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Sample records for plutella xylostella linnaeuslepidoptera

  1. Parasitism of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out at the Weija Irrigation Company site at Weija, in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana, to determine the seasonal abundance of the major parasitoid of Plutella xylostella (L.) populations on cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (L.) during the rainy and the dry seasons. The results indicated that ...

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of Four Isolates of Plutella xylostella Granulovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, Robert J.; Noune, Christopher; Hauxwell, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Granuloviruses are widespread pathogens of Plutella xylostella L. (diamondback moth) and potential biopesticides for control of this global insect pest. We report the complete genomes of four Plutella xylostella granulovirus isolates from China, Malaysia, and Taiwan exhibiting pairs of noncoding, homologous repeat regions with significant sequence variation but equivalent length.

  3. Complete Genome Sequences of Four Isolates of Plutella xylostella Granulovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Robert J; Noune, Christopher; Hauxwell, Caroline

    2016-06-30

    Granuloviruses are widespread pathogens of Plutella xylostella L. (diamondback moth) and potential biopesticides for control of this global insect pest. We report the complete genomes of four Plutella xylostella granulovirus isolates from China, Malaysia, and Taiwan exhibiting pairs of noncoding, homologous repeat regions with significant sequence variation but equivalent length. Copyright © 2016 Spence et al.

  4. selected strains of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    464-8601, Japan. Present address: K. D. Ninsin, Animal Health and Food Safety Division, CSIR-Animal. Research Institute, Post Office Box AH 20, Achimota. Ghana. Email: kdninsin@hotmail.com. Abstract. Effective control of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) has become critical ...

  5. Patogenisitas Beberapa Isolat Beauveria Bassiana pada Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharto Suharto

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera : Plutellidae is key pest on cabbage. P. xylostella can be infected by Beauveria bassiana from other insects. The objective of this study was to determine the pathogenicity five isolates of B. bassiana on P. xylostella. Those isolates were BbUj1 (larvae of Lepidoptera, BbUj2 (rice brown plant hopper, BbUj3 (rice brown plant hopper, BbUj4 (rice seed bug, and BbUj5 (rice black bug. In the laboratory every isolate was inoculated 5 µL spore suspension at rate 107 spores/mL to third instar P. xylostella larva used micro liter syringe. Each treatment used 10 larvae and was replicated five times. The pathogenicity of B. bassiana was determined based on mortality and LT50 value. The potential isolate was tested to find LC50 subsequently tested on cabbage crop in the green house. The result of the study showed that BbUj1 from larvae of Lepidoptera was the potential isolate with LC50 of 9.49 x 10^5 spores/mL. LT50 was 2.67 days for the concentration 107 spores/mL. Green house application of B. bassiana at rate of 5 x 10^12 spores/ha caused 57 percent mortality of P. xylostella larva in seven days after treatment and LT50 was 5.67 days.

  6. Fitness and inheritance of metaflumizone resistance in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Li, Dongyang; Zhang, Shuzhen; Zhu, Xun; Wan, Hu; Li, Jianhong

    2017-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) has developed resistance to many types of insecticides in the field. To study inheritance and fitness cost of metaflumizone resistance, a susceptible strain of diamondback moth was continuously selected with metaflumizone during 37 generations under laboratory conditions. The resistance to metaflumizone was at a high level (resistance ratios from 250.37 to 1450.47-fold). We investigated a metaflumizone resistance strain (G 27 ) and a susceptible strain of P. xylostella, using the age-stage, two-sex life table approach. Compared to the susceptible strain, egg duration, the developmental time of the first and second instar larvae, pupae duration, adult preoviposition period (APOP), total preoviposition period (TPOP), egg hatchability, the survival rate of second instar larva and the mean generation time (T) were significantly differences in the resistant strain. The resistant strain had a relative fitness of 0.78. The inheritance of metaflumizone resistance was also studied by crossing the metaflumizone resistant and susceptible populations. Results revealed an autosomal and incompletely recessive mode of inheritance for metaflumizone resistance in the resistant population of P. xylostella. The present study provided useful information for planning potential management strategies to delay development of metaflumizone resistance in P. xylostella. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radition-induced genetic damage in plutella xylostella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail bin Bahari; Mahani binti Mohamad

    1993-01-01

    Radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations in progenies of irradiated Plutella xylostella was determined in a F1 sterility study. A total of 4 types of crosses (irradiated males against unirradiated females, irradiated females against unirradiated males, both parents irradiated and normal) were made following gamma irradiation at the pupal stage. Testes squash preparations made from F1 male larvae revealed 3 main types of chromosomal abberations induced by doses of 100, 150 and 200 Gy. Results obtained indicate the possibility of using chromosome translocations as the genetic marker

  8. Potential use of F1 sterility and the parasitoid, Cotesia plutellae, to control diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maung, N.

    2002-01-01

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella males irradiated with 100 Gy and larval parasitoids (Cotesia plutellae) were studied for their potential to control DBM in cabbage fields of Nyaung-Le-Bin Township, Bago Division. The following treatments were evaluated as control tactics: release of irradiated male DBM, augmentative release of parasitoids, and combined release of irradiated male DBM and parasitoids. These treatments reduced the larval population of feral DBM. (author)

  9. Cotesia vestalis parasitization suppresses expression of a Plutella xylostella thioredoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, M; Zhao, S; Wang, Z-H; Stanley, D; Chen, X-X

    2016-12-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are a family of small, highly conserved and ubiquitous proteins involved in protecting organisms against toxic reactive oxygen species. In this study, a typical thioredoxin gene, PxTrx, was isolated from Plutella xylostella. The full-length cDNA sequence is composed of 959 bp containing a 321 bp open reading frame that encodes a predicted protein of 106 amino acids, a predicted molecular weight of 11.7 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.03. PxTrx was mainly expressed in larval Malpighian tubules and the fat body. An enriched recombinant PxTrx had insulin disulphide reductase activity and stimulated Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cell proliferation. It also protected supercoiled DNA and living HEK293 cells from H 2 O 2 -induced damage. Parasitization by Cotesia vestalis and injections of 0.05 and 0.01 equivalents of C. vestalis Bracovirus (CvBv), the symbiotic virus carried by the parasitoid, led to down-regulation of PxTrx expression in host fat body. Taken together, our results indicate that PxTrx contributes to the maintenance of P. xylostella cellular haemostasis. Host fat body expression of PxTrx is strongly attenuated by parasitization and by injections of CvBv. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Sublethal Effects of Fenoxycarb on the Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    The effects of fenoxycarb, a Juvenile hormone analogue, at sublethal concentrations were tested on some biological parameters of Plutella xylostella (L.) in two consecutive generations. The calculated LC10, LC25, and LC50 values of the insecticide were 21.58, 43.25, and 93.62 mg/liter on third-instar larvae, respectively. Fenoxycarb significantly reduced pupal weight and oviposition period in parent generation. In addition, the fecundity of treated groups (LC10 = 71.06, LC25 = 40.60 eggs per female) in parents was significantly lower than control (169.40 eggs per female). Although fenoxycarb could not affect gross reproductive rate and death rate, it decreased net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, and birth rate in offspring generation. Also, mean generation time and doubling time of treated insects was significantly longer than control at LC10 level. Therefore, the data from this study suggested that fenoxycarb could adversely cause population decline in the subsequent generation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  11. Development of two related endoparasitoids in larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malčická, Mima; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    We compare the growth and development of two related solitary endoparasitoids (Braconidae, Microgastinae) in different instars (second and third) of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella. Cotesia vestalis is a well-studied parasitoid whose larvae feed primarily on host hemolymph and fat body

  12. Isolation and characterization of trinucleotide repeat microsatellite markers for Plutella xylostella L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esselink, G.D.; Belder, den E.; Elderson, J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen microsatellite markers generating high quality patterns have been developed and characterized for diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.), of which 11 are based on trinucleotide repeats. These markers are polymorphic, generating up to 15 alleles in a test set of 12 caterpillars. The

  13. Feeding status of the parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum affects biological control of Plutella xylostella: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemerik, L.

    2007-01-01

    Life history characteristics of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, a worldwide pest on cruciferous crops, and its important natural enemy, the parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum have intensely been studied. In addition, the searching behaviour of the parasitoid and the role of foraging

  14. Rapid report acetamiprid resistance and cross-resistance in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninsin, Kodwo D

    2004-09-01

    A 110-fold acetamiprid-resistant Plutella xylostella (L) strain was established after four selection experiments (in five generations) on a 9.5-fold resistant colony in the laboratory. The resistant strain did not show cross-resistance to chlorfluazuron or Bacillus thuringiensis subsp kurstaki Berliner, but displayed low resistance to cartap and phenthoate.

  15. Parasitoid dan Parasitisasi Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae di Sumatera Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI HERLINDA

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Surveys from May 2003 to January 2004 in South Sumatera were conducted to determine parasitoid attacking Plutella xylostella (L. and to estimate P. xylostella parasitization by the parasitoids. The eggs and the larvae of P. xylostella were collected from brassicaceous crops, i.e. mustard, Indian mustard, and cabbage. Six parasitoids found were Trichogrammatoidea cojuangcoi Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, Cotesia plutellae (Kurdj. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Diadegma semiclausum Hellen (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdj. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Tetrastichus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, and a ceraphronid wasp (unidentified species. Trichogrammatoidea cojuangcoi parasitized P. xylostella eggs, however, the others parasitized the larvae except the ceraphronid wasp. In South Sumatera, the ceraphronid wasp was reported for the first time parasitizing D. semiclausum pupae, and its parasitization reached 6.2%. Oomyzus sokolowskii and Tetrastichus were found in this area for the first time, as well. In the highland, D. semiclausum was the most abundant compared to the others where its parasitization reached 79.2%. In the lowland P. xylostella larvae was mainly attacked by C. plutellae with the parasitization reaching 64.9% In the dry and rainy seasons, the parasitization was mainly exerted by T. cojuangcoi (77.0% and D. semiclausum (79.2%.

  16. Parasitoid and Parasitization of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae in South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI HERLINDA

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Surveys from May 2003 to January 2004 in South Sumatera were conducted to determine parasitoid attacking Plutella xylostella (L. and to estimate P. xylostella parasitization by the parasitoids. The eggs and the larvae of P. xylostella were collected from brassicaceous crops, i.e. mustard, Indian mustard, and cabbage. Six parasitoids found were Trichogrammatoidea cojuangcoi Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, Cotesia plutellae (Kurdj. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Diadegma semiclausum Hellen (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdj. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Tetrastichus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, and a ceraphronid wasp (unidentified species. Trichogrammatoidea cojuangcoi parasitized P. xylostella eggs, however, the others parasitized the larvae except the ceraphronid wasp. In South Sumatera, the ceraphronid wasp was reported for the first time parasitizing D. semiclausum pupae, and its parasitization reached 6.2%. Oomyzus sokolowskii and Tetrastichus were found in this area for the first time, as well. In the highland, D. semiclausum was the most abundant compared to the others where its parasitization reached 79.2%. In the lowland P. xylostella larvae was mainly attacked by C. plutellae with the parasitization reaching 64.9%. In the dry and rainy seasons, the parasitization was mainly exerted by T. cojuangcoi (77.0% and D. semiclausum (79.2%.

  17. Mortality of Plutella xylostella larvae treated with Aspidosperma pyrifolium ethanol extracts Mortalidade de larvas de Plutella xylostella tratadas com extratos etanólicos de Aspidosperma pyrifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Cristina Prédes Trindade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effects of Aspidosperma pyrifolium ethanol extracts on cabbage moth (Plutella xylostella larvae. The ethanol extracts of the stem bark, fruits and roots of A. pyrifolium were obtained by classical phytochemical methods, and the resulting subfractions were tested on P. xylostella, using 4 and 5 mg L-1. The crude ethanol extract of the stem bark was more lethal. The alkaloid-rich aqueous subfraction derived from the stem bark extract caused 100% larval mortality at 4 mg L-1. Insecticidal activity was associated with the presence of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloids aspidofractinine, 15-demethoxypyrifoline, and N-formylaspidofractinine. These alkaloids presented excellent insecticidal properties against P. xylostella.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos dos extratos etanólicos de Aspidosperma pyrifolium sobre lagartas da traça-das-crucíferas (Plutella xylostella. Os extratos etanólicos da casca do caule, do fruto e da raiz de A. pyrifolium foram obtidos pelos métodos fitoquímicos clássicos, e as subfrações resultantes foram testadas contra P. xylostella, nas dosagens 4 e 5 mg L-1. O extrato bruto etanólico da casca do caule foi mais letal. A subfração aquosa rica em alcalóides, derivada do extrato da casca do caule, causou 100% de mortalidade larval a 4 mg L-1. A atividade inseticida foi associada à presença dos alcalóides monoterpenóides indólicos aspidofractinina, 15-demetoxipirifolina e N-formilaspidofractinin. Estes alcalóides apresentaram excelente propriedade inseticida contra P. xylostella.

  18. Mortality of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae by parasitoids in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Bertolaccini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortality of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae by parasitoids in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae larvae cause severe economic damage on cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae, in the horticultural fields in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Overuse of broad spectrum insecticides affects the action of natural enemies of this insect on cabbage. The objectives of this work were to identify the parasitoids of P. xylostella and to determine their influence on larva and pupa mortality. Weekly collections of larvae and pupae were randomly conducted in cabbage crops during spring 2006 and 2007. The immature forms collected were classified according to their developmental stage: L1 and L2 (Ls = small larvae, L3 (Lm = medium larvae, L4 (Ll = large larvae, pre-pupae and pupae (P. Each individual was observed daily in the laboratory until the adult pest or parasitoid emergence. We identified parasitoids, the number of instar and the percentage of mortality of P. xylostella for each species of parasitoid. Parasitoids recorded were: Diadegma insulare (Cresson, 1875 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae and an unidentified species of Chalcididae (Hymenoptera. Besides parasitoids, an unidentified entomopathogenic fungus was also recorded in 2006 and 2007. In 2006, the most successful parasitoids were D. insulare and O. sokolowskii, while in 2007 only D. insulare exerted a satisfactory control and it attacked the early instars of the pest.

  19. Characterization and expression profiling of serine protease inhibitors in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hailan; Lin, Xijian; Zhu, Jiwei; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Xia, Xiaofeng; Yao, Fengluan; Yang, Guang; You, Minsheng

    2017-02-14

    Serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) have been found in all living organisms and play significant roles in digestion, development and innate immunity. In this study, we present a genome-wide identification and expression profiling of SPI genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a major pest of cruciferous crops with global distribution and broad resistance to different types of insecticides. A total of 61 potential SPI genes were identified in the P. xylostella genome, and these SPIs were classified into serpins, canonical inhibitors, and alpha-2-macroglobulins based on their modes of action. Sequence alignments showed that amino acid residues in the hinge region of known inhibitory serpins from other insect species were conserved in most P. xylostella serpins, suggesting that these P. xylostella serpins may be functionally active. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that P. xylostella inhibitory serpins were clustered with known inhibitory serpins from six other insect species. More interestingly, nine serpins were highly similar to the orthologues in Manduca sexta which have been demonstrated to participate in regulating the prophenoloxidase activation cascade, an important innate immune response in insects. Of the 61 P.xylostella SPI genes, 33 were canonical SPIs containing seven types of inhibitor domains, including Kunitz, Kazal, TIL, amfpi, Antistasin, WAP and Pacifastin. Moreover, some SPIs contained additional non-inhibitor domains, including spondin_N, reeler, and other modules, which may be involved in protein-protein interactions. Gene expression profiling showed gene-differential, stage- and sex-specific expression patterns of SPIs, suggesting that SPIs may be involved in multiple physiological processes in P. xylostella. This is the most comprehensive investigation so far on SPI genes in P. xylostella. The characterized features and expression patterns of P. xylostella SPIs indicate that the SPI family genes may be involved in innate immunity

  20. Aromatic glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway in Barbarea vulgaris and its response to Plutella xylostella infestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tongjin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Haohui

    2016-01-01

    The inducibility of the glucosinolate resistance mechanism is an energy-saving strategy for plants, but whether induction would still be triggered by glucosinolate-tolerant Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM) after a plant had evolved a new resistance mechanism (e.g., saponins in Barbara...... of S and R isomers of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl glucosinolate. These glucosinolates were significantly induced by P. xylostella larvae in both the susceptiple P-type and the resistant G-type, even though saponins are the main DBM-resistance causing metabolites in G-type plants. Indol-3...

  1. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of CYP6BF1 from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongshan; Dai, Huaguo; Wei, Hui

    2005-01-01

    A novel cDNA clong encoding a cytochrome P450 was screened from the insecticide-susceptible strain of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera:Yponomeutidae). The nucleotide sequence of the clone, designated CYP6BF1, was determined. This is the first full-length sequence of the CYP6 family from Plutella xylostella (L.). The cDNA is 1661bp in length and contains an open reading frame from base pairs 26 to 1570, encoding a protein of 514 amino acid residues. It is similar to the other insect P450s in gene family 6, including CYP6AE1 from Depressaria pastinacella, (46%). The GenBank accession number is AY971374. PMID:17119627

  2. KONAGAbase: a genomic and transcriptomic database for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    OpenAIRE

    Jouraku, Akiya; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Urio, Masahiro; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Narukawa, Junko; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Kurita, Kanako; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Katayose, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Noda, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Background The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, is one of the most harmful insect pests for crucifer crops worldwide. DBM has rapidly evolved high resistance to most conventional insecticides such as pyrethroids, organophosphates, fipronil, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis, and diamides. Therefore, it is important to develop genomic and transcriptomic DBM resources for analysis of genes related to insecticide resistance, both to clarify the mechanism of resistance of DBM and to fa...

  3. Insecticide resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) in the Federal District, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Castelo Branco, Marina; Gatehouse, Alexander G.

    1997-01-01

    The levels of resistance to the insecticides cartap, deltamethrin and metamidophos were evaluated for three populations of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (L.) from the Federal District, Brazil in laboratory bioassays. The larvae of DBM showed levels of resistance to deltamethrin between 4 and 47 fold relative to a susceptible laboratory strain. The level of resistance to metamidophos was 2-9 fold greater than that of the susceptible strain. No resistance to cartap was detected. O...

  4. Characterization and expression of the cytochrome P450 gene family in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liying; Tang, Weiqi; He, Weiyi; Ma, Xiaoli; Vasseur, Liette; Baxter, Simon W; Yang, Guang; Huang, Shiguo; Song, Fengqin; You, Minsheng

    2015-03-10

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are present in almost all organisms and can play vital roles in hormone regulation, metabolism of xenobiotics and in biosynthesis or inactivation of endogenous compounds. In the present study, a genome-wide approach was used to identify and analyze the P450 gene family of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, a destructive worldwide pest of cruciferous crops. We identified 85 putative cytochrome P450 genes from the P. xylostella genome, including 84 functional genes and 1 pseudogene. These genes were classified into 26 families and 52 subfamilies. A phylogenetic tree constructed with three additional insect species shows extensive gene expansions of P. xylostella P450 genes from clans 3 and 4. Gene expression of cytochrome P450s was quantified across multiple developmental stages (egg, larva, pupa and adult) and tissues (head and midgut) using P. xylostella strains susceptible or resistant to insecticides chlorpyrifos and fiprinol. Expression of the lepidopteran specific CYP367s predominantly occurred in head tissue suggesting a role in either olfaction or detoxification. CYP340s with abundant transposable elements and relatively high expression in the midgut probably contribute to the detoxification of insecticides or plant toxins in P. xylostella. This study will facilitate future functional studies of the P. xylostella P450s in detoxification.

  5. Tissue-specific transcriptome profiling of Plutella xylostella third instar larval midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Lei, Yanyuan; Fu, Wei; Yang, Zhongxia; Zhu, Xun; Guo, Zhaojiang; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2012-01-01

    The larval midgut of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a dynamic tissue that interfaces with a diverse array of physiological and toxicological processes, including nutrient digestion and allocation, xenobiotic detoxification, innate and adaptive immune response, and pathogen defense. Despite its enormous agricultural importance, the genomic resources for P. xylostella are surprisingly scarce. In this study, a Bt resistant P. xylostella strain was subjected to the in-depth transcriptome analysis to identify genes and gene networks putatively involved in various physiological and toxicological processes in the P. xylostella larval midgut. Using Illumina deep sequencing, we obtained roughly 40 million reads containing approximately 3.6 gigabases of sequence data. De novo assembly generated 63,312 ESTs with an average read length of 416 bp, and approximately half of the P. xylostella sequences (45.4%, 28,768) showed similarity to the non-redundant database in GenBank with a cut-off E-value below 10(-5). Among them, 11,092 unigenes were assigned to one or multiple GO terms and 16,732 unigenes were assigned to 226 specific pathways. In-depth analysis identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, nutrient digestion, and innate immune defense. Besides conventional detoxification enzymes and insecticide targets, novel genes, including 28 chymotrypsins and 53 ABC transporters, have been uncovered in the P. xylostella larval midgut transcriptome; which are potentially linked to the Bt toxicity and resistance. Furthermore, an unexpectedly high number of ESTs, including 46 serpins and 7 lysozymes, were predicted to be involved in the immune defense.As the first tissue-specific transcriptome analysis of P. xylostella, this study sheds light on the molecular understanding of insecticide resistance, especially Bt resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest, and lays the foundation for future functional genomics research. In addition, current

  6. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome Profiling of Plutella Xylostella Third Instar Larval Midgut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Lei, Yanyuan; Fu, Wei; Yang, Zhongxia; Zhu, Xun; Guo, Zhaojiang; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2012-01-01

    The larval midgut of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a dynamic tissue that interfaces with a diverse array of physiological and toxicological processes, including nutrient digestion and allocation, xenobiotic detoxification, innate and adaptive immune response, and pathogen defense. Despite its enormous agricultural importance, the genomic resources for P. xylostella are surprisingly scarce. In this study, a Bt resistant P. xylostella strain was subjected to the in-depth transcriptome analysis to identify genes and gene networks putatively involved in various physiological and toxicological processes in the P. xylostella larval midgut. Using Illumina deep sequencing, we obtained roughly 40 million reads containing approximately 3.6 gigabases of sequence data. De novo assembly generated 63,312 ESTs with an average read length of 416bp, and approximately half of the P. xylostella sequences (45.4%, 28,768) showed similarity to the non-redundant database in GenBank with a cut-off E-value below 10-5. Among them, 11,092 unigenes were assigned to one or multiple GO terms and 16,732 unigenes were assigned to 226 specific pathways. In-depth analysis indentified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, nutrient digestion, and innate immune defense. Besides conventional detoxification enzymes and insecticide targets, novel genes, including 28 chymotrypsins and 53 ABC transporters, have been uncovered in the P. xylostella larval midgut transcriptome; which are potentially linked to the Bt toxicity and resistance. Furthermore, an unexpectedly high number of ESTs, including 46 serpins and 7 lysozymes, were predicted to be involved in the immune defense. As the first tissue-specific transcriptome analysis of P. xylostella, this study sheds light on the molecular understanding of insecticide resistance, especially Bt resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest, and lays the foundation for future functional genomics research. In addition, current

  7. An anionic defensin from Plutella xylostella with potential activity against Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X-X; Zhang, Y-Q; Freed, S; Yu, J; Gao, Y-F; Wang, S; Ouyang, L-N; Ju, W-Y; Jin, F-L

    2016-12-01

    Insect defensins, are cationic peptides that play an important role in immunity against microbial infection. In the present study, an anionic defensin from Plutella xylostella, (designated as PxDef) was first cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that the mature peptide owned characteristic six-cysteine motifs with predicted isoelectric point of 5.57, indicating an anionic defensin. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that PxDef was significantly induced in epidermis, fat body, midgut and hemocytes after injection of heat-inactivated Bacillus thuringiensis, while such an induction was delayed by the injection of live B. thuringiensis in the 4th instar larvae of P. xylostella. Knocking down the expression of nuclear transcription factor Dorsal in P. xylostella by RNA interference significantly decreased the mRNA level of PxDef, and increased the sensitivity of P. xylostella larvae to the infection by live B. thuringiensis. The purified recombinant mature peptide (PxDef) showed higher activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with the minimum inhibition concentrations of 1.6 and 2.6 µM against B. thuringiensis and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report about an anionic PxDef, which may play an important role in the immune system of P. xylostella against B. thuringiensis.

