectable activity was 0.218 Bq/L of urine. We obtained an optimized method to screen workers exposed to Plutonium. (author)

  11. Comparison of sample preparation methods for reliable plutonium and neptunium urinalysis using automatic extraction chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Xu, Yihong; Hou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes improvement and comparison of analytical methods for simultaneous determination of trace-level plutonium and neptunium in urine samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Four sample pre-concentration techniques, including calcium phosphate, iron......), it endows urinalysis methods with better reliability and repeatability compared with co-precipitation techniques. In view of the applicability of different pre-concentration techniques proposed previously in the literature, the main challenge behind relevant method development is pointed to be the release...

  12. Direct oxide reduction (DOR) solvent salt recycle in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Davis, C.C.; McCormick, E.D.

    1987-02-01

    One method used at Los Alamos for producing plutonium metal is to reduce the oxide with calcium metal in molten CaCl 2 at 850 0 C. The solvent CaCl 2 from this reduction step is currently discarded as low-level radioactive waste because it is saturated with the reaction by-product, CaO. We have developed and demonstrated a molten salt technique for rechlorinating the CaO, thereby regenerating the CaCl 2 and incorporating solvent recycle into the batch PuO 2 reduction process. We discuss results from the process development experiments and present our plans for incorporating the technique into an advanced design for semicontinuous plutonium metal production

  13. The underwater coincidence counter for plutonium measurements in mixed-oxide fuel assemblies manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, G.W.; Menlove, H.O.; Abhold, M.; Baker, M.; Pecos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This manual describes the Underwater Coincidence Counter (UWCC) that has been designed for the measurement of plutonium in mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies prior to irradiation. The UWCC uses high-efficiency 3 He neutron detectors to measure the spontaneous-fission and induced-fission rates in the fuel assembly. Measurements can be made on MOX fuel assemblies in air or underwater. The neutron counting rate is analyzed for singles, doubles, and triples time correlations to determine the 240 Pu effective mass per unit length of the fuel assembly. The system can verify the plutonium loading per unit length to a precision of less than 1% in a measurement time of 2 to 3 minutes. System design, components, performance tests, and operational characteristics are described in this manual

  14. Baseline process description for simulating plutonium oxide production for precalc project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) started a multi-year project, the PreCalc Project, to develop a computational simulation of a plutonium oxide (PuO2) production facility with the objective to study the fundamental relationships between morphological and physicochemical properties. This report provides a detailed baseline process description to be used by SRNL personnel and collaborators to facilitate the initial design and construction of the simulation. The PreCalc Project team selected the HB-Line Plutonium Finishing Facility as the basis for a nominal baseline process since the facility is operational and significant model validation data can be obtained. The process boundary as well as process and facility design details necessary for multi-scale, multi-physics models are provided.

  15. Managing plutonium in Britain. Current options[Mixed oxide nuclear fuels; Nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the report of a two day meeting to discuss issues arising from the reprocessing of plutonium and production of mixed oxide nuclear fuels in Britain. It was held at Charney Manor, near Oxford, on June 25 and 26, 1998, and was attended by 35 participants, including government officials, scientists, policy analysts, representatives of interested NGO's, journalists, a Member of Parliament, and visiting representatives from the US and Irish governments. The topic of managing plutonium has been a consistent thread within ORG's work, and was the subject of one of our previous reports, CDR 12. This particular seminar arose out of discussions earlier in the year between Dr. Frank Barnaby and the Rt. Hon. Michael Meacher MP, Minister for the Environment. With important decisions about the management of plutonium in Britain pending, ORG undertook to hold a seminar at which all aspects of the subject could be aired. A number of on-going events formed the background to this initiative. The first was British Nuclear Fuels' [BNFL] application to the Environment Agency to commission a mixed oxide fuel [MOX] plant at Sellafield. The second was BNFL's application to vary radioactive discharge limits at Sellafield. Thirdly, a House of Lords Select Committee was in process of taking evidence, on the disposal of radioactive waste. Fourthly, the Royal Society, in a recent report entitled Management of Separated Plutonium, recommended that 'the Government should commission a comprehensive review... of the options for the management of plutonium'. Four formal presentations were made to the meeting, on the subjects of Britain's plutonium policy, commercial prospects for plutonium use, problems of plutonium accountancy, and the danger of nuclear terrorism, by experts from outside the nuclear industry. It was hoped that the industry's viewpoint would also be heard, and BNFL were invited to present a paper, but declined on the grounds that they

  16. A combinatorial chemistry approach to the investigation of cerium oxide and plutonium oxide reactions with small molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, John T.; Warner, Benjamin P.; Bridgewater, Jon S.; Havrilla, George J.; Morris, David E.; Buscher, C. Thomas

    2000-07-01

    We are currently investigating the potential chemistry of the 3013 Standard waste storage containers. These containers are filled with waste that is a mixture of inorganic salts and plutonium oxide that has been calcined to remove water and other volatiles. There has been concern about possible pressure buildup due to the formation of hydrogen or other gases. We are utilizing a combinatorial chemistry approach to investigate a range of possible reactions that may occur in the containers with various concentrations of metal oxides and inorganic salts.

  17. Analysis of femtogram-sized plutonium samples by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.; Duckworth, D.C.; Bostick, D.T.; Coleman, R.M.; McPherson, R.L.; McKown, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to extend the ability to perform isotopic analysis of plutonium to samples as small as possible. Plutonium ionizes thermally with quite good efficiency (first ionization potential 5.7 eV). Sub-nanogram sized samples can be analyzed on a near-routine basis given the necessary instrumentation. Efforts in this laboratory have been directed at rhenium-carbon systems; solutions of carbon in rhenium provide surfaces with work functions higher than pure rhenium (5.8 vs. ∼ 5.4 eV). Using a single resin bead as a sample loading medium both concentrates the sample nearly to a point and, due to its interaction with rhenium, produces the desired composite surface. Earlier work in this area showed that a layer of rhenium powder slurried in solution containing carbon substantially enhanced precision of isotopic measurements for uranium. Isotopic fractionation was virtually eliminated, and ionization efficiencies 2-5 times better than previously measured were attained for both Pu and U (1.7 and 0.5%, respectively). The other side of this coin should be the ability to analyze smaller samples, which is the subject of this report

  18. Furnace System Testing to Support Lower-Temperature Stabilization of High Chloride Plutonium Oxide Items at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Elmore, Monte R.

    2003-01-01

    High chloride content plutonium (HCP) oxides are impure plutonium oxide scrap which contains NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and/or CaCl2 salts at potentially high concentrations and must be stabilized at 950 C per the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000. The chlorides pose challenges to stabilization because volatile chloride salts and decomposition products can corrode furnace heating elements and downstream ventilation components. Thermal stabilization of HCP items at 750 C (without water washing) is being investigated as an alternative method for meeting the intent of DOE STD 3013-2000. This report presents the results from a series of furnace tests conducted to develop material balance and system operability data for supporting the evaluation of lower-temperature thermal stabilization

  19. Analysis of pressurization of plutonium oxide storage vials during a postulated fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Kesterson, M.; Hensel, S.

    2015-02-10

    The documented safety analysis for the Savannah River Site evaluates the consequences of a postulated 1000 °C fire in a glovebox. The radiological dose consequences for a pressurized release of plutonium oxide powder during such a fire depend on the maximum pressure that is attained inside the oxide storage vial. To enable evaluation of the dose consequences, pressure transients and venting flow rates have been calculated for exposure of the storage vial to the fire. A standard B vial with a capacity of approximately 8 cc was selected for analysis. The analysis compares the pressurization rate from heating and evaporation of moisture adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide contents of the vial with the pressure loss due to venting of gas through the threaded connection between the vial cap and body. Tabulated results from the analysis include maximum pressures, maximum venting velocities, and cumulative vial volumes vented during the first 10 minutes of the fire transient. Results are obtained for various amounts of oxide in the vial, various amounts of adsorbed moisture, different vial orientations, and different surface fire exposures.

  20. Plutonium solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdomnech, I.; Bruno, J.

    1991-02-01

    Thermochemical data has been selected for plutonium oxide, hydroxide, carbonate and phosphate equilibria. Equilibrium constants have been evaluated in the temperature range 0 to 300 degrees C at a pressure of 1 bar to T≤100 degrees C and at the steam saturated pressure at higher temperatures. Measured solubilities of plutonium that are reported in the literature for laboratory experiments have been collected. Solubility data on oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and phosphates have been selected. No solubility data were found at temperatures higher than 60 degrees C. The literature solubility data have been compared with plutonium solubilities calculated with the EQ3/6 geochemical modelling programs, using the selected thermodynamic data for plutonium. (authors)

  1. A Mixed-Oxide Assembly Design for Rapid Disposition of Weapons Plutonium in Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Adams, Marvin L.

    2002-01-01

    We have created a new mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel assembly design for standard pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Design goals were to maximize the plutonium throughput while introducing the lowest perturbation possible to the control and safety systems of the reactor. Our assembly design, which we call MIX-33, offers some advantages for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium; it increases the disposition rate by 8% while increasing the worth of control material, compared to a previous Westinghouse design. The MIX-33 design is based upon two ideas: the use of both uranium and plutonium fuel pins in the same assembly, and the addition of water holes in the assembly. The main result of this paper is that both of these ideas are effective at increasing Pu throughput and increasing the worth of control material. With this new design, according to our analyses, we can transition smoothly from a full low-enriched-uranium (LEU) core to a full MIX-33 core while meeting the operational and safety requirements of a standard PWR. Given an interruption of the MOX supply, we can transition smoothly back to full LEU while meeting safety margins and using standard LEU assemblies with uniform pinwise enrichment distribution. If the MOX supply is interrupted for only one cycle, the transition back to a full MIX-33 core is not as smooth; high peaking could cause power to be derated by a few percent for a few weeks at the beginning of one transition cycle

  2. White paper on possible inclusion of mixed plutonium-uranium oxides in DOE-STD-3013-96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, J.M.; Venetz, T.; Szempruch, R.; McClard, J.W.

    1997-11-01

    This report assesses stabilization issues concerning mixed plutonium-uranium oxides containing 50 mass % Pu. Possible consequences of uranium substitution on thermal stabilization, specific surface areas, moisture readsorption behavior, loss-on-ignition analysis, and criticality safety of the oxide are examined and discussed

  3. Redox Bias in Loss on Ignition Moisture Measurement for Relatively Pure Plutonium-Bearing Oxide Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, P. G.; Stakebake, J. L.; Cooper, T. D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD- 3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from high-grade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidation/reduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation show s that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LOI stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Significant bias also requires that UO2 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U3O8 during LOI testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on well-established literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LOI weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confirm these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LOI oxidation/reduction biases. LOI bias evaluation is more

  4. The MacDonald and savage titrimetric procedure for plutonium scaled-down to the milligram level: Automated procedure for routine analysis of safeguards samples containing 2 to 5 mg plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronesch, K.; Jammet, G.; Berger, J.; Doubek, N.; Bagliano, G.; Deron, S.

    1992-08-01

    A selective titrimetric procedure directly applicable to both input and product solutions from fast reactor fuel reprocessing was set up by MacDonald and Savage and scaled down to 3 mg of plutonium in sample aliquots at the request of the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which needed to replace its silver (II) oxide titration procedure by a more selective electrochemical method. Although the procedure is very selective the following species still interfere: Vanadates (almost quantitatively), Neptunium (one electron exchange per mole); Nitrites, Fluorosilicates and Iodates present in mg amount yield slight biases. This paper describes the fully automatized procedure presently applied in SAL for the routine determination of 2 to 5 mg plutonium dissolved in nitric acid solution. The method allows the unattended analysis of 20 aliquots within a five hour period. The equipment including the reagent distribution system, the sample changer and the control units are introduced and the principle design of the software is shortly described. Safety requirements have been addressed and are also reviewed in the report. Results obtained on standard reference materials, international intercomparison samples and actual safeguards samples routinely analyzed with the proposed procedure are presented and compared with results achieved with the semiautomatic mode to demonstrate the performance. International requirements to reduce the amount of radioactive materials in waste will certainly lead to a further reduction of the amount of plutonium in one aliquot. Some future perspective to titrate 1 mg samples are presented in the discussion. 12 refs, 10 figs, 8 tabs

  5. Direct plutonium oxide reduction/electrorefining interface program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, C.E.; Berry, J.W.; Giebel, R.E.; Long, J.L.; Moser, W.S.; Navratil, J.D.; Tibbitts, S.F.

    1986-01-01

    Research test work and production data evaluation were performed by the Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR)/Electrorefining (ER) Interface Task Team to determine the cause for poor efficiency and yields during ER of DOR metal product. Production data and preliminary test results provided a working hypothesis. Extremely high loadings of impurities (whatever their exact source and identity) in the DOR product metal may lead to failure of the metal to become a molten anode at ER operating temperatures. Moderate impurity levels permit attainment of a molten anode, but lead to low yields because of premature anode solidification. The test results did not conclusively prove the hypothesis or identify specific mechanisms, but were qualitatively supportive. By stirring the molten anode metal pool, as well as the molten salt phase, generally good ER runs were obtained with both DOR and non-DOR feeds. These limited preliminary results suggest that anode stirring decreases the sensitivity of the ER process to DOR-related impurities. Suggested corrective measures included: (1) minimizing impurities in DOR feed to ER and (2) continued evaluation of anode stirring along with run termination by back-EMF measurements. 1 ref., 3 figs., 13 tabs

  6. Calculation of oxygen distribution in uranium-plutonium oxide fuels during irradiation (programme CODIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.; Sari, C.

    1978-01-01

    Radial gradients of oxygen to metal ratio, O/M, in uranium-plutonium oxide fuel pins, during irradiation and at the end of life, have been calculated on the basis of solid-state thermal diffusion using measured values of the heat of transport. A detailed computer model which includes the calculation of temperature profiles and the variation of the average O/M ratio as a function of burn-up is given. Calculations show that oxygen profiles are affected by the isotopic composition of the fuel, by the temperature profiles and by fuel-cladding interactions

  7. Disposition of Uranium -233 (sup 233U) in Plutonium Metal and Oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiboth, Cameron J.; Gibbs, Frank E.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the position that the concentration of Uranium-233 ( 233 U) in plutonium metal and oxide currently stored at the DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is well below the maximum permissible stabilization, packaging, shipping and storage limits. The 233 U stabilization, packaging and storage limit is 0.5 weight percent (wt%), which is also the shipping limit maximum. These two plutonium products (metal and oxide) are scheduled for processing through the Building 371 Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (PuSPS). This justification is supported by written technical reports, personnel interviews, and nuclear material inventories, as compiled in the ''History of Uranium-233 ( 233 U) Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant In Support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program'' RS-090-056, April 1, 1999. Relevant data from this report is summarized for application to the PuSPS metal and oxide processing campaigns

  8. Analytical determination of plutonium in the presence of complexing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebel', D.

    1975-01-01

    The complexing of Pu(4) and Pu(6) with citrate and lactate were studied to establish possibilities which are provided by the complexing for analytical determination of plutonium in a solution. Plutonium in the sample analyzed is preliminarily reduced up to trivalent state. Then trivalent plutonium is oxidized up to tetravalent on the platinum electrode at +1.05 V. To avoid further oxidation complexing agents are added. The value of pH=2-4 is maintained to stabilize the oxidation degree. If hexavalent plutonium should be obtained, the oxidation is performed at the voltage of +1.5 V in the absence of complexing agents. Based on a detailed study of absorption spectra of plutonium complexes of various oxidation degrees it is stated that the most suitable for analytical purposes is the oxidation degree of Pu=4

  9. Recombination rates of hydrogen and oxygen over pure and impure plutonium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, L.

    1999-01-01

    Long-term, safe storage of excess plutonium-bearing materials is required until stabilization and disposal methods are implemented or defined. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established a plan to address the stabilization, packing, and storage of plutonium-bearing materials from around the complex. The DOE's standard method, DOE-STD-3013-96 and its proposed revision, for stabilizing pure and impure actinide materials is by calcination in air followed by sealing the material in welded stainless steel containers. The 3013 standard contains and equation that predicts the total pressure buildup in the can over the anticipated storage time of 50 yr. This equation was meant to model a worst-case scenario to ensure that pressures would not exceed the strength of the container at the end of 50 yr. As a result, concerns about pressure generation in the storage cans, both absolute values and rates, have been raised with regard to rupture and dispersal of nuclear materials. Similar issues have been raised about the transportation of these materials around the complex. The purpose of this work is to provide a stronger technical basis for the 3013 standard by measuring the recombination rates of hydrogen/oxygen mixtures in contact with pure and impure plutonium oxides. The goal of these experiments was to determine whether the rate of recombination is faster than the rate of water radiolysis under controlled conditions. This was accomplished by using a calibrated pressure-volume-temperature apparatus to measure the recombination rates in a fixed volume as the gas mixture was brought into contact with oxide powders whose temperatures ranged from 50 to 300 C. These conditions were selected in order to bracket the temperature conditions expected in a typical storage can. In addition, a 2% H 2 /air mixture encompasses scenarios in which the cans are sealed in air, and over time various amounts of hydrogen are formed

  10. Field characterization of plutonium aerosols in mixed-oxide fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Teague, S.V.; Yeh, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel pellets of PuO 2 and UO 2 are fabricated within safety enclosures at Babcock and Wilcox's Parker Township Site near Apolla, Pa. Nineteen sample runs were taken from within glove boxes of aerosols formed during powder comminution and blending. Eight sampling runs were also taken of a centerless grinding operation during routine industrial operations. A small seven-stage cascade impactor and the Lovelace Aerosol Particle Separator (LAPS) were used to determine aerodynamic size distribution and gross alpha aerosol concentrations. The potential toxicity of inhaled plutonium originating in the nuclear fuel cycle following accidental releases of these aerosols and possible inhalation by industrial workers is considered

  11. Standard practice for preparation and dissolution of plutonium materials for analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice is a compilation of dissolution techniques for plutonium materials that are applicable to the test methods used for characterizing these materials. Dissolution treatments for the major plutonium materials assayed for plutonium or analyzed for other components are listed. Aliquants of the dissolved samples are dispensed on a weight basis when one of the analyses must be highly reliable, such as plutonium assay; otherwise they are dispensed on a volume basis. 1.2 The treatments, in order of presentation, are as follows: Procedure Title Section Dissolution of Plutonium Metal with Hydrochloric Acid 9.1 Dissolution of Plutonium Metal with Sulfuric Acid 9.2 Dissolution of Plutonium Oxide and Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxide by the Sealed-Reflux Technique 9.3 Dissolution of Plutonium Oxide and Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxides by Sodium Bisulfate Fusion 9.4 Dissolution of Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxides and Low-Fired Plutonium Oxide in Beakers 9.5 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be re...

  12. Experimental performance evaluation of two stack sampling systems in a plutonium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    The evaluation of two routine stack sampling systems at the Z-Plant plutonium facility operated by Rockwell International for USERDA is part of a larger study, sponsored by Rockwell and conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, of gaseous effluent sampling systems. The gaseous effluent sampling systems evaluated are located at the main plant ventilation stack (291-Z-1) and at a vessel vent stack (296-Z-3). A preliminary report, which was a paper study issued in April 1976, identified many deficiencies in the existing sampling systems and made recommendations for corrective action. The objectives of this experimental evaluation of those sampling systems were as follows: Characterize the radioactive aerosols in the stack effluents; Develop a tracer aerosol technique for validating particulate effluent sampling system performance; Evaluate the performance of the existing routine sampling systems and their compliance with the sponsor's criteria; and Recommend corrective action where required. The tracer aerosol approach to sampler evaluation was chosen because the low concentrations of radioactive particulates in the effluents would otherwise require much longer sampling times and thus more time to complete this evaluation. The following report describes the sampling systems that are the subject of this study and then details the experiments performed. The results are then presented and discussed. Much of the raw and finished data are included in the appendices

  13. Improved sample preparation method for environmental plutonium analysis by ICP-SFMS and alpha-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, Z.; Stefanka, Z.; Suranyi, G.; Vajda, N.

    2007-01-01

    A rapid and simple sample preparation method for plutonium determination in environmental samples by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and alpha-spectrometry is described. The developed procedure involves a selective CaF 2 co-precipitation for preconcentration followed by extraction chromatographic separation. The proposed method effectively eliminates the possible interferences in mass spectrometric analysis and also removes interfering radionuclides that may disturb alpha-spectrometric measurement. For 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Pu limits of detection of 9.0 fg x g -1 (0.021 mBq), 1.7 fg x g -1 (0.014 mBq) and 3.1 fg x g -1 (11.9 mBq) were achieved by ICP-SFMS, respectively, and 0.02 mBq by alpha-spectrometry. Results of certified reference materials agreed well with the recommended values. (author)

  14. Tables of thermodynamic functions for gaseous thorium, uranium, and plutonium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.

    1980-03-01

    Measured and estimated spectroscopic data for thorium, uranium, and plutonium oxide vapor species have been used with the methods of statistical mechanics to calculate thermodynamic functions. Some inconsistencies between spectroscopic data and some thermodynamic data have been resolved by recalculating ΔH 0 /sub f/ (298.15 0 K) values for the vapor species of these oxides. Evaluation of the uncertainties in data, methods of estimating molecular parameters, and effects of assumptions have been discussed elsewhere. The tables of thermodynamic functions that were reported earlier have been revised principally because the low-frequency vibrational modes of UO 2 and UO 3 have now been measured. These new empirical data resulted in changes in the electronic contributions to the calculated thermodynamic functions of UO 2 and the estimated vibrational contributions for PuO 2 . In addition, some minor changes have been made in the methods of calculation of the electronic contributions for all molecules

  15. Experimental study of contamination by a mixture resulting from the combustion of sodium in the presence of plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Nenot, J.C.; Nolibe, D.; Lafuma, J.

    1976-01-01

    The introduction into industry of breeder reactors using liquid sodium as the coolant gives rise to fresh radiotoxicological problems; the most likely chemical form in which the plutonium and sodium mixture may be found after a possible accident is a soluble oxide of plutonium(VI) or plutonium(VII). The biological behaviour of such mixtures was analysed in rats and monkeys following parenteral administration. In the case of rats distribution in the organs was analysed from 30 minutes to 30 days following intramuscular contamination. In the monkeys the authors only analysed distribution in the organs after one month. The biological behaviour of the mixture is marked by very high plutonium solubility. The maximum burden in the organs attains roughly 20% of the quantity deposited both in monkeys and rats. The spread of the plutonium proceeds gradually from the day of administration; it indicates that a soluble form of plutonium is present for a long time. Also observed is an increasing osteotropic tendency in the diffusible form. The liver fraction is rapidly removed, if it is assumed that faecal excretion represents biliary excretion. In the experimental conditions selected, the spread of a liquid aerosol of the solution is rapid and constitutes about 10% of the quantity deposited in the airways at the end of inhalation. Treatment with DTPA makes it possible to reduce the body burden, but less efficiently than after contamination by Pu(IV). (author)

  16. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  17. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for 238 Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with 238 Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash and insoluble 2328 Pu in the spent salt. The valuable 238 Pu is recycled using aqueous recovery techniques. Experimental test results for this technology indicate a plutonium recovery efficiency of 99%. Molten salt oxidation stabilizes the waste converting it to a non-combustible waste. Thus installation and use of molten salt oxidation technology will substantially reduce the volume of 238 Pu contaminated waste. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of molten salt oxidation indicate a significant cost savings when compared to the present plans to package, or re-package, certify and transport these wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for permanent disposal. Clear and distinct cost advantages exist for MSO when the monetary value of the recovered 238 Pu is considered

  18. Calibration Tools for Measurement of Highly Enriched Uranium in Oxide and Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide with a Passive-Active Neutron Drum Shuffler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, M; O'Connell, W; Cochran, C; Rinard, P

    2003-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has completed an extensive effort to calibrate the LLNL passive-active neutron drum (PAN) shuffler (Canberra Model JCC-92) for accountability measurement of highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide and HEU in mixed uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) oxide. Earlier papers described the PAN shuffler calibration over a range of item properties by standards measurements and an extensive series of detailed simulation calculations. With a single normalization factor, the simulations agree with the HEU oxide standards measurements to within ±1.2% at one standard deviation. Measurement errors on mixed U-Pu oxide samples are in the ±2% to ±10% range, or ±20 g for the smaller items. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate transfer of the LLNL procedure and calibration algorithms to external users who possess an identical, or equivalent, PAN shuffler. Steps include (1) measurement of HEU standards or working reference materials (WRMs); (2) MCNP simulation calculations for the standards or WRMs and a range of possible masses in the same containers; (3) a normalization of the calibration algorithms using the standard or WRM measurements to account for differences in the 252 Cf source strength, the delayed-neutron nuclear data, effects of the irradiation protocol, and detector efficiency; and (4) a verification of the simulation series trends against like LLNL results. Tools include EXCEL/Visual Basic programs which pre- and post-process the simulations, control the normalization, and embody the calibration algorithms

  19. Determination of plutonium in urine samples from 24 h by ICP-W.f.'s and AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon del Valle, A.; Anton Mateos, M. P.; Chamizo Calvo, E.; Barrado Olmedo, A. I.; Yllera de Llano, A.

    2013-01-01

    The identification and quantification of alpha emitters in biological samples is essential to estimate the internal dose received by workers exposed. The object of this research is to assess the suitability of AMS and ICP-WSFS as measure alternative techniques to the EA of high resolution in the quantification of plutonium in urine 24h. (Author)

  20. Chemical states of fission products in irradiated uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Ken; Uno, Masayoshi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    1999-01-01

    The chemical states of fission products (FPs) in irradiated uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for the light water reactor (LWR) were estimated by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations on system of fuel and FPs by using ChemSage program. A stoichiometric MOX containing 6.1 wt. percent PuO 2 was taken as a loading fuel. The variation of chemical states of FPs was calculated as a function of oxygen potential. Some pieces of information obtained by the calculation were compared with the results of the post-irradiation examination (PIE) of UO 2 fuel. It was confirmed that the multicomponent and multiphase thermodynamic equilibrium calculation between fuel and FPs system was an effective tool for understanding the behavior of FPs in fuel. (author)

  1. Investigations on the oxidation of nitric acid plutonium solutions with ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, M.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction of ozone with nitric acid Pu solutions was studied as a function of reaction time, acid concentration and Pu concentration. Strong nitric acid Pu solutions are important in nuclear fuel element production and reprocessing. The Pu must be converted into hexavalent Pu before precipitation from the homogeneous solution together with uranium-IV, ammonia and CO 2 in the form of ammonium uranyl/plutonyl carbonate (AUPuC). Formation of a solid phase during ozonation was observed for the first time. The proneness to solidification increases with incrasing plutonium concentrations and with decreasing acid concentrations. If the formation of a solid phase during ozonation of nitric acid Pu solutions cannot be prevented, the PU-IV oxidation process described is unsuitable for industrial purposes as Pu solutions in industrial processes have much higher concentrations than the solutions used in the present investigation. (orig./EF) [de

  2. Thermodynamic functions and vapor pressures of uranium and plutonium oxides at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Reedy, G.T.; Leibowitz, L.

    1977-01-01

    The total energy release in a hypothetical reactor accident is sensitive to the total vapor pressure of the fuel. Thermodynamic functions which are accurate at high temperature can be calculated with the methods of statistical mechanics provided that needed spectroscopic data are available. This method of obtaining high-temperature vapor pressures should be greatly superior to the extrapolation of experimental vapor pressure measurements beyond the temperature range studied. Spectroscopic data needed for these calculations are obtained from infrared spectroscopy of matrix-isolated uranium and plutonium oxides. These data allow the assignments of the observed spectra to specific molecular species as well as the calculation of anharmonicities for monoxides, bond angles for dioxides, and molecular geometries for trioxides. These data are then employed, in combination with data on rotational and electronic molecular energy levels, to determine thermodynamic functions that are suitable for the calculation of high-temperature vapor pressures

  3. Procedure for plutonium determination using Pu(VI) spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, L.F.; Temer, D.J.; Jackson, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    This document describes a simple spectrophotometric method for determining total plutonium in nitric acid solutions based on the spectrum of Pu(VI). Plutonium samples in nitric acid are oxidized to Pu(VI) with Ce(IV) and the net absorbance at the 830 nm peak is measured

  4. The use of the average plutonium-content for criticality evaluation of boiling water reactor mixed oxide-fuel transport and storage packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattera, C.

    2003-01-01

    Currently in France, criticality studies in transport configurations for Boiling Water Reactor Mixed Oxide fuel assemblies are based on conservative hypothesis assuming that all rods (Mixed Oxide (Uranium and Plutonium), Uranium Oxide, Uranium and (Gadolinium Oxide rods) are Mixed Oxide rods with the same Plutonium-content, corresponding to the maximum value. In that way, the real heterogeneous mapping of the assembly is masked and covered by an homogenous Plutonium-content assembly, enriched at the maximum value. As this calculation hypothesis is extremely conservative, Cogema Logistics (formerly Transnucleaire) has studied a new calculation method based on the use of the average Plutonium-content in the criticality studies. The use of the average Plutonium-content instead of the real Plutonium-content profiles provides a highest reactivity value that makes it globally conservative. This method can be applied for all Boiling Water Reactor Mixed Oxide complete fuel assemblies of type 8 x 8, 9 x 9 and 10 x 10 which Plutonium-content in mass weight does not exceed 15%; it provides advantages which are discussed in the paper. (author)

  5. Detection of long-lived plutonium isotopes in environmental samples by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hain, Karin; Faestermann, Thomas; Fimiani, Leticia; Gomez Guzman, Jose Manuel; Korschinek, Gunther; Ludwig, Peter [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Shinonaga, Taeko [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Plutonium isotopes {sup 239}Pu (T{sub 1/2}=2.4.10{sup 4}a), {sup 240}Pu (T{sub 1/2}=6.5.10{sup 3}a) and {sup 242}Pu (T{sub 1/2}=3.7.10{sup 5}a) are anthropogenic radionuclides emitted into the environment by nuclear activities. Pu is accumulated in the human body and hence, poses a considerable hazard to human health. Due to the long half-lives, these isotopes are present in the biosphere on large time scales and a build-up can be expected. Therefore it is important to study the contamination pathway of Pu into the drinking water. At the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory in Munich a method to detect long-lived Pu isotopes by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is being developed. AMS requires only few milligrams of sample material, which is a substantial advantage over decay counting techniques. Consequently, more samples from different locations can be taken which is essential when searching for locally increased Pu concentrations as in the Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima accident in March 2011. Samples from different locations in the Pacific Ocean and from the snow-hydrosphere are planned to be investigated by AMS. The principle detection method using AMS and an overview of the status of the project is presented.