  8. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Huang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations. Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management.

  9. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-05-29

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management.

  10. Uji Efikasi Bioinsektisida Jamur Entomopatogen Berformulasi Cair terhadap Plutella xylostella (L. Di Laboratorium

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    Haperidah Nunilahwati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy test of liquid bio-insecticide of entomopathogenic fungi in control against Plutella xylostella in the laboratory.  The insect pest P. xylostella could reduce crop production of Brassicaceae. The aim of research was to test the efficacy liquid bio insecticide with active ingredient of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae fungi to control P. xylostella. Bio-insecticide was applied by spraying  on mustard leaves infested with 50 individuals of third instar larvae of P. xylostella and a density of 1x106 conidia ml-1. Larval mortality was observed every 2 hours and LT50 of larvae was calculated. The study showed that the highest percentage of mortality found in Mt ES and Mt ES (cf isolates was 99.6%, the lowest mortality at Mt NES isolate was 96.80%. LT50 and LT95 values   Bb ES were the lowest i.e. 2.04 days and 2.95 days. The highest LT50 and LT95 of Mt NES isolate were 2.24 days and 3.32 days. The liquid bio-insecticide of entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana and M. anisopliae were effective to control the larvae of P. xylostella.

  11. Revised annotation of Plutella xylostella microRNAs and their genome-wide target identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etebari, K; Asgari, S

    2016-12-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is the most devastating pest of brassica crops worldwide. Although 128 mature microRNAs (miRNAs) have been annotated from this species in miRBase, there is a need to extend and correct the current P. xylostella miRNA repertoire as a result of its recently improved genome assembly and more available small RNA sequence data. We used our new ultra-deep sequence data and bioinformatics to re-annotate the P. xylostella genome for high confidence miRNAs with the correct 5p and 3p arm features. Furthermore, all the P. xylostella annotated genes were also screened to identify potential miRNA binding sites using three target-predicting algorithms. In total, 203 mature miRNAs were annotated, including 33 novel miRNAs. We identified 7691 highly confident binding sites for 160 pxy-miRNAs. The data provided here will facilitate future studies involving functional analyses of P. xylostella miRNAs as a platform to introduce novel approaches for sustainable management of this destructive pest. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Identification of the chitinase genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z H; Kuo, T C; Kao, C H; Chou, T M; Kao, Y H; Huang, R N

    2016-12-01

    Chitinases have an indispensable function in chitin metabolism and are well characterized in numerous insect species. Although the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella, which has a high reproductive potential, short generation time, and characteristic adaptation to adverse environments, has become one of the most serious pests of cruciferous plants worldwide, the information on the chitinases of the moth is presently limited. In the present study, using degenerated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR strategies, four chitinase genes of P. xylostella were cloned, and an exhaustive search was conducted for chitinase-like sequences from the P. xylostella genome and transcriptomic database. Based on the domain analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences and the phylogenetic analysis of the catalytic domain sequences, we identified 15 chitinase genes from P. xylostella. Two of the gut-specific chitinases did not cluster with any of the known phylogenetic groups of chitinases and might be in a new group of the chitinase family. Moreover, in our study, group VIII chitinase was not identified. The structures, classifications and expression patterns of the chitinases of P. xylostella were further delineated, and with this information, further investigations on the functions of chitinase genes in DBM could be facilitated.

  13. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management. PMID:26035491

  14. Resistance and behavioural response of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) populations to Bacillus thuringiensis formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Hugo B; Siqueira, Herbert Á A; Pereira, Eliseu J G; Picanço, Marcelo C; Barros, Reginaldo

    2014-03-01

    Insecticide resistance is probably the major cause of control failure of Plutella xylostella (L.) in Brazil. In most production regions, the use of chemicals has been the prevalent method of control, with reduced efficacy through cropping seasons, even for the most recent use of products based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The current status of the resistance to these products was assessed, as well as the behavioural response of P. xylostella populations to Bt sprays. Most populations of P. xylostella were resistant to Bt products, particularly to Xentari®WDG (2-54-fold). Differences in walking characteristics of larvae were variable for most populations, for both Dipel®WP and Xentari®WDG, but not associated with resistance. Most females preferred to lay eggs on untreated surfaces and showed a reduced proportion of oviposition on treated surfaces that only correlated with resistance to Dipel®WP (r = -0.74, P = 0.02). Broad and indiscriminate use of Bt-based products has selected Brazilian P. xylostella populations to resistance. Larval movement appears to be a resistance-independent mechanism. Most populations of P. xylostella preferred to lay eggs on Bt-free surfaces, which might be a result of growers' practice of spraying the cabbage head. Reduced oviposition on treated surfaces correlated with physiological resistance, suggesting a behavioural response among the Bt-resistant colonies to Dipel®WP. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Synthesis and Field Evaluation of the Sex Pheromone of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tacain, Jimena; Parpal, Florencia; Abbate, Silvana; Silva, Horacio; Ribeiro, Adela; Heguaburu, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) is known to cause economic damage to rapeseed, cabbage, and other cruciferous crops worldwide. Sex pheromone components of P. xylostella, including (Z)-11-hexadecenal, (Z)-11-hexadecenol, and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, were synthesized in a concise and divergent fashion in yields appropriate to develop field tests. Two blends were prepared from these three components (8:18:100 and 10:1:90), and they were used to evaluate the number of P. xylostel...

  16. Functional analysis of a point mutation in the ryanodine receptor of Plutella xylostella (L.) associated with resistance to chlorantraniliprole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Xuguo; Li, Zhenyu; Liu, Shangzhong; Pei, Liang; Gao, Xiwu

    2014-07-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) has developed extremely high resistance to chlorantraniliprole and other diamide insecticides in the field. A glycine to glutamic acid substitution (G4946E) in the P. xylostella ryanodine receptor (PxRyR) has been found in two resistant populations collected in Thailand and Philippines and was considered associated with the diamide insecticides resistance but no experimental evidence was provided. The present study aimed to clarify the function of the reported mutation in chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. We identified the same mutation (G4946E) in PxRyR from four field collected chlorantraniliprole resistant populations of Plutella xylostella in China. Most importantly, we found that the frequency of the G4946E mutation is significantly correlated to the chlorantraniliprole resistance ratios in P. xylostella (R(2)  = 0.82, P = 0.0003). Ligand binding assays showed that the binding affinities of the PxRyR to the chlorantraniliprole in three field resistant populations were 2.41-, 2.54- and 2.60-times lower than that in the susceptible one. For the first time we experimentally proved that the G4946E mutation in PxRyR confers resistance to chlorantraniliprole in Plutella xylostella. These findings pave the way for the complete understanding of the mechanisms of diamide insecticides resistance in insects. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Gut Microbiota Mediate Insecticide Resistance in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaofeng; Sun, Botong; Gurr, Geoff M; Vasseur, Liette; Xue, Minqian; You, Minsheng

    2018-01-01

    The development of insecticide resistance in insect pests is a worldwide concern and elucidating the underlying mechanisms is critical for effective crop protection. Recent studies have indicated potential links between insect gut microbiota and insecticide resistance and these may apply to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a globally and economically important pest of cruciferous crops. We isolated Enterococcus sp. (Firmicutes), Enterobacter sp. (Proteobacteria), and Serratia sp. (Proteobacteria) from the guts of P. xylostella and analyzed the effects on, and underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Enterococcus sp. enhanced resistance to the widely used insecticide, chlorpyrifos, in P. xylostella , while in contrast, Serratia sp. decreased resistance and Enterobacter sp. and all strains of heat-killed bacteria had no effect. Importantly, the direct degradation of chlorpyrifos in vitro was consistent among the three strains of bacteria. We found that Enterococcus sp., vitamin C, and acetylsalicylic acid enhanced insecticide resistance in P. xylostella and had similar effects on expression of P. xylostella antimicrobial peptides. Expression of cecropin was down-regulated by the two compounds, while gloverin was up-regulated. Bacteria that were not associated with insecticide resistance induced contrasting gene expression profiles to Enterococcus sp. and the compounds. Our studies confirmed that gut bacteria play an important role in P. xylostella insecticide resistance, but the main mechanism is not direct detoxification of insecticides by gut bacteria. We also suggest that the influence of gut bacteria on insecticide resistance may depend on effects on the immune system. Our work advances understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance in this key pest and highlights directions for research into insecticide resistance in other insect pest species.

  18. Transcriptome profiling of the Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) ovary reveals genes involved in oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lu; Wang, Lei; Yang, Yi-Fan; Zou, Ming-Min; He, Wei-Yi; Wang, Yue; Wang, Qing; Vasseur, Liette; You, Min-Sheng

    2017-12-30

    As a specialized organ, the insect ovary performs valuable functions by ensuring fecundity and population survival. Oogenesis is the complex physiological process resulting in the production of mature eggs, which are involved in epigenetic programming, germ cell behavior, cell cycle regulation, etc. Identification of the genes involved in ovary development and oogenesis is critical to better understand the reproductive biology and screening for the potential molecular targets in Plutella xylostella, a worldwide destructive pest of economically major crops. Based on transcriptome sequencing, a total of 7.88Gb clean nucleotides was obtained, with 19,934 genes and 1861 new transcripts being identified. Expression profiling indicated that 61.7% of the genes were expressed (FPKM≥1) in the P. xylostella ovary. GO annotation showed that the pathways of multicellular organism reproduction and multicellular organism reproduction process, as well as gamete generation and chorion were significantly enriched. Processes that were most likely relevant to reproduction included the spliceosome, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, endocytosis, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, cAMP signaling pathway, and focal adhesion were identified in the top 20 'highly represented' KEGG pathways. Functional genes involved in oogenesis were further analyzed and validated by qRT-PCR to show their potential predominant roles in P. xylostella reproduction. Our newly developed P. xylostella ovary transcriptome provides an overview of the gene expression profiling in this specialized tissue and the functional gene network closely related to the ovary development and oogenesis. This is the first genome-wide transcriptome dataset of P. xylostella ovary that includes a subset of functionally activated genes. This global approach will be the basis for further studies on molecular mechanisms of P. xylostella reproduction aimed at screening potential molecular targets for integrated pest

  19. Genome-wide investigation of transcription factors provides insights into transcriptional regulation in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Ma, Dongna; Huang, Yuping; He, Weiyi; Li, Yiying; Vasseur, Liette; You, Minsheng

    2018-04-01

    Transcription factors (TFs), which play a vital role in regulating gene expression, are prevalent in all organisms and characterization of them may provide important clues for understanding regulation in vivo. The present study reports a genome-wide investigation of TFs in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a worldwide pest of crucifers. A total of 940 TFs distributed among 133 families were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of insect species showed that some of these families were found to have expanded during the evolution of P. xylostella or Lepidoptera. RNA-seq analysis showed that some of the TF families, such as zinc fingers, homeobox, bZIP, bHLH, and MADF_DNA_bdg genes, were highly expressed in certain tissues including midgut, salivary glands, fat body, and hemocytes, with an obvious sex-biased expression pattern. In addition, a number of TFs showed significant differences in expression between insecticide susceptible and resistant strains, suggesting that these TFs play a role in regulating genes related to insecticide resistance. Finally, we identified an expansion of the HOX cluster in Lepidoptera, which might be related to Lepidoptera-specific evolution. Knockout of this cluster using CRISPR/Cas9 showed that the egg cannot hatch, indicating that this cluster may be related to egg development and maturation. This is the first comprehensive study on identifying and characterizing TFs in P. xylostella. Our results suggest that some TF families are expanded in the P. xylostella genome, and these TFs may have important biological roles in growth, development, sexual dimorphism, and resistance to insecticides. The present work provides a solid foundation for understanding regulation via TFs in P. xylostella and insights into the evolution of the P. xylostella genome.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of chlorantraniliprole resistance development in the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella.

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    Qingsheng Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diamondback moth Plutella xyllostella has developed a high level of resistance to the latest insecticide chlorantraniliprole. A better understanding of P. xylostella's resistance mechanism to chlorantraniliprole is needed to develop effective approaches for insecticide resistance management. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To provide a comprehensive insight into the resistance mechanisms of P. xylostella to chlorantraniliprole, transcriptome assembly and tag-based digital gene expression (DGE system were performed using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. The transcriptome analysis of the susceptible strain (SS provided 45,231 unigenes (with the size ranging from 200 bp to 13,799 bp, which would be efficient for analyzing the differences in different chlorantraniliprole-resistant P. xylostella stains. DGE analysis indicated that a total of 1215 genes (189 up-regulated and 1026 down-regulated were gradient differentially expressed among the susceptible strain (SS and different chlorantraniliprole-resistant P. xylostella strains, including low-level resistance (GXA, moderate resistance (LZA and high resistance strains (HZA. A detailed analysis of gradient differentially expressed genes elucidated the existence of a phase-dependent divergence of biological investment at the molecular level. The genes related to insecticide resistance, such as P450, GST, the ryanodine receptor, and connectin, had different expression profiles in the different chlorantraniliprole-resistant DGE libraries, suggesting that the genes related to insecticide resistance are involved in P. xylostella resistance development against chlorantraniliprole. To confirm the results from the DGE, the expressional profiles of 4 genes related to insecticide resistance were further validated by qRT-PCR analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained transcriptome information provides large gene resources available for further studying the resistance development of P. xylostella to pesticides. The DGE data

  1. Gut Microbiota Mediate Insecticide Resistance in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of insecticide resistance in insect pests is a worldwide concern and elucidating the underlying mechanisms is critical for effective crop protection. Recent studies have indicated potential links between insect gut microbiota and insecticide resistance and these may apply to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L., a globally and economically important pest of cruciferous crops. We isolated Enterococcus sp. (Firmicutes, Enterobacter sp. (Proteobacteria, and Serratia sp. (Proteobacteria from the guts of P. xylostella and analyzed the effects on, and underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Enterococcus sp. enhanced resistance to the widely used insecticide, chlorpyrifos, in P. xylostella, while in contrast, Serratia sp. decreased resistance and Enterobacter sp. and all strains of heat-killed bacteria had no effect. Importantly, the direct degradation of chlorpyrifos in vitro was consistent among the three strains of bacteria. We found that Enterococcus sp., vitamin C, and acetylsalicylic acid enhanced insecticide resistance in P. xylostella and had similar effects on expression of P. xylostella antimicrobial peptides. Expression of cecropin was down-regulated by the two compounds, while gloverin was up-regulated. Bacteria that were not associated with insecticide resistance induced contrasting gene expression profiles to Enterococcus sp. and the compounds. Our studies confirmed that gut bacteria play an important role in P. xylostella insecticide resistance, but the main mechanism is not direct detoxification of insecticides by gut bacteria. We also suggest that the influence of gut bacteria on insecticide resistance may depend on effects on the immune system. Our work advances understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance in this key pest and highlights directions for research into insecticide resistance in other insect pest species.

  2. N6-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-Adenosine Exhibits Insecticidal Activity against Plutella xylostella via Adenosine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ming; Chai, Yiqiu; Chen, Guanjv; Wang, Huidong; Huang, Bo

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most important pests of cruciferous crops. We have earlier shown that N6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine (HEA) exhibits insecticidal activity against P. xylostella. In the present study we investigated the possible mechanism of insecticidal action of HEA on P. xylostella. HEA is a derivative of adenosine, therefore, we speculated whether it acts via P. xylostella adenosine receptor (PxAdoR). We used RNAi approach to silence PxAdoR gene and used antagonist of denosine receptor (AdoR) to study the insecticidal effect of HEA. We cloned the whole sequence of PxAdoR gene. A BLAST search using NCBI protein database showed a 61% identity with the Drosophila adenosine receptor (DmAdoR) and a 32-35% identity with human AdoR. Though the amino acids sequence of PxAdoR was different compared to other adenosine receptors, most of the amino acids that are known to be important for adenosine receptor ligand binding and signaling were present. However, only 30% binding sites key residues was similar between PxAdoR and A1R. HEA, at a dose of 1 mg/mL, was found to be lethal to the second-instar larvae of P. xylostella, and a significant reduction of mortality and growth inhibition ratio were obtained when HEA was administered to the larvae along with PxAdoR-dsRNA or antagonist of AdoR (SCH58261) for 36, 48, or 60 h. Especially at 48 h, the rate of growth inhibition of the PxAdoR knockdown group was 3.5-fold less than that of the HEA group, and the corrected mortality of SCH58261 group was reduced almost 2-fold compared with the HEA group. Our findings show that HEA may exert its insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae via acting on PxAdoR.

  3. N6-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-Adenosine Exhibits Insecticidal Activity against Plutella xylostella via Adenosine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ming; Chai, Yiqiu; Chen, Guanjv; Wang, Huidong; Huang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most important pests of cruciferous crops. We have earlier shown that N6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine (HEA) exhibits insecticidal activity against P. xylostella. In the present study we investigated the possible mechanism of insecticidal action of HEA on P. xylostella. HEA is a derivative of adenosine, therefore, we speculated whether it acts via P. xylostella adenosine receptor (PxAdoR). We used RNAi approach to silence PxAdoR gene and used antagonist of denosine receptor (AdoR) to study the insecticidal effect of HEA. We cloned the whole sequence of PxAdoR gene. A BLAST search using NCBI protein database showed a 61% identity with the Drosophila adenosine receptor (DmAdoR) and a 32–35% identity with human AdoR. Though the amino acids sequence of PxAdoR was different compared to other adenosine receptors, most of the amino acids that are known to be important for adenosine receptor ligand binding and signaling were present. However, only 30% binding sites key residues was similar between PxAdoR and A1R. HEA, at a dose of 1 mg/mL, was found to be lethal to the second-instar larvae of P. xylostella, and a significant reduction of mortality and growth inhibition ratio were obtained when HEA was administered to the larvae along with PxAdoR-dsRNA or antagonist of AdoR (SCH58261) for 36, 48, or 60 h. Especially at 48 h, the rate of growth inhibition of the PxAdoR knockdown group was 3.5-fold less than that of the HEA group, and the corrected mortality of SCH58261 group was reduced almost 2-fold compared with the HEA group. Our findings show that HEA may exert its insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae via acting on PxAdoR. PMID:27668428

  4. Molecular Characterization and the Function of Argonaute3 in RNAi Pathway of Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Muhammad Salman; Wang, Zhengbing; Vasseur, Liette; Yang, Guang

    2018-04-20

    Argonaute (Ago) protein family plays a key role in the RNA interference (RNAi) process in different insects including Lepidopteran. However, the role of Ago proteins in the RNAi pathway of Plutella xylostella is still unknown. We cloned an Argonaute3 gene in P. xylostella ( PxAgo3 ) with the complete coding sequence of 2832 bp. The encoded protein had 935 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of 108.9 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.29. It contained a PAZ (PIWI/Argonaute/Zwile) domain and PIWI (P-element-induced whimpy testes) domain. PxAgo3 was classified into the Piwi subfamily of Ago proteins with a high similarity of 93.0% with Bombyx mori Ago3 (BmAgo3). The suppression of PxAgo3 by dsPxAgo3 was observed 3 h after treatment and was maintained until 24 h. Knockdown of PxAgo3 decreased the suppression level of PxActin by dsPxActin in P. xylostella cells, while overexpression of PxAgo3 increased the RNAi efficiency. Our results suggest that PxAgo3 play a key role in the double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-regulated RNAi pathway in P. xylostella .

  5. Molecular Characterization and the Function of Argonaute3 in RNAi Pathway of Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Salman Hameed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Argonaute (Ago protein family plays a key role in the RNA interference (RNAi process in different insects including Lepidopteran. However, the role of Ago proteins in the RNAi pathway of Plutella xylostella is still unknown. We cloned an Argonaute3 gene in P. xylostella (PxAgo3 with the complete coding sequence of 2832 bp. The encoded protein had 935 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of 108.9 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.29. It contained a PAZ (PIWI/Argonaute/Zwile domain and PIWI (P-element-induced whimpy testes domain. PxAgo3 was classified into the Piwi subfamily of Ago proteins with a high similarity of 93.0% with Bombyx mori Ago3 (BmAgo3. The suppression of PxAgo3 by dsPxAgo3 was observed 3 h after treatment and was maintained until 24 h. Knockdown of PxAgo3 decreased the suppression level of PxActin by dsPxActin in P. xylostella cells, while overexpression of PxAgo3 increased the RNAi efficiency. Our results suggest that PxAgo3 play a key role in the double stranded RNA (dsRNA-regulated RNAi pathway in P. xylostella.

  6. A specific glycerol kinase induces rapid cold hardening of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun

    2014-08-01

    Insects in temperate zones survive low temperatures by migrating or tolerating the cold. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a serious insect pest on cabbage and other cruciferous crops worldwide. We showed that P. xylostella became cold-tolerant by expressing rapid cold hardiness (RCH) in response to a brief exposure to moderately low temperature (4°C) for 7h along with glycerol accumulation in hemolymph. Glycerol played a crucial role in the cold-hardening process because exogenously supplying glycerol significantly increased the cold tolerance of P. xylostella larvae without cold acclimation. To determine the genetic factor(s) responsible for RCH and the increase of glycerol, four glycerol kinases (GKs), and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (PxGPDH) were predicted from the whole P. xylostella genome and analyzed for their function associated with glycerol biosynthesis. All predicted genes were expressed, but differed in their expression during different developmental stages and in different tissues. Expression of the predicted genes was individually suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) using double-stranded RNAs specific to target genes. RNAi of PxGPDH expression significantly suppressed RCH and glycerol accumulation. Only PxGK1 among the four GKs was responsible for RCH and glycerol accumulation. Furthermore, PxGK1 expression was significantly enhanced during RCH. These results indicate that a specific GK, the terminal enzyme to produce glycerol, is specifically inducible during RCH to accumulate the main cryoprotectant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Zanthoxylum armatum against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vishal; Reddy, S G Eswara; Chauhan, Urvashi; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) is the most serious pest of cruciferous crops grown in the world causing economic yield loss. Several synthetic insecticides have been used against P. xylostella but satisfactory control was not achieved due to development of resistance to insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to screen different fractions of Zanthoxylum armatum for their insecticidal activities against second instar larvae of P. xylostella. Results indicate, all the fractions showed activity to P. xylostella. However, n-hexane fraction of Z. armatum showed maximum larvicidal activity with minimum LC50 value of 2988.6 ppm followed by ethanol (LC50 = 12779.7 ppm) and methanol fraction (LC50 = 12908.8 ppm) whereas chloroform fraction was least toxic (LC50 = 16750.6 ppm). The GC-MS analysis of n-hexane fraction of leaf extract showed maximum larvicidal activity, which may be due to two major compounds i.e. 2-undecanone (19.75%) and 2-tridecanone (11.76%).

  8. A single type of cadherin is involved in Bacillus thuringiensis toxicity in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y; Herrero, S; Kim, Y

    2015-12-01

    Cadherins have been described as one the main functional receptors for the toxins of the entomopathogenic bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). With the availability of the whole genome of Plutella xylostella, different types of cadherins have been annotated. In this study we focused on determining those members of the cadherin-related proteins that potentially play a role in the mode of action of Bt toxins. For this, we mined the genome of P. xylostella to identify these putative cadherins. The genome screening revealed 52 genes that were annotated as cadherin or cadherin-like genes. Further analysis revealed that six of these putative cadherins had three motifs common to all Bt-related cadherins: a signal peptide, cadherin repeats and a transmembrane domain. From the six selected cadherins, only P. xylostella cadherin 1 (PxCad1) was expressed in the larval midgut and only the silencing of this gene by RNA interference (double-stranded RNA feeding) reduce toxicity and binding to the midgut of the Cry1Ac type toxin from Bt. These results indicate that from the whole set of cadherin-related genes identified in P. xylostella, only PxCad1 is associated with the Cry1Ac mode of action. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. Structure and expression of sulfatase and sulfatase modifying factor genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Li; He, Wei-Yi; Chen, Wei; Xu, Xue-Jiao; Qi, Wei-Ping; Zou, Ming-Min; You, Yan-Chun; Baxter, Simon W; Wang, Ping; You, Min-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), uses sulfatases (SULF) to counteract the glucosinolate-myrosinase defensive system that cruciferous plants have evolved to deter insect feeding. Sulfatase activity is regulated by post-translational modification of a cysteine residue by sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1). We identified 12 SULF genes (PxylSulfs) and two SUMF1 genes (PxylSumf1s) in the P. xylostella genome. Phylogenetic analysis of SULFs and SUMFs from P. xylostella, Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliconius melpomene, Danaus plexippus, Drosophila melanogaster, Tetranychus urticae and Homo sapiens showed that the SULFs were clustered into five groups, and the SUMFs could be divided into two groups. Profiling of the expression of PxylSulfs and PxylSumfs by RNA-seq and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that two glucosinolate sulfatase genes (GSS), PxylSulf2 and PxylSulf3, were primarily expressed in the midgut of 3rd- and 4th-instar larvae. Moreover, expression of sulfatases PxylSulf2, PxylSulf3 and PxylSulf4 were correlated with expression of the sulfatases modifying factor PxylSumf1a. The findings from this study provide new insights into the structure and expression of SUMF1 and PxylSulf genes that are considered to be key factors for the evolutionary success of P. xylostella as a specialist herbivore of cruciferous plants. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Gene expression profiling provides insights into the immune mechanism of Plutella xylostella midgut to microbial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junhan; Xia, Xiaofeng; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Shen, Jinhong; Li, Yong; Lin, Hailan; Tang, Shanshan; Vasseur, Liette; You, Minsheng

    2018-03-20

    Insect gut immunity plays a key role in defense against microorganism infection. The knowledge of insect gut immunity has been obtained mostly from Drosophila melanogaster. Little is known about gut immunity in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a pest destroying cruciferous crops worldwide. In this study, expressions of the immune-related genes in the midgut of P. xylostella orally infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris were profiled by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR approaches. The results revealed that the Toll, IMD, JNK and JAK-STAT pathways and possibly the prophenoloxidase activation system in P. xylostella could be activated by oral infections, and moricins, gloverins and lysozyme2 might act as important effectors against microorganisms. Subsequent knock-down of IMD showed that this gene was involved in regulating the expression of down-stream genes in the IMD pathway. Our work indicates that the Toll, IMD, JNK and JAK-STAT pathways may synergistically modulate immune responses in the P. xylostella midgut, implying a complex and diverse immune system in the midgut of insects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Host Selection Behavior and the Fecundity of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on Multiple Host Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Shi, Zhanghong; Hou, Youming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Insect herbivores often have higher densities on host plants grown in monocultures than those in diverse environments. The underlying mechanisms are thought to be that polyphagous insects have difficulty in selecting food or oviposition sites when multiple host plants exist. However, this hypothesis needs to be extensively investigated. Our field experiments revealed that the population of the diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), significantly decreased in a mixed cropping field compared with a monoculture. To determine the reasons for the reduction in population in the mixed cropping field, the takeoff behavior and fecundity of females in no-choice and free-choice laboratory environments were compared by video recordings of host selection by P. xylostella . Adults displayed a significantly higher takeoff frequency in free-choice environments than those in no-choice treatments and preferred landing on Brassica campestris (L.) or Brassica juncea (Coss) plants in contrast with Brassica oleracea (L.). Female adults in the free-choice environment also laid fewer eggs compared with the monoculture. Olfaction experiments demonstrated orientation by P. xylostella to host volatiles when presented with a choice between plant odors and clean air, but females showed no preference when odors from three Brassicaceae species were presented simultaneously. We conclude that mixed cropping alters the host-finding behavior of P. xylostella resulting in reduced oviposition. PMID:25527573

  12. Variasi Kebugaran Jenis/Strain Trichogramma pada Telur Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Herlinda

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate fitness traits of trichogrammatid species/strains reared on eggs of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.. The experiments used eleven trichogrammatid species/strains collected from different host species and locations. They were Trichogrammatoidea cojuangcoi Nagaraja collected from parasitized P. xylostella eggs in Jarai, Muarasiban, Kerinjing, and Bogar, Trichogrammatoidea sp. A and B collected from parasitized Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner eggs in Bogor, Trichogrammatoidea armigera Nagaraja collected from parasitized H. armigera eggs in Bogor, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, Trichogramma japanicum Ashmead, Trichogramma australicum Girault, and Trichogrammatoidea nana (Zehntner collected from parasitized Chilo sp. eggs in Cinta Manis, South Sumatera. When a female of Trichogramma was constantly exposed to 100 P. xylostella eggs per day throughout her lifetime, T. cojuangcoi from Jarai produced more parasitized host eggs (50.67% and progenies (50.67 adults/female compared to other species/strains. Sex ratio was predominantly female, the most female progenies were produced ( 38 adults/ female by T. cojuangcoi from Jarai. There were no significant differences in larval (0-3.27% and pupal (0-3.75% mortality of all species/strains. Survival emerging adults of T. japanicum (90.24% were significantly lower than those of other species/strains. These data showed that T. cojuangcoi from Jarai could be developed as biocontrol agents of P. xylostella.

  13. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval

  14. Protein tyrosine phosphatase encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus suppresses a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiwan; Hepat, Rahul; Lee, Daeweon; Kim, Yonggyun

    2013-09-01

    Parasitization by an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, inhibits a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. This study tested an inhibitory effect of C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) on the metamorphosis of P. xylostella. Parasitized P. xylostella exhibited significantly reduced prothoracic gland (PTG) development at the last instar compared to nonparasitized larvae. Expression of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) was markedly suppressed during the last instar larvae parasitized by C. plutellae. By contrast, expression of the insulin receptor (InR) significantly increased in the parasitized larvae. Microinjection of CpBV significantly inhibited the larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of nonparasitized larvae in a dose-dependent manner. Injection of CpBV also inhibited the expression of the EcR and increased the expression of the InR. Individual CpBV segments were transiently expressed in its encoded genes in nonparasitized larvae and screened to determine antimetamorphic viral gene(s). Out of 21 CpBV segments, two viral segments (CpBV-S22 and CpBV-S27) were proved to inhibit larva-to-pupa metamorphosis by transient expression assay. RNA interference of each gene encoded in the viral segments was applied to determine antimetamorphic gene(s). Protein tyrosine phosphatase, early expressed gene, and four hypothetical genes were selected to be associated with the antimetamorphic activity of CpBV. These results suggest that antimetamorphosis of P. xylostella parasitized by C. plutellae is induced by inhibiting PTG development and subsequent ecdysteroid signaling with viral factors of CpBV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cecropins from Plutella xylostella and Their Interaction with Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Ouyang

    Full Text Available Cecropins are the most potent induced peptides to resist invading microorganisms. In the present study, two full length cDNA encoding cecropin2 (Px-cec2 and cecropin3 (Px-cec3 were obtained from P. xylostella by integrated analysis of genome and transcriptome data. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the high levels of transcripts of Px-cecs (Px-cec1, Px-cec2 and Px-cec3 in epidermis, fat body and hemocytes after 24, 30 and 36 h induction of Metarhizium anisopliae, respectively. Silencing of Spätzle and Dorsal separately caused the low expression of cecropins in the fat body, epidermis and hemocytes, and made the P.xylostella larvae more susceptible to M. anisopliae. Antimicrobial assays demonstrated that the purified recombinant cecropins, i.e., Px-cec1, Px-cec2 and Px-cec3, exerted a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against fungi, as well as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Especially, Px-cecs showed higher activity against M. anisopliae than another selected fungi isolates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed that cecropins exerted the vital morphological alterations to the spores of M. anisopliae. Based on our results, cecropins played an imperative role in resisting infection of M. anisopliae, which will provide the foundation of biological control of insect pests by using cecorpins as a target in the future.

  16. Tissue-specific Proteogenomic Analysis of Plutella xylostella Larval Midgut Using a Multialgorithm Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xun; Xie, Shangbo; Armengaud, Jean; Xie, Wen; Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xia, Jixing; He, Rongjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is the major cosmopolitan pest of brassica and other cruciferous crops. Its larval midgut is a dynamic tissue that interfaces with a wide variety of toxicological and physiological processes. The draft sequence of the P. xylostella genome was recently released, but its annotation remains challenging because of the low sequence coverage of this branch of life and the poor description of exon/intron splicing rules for these insects. Peptide sequencing by computational assignment of tandem mass spectra to genome sequence information provides an experimental independent approach for confirming or refuting protein predictions, a concept that has been termed proteogenomics. In this study, we carried out an in-depth proteogenomic analysis to complement genome annotation of P. xylostella larval midgut based on shotgun HPLC-ESI-MS/MS data by means of a multialgorithm pipeline. A total of 876,341 tandem mass spectra were searched against the predicted P. xylostella protein sequences and a whole-genome six-frame translation database. Based on a data set comprising 2694 novel genome search specific peptides, we discovered 439 novel protein-coding genes and corrected 128 existing gene models. To get the most accurate data to seed further insect genome annotation, more than half of the novel protein-coding genes, i.e. 235 over 439, were further validated after RT-PCR amplification and sequencing of the corresponding transcripts. Furthermore, we validated 53 novel alternative splicings. Finally, a total of 6764 proteins were identified, resulting in one of the most comprehensive proteogenomic study of a nonmodel animal. As the first tissue-specific proteogenomics analysis of P. xylostella, this study provides the fundamental basis for high-throughput proteomics and functional genomics approaches aimed at deciphering the molecular mechanisms of resistance and controlling this pest. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and

  17. Dominant Inheritance of Field-Evolved Resistance to Fipronil in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingliang; Wu, Shuwen; Gao, Weiyue; Wu, Yidong

    2016-02-01

    A field-collected strain (HF) of Plutella xylostella (L.) showed 420-fold resistance to fipronil compared with a susceptible laboratory strain (Roth). The HF-R strain, derived from the HF strain by 25 generations of successive selection with fipronil in the laboratory, developed 2,200-fold resistance to fipronil relative to the Roth strain. The F(1) progeny of the reciprocal crosses between HF-R and Roth showed 640-fold (R♀ × S♂) and 1,380-fold (R♂ × S♀) resistance to fipronil, indicating resistance is inherited as an incompletely dominant trait. Analysis of progeny from a backcross (F1♂ × S♀) suggests that resistance is controlled by one major locus. The LC(50) of the R♂ × S♀ cross F(1) progeny is slightly but significantly higher than that of the R♀ × S♂ cross F(1) progeny, suggesting a minor resistance gene on the Z chromosome. Sequence analysis of PxGABARα1 (an Rdl-homologous GABA receptor gene of P. xylostella) from the HF-R strain identified two mutations A282S and A282G (corresponding to the A302S mutation of the Drosophila melanogaster Rdl gene), which have been previously implicated in fipronil resistance in several insect species including P. xylostella. PxGABARα1 was previously mapped to the Z chromosome of P. xylostella. In conclusion, fipronil resistance in the HF-R strain of P. xylostella was incompletely dominant, and controlled by a major autosomal locus and a sex-linked minor gene (PxGABARα1) on the Z chromosome. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Characterization and expression profiling of glutathione S-transferases in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yanchun; Xie, Miao; Ren, Nana; Cheng, Xuemin; Li, Jianyu; Ma, Xiaoli; Zou, Minming; Vasseur, Liette; Gurr, Geoff M; You, Minsheng

    2015-03-05

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional detoxification enzymes that play important roles in insects. The completion of several insect genome projects has enabled the identification and characterization of GST genes over recent years. This study presents a genome-wide investigation of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, a species in which the GSTs are of special importance because this pest is highly resistant to many insecticides. A total of 22 putative cytosolic GSTs were identified from a published P. xylostella genome and grouped into 6 subclasses (with two unclassified). Delta, Epsilon and Omega GSTs were numerically superior with 5 genes for each of the subclasses. The resulting phylogenetic tree showed that the P. xylostella GSTs were all clustered into Lepidoptera-specific branches. Intron sites and phases as well as GSH binding sites were strongly conserved within each of the subclasses in the GSTs of P. xylostella. Transcriptome-, RNA-seq- and qRT-PCR-based analyses showed that the GST genes were developmental stage- and strain-specifically expressed. Most of the highly expressed genes in insecticide resistant strains were also predominantly expressed in the Malpighian tubules, midgut or epidermis. To date, this is the most comprehensive study on genome-wide identification, characterization and expression profiling of the GST family in P. xylostella. The diversified features and expression patterns of the GSTs are inferred to be associated with the capacity of this species to develop resistance to a wide range of pesticides and biological toxins. Our findings provide a base for functional research on specific GST genes, a better understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance, and strategies for more sustainable management of the pest.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Chlorantraniliprole Resistance Development in the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhendi; Chen, Huanyu; Yin, Fei; Li, Zhenyu; Dong, Xiaolin; Zhang, Deyong; Ren, Shunxiang; Feng, Xia

    2013-01-01

    Background The diamondback moth Plutella xyllostella has developed a high level of resistance to the latest insecticide chlorantraniliprole. A better understanding of P. xylostella’s resistance mechanism to chlorantraniliprole is needed to develop effective approaches for insecticide resistance management. Principal Findings To provide a comprehensive insight into the resistance mechanisms of P. xylostella to chlorantraniliprole, transcriptome assembly and tag-based digital gene expression (DGE) system were performed using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. The transcriptome analysis of the susceptible strain (SS) provided 45,231 unigenes (with the size ranging from 200 bp to 13,799 bp), which would be efficient for analyzing the differences in different chlorantraniliprole-resistant P. xylostella stains. DGE analysis indicated that a total of 1215 genes (189 up-regulated and 1026 down-regulated) were gradient differentially expressed among the susceptible strain (SS) and different chlorantraniliprole-resistant P. xylostella strains, including low-level resistance (GXA), moderate resistance (LZA) and high resistance strains (HZA). A detailed analysis of gradient differentially expressed genes elucidated the existence of a phase-dependent divergence of biological investment at the molecular level. The genes related to insecticide resistance, such as P450, GST, the ryanodine receptor, and connectin, had different expression profiles in the different chlorantraniliprole-resistant DGE libraries, suggesting that the genes related to insecticide resistance are involved in P. xylostella resistance development against chlorantraniliprole. To confirm the results from the DGE, the expressional profiles of 4 genes related to insecticide resistance were further validated by qRT-PCR analysis. Conclusions The obtained transcriptome information provides large gene resources available for further studying the resistance development of P. xylostella to pesticides. The DGE data provide

  20. Tissue-specific Proteogenomic Analysis of Plutella xylostella Larval Midgut Using a Multialgorithm Pipeline*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xun; Xie, Shangbo; Armengaud, Jean; Xie, Wen; Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xia, Jixing; He, Rongjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is the major cosmopolitan pest of brassica and other cruciferous crops. Its larval midgut is a dynamic tissue that interfaces with a wide variety of toxicological and physiological processes. The draft sequence of the P. xylostella genome was recently released, but its annotation remains challenging because of the low sequence coverage of this branch of life and the poor description of exon/intron splicing rules for these insects. Peptide sequencing by computational assignment of tandem mass spectra to genome sequence information provides an experimental independent approach for confirming or refuting protein predictions, a concept that has been termed proteogenomics. In this study, we carried out an in-depth proteogenomic analysis to complement genome annotation of P. xylostella larval midgut based on shotgun HPLC-ESI-MS/MS data by means of a multialgorithm pipeline. A total of 876,341 tandem mass spectra were searched against the predicted P. xylostella protein sequences and a whole-genome six-frame translation database. Based on a data set comprising 2694 novel genome search specific peptides, we discovered 439 novel protein-coding genes and corrected 128 existing gene models. To get the most accurate data to seed further insect genome annotation, more than half of the novel protein-coding genes, i.e. 235 over 439, were further validated after RT-PCR amplification and sequencing of the corresponding transcripts. Furthermore, we validated 53 novel alternative splicings. Finally, a total of 6764 proteins were identified, resulting in one of the most comprehensive proteogenomic study of a nonmodel animal. As the first tissue-specific proteogenomics analysis of P. xylostella, this study provides the fundamental basis for high-throughput proteomics and functional genomics approaches aimed at deciphering the molecular mechanisms of resistance and controlling this pest. PMID:26902207

  1. Bioactivity of microencapsulated soursop seeds extract on Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Barros Gomes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of microencapsulated extract from the soursop seeds, Annona muricata L. ( Annonaceae , on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostela L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae . Microencapsulation was performed in a Mini Spray Dryer model B-290 using 50mL of ethanolic and hexanic extracts plus 150mL of ethanol and 150mL of ultrapure water, mixed with aerosil (first polymer or arabic gum (second polymer. It was possible to microencapsulate the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds only by using the polymer arabic gum at 20%. The microencapsulated extract caused significant acute toxicity (LC50=258mg L-1 and chronic effects, especially reduction of larval viability and increased larval stage. We concluded that the microencapsulation of the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds can be a viable alternative for controlling diamondback moth with possible gains for the environment.

  2. Andrographolide powder treatment as antifeedant decreased digestive enzyme activity from Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae midgut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madihah, Malini, Desak Made; Roviani, Hana; Rani, Nessa Vidya; Hermawan, Wawan

    2018-02-01

    Andrographolide, an active compound of Andrographis paniculata, has shown antifeedant activity against Plutella xylostella larvae by disrupting the midgut histological structures. This study aims to determine the activity of andrographolide in crystallized powder form against several digestive enzymes from the midgut of 4th instar P. xylostella larvae. The concentrations used were 0 (control), 1000, 1600, 2500, 4000 and 6500 ppm with four replications each. No-choice antifeedant test with leaf disc method is used in a bioassay for 24 hours. The midgut was dissected from 2nd until 6th segment of 4th instar larvae and was homogenized in iced-buffer solution. Furthermore, larvae's midgut samples were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm, 4°C for 20 min and the supernatant is used as enzyme source. The results showed that andrographolide significantly reduces the amylase, invertase, protease and trypsin activity, as well as total protein concentration compared with control (p<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. This study provides information about the mode of action of andrographolide in inhibiting feed activity by the reduced digestive enzyme activity of 4th instar P. xylostella larvae.