  6. International shipment of plutonium by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, J.E.; McGrogan, J.P.

    1995-05-01

    In support of the United States (US) Government's decision to place excess plutonium oxide at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, the Department of State notified the Congress that a plutonium storage vault at the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site would be added to the eligible facilities list. As part of the preparations to transfer the plutonium oxide under IAEA safeguards, samples of the powder were taken from the inventory to be shipped to the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, Austria, for laboratory analysis. The analysis of these samples was of high priority, and the IAEA requested that the material be shipped by aircraft, the most expeditious method

  7. Conversion of plutonium-containing materials into borosilicate glass using the glass material oxidation and dissolution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    The end of the cold war has resulted in excess plutonium-containing materials (PCMs) in multiple chemical forms. Major problems are associated with the long-term management of these materials: safeguards and nonproliferation issues; health, environment, and safety concerns; waste management requirements; and high storage costs. These issues can be addressed by conversion of the PCMs to glass: however, conventional glass processes require oxide-like feed materials. Conversion of PCMs to oxide-like materials followed by vitrification is a complex and expensive process. A new vitrification process has been invented, the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) to allow direct conversion of PCMs to glass. GMODS directly converts metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; oxidizes organics with the residue converted to glass; and converts chlorides to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium chloride stream. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium (a plutonium surrogate), Zircaloy, stainless steel, multiple oxides, and other materials to glass. Equipment options have been identified for processing rates between 1 and 100,000 t/y. Significant work, including a pilot plant, is required to develop GMODS for applications at an industrial scale

  8. Rapid determination of environmental plutonium in large water samples by means of manganese dioxide Co-precipitation and extraction chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, R.S.; Hoff, P.

    1999-01-01

    Plutonium activity determinations in environmental water samples are routinely performed in many laboratories. Due to the low plutonium concentrations and the complexity of the plutonium aqueous chemistry, these analysis involve cumbersome preconcentration and separation procedures and long measurement times. We describe a procedure where MnO 2 (s) is used as scavenger to preconcentrate Pu prior to separation by the transuranium specific extraction chromatographic resin TRU-Resin. The ability of MnO 4 - /MnO 2 (s) to destroy organic matter and oxidise plutonium is combined with the specific behaviour of the TRU-resin for transuranium elements. The method facilitates a rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium. With the use of this procedure, the laboratory work on one sample can be performed in one day with minimum attention. The overall yields from a 200 litre fresh- or seawater sample to a measurable Pu source are between 70-85%. (orig.)

  9. Experiences performed at the C:R: Saluggia of ENEA in low-level determination of plutonium in biological and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spezzano, Pasquale

    1997-10-01

    This report describes some experiences performed at the Research Center Saluggia of ENEA concerning low-level determination of plutonium in biological and environmental samples, with discussions of practical analytical problems. The main characteristics and properties of plutonium with emphasis to aqueous solutions chemistry and environmental behaviour are also reported

  10. Improving neutron multiplicity counting for the spatial dependence of multiplication: Results for spherical plutonium samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Göttsche, Malte, E-mail: malte.goettsche@physik.uni-hamburg.de; Kirchner, Gerald

    2015-10-21

    The fissile mass deduced from a neutron multiplicity counting measurement of high mass dense items is underestimated if the spatial dependence of the multiplication is not taken into account. It is shown that an appropriate physics-based correction successfully removes the bias. It depends on four correction coefficients which can only be exactly determined if the sample geometry and composition are known. In some cases, for example in warhead authentication, available information on the sample will be very limited. MCNPX-PoliMi simulations have been performed to obtain the correction coefficients for a range of spherical plutonium metal geometries, with and without polyethylene reflection placed around the spheres. For hollow spheres, the analysis shows that the correction coefficients can be approximated with high accuracy as a function of the sphere's thickness depending only slightly on the radius. If the thickness remains unknown, less accurate estimates of the correction coefficients can be obtained from the neutron multiplication. The influence of isotopic composition is limited. The correction coefficients become somewhat smaller when reflection is present.

  11. Determination of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate gravimetric method for determining the concentration of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions and reference solutions, containing between 100 and 300 g of plutonium per litre, in a nitric acid medium. The weighed portion of the plutonium nitrate is treated with sulfuric acid and evaporated to dryness. The plutonium sulfate is decomposed and formed to oxide by heating in air. The oxide is ignited in air at 1200 to 1250 deg. C and weighed as stoichiometric plutonium dioxide, which is stable and non-hygroscopic

  12. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) study of uranium, neptunium and plutonium oxides in silicate-based glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, D.J.; Veal, B.W.; Paulikas, A.P.

    1982-11-01

    Using XPS as the principal investigative tool, we are in the process of examining the bonding properties of selected metal oxides added to silicate glass. In this paper, we present results of XPS studies of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium in binary and multicomponent silicate-based glasses. Models are proposed to account for the very diverse bonding properties of 6+ and 4+ actinide ions in the glasses

  13. Dynamic and quasi-static simulation and analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal containers subject to 30-foot dropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, C.; Miller, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal storage containers is in support of the design and testing project The results from the dynamic analysis show some important facts that have not been considered before. The internal bagless transfer can will have higher stress than the primary container. The quasi-static analysis provides a conservative solution. In both vertical upright drop (dynamic) and inclined upside down drop (quasi-static) the containers are structurally sound

  14. Analysis of plutonium isotope ratios including 238Pu/239Pu in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles by means of a combination of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Magara, Masaaki

    2017-04-01

    Isotope ratio analysis of individual uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) mixed oxide particles contained within environmental samples taken from nuclear facilities is proving to be increasingly important in the field of nuclear safeguards. However, isobaric interferences, such as 238 U with 238 Pu and 241 Am with 241 Pu, make it difficult to determine plutonium isotope ratios in mass spectrometric measurements. In the present study, the isotope ratios of 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 242 Pu/ 239 Pu were measured for individual Pu and U-Pu mixed oxide particles by a combination of alpha spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As a consequence, we were able to determine the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, 241 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 242 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios with ICP-MS after particle dissolution and chemical separation of plutonium with UTEVA resins. Furthermore, 238 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios were able to be calculated by using both the 238 Pu/( 239 Pu+ 240 Pu) activity ratios that had been measured through alpha spectrometry and the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotope ratios determined through ICP-MS. Therefore, the combined use of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS is useful in determining plutonium isotope ratios, including 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Source-dependent and source-independent controls on plutonium oxidation state and colloid associations in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesseler, Ken O; Kaplan, Daniel I; Dai, Minhan; Pike, Steven

    2009-03-01

    Plutonium (Pu) was characterized for its isotopic composition, oxidation states, and association with colloids in groundwater samples near disposal basins in F-Area of the Savannah River Site and compared to similar samples collected six years earlier. Two sources of Pu were identified, the disposal basins, which contained a 24Pu/l39Pu isotopic signature consistent with weapons grade Pu, and 244Cm, a cocontaminant that is a progenitor radionuclide of 24Pu. 24Pu that originated primarily from 244Cm tended to be appreciably more oxidized (Pu(V/VI)), less associated with colloids (approximately 1 kDa - 0.2 microm), and more mobile than 239Pu, as suggested by our prior studies at this site. This is not evidence of isotope fractionation but rather "source-dependent" controls on 240Pu speciation which are processes that are not at equilibrium, i.e., processes that appear kinetically hindered. There were also "source-independent" controls on 239Pu speciation, which are those processes that follow thermodynamic equilibrium with their surroundings. For example, a groundwater pH increase in one well from 4.1 in 1998 to 6.1 in 2004 resulted in an order of magnitude decrease in groundwater 239Pu concentrations. Similarly, the fraction of 239Pu in the reduced Pu(III/IV) and colloidal forms increased systematically with decreases in redox condition in 2004 vs 1998. This research demonstrates the importance of source-dependent and source-independent controls on Pu speciation which would impact Pu mobility during changes in hydrological, chemical, or biological conditions on both seasonal and decadal time scales, and over short spatial scales. This implies more dynamic shifts in Pu speciation, colloids association, and transport in groundwater than commonly believed.

  16. A study of the comparison between human and animal excretion data following inhalation exposure to plutonium 238 oxide aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, W.D.; Martinez, G.; Gautier, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Bioassay urine samples obtained since 1971 from eight Los Alamos employees, accidentally exposed by inhalation to high-fired plutonium-238 oxide aerosols, were studied and compared with excretion data obtained from Beagle dogs exposed to /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ aerosols. The early period Pu human excretion data from the inhalation exposure were unexpected and were unlike previously studied occupational exposure urinary data obtained at Los Alamos. The initial urine samples collected on day one were below the detection limits of the analytical method (0.01 pCi). Within thirty days, however, detectible concentrations of Pu were measured in the urine for several of the exposed personnel. The amounts of Pu excreted continued to increase in each of the cases throughout the first year and the individual patterns of Pu excretion were similar. The human urinary excretion data was compared with similar excretion data obtained from an animal study conducted by the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (Me81). In the animal study, Beagle dogs received inhalation exposure to one of three sizes of monodisperse of polydisperse aerosol of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/. Periodic sacrifice of pairs of dogs during the 4 years after the inhalation exposure provided data on the retention, translocation and mode of excretion of /sup 238/Pu. The comparison of human and animal /sup 238/Pu excretion data supported the observation that the excretion data were similar between the two species and that the animal excretion models can be applied to predict the human /sup 238/Pu excretion following inhalation exposure to high-fired oxides of /sup 238/Pu

  17. Ultratrace analysis of plutonium in environmental samples by resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautmann, N.; Erdmann, N.; Gruening, C.; Kratz, J. V.; Waldek, A.; Huber, G.; Nunnemann, M.; Passler, G.

    2000-01-01

    Plutonium is present in the environment mainly as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests, satellite and reactor accidents as well as releases from nuclear facilities. Sensitive and fast detection methods are required for risk assessment, low-level surveillance of the environment, personnel dose monitoring, studies of biological effects and investigations of the migration behavior of plutonium. Furthermore, the isotopic composition is of interest to get information from what source the plutonium contamination originated. Alpha-spectroscopy is most frequently used for the determination of trace amounts of plutonium in the environment with the disadvantage that the detection sensitivity depends on the half-life of the isotope to be measured and that there are limitations in the isotopic resolution. Conventional mass spectrometry may suffer from isobaric interferences. Therefore, in the last years resonant laser ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) has been explored as an alternative for ultratrace analysis of plutonium. This method provides a high element and isotope selectivity and a good overall efficiency, resulting in a detection limit of ∼10 6 atoms (∼0.4 fg). RIMS meets also the requirements of a low background and a short measuring time (1-2 h)

  18. In situ studies of uranium-plutonium mixed oxides. Influence of composition on phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strach, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Due to their physical and chemical properties, mixed uranium-plutonium oxides are considered for fuel in 4. generation nuclear reactors. In this frame, complementary experimental studies are necessary to develop a better understanding of the phenomena that take place during fabrication and operation in the reactor. The focus of this work was to study the U-Pu-O phase diagram in a wide range of compositions and temperatures to ameliorate our knowledge of the phase equilibria in this system. Most of experiments were done using in situ X-ray diffraction at elevated temperatures. The control of the oxygen partial pressure during the treatments made it possible to change the oxygen stoichiometry of the sample, which gave us an opportunity to study rapidly different compositions and the processes involved. The experimental approach was coupled with thermodynamic modeling using the CALPHAD method, to precisely plan the experiments and interpret the obtained results. This approach enabled us to enhance the knowledge of phase equilibria in the U-Pu-O system. (author) [fr

  19. An ab initio study of plutonium oxides surfaces; Etude ab initio des surfaces d'oxydes de Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomard, G.; Bottin, F.; Amadon, B

    2007-07-01

    By means of first-principles calculations, we have studied the atomic structure as well as the thermodynamic stability of various plutonium dioxide surfaces in function of their environment (in terms of oxygen partial pressure and temperature). All these simulations have been performed with the ABINIT code. It is well known that DFT fails to describe correctly plutonium-based materials since 5f electrons in such systems are strongly correlated. In order to go beyond DFT, we have treated PuO{sub 2} and {beta}-Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a DFT+U framework. We show that the couple of parameters (U,J) that works well for pure Pu is also well designed for describing ground state (GS) properties of these two oxides. The major improvement with respect with DFT is that we are able to predict an insulating GS in agreement with experiments. The presence of a gap in the DOS (Density of States) of plutonium oxides should play a significant role in the predicted surface reactivity. However, performing DFT+U calculations on surfaces of plutonium oxide from scratch was too ambitious. That is why we decided, as a first step, to study the stability of the (100), (110) and (111) surfaces of PuO{sub 2} in a DFT-GGA framework. For each of these orientations, we considered various terminations. These ab initio results have been introduced in a thermodynamic model which allows us to predict the relative stability of the different terminations as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure (p{sub O{sub 2}}). We conclude that at room temperature and for p{sub O{sub 2}}{approx}10 atm., the polar O{sub 2}-(100) termination is favoured. The stabilization of such a polar stoichiometric surface is surprising and should be confirmed by DFT+U calculations before any final conclusion. (authors)

  20. Off gas processing device for degreasing furnace for uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Masaya; Akasaka, Takayuki; Noura, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    A low melting ingredient capturing-cooling trap connected to a degreasing sintering furnace by way of sealed pipelines, a burning/decomposing device for decomposing high melting ingredient gases discharged from the cooling trap by burning them and a gas sucking means for forming the flow of off gases are contained in a glovebox, the inside pressure of which is kept negative. Since the degreasing sintering furnace for uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuels is disposed outside of the glovebox, operation can be performed safely without greatly increasing the scale of the device, and the back flow of gases is prevented easily by keeping the pressure in the inside of the glovebox negative. Further, a heater is disposed at the midway of the sealed pipelines from the degreasing sintering furnace to the cooling trap, the temperature is kept high to prevent deposition of low melting ingredients to prevent clogging of the sealed pipelines. Further, a portion of the pipelines is made extensible in the axial direction to eliminate thermal stresses caused by temperature change thereby enabling to extend the life of the sealed pipelines. (N.H.)

  1. Supporting information for the estimation of plutonium oxide leak rates through very small apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwendiman, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Information is presented from which an estimate can be made of the release of plutonium oxide from shipping containers. The leak diameter is estimated from gas leak tests of the container and an estimate is made of gas leak rate as a function of pressure over the time of interest in the accident. These calculations are limited in accuracy because of assumptions regarding leak geometry and the basic formulations of hydrodynamic flow for the assumed conditions. Sonic flow is assumed to be the limiting gas flow rate. Particles leaking from the air space above the powder will be limited by the low availability of particles due to rapid settling, the very limited driving force (pressure buildup) during the first minute, and the deposition in the leak channel. Equations are given to estimate deposition losses. Leaks of particles occurring below the level of the bulk powder will be limited by mechanical interference when leaks are of dimension smaller than particle sizes present. Some limiting cases can be calculated. When the leak dimension is large compared to the particle sizes present, maximum particle releases can be estimated, but will be very conservative

  2. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    This study was concerned with plutonium contamination of grassland at the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geogrphical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for plutonium analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99% of the total plutonium was contained in the soil. The concentrations of plutonium in soil were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes. A mechanism of agglomerated submicron plutonium oxide particles and larger (1-500 μm) host soil particles was proposed. Concentrations of Pu in litter and vegetation were inversely correlated to distance from the source and directly correlated to soil concentrations at the same location. Comparatively high concentration ratios of vegetation to soil suggested wind resuspension of contamination as an important transport mechanism. Arthropod and small mammal samples were highly skewed, kurtotic, and quite variable, having coefficients of variation (standard deviation/mean) as high as 600%. Bone Pu concentrations were lower than other tissues. Hide, GI, and lung were generally not higher in Pu than kidney, liver and muscle

  3. Charge distribution on plutonium-containing aerosols produced in mixed-oxide reactor fuel fabrication and the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.C.; Newton, G.J.; Teague, S.V.

    1976-01-01

    The inhalation toxicity of potentially toxic aerosols may be affected by the electrostatic charge on the particles. Charge may influence the deposition site during inhalation and therefore its subsequent clearance and dose patterns. The electrostatic charge distributions on plutonium-containing aerosols were measured with a miniature, parallel plate, aerosol electrical mobility spectrometer. Two aerosols were studied: a laboratory-produced 238 PuO 2 aerosol (15.8 Ci/g) and a plutonium mixed-oxide aerosol (PU-MOX, natural UO 2 plus PuO 2 , 0.02 Ci/g) formed during industrial centerless grinding of mixed-oxide reactor fuel pellets. Plutonium-238 dioxide particles produced in the laboratory exhibited a small net positive charge within a few minutes after passing through a 85 Kr discharger due to alpha particle emission removal of valence electrons. PU-MOX aerosols produced during centerless grinding showed a charge distribution essentially in Boltzmann equilibrium. The gross alpha aerosol concentrations (960-1200 nCi/l) within the glove box were sufficient to provide high ion concentrations capable of discharging the charge induced by mechanical and/or nuclear decay processes

  4. Development of an analytical procedure for plutonium in the concentration range of femtogram/gram and its application to environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.

    1981-09-01

    To study the behaviour of plutonium in the environment and to measure plutonium in the vicinity of nuclear facilities, a quick, sensitive analytical method is required which can be applied to all sample materials found in the environment. For a sediment contaminated with plutonium a boiling out method using first HNO 3 /HF and subsequently HNO 3 /Al(NO 3 ) 3 was found to be successful. The leaching solution was then extracted by TOPO and the plutonium backextracted by ascorbic acid/HCl. Some different purification steps and finally electroplating using ammonium oxalate led to an optimum sample for α- spectroscopic determination of plutonium. An analytical method was worked out for plutonium which can be applied to all materials found in the environment. The sample size is 100 g but it might also be much greater. The average chemical yield is 70 and 80%. The detection limit for soil samples is 0.1 fCi/g and for plant samples 0.5 fCi/g. One technician can perform eight analyses per working day. The analytical procedure was applied to a large number of environmental samples and the results of these analyses are indicated. (orig./RB) [de

  5. Thermodynamic Studies at Higher Temperatures of the Phase Relationships of Substoichiometric Plutonium and Uranium/Plutonium Oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Toft

    1976-01-01

    Partial molar thermodynamic quantities for oxygen in non-stoichiometric Pu and U/Pu oxides were determined by thermogravimetric measurements in CO/CO2 mixtures in the temperature range 900-1450°C. A detailed analysis of the thermodynamic data obtained, as well as data previously published...

  6. Validation of the method for determination of plutonium isotopes in urine samples and its application in a nuclear facility at Otwock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzemek Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed at determining low activities of alpha radioactive elements are widely recognized as essential for the human health, because of their high radiotoxicity in case of internal contamination. Some groups of workers of nuclear facility at Otwock are potentially exposed to contamination with plutonium isotopes. For this reason, the method for determination of plutonium isotopes has been introduced and validated in Radiation Protection Measurements Laboratory (LPD of the National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ. In this method the plutonium is isolated from a sample by coprecipitation with phosphates and separated on a AG 1-X2 Resin. After electrodeposition, the sample is measured by alpha spectrometry. Validation was performed in order to assess parameters such as: selectivity, accuracy (trueness and precision and linearity of the method. The results of plutonium determination in urine samples of persons potentially exposed to internal contamination are presented in this work.

  7. Determination of plutonium in nitric acid solutions - Method by oxidation by cerium(IV), reduction by iron(II) ammonium sulfate and amperometric back-titration with potassium dichromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate analytical method for determining plutonium in nitric acid solutions. Plutonium is oxidized to plutonium(VI) in a 1 mol/l nitric acid solution with cerium(IV). Addition of sulfamic acid prevents nitrite-induced side reactions. The excess of cerium(IV) is reduced by adding a sodium arsenite solution, catalysed by osmium tetroxide. A slight excess of arsenite is oxidized by adding a 0.2 mol/l potassium permanganate solution. The excess of permanganate is reduced by adding a 0.1 mol/l oxalic acid solution. Iron(III) is used to catalyse the reduction. A small excess of oxalic acid does not interfere in the subsequent plutonium determination. These reduction and oxidation stages can be followed amperometrically and the plutonium is left in the hexavalent state. The sulfuric acid followed by a measured amount of standardized iron(II) ammonium sulfate solution in excess of that required to reduce the plutonium(VI) to plutonium(IV) is added. The excess iron(II) and any plutonium(III) formed to produce iron(III) and plutonium(IV) is amperometrically back-titrated using a standard potassium dichromate solution. The method is almost specifically for plutonium. It is suitable for the direct determination of plutonium in materials ranging from pure product solutions, to fast reactor fuel solutions with a uranium/plutonium ratio of up to 10:1, either before or after irradiation

  8. Improved analytical sensitivity for uranium and plutonium in environmental samples: Cavity ion source thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingeneri, Kristofer; Riciputi, L.

    2001-01-01

    Following successful field trials, environmental sampling has played a central role as a routine part of safeguards inspections since early 1996 to verify declared and to detect undeclared activity. The environmental sampling program has brought a new series of analytical challenges, and driven a need for advances in verification technology. Environmental swipe samples are often extremely low in concentration of analyte (ng level or lower), yet the need to analyze these samples accurately and precisely is vital, particularly for the detection of undeclared nuclear activities. Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) is the standard method of determining isotope ratios of uranium and plutonium in the environmental sampling program. TIMS analysis typically employs 1-3 filaments to vaporize and ionize the sample, and the ions are mass separated and analyzed using magnetic sector instruments due to their high mass resolution and high ion transmission. However, the ionization efficiency (the ratio of material present to material actually detected) of uranium using a standard TIMS instrument is low (0.2%), even under the best conditions. Increasing ionization efficiency by even a small amount would have a dramatic impact for safeguards applications, allowing both improvements in analytical precision and a significant decrease in the amount of uranium and plutonium required for analysis, increasing the sensitivity of environmental sampling

  9. Non intrusive measurement of residual moisture rate of plutonium oxide powder in sealed boxes; Mesure non intrusive du taux d`humidite residuel de la poudre d`oxyde de plutonium contenue dans des boites scellees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochet, T.; Edeline, J.C.; Domenech, T.

    1993-12-31

    This document deals with the best method to create a non intrusive measurement of residual moisture of plutonium oxide in stainless steel sealed boxes (sensibility, precision, reproducibility and feasibility in laboratory). This method is the neutron spectrometry by {sup 3}He (n,p) {sup 3}He reaction. (TEC). 16 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Further development of the ceric oxidation ferrous reduction dichromate titration method of plutonium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, A.; Savage, D.J.

    1986-02-01

    The chemical reactions involved in the amperometric titration method for plutonium have been further examined, to identify remaining potential sources of bias. As these effects were not expected to be more than 0.1% at the 30 mg plutonium level, a procedure for analysing small (3 mg) aliquots of plutonium has been developed, to help identify any marginal effects. At this reduced level both plutonium and 'blank' determinations indicated that reduction of potassium permanganate by oxalic acid is slower than previously suspected and that a variable small bias can result. Decreasing the concentration of the potassium permanganate eliminated the latter effect. A low bias, proportional to the amount of excess oxalic acid added, was observed. Experiments suggest the bias is due to the reaction of oxalate with an intermediary in the iron II/ dichromate titration. The effect can be adequately reduced by complexing oxalate with cerium III. The reduction of plutonium VI by iron II has been shown to be faster than previously assumed, permitting a decreased waiting time before titration. Minor changes to the original procedure are recommended for analysis of 3 mg aliquots of plutonium. (author)

  11. Plutonium valence state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    A calculational method for ascertaining equilibrium valence state distributions of plutonium in acid solutions as a function of the plutonium oxidation number and the solution acidity is illustrated with an example. The method may be more practical for manual use than methods based upon polynomial equations. (T.G.)

  12. Activation of Alveolar Macrophages after Plutonium Oxide Inhalation in Rats: Involvement in the Early Inflammatory Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Tourdes, F.; Gremy, O.; Grillon, G.; Abram, M.C.; Poncy, J.L.; Griffiths, N. [CEA, DSV, DRR, SRCA, Centre DAM Ile de France, F-91297 Bruyeres Le Chatel, Arpajon (France)

    2008-07-01

    Alveolar macrophages play an important role in the distribution, clearance and inflammatory reactions after particle inhalation, which may influence long-term events such as fibrosis and tumorigenesis. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the early inflammatory events after plutonium oxide inhalation in rats and involvement of alveolar macrophages. Lung changes were studied from 3 days to 3 months after inhalation of PuO{sub 2} or different isotopic compositions (70% or 97% {sup 239}Pu) and initial lung deposits (range 2.1 to 43.4 kBq/rat). Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavages showed early increases in the numbers of granulocytes, lymphocytes and multi-nucleated macrophages. The activation of macrophages was evaluated ex vivo by measurement of inflammatory mediator levels in culture supernatants. TNF-alpha and chemokine MCP-1, MIP-2 and CINC-1 production was elevated from 7 days after inhalation and remained so up to 3 months. In contrast, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 production was unchanged. At 6 weeks, pulmonary macrophage numbers and activation state were increased as observed from an immunohistochemistry study of lung sections with anti-ED1. Similarly, histological analyses of lung sections also showed evidence of inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our results indicate early inflammatory changes in the lungs of PuO{sub 2}-contaminated animals and the involvement of macrophages in this process. A dose-effect relationship was observed between the amount of radionuclide inhaled or retained at the time of analysis and inflammatory mediator production by alveolar macrophages 14 days after exposure. For similar initial lung deposits, the inflammatory manifestation appears higher for 97% {sup 239}Pu than for 70% {sup 239}Pu. (authors)

  13. Growth of extrapulmonary tumours after inhalation of small doses of plutonium oxide by rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, D.; Masse, R.; L'Hullier, I.; Metivier, H.; Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    After inhalation of plutonium oxide ( 239 PuO 2 ) involving initial lung burdens ranging from 74 to 103 Bq, male rats of the Wistar strain are kept in conditions allowing maximum survival; tumour incidences for the target organ (lung) and for the rest of the organs are calculated separately after the death of the animals. In the outbred Wistar rat the incidence of lung tumours is 18.5% for an initial lung burden of 74 Bq. The mean survival time of animals having such tumours is 973 days after inhalation. For an initial burden of 103 Bq syngenetic Wistar AG rats show a lower frequency of lung tumours (6.1%), but also a much reduced mean survival time, namely 757 days. Compared with the frequencies observed in the corresponding control groups, the frequency of non-pulmonary tumours is twice as high (12%) in consanguineous rats and six times as high (25.9%) in conventional rats. A supralinear dose-effect relationship at very low doses seems improbable in view of the dose delivered ( -3 Gy in the most exposed organs, such as the liver) and, in particular, because there is no correlation between the dose delivered to the organs and the location of the tumours. The exposed animals show, on the one hand, no specificity of organs for the surplus extrapulmonary tumours observed, and on the other, an inhibition by about 45% in the natural cytotoxic activity (natural killers) measured one year after inhalation. These observations suggest the hypothesis that an anti-tumour control mechanism is affected, perhaps as a result of the irradiation experienced during the circulation of blood cells in the lung capillaries. The failure of this system would in that case allow the expression of neoplastic characters as ageing progresses. A non-specific BCG immunotherapy does not restore this anti-tumour control system. (author)

  14. Properties of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jin Su; Yoon, Hwan Ki; Min, Kyung Sik; Kim, Hyun Tae; Ahn, Jong Sung; Kwag, Eon Ho; Ryu, Keon Joong

    1996-03-01

    Plutonium has unique chemical and physical properties. Its uniqueness in use has led to rare publications, in Korea. This report covers physical aspects of phase change of metal plutonium, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, etc, chemical aspects of corrosion, oxidation, how to produce plutonium from spent fuels by describing various chemical treatment methods, which are currently used and were used in the past. It also contains characteristics of the purex reprocessing process which is the most widely used nowadays. And show processes to purify and metalize from recovered plutonium solution. Detection and analysis methods are introduced with key pints for handling, critical safety, toxicity, and effects on peoples. This report gives not only a general idea on what plutonium is, rather than deep technical description, but also basic knowledge on plutonium production and safeguards diversion from the view point of nonproliferation. 18 refs. (Author) .new

  15. Properties of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jin Su; Yoon, Hwan Ki; Min, Kyung Sik; Kim, Hyun Tae; Ahn, Jong Sung; Kwag, Eon Ho; Ryu, Keon Joong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    Plutonium has unique chemical and physical properties. Its uniqueness in use has led to rare publications, in Korea. This report covers physical aspects of phase change of metal plutonium, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, etc, chemical aspects of corrosion, oxidation, how to produce plutonium from spent fuels by describing various chemical treatment methods, which are currently used and were used in the past. It also contains characteristics of the purex reprocessing process which is the most widely used nowadays. And show processes to purify and metalize from recovered plutonium solution. Detection and analysis methods are introduced with key pints for handling, critical safety, toxicity, and effects on peoples. This report gives not only a general idea on what plutonium is, rather than deep technical description, but also basic knowledge on plutonium production and safeguards diversion from the view point of nonproliferation. 18 refs. (Author) .new.

  16. Plutonium uniqueness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A standard is suggested against which the putative uniqueness of plutonium may be tested. It is common folklore that plutonium is unique among the chemical elements because its four common oxidation states can coexist in the same solution. Whether this putative uniqueness appears only during transit to equilibrium, or only at equilibrium, or all of the time, is not generally made clear. But while the folklore may contain some truth, it cannot be put to test until some measure of 'uniqueness' is agreed upon so that quantitative comparisons are possible. One way of measuring uniqueness is as the magnitude of the product of the mole fractions of the element at equilibrium. A 'coexistence index' is defined and discussed. (author)

  17. USING POLYMERIC HYDROGEN GETTERS TO PREVENT COMBUSTIBLE ATMOSPHERES DURING INTERIM SAFE STORAGE OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodsmall, T

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear Materials Management (NMM) of WSRC has recently installed the capability to perform both non-destructive and destructive examination of 3013 containers of Pu oxide in accordance with DOE-STD-3013. The containers will be opened and the oxide will be sampled for analysis. The remaining bulk oxide must then be safely stored in a non-3013-compliant configuration. Available processing equipment and controls cannot prevent the oxide from adsorbing moisture during this process. Subsequent radiolysis of moisture during storage may generate combustible quantities of gases while waiting final processing, and satisfying DOE Interim Safe Storage Criteria (ISSC) would require that storage containers be vented at impractical frequencies. With support from an independent National Laboratory, WSRC/NMM has demonstrated that a commercial hydrogen getter material will effectively prevent the accumulation of combustible gas concentrations. A project overview, including storage requirements and strategies, as well as getter technology, current test results, and anticipated future developments will be addressed

  18. Prototype fast neutron counter for the assay of impure plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.R.; Adams, E.L.; Ensslin, N.

    1987-01-01

    A fast coincident neutron counter using liquid scintillators and gamma-ray/neutron pulse-shape discrimination has been constructed for the analysis of plutonium samples with unknown self-multiplication and (α,n) production. The counter was used to measure plutonium-bearing materials that cover a range of masses and (α,n) reaction rates of importance to the safeguards community. Measured values of the 240 Pu effective mass differed, on average, from their declared values by 0.4% for plutonium oxides and by -2.2% for metal and MgO-loaded samples. Poorer results were obtained for materials with large (α,n) reaction rates and low self-multiplication such as plutonium ash and plutonium fluoride

  19. Radiation damage and annealing in plutonium tetrafluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Kaylyn; Casella, Amanda; Sinkov, Sergey; Sweet, Lucas; McNamara, Bruce; Delegard, Calvin; Jevremovic, Tatjana

    2017-12-01

    A sample of plutonium tetrafluoride that was separated prior to 1966 at the Hanford Site in Washington State was analyzed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2015 and 2016. The plutonium tetrafluoride, as received, was an unusual color and considering the age of the plutonium, there were questions about the condition of the material. These questions had to be answered in order to determine the suitability of the material for future use or long-term storage. Therefore, thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction evaluations were conducted to determine the plutonium's crystal structure, oxide content, and moisture content; these analyses reported that the plutonium was predominately amorphous and tetrafluoride, with an oxide content near ten percent. Freshly fluorinated plutonium tetrafluoride is known to be monoclinic. During the initial thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses, it was discovered that an exothermic event occurred within the material near 414 °C. X-ray diffraction analyses were conducted on the annealed tetrafluoride. The X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that some degree of recrystallization occurred in conjunction with the 414 °C event. The following commentary describes the series of thermogravimetric/differential thermal and X-ray diffraction analyses that were conducted as part of this investigation at PNNL.