  3. Cloning and functional identification of moricins from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, X-F; Li, Y; Yu, X-Q; Lin, J-H; Li, S-Y; Li, Q; You, M-S

    2017-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small-molecule peptides that play crucial roles in insect innate immune responses. To better understand the function of AMPs in Plutella xylostella, one of the main pests of cruciferous vegetables, three full-length cDNAs encoding moricins were cloned from Pl. xylostella. Two variants of the moricin named PxMor2 and PxMor3 were heterologously expressed and purified. A secondary structure analysis using circular dichroism demonstrated that the two peptides adopted an α-helical structure in the membrane-like environment, but in aqueous solution, they were present in random coiled conformation. Antimicrobial activity assays demonstrated that PxMor2 exhibited high activity against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli; however, PxMor3 only demonstrated high activity against E. coli. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser-scanning microscopy analyses suggest that PxMors can lead to the disruption of bacterial membrane, which might be the mechanism by which PxMors inhibit bacterial growth. This study contributes to the understanding of Pl. xylostella AMPs and immune responses, and also enriches the knowledge of insect moricin. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Correlation between Pesticide Resistance and Enzyme Activity in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ya-Jun; Wang, Ze-Hua; Shi, Bao-Cai; Kang, Zong-Jiang; Zhu, Liang; Jin, Gui-Hua; Weig, Shu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most important pests that has developed high pesticide resistance. The resistances of five Chinese populations of this moth, four resistant strains (from Beijing, Henan, Fujian, and Guangdong) and one susceptible strain, to five pesticides were determined, and the activities of carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholine esterase were tested in all five populations. The correlations between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity were analyzed. The results showed that the resistance status to the five pesticides was different among the five populations. The resistance ratios of the Beijing and Henan populations to spinosad were 5.84 and 8.22, respectively, and those to beta-cypermethrin were 4.91 and 4.98, respectively. These ratios were higher than those for the Fujian and Guangdong populations. The Fujian population was more sensitive to abamectin and chlorpyrifos than the susceptible population (the resistance ratios were 0.14 and 0.91, respectively); in fact, the median lethal concentration for P. xylostella was significantly higher for chlorpyrifos than that for any of the other four pesticides. The carboxylesterase activity in P. xylostella showed positive correlations with the resistance to spinosad, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin, but no correlation was observed between the carboxylesterase activity and resistance to emamectin benzoate, between glutathione S-transferase activity and resistance to any of the five pesticides tested, or between acetylcholine esterase activity and any of the pesticides except for emamectin benzoate. PMID:24766444

  5. Selecting and validating reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yanchun; Xie, Miao; Vasseur, Liette; You, Minsheng

    2018-05-01

    Gene expression analysis provides important clues regarding gene functions, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a widely used method in gene expression studies. Reference genes are essential for normalizing and accurately assessing gene expression. In the present study, 16 candidate reference genes (ACTB, CyPA, EF1-α, GAPDH, HSP90, NDPk, RPL13a, RPL18, RPL19, RPL32, RPL4, RPL8, RPS13, RPS4, α-TUB, and β-TUB) from Plutella xylostella were selected to evaluate gene expression stability across different experimental conditions using five statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, Delta Ct, BestKeeper, and RefFinder). The results suggest that different reference genes or combinations of reference genes are suitable for normalization in gene expression studies of P. xylostella according to the different developmental stages, strains, tissues, and insecticide treatments. Based on the given experimental sets, the most stable reference genes were RPS4 across different developmental stages, RPL8 across different strains and tissues, and EF1-α across different insecticide treatments. A comprehensive and systematic assessment of potential reference genes for gene expression normalization is essential for post-genomic functional research in P. xylostella, a notorious pest with worldwide distribution and a high capacity to adapt and develop resistance to insecticides.

  6. Novel genetic factors involved in resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayra-Pardo, C; Raymond, B; Gulzar, A; Rodríguez-Cabrera, L; Morán-Bertot, I; Crickmore, N; Wright, D J

    2015-12-01

    The widespread and sustainable exploitation of the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in pest control is threatened by the evolution of resistance. Although resistance is often associated with loss of binding of the Bt toxins to the insect midgut cells, other factors have been implicated. Here we used suppressive subtractive hybridization and gene expression suppression to identify additional molecular components involved in Bt-resistance in Plutella xylostella. We isolated transcripts from genes that were differentially expressed in the midgut of larvae from a resistant population, following ingestion of a Bt kurstaki HD1 strain-based commercial formulation (DiPel), and compared with a genetically similar susceptible population. Quantitative real-time polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed the differential basal expression of a subset of these genes. Gene expression suppression of three of these genes (P. xylostella cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1-like 1, stromal cell-derived factor 2-like 1 and hatching enzyme-like 1) significantly increased the pathogenicity of HD1 to the resistant population. In an attempt to link the multitude of factors reportedly influencing resistance to Bt with the well-characterized loss of toxin binding, we also considered Bt-resistance models in P. xylostella and other insects. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. EKSPLORASI, ISOLASI DAN SELEKSI JAMUR ENTOMOPATOGEN PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA (LEPIDOPTERA: YPONOMEUTIDAE PADA PERTANAMAN CAISIN (BRASSICA CHINENSIS DI SUMATERA SELATAN

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    Haperidah Nunilahwati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plutella xylostella is the most destructive insect pests of the brassicae family. The research objective was to explore, isolate and select entomopathogenic fungi as biological agents for control of P. xylostella. This study used 20 fungal isolates originating from soil and infected insects around the farmers’ field in lowland and highland of South Sumatra. The fungal isolates were tested to third instar larvae of P.xylostella. The suspension of entomopathogenic fungus was topical inoculated with a density of 1x106 conidia ml-1 on the test insect and five replicates. The result showed that the highest (83% and the lowest (41% mortality of the larvae P.xylostella was induced by fungal BPluS and BNIPTr, respectively. Moreover, the shortest (2.1 days and the highest (4.3days lethal times of the infected host were induced by fungal BPluS and BNIPTr, respectively.

  8. Preference‒performance linkage in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella , and implications for its management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, Marchioro; Foerster, Luís Amilton

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Host plants affect development, survival, and reproduction of phytophagous insects. In the case of holometabolous species, whose larvae have little mobility to find a host plant, the ability of females to discriminate hosts on the basis of their nutritional quality may be an important factor determining insect performance. The preference‒performance correlation hypothesis states that females will choose to lay their eggs on host plants that provide the best offspring performance. The effects of three cultivated and two wild brassicas (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) on the biology of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), an important pest of brassicas, were investigated. Based on these data, the preference–performance correlation hypothesis was tested. The results allowed the discussion of the possible role of wild brassicas on population dynamics of the pest. The life table parameters net reproduction rate and intrinsic rate of increase were used as indicatives of insect performance because they provide a detailed description of the survivorship, development, and reproduction of a population. Development, survival, and reproduction were affected by the cultivated and wild brassicas. Both net reproduction rate and intrinsic rate of increase were lower in individuals fed on wild brassicas, which indicates that brassicas are not nutritionally suitable for P. xylostella . Nevertheless, females showed no oviposition preference among host plants. The results showed that host plant quality might not be the only factor determining host selection by female P. xylostella . Results also suggest that wild brassicas may serve as a refuge for P. xylostella , favoring pest survival when crops are disturbed by insecticide application, irrigation, or ploughing. PMID:25368041

  9. Pharmacological characterization of a β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing-Ting; Ma, Hai-Hao; Deng, Xi-Le; Zhu, Hang; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Xiao-Mao

    2018-04-25

    The β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (OA2B2) belongs to the class of G-protein coupled receptors. It regulates important physiological functions in insects, thus is potentially a good target for insecticides. In this study, the putative open reading frame sequence of the Pxoa2b2 gene in Plutella xylostella was cloned. Orthologous sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree analysis, and protein sequence analysis all showed that the cloned receptor belongs to the OA2B2 protein family. PxOA2B2 was transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells. It was found that PxOA2B2 could be activated by both octopamine and tyramine, resulting in increased intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels, whereas dopamine and serotonin were not effective in eliciting cAMP production. Further studies with series of PxOA2B2 agonists and antagonists showed that all four tested agonists (e.g., naphazoline, clonidine, 2-phenylethylamine, and amitraz) could activate the PxOA2B2 receptor, and two of tested antagonists (e.g., phentolamine and mianserin) had significant antagonistic effects. However, antagonist of yohimbine had no effects. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that Pxoa2b2 gene was expressed in all developmental stages of P. xylostella and that the highest expression occurred in male adults. Further analysis with fourth-instar P. xylostella larvae showed that the Pxoa2b2 gene was mainly expressed in Malpighian tubule, epidermal, and head tissues. This study provides both a pharmacological characterization and the gene expression patterns of the OA2B2 in P. xylostella, facilitating further research for insecticides using PxOA2B2 as a target. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. How Different Genetically Manipulated Brassica Genotypes Affect Life Table Parameters of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikooei, Mehrnoosh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Jalali Javaran, Mokhtar; Soufbaf, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    The fitness of Plutella xylostella L. on different genetically manipulated Brassica plants, including canola's progenitor (Brassica rapa L.), two cultivated canola cultivars (Opera and RGS003), one hybrid (Hyula401), one gamma-ray mutant-RGS003, and one transgenic (PF) genotype was compared using two-sex and female-based life table parameters. All experiments were conducted in a growth chamber at 25±1°C, 65±5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. There were significant differences in duration of different life stages of P. xylostella on different plant genotypes. The shortest (13.92 d) and longest (24.61 d) total developmental time were on Opera and PF, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase of P. xylostella ranged between 0.236 (Opera) and 0.071 day(-1) (PF). The highest (60.79 offspring) and lowest (7.88 offspring) net reproductive rates were observed on Opera and PF, respectively. Comparison of intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rates, finite rate of increase, mean generation time, fecundity, and survivorship of P. xylostella on the plant genotypes suggested that this pest performed well on cultivars (RGS003 and Opera) and performed poorly on the other manipulated genotypes especially on mutant-RGS003 and PF. Glucosinolate levels were significantly higher in damaged plants than undamaged ones and the lowest and highest concentrations of glucosinolates were found in transgenic genotype and canola's progenitor, respectively. Interestingly, our results showed that performance and fitness of this pest was better on canola's progenitor and cultivated plants, which had high levels of glucosinolate. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Cloning, ligand-binding, and temporal expression of ecdysteroid receptors in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

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    Tang Baozhen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, is a devastating pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, and has developed resistance to a wide range of insecticides, including diacylhydrazine-based ecdysone agonists, a highly selective group of molt-accelerating biopesticides targeting the ecdysone receptors. Result In this study, we cloned and characterized the ecdysone receptors from P. xylostella, including the two isoforms of EcR and a USP. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed striking conservations among insect ecdysone receptors, especially between P. xylostella and other lepidopterans. The binding affinity of ecdysteroids to in vitro-translated receptor proteins indicated that PxEcRB isoform bound specifically to ponasterone A, and the binding affinity was enhanced by co-incubation with PxUSP (Kd =3.0±1.7 nM. In contrast, PxEcRA did not bind to ponasterone A, even in the presence of PxUSP. The expression of PxEcRB were consistently higher than that of PxEcRA across each and every developmental stage, while the pattern of PxUSP expression is more or less ubiquitous. Conclusions Target site insensitivity, in which the altered binding of insecticides (ecdysone agonists to their targets (ecdysone receptors leads to an adaptive response (resistance, is one of the underlying mechanisms of diacylhydrazine resistance. Given the distinct differences at expression level and the ligand-binding capacity, we hypothesis that PxEcRB is the ecdysone receptor that controls the remodeling events during metamorphosis. More importantly, PxEcRB is the potential target site which is modified in the ecdysone agonist-resistant P. xylostella.

  12. Baseline Susceptibility of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to the Novel Insecticide Spinetoram in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidi; Zhang, Jingming; Zhang, Pengjun; Lin, Wencai; Lin, Qingsheng; Li, Zhenyu; Hang, Fang; Zhang, Zhijun; Lu, Yaobin

    2015-04-01

    Spinetoram is a spinosyn, which is a unique class of natural insecticide. Because of its novel mode of action, spinetoram is more potent and faster acting than other insecticides, even the older spinosyn product, spinosad. On account of being efficient on insect order Lepidoptera, spinetoram provides a new alternative for control of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), which are resistant to other chemicals. To determine the current situation of resistance of P. xylostella to spinetoram, the susceptibility of 16 P. xylostella populations from different regions of China or different time in addition to the population from laboratory was assessed using a leaf dip bioassay. The variation in spinetoram susceptibility among the 16 field populations was narrow, with median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) ranging from 0.131 to 1.001 mg/liter. Toxicity ratios (TRs) ranged from 1.5 to 7.6 and were 5.6 and 7.6 for populations SY-2 and FX-1, respectively, indicating some low level of tolerance in these populations. A discriminating concentration (a concentration that can detect the occurrence of resistance in a population) of 10 mg/liter, which was identified based on the pooled toxicological data, caused 100% mortality in all nine tested populations. The baseline susceptibility data reflect the natural variation of the P. xylostella populations to spinetoram rather than variation caused by previous exposure. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Genome-wide characterization and expression profiling of immune genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

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    Xia, Xiaofeng; Yu, Liying; Xue, Minqian; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Vasseur, Liette; Gurr, Geoff M; Baxter, Simon W; Lin, Hailan; Lin, Junhan; You, Minsheng

    2015-05-06

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a destructive pest that attacks cruciferous crops worldwide. Immune responses are important for interactions between insects and pathogens and information on these underpins the development of strategies for biocontrol-based pest management. Little, however, is known about immune genes and their regulation patterns in P. xylostella. A total of 149 immune-related genes in 20 gene families were identified through comparison of P. xylostella genome with the genomes of other insects. Complete and conserved Toll, IMD and JAK-STAT signaling pathways were found in P. xylostella. Genes involved in pathogen recognition were expanded and more diversified than genes associated with intracellular signal transduction. Gene expression profiles showed that the IMD pathway may regulate expression of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes in the midgut, and be related to an observed down-regulation of AMPs in experimental lines of insecticide-resistant P. xylostella. A bacterial feeding study demonstrated that P. xylostella could activate different AMPs in response to bacterial infection. This study has established a framework of comprehensive expression profiles that highlight cues for immune regulation in a major pest. Our work provides a foundation for further studies on the functions of P. xylostella immune genes and mechanisms of innate immunity.

  14. Superfamily of genes encoding G protein-coupled receptors in the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S-F; Yu, H-Y; Jiang, T-T; Gao, C-F; Shen, J-L

    2015-08-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest and most versatile superfamily of cell membrane proteins, which mediate various physiological processes including reproduction, development and behaviour. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most notorious insect pests, preferentially feeding on cruciferous plants. P. xylostella is not only one of the world's most widespread lepidopteran insects, but has also developed resistance to nearly all classes of insecticides. Although the mechanisms of insecticide resistance have been studied extensively in many insect species, few investigations have been carried out on GPCRs in P. xylostella. In the present study, we identified 95 putative GPCRs in the P. xylostella genome. The identified GPCRs were compared with their homologues in Bombyx mori and Drosophila melanogaster. Our results suggest that GPCRs in different insect species may have evolved by a birth-and-death process. One of the differences among compared insects is the duplication of short neuropeptide F receptor and adipokinetic hormone receptors in P. xylostella and B. mori. Another divergence is the decrease in quantity and diversity of the stress-tolerance gene, Mth, in P. xylostella. The evolution by the birth-and-death process is probably involved in adaptation to the feeding behaviour, reproduction and stress responses of P. xylostella. Some of the genes identified in the present study could be potential targets for the development of novel pesticides. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Site-specific cassette exchange systems in the Aedes aegypti mosquito and the Plutella xylostella moth.

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    Roya Elaine Haghighat-Khah

    Full Text Available Genetically engineered insects are being evaluated as potential tools to decrease the economic and public health burden of mosquitoes and agricultural pest insects. Here we describe a new tool for the reliable and targeted genome manipulation of pest insects for research and field release using recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE mechanisms. We successfully demonstrated the established ΦC31-RMCE method in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which is the first report of RMCE in mosquitoes. A new variant of this RMCE system, called iRMCE, combines the ΦC31-att integration system and Cre or FLP-mediated excision to remove extraneous sequences introduced as part of the site-specific integration process. Complete iRMCE was achieved in two important insect pests, Aedes aegypti and the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, demonstrating the transferability of the system across a wide phylogenetic range of insect pests.

  16. Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Life Table Indices of Plutella xylostella in Multigenerations

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    Mohammad Mahmoudvand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, is a major pest of Brassicaceae family in Iran. This study investigated the sublethal effects of pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analogue, on DBM, for two subsequent generations. The leaf dip bioassay method was adopted in conducting this experiment. Sublethal concentrations resulted in a significant decrease in fecundity, oviposition period, and pupal weight of parents and offspring generations. Also, the development time of DBM was prolonged after exposure to pyriproxyfen. The biological parameters such as net reproductive rate (R0 and intrinsic (rm and finite (λ rate of increase were lower than control in treatment groups, significantly. From our investigations, pyriproxyfen is a good choice for control of the diamondback moth population through continuous generations.

  17. Kajian Beberapa Jamur Entomopatogenik pada Ulat Daun Kubis Hijau, Plutella xylostella

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    Tri Harjaka

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of entomopathogenic fungi for controlling Diamond Back Moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella L. still limited. Even though there are some entomopathogenic fungi could infect DBM. The aim of this research is to know the kind of entomopatogenic fungi on DBM to be used as biological control agent. Some isolates of  fungi were collected  from DBM infected by  the fungi  on field  in Central Java and  Yogyakarta. Fungi infecting DBM was  isolated, and cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA. Purification, identification and  infection tests were done to know  the potency of each fungal isolates. The results showed thatfive species of fungi infecting DBM, are Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomyces sp. Entomophthora sp.and Hirsutella sp.

  18. Site-Specific Cassette Exchange Systems in the Aedes aegypti Mosquito and the Plutella xylostella Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighat-Khah, Roya Elaine; Scaife, Sarah; Martins, Sara; St John, Oliver; Matzen, Kelly Jean; Morrison, Neil; Alphey, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Genetically engineered insects are being evaluated as potential tools to decrease the economic and public health burden of mosquitoes and agricultural pest insects. Here we describe a new tool for the reliable and targeted genome manipulation of pest insects for research and field release using recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) mechanisms. We successfully demonstrated the established ΦC31-RMCE method in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which is the first report of RMCE in mosquitoes. A new variant of this RMCE system, called iRMCE, combines the ΦC31-att integration system and Cre or FLP-mediated excision to remove extraneous sequences introduced as part of the site-specific integration process. Complete iRMCE was achieved in two important insect pests, Aedes aegypti and the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, demonstrating the transferability of the system across a wide phylogenetic range of insect pests. PMID:25830287

  19. Trade-off between thermal tolerance and insecticide resistance in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin Jie; Wu, Zhao Li; Wang, Kuan Fu; Liu, Qun; Zhuang, Hua Mei; Wu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to insecticides have been well documented, usually at normal temperature conditions, in many insect species. In this study, using chlorpyrifos-resistant homozygote (RR) and chlorpyrifos-susceptible homozygote (SS) of resistance ace1 allele of Plutella xylostella (DBM), we confirmed firstly that high temperature experience in pupal stage influenced phenotype of wing venation in insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible Plutella xylostella, and SS DBM showed significantly higher thermal tolerance and lower damages of wing veins under heat stress than RR DBM. As compared to SS DBM, RR DBM displayed significantly lower AChE sensitivity to chlorpyrifos, higher basal GSTs activity and P450 production at 25°C, but higher inhibitions on the enzyme activities and P450 production as well as reduced resistance to chlorpyrifos under heat stress. Furthermore, RR DBM displayed significantly higher basal expressions of hsp69s, hsp72s, hsp20,hsp90,Apaf-1, and caspase-7 at 25°C, but lower induced expressions of hsps and higher induced expressions of Apaf-1,caspase-9, and caspase-7 under heat stress. These results suggest that fitness costs of chlorpyrifos resistance in DBM may partly attribute to excess consumption of energy caused by over production of detoxification enzymes and hsps when the proteins are less demanded at conducive environments but reduced expressions when they are highly demanded by the insects to combat environmental stresses, or to excess expressions of apoptotic genes under heat stress, which results in higher apoptosis. The evolutionary and ecological implications of these findings at global warming are discussed.

  20. Mannose Phosphate Isomerase Isoenzymes in Plutella xylostella Support Common Genetic Bases of Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in Lepidopteran Species

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Salvador; Ferré, Juan; Escriche, Baltasar

    2001-01-01

    A strong correlation between two mannose phosphate isomerase (MPI) isoenzymes and resistance to Cry1A toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis has been found in a Plutella xylostella population. MPI linkage to Cry1A resistance had previously been reported for a Heliothis virescens population. The fact that the two populations share similar biochemical, genetic, and cross-resistance profiles of resistance suggests the occurrence of homologous resistance loci in both species.

  1. Feeding preference of Plutella xylostella for leaves treated with plant extracts

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    IRYS F.S. COUTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plutella xylostella L. is one of the main agents to cause damages to plants of Brassica genus, provoking negative impacts in cultures. The use of botanical extracts in plants protection has been related in literature, however, their use in the species analyzed in this study is not yet reported. We assessed the effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of the species: Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Pink Pepper, Annona coriacea Mart. (Araticum, Duguetia furfuracea (A. St.-Hil. Benth. & Hook. (Pindaúva do campo and Trichilia silvatica C. DC. (Catiguá-branco, occuring in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and whose feeding preference of P. xylostella larvae of 3rd instar. We intend to answer the following questions: (1 Are the plant species analyzed fagodeterrentes? (2 what type of extract produces the least food preferrence? To answer these questions, we treated cabbage disks with aqueous extracts stored in a refrigerator in periods of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days and the methanolic extracts were treated at concentrations of 0.5 mg/mL, 1.0 mg/mL, 2.0mg/mL. The aqueous and methanolic extracts of T. silvatica presented the lowest values of feeding preference, 0.113 and 0.06, respectively, compared to other extracts.

  2. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the Calcineurin Subunit A from Plutella xylostella

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    Xi'en Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcineurin (or PP2B has been reported to be involved in an array of physiological process in insects, and the calcineurin subunit A (CNA plays a central role in calcineurin activity. We cloned the CNA gene from Plutella xylostella (PxCNA. This gene contains an ORF of 1488 bp that encodes a 495 amino acid protein, showing 98%, and 80% identities to the CNA of Bombyx mori, and humans respectively. The full-length of PxCNA and its catalytic domain (CNA1–341, defined as PxCNα were both expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant PxCNA displayed no phosphatase activity, whereas recombinant PxCNα showed high phosphatase activity with a Km of 4.6 mM and a kcat of 0.66 S−1 against pNPP. It could be activated at different degrees by Mn2+, Ni2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+. The optimum reaction pH was about 7.5 and the optimum reaction temperature was around 45 °C. An in vitro inhibition assay showed that okadaic acid (OA and cantharidin (CTD competitively inhibited recombinant PxCNα activity with the IC50 values of 8.95 μM and 77.64 μM, respectively. However, unlike previous reports, pyrethroid insecticides were unable to inhibit recombinant PxCNα, indicating that the P. xylostella calcineurin appears not to be sensitive to class II pyrethroid insecticides.