  20. Radiation damage and annealing in plutonium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, Kaylyn; Casella, Amanda; Sinkov, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    A sample of plutonium tetrafluoride that was separated prior to 1966 at the Hanford Site in Washington State was analyzed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2015 and 2016. The plutonium tetrafluoride, as received, was an unusual color and considering the age of the plutonium, there were questions about the condition of the material. These questions had to be answered in order to determine the suitability of the material for future use or long-term storage. Therefore, thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction evaluations were conducted to determine the plutonium's crystal structure, oxide content, and moisture content; these analyses reported that the plutonium was predominately amorphous and tetrafluoride, with an oxide content near ten percent. Freshly fluorinated plutonium tetrafluoride is known to be monoclinic. And during the initial thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses, it was discovered that an exothermic event occurred within the material near 414 °C. X-ray diffraction analyses were conducted on the annealed tetrafluoride. The X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that some degree of recrystallization occurred in conjunction with the 414 °C event. This commentary describes the series of thermogravimetric/differential thermal and X-ray diffraction analyses that were conducted as part of this investigation at PNNL.

  1. Thermal conductivity of beginning-of-life uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel for fast reactor (Interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaki; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Asaga, Takeo

    1997-11-01

    Thermal conductivity of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel for fast reactor at beginning-of-life was correlated based on the recent results in order to apply to the fuel design and the fuel performance analysis. A number of experimental results of unirradiated fuel specimens were corrected from open literatures and PNC internal reports and examined for the database. In this work two porosity correction factors were needed for high density fuel and low density fuel (around the current Monju specification). The universal porosity correction factor was not determined in this work. In the next step, theoretical and analytical considerations should be taken into account. (J.P.N.)

  2. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  3. Standard test method for plutonium assay by plutonium (III) diode array spectrophotometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the determination of total plutonium as plutonium(III) in nitrate and chloride solutions. The technique is applicable to solutions of plutonium dioxide powders and pellets (Test Methods C 697), nuclear grade mixed oxides (Test Methods C 698), plutonium metal (Test Methods C 758), and plutonium nitrate solutions (Test Methods C 759). Solid samples are dissolved using the appropriate dissolution techniques described in Practice C 1168. The use of this technique for other plutonium-bearing materials has been reported (1-5), but final determination of applicability must be made by the user. The applicable concentration range for plutonium sample solutions is 10–200 g Pu/L. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropria...

  4. Determination of trace amounts of plutonium in environmental samples by RIMS using a high repetition rate solid state laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruening, C.; Kratz, J.V.; Trautmann, N.; Waldek, A.; Huber, G.; Passler, G.; Wendt, K.

    2001-01-01

    A reliable and easy to handle high repetition rate solid state laser system has been set up for routine applications of Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS). It consists of three Titanium-Sapphire (Ti:Sa) lasers pumped by one Nd:YAG laser, providing up to 3 W of tunable laser light each in a wavelength range from 725 nm to 895 nm. The isotope shifts for 238 Pu to 244 Pu have been measured in an efficient ionization scheme with λ 1 =420.76 nm, λ 2 =847.28 nm and λ 3 =767.53 nm. An overall detection efficiency of the RIMS apparatus of ε=1x10 -5 is routinely reached, resulting in a detection limit of 2x10 6 atoms (0.8 fg) of plutonium. The isotopic compositions of synthetic samples and the NIST standard reference material SRM996 were measured. The content of 238 Pu to 242 Pu has been determined in dust samples from the surroundings of a nuclear power plant and 244 Pu was determined in urine samples for the National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB), U.K. Routine operation of plutonium ultratrace detection could thus be established

  5. The effect of oxidation state on the absorption of ingested or inhaled plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Gorham, L.S.; Ryan, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Rats received plutonium nitrate (as 239 Pu(IV) or 239 Pu(VI) by gavage or nose-only exposure. Some of the animals were deprived of food before and/or after exposure. Results obtained indicate that there was increased retention of plutonium after exposure to 239 Pu(VI) in comparison with 239 Pu(IV). The absence of food either before and/or after inhalation exposure had no effect on the amount of 239 Pu retained by the liver and carcass. It was concluded that plutonium in its hexavalent state may under certain conditions be more readily absorbed from the GI tract, but that these conditions are unlikely to occur in human exposure. (H.K.)

  6. Sample oxidation for liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisieleski, W.E.; Buess, E.M.

    1976-01-01

    The general features of biological and medical investigations which are responsible for the demands such investigations place upon the design specifications of liquid scintillation counters and associated methodology are reviewed. Special emphasis is given to the oxidative technique for sample preparation

  7. Final generic environmental statement on the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    An assessment is presented of the health, safety and environmental effects of the entire light water reactor fuel cycle, considering the comparative effects of three major alternatives: no recycle, recycle of uranium only, and recycle of both uranium and plutonium. The assessment covers the period from 1975 through the year 2000 and includes the cumulative effects for the entire period as well as projections for specific years. Topics discussed include: the light water reactor with plutonium recycle; mixed oxide fuel fabrication; reprocessing plant operations; supporting uranium fuel cycle; transportation of radioactive materials; radioactive waste management; storage of plutonium; radiological health assessment; extended spent fuel storage; and blending of plutonium and uranium at reprocessing plants

  8. Sampling and Analysis of the Headspace Gas in 3013 Type Plutonium Storage Containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Jay M.; Berg, John M.; Hill, Dallas D.; Worl, Laura A.; Veirs, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) sites have packaged approximately 5200 3013 containers to date. One of the requirements specified in DOESTD-3013, which specifies requirements for packaging plutonium bearing materials, is that the material be no greater than 0.5 weight percent moisture. The containers are robust, nested, welded vessels. A shelf life surveillance program was established to monitor these cans over their 50 year design life. In the event pressurization is detected by radiography, it will be necessary to obtain a head space gas sample from the pressurized container. This technique is also useful to study the head space gas in cans selected for random destructive evaluation. The atmosphere is sampled and the hydrogen to oxygen ratio is measured to determine the effects of radiolysis on the moisture in the container. A system capable of penetrating all layers of a 3013 container assembly and obtaining a viable sample of the enclosed gas and an estimate of internal pressure was designed.

  9. Plutonium fires; Incendies de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, E.

    1959-06-23

    The author reports an information survey on accidents which occurred when handling plutonium. He first addresses accidents reported in documents. He indicates the circumstances and consequences of these accidents (explosion in glove boxes, fires of plutonium chips, plutonium fire followed by filter destruction, explosion during plutonium chip dissolution followed by chip fire). He describes hazards associated with plutonium fires: atmosphere and surface contamination, criticality. The author gives some advices to avoid plutonium fires. These advices concern electric installations, the use of flammable solvents, general cautions associated with plutonium handling, venting and filtration. He finally describes how to fight plutonium fires, and measures to be taken after the fire (staff contamination control, atmosphere control)

  10. Comments on the note by L.S. Nelson: ''unusually high (oxidizer/Pu) ratios in the macro-residues from plutonium droplet combustion''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Morgan, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    An alternative explanation for unusually high ratios of oxidizers/plutonium in the residues from plutonium droplet combustion is offered in response to a note by L.S. Nelson. Two additional experiments are suggested that would be helpful in clarifying the high oxidizer/Pu ratios. The first would be to measure the true surface area for a spherule after its explosion. The second is an experiment analogous to a gas analysis experiment. The conclusion is put forth that adsorbed gases are the most likely cause of the high O/M ratios described by Nelson

  11. Determination of uranium and plutonium by sequential potentiometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yoshiharu; Takahashi, Masao

    1976-01-01

    The determination of uranium and plutonium in mixed oxide fuels has been developed by sequential potentiometric titration. A weighed sample of uranium and plutonium oxides is dissolved in a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids and the solution is fumed with sulfuric acid. After the reduction of uranium and plutonium to uranium(IV) and plutonium(III) by chromium(II) sulfate, 5 ml of buffer solution (KCl-HCl, pH 1.0) is added to the solution. Then the solution is diluted to 30 ml with water and the pH of the solution is adjusted to 1.0 -- 1.5 with 1 M sodium hydroxide. The solution is stirred until the oxidation of the excess of chromium(II) by air is completed. After the removal of dissolved oxygen by bubbling nitrogen through the solution for 10 minutes, uranium (IV) is titrated with 0.1 N cerium(IV) sulfate. Then, plutonium is titrated by 0.02 N cerium(IV) sulfate. When a mixture of uranium and plutonium is titrated with 0.1 N potassium dichromate potentiometrically, the potential change at the end point of plutonium is very small and the end point of uranium is also unclear when 0.1 N potassium permanganate is used as a titrant. In the present method, nitrate, fluoride and copper(II) interfere with the determination of plutonium and uranium. Iron interferes quantitatively with the determination of plutonium but not of uranium. Results obtained in applying the proposed method to 50 mg of mixtures of plutonium and uranium ((7.5 -- 50))% Pu were accurate to within 0.15 mg of each element. (auth.)

  12. Rapid and simultaneous determination of neptunium and plutonium isotopes in environmental samples by extraction chromatography using sequential injection analysis and ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2010-01-01

    plutonium and neptunium in three reference materials were in agreement with the recommended or literature values at the 0.05 significance level. The developed method is suitable for the analysis of up to 10 g of soil and 20 g of seaweed samples. The extraction chromatographic separation within the SI system......This paper reports an automated analytical method for rapid and simultaneous determination of plutonium isotopes (239Pu and 240Pu) and neptunium (237Np) in environmental samples. An extraction chromatographic column packed with TrisKem TEVA® resin was incorporated in a sequential injection (SI...... for a single sample takes less than 1.5 h. As compared to batchwise procedures, the developed method significantly improves the analysis efficiency, reduces the labor intensity and expedites the simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium as demanded in emergency actions....

  13. Comparison of physical chemical properties of powders and respirable aerosols of industrial mixed uranium and plutonium oxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidson, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Studies were performed to characterize physical and chemical properties which may be important in determining the metabolism of accidentally released, inhaled aerosols of industrial mixed uranium and plutonium oxide fuels and to compare the properties of bulk powders and the respirable fraction they include. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that analysis of mixed-oxide powders from four process steps served to characterize their respirable fractions. IR spectroscopy was useful as a method to detect organic binders that were not observed by X-ray diffraction methods. Both X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy methods can be used in combination to identify the sources of a complex aerosol that might be released from more than one fabrication step. Isotopic distributions in powders and aerosols showed that information important for radiation dose to tissue calculations or Pu lung burden estimates can be obtained by analysis of powders. (U.K.)

  14. Comparison of mass-spectrometry and α-counting in analysis of uranium and plutonium isotopes in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irleweck, K.; Pichlmayer, F.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of trace amounts of U and Pu isotopes is of interest in environmental and personal monitoring programmes. Commonly after preconcentration and separation of the radionuclides a proper sample is prepared electrolytically and the measurements are performed by alpha spectrometry. Some investigations on uranium isotopic abundances and on plutonium fallout deposition in soil have been carried out in this way. It is impossible to distinguish between the isotopes 239 Pu and 240 Pu by alpha spectrometry, however, because their α-energies are too close together. Such determinations can only be carried out by mass spectrometry. Specific Pu emissions, e.g. from nuclear production plants, can be discriminated from the global fallout level. Mass spectrometry is the more sensitive method for measuring long-lived nuclides compared with α-spectrometry. In the case of soil analysis, however, Pu detection is obstructed by the high natural uranium content, usually in the range 0.2 to 2.0 ppm which exceeds the trace amounts of plutonium by several orders of magnitude. This work describes a chemical procedure which separates U/Pu sufficiently for alpha spectrometry as well as for mass spectrometry, and compares results of environmental analysis applying both methods. (author)

  15. Conversion of metal plutonium to plutonium dioxide by pyrochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panov, A.V.; Subbotin, V.G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, ALL-Russian Science and Research Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Mashirev, V.P. [ALL-Russian Science and Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    Report contains experimental results on metal plutonium of weapon origin samples conversion to plutonium dioxide by pyrochemical method. Circuits of processes are described. Their advantages and shortcomings are shown. Parameters of plutonium dioxide powders (phase and fraction compositions, poured density) manufactured by pyrochemical method in RFNC-VNIITF are shown as well. (authors)

  16. Study of the dissolution of (U,P)O2 mixed oxides with a high plutonium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, S.

    2001-01-01

    Plutonium from nuclear reactors is partially integrated in the fuel cycle as Mixed OXide (U,Pu)O 2 (MOX). Their dissolution in nitric acid is needed to reprocess them in present reprocessing plants. The main difficulty of this study is that dissolution is a phenomenon depending on solution characteristics as well as the structural properties of the pellets, which depend themselves on the material fabrication process. After showing kinetic and thermodynamic dissolution data of mixed oxides in nitric media, an inventory of the parameters which affect the dissolution process has been made. A separable variable concept was introduced in order to describe the process by studying separately the role of chemical parameters of the solution and geometric parameters of the material. The first part of the study estimates the effect of nitric solution chemical parameters (concentrations, acidity, temperature) on the dissolution and underlines the role of the oxide surface protonation step. The second part of this work deals with the study of surface area evolution for materials with controlled plutonium rich heterogeneities. Experimental results show that the pellet surface undergoes erosion and is progressively weakened by the formation of fault lines in the bulk of the material followed by the dispersion of sub-millimeter fragments in the solution. An heterogeneous kinetic model derived from study of solid-gas interface systems has been applied to fuel pellets dissolution, allowing a mechanism to be proposed, based on surface dissolution of the oxide as well as fault creation in the volume. The dissolution kinetics are therefore dependant on the microstructure and mechanical strength and cohesion of the pellets. (author)

  17. Neutronic and Logistic Proposal for Transmutation of Plutonium from Spent Nuclear Fuel as Mixed-Oxide Fuel in Existing Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trellue, Holly R.

    2004-01-01

    The use of light water reactors (LWRs) for the destruction of plutonium and other actinides [especially those in spent nuclear fuel (SNF)] is being examined worldwide. One possibility for transmutation of this material is the use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, which is a combination of uranium and plutonium oxides. MOX fuel is used in nuclear reactors worldwide, so a large experience base for its use already exists. However, to limit implementation of SNF transmutation to only a fraction of the LWRs in the United States with a reasonable number of license extensions, full cores of MOX fuel probably are required. This paper addresses the logistics associated with using LWRs for this mission and the design issues required for full cores of MOX fuel. Given limited design modifications, this paper shows that neutronic safety conditions can be met for full cores of MOX fuel with up to 8.3 wt% of plutonium

  18. Separation of trace uranium from plutonium for subsequent analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1980-08-01

    Trace uranium quantities are separated from plutonium metal and plutonium oxide for subsequent analysis. Samples are dissolved in hydrobromic acid or a hydrobromic acid-hydrofluoric acid mixture. The U(VI)-halide complex is separated from nonsorbed Pu(III) on an anion exchange column using sequential washes of 9M HBr, a 0.1M HI-12M HCl mixture and 0.1M HCl

  19. Recovery of plutonium by pyroredox processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, J.A.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.

    1985-09-01

    Using pyrochemical oxidation and reduction, we have developed a process to recover the plutonium in impure scrap with less than 95% plutonium. This plutonium metal was further purified by pyrochemical electrorefining. During development of the procedures, depleted electrorefining anodes were processed, and over 80% of the plutonium was recovered as high-purity metal in one electrorefining cycle. Over 40 kg of plutonium has been recovered from 55 kg of impure anodes with our procedures. 6 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Recovery of plutonium by pyroredox processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, J.A.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Using pyrochemical oxidation and reduction, we have developed a process to recover the plutonium in impure scrap with less than 95% plutonium. This plutonium metal was further purified by pyrochemical electrorefining. During development of the procedures, depleted electrorefining anodes were processed, and over 80% of the plutonium was recovered as high-purity metal in one electrorefining cycle. Over 40 kg of plutonium has been recovered from 55 kg of impure anodes with our procedures. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Plutonium roundtable discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penneman, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version

  2. Rapid isolation of plutonium in environmental solid samples using sequential injection anion exchange chromatography followed by detection with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2011-01-01

    size effect upon the separation efficiency revealed that small-sized (2 mL) columns sufficed to handle up to 50 g of environmental soil samples. Under the optimum conditions, chemical yields of plutonium exceeded 90% and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium and lead ranged from 103 to 104....... The determination of plutonium isotopes in three standard/certified reference materials (IAEA-375 soil, IAEA-135 sediment and NIST-4359 seaweed) and two reference samples (Irish Sea sediment and Danish soil) revealed a good agreement with reference/certified values. The SI column-separation method...

  3. Stabilization of plutonium bearing residues at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, M.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (US DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has plutonium holdings including metal, oxide and residue materials, all of which need stabilization of some type. Residue materials include calcined ash, calcined precipitates, pyrochemical salts, glove box sweepings, metallurgical samples, graphite, and pyrochemical ceramic crucibles. These residues are typical of residues stored throughout the US DOE plutonium sites. The stabilization process selected for each of these residues requires data on chemical impurities, physical attributes, and chemical forms of the plutonium. This paper outlines the characterization and stabilization of LLNL ash residues, pyrochemical salts, and graphite

  4. A calibration to predict the concentrations of impurities in plutonium oxide by prompt gamma analysis: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlesky, Joshua E.; Foster, Lynn A.; Kelly, Elizabeth J.; Murray, Roy E. IV

    2009-01-01

    Over 5,500 containers of excess plutonium-bearing materials have been packaged for long-term storage following the requirements of DOE-STD- 3013. Knowledge of the chemical impurities in the packaged materials is important because certain impurities, such as chloride salts, affect the behavior of the material in storage leading to gas generation and corrosion when sufficient moisture also is present. In most cases, the packaged materials are not well characterized, and information about the chemical impurities is limited to knowledge of the material's processing history. The alpha-particle activity from the plutonium and americium isotopes provides a method of nondestructive self-interrogation to identify certain light elements through the characteristic, prompt gamma rays that are emitted from alpha-particle-induced reactions with these elements. Gamma-ray spectra are obtained for each 3013 container using a highresolution, coaxial high-purity germanium detector. These gamma-ray spectra are scanned from 800 to 5,000 keV for characteristic, prompt gamma rays from the detectable elements, which include lithium, beryllium, boron, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, chlorine, and potassium. The lower limits of detection for these elements in a plutonium-oxide matrix increase with atomic number and range from 100 or 200 ppm for the lightest elements such as lithium and beryllium, to 19,000 ppm for potassium. The peak areas from the characteristic, prompt gamma rays can be used to estimate the concentration of the light-element impurities detected in the material on a semiquantitative basis. The use of prompt gamma analysis to assess impurity concentrations avoids the expense and the risks generally associated with performing chemical analysis on radioactive materials. The analyzed containers are grouped by impurity content, which helps to identify high-risk containers for surveillance and in sorting materials before packaging.

  5. Research of natural resources saving by design studies of Pressurized Light Water Reactors and High Conversion PWR cores with mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, V.

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of innovative neutronic conception of Pressurized Light Water Reactors (PWR) of 3. generation, saving of natural resources is of paramount importance for sustainable nuclear energy production. This study consists in the one hand to design high Conversion Reactors exploiting mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium, and in the other hand, to elaborate multi-recycling strategies of both plutonium and 233 U, in order to maximize natural resources economy. This study has two main objectives: first the design of High Conversion PWR (HCPWR) with mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium, and secondly the setting up of multi-recycling strategies of both plutonium and 233 U, to better natural resources economy. The approach took place in four stages. Two ways of introducing thorium into PWR have been identified: the first is with low moderator to fuel volume ratios (MR) and ThPuO 2 fuel, and the second is with standard or high MR and ThUO 2 fuel. The first way led to the design of under-moderated HCPWR following the criteria of high 233 U production and low plutonium consumption. This second step came up with two specific concepts, from which multi-recycling strategies have been elaborated. The exclusive production and recycling of 233 U inside HCPWR limits the annual economy of natural uranium to approximately 30%. It was brought to light that the strong need in plutonium in the HCPWR dedicated to 233 U production is the limiting factor. That is why it was eventually proposed to study how the production of 233 U within PWR (with standard MR), from 2020. It was shown that the anticipated production of 233 U in dedicated PWR relaxes the constraint on plutonium inventories and favours the transition toward a symbiotic reactor fleet composed of both PWR and HCPWR loaded with thorium fuel. This strategy is more adapted and leads to an annual economy of natural uranium of about 65%. (author) [fr

  6. Potential hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures in legacy plutonium oxide packages at Oak Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-07

    An approach to estimate the maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures within sealed containers is described and applied to a set of packages containing high-purity plutonium dioxide. The approach uses experimentally determined maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures and scales the experimentally determined pressures to the relevant packaged material properties. The important material properties are the specific wattage and specific surface area (SSA). Important results from the experimental determination of maximum partial pressures are (1) the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is stoichiometric, and (2) the maximum pressures increase with increasing initial rates of production. The material properties that influence the rates are the material specific wattage and the SSA. The unusual properties of these materials, high specific wattage and high SSA, result in higher predicted maximum pressures than typical plutonium dioxide in storage. The pressures are well within the deflagration range for mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  7. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4π-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmoille-Roblot, M.

    1999-01-01

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4π-α spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4π -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  8. External radiation exposure and radiotoxicity considerations in plutonium/uranium mixed-oxide fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.; Crosby, E.H.

    1974-01-01

    Nuclear-reactor-produced plutonium emits significant electromagnetic and neutron radiations. In addition, because of its high specific alpha activity and its tendency to deposit in the lung and the soft tissues of the bone, plutonium presents a significant radiotoxicity hazard. Shielding, containment, and dosimetry techniques practiced at the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation (NUMEC) have resulted in exemplary annual safety report statistics relevant to non-remote-handling plutonium operations. Whereas a few employees exceeded the NUMEC external exposure action level, no employee exceeded the Regulatory maximum permissible external exposure. In addition, a few employees were observed to have a lung burden in excess of the minimum sensitivity of an in vivo counting system, and one employee was observed by in vivo counting to have a lung burden in excess of the maximum permissible for a brief period. No employee was observed to have a body burden as indicated by a positive quarterly urinalysis result. Further, there were no serious incidents at the facility requiring immediate Regulatory notification, and there were no moderate incidents at the facility requiring 24-h Regulatory notification. However, there were a few reportable incidents at the facility requiring 30-day Regulatory notification, and there were a few minor incidents at the facility requiring the preparation of a NUMEC Incident Report. Details of this safety record are presented along with the health physics techniques that have contributed to the results

  9. TRAN-STAT: statistics for environmental studies, Number 22. Comparison of soil-sampling techniques for plutonium at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Bernhardt, D.E.; Hahn, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    A summary of a field soil sampling study conducted around the Rocky Flats Colorado plant in May 1977 is preseted. Several different soil sampling techniques that had been used in the area were applied at four different sites. One objective was to comparethe average 239 - 240 Pu concentration values obtained by the various soil sampling techniques used. There was also interest in determining whether there are differences in the reproducibility of the various techniques and how the techniques compared with the proposed EPA technique of sampling to 1 cm depth. Statistically significant differences in average concentrations between the techniques were found. The differences could be largely related to the differences in sampling depth-the primary physical variable between the techniques. The reproducibility of the techniques was evaluated by comparing coefficients of variation. Differences between coefficients of variation were not statistically significant. Average (median) coefficients ranged from 21 to 42 percent for the five sampling techniques. A laboratory study indicated that various sample treatment and particle sizing techniques could increase the concentration of plutonium in the less than 10 micrometer size fraction by up to a factor of about 4 compared to the 2 mm size fraction

  10. Leaching of spent fuel in simulated disposal condition and separation of plutonium species as a function of oxidation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2000-11-01

    The influences of compacted bentonite on the leaching of spent fuel in bentonite-saturated ground water at room temperature were investigated by analyzing the components of leachates as well as the alterated surface of them. And the plutonium species was separated by ion exchangers. The amounts of Cs, Sb, Sr, Am, Ru, Pu and U released from spent fuel by bentonite-saturated solution for the initial 165 days were 2.0, 0.2, 0.2, 0.02, 0.005, 5x10 - 4, 0.05 % of inventory, respectively. These values correspond to several ∼ several tens times as much as those through bentonite block which were compacted to 1.4 g/cm 3 . The comparison of the cesium released in groundwater and bentonite-saturated solution through bentonite block is simular values, whose lower concentration in leachant indicates that most of radionuclides are retained by compacted bentonite, even though alkali metal such as Cs. The separation of plutonium species as a function of oxidation state by ion exchanger was succeed by two columns' method with packing materials as SiO - , SiO-SO 3 -

  11. Oxygen potential of a prototypic Mo-cermet fuel containing plutonium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Shuhei, E-mail: miwa.shuhei@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Osaka, Masahiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Nozaki, Takahiro; Arima, Tatsumi; Idemitsu, Kazuya [Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Oxygen potential of a prototypic Mo-cermet fuel containing 50 vol.% PuO{sub 2−x} were investigated by the thermogravimetric analysis in the temperature range from 1273 K to 1473 K. It was shown that the oxygen potential and oxidation rate of the Mo-cermet were the same as those of pure PuO{sub 2−x} below the oxygen potential of Mo/MoO{sub 2} oxidation reaction. The same features of the Mo-cermet sample containing 50 vol.% PuO{sub 2−x} with those of pure PuO{sub 2−x} were discussed in terms of the microstructure. - Highlights: • Oxygen potential of Mo-cermet fuel was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. • It was the same as that of pure PuO{sub 2−x} below the oxygen potential for Mo/MoO{sub 2}. • Gradual oxidation of Mo matrix occurred only above the oxygen potential for Mo/MoO{sub 2}. • Mo matrix and PuO{sub 2−x} in Mo-cermet fuel can thus be thermochemically individual.

  12. Oxygen potential of a prototypic Mo-cermet fuel containing plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Shuhei; Osaka, Masahiko; Nozaki, Takahiro; Arima, Tatsumi; Idemitsu, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen potential of a prototypic Mo-cermet fuel containing 50 vol.% PuO_2_−_x were investigated by the thermogravimetric analysis in the temperature range from 1273 K to 1473 K. It was shown that the oxygen potential and oxidation rate of the Mo-cermet were the same as those of pure PuO_2_−_x below the oxygen potential of Mo/MoO_2 oxidation reaction. The same features of the Mo-cermet sample containing 50 vol.% PuO_2_−_x with those of pure PuO_2_−_x were discussed in terms of the microstructure. - Highlights: • Oxygen potential of Mo-cermet fuel was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. • It was the same as that of pure PuO_2_−_x below the oxygen potential for Mo/MoO_2. • Gradual oxidation of Mo matrix occurred only above the oxygen potential for Mo/MoO_2. • Mo matrix and PuO_2_−_x in Mo-cermet fuel can thus be thermochemically individual.

  13. Analysis of plutonium isotopes in marine samples by radiometric, ICP-MS and AMS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Gastaud, J.; La Rosa, J.J.; Liong Wee Kwong, L.; Povinec, P.P.; Wyse, E.

    2001-01-01

    IAEA reference materials (radionuclides in the marine environment) collected in areas affected by nuclear reprocessing plants and nuclear weapons tests have been analysed by semiconductor alpha-spectrometry (SAS), liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSS) and mass spectrometric techniques (high resolution ICP-MS and AMS) with the aim of developing analytical procedures and to study the geochemical behavior of plutonium in the marine environment. The Pu results obtained by SAS, ICP-MS and AMS were in reasonably good agreement (R 2 = 0.99). The mean atom ratios of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu in IAEA reference materials, IAEA-134, 135 and 381 were (0.212±0.010), (0.211±0.004) and (0.242±0.004), respectively. IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon Sediment) gave a 240 Pu/ 239 Pu mean atom ratio of 0.051±0.001. The results of 241 Pu obtained buy ICP-MS and LSS also show reasonable agreement (R 2 = 0.91). Pu isotopic signatures were useful in tracing Pu origin and in interpreting biogeochemical processes involving Pu in the marine environment. (author)

  14. Study of reactions between uranium-plutonium mixed oxide and uranium nitride and between uranium oxide and uranium nitride; Etude des reactions entre l`oxyde mixte d`uranium-plutonium et le nitrure d`uranium et entre l`oxyde d`uranium et le nitrure d`uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecraz, C

    1993-06-11

    A new type of combustible elements which is a mixture of uranium nitride and uranium-plutonium oxide could be used for Quick Neutrons Reactors. Three different studies have been made on the one hand on the reactions between uranium nitride (UN) and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (U,Pu)O{sub 2}, on the other hand on these between UN and uranium oxide UO{sub 2}. They show a sizeable reaction between nitride and oxide for the studied temperatures range (1573 K to 1973 K). This reaction forms a oxynitride compound, MO{sub x} N{sub y} with M=U or M=(U,Pu), whose crystalline structure is similar to oxide`s. Solubility of nitride in both oxides is studied, as the reaction kinetics. (TEC). 32 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  15. Coordinated safeguards for materials management in a uranium--plutonium nitrate-to-oxide coconversion facility: Coprecal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayem, H.A.; Cobb, D.D.; Dietz, R.J.; Hakkila, E.A.; Kern, E.A.; Schelonka, E.P.; Shipley, J.P.; Smith, D.B.

    1979-02-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of an advanced materials-management system for safeguarding special nuclear materials in a uranium--plutonium nitrate-to-oxide coconversion facility based on the Coprecal process. Design concepts are presented for near real-time (dynamic) accountability by forming dynamic materials balances from information provided by chemical and nondestructive analyses and from process-control instrumentation. Modeling and simulation techniques are used to compare the sensitivities of proposed dynamic materials accounting strategies to both abrupt and protracted diversion. The safeguards implications of coconversion as well as some unique features of the reference process are discussed and design criteria are identified to improve the safeguardability of the Coprecal coconversion process

  16. Evaluation of existing United States' facilities for use as a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility for plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Chidester, K.; Eaton, S.L.; Motley, F.E.; Siebe, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    A number of existing US facilities were evaluated for use as a mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facility for plutonium disposition. These facilities include the Fuels Material Examination Facility (FMEF) at Hanford, the Washington Power Supply Unit 1 (WNP-1) facility at Hanford, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) at Barnwell, SC, the Fuel Processing Facility (FPF) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the P-reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The study consisted of evaluating each facility in terms of available process space, available building support systems (i.e., HVAC, security systems, existing process equipment, etc.), available regional infrastructure (i.e., emergency response teams, protective force teams, available transportation routes, etc.), and ability to integrate the MOX fabrication process into the facility in an operationally-sound manner that requires a minimum amount of structural modifications

  17. Preparation and Characterization of a Master Blend of Plutonium Oxide for the 3013 Large Scale Shelf-Life Surveillance Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillispie, Obie William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Narlesky, Joshua Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Padilla, Dennis D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bender, Beverly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lopez, Annabelle S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinex, Max A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trujillo, Leonardo A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilson, Edward L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-10

    A mixture of chlorine-containing, impure plutonium oxides has been produced and has been given the name Master Blend. This large quantity of well-characterized chlorinecontaining material is available for use in the Integrated Surveillance and Monitoring Program for shelf-life experiments. It is intended to be representative of materials packaged to meet DOE-STD-3013.1 The Master Blend contains a mixture of items produced in Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) electro-refining pyrochemical process in the late 1990s. Twenty items were crushed and sieved, calcined to 800ºC for four hours, and blended multiple times. This process resulted in four batches of Master Blend. Calorimetry and density data on material from the four batches indicate homogeneity.

  18. Impact of receipt of coprocessed uranium/plutonium on advanced accountability concepts and fabrication facilities. Addendum 1 to application of advanced accountability concepts in mixed oxide fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, J.J.; Jump, M.J.; Lange, R.A.; Randall, C.C.

    1977-11-01

    The Phase I study of the application of advanced accountability methods (DYMAC) in a uranium/plutonium mixed oxide facility was extended to assess the effect of coprocessed UO 2 --PuO 2 feed on the observations made in the original Phase I effort and on the proposed Phase II program. The retention of plutonium mixed with uranium throughout the process was also considered. This addendum reports that coprocessed feed would have minimal effect on the DYMAC program, except in the areas of material specifications, starting material delivery schedule, and labor requirements. Each of these areas is addressed, as are the impact of coprocessed feed at a large fuel fabrication facility and the changes needed in the dirty scrap recovery process to maintain the lower plutonium levels which may be required by future nonproliferation philosophy. An amended schedule for Phase II is included

  19. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated

  20. Plutonium controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  1. Evaluation of the characteristics of high burnup and high plutonium content mixed oxide (MOX) fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    Two kinds of MOX fuel irradiation tests, i.e., MOX irradiation test up to high burnup and MOX having high plutonium content irradiation test, have been performed from JFY 2007 for five years in order to establish technical data concerning MOX fuel behavior during irradiation, which shall be needed in safety regulation of MOX fuel with high reliability. The high burnup MOX irradiation test consists of irradiation extension and post irradiation examination (PIE). The activities done in JFY 2011 are destructive post irradiation examination (D-PIE) such as EPMA and SIMS at CEA (Commissariat a l'Enegie Atomique) facility. Cadarache and PIE data analysis. In the frame of irradiation test of high plutonium content MOX fuel programme, MOX fuel rods with about 14wt % Pu content are being irradiated at BR-2 reactor and corresponding PIE is also being done at PIE facility (SCK/CEN: Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d'Etude l'Energie Nucleaire) in Belgium. The activities done in JFY 2011 are non-destructive post irradiation examination (ND-PIE) and D-PIE and PIE data analysis. In this report the results of EPMA and SIMS with high burnup irradiation test and the result of gamma spectrometry measurement which can give FP gas release rate are reported. (author)

  2. Study of oxidation-reduction reactions of plutonium and neptunium in sulphuric-phosphoric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseev, I.V.; Kuperman, A.Ya.; Borodina, N.N.; Galkina, V.N.; Vinokurov, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    Potentiostatic, coulometric, potentiometric, and amperometric methods have been used for determining the rate constants of disproportionation (ksub(d)) of plutonium(5) and neptunium (5) and normal real redox potentials (Esub(0)sup(p)) of the following ion pairs in sulphur-phosphoric-acid media: PuOsub(2)sup(2)sup(+) (PuO 2 + , Pu 4+ /Pu 3+ , NpO 2 2+ /NpO 2 + , NpO 2 2+ /Np 4+ , NpO 2 + /Np 4+ , and Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ . The regularities have been shown of changing ksub(d) and Esub(o)sup(p) as a function of H 2 SO 4 and H 3 PO 4 concentration. It has been established that for plutonium and neptunium a linear correlation is observed between lg ksub(d) and Esub(o)sup(p) of the ion pairs NpO 2 2+ /NpO 2 + , NpO 2 2 /Np 4+ , NpO 2 + /Np 4+ and PuO 2 2+ /PuO 2 + in a wide range of their values. The correlation coefficient is close to unity in all cases (no less than 0.96). The results of investigations have made it possible to recommend optimum compositions of background electrolytes for performing continuous amperostatic coulometric titration of Pusup((6)) and Npsup((6)) up to four valent state by electrogenerated ions of iron (2)

  3. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Pan, Shaoming; Roos, Per

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports an analytical method for the determination of plutonium isotopes ((238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu) in environmental samples using anion exchange chromatography in combination with extraction chromatography for chemical separation of Pu. Both radiometric methods (liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5 × 10(5) for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference values, revealing that the developed method for plutonium determination in environmental samples is reliable. The measurement results of (239+240)Pu by alpha spectrometry agreed very well with the sum of (239)Pu and (240)Pu measured by ICP-MS. ICP-MS can not only measure (239)Pu and (240)Pu separately but also (241)Pu. However, it is impossible to measure (238)Pu using ICP-MS in environmental samples even a decontamination factor as high as 10(6) for uranium was obtained by chemical separation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Simultaneous radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium, and iron nuclides and application to atmospheric deposition and aerosol samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

    1990-11-01

    A procedure for the sequential radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium and iron nuclides is described. The separation is carried out on a single anion exchange column. Pu(IV), U(VI) and Fe(III) are fixed on Bio Rad AG 1-X4 from 9 mol/l HCl, while the sample effluent is used for the determination of radiostrontium. Fe and U are eluted separately with 7 mol/l HNO{sub 3}, and Pu(III) is eluted with 1.2 mol/l HCl containing hydrogen peroxide. Subsequently, Pu and U are electrolysed and counted by alpha spectrometry. Radiostrontium is purified by the nitrate method and counted in a low level beta proportional counter. Fe is purified by extraction and cation exchange and {sup 55}Fe is counted by X-ray spectrometry with a Si(Li) detector. The sample preparation and the application of the procedure to large samples, namely aerosols from 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of air, and monthly deposition samples from 0.6 m{sup 2} sampling area (10-100 l) are described. Chemical yields are for Pu 70 {plus minus} 20, for Sr 80 {plus minus} 15, for U 80-90, and for Fe 75 {plus minus} 10%. As an example, the maximum airborne radionuclide concentrations determined with that procedure in fortnightly collected samples at Neuherberg after the Chernobyl accident were: {sup 239+240}Pu, 2.58; {sup 238}Pu, 1.40; {sup 238}U, 0.65; {sup 234}U, 0.67; {sup 90}Sr, 7600; and {sup 55}Fe, 990 {mu}Bqm{sup -3}. With appropriate changes in sample preparation, the procedure is applicable to other kinds of samples. (orig.).

  5. Simultaneous radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium, and iron nuclides and application to atmospheric deposition and aerosol samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure for the sequential radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium and iron nuclides is described. The separation is carried out on a single anion exchange column. Pu(IV), U(VI) and Fe(III) are fixed on Bio Rad AG 1-X4 from 9 mol/l HCl, while the sample effluent is used for the determination of radiostrontium. Fe and U are eluted separately with 7 mol/l HNO 3 , and Pu(III) is eluted with 1.2 mol/l HCl containing hydrogen peroxide. Subsequently, Pu and U are electrolysed and counted by alpha spectrometry. Radiostrontium is purified by the nitrate method and counted in a low level beta proportional counter. Fe is purified by extraction and cation exchange and 55 Fe is counted by X-ray spectrometry with a Si(Li) detector. The sample preparation and the application of the procedure to large samples, namely aerosols from 10 5 m 3 of air, and monthly deposition samples from 0.6 m 2 sampling area (10-100 l) are described. Chemical yields are for Pu 70 ± 20, for Sr 80 ± 15, for U 80-90, and for Fe 75 ± 10%. As an example, the maximum airborne radionuclide concentrations determined with that procedure in fortnightly collected samples at Neuherberg after the Chernobyl accident were: 239+240 Pu, 2.58; 238 Pu, 1.40; 238 U, 0.65; 234 U, 0.67; 90 Sr, 7600; and 55 Fe, 990 μBqm -3 . With appropriate changes in sample preparation, the procedure is applicable to other kinds of samples. (orig.)

  6. A column exchange chromatographic procedure for the automated purification of analytical samples in nuclear spent fuel reprocessing and plutonium fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahradnik, P.; Swietly, H.; Doubek, N.; Bagliano, G.

    1992-11-01

    A Column Exchange Chromatographic procedure using Tri-n-Octyl-Phosphine-Oxide (TOPO) as stationary phase, is in routine use at SAL since 1984 on nuclear spent fuel reprocessing and on Pu product samples, prior to alpha and mass spectrometric analysis. This standard procedure was further on modified in view of its automation in a glove box; the resulting new procedure is described in this paper. Laboratory Robot Compatible (LRC) disposable columns were selected because their dimensions are particularly favorable and reproducible. A less corrosive HNO 3 -HI mixture substituted the former HC1-HI plutonium eluant. The inorganic support of the stationary phase used to test the above mentioned changes was unexpectedly withdrawn from the market so that another support had to be selected and the procedure reoptimized accordingly. The resulting procedure was tested with the robot and validated against the manual procedure taken as reference: the comparison showed that the modified procedure meets the analytical requirements and has the same performance than the original procedure. (author). Refs, figs and tabs

  7. On chlorization of uranium and plutonium oxides in NaCl-KCl-MgCl2 molten eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobej, M.P.; Desyatnik, V.N.; Pirogov, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    The chlorination process of U 3 O 8 , UO 2 , and PuO 2 in a melt of anhydrous NaCl-KCl-MgCl 2 with gaseous chlorine and carbon tetrachloride has been studied. The chlorination rate of uranium oxides has been studied within a temperature range 500-800 deg C at a chlorine feeding rate of 10 ml/min. Thermoqravimetric and X-ray analyses have shown that K 2 UO 2 Cl 4 compound is the final product of chlorination of uranium oxides. The mechanism of chlorination has been proposed. THe rate of PuO 2 chlorination has been studied within the same temperature range. It has been established that PuO 2 is readily chlorinated with CCl 4 vapours at a feeding rate of 10 ml/min. In contrast to uranium, chloride forms of plutonium in a highest oxidized state are unstable and are reduced in the melt to Pu(3) and Pu(4). The oxygen being released is retained by CCl 4 and by the products of CCl 4 pyrolysis

  8. Use of plasma-source multicollector magnetic-sector mass spectrometry for uranium and plutonium analysis in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price Russ, G.; Williams, Ross

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The ability to detect and isotopically characterize uranium and plutonium in environmental samples is of primary importance in the search for nuclear proliferation. The utility of isotope ratio measurements for environmental monitoring is limited by sample preparation costs, measurement precision, and sensitivity. This is particularly true for wide-area monitoring where the number of samples required varies inversely with obtainable precision and sensitivity. Historically isotopic measurements have been made by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). While requiring extensive sample preparation, no other technique matched its precision and sensitivity for such measurements. Inductively-coupled-plasma, magnetic-sector, multicollector, mass spectrometry offers the prospect of extending the state-of-the-art to higher precision while increasing sensitivity and reducing costs through more rapid analysis and reduced sample preparation. At LLNL this technique is being implemented in the form of an IsoProbe (Micromass, UK). This paper will present data for both standards and IAEA supplied samples demonstrating the power and limitations of the technique. The precision and sensitivity of the IsoProbe results will be compared to TIMS performance for comparable samples. For 48 determinations of natural uranium, using the double spike to correct for bias, a relative standard deviation of 0.04% (1σ) for 238 U/ 235 U has been obtained in a preliminary study. This is a substantial improvement over the TIMS result of 0.1% reported at the previous conference. Further improvements can be expected as we gain a better understanding of the background peaks occurring in the IsoProbe spectra. (author)

  9. Relative Humidity and the Susceptibility of Austenitic Stainless Steel to Stress Corrosion Cracking in an impure Plutonium Oxide Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapp, P.; Duffey, J.; Lam, P.; Dunn, K.

    2010-05-05

    Laboratory tests to investigate the corrosivity of moist plutonium oxide/chloride salt mixtures on 304L and 316L stainless steel coupons showed that corrosion occurred in selected samples. The tests exposed flat coupons for pitting evaluation and 'teardrop' stressed coupons for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation at room temperature to various mixtures of PuO{sub 2} and chloride-bearing salts for periods up to 500 days. The exposures were conducted in sealed containers in which the oxide-salt mixtures were loaded with about 0.6 wt % water from a humidified helium atmosphere. Observations of corrosion ranged from superficial staining to pitting and SCC. The extent of corrosion depended on the total salt concentration, the composition of the salt and the moisture present in the test environment. The most significant corrosion was found in coupons that were exposed to 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 2 wt % chloride salt mixtures that contained calcium chloride and 0.6 wt% water. SCC was observed in two 304L stainless steel teardrop coupons exposed in solid contact to a mixture of 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 0.9 wt % NaCl, 0.9 wt % KCl, and 0.2 wt % CaCl{sub 2}. The cracking was associated with the heat-affected zone of an autogenous weld that ran across the center of the coupon. Cracking was not observed in coupons exposed to the headspace gas above the solid mixture, or in coupons exposed to other mixtures with either no CaCl{sub 2} or 0.92 wt% CaCl{sub 2}. SCC was present where the 0.6 wt % water content exceeded the value needed to fully hydrate the available CaCl{sub 2}, but was absent where the water content was insufficient. These results reveal the significance of the relative humidity in the austenitic stainless steels environment to their susceptibility to corrosion. The relative humidity in the test environment was controlled by the water loading and the concentration of the hydrating salts such as CaCl{sub 2}. For each salt or salt mixture there is a threshold

  10. Speciation of the oxidation states of plutonium in aqueous solutions by UV/Vis spectroscopy, CE-ICP-MS and CE-RIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, S.; Banik, N.L.; Buda, R.A.; Kratz, J.V.; Kuczewski, B.; Trautmann, N.

    2007-01-01

    For the speciation of the plutonium oxidation states in aqueous solutions, the online coupling of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been developed. Depending on the radius/electrical charge ratio, the oxidation states III, IV, V, and VI of plutonium are separated by CE, based on the different migration times through the capillary and are detected by ICP-MS. The detection limit is 20 ppb, i.e. 10 9 -10 10 atoms (10 -12 -10 -13 g) for one oxidation state with an uncertainty of the reproducibility of the migration times of ≤ 1% and ≤ 5% for the peak area. The redox kinetics of the different plutonium oxidation states in the presence of humic substances (humic and fulvic acid) have been studied. A relatively rapid reduction of Pu(VI) (10 to 1000 h) in contact with Gorleben fulvic or Aldrich humic acid could be observed, depending on the pH of the solution. Furthermore, at pH=1, a reduction to Pu(III) and Pu(IV) in a mixture of all four oxidation states in contact with Gorleben fulvic acid after one month has been observed. In order to improve the sensitivity of the CE method, the offline coupling of CE to resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) has been explored. First applications of this new speciation method are presented. (orig.)

  11. Plutonium in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, N.V.; Linder, P.W.; Wade, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    The shipping of plutonium from Europe to Japan around the Cape is a contentious issue which has raised public concern that South Africa may be at risk to plutonium exposure should an accident occur. The paper describes the containers in which the plutonium (in the form of plutonium oxide, PuO 2 ) is housed and consequences of the unlikely event of these becoming ruptured. Wind-borne pollution is considered not to be a likely scenario, with the plutonium oxide particles more likely to remain practically insoluble and sediment. Plutonium aqueous and environmental chemistry is briefly discussed. Some computer modelling whereby plutonium oxide is brought into contact with seawater has been performed and the results are presented. The impact on marine organisms is discussed in terms of studies performed at marine dump sites and after the crash of a bomber carrying nuclear warheads in Thule, Greenland in 1968. Various pathways from the sea to land are considered in the light of studies done at Sellafield, a reprocessing plant in the United Kingdom. Some recent debates in the popular scientific press, such as that on the leukemia cluster at Sellafield, are described. Plutonium biochemistry and toxicity are discussed as well as medical histories of workers exposed to plutonium. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  13. Rapid isolation of plutonium in environmental solid samples using sequential injection anion exchange chromatography followed by detection with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Jixin, E-mail: jixin.qiao@risoe.d [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hou Xiaolin; Roos, Per [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Miro, Manuel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears (Spain)

    2011-01-31

    This paper reports an automated analytical method for rapid determination of plutonium isotopes ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu) in environmental solid extracts. Anion exchange chromatographic columns were incorporated in a sequential injection (SI) system to undertake the automated separation of plutonium from matrix and interfering elements. The analytical results most distinctly demonstrated that the crosslinkage of the anion exchanger is a key parameter controlling the separation efficiency. AG 1-x4 type resin was selected as the most suitable sorbent material for analyte separation. Investigation of column size effect upon the separation efficiency revealed that small-sized (2 mL) columns sufficed to handle up to 50 g of environmental soil samples. Under the optimum conditions, chemical yields of plutonium exceeded 90% and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium and lead ranged from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4}. The determination of plutonium isotopes in three standard/certified reference materials (IAEA-375 soil, IAEA-135 sediment and NIST-4359 seaweed) and two reference samples (Irish Sea sediment and Danish soil) revealed a good agreement with reference/certified values. The SI column-separation method is straightforward and less labor intensive as compared with batch-wise anion exchange chromatographic procedures. Besides, the automated method features low consumption of ion-exchanger and reagents for column washing and elution, with the consequent decrease in the generation of acidic waste, thus bearing green chemical credentials.

  14. Ultra-trace determination of plutonium in marine samples using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Patric; Keith-Roach, Miranda; Worsfold, Paul; Choi, Min-Seok; Shin, Hyung-Seon; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2010-06-25

    Sources of plutonium isotopes to the marine environment are well defined, both spatially and temporally, which makes Pu a potential tracer for oceanic processes. This paper presents the selection, optimisation and validation of a sample preparation method for the ultra-trace determination of Pu isotopes ((240)Pu and (239)Pu) in marine samples by multi-collector (MC) ICP-MS. The method was optimised for the removal of the interference from (238)U and the chemical recovery of Pu. Comparison of various separation strategies using AG1-X8, TEVA, TRU, and UTEVA resins to determine Pu in marine calcium carbonate samples is reported. A combination of anion-exchange (AG1-X8) and extraction chromatography (UTEVA/TRU) was the most suitable, with a radiochemical Pu yield of 87+/-5% and a U decontamination factor of 1.2 x 10(4). Validation of the method was accomplished by determining Pu in various IAEA certified marine reference materials. The estimated MC-ICP-MS instrumental limit of detection for (239)Pu and (240)Pu was 0.02 fg mL(-1), with an absolute limit of quantification of 0.11 fg. The proposed method allows the determination of ultra-trace Pu, at femtogram levels, in small size marine samples (e.g., 0.6-2.0 g coral or 15-20 L seawater). Finally, the analytical method was applied to determining historical records of the Pu signature in coral samples from the tropical Northwest Pacific and (239+240)Pu concentrations and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in seawater samples as part of the 2008 GEOTRACES intercalibration exercise. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultra-trace determination of plutonium in marine samples using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, Patric, E-mail: patriclindahl@yahoo.com [Marine Environment Research Department, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, 1270 Sadong, Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL48AA (United Kingdom); Keith-Roach, Miranda; Worsfold, Paul [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL48AA (United Kingdom); Choi, Min-Seok; Shin, Hyung-Seon [Division of Earth and Environmental Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yusung-gu, Daejon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Hoon [Marine Geology and Geophysics Laboratory, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, 1270 Sadong, Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-25

    Sources of plutonium isotopes to the marine environment are well defined, both spatially and temporally, which makes Pu a potential tracer for oceanic processes. This paper presents the selection, optimisation and validation of a sample preparation method for the ultra-trace determination of Pu isotopes ({sup 240}Pu and {sup 239}Pu) in marine samples by multi-collector (MC) ICP-MS. The method was optimised for the removal of the interference from {sup 238}U and the chemical recovery of Pu. Comparison of various separation strategies using AG1-X8, TEVA, TRU, and UTEVA resins to determine Pu in marine calcium carbonate samples is reported. A combination of anion-exchange (AG1-X8) and extraction chromatography (UTEVA/TRU) was the most suitable, with a radiochemical Pu yield of 87 {+-} 5% and a U decontamination factor of 1.2 x 10{sup 4}. Validation of the method was accomplished by determining Pu in various IAEA certified marine reference materials. The estimated MC-ICP-MS instrumental limit of detection for {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu was 0.02 fg mL{sup -1}, with an absolute limit of quantification of 0.11 fg. The proposed method allows the determination of ultra-trace Pu, at femtogram levels, in small size marine samples (e.g., 0.6-2.0 g coral or 15-20 L seawater). Finally, the analytical method was applied to determining historical records of the Pu signature in coral samples from the tropical Northwest Pacific and {sup 239+240}Pu concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in seawater samples as part of the 2008 GEOTRACES intercalibration exercise.

  16. Ultra-trace determination of plutonium in marine samples using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, Patric; Keith-Roach, Miranda; Worsfold, Paul; Choi, Min-Seok; Shin, Hyung-Seon; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Sources of plutonium isotopes to the marine environment are well defined, both spatially and temporally, which makes Pu a potential tracer for oceanic processes. This paper presents the selection, optimisation and validation of a sample preparation method for the ultra-trace determination of Pu isotopes ( 240 Pu and 239 Pu) in marine samples by multi-collector (MC) ICP-MS. The method was optimised for the removal of the interference from 238 U and the chemical recovery of Pu. Comparison of various separation strategies using AG1-X8, TEVA, TRU, and UTEVA resins to determine Pu in marine calcium carbonate samples is reported. A combination of anion-exchange (AG1-X8) and extraction chromatography (UTEVA/TRU) was the most suitable, with a radiochemical Pu yield of 87 ± 5% and a U decontamination factor of 1.2 x 10 4 . Validation of the method was accomplished by determining Pu in various IAEA certified marine reference materials. The estimated MC-ICP-MS instrumental limit of detection for 239 Pu and 240 Pu was 0.02 fg mL -1 , with an absolute limit of quantification of 0.11 fg. The proposed method allows the determination of ultra-trace Pu, at femtogram levels, in small size marine samples (e.g., 0.6-2.0 g coral or 15-20 L seawater). Finally, the analytical method was applied to determining historical records of the Pu signature in coral samples from the tropical Northwest Pacific and 239+240 Pu concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in seawater samples as part of the 2008 GEOTRACES intercalibration exercise.

  17. Evaluation of the characteristics of uranium and plutonium Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    MOX fuel irradiation test up to high burnup has been performed for five years. Irradiation test of MOX fuel having high plutonium content has also been performed from JFY 2007 and it still continues. A lot of irradiation data have been obtained through these tests. The activities done in JFY 2012 are mainly focused on Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) data analysis concerning thermal property change and fission gas release. In the former work thermal conductivity degradation due to burnup is examined and in the latter work the dependence of fission gas release mechanism on fuel pellet microstructure is examined. This report mainly covers the result of analysis. It is found that thermal conductivity degradation of MOX fuel due to burnup is less than that of UO{sub 2} fuel and that fission gas release mechanism of high enriched fissile zone (so called Pu spot) is much different from that of low enriched fissile zone (so called Matrix). (author)

  18. Plutonium spectrophotometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Cassaniti, P.; Orosco, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    Plutonium ions in solution have absorption spectra so different that it is possible to use them for analytical purposes. Detailed studies have been performed in nitric solutions. Some very convenient methods for the determination of plutonium and its oxidation states, especially the ratios Pu(III):Pu(IV) and Pu(IV):Pu(VI) in a mixture of both, have been developed. These methods are described in this paper, including: a) Absorption spectra for plutonium (III), (IV), (VI) and mixtures. b) Relative extinction coefficients for the above mentioned species. c) Dependences of the relative extinction coefficients on the nitric acid concentration and the plutonium VI deviation from the Beer-Lambert law. The developed methods are simple and rapid and then, suitable in process control. Accuracy is improved when relative absorbance measurements are performed or controlled the variables which have effect on the spectra and extinction coefficients. (Author) [es

  19. Separation and recovery of Cm from Cm-Pu mixed oxide samples containing Am impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirokazu Hayashi; Hiromichi Hagiya; Mitsuo Akabori; Yasuji Morita; Kazuo Minato

    2013-01-01

    Curium was separated and recovered as an oxalate from a Cm-Pu mixed oxide which had been a 244 Cm oxide sample prepared more than 40 years ago and the ratio of 244 Cm to 240 Pu was estimated to 0.2:0.8. Radiochemical analyses of the solution prepared by dissolving the Cm-Pu mixed oxide in nitric acid revealed that the oxide contained about 1 at% of 243 Am impurity. To obtain high purity curium solution, plutonium and americium were removed from the solution by an anion exchange method and by chromatographic separation using tertiary pyridine resin embedded in silica beads with nitric acid/methanol mixed solution, respectively. Curium oxalate, a precursor compound of curium oxide, was prepared from the purified curium solution. 11.9 mg of Cm oxalate having some amounts of impurities, which are 243 Am (5.4 at%) and 240 Pu (0.3 at%) was obtained without Am removal procedure. Meanwhile, 12.0 mg of Cm oxalate (99.8 at% over actinides) was obtained with the procedure including Am removals. Both of the obtained Cm oxalate sample were supplied for the syntheses and measurements of the thermochemical properties of curium compounds. (author)

  20. Field test and calibration of neutron coincidence counters for high-mass plutonium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Dickinson, R.J.; Douglas, I.

    1987-02-01

    Five different neutron coincidence systems were evaluated and calibrated for high-mass PuO 2 samples. The samples were from 2 to 7.2 kg of PuO 2 in mass, with a large range of burnup. This report compares the equipment and the results, with an evaluation of deadtime and multiplication corrections

  1. Dissolution of nuclear fuel samples for analytical purposes. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krtil, J.

    1983-01-01

    Main attention is devoted to procedures for dissolving fuels based on uranium metal and its alloys, uranium oxides and carbides, plutonium metal, plutonium dioxide, plutonium carbides, mixed PuC-UC carbides and mixed oxides (PuU)O 2 . Data from the literature and experience gained with the dissolution of nuclear fuel samples at the Central Control Laboratory of the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez are given. (B.S.)

  2. The economics of plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    The individual cost components and the total fuel cycle costs for natural uranium and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycles for CANDU-PHW reactors are discussed. A calculation is performed to establish the economic conditions under which plutonium recycle would be economically attractive. (auth)

  3. Chemical speciation of plutonium in the radioactive waste burial ground at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1978-08-01

    The plutonium chemical species in two types of samples from the Savannah River Plant burial ground for radioactive waste were identified. Samples analyzed were water and sediment from burial ground monitoring well C-17 and soil from an alpha waste burial trench. Soluble plutonium in the monitoring well was less than 12A in diameter, was cationic, and contained about 43% Pu(VI) and 25% Pu(IV). The equilibrium distribution coefficient (K /sub d/) for soluble plutonium from the well water (pH 7) to burial ground soil was about 60. Soil plutonium from the waste trench was not cation-exchanged; 78% of the soil plutonium was associated with metallic oxides in the soil. Approximately 9% of the Pu was contained in the crystalline soil matrix. Thus, about 87% of the plutonium in the soil was in a relatively immobile form. Ion-exchangeable and organic acid forms of plutonium amounted to only about 2.5% each. The bulk of the plutonium now on burial ground soils will be immobile except for movement of soil particles containing plutonium. 6 tables

  4. A state-of-the-art mass spectrometer system for determination of uranium and plutonium isotopic distributions in process samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    A Finnigan MAT 261 automated thermal ionization mass spectrometer system was purchased by the Savannah River Plant and recently installed by Finnigan factory representatives. This instrument is a refinement of the MAT 260 which has been used routinely for three years in the laboratory at SRP. The MAT 261 is a highly precise, fully automated instrument. Many features make this instrument the state-of-the-art technology in precision isotopic composition measurements. A unique feature of the MAT 261 is the ion detection system which permits measurement of the three uranium or plutonium masses simultaneously. All Faraday cup measuring channels are of the same design and each is equipped with a dedicated amplifier. Each amplifier is connected to a linear voltage/frequency measuring system for ion current integration. These outputs are fed into a Hewlett-Packard 9845T desktop computer. The computer, and the Finnigan developed software package, control filament heating cycles, sample reconditioning, ion beam focusing, carrousel rotation, mass selection, and data collection and reduction. Precision, accuracy, and linearity were determined under normal laboratory conditions using a NBS uranium suite of standards. These results along with other developments in setting up the instrument are presented

  5. State-of-the-art mass spectrometer system for determination of uranium and plutonium isotopic distributions in process samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polson, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    A Finnigan MAT 261 automated thermal ionization mass spectrometer system was purchased by the Savannah River Plant. The MAT 261 is a highly precise, fully automated instrument. Many features make this instrument the state-of-the-art technology in precision isotopic composition measurements. A unique feature of the MAT 261 is the ion detection system which permits measurement of the three uranium or plutonium masses simultaneously. All Faraday cup measuring channels are of the same design and each is equipped with a dedicated amplifier. Each amplifier is connected to a linear voltage/frequency measuring system for ion current integration. These outputs are fed into a Hewlett-Packard 9845T desk-top computer. The computer, and the Finnigan developed software package, control filament heating cycles, sample preconditioning, ion beam focusing, carrousel rotation, mass selection, and data collection and reduction. Precision, accuracy, and linearity were determined under normal laboratory conditions using a NBS uranium suite of standards. These results along with other development in setting up the instrument are presented

  6. Evaluation of the readsorption of plutonium and americium in dynamic fractionations of environmental solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Roongrat; Hou, Xiaolin; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic extraction system exploiting sequential injection (SI) for sequential extractions incorporating a specially designed extraction column is developed to fractionate radionuclides in environmental solid samples such as soils and sediments. The extraction column can contain a large amount...... of soil sample (up to 5 g), and under optimal operational conditions it does not give rise to creation of back pressure. Attention has been placed on studies of the readsorption problems during sequential extraction using a modified Standards, Measurements and Testing (SM&T) scheme with 4-step sequential...

  7. Uranium and plutonium containing particles in a sea sediment sample from Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moring, M.; Ikäheimonen, T.K.; Pöllänen, R.

    2001-01-01

    Particles composed of radioactive materials and probably originating from US nuclear weapons were identified in sea sediment samples collected from Thule, Greenland in 1997. The weapons were destroyed close to the Thule Air Base in 1968 in an aeroplane crash, which dispersed radioactive materials...

  8. Plutonium in coniferous forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Kostiainen, E.

    2002-01-01

    Our aim was to study the uptake of plutonium by trees, undervegetation and some wild foods. The ratio of 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu in soil samples was determined for comparisons of the fallout origin. In twelve years the Chernobyl derived plutonium has not reached the mineral soil. This refers to a very slow downward migration in podsolic soil. The study confirmed also the low Pu uptake by vegetation and an insignificant contribution to human doses through wild foods. (au)

  9. Retention of inhaled plutonium oxide. Elimination procedures by pulmonary lavage and effect of the alveolar macrophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, Daniel.