  3. Resistance Selection and Characterization of Chlorantraniliprole Resistance in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Wang, Hong-Yan; Ning, Yu-Bo; Qiao, Kang; Wang, Kai-Yun

    2015-08-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is considered one of the most damaging lepidopteran pests, and it has developed resistance to all conventional insecticide classes in the field. Chlorantraniliprole is the first commercial insecticide that belongs to the new chemical class of diamide insecticides. But, P. xylostella have already shown resistance to chlorantraniliprole in China. After 52 generations of selection with chlorantraniliprole, ∼48.17-fold resistance was observed. The resistant strain showed cross-resistance to flubendiamide (7.29-fold), abamectin (6.11-fold), and cyantraniliprole (3.31-fold). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the expression of the ryanodine receptor gene was higher in the resistant strain than that in the susceptible strain. Enzyme assays indicated that cytochrome P450 activity in the resistant strain was 4.26 times higher compared with the susceptible strain, whereas no difference was seen for glutathione-S-transferase and esterase. Moreover, the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole in the resistant strain could be synergized by piperonyl butoxide, but not by diethyl maleate, and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorothioate. These results can serve as an important base for guiding the use of insecticide in field and delaying the development of pests that are resistant to the insecticides. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Global identification of microRNAs associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Li, Xiuxia; Liu, Ying; Gao, Xiwu; Liang, Pei

    2017-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is one of the most serious cruciferous pests and has developed high resistance to most insecticides, including chlorantraniliprole. Previous studies have reported several protein-coding genes that involved in chlorantraniliprole resistance, but research on resistance mechanisms at the post-transcription level is still limited. In this study, a global screen of microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella was performed. The small RNA libraries for a susceptible (CHS) and two chlorantraniliprole resistant strains (CHR, ZZ) were constructed and sequenced, and a total of 199 known and 30 novel miRNAs were identified. Among them, 23 miRNAs were differentially expressed between CHR and CHS, and 90 miRNAs were differentially expressed between ZZ and CHS, of which 11 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in both CHR and ZZ. Using miRanda and RNAhybrid, a total of 1,411 target mRNAs from 102 differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted, including mRNAs in several groups of detoxification enzymes. The expression of several differentially expressed miRNAs and their potential targets was validated by qRT-PCR. The results may provide important clues for further study of the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated chlorantraniliprole resistance in DBM and other target insects. PMID:28098189

  5. Cloning and functional characterization of three new pheromone receptors from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yipeng; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Xingchuan; Wang, Guirong

    The highly specialized olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) on the antennae of male moths can recognize blends of several pheromone components. In previous studies, a total of six candidate pheromone receptor (PR) genes were cloned and functionally characterized in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. In the present work, we report on three novel candidate pheromone receptor genes: PxylOR8, PxylOR41, and PxylOR45 in the same species. Gene expression analysis revealed that PxylOR8 is specifically expressed in female adult antennae, while PxylOR41 and PxylOR45 are expressed in antennae in both sexes, but with a male bias. In situ hybridization revealed that PxylOR8, PxylOR41 and PxylOR45 are localized in long trichoid sensilla. Functional analyses on the three pheromone receptor genes were then performed using the heterologous expression system of Xenopus oocytes. PxylOR41 was tuned to two minor pheromone components Z9-14:Ac, Z9-14:OH, and their analog Z9-14:Ald. PxylOR8 and PxylOR45 did not respond to any tested pheromone components and analogs. These results may contribute to clarifying how pheromone detection works in P. xylostella. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tebufenozide resistance is associated with sex-linked inheritance in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guang-Chun; Han, Zhao-Jun

    2015-04-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is a major pest of cruciferous crops. Tebufenozide, a novel nonsteroidal ecdysone agonist, exhibits good efficacy and has played an increasingly important role in the control of Lepidopteran pests in China. For its resistance management, the genetic basis of tebufenozide resistance was studied using a laboratory selected resistant strain of DBM (resistant ratio, RR = 268). A series of crosses with laboratory susceptible and resistant strains revealed that tebufenozide resistance in this pest was partially biased toward female heredity, with a large difference in RR for F1 (RR = 29) and rF1 progeny (RR = 147). The dominance calculated for these 2 cross progeny was -0.788 and 0.09, respectively. Further analysis showed that the susceptible male and female larvae were similar in their sensitivity to tebufenozide, but the resistant female larvae showed significantly higher resistance than the resistant male larvae. The heredity of tebufenozide resistance in DBM might be linked with the W sex chromosome, which suggested that DBM has the ability to develop high levels of resistance to tebufenozide. This is the first report of sex-linked inheritance of tebufenozide resistance in P. xylostella (L.). © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Haloacetate analogs of pheromones: effects on catabolism and electrophysiology in Plutella xylostella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestwich, G.D.; Streinz, L.

    1988-01-01

    A series of mono, di-, and trihalogenated acetate analogs of Z11-16:Ac were prepared and examined for electrophysiological activity in antennae of males of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. In addition, two potential affinity labels, a diazoacetate (Dza) and a trifluoromethyl ketone (Tfp), were evaluated for EAG activity. The Z11-16:Ac showed the highest activity in EAG assays, followed by the fluorinated acetates, but other haloacetates were essentially inactive. The effects of these analogs on the hydrolysis of [ 3 H]Z11-16:Ac to [ 3 H]Z11-16:OH by antennal esterases was also examined. The three fluorinated acetates showed the greatest activity as inhibitors in competition assays, with rank order F 2 Ac > F 3 Ac > FAc > AC > Cl 2 Ac > ClAc > Dza > Br 2 Ac > BrAc > Tfp > I > Cl 3 Ac > Br 3 Ac > OH. The relative polarities of the haloacetates, as determined by TLC mobility, are in the order mono- > di- > trihalo, but F, Cl, Br, and I all confer similar polarities within a substitution group. Thus, the steric size appears to be the predominant parameter affecting the interactions of the haloacetate analogs with both receptor and catabolic proteins in P. xylostella males

  8. Toxicity of radiation-resistant strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berl.) to larval Plutella xylostella (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jangi, M.S.; Ibrahim, Hasan

    1983-01-01

    A total of 24 isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), resistant to a γ-radiation dose of 100 krad, were screened for their toxicity to larval silkworms, Bombyxmori(L.), and 15 of them were subsequently tested for their toxicity to larval diamond-back moth, Plutella xylostella(L.). The LC 50 's of these isolates to B. mori ranged from 1.6 X 10 5 to 6.0 X 10 3 spores/mL or from 5.9 to 0.3 μg cellular protein/mL. The irradiation treatment produced isolates which were significantly more toxic to P. xylostella (LC 50 4 spores/mL or 3.7 μg cellular protein/mL) and/ or less toxic to B. mori (LC 50 > 2.3 X 10 4 spores/mL or 1.0 μg cellular protein/mL) than the parent commercial strain

  9. Cross-resistance and biochemical mechanisms of resistance to indoxacarb in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Shen, Jun; Li, Dongyang; Wan, Hu; You, Hong; Li, Jianhong

    2017-08-01

    Indoxacarb belongs to a class of insecticides known as oxadiazines and is the first commercialized pyrazoline-type voltage-dependent sodium channel blocker. A moderate level of resistance to indoxacarb has evolved in field populations of Plutella xylostella from Central China. In the present study, cross-resistance, resistance stability and metabolic mechanisms of indoxacarb resistance were investigated in this moth species. A P. xylostella strain with a high level of resistance to indoxacarb was obtained through continuous selection in the laboratory. The strain showed cross-resistance to metaflumizone, beta-cypermethrin and chlorfenapyr, but no resistance to cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, abamectin, chlorfluazuron, spinosad and diafenthiuron compared with the susceptible strain. Synergism tests revealed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) (synergistic ratio, SR=7.8) and diethyl maleate (DEF) (SR=3.5) had considerable synergistic effects on indoxacarb toxicity in the resistant strain (F 58 ). Enzyme activity data showed there was an approximate 5.8-fold different in glutathione S-transferase (GST) and a 6.8-fold different in cytochrome P450 monooxygenase between the resistant strain (F 58 ) and susceptible strain, suggesting that the increased activity of these two enzymes is likely the main detoxification mechanism responsible for the species' resistance to indoxacarb. These results will be helpful for insecticide resistance management strategies to delay the development of indoxacarb resistance in fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Haloacetate analogs of pheromones: Effects on catabolism and electrophysiology inPlutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, G D; Streinz, L

    1988-03-01

    A series of mono-, di-, and trihalogenated acetate analogs of Zl 1-16: Ac were prepared and examined for electrophysiological activity in antennae of males of the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella. In addition, two potential affinity labels, a diazoacetate (Dza) and a trifluoromethyl ketone (Tfp), were evaluated for EAG activity. The Z11-16∶Ac showed the highest activity in EAG assays, followed by the fluorinated acetates, but other halo-acetates were essentially inactive. The polar diazoacetate and the trifluoromethyl ketone were also very weak EAG stimulants. The effects of these analogs on the hydrolysis of [(3)H]Z11-16∶Ac to [(3)H]Z11-16∶OH by antennal esterases was also examined. The three fluorinated acetates showed the greatest activity as inhibitors in competition assays, with rank order F2Ac > F(3)Ac > FAc > Ac > Cl2Ac > ClAc > Dza > Br2Ac > BrAc > Tfp > I > Cl3Ac > Br3Ac > OH. The relative polarities of the haloacetates, as determined by TLC mobility, are in the order mono- > di- > trihalo, but F, Cl, Br, and I all confer similar polarities within a substitution group. Thus, the steric size appears to be the predominant parameter affecting the interactions of the haloacetate analogs with both receptor and catabolic proteins inP. xylostella males.

  11. Midgut transcriptome response to a Cry toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yanyuan; Zhu, Xun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Guo, Zhaojiang; Xu, Baoyun; Li, Xianchun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the response of Plutella xylostella transcriptome in defending against a Bt toxin, high-throughput RNA-sequencing was carried out to examine Cry1Ac-susceptible and -resistant strains. The comparative analysis indentified over 2900 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs) between these two strains. Gene Ontology analysis placed these unigenes primarily into cell, cell part, organelle, binding, catalytic, cellular process, metabolic process, and response to stimulus categories. Based on pathway analyses, DEUs were enriched in oxidoreductase activity and membrane lipid metabolic processes, and they were also significantly enriched in pathways related to the metabolic and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Most of the unigenes involved in the metabolic pathway were up-regulated in resistant strains. Within the ABC transporter pathway, majority of the down-regulated unigenes belong to ABCC2 and ABCC10, respectively, while up-regulated unigenes were mainly categorized as ABCG2. Furthermore, two aminopeptidases, and four cadherins encoding genes were significantly elevated as well. This study provides a transcriptome foundation for the identification and functional characterization of genes involved in the Bt resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest, P. xylostella. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicity of radiation-resistant strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berl. ) to larval Plutella xylostella (L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jangi, M.S.; Ibrahim, H. (Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan, Malysia, Bangi, Selangor)

    1983-05-01

    A total of 24 isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), resistant to a ..gamma..-radiation dose of 100 krad, were screened for their toxicity to larval silkworms, Bombyxmori(L.), and 15 of them were subsequently tested for their toxicity to larval diamond-back moth, Plutella xylostella(L.). The LC/sub 50/'s of these isolates to B. mori ranged from 1.6 X 10/sup 5/ to 6.0 X 10/sup 3/ spores/mL or from 5.9 to 0.3 ..mu..g cellular protein/mL. The irradiation treatment produced isolates which were significantly more toxic to P. xylostella (LC/sub 50/ < 8.1 X 10/sup 4/ spores/mL or 3.7 ..mu..g cellular protein/mL) and/ or less toxic to B. mori (LC/sub 50/ > 2.3 X 10/sup 4/ spores/mL or 1.0 ..mu..g cellular protein/mL) than the parent commercial strain.

  13. Evidence for trade-offs in detoxification and chemosensation gene signatures in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Ma Anita M; Bhandary, Binny; Wijeratne, Asela J; Michel, Andrew P; Hoy, Casey W; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2015-03-01

    Detoxification genes have been associated with insecticide adaptation in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. The link between chemosensation genes and adaptation, however, remains unexplored. To gain a better understanding of the involvement of these genes in insecticide adaptation, the authors exposed lines of P. xylostella to either high uniform (HU) or low heterogeneous (LH) concentrations of permethrin, expecting primarily physiological or behavioral selection respectively. Initially, 454 pyrosequencing was applied, followed by an examination of expression profiles of candidate genes that responded to selection [cytochrome P450 (CYP), glutathione S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterase (CarE), chemosensory protein (CSP) and odorant-binding protein (OBP)] by quantitative PCR in the larvae. Toxicity and behavioral assays were also conducted to document the effects of the two forms of exposure. Pyrosequencing of the P. xylostella transcriptome from adult heads and third instars produced 198,753 reads with 52,752,486 bases. Quantitative PCR revealed overexpression of CYP4M14, CYP305B1 and CSP8 in HU larvae. OBP13, however, was highest in LH. Larvae from LH and HU lines had up to five- and 752-fold resistance levels respectively, which could be due to overexpression of P450s. However, the behavioral responses of all lines to a series of permethrin concentrations did not vary significantly in any of the generations examined, in spite of the observed upregulation of CSP8 and OBP13. Expression patterns from the target genes provide insights into behavioral and physiological responses to permethrin and suggest a new avenue of research on the role of chemosensation genes in insect adaptation to toxins. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Deep sequencing-based transcriptome analysis of Plutella xylostella larvae parasitized by Diadegma semiclausum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Parasitoid insects manipulate their hosts' physiology by injecting various factors into their host upon parasitization. Transcriptomic approaches provide a powerful approach to study insect host-parasitoid interactions at the molecular level. In order to investigate the effects of parasitization by an ichneumonid wasp (Diadegma semiclausum) on the host (Plutella xylostella), the larval transcriptome profile was analyzed using a short-read deep sequencing method (Illumina). Symbiotic polydnaviruses (PDVs) associated with ichneumonid parasitoids, known as ichnoviruses, play significant roles in host immune suppression and developmental regulation. In the current study, D. semiclausum ichnovirus (DsIV) genes expressed in P. xylostella were identified and their sequences compared with other reported PDVs. Five of these genes encode proteins of unknown identity, that have not previously been reported. Results De novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 172,660 contigs between 100 and 10000 bp in length; with 35% of > 200 bp in length. Parasitization had significant impacts on expression levels of 928 identified insect host transcripts. Gene ontology data illustrated that the majority of the differentially expressed genes are involved in binding, catalytic activity, and metabolic and cellular processes. In addition, the results show that transcription levels of antimicrobial peptides, such as gloverin, cecropin E and lysozyme, were up-regulated after parasitism. Expression of ichnovirus genes were detected in parasitized larvae with 19 unique sequences identified from five PDV gene families including vankyrin, viral innexin, repeat elements, a cysteine-rich motif, and polar residue rich protein. Vankyrin 1 and repeat element 1 genes showed the highest transcription levels among the DsIV genes. Conclusion This study provides detailed information on differential expression of P. xylostella larval genes following parasitization, DsIV genes expressed in the

  15. Functional characterization of Pol III U6 promoters for gene knockdown and knockout in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuping; Wang, Yajun; Zeng, Baosheng; Liu, Zhaoxia; Xu, Xuejiao; Meng, Qian; Huang, Yongping; Yang, Guang; Vasseur, Liette; Gurr, Geoff M; You, Minsheng

    2017-10-01

    RNA polymerase type III (Pol-III) promoters such as U6 are commonly used to express small RNAs, including short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) and single guide RNAs (sgRNAs). Functional U6 promoters are widely used in CRISPR systems, and their characterization can facilitate genome editing of non-model organisms. In the present study, six U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) promoters containing two conserved elements of a proximal sequence element (PSEA) and a TATA box, were identified and characterized in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) genome. Relative efficiency of the U6 promoters to express shRNA induced EGFP knockdown was tested in a P. xylostella cell line, revealing that the PxU6:3 promoter had the strongest expression effect. Further work with the PxU6:3 promoter showed its efficacy in EGFP knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 system in the cells. The expression plasmids with versatile Pxabd-A gene specific sgRNA driven by the PxU6:3 promoter, combined with Cas9 mRNA, could induce mutagenesis at specific genomic loci in vivo. The phenotypes induced by sgRNA expression plasmids were similar to those done in vitro transcription sgRNAs. A plasmid with two tandem arranged PxU6:3:sgRNA expression cassettes targeting Pxabd-A loci was generated, which caused a 28,856 bp fragment deletion, suggesting that the multi-sgRNA expression plasmid can be used for multi-targeting. Our work indicates that U6 snRNA promoters can be used for functional studies of genes with the approach of reverse genetics in P. xylostella. These essential promoters also provide valuable potential for CRISPR-derived gene drive as a tactic for population control in this globally significant pest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation and molecular docking studies of Bassianolide from Lecanicillium lecanii against Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Keppanan; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal; Hussain, Mubasher; Dash, Chandra Kanta; Bamisile, Bamisope Steve; Qasim, Muhammad; Liande, Wang

    2018-04-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are rich sources of bioactive secondary metabolites that possess insecticidal properties. The present study reported a novel approach for the identification of insecticidal compounds produced by Lecanicillium lecanii 09 and to assess their toxicity against the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella L. The cyclic peptides groups of toxic substances were separated from L. lecanii 09 through submerged liquid state fermentation. The most abundant toxic metabolite, Bassianolide was purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and its molecular weight and purity were determined by Liquid chromatography - mass spectroscopy (LC-MS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and H 1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) respectively. Subsequently, the toxicity of bassianolide was tested against third instar larvae of P. xylostella at three different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 mg/ml). The results showed that higher concentration of 0.5 mg/ml had significant maximum mortality at 120 hour post inoculation. Furthermore, we investigated the ligand-target interaction of secondary metabolite binding with target insect immune receptor proteins and predicted the role of toxicity against insect host. This is the first study to report the infection process and the interaction of fungal mediated cyclicdepsipeptide compound (bassianolide) from L. lecanii 09 against the insect host P. xylostella. This novel approach provides a potential impact on biological control using natural toxic compound which acts as good inhibitor on pest insect and prevents toxicity hazards, pollution as well as ecocidal effects killing several beneficial insects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamics of glucosinolate-myrosinase system during Plutella xylostella interaction to a novel host Lepidium latifolium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tarandeep; Bhat, Rohini; Khajuria, Manu; Vyas, Ruchika; Kumari, Anika; Nadda, Gireesh; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

    2016-09-01

    Plutella xylostella L. is a notorious pest of cruciferous crops causing worldwide losses of $4-5 billion per year. Developing classical biological control to this pest include an introduction of host plants that act as natural enemies showing deviation from the preference-performance regimen in the evolutionary ecology of plant-insect interactions. The present study was designed to understand the role of glucosinolate-myrosinase system during P. xylostella interactions with a novel host. Adult moth preference and larval performance study were conducted on a novel host Lepidium latifolium L. (LL) that has high sinigrin content and was compared with its laboratory host Arabidopsis thaliana (AT). The glucosinolate-myrosinase system was studied in a time course experiment during larval feeding in choice and no-choice experiments. Adult moths visit and prefers LL over AT for oviposition. Conversely, LL leaves were not preferred and proved detrimental for P. xylostella larvae. Aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates were found to decrease significantly (p≤0.05) in AT during initial 12h of P. xylostella challenge, whereas, they were not affected in LL. Also, MYB transcription factor expression and myrosinase activity in LL do not suggest a typical host response to a specialist insect. This preference-performance mismatch of P. xylostella on LL mediated by glucosinolate pattern suggests that this novel plant could be utilized in P. xylostella management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing the Total Mortality Caused by Two Species of Trichogramma on Its Natural Host Plutella xylostella (L.) at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, C A; Krechemer, F S; Foerster, L A

    2015-06-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner are natural enemies of Plutella xylostella (L.) in Southern Brazil. Laboratory studies to evaluate parasitoids performance under different conditions, such as temperature regimes, are necessary to assess their potential as biocontrol agents of P. xylostella. In most studies involving Trichogramma, parasitism rate is the main parameter used to evaluate parasitoid performance, ignoring that parasitoids can cause egg mortality by feeding on the host content and/or to multiple drilling without laying eggs. This study was conducted to investigate three main issues: how temperature affects T. pretiosum and T.atopovirilia development on eggs of P. xylostella, whether or not these species respond differently to temperature, and how important is the mortality they cause besides parasitism on P. xylostella. Temperature effects (from 10 to 30°C) on development, survival, parasitism rate, mortality, and total mortality caused by T. pretiosum and T. atopovirilia on eggs of P. xylostella were evaluated. Temperature affected the development time, female longevity, parasitism rate, mortality not directly related to parasitoid larval development, and total mortality caused on the host. No significant differences were recorded for the estimated thermal requirements for T. pretiosum and T. atopovirilia. However, the higher mortality caused by T. pretiosum indicates that this parasitoid is the most suitable to be used against P. xylostella. Also, the results suggest that the use of parasitism rate as the only parameter to evaluate the performance of T. pretiosum and T. atopovirilia may underestimate the potential of these parasitoids in regulating pest populations.

  19. Proteomics-based identification of midgut proteins correlated with Cry1Ac resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jixing; Guo, Zhaojiang; Yang, Zezhong; Zhu, Xun; Kang, Shi; Yang, Xin; Yang, Fengshan; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Xu, Weijun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-09-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a worldwide pest of cruciferous crops and can rapidly develop resistance to many chemical insecticides. Although insecticidal crystal proteins (i.e., Cry and Cyt toxins) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been useful alternatives to chemical insecticides for the control of P. xylostella, resistance to Bt in field populations of P. xylostella has already been reported. A better understanding of the resistance mechanisms to Bt should be valuable in delaying resistance development. In this study, the mechanisms underlying P. xylostella resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin were investigated using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and ligand blotting for the first time. Comparative analyses of the constitutive expression of midgut proteins in Cry1Ac-susceptible and -resistant P. xylostella larvae revealed 31 differentially expressed proteins, 21 of which were identified by mass spectrometry. Of these identified proteins, the following fell into diverse eukaryotic orthologous group (KOG) subcategories may be involved in Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamily G member 4 (ABCG4), trypsin, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, actin, glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment 1 protein (GAA1) and solute carrier family 30 member 1 (SLC30A1). Additionally, ligand blotting identified the following midgut proteins as Cry1Ac-binding proteins in Cry1Ac-susceptible P. xylostella larvae: ABC transporter subfamily C member 1 (ABCC1), solute carrier family 36 member 1 (SLC36A1), NADH dehydrogenase iron-sulfur protein 3 (NDUFS3), prohibitin and Rap1 GTPase-activating protein 1. Collectively, these proteomic results increase our understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in P. xylostella and also demonstrate that resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin is complex and multifaceted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  20. Genome-wide identification of lncRNAs associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Xu, Manyu; Shi, Haiyan; Gao, Xiwu; Liang, Pei

    2017-05-15

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are now considered important regulatory factors, with a variety of biological functions in many species including insects. Some lncRNAs have the ability to show rapid responses to diverse stimuli or stress factors and are involved in responses to insecticide. However, there are no reports to date on the characterization of lncRNAs associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in Plutella xylostella. Nine RNA libraries constructed from one susceptible (CHS) and two chlorantraniliprole-resistant P. xylostella strains (CHR, ZZ) were sequenced, and 1309 lncRNAs were identified, including 877 intergenic lncRNAs, 190 intronic lncRNAs, 76 anti-sense lncRNAs and 166 sense-overlapping lncRNAs. Of the identified lncRNAs, 1059 were novel. Furthermore, we found that 64 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between CHR and CHS and 83 were differentially expressed between ZZ and CHS, of which 22 were differentially expressed in both CHR and ZZ. Most of the differentially expressed lncRNAs were hypothesized to be associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. The targets of lncRNAs via cis- ( 0.9 or xylostella. These results will facilitate future studies of the regulatory mechanisms of lncRNAs in chlorantraniliprole and other insecticide resistance and in other biological processes in P. xylostella.

  1. Population dynamics of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), in northern China: the effects of migration, cropping patterns and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liuhong; Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Shufa; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun; Zalucki, Myron P; Wu, Qingjun; Yin, Xianhui

    2018-02-08

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is the most widely distributed pest of Brassica vegetables. Control of P. xylostella has relied on insecticides and it has developed resistance to most insecticides. Although research has clarified the resistance status of P. xylostella and the mechanisms of its resistance in northern China, little work has been conducted on long-term population dynamics in the key vegetable-growing areas of the region. We reviewed and summarized the history of P. xylostella field management practices in northern China (Haidian, Changping, Xuanhua and Zhangbei). Moths were caught in pheromone traps throughout the cropping season and P. xylostella phenology and the general trends in abundance were analysed using DYMEX modelling software. The initial input in the spring determined population size in all years. The seasonal phenology and variation in abundance in most years and sites were simulated, suggesting that the suitable climate creates the conditions for population outbreaks, and growers' actual management level (spraying and crop hygiene) influenced population abundance. Based on climate and using the timing of the initial peak in pheromone trap captures as a biofix, the timing of emergence of the next generation can be forecast, and more effective scouting and regional management strategies against this pest can be developed. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Reliability of Degree-Day Models to Predict the Development Time of Plutella xylostella (L.) under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, C A; Krechemer, F S; de Moraes, C P; Foerster, L A

    2015-12-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of brassicaceous crops occurring in regions with highly distinct climate conditions. Several studies have investigated the relationship between temperature and P. xylostella development rate, providing degree-day models for populations from different geographical regions. However, there are no data available to date to demonstrate the suitability of such models to make reliable projections on the development time for this species in field conditions. In the present study, 19 models available in the literature were tested regarding their ability to accurately predict the development time of two cohorts of P. xylostella under field conditions. Only 11 out of the 19 models tested accurately predicted the development time for the first cohort of P. xylostella, but only seven for the second cohort. Five models correctly predicted the development time for both cohorts evaluated. Our data demonstrate that the accuracy of the models available for P. xylostella varies widely and therefore should be used with caution for pest management purposes.

  3. Chemical Compounds and Bioactivity of Aqueous Extracts of Alibertia spp. in the Control of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Lucas L S; Sobreiro, Ana I; Couto, Irys F S; Silva, Rosicléia M; Pereira, Fabricio F; Heredia-Vieira, Silvia C; Cardoso, Claudia A L; Mauad, Munir; Scalon, Silvana P Q; Verza, Sandra S; Mussury, Rosilda M

    2017-11-22

    Successive applications of insecticides to control Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) have resulted in the emergence of resistant populations of this insect. A novel control measure for this target insect could be the use of botanical insecticides derived from plant tissues. Hence, we experimentally tested aqueous extracts of Alibertia edulis (Rich.), Alibertia intermedia (Mart.), and Alibertia sessilis (Vell.) K. Schum. found in the Brazilian savannah in order to investigate their potential to disrupt the life cycle of P. xylostella . Aqueous extracts of the leaves of A. intermedia and A. sessilis negatively affected the development of P. xylostella in all stages of the life cycle, prolonging the larval stage and causing mortality in the larval or pupal stages. Treatments with A. intermedia and A. sessilis extracts caused the lowest fecundity and the number of hatched larvae. The harmful effects of these aqueous extracts on the life cycle of P. xylostella may be attributable to the flavonoids and other phenolic compounds present in A. intermedia and A. sessilis . These aqueous botanical extracts are low in toxicity when compared to non-aqueous pesticides, and may emerge as an effective approach for control of populations of P. xylostella .

  4. Chemical Compounds and Bioactivity of Aqueous Extracts of Alibertia spp. in the Control of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas L. S. Peres

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Successive applications of insecticides to control Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae have resulted in the emergence of resistant populations of this insect. A novel control measure for this target insect could be the use of botanical insecticides derived from plant tissues. Hence, we experimentally tested aqueous extracts of Alibertia edulis (Rich., Alibertia intermedia (Mart., and Alibertia sessilis (Vell. K. Schum. found in the Brazilian savannah in order to investigate their potential to disrupt the life cycle of P. xylostella. Aqueous extracts of the leaves of A. intermedia and A. sessilis negatively affected the development of P. xylostella in all stages of the life cycle, prolonging the larval stage and causing mortality in the larval or pupal stages. Treatments with A. intermedia and A. sessilis extracts caused the lowest fecundity and the number of hatched larvae. The harmful effects of these aqueous extracts on the life cycle of P. xylostella may be attributable to the flavonoids and other phenolic compounds present in A. intermedia and A. sessilis. These aqueous botanical extracts are low in toxicity when compared to non-aqueous pesticides, and may emerge as an effective approach for control of populations of P. xylostella.

  5. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of serine proteases and homologs in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hailan; Xia, Xiaofeng; Yu, Liying; Vasseur, Liette; Gurr, Geoff M; Yao, Fengluan; Yang, Guang; You, Minsheng

    2015-12-10

    Serine proteases (SPs) are crucial proteolytic enzymes responsible for digestion and other processes including signal transduction and immune responses in insects. Serine protease homologs (SPHs) lack catalytic activity but are involved in innate immunity. This study presents a genome-wide investigation of SPs and SPHs in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a globally-distributed destructive pest of cruciferous crops. A total of 120 putative SPs and 101 putative SPHs were identified in the P. xylostella genome by bioinformatics analysis. Based on the features of trypsin, 38 SPs were putatively designated as trypsin genes. The distribution, transcription orientation, exon-intron structure and sequence alignments suggested that the majority of trypsin genes evolved from tandem duplications. Among the 221 SP/SPH genes, ten SP and three SPH genes with one or more clip domains were predicted and designated as PxCLIPs. Phylogenetic analysis of CLIPs in P. xylostella, two other Lepidoptera species (Bombyx mori and Manduca sexta), and two more distantly related insects (Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera) showed that seven of the 13 PxCLIPs were clustered with homologs of the Lepidoptera rather than other species. Expression profiling of the P. xylostella SP and SPH genes in different developmental stages and tissues showed diverse expression patterns, suggesting high functional diversity with roles in digestion and development. This is the first genome-wide investigation on the SP and SPH genes in P. xylostella. The characterized features and profiled expression patterns of the P. xylostella SPs and SPHs suggest their involvement in digestion, development and immunity of this species. Our findings provide a foundation for further research on the functions of this gene family in P. xylostella, and a better understanding of its capacity to rapidly adapt to a wide range of environmental variables including host plants and insecticides.

  6. Susceptibility of field populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to a selection of insecticides in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Shen, Jun; Mao, Kaikai; You, Hong; Li, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a globally distributed and important economic pest. Chemical control is the primary approach to regulate populations of this pest. However, resistance to insecticides evolves following heavy and frequent use. Therefore, the insecticide resistance in field populations of P. xylostella collected from Central China from 2013 to 2014 was determined with a leaf-dipping method. Based on the results of the monitoring, P. xylostella has developed high levels of resistance to beta-cypermethrin (resistance ratio=69.76-335.76-fold), Bt (WG-001) (RR=35.43-167.36), and chlorfluazuron (RR=13.60-104.95) and medium levels of resistance to chlorantraniliprole (RR=1.19-14.26), chlorfenapyr (RR=4.22-13.44), spinosad (RR=5.89-21.45), indoxacarb (RR=4.01-34.45), and abamectin (RR=23.88-95.15). By contrast, the field populations of P. xylostella remained susceptible to or developed low levels of resistance to diafenthiuron (RR=1.61-8.05), spinetoram (RR=0.88-2.35), and cyantraniliprole (RR=0.4-2.15). Moreover, the LC50 values of field populations of P. xylostella were highly positively correlated between chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole (r=0.88, P=0.045), chlorantraniliprole and spinosad (r=0.66, P=0.039), spinosad and diafenthiuron (r=0.57, P=0.0060), and chlorfenapyr and diafenthiuron (r=0.51, P=0.016). Additionally, the activities of detoxification enzymes in field populations of P. xylostella were significantly positively correlated with the log LC50 values of chlorantraniliprole and spinosad. The results of this study provide an important base for developing effective and successful strategies to manage insecticide resistance in P. xylostella. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Suppression of Plutella xylostella and Trichoplusia ni in cole crops with attracticide formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Elly M; Fadamiro, Henry Y; McLaughlin, John R

    2006-08-01

    The three key lepidopteran pests of cole, Brassica oleracea L., crops in North America are diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae); cabbage looper; Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); and imported cabbageworm, Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Two species-specific pheromone-based experimental attracticide formulations were evaluated against these pests: LastCall DBM for P. xylostella and LastCall CL for T. ni. No LastCall formulation was available against P. rapae. Laboratory toxicity experiments confirmed the effectiveness of each LastCall formulations in killing conspecific males that made contact. In replicated small plots of cabbage and collards in central Alabama, over four growing seasons (fall 2003, spring 2004, fall 2004, and spring 2005), an attracticide treatment receiving the two LastCall formulations, each applied multiple times at the rate of 1,600 droplets per acre, was compared against Bacillus thuringiensis. subspecies kursatki (Bt) spray at action threshold and a negative untreated control. Efficacy was measured by comparing among the three treatments male capture in pheromone-baited traps, larval counts in plots, and crop damage rating at harvest. LastCall provided significant reductions in crop damage comparable to Bt in three of the four seasons. Efficacy of LastCall was dependent upon lepidopteran population densities, which fluctuated from season to season. In general, reduction in crop damage was achieved with LastCall at low-to-moderate population densities of the three species, such as typically occurs in the fall in central Alabama, but not in the spring when high P. rapae population pressure typically occurs in central Alabama. Significant reductions in pheromone trap captures did not occur in LastCall plots, suggesting that elimination of males by the toxicant (permethrin), rather than interruption of sexual communication, was the main mechanism of effect.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li-Shang; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Qian, Cen; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Li, Jun; Wang, Lei; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) was determined (GenBank accession No. KM023645). The length of this mitogenome is 16,014 bp with 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A + T-rich region. It presents the typical gene organization and order for completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes. The nucleotide composition of the genome is highly A + T biased, accounting for 81.48%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.005). All PCGs are initiated by typical ATN codons, except for the gene cox1, which uses CGA as its start codon. Some PCGs harbor TA (nad5) or incomplete termination codon T (cox1, cox2, nad2 and nad4), while others use TAA as their termination codons. The A + T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 888 bp.

  9. Characterization of protein phosphatase 5 from three lepidopteran insects: Helicoverpa armigera, Mythimna separata and Plutella xylostella.

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    Xi'en Chen

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5, a unique member of serine/threonine phosphatases, regulates a variety of biological processes. We obtained full-length PP5 cDNAs from three lepidopteran insects, Helicoverpa armigera, Mythimna separata and Plutella xylostella, encoding predicted proteins of 490 (55.98 kDa, 490 (55.82 kDa and 491 (56.07 kDa amino acids, respectively. These sequences shared a high identity with other insect PP5s and contained the TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat domains at N-terminal regions and highly conserved C-terminal catalytic domains. Tissue- and stage-specific expression pattern analyses revealed these three PP5 genes were constitutively expressed in all stages and in tested tissues with predominant transcription occurring at the egg and adult stages. Activities of Escherichia coli-produced recombinant PP5 proteins could be enhanced by almost 2-fold by a known PP5 activator: arachidonic acid. Kinetic parameters of three recombinant proteins against substrate pNPP were similar both in the absence or presence of arachidonic acid. Protein phosphatases inhibitors, okadaic acid, cantharidin, and endothall strongly impeded the activities of the three recombinant PP5 proteins, as well as exerted an inhibitory effect on crude protein phosphatases extractions from these three insects. In summary, lepidopteran PP5s share similar characteristics and are all sensitive to the protein phosphatases inhibitors. Our results also imply protein phosphatase inhibitors might be used in the management of lepidopteran pests.

  10. Identification and characterisation of multiple glutathione S-transferase genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

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    Chen, Xi'en; Zhang, Ya-lin

    2015-04-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, is one of the most harmful insect pests on crucifer crops worldwide. In this study, 19 cDNAs encoding glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were identified from the genomic and transcriptomic database for DBM (KONAGAbase) and further characterized. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 19 GSTs were classified into six different cytosolic classes, including four in delta, six in epsilon, three in omega, two in sigma, one in theta and one in zeta. Two GSTs were unclassified. RT-PCR analysis revealed that most GST genes were expressed in all developmental stages, with higher expression in the larval stages. Six DBM GSTs were expressed at the highest levels in the midgut tissue. Twelve purified recombinant GSTs showed varied enzymatic properties towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and glutathione, whereas rPxGSTo2, rPxGSTz1 and rPxGSTu2 had no activity. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that expression levels of the 19 DBM GST genes were varied and changed after exposure to acephate, indoxacarb, beta-cypermethrin and spinosad. PxGSTd3 was significantly overexpressed, while PxGSTe3 and PxGSTs2 were significantly downregulated by all four insecticide exposures. The changes in DBM GST gene expression levels exposed to different insecticides indicate that they may play individual roles in tolerance to insecticides and xenobiotics. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Exploring Valid Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-time PCR Analysis in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

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    Fu, Wei; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), a primary tool in gene expression analysis, requires an appropriate normalization strategy to control for variation among samples. The best option is to compare the mRNA level of a target gene with that of reference gene(s) whose expression level is stable across various experimental conditions. In this study, expression profiles of eight candidate reference genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, were evaluated under diverse experimental conditions. RefFinder, a web-based analysis tool, integrates four major computational programs including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method to comprehensively rank the tested candidate genes. Elongation factor 1 (EF1) was the most suited reference gene for the biotic factors (development stage, tissue, and strain). In contrast, although appropriate reference gene(s) do exist for several abiotic factors (temperature, photoperiod, insecticide, and mechanical injury), we were not able to identify a single universal reference gene. Nevertheless, a suite of candidate reference genes were specifically recommended for selected experimental conditions. Our finding is the first step toward establishing a standardized qRT-PCR analysis of this agriculturally important insect pest. PMID:23983612

  12. RNAi-mediated knockdown of serine protease inhibitor genes increases the mortality of Plutella xylostella challenged by destruxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pengfei; Fan, Jiqiao; Liu, Yu; Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Yan, Shaoqiao; Qiu, Bao-Li; Ren, Shunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Destruxin A is a mycotoxin that is secreted by entomopathogenic fungi which has a broad-spectrum insecticidal effect. Previous transcript and protein profiling analysis showed that destruxin A has significant effects on the expression of serine protease inhibitor genes (serpin-2, 4, 5) in the larvae of Plutella xylostella. In the current study, we aimed to understand the role of serpins under application of destruxin A. We obtained two full-length cDNA sequences of P. xylostella serpins, named serpin-4 and serpin-5, and cloned the serpin-2 gene whose full-length has already been published. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these two serpin genes were highly clustered with other serpins associated with the immune response in other insects. The temporal and spatial expression of serpin-2, serpin-4 and serpin-5 were determined to be the highest in the fat body and hemolymph of 4th larval stage using qRT-PCR and western blot detection techniques. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated knockdown of P. xylostella serpin genes was carried out by microinjection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The expression levels of serpins decreased significantly after RNAi. Results showed that the depletion of serpins induced cecropins expression, increased phenoloxidase (PO) activity, body melanization and mortality in the larvae of P. xylostella under the same lethal concentration of destruxin A. The superimposed effects of serpins RNAi were similar with the destruxin A treatment upon mortality of P. xylostella larvae. We discovered for the first time that serpins play indispensable role in P. xylostella when challenged by destruxin A and deduced the possible function mechanism of destruxin A. Our findings are conducive to fully understanding the potential insecticidal mechanism of destruxin A and constitute a well-defined potential molecular target for novel insecticides.

  13. RNAi-Mediated Knockdown of Serine Protease Inhibitor Genes Increases the Mortality of Plutella xylostella Challenged by Destruxin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pengfei; Fan, Jiqiao; Liu, Yu; Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Yan, Shaoqiao; Qiu, Bao-Li; Ren, Shunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Destruxin A is a mycotoxin that is secreted by entomopathogenic fungi which has a broad-spectrum insecticidal effect. Previous transcript and protein profiling analysis showed that destruxin A has significant effects on the expression of serine protease inhibitor genes (serpin-2, 4, 5) in the larvae of Plutella xylostella. In the current study, we aimed to understand the role of serpins under application of destruxin A. We obtained two full-length cDNA sequences of P. xylostella serpins, named serpin-4 and serpin-5, and cloned the serpin-2 gene whose full-length has already been published. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these two serpin genes were highly clustered with other serpins associated with the immune response in other insects. The temporal and spatial expression of serpin-2, serpin-4 and serpin-5 were determined to be the highest in the fat body and hemolymph of 4th larval stage using qRT-PCR and western blot detection techniques. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated knockdown of P. xylostella serpin genes was carried out by microinjection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The expression levels of serpins decreased significantly after RNAi. Results showed that the depletion of serpins induced cecropins expression, increased phenoloxidase (PO) activity, body melanization and mortality in the larvae of P. xylostella under the same lethal concentration of destruxin A. The superimposed effects of serpins RNAi were similar with the destruxin A treatment upon mortality of P. xylostella larvae. We discovered for the first time that serpins play indispensable role in P. xylostella when challenged by destruxin A and deduced the possible function mechanism of destruxin A. Our findings are conducive to fully understanding the potential insecticidal mechanism of destruxin A and constitute a well-defined potential molecular target for novel insecticides. PMID:24837592

  14. Rapid selection for resistance to diamide insecticides in Plutella xylostella via specific amino acid polymorphisms in the ryanodine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troczka, Bartlomiej J; Williamson, Martin S; Field, Linda M; Davies, T G Emyr

    2017-05-01

    Diamide insecticides, such as flubendiamide and chlorantraniliprole, are a new class of insecticide with a novel mode of action, selectively activating the insect ryanodine receptor (RyR). They are particularly active against lepidopteran pests of cruciferous vegetable crops, including the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. However, within a relatively short period following their commercialisation, a comparatively large number of control failures have been reported in the field. In this review we summarise the current body of knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of diamide resistance in P. xylostella. Resistant phenotypes collected from different countries can often be linked to specific target-site mutation(s) in the ryanodine receptors' transmembrane domain. Metabolic mechanisms of resistance have also been proposed. Rapid resistance development is probably a consequence of over-reliance on this one class of chemistry for diamondback moth control. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Insight into the Migration Routes of Plutella xylostella in China Using mtCOI and ISSR Markers.

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    Jiaqiang Yang

    Full Text Available The larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, cause major economic losses to cruciferous crops, including cabbage, which is an important vegetable crop in China. In this study, we used the mitochondrial COI gene and 11 ISSR markers to characterize the genetic structure and seasonal migration routes of 23 P. xylostella populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed high haplotype diversity and gene flow among the populations, although some degree of genetic isolation was evident between the populations of Hainan Island and other sampling sites. The dominant haplotypes, LX1 and LX2, differed significantly from all other haplotypes both in terms of the number of individuals with those haplotypes and their distributions. Haplotypes that were shared among populations revealed that P. xylostella migrates from the lower reaches of the Yangtze River to northern China and then to northeastern China. Our results also revealed another potential migration route for P. xylostella, i.e., from southwestern China to both northwestern and southern China.