    1977-03-01

    A large fraction of the plutonium particles, reaching the deeper lung are retained in the alveolar macrophages during several months. Cell function changes were measured in vivo and in vitro. Stimulation of macrophage mobility and phagocytosis or natural clearance processes were uneffective on PuO 2 excretion. In vivo pulmonary lavage was the only effective therapy. The procedures of in toto pulmonary lavage in order to obtain the highest number of macrophages are described. A study of the physiological and histological consequences showed no long-term pathology, lesions observed during 48 h after lavage were restored quickly. A single lavage eliminated 12-25% only of the lung burden. A procedure of ten repeated lavages (1 per week) eliminated 60-90% of the lung burden. The action of lavage seemed twofold: direct elimination in the rinsing liquid and faster pulmonary clearance with low lymph node overload. Survivals in treated animals kept for long-term observations were compatible with the lung burdens remaining after treatment. Demontration of an inhibiting effect on pulmonary fibrosis should indicate a larger utilization [fr

  10. Analysis of events resulting from an accident involving a transport aircraft carrying plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.; Hubert, P.; Pages, P.

    1988-03-01

    This study assesses the impact on health of an aircraft accident resulting in the release into the atmosphere of the reprocessing product PuO 2 . The consequences associated with the inhalation of the initial cloud, the passage into suspension of the powder deposited on the ground and the contamination of the food chain were therefore evaluated as a function of the quantity released. It was deduced that the risk of inhalation is by far the greatest. The countermeasures likely to be implemented during emergency action were subjected to analysis. In particular, it appeared that the impact of the first cloud could not really be mitigated but that it was possible to take effective action against the other consequences. Research was undertaken to establish tolerable release quantities which could if necessary be used as acceptance criteria for packaging tests. This indicated that a release in the range 10-100 g would give rise to controllable consequences, at least in a rural environment. The calculations relating to the estimation of the acute toxicity associated with the inhalation of Plutonium and details of the emergency action plan are given in appendix

  11. Advances in the sample preparation and the detector for a combined solvent extraction-liquid scintillation method of low-level plutonium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdue, P.T.; Christian, D.J.; Thorngate, J.H.; McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

    1976-07-01

    A combined solvent extraction-liquid scintillation technique, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has many possible applications to the determination of low levels of plutonium and other alpha-emitting nuclides. Using these procedures, plutonium can be extracted from biological or environmental samples and introduced directly into a liquid scintillator. Quenching of the scintillator is thus minimized so that spectroscopic techniques may be employed. Existing chemical procedures and counting equipment were reviewed and improved. Purification of the di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (used as the actinide extractant) was found necessary. Destruction of organic material in the sample and control of the valence state of plutonium were found to be major sources of irreproducibility. Methods were developed to allow samples separated with commonly used ion exchange techniques to be extracted into the scintillator. Comparisons were made of a wide variety of the components and parameters of the detector system to find the best combination of pulse-height resolution and pulse-shape discrimination. When a single phototube was used, optimum performance was obtained using a hemispherical reflector-sample holder viewed sideways by an RCA 8575 photomultiplier tube used in conjunction with a special integrating preamplifier and a good quality linear amplifier that used delay lines to shape the pulses

  12. A summary of volatile impurity measurements and gas generation studies on MISSTD-1, a high-purity plutonium oxide produced by low-temperature calcination of plutonium oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Narlesky, Joshua E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-08

    Plutonium dioxide of high specific surface area was subjected to long-term tests of gas generation in sealed containers. The material preparation and the storage conditions were outside the bounds of acceptable parameters defined by DOE-STD-3013-2012 in that the material was stabilized to a lower temperature than required and had higher moisture content than allowed. The data provide useful information for better defining the bounding conditions for safe storage. Net increases in internal pressure and transient increases in H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} were observed, but were well within the bounds of gas compositions previously shown to not threaten integrity of 3013 containers.

  13. A summary of volatile impurity measurements and gas generation studies on MISSTD-1, a high-purity plutonium oxide produced by low-temperature calcination of plutonium oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, John M.; Narlesky, Joshua E.; Veirs, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide of high specific surface area was subjected to long-term tests of gas generation in sealed containers. The material preparation and the storage conditions were outside the bounds of acceptable parameters defined by DOE-STD-3013-2012 in that the material was stabilized to a lower temperature than required and had higher moisture content than allowed. The data provide useful information for better defining the bounding conditions for safe storage. Net increases in internal pressure and transient increases in H 2 and O 2 were observed, but were well within the bounds of gas compositions previously shown to not threaten integrity of 3013 containers.

  14. Comparison of biamperometric and voltammetric method for plutonium and uranium determination in FBTR fuel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayachandran, Kavitha; Gupta, Ruma; Gamare, Jayashree; Kamat, J.V.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and precise determination of Pu and U in reactor fuel materials is essential for the characterization of the fuel as well as for fissile material accounting. Biamperometric method has been in routine use for Pu and U determination in a variety of nuclear fuel materials in our laboratory for past 25 years. A new methodology based on differential pulse voltammetry at single walled carbon nanotube modified gold electrode has been developed by us for the simultaneous determination of Pu and U in fuel samples. In order to validate the status of the methodologies employed for Pu and U determination, comparison experiments were performed involving Pu and U determination in FBTR fuel samples. Results of these studies are reported in this paper. (author)

  15. Plutonium determination by spectrophotometry of plutonium (VI): control of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, J [Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA), Centre de la Hague, 50 - Cherbourg (France)

    1980-10-01

    The plutonium (VI) spectrophotometric determination, after AgO oxidation in 3 M nitric acid medium, is used for the running-control of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague. Analytical device used in glove-box or shielded-cell is briefly described. This method is fast, sensitive, unfailing and gives simple effluents. It is applied by day and night shifts, during Light Water Reactor fuel reprocessing campaign, for 0.5 mg/l up to 20 g/l plutonium solutions. Reference solution measurements have a 0.8 to 1.4 % relative standard deviation; duplicate plutonium determinations give a 0.3% relative standard deviation for sample analysis. There is a discrepancy (- 0.3% to - 0.9%) between the spectrophotometric method results and the isotopic dilution analysis.

  16. Plutonium determination by spectrophotometry of plutonium (VI): control of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grison, J.

    1980-01-01

    The plutonium (VI) spectrophotometric determination, after AgO oxidation in 3 M nitric acid medium, is used for the running-control of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague. Analytical device used in glove-box or shielded-cell is briefly described. This method is fast, sensitive, unfailing and gives simple effluents. It is applied by day and night shifts, during Light Water Reactor fuel reprocessing campaign, for 0.5 mg/l up to 20 g/l plutonium solutions. Reference solution measurements have a 0.8 to 1.4 % relative standard deviation; duplicate plutonium determinations give a 0.3% relative standard deviation for sample analysis. There is a discrepancy (- 0.3% to - 0.9%) between the spectrophotometric method results and the isotopic dilution analysis [fr

  17. Solvent anode for plutonium purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowersox, D.F.; Fife, K.W.; Christensen, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a technique to allow complete oxidation of plutonium from the anode during plutonium electrorefining. This will eliminate the generation of a ''spent'' anode heel which requires further treatment for recovery. Our approach is to employ a solvent metal in the anode to provide a liquid anode pool throughout electrorefining. We use molten salts and metals in ceramic crucibles at 700 0 C. Our goal is to produce plutonium metal at 99.9% purity with oxidation and transfer of more than 98% of the impure plutonium feed metal from the anode into the salt and product phases. We have met these criteria in experiments on the 100 to 1000 g scale. We plan to scale our operations to 4 kg of feed plutonium and to optimize the process parameters

  18. Dry recovery test of plutonium-uranium mixed oxide fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinugasa, Manabu; Kawamata, Kazuhiko; Kashima, Sadamitsu

    1981-01-01

    The oxidation conditions for pulverizing directly Pu-U mixed oxide pellets without mechanical crushing were examined to simplify the process and to reduce radiation exposure during the dry recovery of highly enriched Pu pellets. The specimens used were the Pusub(0.3) Usub(0.7) Osub(2-x) pellets with different density, which were sintered at 1650 deg C for 2 hours under an atmosphere of 5 % H 2 - N 2 . The oxidation experiment was carried out under several conditions. The oxidation products were examined by weight gain, X-ray diffraction, appearance pictures, SEM photographs and so on. From these studies, it can be concluded that the oxidation in NO 2 diluted with air was very powerful, but if only the coarse spalling of Pusub(0.3) Usub(0.7) O 2 sintered pellets is required, it is sufficient to oxidize them in air for 1 hr in a temperature range from 400 to 600 deg C. (Asami, T.)

  19. Opportunities for mixed oxide fuel testing in the advanced test reactor to support plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Sterbentz, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. These issues include the following: (1) MOX fuel fabrication process verification; (2) Whether and how to use burnable poisons to depress MOX fuel initial reactivity, which is higher than that of urania; (3) The effects of WGPu isotopic composition; (4) The feasibility of loading MOX fuel with plutonia content up to 7% by weight; (5) The effects of americium and gallium in WGPu; (6) Fission gas release from MOX fuel pellets made from WGPu; (7) Fuel/cladding gap closure; (8) The effects of power cycling and off-normal events on fuel integrity; (9) Development of radial distributions of burnup and fission products; (10) Power spiking near the interfaces of MOX and urania fuel assemblies; and (11) Fuel performance code validation. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory possesses many advantages for performing tests to resolve most of the issues identified above. We have performed calculations to show that the use of hafnium shrouds can produce spectrum adjustments that will bring the flux spectrum in ATR test loops into a good approximation to the spectrum anticipated in a commercial LWR containing MOX fuel while allowing operation of the test fuel assemblies near their optimum values of linear heat generation rate. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. The requirements for planning and implementing a test program in the ATR have been identified. The facilities at Argonne National Laboratory-West can meet all potential needs for pre- and post-irradiation examination that might arise in a MOX fuel qualification program

  20. A Calibration to Predict the Concentrations of Impurities in Plutonium Oxide by Prompt Gamma Analysis Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narlesky, Joshua Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-10

    This report documents the new PG calibration regression equation. These calibration equations incorporate new data that have become available since revision 1 of “A Calibration to Predict the Concentrations of Impurities in Plutonium Oxide by Prompt Gamma Analysis” was issued [3] The calibration equations are based on a weighted least squares (WLS) approach for the regression. The WLS method gives each data point its proper amount of influence over the parameter estimates. This gives two big advantages, more precise parameter estimates and better and more defensible estimates of uncertainties. The WLS approach makes sense both statistically and experimentally because the variances increase with concentration, and there are physical reasons that the higher measurements are less reliable and should be less influential. The new magnesium calibration includes a correction for sodium and separate calibration equation for items with and without chlorine. These additional calibration equations allow for better predictions and smaller uncertainties for sodium in materials with and without chlorine. Chlorine and sodium have separate equations for RICH materials. Again, these equations give better predictions and smaller uncertainties chlorine and sodium for RICH materials.

  1. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  2. Determination of plutonium-241 by liquid scintillation counting method and its application to environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Miki; Amano, Hikaru

    1997-03-01

    Radionuclides are usually measured by gross counting mode in liquid scintillator counting (LSC) which measures both α and β pulses. This method can easily measure radioactivities, but its background counting is high. Recently reported α-β pulse shape discrimination method (α-β PSD method) in LSC which distinguishes α pulses from β pulses, shows low background counting, so it makes the detection limit lower. The aim of this research is to develop the best method for the determination of 241 Pu which is β-emitter, and Pu isotopes of α-emitters which have long half-lives and stay long in animal body. In this research, two LSC machines was carried out in different scintillators, vial volumes, measurement modes and so on. The following things were found. 1. The liquid scintillator based on naphthalene is proved to be the best separator of α-ray from β-ray, because it acts quickly in energy translation procedure between solvent and aromatic compounds. 2. α-β PSD method makes the background counting rate ten times lower than usual method. It makes the measurement performance better. 3. It is possible to determine 241 Pu in environmental samples around Chernobyl by the combination of LSC and radiochemical separation methods. (author)

  3. Basic design study on plutonium electro-refining facility of oxide fuel pyroelectrochemical reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Kenji; Kondo, Naruhito; Kamoshida, Hiroshi; Omori, Takashi

    2001-02-01

    The test facility basic design, utility necessity and estimation cost of the Oxide Fuel Pyro-process for the use of Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) of JNC have been studied with the information of the previous year concept study and the additional conditions. Drastic down sizing design change or the building reconstruction is necessary to place the Oxide Fuel Pyro-process Facility in the laboratory ''C'', because it is not possible to reserve enough maintenance space and the weight of the facility is over the acceptable limit of the building. A further study such as facility down sizing, apparatus detail design and experiment detail process treatment has to be planned. (author)

  4. Optimization of a radiochemistry method for plutonium determination in biological samples; Optimizacion del metodo radioquimico para determinar plutonio en muestras biologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerchetti, Maria L; Arguelles, Maria G [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Ezeiza (Argentina). Laboratorio de Dosimetria Personal y de Area

    2005-07-01

    Plutonium has been widely used for civilian an military activities. Nevertheless, the methods to control work exposition have not evolved in the same way, remaining as one of the major challengers for the radiological protection practice. Due to the low acceptable incorporation limit, the usual determination is based on indirect methods in urine samples. Our main objective was to optimize a technique used to monitor internal contamination of workers exposed to Plutonium isotopes. Different parameters were modified and their influence on the three steps of the method was evaluated. Those which gave the highest yield and feasibility were selected. The method involves: 1-) Sample concentration (coprecipitation); 2-) Plutonium purification; and 3-) Source preparation by electrodeposition. On the coprecipitation phase, changes on temperature and concentration of the carrier were evaluated. On the ion-exchange separation, changes on the type of the resin, elution solution for hydroxylamine (concentration and volume), length and column recycle were evaluated. Finally, on the electrodeposition phase, we modified the following: electrolytic solution, pH and time. Measures were made by liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry (PIPS). We obtained the following yields: 88% for coprecipitation (at 60 C degree with 2 ml of CaHPO{sub 4}), 71% for ion-exchange (resins AG 1x8 Cl{sup -} 100-200 mesh, hydroxylamine 0.1N in HCl 0.2N as eluent, column between 4.5 and 8 cm), and 93% for electrodeposition (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-NH{sub 4}OH, 100 minutes and pH from 2 to 2.8). The expand uncertainty was 30% (NC 95%), the decision threshold (Lc) was 0.102 Bq/L and the minimum detectable activity was 0.218 Bq/L of urine. We obtained an optimized method to screen workers exposed to Plutonium. (author)

  5. Determination of Plutonium by ICP-MS in environmental samples of Casaccia site: a comparison with Alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzella, M.L.; Gianquillo, G.; Pettirossi, R.

    2002-01-01

    The total inventory of plutonium (Pu) in the word is estimated to be around 20 PBq since 1950. The total fallout is estimated to be in the 1-10 MBq km -2 order of magnitude with a maximum at the latitude 40 o -50 o North

  6. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

    1993-06-01

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO 2 -ZrO 2 -CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO 2 ) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) or europium oxide (Eu 2 O 3 ) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl 4 -Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams

  7. Validation of MCNP6 Version 1.0 with the ENDF/B-VII.1 Cross Section Library for Plutonium Metals, Oxides, and Solutions on the High Performance Computing Platform Moonlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Bryan Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gough, Sean T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-05

    This report documents a validation of the MCNP6 Version 1.0 computer code on the high performance computing platform Moonlight, for operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that involve plutonium metals, oxides, and solutions. The validation is conducted using the ENDF/B-VII.1 continuous energy group cross section library at room temperature. The results are for use by nuclear criticality safety personnel in performing analysis and evaluation of various facility activities involving plutonium materials.

  8. Direct vitrification of plutonium-containing materials (PCM`s) with the glass material oxidation and dissolution system (GMODS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W. Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Haas, P.A.; Malling, G.F.; Elam, K.; Ott, L.

    1995-10-30

    The end of the cold war has resulted in excess PCMs from nuclear weapons and associated production facilities. Consequently, the US government has undertaken studies to determine how best to manage and dispose of this excess material. The issues include (a) ensurance of domestic health, environment, and safety in handling, storage, and disposition, (b) international arms control agreements with Russia and other countries, and (c) economics. One major set of options is to convert the PCMs into glass for storage or disposal. The chemically inert characteristics of glasses make them a desirable chemical form for storage or disposal of radioactive materials. A glass may contain only plutonium, or it may contain plutonium along with other radioactive materials and nonradioactive materials. GMODS is a new process for the direct conversion of PCMs (i.e., plutonium metal, scrap, and residues) to glass. The plutonium content of these materials varies from a fraction of a percent to pure plutonium. GMODS has the capability to also convert other metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass, destroy organics, and convert chloride-containing materials into a low-chloride glass and a secondary clean chloride salt strewn. This report is the initial study of GMODS for vitrification of PCMs as input to ongoing studies of plutonium management options. Several tasks were completed: initial analysis of process thermodynamics, initial flowsheet analysis, identification of equipment options, proof-of-principle experiments, and identification of uncertainties.

  9. Physics of plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The commercial recycling of plutonium as PuO 2 /UO 2 mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel is an established practice in pressurised water reactors (PWRs) in several countries, the main motivation being the consumption of plutonium arising from spent fuel reprocessing. Although the same motivating factors apply in the case of boiling water reactors (BWRs), they have lagged behind PWRs for various reasons, and MOX utilisation in BWRs has been implemented in only a few reactors to date. One of the reasons is that the nuclear design of BWR MOX assemblies (or bundles) is more complex than that of PWR assemblies. Recognizing the need and the timeliness to address this issue at the international level, the OECD/NEA Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles (WPPR) conducted a physics code benchmark test for a BWR assembly. This volume reports on the benchmark results and conclusions that can be drawn from it. (authors)

  10. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofman, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    If the world chooses to seek a solution to the energy dilemma through nuclear energy, the element plutonium will become an article of commerce to be handled in quantities of thousands of tonnes annually. Plutonium is a uniquely potent inhalation carcinogen, the potential induction of lung cancer dwarfing other possible toxic effects. For reasons to be presented here, it is the author's opinion that plutonium's carcinogenicity has been very seriously underestimated. If one couples the corrected carcinogenicity with the probable degree of industrial containment of the plutonium, it appears that the commercialization of a plutonium-based energy economy is not an acceptable option for society. Sagan's statement that ''the experience of 30 years supports the contention that plutonium can be used safely'' is manifestly indefensible. No meaningful epidemiological study of plutonium-exposed workers for that 30-year period has ever been done. Since thousands of those possibly exposed have left the industry and are not even available to follow-up, it is doubtful that any meaningful study of ''the experience of 30 years'' will ever be accomplished

  11. Influence of oxidation state on the absorption of plutonium from the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Ryan, J.L.; Gorham, L.S.; McFadden, K.M.

    1979-01-01

    Rats and guinea pigs treated intragastrically with either IV- or VI-valent 238 Pu showed no appreciable difference in absorption. Nitric acid solutions of 239 Pu (pH 2) were also administered to fasted and fed rats. When an oxidant (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ) was present in the solution gavaged to fasted rats, absorption increased 34-fold. However, when 239 Pu VI was administered to fed rats in the absence of dichromate, there was no appreciable difference between the absorption of 239 Pu VI and 239 Pu IV

  12. Model of the thermodynamic properties and structure of the non-stoichiometric plutonium and cerium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manes, L.; Mari, C.; Ray, I.

    1979-01-01

    The tetrahedral defect consisting of one oxygen vacancy bonded to two reduced cations - is an important concept, which, as shown in the present work, can explain both the thermodynamic properties and the structures of the phases of the PuO 2 -x and CeO 2 -x systems. Based on this concept a statistical thermodynamic model has been developed and this model is described along with some preliminary calculations. A relatively good agreement with experimental thermodynamic data was obtained in this calculation. Using the exclusion principle, defect complexes each containing one tetrahedral defect are derived and it is shown that a systematic packing of these gives a good description both of the non-stoichiometric and the ordered phases observed for these oxide systems. (orig.) [de

  13. Plutonium microstructures. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    This report is the first of three parts in which Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory metallographers exhibit a consolidated set of illustrations of inclusions that are seen in plutonium metal as a consequence of inherent and tramp impurities, alloy additions, and thermal or mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of nonmetallic and intermetallic inclusions characteristic of major impurity elements as an aid to identifying unknowns. It also describes historical aspects of the increased purity of laboratory plutonium samples, and it gives the composition of the etchant solutions and describes the etching procedure used in the preparation of each illustrated sample. 25 figures

  14. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  15. The use of calorimetry for plutonium assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.A.

    1982-12-01

    Calorimetry is a technique for measuring the thermal power of heat-producing substances. The technique may be applied to the measurement of plutonium-bearing materials which evolve heat as a result of alpha and beta decay. A calorimetric measurement of the thermal power of a plutonium sample, combined with a knowledge or measurement of the plutonium isotopic mass ratios of the sample provides a convenient and accurate, non-destructive measure of the total plutonium mass of the sample. The present report provides a description, and an assessment of the calorimetry technique applied to the assay of plutonium-bearing materials. Types and characteristics of plutonium calorimeters are considered, as well as calibration and operating procedures. The instrumentation used with plutonium calorimeters is described and the use of computer control for calorimeter automation is discussed. A critical review and assessment of plutonium calorimetry literature since 1970 is presented. Both fuel element and plutonium-bearing material calorimeters are considered. The different types of plutonium calorimeters are evaluated and their relative merits are discussed. A combined calorimeter and gamma-ray measurement assay system is considered. The design principles of plutonium assay calorimeters are considered. An automatic, computer-based calorimeter control system is proposed in conjunction with a general plutonium assay calorimeter design. (author)

  16. Recovery of Pu from PVC vials and bottles used for sample storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Paru; Bhide, M.K.; Kulkarni, M.J.; Kumar, Mithlesh; Adya, V.C.; Hon, N.S.; Kadam, R.M.; Nathaniel, Newton; Natarajan, V.

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium in the form of oxide is stored in plastic vials and bottles during its analysis for trace metal as say. Due to radiation damage and moisture, small amount of oxide samples were found to be adhering to surface of vials/ bottles. This required methods for safe disposal. Methods involving wet chemical and dry cleaning procedures were evaluated for effective removal of sticking α active plutonium oxide powder from these vials for their safe disposal. Dry cleaning method for removal of plutonium activity was found to be effective method for disposal of storage vial, while wet chemical method was found to be more suitable for removal of plutonium from damaged PVC bottles. (author)

  17. Boiling water reactors with uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel. Report 5: Analysis of the reactivity coefficients and the stability of a BWR loaded with MOx fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaziere, C. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires

    2000-01-01

    This report is a part of the project titled 'Boiling Water Reactors With Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxide (MOx) Fuel'. The aim of this study is to model the impact of a core loading pattern containing MOx bundles upon the main characteristics of a BWR (reactivity coefficients, stability, etc.). For this purpose, the Core Management System (CMS) codes of Studsvik Scandpower are used. This package is constituted by CASMO-4/TABLES-3/SIMULATE-3. It has been shown in previous reports that these codes are able to accurately represent and model MOx bundles. This report is thus devoted to the study of BWR cores loaded (partially or totally) with MOx bundles. The plutonium quality used is the Pu type 2016 (mostly Pu-239, 56 %, and Pu-240, 26 %), but a variation of the plutonium isotopic vector was also investigated, in case of a partial MOx loading. One notices that the reactivity coefficients do not present significant changes in comparison with a full UOx loading. Nevertheless, two main problems arise: the shutdown margin at BOC is lower than 1 % and the stability to in-phase oscillations is slightly decreased. (The SIMULATE-3 version used for this study does not contain the latest MOx enhancements described in literature, since these code developments have not been provided to the department. Nevertheless, as the nominal average enrichment of the MOx bundles is 5.41 % (total amount of plutonium), which can still be considered as a relatively low enrichment, the accuracy of the CMS codes is acceptable without the use of the MOx improvements for this level of Pu enrichment.

  18. Inhalation toxicology of industrial plutonium and uranium oxide aerosols II. Deposition, retention and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, J.A.; Eidson, A.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Mo, T.

    1978-01-01

    A series of studies has been initiated in which powdered fuel materials obtained at industrial sites have been aerosolized in the dry state for the inhalation exposure of Fischer-344 rats, Beagle dogs and Cynomolgus monkeys to evaluate the potential biological hazard of such accidents. The materials chosen for study were 750 deg. C heat-treated mixed PuO 2 and UO 2 obtained from a ball milling process and 1750 deg. C heat-treated (U,Pu)O 1.97 powder obtained from the centerless grinding of fuel pellets. Care was taken to insure that the regenerated aerosols used in animal inhalation exposures had similar particle size and size distribution characteristics to those measured during glove box sampling at the industrial plant. The deposition, retention, distribution and excretion of these materials are being studied, using serial sacrifice of animals at times from 4 hours to several years after inhalation exposure. Periodic excreta samples are collected on all animals. Biological samples are analyzed to yield data on Pu, Am and U content. Data from animals sacrificed up to one year will be presented. The retention of 239 Pu and 241 Am in the lung and their subsequent clearance and translocation to other tissues such as liver, skeleton and tracheobronchial lymph nodes will be discussed in relation to the influence of species and of the physical chemical properties of the exposure aerosol. (author)

  19. Computation Results from a Parametric Study to Determine Bounding Critical Systems of Homogeneously Water-Moderated Mixed Plutonium--Uranium Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Y.

    2001-01-11

    This report provides computational results of an extensive study to examine the following: (1) infinite media neutron-multiplication factors; (2) material bucklings; (3) bounding infinite media critical concentrations; (4) bounding finite critical dimensions of water-reflected and homogeneously water-moderated one-dimensional systems (i.e., spheres, cylinders of infinite length, and slabs that are infinite in two dimensions) that were comprised of various proportions and densities of plutonium oxides and uranium oxides, each having various isotopic compositions; and (5) sensitivity coefficients of delta k-eff with respect to critical geometry delta dimensions were determined for each of the three geometries that were studied. The study was undertaken to support the development of a standard that is sponsored by the International Standards Organization (ISO) under Technical Committee 85, Nuclear Energy (TC 85)--Subcommittee 5, Nuclear Fuel Technology (SC 5)--Working Group 8, Standardization of Calculations, Procedures and Practices Related to Criticality Safety (WG 8). The designation and title of the ISO TC 85/SC 5/WG 8 standard working draft is WD 14941, ''Nuclear energy--Fissile materials--Nuclear criticality control and safety of plutonium-uranium oxide fuel mixtures outside of reactors.'' Various ISO member participants performed similar computational studies using their indigenous computational codes to provide comparative results for analysis in the development of the standard.

  20. Plutonium again (smuggling and movements)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A link is discounted between nuclear proliferation and the recently discovered smuggled plutonium from the former Soviet Union at Munich airport and other places in Germany. It is argued that governments wishing to obtain nuclear materials to develop a weapons programme would not arrange to have it smuggled in a suitcase. Instead, it is speculated that a link exists between the plutonium smuggling incidents and the desire to promote the production of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. Such incidents, by further raising public anxiety, may be intended to turn public opinion in favour of MOX fuel production as a sensible way of getting rid of surplus plutonium. (UK)

  1. A simple air sampling technique for monitoring nitrous oxide pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J C; Shaw, R; Moyes, D; Cleaton-Jones, P E

    1981-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for the continuous low-flow sampling of air was devised to permit monitoring of pollution by gaseous anaesthetics. The device consisted of a water-filled Perspex cylinder in which a double-walled flexible-film gas sample collection bag was suspended. Air samples could be aspirated into the collection bag at flow rates of as low as 1 ml min-1 by allowing the water to drain from the cylinder at a controlled rate. The maintenance of sample integrity with aspiration and storage of samples of nitrous oxide in air at concentrations of 1000, 100 and 30 p.p.m. v/v was examined using gas chromatography. The sample bags retained a mean 94% of the nitrous oxide in air samples containing nitrous oxide 25 p.p.m. over a 72-h storage period.

  2. Oxidative stability examination of irradiated swine for samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formanek, Z.

    1995-01-01

    DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), OBM (Oxygen Bomb Method) methods and POV (Peroxide Value) determination was applied to determine the oxidative stability of lard samples irradiated by a Co 60 gamma source at the dose of 0; 0.75; 2.5kGy. Both of the methods seem to be suitable to determine oxidative stability of fats, because in every case lowering oxidative stability was received with increasing irradiation dose. (R.P.). 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  3. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wishau, R.

    1998-05-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

  4. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wishau, R.

    1998-05-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a 238 Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of 238 Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of 238 Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious 238 Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of 238 Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further 238 Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious 238 Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose 238 Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment

  5. Granulometric study of plutonium oxide particles in suspension in the atmosphere of a furnace enclosure during the preparation of U-Pu alloys; Etude granulometrique des particules d'oxyde de plutonium en suspension dans l'atmosphere d'une enceinte de fonderie pendant la fabrication d'alliages U-PU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataller, G; Lenkauer, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Since the extent of an internal contamination by respiration depends on the diameter of the radioactive particles in the atmosphere, a particle size study has been made of the particles present in the air of a working enclosure at the Plutonium Fuel Element Production Section during the preparation of Uranium Plutonium alloy bars. The air of this vessel is drawn through a glass fibre filter on which the dust is deposited. On these filters the radioactive particles are localized first of all by the luminous spots which they produce on a photographic plate when a scintillator is interposed (silver-activated zinc sulphide). An autoradiographic method then makes it possible to distinguish between, and to measure the particles of the oxides of uranium 235, uranium 238 and plutonium 239. On carrying out a microscopic scanning of the relevant parts of the filter, particles are seen surrounded by radial marks the length of which indicates the nature of the grains, and the number of which makes it possible to calculate the theoretical diameter of the radioactive grain. This latter can be compared with the diameter observed with the microscope. Thus for each category of particles it is possible to define a mean diameter and therefore to predict the path of the various inhaled particles in the human body. These results are compared with the very few weakly positive biological samples taken from the personnel working in this enclosure. (authors) [French] L'importance d'une contamination interne par inhalation etant fonction du diametre des particules radioactives en suspension dans l'atmosphere, une etude granulometrique a ete effectuee sur les poussieres existant dans l'air d'une enceinte de travail a la Section de Fabrication des Elements Combustibles au Plutonium pendant une fabrication de barreaux d'alliage Uranium Plutonium, L'air de ce caisson est aspire a travers un filtre en fibre de verre sur lequel restent fixees les poussieres. Sur ces filtres, les particules

  6. Determination of plutonium in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu

    1978-01-01

    Past and present methods of determining the amount of plutonium in the environment are summarized. Determination of the amount of plutonium in uranium ore began in 1941. Plutonium present in polluted environments due to nuclear explosions, nuclear power stations, etc. was measured in soil and sand in Nagasaki in 1951 and in ash in Bikini in 1954. Analytical methods of measuring the least amount of plutonium in the environment were developed twenty years later. Many studies on and reviews of these methods have been reported all over the world, and a standard analytical procedure has been adopted. A basic analytical method of measurement was drafted in Japan in 1976. The yield, treatment of samples, dissolution, separation, control of measurable ray sources determination by α spectrometry, cross-check determination, and treatment of samples containing hardly soluble plutonium were examined. At present, the amount of plutonium can be determined by all of these methods. The presence of plutonium was studied further, and the usefulness of determination of the plutonium isotope ratio is discussed. (Kumagai, S.)

  7. High-temperature enthalpies of plutonium monocarbide and plutonium sesquicarbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oetting, F.L.

    1979-01-01

    The high-temperature enthalpies of plutonium monocarbide and plutonium sesquicarbide have been determined with a copper-block calorimeter of the isoperibol type. The experimental enthalpy data, which was measured relative to 298 K, covered the temperature range from 400 to 1500 K. The calculation of the temperature rise of the calorimeter takes into account the added heat evolution from the radioactive decay of the plutonium samples. These enthalpy results, combined with the heat capacity and entropy of the respective carbide at 298 K available from the literature, has made it possible to generate tables of thermodynamic functions for the plutonium carbides. The behavior of the heat capacity of both of the plutonium carbides, i.e., a relatively steep increase in the heat capacity as the temperature increases, may be attributed to a premelting effect with the formation of vacancies within the crystal lattice although a theoretical treatment of this phenomenon is not given

  8. Swiss R and D on uranium-free LWR fuels for plutonium incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, A.; Chawla, R.; Degueldre, C.; Kasemeyer, U.; Ledergerber, G.; Paratte, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The most efficient way to enhance the plutonium consumption in LWRs is to eliminate plutonium production altogether. This requirement leads to fuel concepts in which the uranium is replaced by an inert matrix. The inert matrix material studied at PSI is zirconium oxide. For reactivity control reasons, adding a burnable poison to this fuel proves to be necessary. The studies performed at PSI have identified erbium oxide as the most suitable candidate for this purpose. With regard to material technology aspects, efforts have concentrated on the evaluation of fabrication feasibility and on the determination of the physicochemical properties of the chosen single phase zirconium/ erbium/plutonium oxide material stabilised as a cubic solution by yttrium. The results to-date, obtained for inert matrix samples containing thorium or cerium as plutonium substitute, confirm the robustness and stability of this material. With regard to reactor physics aspects, our studies indicate the feasibility of uranium-free, plutonium-fuelled cores having operational characteristics quite similar to those of conventional UO 2 -fuelled ones, and much higher plutonium consumption rates, as compared to 100% MOX loadings. The safety features of such cores, based on results obtained from static neutronics calculations, show no cliff edges. However, the need for further detailed transient analyses is clearly recognised. Summarising, PSI's studies indicate the feasibility of a uranium-free plutonium fuel to be considered in 'maximum plutonium consumption LWRs' operating in a 'once-through' mode. With regard to reactor physics, future efforts will concentrate on strengthening the safety case of uranium-free cores, as well as on improving the integral data base for validation of the neutronics calculations. Material technology studies will be continued to investigate the physico-chemical properties of the inert matrix fuel containing plutonium and will focus on the planning and evaluation of

  9. Plutonium-induced lymphadenitis in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium oxide particles accumulate in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of beagles exposed by inhalation and in the popliteal lymph nodes after subcutaneous injection in the hind paws. The sequence of histopathologic changes after phagocytosis of particles included necrosis, increased numbers of macrophages, and fibroplasia. Scar tissue eventually replaced the normal architecture of the lymph nodes and sequestered the plutonium particles from surrounding parenchyma. Electron microscopy showed that plutonium particles were aggregated in phagolysosomes of macrophages

  10. Plutonium Speciation, Solubilization and Migration in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, M.; Runde, W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes research completed in the first half of a three-year project. As outlined in the authors' proposal they are focusing on (1) characterizing the plutonium at an actinide contaminated site, RFETS, including determining the origin, dispersion, and speciation of the plutonium, (2) studying environmentally important plutonium complexes, primarily hydroxides and carbonates, and (3) examining the interactions of plutonium species with manganese minerals. In the first year the authors focused on site based studies. This year they continue to characterize samples from the RFETS, study the formation and structural and spectroscopic features of environmentally relevant Pu species, and begin modeling the environmental behavior of plutonium

  11. Preparation of plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, W.G.; Sutcliffe, P.W.

    1982-01-01

    A 238 Pu 16 O 2 fuel for a heart pacemaker battery is produced on an essentially two-stage process wherein, in the first stage, 238 Pusup(nat)O 2 is reduced with graphite to form the sesquicarbide 238 Pu 2 C 3 and, in the second stage, the carbide is converted to 238 Pu 16 O 2 by using water depleted in 17 O and 18 O. The product, which can be made reproducibly, has radiation characteristics well within those recommended for bio-medical use. (author)

  12. Measurement of electro-sprayed 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes using 4{pi}-alpha spectrometry. Application to environmental samples; Spectrometrie alpha 4{pi} de sources d'actinides realisees par electronebulisation. Developpement et optimisation d'un protocole applique au mesurage des isotopes 238 et 239+240 du plutonium dans l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmoille-Roblot, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement (DPRE), 92 (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-07-01

    A new protocol for plutonium deposition using the electro-spray technique coupled with 4{pi}-{alpha} spectrometry is proposed to improve the detection limit, shorten the counting time. In order to increase the detection efficiency, it was proposed to measure 238 and 239+240 plutonium isotopes electro-sprayed deposit simultaneously on both sides of the source support, that must be as transparent as possible to alpha-emissions, in a two-alpha detectors chamber. A radiochemical protocol was adapted to electro-spray constraints and a very thin carbon foil was selected for 4{pi} -alpha spectrometry. The method was applied to a batch of sediment samples and gave the same results as an electrodeposited source measured using conventional alpha spectrometry with a 25 % gain on counting time and 10 % on plutonium 238 detection limit. Validation and application of the technique have been made on reference samples. (author)

  13. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Measurements of Plutonium-bearing Oxide in DOE-STD-3013-2000 Containers Using Calorimetry and Gamma Isotopic Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearborn, D M; Keeton, S C

    2004-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely uses calorimetry and gamma isotopic analyses (Cal/Iso) for the accountability measurement of plutonium (Pu) bearing items. In the past 15 years, the vast majority of those items measured by Cal/Iso were contained in a thin-walled convenience can enclosed in another thin-walled outer container. However, LLNL has recently begun to use DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers as well. These DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers are comprised of a stainless steel convenience can enclosed in welded stainless steel primary and secondary containers. In addition to the fact that the wall thickness of the DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers is much greater than that of other containers in our experience, the DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers appear to have larger thermal insulation characteristics. To date, we have derived Pu-mass values from Cal/Iso measurements of 74 different DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers filled with Pu-bearing oxide or mixed uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) oxide material. Both water-bath and air-bath calorimeters were used for these measurements and both use software to predict when thermal equilibrium is attained. Our experience has shown that after apparent equilibrium has been attained, at least one more complete cycle, and sometimes two or three more complete cycles, is required to gain a measure of true thermal equilibrium. Otherwise, the derived Pu-mass values are less than would be expected from a combination of previously measured Pu-bearing items and would contribute to increased loss in our inventory difference determinations. Conclusions and recommendations drawn from LLNL experience with measurements of Pu mass in Pu-bearing oxide or mixed U-Pu oxide in DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers using the Cal/Iso technique are included

  14. Assesment of Plutonium 238 and Plutonium 239+240 in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Martinez, E.A.

    1998-02-01

    In this report an assesment and measurement of PLUTONIUM 238, PLUTONIUM 239, and PLUTONIUM 240 are made. Samples of cultivated soils in 15 provinces of Guatemala were taken. To separate plutonium isotopes a radiochemical method was made using extraction, precipitation and ionic interchange. By electrodeposition the plutonium was measured using an alpha spectroscopy by PIPS method. The radioactivity ranges from 2.84 mBq/Kg to 36.38 mBq/Kg for plutonium 238, and 8.46 mBq/Kg to 26.61 mBq/Kg for plutonium 239+240

  15. The first milligrams of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates the discovery of the different plutonium chemical extraction processes in their historical context. The first experiments started during the second world war in 1942 with the American ''Metallurgical Laboratory'' project which brought together Arthur Compton, Enrico Fermi and Glenn Seaborg. During the same period, a competitive English-Canadian project, the ''Montreal Project'', was carried out to test different plutonium solvent extraction techniques. The author participated in both projects and joined the CEA in 1946, where he was in charge of the uranium and plutonium chemistry. By the end of 1949, his team could isolate the first milligrams of French plutonium from uranium oxide pellets of the ZOE reactor. In the beginning of 1952 he developed with his team the PUREX process. (J.S.)

  16. Technological alternatives for plutonium transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This paper considers alternative transport modes (air, sea, road, rail) for moving (1) plutonium from a reprocessing plant to a store or a fuel fabrication facility, and (2) MOX fuel from the latter to a reactor. These transport modes and differing forms of plutonium are considered in terms of: their proliferation resistance and safeguards; environmental and safety aspects; and economic aspects. It is tentatively proposed that the transport of plutonium could continue by air or sea where long distances are involved and by road or rail over shorter distances; this would be acceptable from the non-proliferation, environmental impact and economic aspects - there may be advantages in protection if plutonium is transported in the form of mixed oxide

  17. Chloride removal from plutonium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution containing plutonium. Levels less than 10 ppM chloride were achieved in the supernates over the precipitated and centrifuged insoluble salts. Also, less than 0.05% loss of plutonium in the +3, +4, or +6 oxidation states was incurred via precipitate carrying. These results provide impetus for further study and development of a plant-scale process to recover plutonium from metal alloy at SRP

  18. Plutonium (Pu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the properties and uses of plutonium: where does it come from, the history of its discovery, its uses and energy content, its recycling and reuse in MOX fuels, its half-life, toxicity and presence in the environment. (J.S.)

  19. CSER 01-008 Canning of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide Powder in PFP Glovebox HC-21A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERICKSON, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the analysis performed to support the canning operation in HC-21A. Most of the actual analysis was performed for the operation in HC-18M and HA-20MB, and is documented in HNF-2707 Rev I a (Erickson 2001a). This document will reference Erickson (2001a) as necessary to support the operation in HC-21A. The plutonium stabilization program at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) uses heat to convert plutonium-bearing materials into dry powder that is chemically stable for long term storage. The stabilized plutonium is transferred into one of several gloveboxes for the canning process, Gloveboxes HC-18M in Room 228'2, HA-20MB in Room 235B, and HC-21A in Room 230B are to be used for this process. This document presents the analysis performed to support the canning operation in HC-21A. Most of the actual analysis was performed for the operation in HC-I8M and HA-20MB, and is documented in HNF-2707 Rev l a (Erickson 2001a). This document will reference Erickson (2001a) as necessary to support the operation in HC-21A. Evaluation of this operation included normal, base cases, and contingencies. The base cases took the normal operations for each type of feed material and added the likely off-normal events. Each contingency is evaluated assuming the unlikely event happens to the conservative base case. Each contingency was shown to meet the double contingency requirement. That is, at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions are required before a criticality is possible

  20. Learning more about plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document offers chemical, metallurgical and economical information on the plutonium, a hard white radioelement. It deals also on the plutonium formation in the earth, the plutonium use in the nuclear industry, the plutonium in the environment and the plutonium toxicity. (A.L.B.)

  1. Plutonium in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium in nature comes from natural sources and anthropogenic ones. Plutonium at the earth surface comes principally from anthropogenic sources. It is easily detectable in environment. The plutonium behaviour in environment is complex. It seems necessary for the future to reduce releases in environment, to improve predictive models of plutonium behaviour in geosphere, to precise biological impact of anthropogenic plutonium releases

  2. Boiling water reactors with Uranium-Plutonium mixed oxide fuel. Report 1: Accuracy of the nuclide concentrations calculated by CASMO-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaziere, C.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a part of the project titled 'Boiling Water Reactors With Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxide (MOx) Fuel'. The aim of this study is to model the impact of a core loading pattern containing MOx bundles upon the main characteristics of a BWR (reactivity coefficients, stability, etc.). The tools that are available to perform a modeling in the Department of Reactor Physics in Chalmers are CASMO-4/TABLES-3/SIMULATE-3 from Studsvik of America. These CMS (Core Management System) programs have been extensively compared with both measurements and reference codes. Nevertheless some data are proprietary in particular the comparison of the calculated nuclide concentrations versus experiments (because of the cost of this kind of experimental study). This is why this report describes such a comparative investigation carried out with a General Electric 7x7 BWR bundle. Unfortunately, since some core history parameters were unknown, a lot of hypotheses have been adopted. This invokes sometimes a significant discrepancy in the results without being able to determine the origin of the differences between calculations and experiments. Yet one can assess that, except for four nuclides - Plutonium-238, Curium-243, Curium-244 and Cesium-135 - for which the approximate power history (history effect) can be invoked, the accuracy of the calculated nuclide concentrations is rather good if one takes the numerous approximations into account

  3. Determination and speciation of plutonium, americium, uranium, thorium, potassium and 137Cs in a Venice canal sediment sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Guerra, F.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.; Degetto, S.

    1998-01-01

    A sequential extraction method consisting of six operationally-defined fractions has been developed for determining the geochemical partitioning of natural (U, Th, 40 K) and anthropogenic (Pu, Am, 137 Cs) radionuclides in a 40-50 cm deep sediment sample collected in a Venice canal. Extraction chromatography was used for the chemical separation of a single radionuclide; the final recoveries were calculated by adding 232 U, 228 Th, 242 Pu and 243 Am as the yield tracers. After electrodeposition the alpha spectrometry was carried out. 137 Cs and 40 K were measured by gamma spectrometry. The total concentrations in the wet sample, obtained by a complete disgregation of the matrix by NaOH fusion, were the following: 239+240 Pu = 610 ± 80 mBq/kg, 238 Pu = 13 ± 5mBq/kg, 241 Am 200 ± 30 mBq/kg, 137 Cs = 6.9 ± 1.1 Bq/kg, U = 1.33 ± 0.14 ppm, Th = 2.69 ± 0.26 ppm, K = 0.72 ± 0.04 %. The mean ratio 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu ( 0.02) shows a contamination due essentially to fall-out and U and Th alpha spectra indicate the natural origin of two elements. The absence of 134 Cs proves that the sediment was not affected by the Chernobyl fall-out. For the speciation, the following fractions were considered: water soluble, carbonates, Fe-Mn oxides, organic matter, acid soluble, residue. Pu (about 65%) and Am (about 90%) were present predominantly in the carbonate fraction; U was more distributed and about 30% appeared both in the carbonate fraction and in the residue; the majority of Th was present in the residue (about 67%); 40 K was totally present in the residue; and 137 Cs was found mostly in the acid soluble fraction (about 46%) and in the residue (about 40%)

  4. Study of the reaction of uranium and plutonium with bone char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.; Koenst, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the reaction of plutonium with a commercial bone char indicates that this bone char has a high capacity for removing plutonium from aqueous wastes. The adsorption of plutonium by bone char is pH dependent, and for plutonium(IV) polymer appears to be maximized near pH 7.3 for plutonium concentrations typical of some waste streams. Adsorption is affected by dissolved salts, especially calcium and phosphate salts. Freundlich isotherms representing the adsorption of uranium and plutonium have been prepared. The low potential imposed upon aqueous solutions by commercial bone char is adequate for reduction of hexavalent plutonium to a lower plutonium oxidation state

  5. Test plan for demonstrating plutonium extraction from 10-L solutions using EIChrom extraction chromatographic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    Corrosive plutonium solutions stored in 10-L containers at the Plutonium Finishing Plant must be treated to convert the plutonium to a safe, solid form for storage and to remove the americium so that radiation exposure can be reduced. Extraction chromatographic resins will be tested for separating plutonium from these solutions in the laboratory. Separation parameters will be developed during the testing for large scale processing of the 10-L solutions and solutions of similar composition. Use of chromatographic resins will allow plutonium separation with minimum of chemical addition to the feed and without the need for plutonium valence adjustment. The separated plutonium will be calcined to plutonium oxide by direct solution calcination

  6. Accountability methods for plutonium and uranium: the NRC manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutmacher, R.G.; Stephens, F.B.

    1977-09-28

    Four manuals containing methods for the accountability of plutonium nitrate solutions, plutonium dioxide, uranium dioxide and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide have been prepared by us and issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A similar manual on methods for the accountability of uranium and plutonium in reprocessing plant dissolver solutions is now in preparation. In the present paper, we discuss the contents of the previously issued manuals and give a preview of the manual now being prepared.

  7. Accountability methods for plutonium and uranium: the NRC manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmacher, R.G.; Stephens, F.B.

    1977-01-01

    Four manuals containing methods for the accountability of plutonium nitrate solutions, plutonium dioxide, uranium dioxide and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide have been prepared by us and issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A similar manual on methods for the accountability of uranium and plutonium in reprocessing plant dissolver solutions is now in preparation. In the present paper, we discuss the contents of the previously issued manuals and give a preview of the manual now being prepared

  8. Physics of Plutonium Recycling in Thermal Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinchin, G.H.

    1967-01-01

    A substantial programme of experimental reactor physics work with plutonium fuels has been carried out in the UK; the purpose of this paper is to review the experimental and theoretical work, with emphasis on plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. Although the main incentive for some of the work may have been to study plutonium build-up in uranium-fuelled reactors, it is nevertheless relevant to plutonium recycling and no distinction is drawn between build-up and enrichment studies. A variety of techniques have been for determining reactivity, neutron spectrum and reaction rates in simple assemblies of plutonium-aluminium fuel with water, graphite and beryllia moderators. These experiments give confidence in the basic data and methods of calculation for near-homogeneous mixtures of plutonium and moderator. In the practical case of plutonium recycling it is necessary to confirm that satisfactory predictions can be made for heterogeneous lattices enriched with plutonium. In this field, experiments have been carried out with plutonium-uranium metal and oxide-cluster fuels in graphite-moderated lattices and in SGHW lattices, and the effects of 240 Pu have been studied by perturbation measurements with single fuel elements. The exponential and critical experiments have used tonne quantities of fuel with plutonium contents ranging from 0.25 to 1.2% and the perturbation experiments have extended both the range of plutonium contents and the range of isotopic compositions of plutonium. In addition to reactivity and reactivity coefficients, such as the temperature coefficients, attention has been concentrated on relative reaction rate distributions which provide evidence for variations of neutron spectrum. .Theoretical comparisons, together with similar comparisons for non-uniform lattices, establish the validity of methods of calculation which have been used to study the feasibility of plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. (author)

  9. Physics of Plutonium Recycling in Thermal Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinchin, G. H. [Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1967-09-15

    A substantial programme of experimental reactor physics work with plutonium fuels has been carried out in the UK; the purpose of this paper is to review the experimental and theoretical work, with emphasis on plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. Although the main incentive for some of the work may have been to study plutonium build-up in uranium-fuelled reactors, it is nevertheless relevant to plutonium recycling and no distinction is drawn between build-up and enrichment studies. A variety of techniques have been for determining reactivity, neutron spectrum and reaction rates in simple assemblies of plutonium-aluminium fuel with water, graphite and beryllia moderators. These experiments give confidence in the basic data and methods of calculation for near-homogeneous mixtures of plutonium and moderator. In the practical case of plutonium recycling it is necessary to confirm that satisfactory predictions can be made for heterogeneous lattices enriched with plutonium. In this field, experiments have been carried out with plutonium-uranium metal and oxide-cluster fuels in graphite-moderated lattices and in SGHW lattices, and the effects of {sup 240}Pu have been studied by perturbation measurements with single fuel elements. The exponential and critical experiments have used tonne quantities of fuel with plutonium contents ranging from 0.25 to 1.2% and the perturbation experiments have extended both the range of plutonium contents and the range of isotopic compositions of plutonium. In addition to reactivity and reactivity coefficients, such as the temperature coefficients, attention has been concentrated on relative reaction rate distributions which provide evidence for variations of neutron spectrum. .Theoretical comparisons, together with similar comparisons for non-uniform lattices, establish the validity of methods of calculation which have been used to study the feasibility of plutonium recycling in thermal reactors. (author)

  10. Skeletal lesions from inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Weller, R.E.; Ragan, H.A.; McClanahan, B.J.; Fisher, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    The report briefly reviews the skeletal effects observed in ongoing lifespan studies in beagle dogs at 13, 10, and 7 years, respectively, after inhalation exposure to 239 Pu oxide and nitrate or 238 Pu oxide. Plutonium nitrate was chosen to represent soluble material more readily translocated to bone and other tissues than the oxide. Bone lesions related to plutonium exposure were observed only in dogs exposed to 238 Pu oxide and 239 Pu nitrate. The skeleton accumulated approximately 2% ( 239 Pu oxide), 45% ( 238 Pu oxide) or 50% ( 239 Pu nitrate) of the final body burdens at 13, 10, and 7 years, respectively, after exposure. 11 references, 2 figures

  11. Boiling water reactors with uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel. Report 2: A survey of the accuracy of the Studsvik of America CMS codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaziere, C.

    1999-02-01

    This report is a part of the project titled 'Boiling Water Reactors With Uranium-Plutonium Mixed Oxide (MOx) Fuel'. The aim of this study is to model the impact of a core loading pattern containing MOx bundles upon the main characteristics of a BWR (reactivity coefficients, stability, etc.). The tools that are available to perform a modeling in the Department of Reactor Physics in Chalmers are CASMO-4/TABLES-3/SIMULATE-3 from Studsvik of America. Thus, before performing any kind of calculation with MOx fuels, it is necessary to be able to establish the reliability and the accuracy of these Core Management System (CMS) codes. This report presents a quantitative analysis of the models used in the package. A qualitative presentation is realized in a coming report

  12. Plutonium story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope 238 Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope 239 Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements

  13. Direct reduction of plutonium from dicesium hexachloroplutonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averill, W.A.; Boyd, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant produces dicesium hexachloroplutonate (DCHP) primarily as a reagent in the molten salt extraction of americium from plutonium metal. DCHP is precipitated from aqueous chloride solutions derived from the leaching of process residues with a high degree of selectivity. DCHP is a chloride salt of plutonium, while the traditional aqueous precipitate is a hydrated oxide. Plutonium metal preparation from the oxide involves either the conversion of oxide to a halide followed by metallothermic reduction or direct reduction of the oxide using a flux. Either method generates at least three times as much radioactively contaminated waste as metal produced. Plutonium concentration by DCHP precipitation, however, produces a chloride salt that can be reduced using calcium metal at a temperature of approximately 1000K. In this paper the advantages and limitations of this process are discussed

  14. A method for determining an effective porosity correction factor for thermal conductivity in fast reactor uranium-plutonium oxide fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaki; Abe, Kazuyuki; Sato, Isamu

    2000-01-01

    A reliable method has been developed for determining an effective porosity correction factor for calculating a realistic thermal conductivity for fast reactor uranium-plutonium (mixed) oxide fuel pellets. By using image analysis of the ceramographs of transverse sections of mixed-oxide fuel pellets, the fuel morphology could be classified into two basic types. One is a 'two-phase' type that consists of small pores dispersed in the fuel matrix. The other is a 'three-phase' type that has large pores in addition to the small pores dispersed in the fuel matrix. The pore sizes are divided into two categories, large and small, at the 30 μm area equivalent diameter. These classifications lead to an equation for calculating an effective porosity correction factor by accounting for the small and large pore volume fractions and coefficients. This new analytical method for determining the effective porosity correction factor for calculating the realistic thermal conductivity of mixed-oxide fuel was also experimentally confirmed for high-, medium- and low-density fuel pellets

  15. United Kingdom experience in plutonium transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This paper describes the extensive experience of the UKAEA and British Nuclear Fuels Limited in transporting plutonium within the UK over the last 20 years and to destinations overseas since the early 1960s. The aspects covered include: the form of plutonium transported (nitrate, oxide, mixed oxide etc.); UK and international regulations (e.g. covering safety and safeguards matters); insurance; container design; mode of transport; physical protection; and a safety analysis. Costs are estimated to be largely independent of quantity

  16. Plutonium use in foreign countries (03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2004-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experiences of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2003 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which plans to recycle a part of plutonium: Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels: The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories: The data and information of plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  17. Plutonium use in foreign countries (01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2002-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2001 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which recently appears the move of recycling a part of plutonium. Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels. The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories. The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  18. Plutonium use in foreign countries (99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2000-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 1999 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which recently appears the move to recycling a part of plutonium backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels. The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories. The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign counties were collected. (author)

  19. Plutonium use in foreign countries. (04)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otagaki, Takao

    2005-03-01

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2004 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, the U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which plans to recycle a limited amount of plutonium: Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels: The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories: The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  20. Decontaminaion of metals containing plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Gerding, T.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1979-06-01

    Melt-slagging (melt-refining) techniques were evaluated as a decontamination and consolidation step for metals contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium. Experiments were performed in which mild steel, stainless steel, and nickel contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium were melted in the presence of silicate slags of various compositions. The metal products were low in contamination, with the plutonium and americium strongly fractionated to the slags. Partition coefficients (plutonium in slag/plutonium in steel) of 7 x 10 6 were measured with boro-silicate slag and of 3 x 10 6 with calcium, magnesium silicate slag. Decontamination of metals containing as much as 14,000 ppM plutonium appears to be as efficient as for metals with plutonium levels of 400 ppM. Staged extraction, that is, a remelting of processed metal with clean slag, results in further decontamination of the metal. The second extraction is effective with either resistance-furnace melting or electric-arc melting. Slag adhering to the metal ingots and in defects within the ingots is in the important contributors to plutonium retained in processed metals. If these sources of plutonium are controlled, the melt-refining process can be used on a large scale to convert highly contaminated metals to homogeneous and compact forms with very low concentrations of plutonium and americium. A conceptual design of a melt-refining process to decontaminate plutonium- and americium-contaminated metals is described. The process includes single-stage refining of contaminated metals to produce a metal product which would have less than 10 nCi/g of TRU-element contamination. Two plant sizes were considered. The smaller conceptual plant processes 77 kg of metal per 8-h period and may be portable.The larger one processes 140 kg of metal per 8-h period, is stationary, and may be near te maximum size that is practical for a metal decontamination process

  1. Plutonium storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Spanish study gives a more detailed analysis of a possible store for plutonium oxide. The capacity of the store is assumed to be 30 t Pu and the minimum storage time 2 years. The study includes a general description of the store and its design philosophy; comments on the quality and properties of the material stored; a detailed criticality study and comments on gas and heat generation and shielding requirements; and a brief cost evaluation. Costs are estimated to be about $110/kg PuO 2 /year

  2. The plutonium challenge for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper author deal with the weapons-usable plutonium and with the possibilities of their managing. Russia has not disclosed the amount of plutonium produced, but various estimates indicate that the production was about 130 tonnes. Production has been curtailed in Russia; three dual-purpose reactors still produce weapons-grade plutonium - two at Tomsk-7 (renamed Seversk) and one at Krasnoyarsk-26 (renamed Zheleznogorsk Mining and Chemical Combine). In a 1994 United States-Russian agreement that has yet to enter into force, Russia agreed to close the remaining operating reactors by the year 2000. Treaties between the United States and Russia have already cut the number of nuclear warheads from more than 10,000 to about 6,000 under START 1, which has been ratified, and to about 3,500 under START 2, which still awaits approval. If Russia and the United States conclude START 3, that number could drop to between 2,000 and 2,500. On September 2, 1998, the Presidents of the United States and Russia signed the 'Joint statement of principles for Management and Disposition of Plutonium, Designated as No Longer Required for Defense Purposes.' In this joint statement the Presidents affirm the intention of each country to remove by stages approximately 50 metric tons of plutonium and to convert the nuclear weapons programs, and to convert this material so that it can never be used in nuclear weapons. These 100 tonne of plutonium must be managed in proper way such that it becomes neither a proliferation for an environmental risk. The United States has proposed that it manage it's 50 tonnes by a dual approach-once through MOX burning of a portion of the plutonium and immobilization in a ceramic matrix followed by en- casement in high level waste glass. Russia has proposed that it manage its full 50 tonnes by burning in a reactor. The MOX program in the United States would bum the cleaner plutonium metal and residues. Weapons components would be converted to plutonium oxide

  3. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material

  4. 75 FR 41850 - Amended Notice of Intent to Modify the Scope of the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... and packaging capabilities, including direct metal oxidation, to fulfill plutonium storage..., disassemble nuclear weapons pits (a weapons component) and convert the plutonium metal to an oxide form for fabrication into mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) reactor fuel in the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility...

  5. Monitoring the risks of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, B.

    1978-01-01

    The difficulties in monitoring the environment in work areas where plutonium is handled are identified and both continuous and personal air sampling techniques considered. Methods of estimating the amounts of plutonium retained in the body are: (1) Direct external counting over the chest of the 'soft' low energy X-rays and gamma rays emitted by the plutonium deposited in the lungs. (2) Measuring plutonium excreted in urine. (3) Analysing faeces soon after a suspected contamination. Limitation of these techniques are discussed and it is shown that estimating the amount of plutonium in the body, or a specific organ, is extremely difficult, both because of the lack of sensitivity of the measuring techniques (especially chest scanning) and because of the problems in interpreting data, stemming from a lack of knowledge of crucial characteristics of the inhaled plutonium (such as particle size and solubility). Nevertheless it is felt that the judicious integration of all the options creates a level of certainty that no individual technique can possibly inspire. (U.K.)

  6. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1961-01-17

    A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

  7. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  8. Solubility of plutonium dioxide aerosols, in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Kanapilly, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Solubility of plutonium aerosols is an important parameter in establishing risk estimates for industrial workers who might accidentally inhale these materials and in evaluating environmental health impacts associated with Pu. In vitro solubility of industrial plutonium aerosols in a simulated lung fluid is compared to similar studies with ultrafine aerosols from laser ignition of delta phase plutonium metal and laboratory-produced spherical particles of 238 PuO 2 and 239 PuO 2 . Although relatively insoluble, industrial plutonium-mixed oxide aerosols were much more soluble than laboratory-produced plutonium dioxide particles. Chain agglomerate aerosols from laser ignition of metallic Pu indicated in vitro dissolution half-times of 10 and 50 days for activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 0.7 and 2.3 μm, respectively. Plutonium-containing mixed oxide aerosols indicated dissolution half-times of 40 to 500 days for particles formed by industrial powder comminution and blending. Centerless grinding of fuel pellets yielded plutonium-containing aerosols with dissolution half-times of 1200 to 8000 days. All mixed oxide particles were in the size range 1.0 μm to 2.5 μm AMAD

  9. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  10. Equilibrium-constant expressions for aqueous plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2010-01-01

    Equilibrium-constant expressions for Pu disproportionation reactions traditionally contain three or four terms representing the concentrations or fractions of the oxidation states. The expressions can be rewritten so that one of the oxidation states is replaced by a term containing the oxidation number of the plutonium. Experimental estimations of the numerical values of the constants can then be checked in several ways. (author)

  11. In vitro and in vivo measurements of the dissolution parameters of uranium and plutonium mixed oxides in biological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matton, S.