  16. Molecular characterisation of two α-esterase genes involving chlorpyrifos detoxification in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Miao; Ren, Na-Na; You, Yan-Chun; Chen, Wei-Jun; Song, Qi-Sheng; You, Min-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Carboxylesterases (CarEs) are involved in metabolic detoxification of dietary and environmental xenobiotics in insects. However, owing to the complexity of the protein family, the involvement of CarEs in insecticide metabolism in Plutella xylostella has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to characterise two CarE genes and assess their potential roles in response to chlorpyrifos in P. xylostella. Synergistic tests showed that triphenyl phosphate decreased the resistance of the third-instar larvae to chlorpyrifos. The treatment of the third-instar larvae with chlorpyrifos at the LC 30 dose led to a significant increase in CarE activity. Two CarE cDNAs (Pxae18 and Pxae28) were subsequently sequenced and characterised. Both genes were expressed predominantly in the larval midgut. Most importantly, two CarE genes showed significantly higher expression in the chlorpyrifos-resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. RNAi knockdown of Pxae18 and Pxae28 significantly increased the mortality to chlorpyrifos from 40% in the control to 73.8 and 63.3% respectively. RNAi knockdown of Pxae18 and Pxae28 significantly inhibited detoxification ability and increased the mortality in P. xylostella. The results indicate that these two CarE genes play important roles in the detoxification of chlorpyrifos in P. xylostella. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Overexpression of cytochrome P450 CYP6BG1 may contribute to chlorantraniliprole resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuxia; Li, Ran; Zhu, Bin; Gao, Xiwu; Liang, Pei

    2018-06-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) is the most widely distributed pest of cruciferous crops and has developed resistance to most commonly used insecticides, including chlorantraniliprole. Resistance to chlorantraniliprole is likely caused by mutations of the target, the ryanodine receptor, and/or mediated by an increase in detoxification enzyme activities. Although target-site resistance is documented in detail, resistance mediated by increased metabolism has rarely been reported. The activity of cytochrome P450 was significantly higher in two resistant P. xylostella populations than in a susceptible one. Among ten detected cytochrome P450 genes, CYP6BG1 was significantly overexpressed (over 80-fold) in a field-resistant population compared with expression in a susceptible one. Knockdown of CYP6BG1 by RNA interference dramatically reduced the 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (7-ECOD) activity of P450 by 45.5% and increased the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole toward P. xylostella by 26.8% at 48 h postinjection of double-stranded RNA. By contrast, overexpression of CYP6BG1 in a transgenic Drosophila melanogaster line significantly decreased the toxicity of the insecticide to the transgenic flies. Overexpression of CYP6BG1 may contribute to chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. Our findings will provide new insights into the mechanisms of resistance to diamide insecticides in other insect pests. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Characterization of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes and their possible roles in multi-insecticide resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuxia; Shi, Haiyan; Gao, Xiwu; Liang, Pei

    2018-03-01

    Uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), as multifunctional detoxification enzymes, play important roles in the biotransformation of various compounds. However, their roles in insecticide resistance are still unclear. This study presents a genome-wide identification of the UGTs in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a notorious insect pest of cruciferous crops worldwide. The possible roles of these UGTs in insecticide resistance were evaluated. A total of 21 putative UGTs in P. xylostella were identified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analyses showed that all the UGT genes were expressed in all tested developmental stages and tissues. Bioassay results indicated that a field-collected population (BL) was resistant to 9 of 10 commonly used insecticides, and 10 of 21 UGT mRNAs were upregulated in the BL population. Exposure to the LC 50 of each insecticide affected the expression of most UGT genes. Among these, the expression levels of UGT40V1, UGT45B1 and UGT33AA4 were induced by more than five insecticides, whereas indoxacarb and metaflumizone significantly repressed the expression of most UGT genes. UGTs may play important roles in the metabolism of commonly used insecticides in P. xylostella. These findings provide valuable information for further research on the physiological and toxicological functions of specific UGT genes in P. xylostella. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Insight into the Migration Routes of Plutella xylostella in China Using mtCOI and ISSR Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lixia; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Xiangjing; Wu, Qingjun

    2015-01-01

    The larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, cause major economic losses to cruciferous crops, including cabbage, which is an important vegetable crop in China. In this study, we used the mitochondrial COI gene and 11 ISSR markers to characterize the genetic structure and seasonal migration routes of 23 P. xylostella populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed high haplotype diversity and gene flow among the populations, although some degree of genetic isolation was evident between the populations of Hainan Island and other sampling sites. The dominant haplotypes, LX1 and LX2, differed significantly from all other haplotypes both in terms of the number of individuals with those haplotypes and their distributions. Haplotypes that were shared among populations revealed that P. xylostella migrates from the lower reaches of the Yangtze River to northern China and then to northeastern China. Our results also revealed another potential migration route for P. xylostella, i.e., from southwestern China to both northwestern and southern China. PMID:26098353

  20. Enhanced attraction of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to pheromone-baited traps with the addition of green leaf volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengyan; Zhu, Junwei; Qin, Yuchuan

    2012-08-01

    Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most serious pests of Brassicaceae crops worldwide. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of P. xylostella to green leaf volatiles (GLVs) alone or together with its female sex pheromone were investigated in laboratory and field. GLVs 1-hexanol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol elicited strong electroantennographic responses from unmated male and female P. xylostella, whereas (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate only produced a relatively weak response. The behavioral responses of unmated moths to GLVs were further tested in Y-tube olfactometer experiments. (E)-2-Hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate induced attraction of males, reaching up to 50%, significantly higher than the response to the unbaited control arm. In field experiments conducted in 2008 and 2009, significantly more moths were captured in traps baited with synthetic sex pheromone with either (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate alone or a blend of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (E)-2-hexenal compared with sex pheromone alone and other blend mixtures. These results demonstrated that GLVs could be used to enhance the attraction of P. xylostella males to sex pheromone-baited traps.

  1. PEMANFAATAN PESTISIDA NABATI PADA PENGENDALIAN HAMA PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA TANAMAN SAWI (Brassica juncea L. MENUJU PERTANIAN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN

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    suhartini suhartini

    2017-05-01

    ABSTRACT The use of chemical pesticides has many negative impacts on the environment, it is necessary for the use of biological pesticide towards sustainable agriculture or environmentally friendly agriculture. In the village were encountered many types of leaves that can be used as a biological pesticide, and therefore this study aims to determine the effectiveness of pesticide plant extracts of the leaves of some plants covering the leaves of tobacco, elephantopus, yellow wood and green betel on mortality of Plutella xylostella pests in plants mustard greens (Brassica juncea L, heavy wet mustard and mustard leaf damage    This study uses a completely randomized design with the treatment of various crops as a pesticide vegetable. The treatments used 6 kinds (degree ie negative control (P0, the leaves of tobacco (P1, the leaves of elephantopus (P2, the leaves of yellow wood (P3, the leaves of greens betel (P4 and chemical pesticides as a positive control (P5 with each grade of 10 %. Parameters measured were mortality pests, heavy wet mustard greens and mustard greens leaf damage rate. The analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA.    The results showed that the extract from the leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, the leaves of elephantopus, the leaves of yellow wood (Arcangelisia flava L. and the leaves of green betel (Piper betle Linn. With a 10 percent concentration of the extract on a variety of  leaves are not yet significant effect on mortality pests Plutella xylostella, heavy wet of mustard greens (brassica juncea l. and severity of leaf mustard greens (brassica juncea l.. The leaf extract the most influence on mortality Plutella xylostella sequential is an extract of the leaves tobacco, the leaves of greens betel, the leaves of yellow wood and the leaves of elephantopus. While the effect on weight of wet mustard greens (Brassica juncea l. in order are as follows: the leaves of yellow wood, the leaves of green betel, the leaves of elephantopus, and the

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Barbarea vulgaris Infested with Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Wu, Qingjun; Lu, Peng; Qiu, Yang; Song, Jiangping; Zhang, Youjun; Li, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella) is a crucifer-specific pest that causes significant crop losses worldwide. Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae) can resist DBM and other herbivorous insects by producing feeding-deterrent triterpenoid saponins. Plant breeders have long aimed to transfer this insect resistance to other crops. However, a lack of knowledge on the biosynthetic pathways and regulatory networks of these insecticidal saponins has hindered their practical application. A pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris during DBM larval feeding was performed to identify genes and gene networks responsible for saponin biosynthesis and its regulation at the genome level. Principal Findings Approximately 1.22, 1.19, 1.16, 1.23, 1.16, 1.20, and 2.39 giga base pairs of clean nucleotides were generated from B. vulgaris transcriptomes sampled 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after onset of P. xylostella feeding and from non-inoculated controls, respectively. De novo assembly using all data of the seven transcriptomes generated 39,531 unigenes. A total of 37,780 (95.57%) unigenes were annotated, 14,399 of which were assigned to one or more gene ontology terms and 19,620 of which were assigned to 126 known pathways. Expression profiles revealed 2,016–4,685 up-regulated and 557–5188 down-regulated transcripts. Secondary metabolic pathways, such as those of terpenoids, glucosinolates, and phenylpropanoids, and its related regulators were elevated. Candidate genes for the triterpene saponin pathway were found in the transcriptome. Orthological analysis of the transcriptome with four other crucifer transcriptomes identified 592 B. vulgaris-specific gene families with a P-value cutoff of 1e−5. Conclusion This study presents the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris subjected to a series of DBM feedings. The biosynthetic and regulatory pathways of triterpenoid saponins and other DBM deterrent metabolites in this plant were

  3. Aromatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Pathway in Barbarea vulgaris and its Response to Plutella xylostella Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongjin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Haohui; Agerbirk, Niels; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Shen, Di; Song, Jiangping; Li, Xixiang

    2016-01-01

    The inducibility of the glucosinolate resistance mechanism is an energy-saving strategy for plants, but whether induction would still be triggered by glucosinolate-tolerant Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM) after a plant had evolved a new resistance mechanism (e.g., saponins in Barbara vulgaris) was unknown. In B. vulgaris, aromatic glucosinolates derived from homo-phenylalanine are the dominant glucosinolates, but their biosynthesis pathway was unclear. In this study, we used G-type (pest-resistant) and P-type (pest-susceptible) B. vulgaris to compare glucosinolate levels and the expression profiles of their biosynthesis genes before and after infestation by DBM larvae. Two different stereoisomers of hydroxylated aromatic glucosinolates are dominant in G- and P-type B. vulgaris, respectively, and are induced by DBM. The transcripts of genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway and their corresponding transcription factors were identified from an Illumina dataset of G- and P-type B. vulgaris. Many genes involved or potentially involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were induced in both plant types. The expression patterns of six DBM induced genes were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), while six long-fragment genes were validated by molecular cloning. The core structure biosynthetic genes showed high sequence similarities between the two genotypes. In contrast, the sequence identity of two apparent side chain modification genes, the SHO gene in the G-type and the RHO in P-type plants, showed only 77.50% identity in coding DNA sequences and 65.48% identity in deduced amino acid sequences. The homology to GS-OH in Arabidopsis, DBM induction of the transcript and a series of qPCR and glucosinolate analyses of G-type, P-type and F1 plants indicated that these genes control the production of S and R isomers of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl glucosinolate. These glucosinolates were significantly induced by P. xylostella larvae in both the susceptiple P

  4. Aromatic glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway in Barbarea vulgaris and its response to Plutella xylostella infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjin eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The inducibility of the glucosinolate resistance mechanism is an energy-saving strategy for plants, but whether induction would still be triggered by glucosinolate-tolerant Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM after a plant had evolved a new resistance mechanism (e.g. saponins in Barbara vulgaris was unknown. In B. vulgaris, aromatic glucosinolates derived from homo-phenylalanine are the dominate glucosinolates, but their biosynthesis pathway are unclear in this plant. In this study, we used G-type (pest-resistant and P-type (pest-susceptible B. vulgaris to compare glucosinolate levels and the expression profiles of their biosynthesis genes before and after infestation by DBM larvae. Two different stereoisomers of hydroxylated aromatic glucosinolates are dominant in G- and P-type B. vulgaris, respectively, and are induced by DBM. The transcripts of genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway and their corresponding transcription factors were identified from an Illumina dataset of G- and P-type B. vulgaris. Many genes involved or potentially involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were induced in both plant types. The expression patterns of six DBM induced genes were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR, while six long-fragment genes were validated by molecular cloning. The core structure biosynthetic genes showed high sequence similarities between the two genotypes. In contrast, the sequence identity of two apparent side chain modification genes, the SHO gene in the G-type and the RHO in P-type plants, showed only 77.50% identity in coding DNA sequences and 65.48% identity in deduced amino acid sequences. The homology to GS-OH in Arabidopsis, DBM induction of the transcript and a series of qPCR and glucosinolate analyses of G-type, P-type and F1 plants indicated that these genes control the production of S and R isomers of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl glucosinolate. These glucosinolates were significantly induced by P. xylostella larvae in

  5. Inheritance and stability of mevinphos-resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.), with special reference to mutations of acetylcholinesterase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Li; Yeh, Shih-Chia; Feng, Hai-Tung; Dai, Shu-Mei

    2017-09-01

    Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) causes enormous damage on cruciferous vegetables and can rapidly develop resistance to all kinds of insecticides. To effectively manage the insecticide resistance of P. xylostella, an understanding of its inheritance and stability is essential. Here we investigated the phenotypic and genotypic basis of mevinphos resistance by crossing two genetically pure lines of P. xylostella, an SH ggt wild-type strain and an SHM TCN resistant strain carrying 892T/T, 971C/C, and 1156T/G (TCN) mutations of the acetylcholinesterase 1 gene (Pxace1). Similar median lethal concentrations and degrees of dominance in the reciprocal cross progeny, and no plateau on the log concentration-probit line of F1 backcross and self-cross progeny, suggest that the mevinphos-resistance in P. xylostella is inherited as an autosomal and incomplete dominant trait governed by more than one gene. In the absence of mevinphos exposure, the resistance ratio and Pxace1 mutation frequency declined concomitantly in the SHM TCN strain. After 20-generation relaxation, the mevinphos resistance decreased from 52- to 6-fold and the Pxace1 mutation frequency of the TCN haplotype pair decreased from 100% to 0%. A good correlation was found between the resistance ratio and TCN frequency within the range of 12.5- to 25-fold resistance. Since there was no TCN haplotype pair detected below a resistance level of 12.5-fold, we speculate that resistance mechanisms other than target site insensitivity may exist. These observations are important for the prediction and management of mevinphos and related organophosphate resistance in field populations of P. xylostella. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Resistance to Diamide Insecticides in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): Comparison Between Lab-Selected Strains and Field-Collected Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Wang, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Ying-Ying; Sun, Shi-Qing; Wang, Huan-Huan; Xue, Chao-Bin

    2018-04-02

    Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.; Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is an important pest of crucifers worldwide. The extensive use of diamide insecticides has led to P. xylostella resistance and this presents a serious threat to vegetable production. We selected chlorantraniliprole (Rf) and flubendiamide (Rh) resistance strains of P. xylostella with resistance ratios of 684.54-fold and 677.25-fold, respectively. The Rf and Rh strains underwent 46 and 36 generations of lab-selection for resistance, respectively. Low cross resistance of Rh to cyantraniliprole was found. Cross resistance to chlorfenapyr, tebufenozid, and indoxacarb was not found in Rf and Rh strains. The P. xylostella ryanodine receptor gene (PxRyR) transcripts level in the Rf and Rh strains was up-regulated. Except for Rf34 and Rh36, PxRyR expression in all generations of Rf and Rh selection gradually increased with increasing resistance. Two resistant populations were field-collected from Guangzhou Baiyun (Rb) and Zengcheng (Rz) and propagated for several generations without exposure to any pesticide had higher PxRyR expression than the susceptible strain (S). In the S strain, PxRyR expression was not related to the resistance ratio. Gene sequencing found that the RyR 4946 gene site was glycine (G) in the S, Rf, and Rh strains, and was glutamate (E) with 70% and 80% frequency in the Rb and Rz populations, respectively. The 4946 gene site was substituted by valine (V) with the frequency of 30% and 20% in Rb and Rz populations, respectively. These results increase the understanding of the mechanisms of diamide insecticide resistance in P. xylostella.

  7. Synergistic Effect of Combining Plutella xylostella Granulovirus and Bacillus thuringiensis at Sublethal Dosages on Controlling of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangjie; Li, Chuanming; Liu, Qin; Xu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Plutella xylostella granulovirus (PxGV) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are both entomo-pathogens to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The purpose of the present study was to measure the effect of the combination of PxGV and Bt at sublethal dosages on the development and mortality of diamondback moth in a laboratory setting. Bt and PxGV exhibited synergistic effect on diamondback moth larval mortality and effectively controlled diamondback moth populations with low dose combination treatment. The combination of three parts per million Bt and 1.3 × 10(3) occlusion bodies per milliliter of PxGV revealed a higher larval mortality compared with the treatment of Bt or PxGV alone. Combination of Bt and PxGV at sublethal concentrations also increased larval duration, reduced oviposition and decreased adult longevity remarkably, resulting in the lowest population trend index among the treatments. The results suggested that the combination of Bt and PxGV at sublethal dosages might provide a valuable way to improve the control efficacy of diamondback moth compared with treatment of Bt or PxGV alone. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Studies on Biology and Ecology of the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.; Kaewchoung, P.; Malakrong, A.

    1998-01-01

    The diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella L. were reared with cabbage leaves under field condition at Khao Khor Highland Agricultural Research Station (16-47 degree celsius, 22-96% R.H.). The average duration of the egg, larval (1 st and 2 nd instar, 3 rd instar and 4 th instar), pupal and male and female adult stages were 3.21± 0.30, 5.57 ± 0.60, 3.16 ± 1.07, 3.43+0.97, 3.88 ± 1.59, 17.72 ± 2.74 and 16.16 ± 3.93 days respectively. Female laid eggs at 1 day old and the highest number of eggs were counted in the 2 nd day of the oviposition period. The number of eggs laid per female averaged 109+77.60 eggs, ranging from 17 to 248 eggs. The life cycle from egg to adult stage was 13-31 days. The population parameters were the cohort generation time (Tc)=23.45 days, the net reproductive rate (Ro)=25 and the finite rate of increase (λ)=1.15 time per day respectively. Studies on reproductive system of this insect showed that the developed testes were found in the 4 th instar larva while developed ovaries were found after emergence. Male mated many times (average 3.33 times) while almost female mated only once (92%). The ecological life table of this insect was studied in the cabbage field at the Khao Khor Highland Agricultural Research Station. The eggs hatch was 55.89% and the highest mortality occurred in the 1 st and 2 nd instar larval period (64.37%). The disease and parasites caused the high mortality in the 4 th larval and pupal period (49.64 and 46.38%)

  9. Pathogenicity of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Kermani

    Full Text Available Biological control using pathogenic microsporidia could be an alternative to chemical control of the diamondback moth (DBM Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. The microsporidium Nosema bombycis (NB is one of the numerous pathogens that can be used in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM of DBM. However, its pathogenicity or effectiveness can be influenced by various factors, particularly temperature. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of temperature on NB infection of DBM larvae. Second-instar larvae at different doses (spore concentration: 0, 1×10²,1×10³,1×10⁴, and 1×10⁵ at 15°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C and a relative humidity(RH of 65% and light dark cycle (L:D of 12∶12. Larval mortality was recorded at 24 h intervals until the larvae had either died or pupated. The results showed that the spore concentration had a significant negative effect on larval survival at all temperatures, although this effect was more pronounced (92% at 35°C compared with that at 20 and 30°C (≃50% and 25°C (26%. Histological observations showed that Nosema preferentially infected the adipose tissue and epithelial cells of the midgut, resulting in marked vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that Nosema damaged the midgut epithelial cells. Our results suggest that Nosema had a direct adverse effect on DBM, and could be utilized as an important biopesticide alternative to chemical insecticides in IPM.

  10. General odorant-binding proteins and sex pheromone guide larvae of Plutella xylostella to better food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiao; Ban, Liping; Song, Li-Mei; Liu, Yang; Pelosi, Paolo; Wang, Guirong

    2016-05-01

    Olfaction of Lepidopteran larvae has received little attention, compared to the damage to crops done by insects at this stage. We report that larvae of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella are attracted to their natural sex pheromone and to their major component (Z)-11-hexadecenal, but only in a food context. For such task they use two general odorant-binding proteins (GOBPs), abundantly expressed in the three major sensilla basiconica of the larval antenna, as shown by whole-mount immunostaining and immunocytochemistry experiments. None of the three genes encoding pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are expressed at this stage. Both recombinant GOBPs bind (Z)-11-hexadecenal and the corresponding alcohol, but not the acetate. Binding experiments performed with five mutants of GOBP2, where aromatic residues in the binding pocket were replaced with leucine showed that only one or two amino acid substitutions can completely abolish binding to the pheromone shifting the affinity to plant-derived compounds. We hypothesise that detection of their species-specific pheromone may direct larvae to the sites of foraging chosen by their mother when laying eggs, to find better food, as well as to reduce competition with individuals of the same or other species sharing the same host plant. We also provide evidence that GOBP2 is a narrowly tuned binding protein, whose affinity can be easily switched from linear pheromones to branched plants terpenoids, representing a tool better suited for the simple olfactory system of larvae, as compared to the more sophisticated organ of adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Toxicity of Pandanus amaryllifolius L. chloroform extract against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtithal I., J.; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Idris A., B.

    2018-04-01

    The potential of using plant and plant-derived products as deterrent against pest of crops in the field and during postharvest period, is gaining increasing attention, due to rapid development of resistance to the synthetic insecticides and couple with the fact that natural insecticides constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are safe and biodegradable into non-toxic products. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the insecticidal effects of chloroform extract of Pandanus amaryllifolius L. leaves against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella under laboratory conditions. The medicinal plants were collected around Kampong Sungai Siput, Lubok China, Malacca, Malaysia. The leaf disc immersion method was used to assess the insecticidal effects of Pandanus amaryllifolius L. leaves extract on the larvae as well as duration of the larval phase following feeding of the second instar larvae of diamondback on the treated leaf discs for 24 h at various concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/ml). Larval mortality was evaluated every 24 hours for a period of three days. Highest larval percent was observed at 72hrs post exposure with 86.67 % mortality at 8mg/ml concentration LC50 and LC90 value was calculated against different concentrations. It was recorded that lowest LC50 and LC90 values were observed after 72 h of exposure followed by 48 h at 2.84 mg/ml and 17.59 mg/ml respectively and 3.36 mg/ml and 28.59 mg/ml respectively at 48 h of exposure time. Both larvae mortality and duration of exposure were found to be directly related to the concentration of Pandan amaryllifolius L. leaves extract and inversely related to fecundity. The present study indicates that phytochemicals derived from Pandanus amaryllifolius L. leaf extracts are effective DBM control agent and the plant extracts may be useful for further IPM program.