    1999-01-01

    During the mixed-oxide fuel fabrication process, inhalation is potentially the main route of internal contamination. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends experimental measurement of parameters such as size and dissolution rate for specific industrial compounds. First, we validated the use of PERALS (Photon Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation) for alpha measurement in biological samples which, in some cases, could improve detection limit. We characterised physical chemical properties in terms of size, specific area and activity of 3 different powders: MOX made according to either the MIMAS process, which showed heterogeneous chemical composition, or the SOLGEL, which showed homogeneous chemical composition and industrial PuO 2 . Their dissolution parameters, f r and s s , as defined in the simplest model proposed by ICRP 66 were measured in vivo, after inhalation in the rat, and in vitro. The statistical variation of these values were expressed as standard deviation. Moreover, in vitro studies demonstrated variation of the s s value depending on the duration of the incubation. We also developed methods to characterise interactions between UO 2 particles and phosphate ions which could be involved in the actinide toxicity. (author) [fr

  12. Disposing of the world's excess plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.M.; Bullen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    The authors undertake three key objectives in addressing the issue of plutonium disposition at the end of the Cold War. First, the authors estimate the total global inventory of plutonium both from weapons dismantlement and civil nuclear power reactors. Second, they review past and current policy toward handling this metal by the US, Russia, and other key countries. Third, they evaluate the feasibility of several options (but especially the vitrification and mixed oxide fuel options announced by the Clinton administration) for disposing of the increasing amounts of plutonium available today. To undertake this analysis, the authors consider both the political and scientific problems confronting policymakers in dealing with this global plutonium issue. Interview data with political and technical officials in Washington and at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, Austria, and empirical inventory data on plutonium from a variety of sources form the basis of their analysis

  13. Characteristics of airborne plutonium resuspended from near-background aged surface-sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1982-11-01

    Plutonium content in samples of airborne solids collected at five Hanford sites was determined in several experiments directed toward investigating resuspension processes for aged surface sources. Though airborne plutonium concentrations are extremely low, radiochemical technique sensitivities allow plutonium characterization to be considered as a function of host-particle diameter in samples of airborne solids. Plutonium concentrations and activity densities are a function of aerodynamic particle diameter, sampling height, wind speed, wind direction and plutonium isotopic ratios

  14. Ultra-trace determination of neptunium-237 and plutonium isotopes in urine samples by compact accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, X.; Christl, M.; Kramer-Tremblay, S., E-mail: sheila.kramer-tremblay@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Synal, H-A. [ETH Zurich, Lab. of Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    Ultra-trace analysis of actinides, such as Pu isotopes and {sup 237}Np, in bioassay samples is often needed for radiation protection programs at nuclear facilities. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), particularly the compact ETH Zurich system “Tandy”, has evolved over the years as one of the most sensitive, selective, and robust techniques for actinide analysis. Employment of the AMS technique can reduce the demands on sample preparation chemistry and increase sample analysis throughput, due to very low instrumental detection limit, high rejection of interferences, and low susceptibility to adverse sample matrices. Initial research and development tests were performed to explore and demonstrate the analytical capability of AMS for Pu and Np urine bioassay. In this study, urine samples spiked with femtogram levels of Np and Pu isotopes were prepared and measured using compact ETH AMS system and the results showed excellent analytical capability for measuring Np and Pu isotopes at femtogram/litre levels in urine. (author)

  15. Method to manufacture a nuclear fuel from uranium-plutonium monocarbide or uranium-plutonium mononitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauth, A.; Mueller, N.

    1977-01-01

    Pure uranium carbide or nitride is converted with plutonium oxide and carbon (all in powder form) to uranium-plutonium monocarbide or mononitride by cold pressing and sintering at about 1600 0 C. Pure uranium carbide or uranium nitride powder is firstly prepared without extensive safety measures. The pure uranium carbide or nitride powder can also be inactivated by using chemical substances (e.g. stearic acid) and be handled in air. The sinterable uranium carbide or nitride powder (or also granulate) is then introduced into the plutonium line and mixed with a nonstoichiometrically adjusted, prereacted mixture of plutonium oxide and carbon, pressed to pellets and reaction sintered. The surface of the uranium-plutonium carbide (higher metal content) can be nitrated towards the end of the sinter process in a stream of nitrogen. The protective layer stabilizes the carbide against the water and oxygen content in air. (IHOE) [de

  16. Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, Marc; Frot, Patricia; Gambini, Denis-Jean; Gauron, Christine; Moureaux, Patrick; Herbelet, Gilbert; Lahaye, Thierry; Pihet, Pascal; Rannou, Alain

    2014-06-01

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Plutonium-239

  17. Long time contamination from plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, M.; Patzeltova, N.; Ragan, P.; Matel, L.

    1995-01-01

    Plutonium isotopes in the organism of the patient (who had participated in the liquidation works after the Chernobyl accident; for three month he had stayed in the epicenter, where he acted as a chauffeur driving a radioactive material to the place of destination) from urine were determined. For determination of the concentration of Pu-239, Pu-240 in urine a modified radiochemical method was used. After mineralization the sample was separated as an anion-nitrate complex with contact by the anion form of the resin in the column. The resin was washed by 8 M HNO 3 , the 8 M HCl with 0.3 M HNO 3 for removing the other radionuclides. The solution 0.36 M HCl with 0.01 M HF was used for the elution of plutonium. Using the lanthanum fluoride technique the sample was filtrated through a membrane filter. The plutonium was detected in the dry sample. The Pu-239 tracer was used for the evaluation of the plutonium separation efficiency. The alpha spectrometric measurements were carried out with a large area silicon detector. The samples were measured and evaluated in the energy region 4.98-5.18 MeV. The detection limit of alpha spectrometry measurements has been 0.01 Bq dm -3 . The concentration of plutonium in the 24-hour urine was determined three times in the quarter year intervals. The results are: 54 mBq, 63.2 mBq, 53 mBq, with average 56,7 mBq. From the results of the analyses of plutonium depositions calculated according to ICRP 54 the intake of this radionuclide for the patient was 56.7 kBq. To estimate a committed effective dose (50 years) from the intake of plutonium was used a conversion factor 6.8.10 -5 Sv.Bq -1 (class W). So the expressed committed effective dose received from the plutonium intake is 3.8 Sv. This number is relatively high and all the effective dose will be higher, because the patient was exposed to the other radionuclides too. For example the determination of the rate radionuclides Am-241/Pu-239,Pu-240 was 32-36 % in the fallout after the Chernobyl

  18. The chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity of plutonium chemistry was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were aqueous solution based, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, it was found that an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element will be reported

  19. Plutonium production and utilization forecasts in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.

    1976-01-01

    The planned accelerated growth of nuclear energy generation in the near future will lead to a large production of plutonium in the thermal reactors. Therefore, up to 1985, the major part of the available plutonium will be plutonium recovered from spent uranium-metal, particularly in the United Kingdom and in France. Because of the low demand for fuelling the fast breeder reactors within the near future, a surplus of fissile plutonium will be accumulated in Europe. Even if the planned availability of the oxide reprocessing capacity will be delayed with two or three years, a plutonium surplus will still exist in Europe, e.g.; in 1985: 25-20 tons. On longer term, up to 2000, the plutonium production in thermal reactors will be sufficient to meet the estimated demand for fast breeder reactors at their commercial introduction foreseen for the nineties. That means that all the plutonium surplus needs not to be stocked for use in fast breeder reactors later on but could be recycled in thermal reactors. The magnitude of the available fissionable materials give an idea of the importance to promote, on an industrial scale, the plutonium recycling technology

  20. Determination of plutonium by secondary coulometric titration with internally generated iron(II) Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, R.T.; Talnikar, S.G.; Thakur, V.A.; Paranjape, A.H.

    1979-01-01

    Determination of plutonium by secondary coulometry involving the controlled potential technique for the generation of an iron(II) mediator, is reported in Part I. In this paper, the same determination is reported using constant current coulometry for the generation of the mediator, and zero current potentiometry for end-point detection. The factors affecting the current efficiency, viz. current density and supporting electrolyte composition have been checked in order to define the appropriate conditions for obtaining 100% current efficiency. The original method of Carson et al. suffers from the disadvantage that it involves complicated sample treatment. Introduction of perchloric acid treatment as a method for the oxidation of plutonium and the pretitration of the supporting electrolyte to the end-point potential prior to sample addition, have considerably helped to improve the precision and accuracy of the method. Exhaustive analytical data are reported covering plutonium quantities ranging from 25 micrograms to 5 milligrams, which establishes the scope of the method. (author)

  1. Preparation of hexavalent plutonium and its determination in the presence of tetravalent plutonium; Preparation de plutonium hexavalent et dosage en presence de plutonium tetravalent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpel, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Corpel, J [Institut du Radium, 75 - Paris (France)

    1958-07-01

    In order to study the eventual reduction of plutonium from the VI-valent state to the IV-valent state, in sulphuric medium, under the influence of its own {alpha} radiation or of the {gamma}-rays from a cobalt-60 source, we have developed a method for preparing pure hexavalent plutonium and two methods for determining solutions containing tetravalent and hexavalent plutonium simultaneously. Hexavalent plutonium was prepared by anodic oxidation at a platinum electrode. Study of the oxidation yield as a function of various factors has made it possible to define experimental conditions giving complete oxidation. For concentrations in total plutonium greater than 1.5 x 10{sup -3} M, determination of the two valencies IV and VI was carried out by spectrophotometry at two wavelengths. For lower concentrations, the determination was done by counting, after separation of the tetravalent plutonium in the form of fluoride in the presence of a carrier. (author) [French] Afin d'etudier l'eventuelle reduction du plutonium de l'etat de valence VI a l'etat de valence IV, en milieu sulfurique sous l'influence de son propre rayonnement {alpha} ou des rayons {gamma} d'une source de cobalt-60, nous avons mis au point une methode de preparation de plutonium hexavalent pur et deux methodes de dosage des solutions contenant simultanement du plutonium tetravalent et du plutonium hexavalent. Nous avons prepare le plutonium hexavalent par oxydation anodique au contact d'une electrode de platine. L'etude de rendement de l'oxydation en fonction des divers facteurs nous a permis de definir des conditions experimentales donnant une oxydation complete. Pour des concentrations en plutonium total superieures a 1,5.10{sup -3} M, le dosage des deux valences IV et VI a ete realise par spectrophotometrie a deux longueurs d'onde. Pour des concentrations inferieures, le dosage a ete effectue par comptage apres separation du plutonium tetravalent sous la forme du fluorure en presence d'un entraineur

  2. Measurements of Plutonium and Americium in Soil Samples from Project 57 using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John L. Bowen; Rowena Gonzalez; David S. Shafer

    2001-01-01

    As part of the preliminary site characterization conducted for Project 57, soils samples were collected for separation into several size-fractions using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS). Soil samples were collected specifically for separation by the SSPSS at three general locations in the deposited Project 57 plume, the projected radioactivity of which ranged from 100 to 600 pCi/g. The primary purpose in focusing on samples with this level of activity is that it would represent anticipated residual soil contamination levels at the site after corrective actions are completed. Consequently, the results of the SSPSS analysis can contribute to dose calculation and corrective action-level determinations for future land-use scenarios at the site

  3. Speciation of the plutonium at trace levels by capillary electrophoresis-ICP-MS coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambard, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    The CE-ICP-MS coupling allowed the development of new analytical methods for the study of plutonium speciation at trace levels including complexation studies of this element by organic and inorganic ligands. First, a method, called dual detection, based on the simultaneous use of the UV-Visible spectrophotometer integrated in the capillary electrophoresis and the ICPMS was developed and validated. It allows the unambiguous determination of electrophoretic mobilities for separated chemical species and gives a powerful tool for speciation studies. Then, the influence on plutonium redox speciation of the buffer from the background electrolyte was evaluated. This study showed the implications of the electrolyte constituents' choice on plutonium redox equilibrium in the sample. Furthermore, the CE-ICP-MS coupling was used for studying the plutonium complexation at trace levels by some organic (NTA and DTPA) and inorganic ligands (carbonates). The behaviour of plutonium valence +III, +IV and +VI was studied in the presence of buffer at near neutral pH. Different species of plutonium were observed depending on the initial oxidation state of the plutonium. This study showed the potential of poly-amino-carboxylic acids, such as NTA and DTPA, for dissolving plutonium precipitates, regardless its initial speciation. Finally, the carbonation of pentavalent neptunium, as an analogue of Pu(V), was achieved at very low concentration of Np (10 -8 mol.L -1 ). The formation constant of NpO 2 (CO 3 )- at 25 deg. C and 2,5 x 10 -2 mol.L -1 ionic strength was measured by CE-ICP-MS and found to be consistent with literature data. (author)

  4. The plutonium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Ang, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000-MW water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural uranium, fast-breder reactors, gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium and highly enriched uranium, and gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium, plutonium and recycled uranium. The radioactivity quantities of plutonium, americium and curium processed yearly in these fuel cycles are greatest for the water reactors fueled with natural uranium and recycled plutonium. The total amount of actinides processed is calculated for the predicted future growth of the U.S. nuclear power industry. For the same total installed nuclear power capacity, the introduction of the plutonium breeder has little effect upon the total amount of plutonium in this century. The estimated amount of plutonium in the low-level process wastes in the plutonium fuel cycles is comparable to the amount of plutonium in the high-level fission product wastes. The amount of plutonium processed in the nuclear fuel cycles can be considerably reduced by using gas-cooled reactors to consume plutonium produced in uranium-fueled water reactors. These, and other reactors dedicated for plutonium utilization, could be co-located with facilities for fuel reprocessing ad fuel fabrication to eliminate the off-site transport of separated plutonium. (author)

  5. Electrochemistry of plutonium in molten halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurry, L.E.; Moy, G.M.M.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    The electrochemistry of plutonium in molten halides is of technological importance as a method of purification of plutonium. Previous authors have reported that plutonium can be purified by electrorefining impure plutonium in various molten haldies. Work to eluciate the mechanism of the plutonium reduction in molten halides has been limited to a chronopotentiometric study in LiCl-KCl. Potentiometric studies have been carried out to determine the standard reduction potential for the plutonium (III) couple in various molten alkali metal halides. Initial cyclic voltammetric experiments were performed in molten KCL at 1100 K. A silver/silver chloride (10 mole %) in equimolar NaCl-KCl was used as a reference electrode. Working and counter electrodes were tungsten. The cell components and melt were contained in a quartz crucible. Background cyclic voltammograms of the KCl melt at the tungsten electrode showed no evidence of electroactive impurities in the melt. Plutonium was added to the melt as PuCl/sub 3/, which was prepared by chlorination of the oxide. At low concentrations of PuCl/sub 3/ in the melt (0.01-0.03 molar), no reduction wave due to the reduction of Pu(III) was observed in the voltammograms up to the potassium reduction limit of the melt. However on scan reversal after scanning into the potassium reduction limit a new oxidation wave was observed

  6. Plutonium speciation affected by environmental bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, M.P.; Icopini, G.A.; Boukhalfa, H.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium has no known biological utility, yet it has the potential to interact with bacterial cellular and extracellular structures that contain metal-binding groups, to interfere with the uptake and utilization of essential elements, and to alter cell metabolism. These interactions can transform plutonium from its most common forms, solid, mineral-adsorbed, or colloidal Pu(IV), to a variety of biogeochemical species that have much different physico-chemical properties. Organic acids that are extruded products of cell metabolism can solubilize plutonium and then enhance its environmental mobility, or in some cases facilitate plutonium transfer into cells. Phosphate- and carboxylate-rich polymers associated with cell walls can bind plutonium to form mobile biocolloids or Pu-laden biofilm/mineral solids. Bacterial membranes, proteins or redox agents can produce strongly reducing electrochemical zones and generate molecular Pu(III/IV) species or oxide particles. Alternatively, they can oxidize plutonium to form soluble Pu(V) or Pu(VI) complexes. This paper reviews research on plutonium-bacteria interactions and closely related studies on the biotransformation of uranium and other metals. (orig.)

  7. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800 degree C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800 degrees C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density

  8. Uranium-plutonium fuel for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, S.A.; Astafiev, V.A.; Clouchenkov, A.E.; Gustchin, K.I.; Menshikova, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Technology was established for fabrication of MOX fuel pellets from co-precipitated and mechanically blended mixed oxides. Both processes ensure the homogeneous structure of pellets readily dissolvable in nitric acid upon reprocessing. In order to increase the plutonium charge in a reactor-burner a process was tested for producing MOX fuel with higher content of plutonium and an inert diluent. It was shown that it is feasible to produce fuel having homogeneous structure and the content of plutonium up to 45% mass

  9. SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM, AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.; Lister, M.W.

    1958-12-16

    Uranium and plutonium can be separated from neutron-lrradiated uranium by a process consisting of dissolvlng the lrradiated material in nitric acid, saturating the solution with a nitrate salt such as ammonium nitrate, rendering the solution substantially neutral with a base such as ammonia, adding a reducing agent such as hydroxylamine to change plutonium to the trivalent state, treating the solution with a substantially water immiscible organic solvent such as dibutoxy diethylether to selectively extract the uranium, maklng the residual aqueous solutlon acid with nitric acid, adding an oxidizing agent such as ammonlum bromate to oxidize the plutonium to the hexavalent state, and selectlvely extracting the plutonium by means of an immlscible solvent, such as dibutoxy dlethyletber.

  10. Erosional losses of fallout plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, G.R.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium from fallout after atmospheric explosion of nuclear weapons in the 1950's and 1960s is being redistributed over the landscape by soil erosion and carried on sediment by streams to oceans. Erosion rates computed with the Universal Soil Loss Equation for more than 200,000 sample points on nonfederal land across the US were used to estimate plutonium removal rates by soil erosion. On the average, only about 4% of the eroded sediment reaches the outlet of a major river. The remaining sediment is deposited en route, and because deposition is a selective process, the sediment is enriched in fine particles having the highest concentration of plutonium because of the element's strong association with clay and silt-sized sediment. Estimated enrichment ratios, sediment delivery ratios, and erosion rates were used to estimate annual delivery of fallout plutonium. These estimates ranged from 0.002% of the initial fallout plutonium inventory for the Savannah River basin to 0.01% for the Columbia River basin, to 0.02% for the Hudson and Rio Grande River basins, to 0.08% for the Mississippi River basin. If the deposition of plutonium had been uniformly 1 mCi/km 2 , the estimated plutonium activity on suspended sediment would range from about 7 fCi/g of sediment of the Savannah River basin, to 9 fCi/g for the Mississippi River basin, to 12 fCi/g for the Hudson River basin, to 14 fCi/g for the Columbia and Rio Grande River basins. 45 references, 2 figures, 17 tables

  11. Methods to improve routine bioassay monitoring for freshly separated, poorly transported plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bihl, D.E.; Lynch, T.P.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several human cases involving inhalation of plutonium oxide at Hanford have shown clearance half-times from the lung that are much longer than the 500-day half-time recommended for class Y plutonium in Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP). The more tenaciously retained material is referred to as super class Y plutonium. The ability to detect super class Y plutonium by current routine bioassay measurements is shown to be poor. Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff involved in the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program investigated four methods to se if improvements in routine monitoring of workers for fresh super class Y plutonium are feasible. The methods were lung counting, urine sampling, fecal sampling, and use of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) to enhance urinary excretion. Use of DTPA was determined to be not feasible. Routine fecal sampling was found to be feasible but not recommended. Recommendations were made to improve the detection level for routine annual urinalysis and routine annual lung counting. 12 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs

  12. High-Precision Plutonium Isotopic Compositions Measured on Los Alamos National Laboratory’s General’s Tanks Samples: Bearing on Model Ages, Reactor Modelling, and Sources of Material. Further Discussion of Chronometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Khalil J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rim, Jung Ho [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porterfield, Donivan R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Roback, Robert Clifford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stanley, Floyd E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-29

    In this study, we re-analyzed late-1940’s, Manhattan Project era Plutonium-rich sludge samples recovered from the ''General’s Tanks'' located within the nation’s oldest Plutonium processing facility, Technical Area 21. These samples were initially characterized by lower accuracy, and lower precision mass spectrometric techniques. We report here information that was previously not discernable: the two tanks contain isotopically distinct Pu not only for the major (i.e., 240Pu, 239Pu) but trace (238Pu ,241Pu, 242Pu) isotopes. Revised isotopics slightly changed the calculated 241Am-241Pu model ages and interpretations.

  13. Planning and plutonium. Evidence of the Town and Country Planning Association to the Public Inquiry into an oxide reprocessing plant at Windscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The case of the Town and Country Planning Association of Great Britain at the Public Inquiry into the proposed uranium oxide reprocessing plant at Windscale, Cumbria, in the summer of 1977, is presented. The bulk of the book consists of the evidence of the Association's eight witnesses, several of whom have international reputations in their field. The main matters covered by the evidence are the economics of nuclear power compared with other sources of energy; energy demand and supply forecasts in the UK, and the timing and length of the so-called energy gap, together with alternative ways of filling it and the prospects for coal, oil and gas; the risks of proliferation of nuclear weapons; the hazards of low-level radiation to the environment, the general public and workers in nuclear installations, and the inadequacy of current standards; the need for environmental impact analysis before approval is given to major nuclear installations, with reference to United States and British experience; the national, regional and local planning considerations such as employment, housing and visual impact. The evidence is put into context with introductory material on the purpose and terms of reference of the Inquiry, the main events leading up to it, and a general statement of the Association's case. The book ends with a philosophical comment on the alternatives to a plutonium future

  14. Plutonium gastrointestinal absorption by adults baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lataillade, G.; Madic, C.; Willemot, J.M.; Germain, P.; Colle, C.; Metivier, H.

    1991-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium was investigated in baboons after ingestion of plutonium solution (oxidation states III; IV; V; VI), and plutonium incorporated in soya bean and winkles. We studied the effects of oxidation state and ingested mass for masses ranging from 0.35 μg to 51.6 x 10 +3 μg (4 x 10 -2 to 7776 μg of plutonium per kg of body weight). No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown for concentrations of plutonium smaller than 1 μg/kg. From 1 μg/kg to 1 mg/kg no effects of mass or oxidation state was observed and the mean fractional retention value was 10 -4 . For ingested masses higher than 1 mg/kg the fractional retention values respectively increased for Pu(V) and Pu(III) to (0.9 + 0.2) x 10 -2 and (7.4 + 4.1) x 10 -4 of the ingested mass. This increase might be due to the weak hydrolysis of these oxidation states which would increase gastrointestinal absorption by decrease of hydroxide formation. The fraction of plutonium retained after ingestion of soya bean was (3.0 + 0.5) x 10 -4 about 3 fold higher than the value for 238 Pu nitrate solution. No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown after ingestion of winkles containing 238 Pu. In conclusion, except for high masses of ingested Pu, the retention of which could reach 1% of the ingested dose, our results show that the gastrointestinal transfer factor of 10 -4 proposed by ICRP for gastrointestinal absorption of soluble form of Pu is acceptable, but 10 -3 would provide better safety margin [fr

  15. Determination of plutonium-238 in plutonium by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jain, H.C.; Mathews, C.K.; Ramaniah, M.V.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 238 Pu in plutonium samples by alpha spectrometry. Various factors attributing towards the energy degradation, a problem usually encountered in alpha spectrometry, are discussed. A computer programme is given for the evaluation of peak areas when the alpha spectrum is degraded. The results are compared with those obtained by mass spectrometry. (author)

  16. Oxidant-antioxidant status in tissue samples of oral leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Chandan Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imbalances between the oxidant-antioxidant status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including oral cancer. Majority of oral cancer are preceded by a well-recognized group of pre-malignant lesions. However, only a small fraction of those lesions, undergo malignant transformation. Hence, there is a great need to identify biological markers, which will assist in identifying lesion carrying high-risk. This study aims to evaluate and compare the status of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in tissue samples of patients with various clinicopathological stages of oral pre-malignancy. Materials and Methods: A case control study consisting of 20 new histopathologically proven leukoplakia patients and equal number of age, sex, and habit matched healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Their tissue samples were subjected to evaluation of lipid peroxidation product, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and antioxidant enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione (GSH, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx using spectrophotometric methods. The data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The statistical comparisons were performed by independent Student′s unpaired t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Pearson′s correlation was performed for the biochemical parameters within the group and between the groups. For statistically significant correlations, simple linear regression was performed. P- value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001 SOD and CAT (P < 0.001 was observed in the tissue of leukoplakia patients as compared to the healthy controls. On the other hand, GSH and GPx were significantly increased in tumor samples. Conclusion: Reduced lipid peroxidation and increased activity of GSH and GPx provides the suitable environment for the tumor growth and malignant transformation in the later

  17. Plutonium determination by isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.

    1980-01-01

    The principle is to add to a known amount of the analysed solution a known amount of a spike solution consisting of plutonium 242. The isotopic composition of the resulting mixture is then determined by surface ionization mass spectrometry, and the plutonium concentration in the solution is deduced, from this measurement. For irradiated fuels neutronic studies or for fissile materials balance measurements, requiring the knowledge of the ratio U/Pu or of concentration both uranium and plutonium, it is better to use the double spike isotope dilution method, with a spike solution of known 233 U- 242 Pu ratio. Using this method, the ratio of uranium to plutonium concentration in the irradiated fuel solution can be determined without any accurate measurement of the mixed amounts of sample and spike solutions. For fissile material balance measurements, the uranium concentration is determined by using single isotope dilution, and the plutonium concentration is deduced from the ratio Pu/U and U concentration. The main advantages of isotope dilution are its selectivity, accuracy and very high sensitivity. The recent improvements made to surface ionization mass spectrometers have considerably increased the precision of the measurements; a relative precision of about 0.2% to 0.3% is obtained currently, but it could be reduced to 0.1%, in the future, with a careful control of the experimental procedures. The detection limite is around 0.1 ppb [fr

  18. Plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved. (orig.) [de

  19. Pulmonary carcinogenesis from plutonium-containing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Smith, D.M.; Anderson, E.C.

    1980-01-01

    Induction of lung tumors by various types of radiation is of paramount concern to the nuclear industry. The data presented were obtained by exposing the pulmonary system of Syrian hamsters to particles of zirconium oxide containing various amounts of either plutonium-238 or -239 as the alpha radiation source. These particles were injected intravenously and lodged permanently in the capillary bed of the lung. When less than 20% of the lung tissue was irradiated, simulating the ''hot particle'' mode, tumors were not evident with lung burdens up to 500 nCi plutonium. More diffuse irradiation significantly increased the tumor incidence, with lung burdens of 50 to 150 nCi. When plutonium-laden microspheres were administered intratracheally, tumor production was considerably increased and the addition of 3 mg of iron oxide intratracheally further increased the incidence. Using the zirconium oxide matrix for the carrier of plutonium in aerosol particles produced tumor incidences of up to 50% in Syrian hamsters exposed by inhalation. Initial pulmonary (alveolar) burdens reached 100 nCi of plutonium. Similar inhalation studies using plutonium dioxide alone (no matrix) failed to produce any increase in lung tumorigenesis. The results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms necessary for lung carcinogenesis. (H.K.)

  20. Long time contamination from plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fueloep, M; Patzeltova, N; Ragan, P [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia); Matel, L [Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Department of Nuclear Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    Plutonium isotopes in the organism of the patient (who had participated in the liquidation works after the Chernobyl accident; for three month he had stayed in the epicenter, where he acted as a chauffeur driving a radioactive material to the place of destination) from urine were determined. For determination of the concentration of Pu-239, Pu-240 in urine a modified radiochemical method was used. After mineralization the sample was separated as an anion-nitrate complex with contact by the anion form of the resin in the column. The resin was washed by 8 M HNO{sub 3}, the 8 M HCl with 0.3 M HNO{sub 3} for removing the other radionuclides. The solution 0.36 M HCl with 0.01 M HF was used for the elution of plutonium. Using the lanthanum fluoride technique the sample was filtrated through a membrane filter. The plutonium was detected in the dry sample. The Pu-239 tracer was used for the evaluation of the plutonium separation efficiency. The alpha spectrometric measurements were carried out with a large area silicon detector. The samples were measured and evaluated in the energy region 4.98-5.18 MeV. The detection limit of alpha spectrometry measurements has been 0.01 Bq dm{sup -3}. The concentration of plutonium in the 24-hour urine was determined three times in the quarter year intervals. The results are: 54 mBq, 63.2 mBq, 53 mBq, with average 56,7 mBq. From the results of the analyses of plutonium depositions calculated according to ICRP 54 the intake of this radionuclide for the patient was 56.7 kBq. To estimate a committed effective dose (50 years) from the intake of plutonium was used a conversion factor 6.8.10{sup -5} Sv.Bq{sup -1} (class W). So the expressed committed effective dose received from the plutonium intake is 3.8 Sv. This number is relatively high and all the effective dose will be higher, because the patient was exposed to the other radionuclides too. (Abstract Truncated)

  1. Automatic chemical determination facility for plutonium and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhamou, A.

    1980-01-01

    A proposal for a fully automated chemical determination system for uranium and plutonium in (U, Pu)O 2 mixed oxide fuel, from the solid sample weighing operation to the final result is described. The steps completed to data are described. These include: test sample preparation by weighing, potentiometer titration system, cleaning and drying of glassware after titration. The process uses a Mettler SR 10 Titrator System in conjunction with others automatized equipment in corse of realization. Precision may reach 0.02% and is generally better than 0.1%. Accuracy in within +-0.1% of manual determination results or titration standards [fr

  2. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel. Volume 2 contains the appendices to the report and describe the following: Federal Register notices; contractor nondisclosure statement; adjunct melter

  3. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  4. Plutonium biokinetics in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.; Ham, G.; McCarthy, W.; Lands, C.

    1994-01-01

    By using an 'unusual' isotope it is possible to carry out experiments with plutonium in volunteers at minimal radiation dose levels. Measurements have been made of the gut transfer factor and the urinary excretion of plutonium after intravenous injection. (author)

  5. Plutonium in uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Aguilar, R.; Attrep, M. Jr.; Roensch, F.

    1992-01-01

    Plutonium-239 (t 1/2 , 24,100 yr) is one of the most persistent radioactive constituents of high-level wastes from nuclear fission power reactors. Effective containment of such a long-lived constituent will rely heavily upon its containment by the geologic environment of a repository. Uranium ore deposits offer a means to evaluate the geochemical properties of plutonium under natural conditions. In this paper, analyses of natural plutonium in several ores are compared to calculated plutonium production rates in order to evaluate the degree of retention of plutonium by the ore. The authors find that current methods for estimating production rates are neither sufficiently accurate nor precise to provide unambiguous measures of plutonium retention. However, alternative methods for evaluating plutonium mobility are being investigated, including its measurement in natural ground waters. Preliminary results are reported and establish the foundation for a comprehensive characterization of plutonium geochemistry in other natural environments

  6. Plutonium Training Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolkov, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-26

    This report was created to examine the current state of plutonium training in the United States and to discover ways in which to ensure that the next generation of plutonium workers are fully qualified.

  7. Fused salt processing of impure plutonium dioxide to high-purity plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.; Babcock, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    A process for converting impure plutonium dioxide (approx. 96% pure) to high-purity plutonium metal (>99.9%) was developed. The process consists of reducing the oxide to an impure plutonium metal intermediate with calcium metal in molten calcium chloride. The impure intermediate metal is cast into an anode and electrorefined to produce high-purity plutonium metal. The oxide reduction step is being done now on a 0.6-kg scale with the resulting yield being >99.5%. The electrorefining is being done on a 4.0-kg scale with the resulting yield being 80 to 85%. The purity of the product, which averages 99.98%, is essentially insensitive to the purity of the feed metal. The yield, however, is directly dependent on the chemical composition of the feed. To date, approximately 250 kg of impure oxide has been converted to pure metal by this processing sequence. The availability of impure plutonium dioxide, together with the need for pure plutonium metal, makes this sequence a valuable plutonium processing tool

  8. Final generic environmental statement on the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    This environmental statement assesses the impacts of the implementation of plutonium recycle in the LWR industry. It is based on assumptions that are intended to reflect conservatively an acceptable level of the application of current technology. It is not intended to be a representation of the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) philosophy. This generic environmental statement discusses the anticipated effects of recycling plutonium in light water nuclear power reactors. It is based on about 30 years of experience with the element in the context of a projected light water nuclear power industry that is already substantial. A background perspective on plutonium, its safety, and its recycling as a reactor fuel is presented

  9. Radiological safety aspects in the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel elements. [Derived working limits in air and water for plutonium, enriched uranium and their mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthi, T.N.; Janardhanan, S.; Soman, S.D. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Health Physics Div.)

    The problems of radiological safety in the fabrication of (U, Pu)O/sub 2/ fuel assemblies for fast reactors utilising high exposure plutonium are discussed. Derived working limits for plutonium as a function of the burn-up of RAPS (Rajasthan Atomic Power Station) fuel, external gamma and neutron exposures from feed product batches, finished fuel pins and assemblies are presented. Shielding requirements for the various glove box operations are also indicated. In general, high exposure plutonium handling calls for remote fabrication and automation at various stages would play a key role in minimising exposures to personnel in a large production plant.

  10. Sample contamination with NMP-oxidation products and byproduct-free NMP removal from sample solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesar Berrueco; Patricia Alvarez; Silvia Venditti; Trevor J. Morgan; Alan A. Herod; Marcos Millan; Rafael Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2009-05-15

    1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) is widely used as a solvent for coal-derived products and as eluent in size exclusion chromatography. It was observed that sample contamination may take place, through reactions of NMP, during extraction under refluxing conditions and during the process of NMP evaporation to concentrate or isolate samples. In this work, product distributions from experiments carried out in contact with air and under a blanket of oxygen-free nitrogen have been compared. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) clearly shows that oxidation products form when NMP is heated in the presence of air. Upon further heating, these oxidation products appear to polymerize, forming material with large molecular masses. Potentially severe levels of interference have been encountered in the size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of actual samples. Laser desorption mass spectrometry and SEC agree in showing an upper mass limit of nearly 7000 u for a residue left after distilling 'pure' NMP in contact with air. Furthermore, experiments have shown that these effects could be completely avoided by a strict exclusion of air during the refluxing and evaporation of NMP to dryness. 45 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Optimization and plutonium equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The sequential simplex method has been used to estimate the extent of disproportionation of tetravalent plutonium in dilute acid. A method for simulating potentiometric titrations is proposed, and this method suggests that the stoichiometric end point and the inflection point may not always correspond in the potentiometric titration of plutonium. A possible characteristic equation for the nitrite-plutonium reaction is illustrated, and the method of proportional equations is extended to the iron-plutonium reaction

  12. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  13. Optimizing Plutonium stock management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niquil, Y.; Guillot, J.

    1997-01-01

    Plutonium from spent fuel reprocessing is reused in new MOX assemblies. Since plutonium isotopic composition deteriorates with time, it is necessary to optimize plutonium stock management over a long period, to guarantee safe procurement, and contribute to a nuclear fuel cycle policy at the lowest cost. This optimization is provided by the prototype software POMAR

  14. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5×105 for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature......, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference......Pu. However, it is impossible to measure 238Pu using ICP-MS in environmental samples even a decontamination factor as high as 106 for uranium was obtained by chemical separation....

  15. Spectrophotometers for plutonium monitoring in HB-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascola, R. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); O' Rourke, P. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Kyser, E. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Immel, D. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Plummer, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Evans, E. V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-02-12

    This report describes the equipment, control software, calibrations for total plutonium and plutonium oxidation state, and qualification studies for the instrument. It also provides a detailed description of the uncertainty analysis, which includes source terms associated with plutonium calibration standards, instrument drift, and inter-instrument variability. Also included are work instructions for instrument, flow cell, and optical fiber setup, work instructions for routine maintenance, and drawings and schematic diagrams.

  16. Plutonium, nuclear fuel; Le plutonium, combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay

    1960-07-01

    A review of the physical properties of metallic plutonium, its preparation, and the alloys which it forms with the main nuclear metals. Appreciation of its future as a nuclear fuel. (author) [French] Apercu sur les proprietes physiques du plutonium metallique, sa preparation, ses alliages avec les principaux metaux nucleaires. Consideration sur son avenir en tant que combustible nucleaire. (auteur)

  17. Plutonium economy. Plutonium-Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traube, K

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved.

  18. Design-Only Conceptual Design Report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.; Loftus, D.

    1999-01-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The siting for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be determined pursuant to the site-specific Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement in a Plutonium Deposition Record of Decision in early 1999. This document reflects a new facility using the preferred technology (ceramic immobilization using the can-in-canister approach) and the preferred site (at Savannah River). The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors and must be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses: (1) A new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize plutonium in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister; (2) The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters; and (3) The Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility to receive and store feed materials. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infra-structure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  19. Influence of iron redox transformations on plutonium sorption to sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hixon, A.E.; Powell, B.A. [Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC (United States); Hu, Y.J.; Nitsche, H. [Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States); Kaplan, D.I. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Kukkadapu, R.K.; Qafoku, O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Plutonium subsurface mobility is primarily controlled by its oxidation state, which in turn is loosely coupled to the oxidation state of iron in the system. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of sediment iron mineral composition and oxidation state on plutonium sorption and reduction. A pH 6.3 vadose zone sediment containing iron oxides and iron-containing phyllosilicates was treated with various complexants (ammonium oxalate) and reductants (hydroxylamine hydrochloride and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB)) to selectively leach and/or reduce iron oxide and phyllosilicate/clay Fe(III). {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to identify initial iron mineral composition of the sediment and monitor dissolution and reduction of iron oxides and reduction of phyllosilicate Fe(III). {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy showed that the Fe-mineral composition of the untreated sediment is: 25-30% hematite, 60-65% small-particle/Al-goethite, and < 10% Fe(III) in phyllosilicate; there was no detectable Fe(II). Upon reduction with a strong chemical reductant (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate buffer), much of the hematite and goethite was removed. Partial reduction of phyllosilicate Fe(III) was evident in the sediments subjected to DCB treatment. Sorption of Pu(V) was monitored over one week for the untreated and each of five treated sediment fractions. Plutonium oxidation state speciation in the aqueous and solid phases was monitored using solvent extraction, coprecipitation, and XANES. The rate of sorption appears to correlate with the fraction of Fe(II) in the sediment (untreated or treated). Pu(V) was the only oxidation state measured in the aqueous phase, irrespective of treatment, whereas Pu(IV) and much smaller amounts of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) were measured in the solid phase. Surface-mediated reduction of Pu(V) to Pu(IV) occurred in treated and untreated sediment samples; Pu(V) remained on untreated sediment surface for two days before reducing to Pu

  20. Final generic environmental statement on the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    Information concerning the use of plutonium recycle in water cooled reactors is presented under the following chapter headings: probable adverse environmental effects that cannot be avoided; means for mitigating adverse environmental effects; alternative dispositions of plutonium; relationship between local short term uses of man's environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long term productivity; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; and economic analysis and cost-benefit balancing

  1. Characterization of plutonium isotopes in air samples retrospectives techniques ultrasensitive; Caracterizacion de isotopos de plutonio en muestras de aire mediante tecnicas restrospectiva ultrasensibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents preliminary results for the determination of plutonium isotope ratios that characterize the natural background for later comparison with that obtained during the dismantling operations. In this manner can be performed retrospective analysis of radiation from the air quality.

  2. The plutonium society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mez, L.; Richter, M.

    1981-01-01

    The lectures of an institute are reported on, which took place between 25th and 27th January 1980 in Berlin. The subsequent public panel discussion with representations from the political parties is then documentated in a few press-reports. The themes of the 8 lectures are: views and facts on plutonium, plutonium as an energy resource, military aspects of the production of plutonium, economic aspects of the plutonium economy, the position of the trade unions on the industrial reconversion, the alleged inevitability of a plutonium society and the socio-political alternatives and perspectives of nuclear waste disposal. (UA) [de

  3. The use of plutonium in Swedish reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, H.

    1982-09-01

    The report deals with the utilization of plutonium in Swedish nuclear power plants. The plutonium content of the mixed oxide fuel will normally be 3-7 per cent. The processing of spent nuclear fuel will produce about 6 ton plutonium. The use of mixed oxide fuel in Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3 is discussed. The fuel cycle will start with the manufacturing of the fuel elements abroad and proceeds with transport and utilization, storing of spent fuel about 40 years in Sweden followed by direct disposal. The manufacture and use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is based on well-known techniques. Approximately 20 000 MOX fuel rods have been irradiated and the fuel is essentially equivalent to uranium oxide fuel. 30-50 per cent of the core may be composed of MOX-fuel without any effect on the operation and safety of the reactor which has been originally designed for uranium fuel. The evaluation of international fuel cycle (INFCE) states that the proliferation risks are very small. The recycling of plutonium will reduce demand for enriched uranium and the calculations show that 6.3 ton plutonium will replace the enrichment of 600 ton natural uranium. (G.B.)

  4. Mechanisms of plutonium sorption to mineral oxide surfaces: new insights with implications for colloid-enhanced migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwantes, J.M.; Santschi, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    New equilibrium and kinetic models have been developed to describe rate-limited sorption and desorption of Pu onto and off of mineral oxide surfaces using a generic approach to estimate sorption constants that require minimal laboratory calibrations. Equilibrium, reactions describing a total of six surface species were derived from a combination of empirical relationships previously described in the literature and generated as part of this work. These sorption reactions and corresponding equilibrium constants onto goethite (and silica) are: triple bond SOH + Pu 3+ triple bond SOPu 2+ + H + , log K = -2.1(-10) (1) triple bond SOH + Pu 4+ triple bond SOPu 3+ + H + , log K = 15.3(7.2) (2) triple bond SOH + PuO 2 + triple bond SOPuO 2 + H + , log K = -8.5(-16.5) (3) triple bond SOH + PuO 2 2+ triple bond SOPuO 2 + + H + , log K = 1.2(-6.5) (4) triple bond SOH + Pu 4- + 3H 2 O triple bond SOPu(OH) 3 + 4H + , log K = 12.5(4.6) (5) triple bond SOH + Pu 4+ + 4H 2 O triple bond SOPu(OH) 4 - + 5H + , log K = 5.0(-2.3) (6) The kinetic model decouples reduced (III, IV) and oxidized (V, VI) forms of Pu via a single rate-limiting, but reversible, surface mediated reaction: triple bond SOPuO 2 + H 2 O + 1/2H 2(g) ↔ k 1 k 2 triple bond SOPu(OH) 2 log k 1 = -5.3 (7) Where the reaction rate is equal to: (d[ triple bond SOPu 2 ])/(d t ) = k 1 [Pu OX ] - k 2 [Pu red ] (8) and [Pu OX ] and [Pu red ] are the sums of the oxidized (V and VI) and reduced (III and IV) surface species, respectively. Predictions using the equilibrium and kinetic models were validated against previously published experimental results, which give credence to the validity of the proposed mechanisms controlling the sorption of Pu onto mineral oxide surfaces. Of importance, a reversible, rate-limited, reaction successfully predicted time dependent behavior associated with Pu sorption onto goethite. Previously, researchers have suggested desorption of Pu to these surfaces is extremely slow or even irreversible

  5. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX Separation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulenova, Alena; Vandegrift, George F. III; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  6. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel

  7. Ceramification: A plutonium immobilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rask, W.C. [Dept. of Energy, Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, A.G. [Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a low temperature technique for stabilizing and immobilizing actinide compounds using a combination process/storage vessel of stainless steel, in which measured amounts of actinide nitrate solutions and actinide oxides (and/or residues) are systematically treated to yield a solid article. The chemical ceramic process is based on a coating technology that produces rare earth oxide coatings for defense applications involving plutonium. The final product of this application is a solid, coherent actinide oxide with process-generated encapsulation that has long-term environmental stability. Actinide compounds can be stabilized as pure materials for ease of re-use or as intimate mixtures with additives such as rare earth oxides to increase their degree of proliferation resistance. Starting materials for the process can include nitrate solutions, powders, aggregates, sludges, incinerator ashes, and others. Agents such as cerium oxide or zirconium oxide may be added as powders or precursors to enhance the properties of the resulting solid product. Additives may be included to produce a final product suitable for use in nuclear fuel pellet production. The process is simple and reduces the time and expense for stabilizing plutonium compounds. It requires a very low equipment expenditure and can be readily implemented into existing gloveboxes. The process is easily conducted with less associated risk than proposed alternative technologies.

  8. The use of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1980-01-01

    The use of plutonium as a vital energy source producing maximum economic benefit with minimum proliferation risks is discussed. Having considered the production of plutonium, several possible plutonium fuel cycle options are identified and the economic value to be attached to plutonium for each examined. It is shown how the use of plutonium in fast reactors gives an opportunity for a non-proliferation policy not available when plutonium is used only in thermal reactors. From the technical considerations reviewed concerning plutonium and fast reactors it is shown that an economic regime involving international trade in spent thermal reactor fuel is possible which benefits equally those countries with fast reactors and those without and also assists in avoiding the proliferation of nuclear weapons. (U.K.)

  9. Reduction of worldwide plutonium inventories using conventional reactors and advanced fuels: A systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Chodak, P. III

    1997-01-01

    The potential for reducing plutonium inventories in the civilian nuclear fuel cycle through recycle in LWRs of a variety of mixed-oxide forms is examined by means of a cost-based plutonium-flow systems model that includes an approximate measure of proliferation risk. The impact of plutonium recycle in a number of forms is examined, including the introduction of nonfertile fuels into conventional (LWR) reactors to reduce net plutonium generation, to increase plutonium burnup, and to reduce exo-reactor plutonium inventories

  10. Plutonium in nature; Le plutonium dans la nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madic, C.

    1994-12-31

    Plutonium in nature comes from natural sources and anthropogenic ones. Plutonium at the earth surface comes principally from anthropogenic sources. It is easily detectable in environment. The plutonium behaviour in environment is complex. It seems necessary for the future to reduce releases in environment, to improve predictive models of plutonium behaviour in geosphere, to precise biological impact of anthropogenic plutonium releases.

  11. Chemical aspects of the precise and accurate determination of uranium and plutonium from nuclear fuel solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, O.J.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous or separate determination of uranium and plutonium has been developed. The method is based on the sorption of uranium and plutonium as their chloro complexes on Dowex 1x10 column. When separate uranium and plutonium fractions are desired, plutonium ions are reduced to Pu (III) and eluted, after which the uranium ions are eluted with dilute HCl. Simultaneous stripping of a mass ratio U/Pu approximately 1 fraction for mass spectrometric measurements is achieved by proper choice of eluant HC1 concentration. Special attention was paid to the obtaining of americium free plutonium fractions. The distribution coefficient measurements showed that at 12.5-M HCl at least 30 % of americium ions formed anionic chloro complexes. The chemical aspects of isotopic fractionation in a multiple filament thermal ionization source were also investigated. Samples of uranium were loaded as nitrates, chlorides, and sulphates and the dependence of the measured uranium isotopic ratios on the chemical form of the loading solution as well as on the filament material was studied. Likewise the dependence of the formation of uranium and its oxide ions on various chemical and instrumental conditions was investigated using tungsten and rhenium filaments. Systematic errors arising from the chemical conditions are compared with errors arising from the automatic evaluation of of spectra. (author)

  12. Digital pile-up rejection for plutonium experiments with solution-grown stilbene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, M.M., E-mail: mmbourne@umich.edu; Clarke, S.D., E-mail: clarkesd@umich.edu; Paff, M., E-mail: mpaff@umich.edu; DiFulvio, A., E-mail: difulvio@umich.edu; Norsworthy, M., E-mail: marknors@umich.edu; Pozzi, S.A., E-mail: pozzisa@umich.edu

    2017-01-11

    A solution-grown stilbene detector was used in several experiments with plutonium samples including plutonium oxide, mixed oxide, and plutonium metal samples. Neutrons from different reactions and plutonium isotopes are accompanied by numerous gamma rays especially by the 59-keV gamma ray of {sup 241}Am. Identifying neutrons correctly is important for nuclear nonproliferation applications and makes neutron/gamma discrimination and pile-up rejection necessary. Each experimental dataset is presented with and without pile-up filtering using a previously developed algorithm. The experiments were simulated using MCNPX-PoliMi, a Monte Carlo code designed to accurately model scintillation detector response. Collision output from MCNPX-PoliMi was processed using the specialized MPPost post-processing code to convert neutron energy depositions event-by-event into light pulses. The model was compared to experimental data after pulse-shape discrimination identified waveforms as gamma ray or neutron interactions. We show that the use of the digital pile-up rejection algorithm allows for accurate neutron counting with stilbene to within 2% even when not using lead shielding.

  13. Adsorption of neptunium and plutonium on metal phosphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    The removal of neptunium and plutonium from water by adsorption on titanium, zirconium, bismuth, thorium, and uranium phosphites was investigated. These phosphites hydrolyze in neutral or alkaline solution producing the hydrous metal oxides that are more effective adsorbents than the original phosphite compounds. Ageing the plutonium-238 polymer changes its adsorption characteristics on commercial bone char. 37 figures, 7 tables

  14. PROCESS USING POTASSIUM LANTHANUM SULFATE FOR FORMING A CARRIER PRECIPITATE FOR PLUTONIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerman, A.A.

    1958-10-21

    A process is presented for recovering plutonium values in an oxidation state not greater than +4 from fluoride-soluble fission products. The process consists of adding to an aqueous acidic solution of such plutonium values a crystalline potassium lanthanum sulfate precipitate which carries the plutonium values from the solution.

  15. Assessment of the environmental impact of plutonium transport within the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    Assessment is given of the environmental impact of plutonium transport within the European Community in the 1990's. This includes shipments of plutonium, raw materials, fresh and spent mixed oxide fuel assemblies and plutonium contaminated solid wastes. The consequences on general traffic, the radiation doses to transport workers and the general public and the heat release during transport are presented

  16. Size determinations of plutonium colloids using autocorrelation photon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.; Hobart, D.E.; Palmer, P.D.; Newton, T.W.; Thompson, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Autocorrelation Photon Spectroscopy (APS) is a light-scattering technique utilized to determine the size distribution of colloidal suspensions. The capabilities of the APS methodology have been assessed by analyzing colloids of known sizes. Plutonium(IV) colloid samples were prepared by a variety of methods including: dilution; peptization; and alpha-induced auto-oxidation of Pu(III). The size of theses Pu colloids was analyzed using APS. The sizes determined for the Pu colloids studied varied from 1 to 370 nanometers. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Verification station for Sandia/Rockwell Plutonium Protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, N.; Hastings, R.D.; Henry, C.N.; Millegan, D.R.

    1979-04-01

    A verification station has been designed to confirm the presence of plutonium within a container module. These container modules [about 13 cm (5 in.) in diameter and 23 cm (9 in.) high] hold sealed food-pack cans containing either plutonium oxide or metal and were designed by Sandia Laboratories to provide security and continuous surveillance and safety. After the plutonium is placed in the container module, it is closed with a solder seal. The verification station discussed here is used to confirm the presence of plutonium in the container module before it is placed in a carousel-type storage array inside the plutonium storage vault. This measurement represents the only technique that uses nuclear detectors in the plutonium protection system

  18. The first milligrams of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1997-01-01

    A historical review of the development of the very first quantities of plutonium produced during World War II in the United States and in Canada, as remembered by the French nuclear chemist, Mr Goldschmidt, who participated to the various programs which were involved in the development of the atomic bomb, and to the first steps of the French atomic program after the war. Mr Goldschmidt worked especially on organic solvent extraction, with the selection, in 1945, of non volatile tri glycol dichloride, and the development of the Chalk River plant. In 1949, at the Bouchet plant, his team has isolated the first milligrams of French plutonium from uranium oxide; and in 1952, the PUREX process was developed

  19. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM OXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Berg, J.; Veirs, D.

    2012-07-02

    The HB-Line (HBL) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is designed to produce high-purity plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) which is suitable for future use in production of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. The MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) requires PuO{sub 2} feed to be packaged per the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) to comply with the facility's safety basis. The stabilization conditions imposed by DOE-STD-3013 for PuO{sub 2} (i.e., 950 C for 2 hours) preclude use of the HBL PuO{sub 2} in direct fuel fabrication and reduce the value of the HBL product as MFFF feedstock. Consequently, HBL initiated a technical evaluation to define acceptable operating conditions for production of high-purity PuO{sub 2} that fulfills the DOE-STD-3013 criteria for safe storage. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that within the defined operating conditions, the HBL process will be equivalent for meeting the requirements of the DOE-STD-3013 stabilization process for plutonium-bearing materials from the DOE complex. The proposed 3013 equivalency reduces the prescribed stabilization temperature for high-purity PuO{sub 2} from oxalate precipitation processes from 950 C to 640 C and places a limit of 60% on the relative humidity (RH) at the lowest material temperature. The equivalency is limited to material produced using the HBL established flow sheet, for example, nitric acid anion exchange and Pu(IV) direct strike oxalate precipitation with stabilization at a minimum temperature of 640 C for four hours (h). The product purity must meet the MFFF acceptance criteria of 23,600 {micro}g/g Pu (i.e., 2.1 wt %) total impurities and chloride content less than 250 {micro}g/g of Pu. All other stabilization and packaging criteria identified by DOE-STD-3013-2012 or earlier revisions of the standard apply. Based on the evaluation of test data discussed in this document, the expert judgment of the authors supports packaging the HBL product under a 3013

  20. Optimisation and application of ICP-MS and alpha-spectrometry for determination of isotopic ratios of depleted uranium and plutonium in samples collected in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Boulyga, S. F.; Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Becker, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The determination of environmental contamination with natural and artificial actinide isotopes and evaluation of their source requires precise isotopic determination of actinides, above all uranium and plutonium. This can be achieved by alpha spectrometry or by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after chemical separation of actinides. The performance of a sector-field ICP-MS (ICP-SFMS) coupled to a low-flow micronebulizer with a membrane desolvation unit, "Aridus'', was stu...

  1. Technique of preparation of plutonium screens for soft x ray spectrography (1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersuder, L. de

    1963-01-01

    The present work concerns the preparation of thin layers of pure plutonium (thickness 100 to 10000 A) by thermal vacuum evaporation. The protection of the plutonium against oxidation is obtained by vacuum deposition of aluminium layers under. and above the plutonium layer. The purity of the layers is checked by electron and X ray diffraction which has shown that very thin films of plutonium condense in β form instead of α. (author) [fr

  2. Plutonium deposits in lung tissues of Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.; Palad, L.J.H.; Ignacio, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    This initial report on the plutonium concentration in lungs of Filipino adults is based on four samples. The data obtained suggest that the average of concentration in lungs of Filipinos is similar to that observed in other countries. This could be attributed to fallout resulting from nuclear test explosions conducted by neighboring countries. The result of this study will be useful in initiating the establishment of plutonium burden of Filipinos. (ELC). 2 tabs

  3. Gamma ray NDA assay system for total plutonium and isotopics in plutonium product solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowder, L.R.; Hsue, S.T.; Johnson, S.S.; Parker, J.L.; Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K.; Asakura, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Kondo, I.

    1979-01-01

    A LASL-designed gamma-ray NDA instrument for assay of total plutonium and isotopics of product solutions at Tokai-Mura is currently installed and operating. The instrument is, optimally, a densitometer that uses radioisotopic sources for total plutonium measurements at the K absorption edge. The measured transmissions of additional gamma-ray lines from the same radioisotopic sources are used to correct for self-attenuation of passive gamma rays from plutonium. The corrected passive data give the plutonium isotopic content of freshly separated to moderately aged solutions. This off-line instrument is fully automated under computer control, with the exception of sample positioning, and operates routinely in a mode designed for measurement control. A one-half percent precision in total plutonium concentration is achieved with a 15-minute measurement

  4. Civil plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, B.; Zaetta, A.

    2004-01-01

    During 1960 and 1970 the researches on the plutonium recycling in fast neutrons reactors were stimulated by the fear of uranium reserves diminishing. At the beginning of 1980, the plutonium mono-recycling for water cooled reactors is implementing. After 1990 the public opinion concerning the radioactive wastes management and the consequences of the disarmament agreements between Russia and United States, modified the context. This paper presents the today situation and technology associated to the different options and strategical solutions of the plutonium management: the plutonium use in the world, the neutronic characteristics, the plutonium effect on the reactors characteristics, the MOX behavior in the reactors, the MOX fabrication and treatment, the possible improvements to the plutonium use, the concepts performance in a nuclear park. (A.L.B.)

  5. World status report: plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dircks, W.

    1992-01-01

    In a recent speech in Japan, the Deputy Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) said that the economic case for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel had been severely eroded. An edited version of the speech is given. The changed prospects for nuclear energy is given as the reason why the demand for plutonium has declined sharply. The oil crisis of the 1970s reduced the demand for electric power and the economic justification for the use of recycled plutonium. The stockpile of isolated plutonium is growing rapidly giving rise to worries about its security. From this point of view, isolated plutonium is best kept in reactor fuel not separated out. In this connection the IAEA has offered to help in the storage of plutonium so that vigorous safety and security requirements are met. In Japan there is a debate about the plutonium which is dependent on the future of the fast breeder reactor programme. (UK)

  6. Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, H.; Gottlieb, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year

  7. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE's independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91

  8. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, D.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE's stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities

  9. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  10. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Because cigarette smokers constitute a large fraction of the population, a synergistic effect of plutonium and cigarette smoke might influence estimates of the health risk for plutonium and other transuranics released to the environment

  11. Gamma spectrometric methods for measuring plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnink, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nondestructive analyses of plutonium can be made by detecting and measuring the gamma rays emitted by a sample. Although qualitative and semiquantitative assays can be performed with relative ease, only recently have methods been developed, using computer analysis techniques, that provide quantitative results. This paper reviews some new techniques developed for measuring plutonium. The features of plutonium gamma-ray spectra are reviewed and some of the computer methods used for spectrum analysis are discussed. The discussion includes a description of a powerful computer method of unfolding complex peak multiplets that uses the standard linear least-squares techniques of data analysis. This computer method is based on the generation of response profiles for the isotopes composing a plutonium sample and requires a description of the peak positions, relative intensities, and line shapes. The principles that plutonium isotopic measurements are based on are also developed, followed by illustrations of the measurement procedures as applied to the quantitative analysis of plutonium liquid and solid samples

  12. Perspective on plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is intended as a brief overview on the element plutonium. Plutonium is the first primarily man-made element to play a significant role not only in technological development, but also in the economic growth of many countries. The importance of plutonium centers around its enormous energy making it ideal for wide-scale use in reactors, while the nuclear industry continues to work toward improving safety and efficiency of plutonium as a reactor fuel politicians and the public still debate over the safety and benefits of nuclear power. (30 refs.)

  13. Plutonium solution analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded)

  14. Plutonium solution analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  15. Plutonium vulnerability issues at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, E.; Templeton, D.W.; Tholen, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford, Washington Site was operated to produce plutonium (Pu) metal and oxide for national defense purposes. Due to the production requirements and methods utilized to meet national needs and the abrupt shutdown of the plant in the late 1980s, the plant was left in a condition that poses a risk of radiation exposure to plant workers, of accidental radioactive material release to the environment, and of radiation exposure to the public. In early 1994, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to determine the best methods for cleaning out and stabilizing Pu materials in the PFP was started. While the EIS is being prepared, a number of immediate actions have been completed or are underway to significantly reduce the greatest hazards in the PFP. Recently, increased attention his been paid to Pu risks at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities resulting in the Department-wide Plutonium Vulnerability Assessment and a recommendation by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) for DOE to develop integrated plans for managing its nuclear materials

  16. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-08-01

    A study was made of plutonium contamination of grassland at the Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geographical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for Pu analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99 percent of the total plutonium was contained in the soil and the concentrations were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes

  17. Plutonium isotopic measurements by gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, F.X.; Lemming, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    A nondestructive technique is described for calculating plutonium-238, plutonium-240, plutonium-241 and americium-241 relative to plutonium-239 from measured peak areas in the high resolution gamma-ray spectra of solid plutonium samples. Gamma-ray attenuation effects were minimized by selecting sets of neighboring peaks in the spectrum whose components are due to the different isotopes. Since the detector efficiencies are approximately the same for adjacent peaks, the accuracy of the isotopic ratios is dependent on the half-lives, branching intensities, and measured peak areas. The data presented describe the results obtained by analyzing gamma-ray spectra in the energy region from 120 to 700 keV. Most of the data analyzed were obtained from plutonium material containing 6 percent plutonium-240. Sample weights varied from 0.25 g to approximately 1.2 kg. The methods were also applied to plutonium samples containing up to 23 percent plutonium-240 with weights of 0.25 to 200 g. Results obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy are compared to chemical analyses of aliquots taken from the bulk samples

  18. Radiation damage and annealing in plutonium tetrafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Kaylyn; Casella, Amanda; Sinkov, Sergey; Sweet, Lucas; McNamara, Bruce; Delegard, Calvin; Jevremovic, Tatjana

    2017-12-01

    Plutonium tetrafluoride that was separated prior to 1966 at the Hanford Site in Washington State was analyzed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2015 and 2016. The plutonium tetrafluoride, as received, was an off-normal color and considering the age of the plutonium, there were questions about the condition of the material. These questions had to be answered in order to determine the suitability of the material for future use or long-term storage. Therefore, Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analysis and X-ray Diffraction evaluations were conducted to determine the plutonium’s crystal structure, oxide content, and moisture content; these analyses reported that the plutonium was predominately amorphous and tetrafluoride, with an oxide content near ten percent. Freshly fluorinated plutonium tetrafluoride is known to be monoclinic. During the initial Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal analyses, it was discovered that an exothermic event occurred within the material near 414°C. X-ray Diffraction analyses were conducted on the annealed tetrafluoride. The X-ray Diffraction analyses indicated that some degree of recrystallization occurred in conjunction with the 414°C event. The following commentary describes the series of Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal and X-ray Diffraction analyses that were conducted as part of this investigation at PNNL, in collaboration with the University of Utah Nuclear Engineering Program.

  19. Technique for calculating temperature field of the vibropacked oxide fuel element taking into account redistribution of porosity and plutonium and oxygen contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maershin, A.A.; Grachev, V.D.; Shajkhiev, A.I.; Zarudnev, N.E.; Golubenko, I.S.; Udal'tsova, M.V.

    1991-01-01

    Integro-interpolation technique is used for calculating temperature field and thermodiffusion, as well as fuel mass transfer and plutonium content in the fuel due to evaporation-condensation mechanism. The results obtained by numerical computing and other techniques are presented. 6 refs.; 8 figs

  20. Ultra trace plutonium isotopic analyse by thermo ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuemei; Long Kaiming; Yang Tianli

    2008-06-01

    An anion exchange combined with TTA extraction decontamination method was established. The nanogram quantity Plutonium was separated from milligram uranium and the decontamination coefficient achieved 10 7 , the recovery coefficient >95%. The active carbon powder was chosen as the ionization intensifier to increase the plutonium ion flow. Used 6.7 pg Plutonium standard as sample to measured by TIMS and the RSD of the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ≤3.6%. (authors)