  12. Molecular characterization of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Weon; Boo, Kyung Saeng

    2005-12-01

    Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) produced in the subesophageal ganglion stimulates pheromone production in the pheromone gland. A cDNA isolated from female adult heads of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L.)) encodes 193 amino acids including PBAN, designated as Plx-PBAN, and four other neuropeptides (NPs): diapause hormone (DH) homologue, alpha-NP, beta-NP and gamma-NP. All of the peptides are amidated in their C-termini and shared a conserved motif, FXPR(or K)L structure, as reported from other PBAN cDNAs. Plx-PBAN consists of 30 amino acids, the shortest PBAN so far reported. Plx-PBAN exhibited below 50% homology, compared with other known PBANs. The Plx-DH homologue is structurally different from DH of Bombyx mori. The length of Plx-beta-NP (16 amino acids) was the shortest and showed relatively low similarity, whereas gamma-NP (10 amino acids in length) was the longest among examined gamma-NPs. When female adults were injected with synthetic Plx-PBAN, pheromone production showed a maximal increase 1h post-injection. RT-PCR screening revealed that Plx-PBAN cDNA was expressed in all examined body parts, with the highest expression level in the head of female adults. Analysis of RT-PCR products indicated the Plx-PBAN sequence was identical in all examined body parts of both sexes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Plx-PBAN gene is distantly related to other PBANs, demonstrated by the relatively low similarity.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a SID-1-like gene in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huidong; Gong, Liang; Qi, Jiangwei; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua; Gong, Liang

    2014-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) signal can spread from the point where the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was initially applied to other cells or tissues. SID-related genes in Caenorhabditis elegans help in the spreading of this signal. However, the mechanisms of systemic RNAi are still not unveiled in insects. In this study, we cloned a full-length cDNA of sid-1-like gene, Pxylsid-1, from Plutella xylostella that contains 1,047 bp opening reading frame encoding a putative protein of 348 amino acids. This transcript is very much similar to the sil-1 in Bombyx mori (68.8%). The higher expression levels of Pxylsid-1 were found at the adult and fourth-instar stages compared to the second-instar stage with 21.48- and 10.36-fold increase, respectively. Its expression levels in different tissues were confirmed with the highest expression in the hemolymph, which showed 21.09-fold increase than the midgut; however it was lower in other tissues. The result of RNAi by feeding bacterially expressed dsRNA targeting Pxylace-1, which showed that the mRNA level of Pxylace-1 decreased by 34.52 and 64.04% after 36- and 72-h treatment, respectively. However, the mRNA level of Pxylsid-1 was not significantly induced when the Pxylace-1 was downregulated. Furthermore, we found that downregulation of Pxylsid-1 did not affect the RNAi effect of Pxylace-1. Hence, the Pxylsid-1 may not be involved in absorption of dsRNA from the midgut fluid. A further study is needed to uncover the function of Pxylsid-1. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Characterization and expression profiling of ATP-binding cassette transporter genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiping; Ma, Xiaoli; He, Weiyi; Chen, Wei; Zou, Mingmin; Gurr, Geoff M; Vasseur, Liette; You, Minsheng

    2016-09-27

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are one of the major transmembrane protein families found in all organisms and play important roles in transporting a variety of compounds across intra and extra cellular membranes. In some species, ABC transporters may be involved in the detoxification of substances such as insecticides. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a destructive pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, is an important species to study as it is resistant to many types of insecticides as well as biological control Bacillus thuringiensis toxins. A total of 82 ABC genes were identified from our published P. xylostella genome, and grouped into eight subfamilies (ABCA-H) based on phylogenetic analysis. Genes of subfamilies ABCA, ABCC and ABCH were found to be expanded in P. xylostella compared with those in Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliconius melpomene, Danaus plexippus, Drosophila melanogaster, Tetranychus urticae and Homo sapiens. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that many of the ABC transporters in P. xylostella are orthologous to the well-studied ABC transporter genes in the seven other species. Transcriptome- and qRT-PCR-based analysis elucidated physiological effects of ABC gene expressions of P. xylostella which were developmental stage- and tissue-specific as well as being affected by whether or not the insects were from an insecticide-resistant strain. Two ABCC and one ABCA genes were preferentially expressed in midgut of the 4th-instar larvae of a susceptible strain (Fuzhou-S) suggesting their potential roles in metabolizing plant defensive chemicals. Most of the highly expressed genes in insecticide-resistant strains were also predominantly expressed in the tissues of Malpighian tubules and midgut. This is the most comprehensive study on identification, characterization and expression profiling of ABC transporter genes in P. xylostella to date. The diversified features and expression patterns of this gene family may be associated with

  15. miRNAs regulated overexpression of ryanodine receptor is involved in chlorantraniliprole resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuxia; Guo, Lei; Zhou, Xuguo; Gao, Xiwu; Liang, Pei

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid mutations in ryanodine receptor (RyR) and elevated activity of detoxification enzymes have been associated with the diamide insecticide resistance in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The up-regulation of P. xylostella RyR mRNA (PxRyR) expression has also been reported in field populations of different graphical origin. However, whether the up-regulation of PxRyR is involved in diamide resistance remains unknown. In this paper, 2.28- to 4.14-fold higher expression of PxRyR was detected in five field collected resistant populations, compared to that in a susceptible population. The expression of PxRyR was up-regulated 5.0- and 7.2-fold, respectively, after P. xylostella was treated with LC50 and LC75 of chlorantraniliprole for 12 h. Suppression of PxRyR using RNA interference restored the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole against the fourth instar larvae from the resistant population. More importantly, the expression of PxRyR is regulated by two miRNAs, miR-7a and miR-8519. These findings provide an empirical evidence of the involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of insecticide resistance, and shed light on the novel targets for the sustainable management of this devastating insect pest. PMID:26370154

  16. Novel mutations and mutation combinations of ryanodine receptor in a chlorantraniliprole resistant population of Plutella xylostella (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Liang, Pei; Zhou, Xuguo; Gao, Xiwu

    2014-01-01

    A previous study documented a glycine to glutamic acid mutation (G4946E) in ryanodine receptor (RyR) was highly correlated to diamide insecticide resistance in field populations of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). In this study, a field population collected in Yunnan province, China, exhibited a 2128-fold resistance to chlorantraniliprole. Sequence comparison between resistant and susceptible P. xylostella revealed three novel mutations including a glutamic acid to valine substitution (E1338D), a glutamine to leucine substitution (Q4594L) and an isoleucine to methionine substitution (I4790M) in highly conserved regions of RyR. Frequency analysis of all four mutations in this field population showed that the three new mutations showed a high frequency of 100%, while the G4946E had a frequency of 20%. Furthermore, the florescent ligand binding assay revealed that the RyR containing multiple mutations displayed a significantly lower affinity to the chlorantraniliprole. The combined results suggested that the co-existence of different combinations of the four mutations was involved in the chlorantraniliprole resistance. An allele-specific PCR based method was developed for the diagnosis of the four mutations in the field populations of P. xylostella. PMID:25377064

  17. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a P-Glycoprotein from the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lixia; Yang, Jiaqiang; Hou, Wenjie; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Zhou, Xuguo; Wu, Qingjun

    2013-01-01

    Macrocyclic lactones such as abamectin and ivermectin constitute an important class of broad-spectrum insecticides. Widespread resistance to synthetic insecticides, including abamectin and ivermectin, poses a serious threat to the management of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), a major pest of cruciferous plants worldwide. P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, plays a crucial role in the removal of amphiphilic xenobiotics, suggesting a mechanism for drug resistance in target organisms. In this study, PxPgp1, a putative Pgp gene from P. xylostella, was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of PxPgp1 consists of 3774 nucleotides, which encodes a 1257-amino acid peptide. The deduced PxPgp1 protein possesses structural characteristics of a typical Pgp, and clusters within the insect ABCB1. PxPgp1 was expressed throughout all developmental stages, and showed the highest expression level in adult males. PxPgp1 was highly expressed in midgut, malpighian tubules and testes. Elevated expression of PxPgp1 was observed in P. xylostella strains after they were exposed to the abamectin treatment. In addition, the constitutive expressions of PxPgp1 were significantly higher in laboratory-selected and field-collected resistant strains in comparison to their susceptible counterpart. PMID:24264038

  18. Genome-Wide Profiling of Plutella xylostella Immunity-Related miRNAs after Isaria fumosorosea Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Xu, Xiaoxia; Li, Shuzhong; Wang, Shuang; Xu, Xiaojing; Zhou, Xianqiang; Yu, Jialin; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Shakeel, Muhammad; Jin, Fengliang

    2017-01-01

    The development of resistance by Plutella xylostella to almost all insecticides is of significant concern all over the world. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Isaria fumosorosea have been used as an alternative to insecticides. However, the knowledge of miRNA-regulated reactions against entomopathogenic fungi is still in its infant stage. In the present study, P. xylostella was challenged with I. fumosorosea at four different time points (12, 18, 24, and 36 h) including a control, to build miRNA libraries by Illumina sequencing. The results of differential expression analysis exhibited that 23 miRNAs were differentially expressed, compared to control, in all treatments. It is worth mentioning, of these, some conserved miRNAs such as miR-2, miR-9a, miR-745, miR-7b, and miR-2767, known to play critical roles in host-pathogen interaction, were also identified. Furthermore, differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR. Our results provide an essential information for further functional studies of the interaction between I. fumosorosea and P. xylostella at the post-transcriptional level.

  19. Olfactory responses of Plutella xylostella natural enemies to host pheromone, larval frass, and green leaf cabbage volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V P; Holopainen, J K; Guerrero, A

    2002-01-01

    The parasitoids Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), are potential biological control agents for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). We present studies on the interactions between these bioagents and various host-associated volatiles using a Y olfactometer. T chilonis was attracted to a synthetic pheromone blend (Z11-16:Ald, Z11-16:Ac, and Z11-16:OH in a 1:1:0.01 ratio), to Z11-16:Ac alone, and to a 1:1 blend of Z11-16:Ac and Z11-16:Ald. C. plutellae responded to the blend and to Z11-16:Ac and Z11-16:Ald. Male and female C. carnea responded to the blend and to a 1:1 blend of the major components of the pheromone, although no response was elicited by single compounds. Among the four host larval frass volatiles tested (dipropyl disulfide, dimethyl disulfide, allyl isothiocyanate, and dimethyl trisulfide), only allyl isothiocyanate elicited significant responses in the parasitoids and predator, but C. plutellae and both sexes of C. carnea did respond to all four volatiles. Among the green leaf volatiles of cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata), only Z3-6:Ac elicited significant responses from T. chilonis, C. plutellae, and C. carnea, but C. plutellae also responded to E2-6:Ald and Z3-6:OH. When these volatiles were blended with the pheromone, the responses were similar to those elicited by the pheromone alone, except for C. carnea males, which had an increased response. The effect of temperature on the response of the biological agents to a mixture of the pheromone blend and Z3-6:Ac was also studied. T. chilonis was attracted at temperatures of 25-35 degrees C, while C. plutellae and C. carnea responded optimally at 30-35 degrees C and 20-25 degrees C, respectively. These results indicate that the sex pheromone and larval frass volatiles from the diamondback moth, as well as volatile compounds from

  20. Amino acid substitutions and intron polymorphism of acetylcholinesterase1 associated with mevinphos resistance in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Chia; Lin, Chia-Li; Chang, Cheng; Feng, Hai-Tung; Dai, Shu-Mei

    2014-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., is the most destructive insect pest of Brassica crops in the world. It has developed resistance rapidly to almost every insecticide used for its control. Mevinphos, a fast degrading and slow resistance evocating organophosphorus insecticide, has been recommended for controlling P. xylostella in Taiwan for more than 40years. SHM strain of P. xylostella, with ca. 22-fold resistance to this chemical, has been established from a field SH strain by selecting with mevinphos since 1997. Three mutations, i.e., G892T, G971C, and T1156T/G leading to A298S, G324A, and F386F/V amino acid substitutions in acetylcholinesterase1 (AChE1), were identified in these two strains; along with three haplotype pairs and a polymorphic intron in AChE1 gene (ace1). Two genetically pure lines, i.e., an SHggt wild type with intron AS and an SHMTCN mutant carrying G892T, G971C, T1156T/G mutations and intron AR in ace1, were established by single pair mating and haplotype determination. The F1 of SHMTCN strain had 52-fold resistance to mevinphos in comparison with the F1 of SHggt strain. In addition, AChE1 of this SHMTCN population, which exhibited lower maximum velocity (Vmax) and affinity (Km), was less susceptible to the inhibition of mevinphos, with an I50 32-fold higher than that of the SHggt F1 population. These results imply that amino acid substitutions in AChE1 of SHMTCN strain are associated with mevinphos resistance in this insect pest, and this finding is important for insecticide resistance management of P. xylostella in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genome-Wide Identification of Destruxin A-Responsive Immunity-Related MicroRNAs in Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Xu, Xiaoxia; Xu, Jin; Li, Shuzhong; Yu, Jialin; Zhou, Xianqiang; Xu, Xiaojing; Hu, Qiongbo; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Jin, Fengliang

    2018-01-01

    Plutella xylostella , a global key pest, is one of the major lepidopteran pests of cruciferous vegetables owing to its strong ability of resistance development to a wide range of insecticides. Destruxin A, a mycotoxin of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae , has broad-spectrum insecticidal effects and has been used as an alternative control strategy to reduce harmful effects of insecticides. However, microRNA (miRNA)-regulated reactions against destruxin A have not been elucidated yet. Therefore, here, to identify immunity-related miRNAs, we constructed four small RNA libraries from destruxin A-injected larvae of P. xylostella at three different time courses (2, 4, and 6 h) with a control, and sequenced by Illumina. Our results showed that totally 187 known and 44 novel miRNAs were identified in four libraries by bioinformatic analysis. Interestingly, among differentially expressed known miRNAs, some conserved miRNAs, such as miR-263, miR-279, miR-306, miR-2a, and miR-308, predicted to be involved in regulating immunity-related genes, were also identified. Worthy to mention, miR-306 and miR-279 were also listed as common abundantly expressed miRNA in all treatments. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis also indicated that differentially expressed miRNAs were involved in several immunity-related signaling pathways, including toll signaling pathway, IMD signaling pathway, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, and cell adhesion molecules signaling pathway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of destruxin A-responsive immunity-related miRNAs in P. xylostella . Our findings will improve in understanding the role of destruxin A-responsive miRNAs in the host immune system and would be useful to develop biological control strategies for controlling P. xylostella .

  2. Genome-Wide Identification of Destruxin A-Responsive Immunity-Related MicroRNAs in Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shakeel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plutella xylostella, a global key pest, is one of the major lepidopteran pests of cruciferous vegetables owing to its strong ability of resistance development to a wide range of insecticides. Destruxin A, a mycotoxin of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, has broad-spectrum insecticidal effects and has been used as an alternative control strategy to reduce harmful effects of insecticides. However, microRNA (miRNA-regulated reactions against destruxin A have not been elucidated yet. Therefore, here, to identify immunity-related miRNAs, we constructed four small RNA libraries from destruxin A-injected larvae of P. xylostella at three different time courses (2, 4, and 6 h with a control, and sequenced by Illumina. Our results showed that totally 187 known and 44 novel miRNAs were identified in four libraries by bioinformatic analysis. Interestingly, among differentially expressed known miRNAs, some conserved miRNAs, such as miR-263, miR-279, miR-306, miR-2a, and miR-308, predicted to be involved in regulating immunity-related genes, were also identified. Worthy to mention, miR-306 and miR-279 were also listed as common abundantly expressed miRNA in all treatments. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis also indicated that differentially expressed miRNAs were involved in several immunity-related signaling pathways, including toll signaling pathway, IMD signaling pathway, JAK–STAT signaling pathway, and cell adhesion molecules signaling pathway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of destruxin A-responsive immunity-related miRNAs in P. xylostella. Our findings will improve in understanding the role of destruxin A-responsive miRNAs in the host immune system and would be useful to develop biological control strategies for controlling P. xylostella.

  3. KONAGAbase: a genomic and transcriptomic database for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouraku, Akiya; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Urio, Masahiro; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Narukawa, Junko; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Kurita, Kanako; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Katayose, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Noda, Hiroaki

    2013-07-09

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, is one of the most harmful insect pests for crucifer crops worldwide. DBM has rapidly evolved high resistance to most conventional insecticides such as pyrethroids, organophosphates, fipronil, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis, and diamides. Therefore, it is important to develop genomic and transcriptomic DBM resources for analysis of genes related to insecticide resistance, both to clarify the mechanism of resistance of DBM and to facilitate the development of insecticides with a novel mode of action for more effective and environmentally less harmful insecticide rotation. To contribute to this goal, we developed KONAGAbase, a genomic and transcriptomic database for DBM (KONAGA is the Japanese word for DBM). KONAGAbase provides (1) transcriptomic sequences of 37,340 ESTs/mRNAs and 147,370 RNA-seq contigs which were clustered and assembled into 84,570 unigenes (30,695 contigs, 50,548 pseudo singletons, and 3,327 singletons); and (2) genomic sequences of 88,530 WGS contigs with 246,244 degenerate contigs and 106,455 singletons from which 6,310 de novo identified repeat sequences and 34,890 predicted gene-coding sequences were extracted. The unigenes and predicted gene-coding sequences were clustered and 32,800 representative sequences were extracted as a comprehensive putative gene set. These sequences were annotated with BLAST descriptions, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and Pfam descriptions, respectively. KONAGAbase contains rich graphical user interface (GUI)-based web interfaces for easy and efficient searching, browsing, and downloading sequences and annotation data. Five useful search interfaces consisting of BLAST search, keyword search, BLAST result-based search, GO tree-based search, and genome browser are provided. KONAGAbase is publicly available from our website (http://dbm.dna.affrc.go.jp/px/) through standard web browsers. KONAGAbase provides DBM comprehensive transcriptomic and draft genomic sequences with

  4. The midgut cadherin-like gene is not associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Zhu, Xun; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-03-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Cry toxins that have been used to control important agricultural pests. Evolution of resistance in target pests threatens the effectiveness of these toxins when used either in sprayed biopesticides or in Bt transgenic crops. Although alterations of the midgut cadherin-like receptor can lead to Bt Cry toxin resistance in many insects, whether the cadherin gene is involved in Cry1Ac resistance of Plutella xylostella (L.) remains unclear. Here, we present experimental evidence that resistance to Cry1Ac or Bt var. kurstaki (Btk) in P. xylostella is not due to alterations of the cadherin gene. The bona fide P. xylostella cadherin cDNA sequence was cloned and analyzed, and comparisons of the cadherin cDNA sequence among susceptible and resistant P. xylostella strains confirmed that Cry1Ac resistance was independent of mutations in this gene. In addition, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that cadherin transcript levels did not significantly differ among susceptible and resistant P. xylostella strains. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated suppression of cadherin gene expression did not affect larval susceptibility to Cry1Ac toxin. Furthermore, genetic linkage assays using four cadherin gDNA allelic biomarkers confirmed that the cadherin gene is not linked to resistance against Cry1Ac in P. xylostella. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Cry1Ac resistance of P. xylostella is independent of the cadherin gene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. REPELLENT AND OVIPOSITION DETERRENT ACTIVITIES OFTHE ESSENTIAL OIL FROM MIKANIA MICRANTHA AND ITS COMPOUNDS ON PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-xinZhang; BingLing; Shao-yingChen; Guang-wenLiang; Xiong-feiPang

    2004-01-01

    Repellent and oviposition deterrent activities of the essential oil from Mikania micrantha and five volatile compounds including limonene, a-terpinene, linalool, B-caryophylene and verbenone on the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, was investigated in door and in net-house. The results showed that the essential oil of the M. micrantha had significant repellant effect (at flow 100-180 mL/min) and oviposition deterrent activity at dose 1020 uL/seedling for the DBM. In five volatile compounds, a-terpinene, limonene and linalool had significant effect on repellent and oviposition deterrent of the DBM moths, but verbenone and B-caryophylene, no significantly effect was observed in repellent and oviposition deterrent.

  6. The Influence of Selected Companion Crops on Diamond Black Moth (Plutella Xylostella): Development and Investation on Cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raini, R.K

    2002-01-01

    Diamond black moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is the most serious pest of brassica in Kenya. Resistance to chemicals has been reported from various parts of the country. This research investigated brassica and non-brassica crops potential in 'push-pull' strategy toward developing an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for DBM in Kenya. The study focused on evaluating the potential influence of selected crops on DBM oviposition, development and infestation on cabbage. Results indicate that DBM preferred to oviposition on brassica crops. No significant differences were observed on DBM development on host plants that supported full development. Minimum development was recorded on non-brassica crop Cleome gynandra, L. In field trials, the mustard, cloeme and coriander intercrops recorded significantly low infestation compared to other intercrops and demonstrated qulities which could be utilized in the development of IPM-option for the DBM

  7. Multiple mating of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) and recovering fertility of its progeny after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Jiming; Yang Rongxin; Xian Darong; Feng Chunsheng

    1986-01-01

    The maximum multiple mating of the male diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) was 30 times in its life, and the average was 16 times. The maximum multiple mating of the male moth irradiated with a substerilizing dose (35 kR) was 14 times, and the average was 7.2 times. The maximum multiple mating of the female moth was 8 times, and the average was 4 times. The rates of egg sterility in F 1 and F 2 were 57.3% and 99.1% respectively, when the normal female diamondback moths were mated with male moths irradiated with 35 kR dose. However, the fertility was recovered in F 3 as the rate of egg sterility was 0.7%

  8. Interaction Between Short-Term Heat Pretreatment and Avermectin On 2nd Instar Larvae of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaojun; Tian, Sufen; Wang, Dehui; Gao, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Based on the cooperative virulence index (c.f.), the interaction effect between short-term heat pretreatment and avermectin on 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was assessed. The results suggested that the interaction results between short-term heat pretreatment and avermectin on the tested insects varied with temperature level as well as its duration and avermectin concentration. Interaction between heat pretreatment at 30°C and avermectin mainly resulted in addition. Meanwhile, pretreatment at 35°C for 2 or 4 h could antagonize the toxicity of avermectin at lower concentrations, which indicated a hormetic effect occurred. The results indicate that cooperative virulence index (c.f.) may be adopted in hormetic effect assessment. PMID:19809544

  9. PENGARUH CAMPURAN EKSTRAK AGLAIA HARMSIANA PERKINS DAN DYSOXYLUM ACUTANGULUM MIQ. (MELIACEAE TERHADAP MORTALITAS DAN OVIPOSISI PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA (L. (LEPIDOPTERA: YPONOMEUTIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Yuswanti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Mixture of Aglaia harmsiana Perkins and  Dysoxylum acuntangum Miq. (Meliaceae Extracts on Mortality and Oviposition of Plutella xyostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mixture of extracts of Aglaia harmsiana seeds and Dysoxylum acutangulum leaf petioles on mortality and oviposition of Plutella xyostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae. The insecticidal activity of ethyl acetate fraction of A. harmsiana and D. Acutangulum extracts and their mixture (concentration ratio of Ah and Da was 4:1 was evaluated against the thrid-instar P. xylostella was assessed by choice tests using broccoli seddlings. LC50 and LC95 of A. harmsiana extracts against the thirds the+fourth instar larvae were 0.054% and 0.129%, respectively, those of D. acutangulum extract were 0.031% and 0.103%, and those of the the mixture of A. harmsiana and D.acutangulum extract and the mixture at concentrations of 0.06% - 0.38%, 0.3%, and 0.02% - 0.3%, respectively, significantly reduced the number of eggs deposited by the female, P. xylostella on broccoli seedings, with oviposition inhibition indices of 0.30-0.59, 0.28-0.45 and 0.045-0.70. A.harmsiana ectract at all concentrations tested was phytotoxic to broccoli seedlings, whereas D. acutangulum extract was not. Mixture of A. harmsiana and D. acutangulum extract were phytotoxic to broccoli seedlings at concentrations of 0.06-0.3%. Thus, A. hamarsiana extract of mixture containing the extract should be used with caution and their phytotoxicity should be specifically tested on target crops before being used in the field.

  10. UJI EFEKTIFITAS INSEKTISIDA NABATI EKSTRAK AKAR TUBA (Derris elliptica B. DAN UMBI GADUNG (Dioscorea hispida D. TERHADAP MORTALITAS DAN PERKEMBANGAN HAMA Plutella xylostella L. DI LABORATORIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    irfan sugiono utomo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Plutella xylostella L. merupakan hama penting tanaman kubis. Hama ini menyerang bagian daun dengan gejala daun menjadi berlubang sehingga turunnya produksi mencapai 80-100% penyebaran hama Plutella xylostella tersebar di daerah tropis dan subtropis.. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di laboratorium Hama Tumbuhan Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Jember. Penelitian ini dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dan di uji menggunakan uji Beda Nyata Terkecil (BNT dengan taraf 5%. Perlakuan aplikasi yang digunakan dengan 2 metode, yaitu metode tetes (ulat dan metode celup (pakan. Perlakuan yang digunakan yaitu: K1 (Konsentrasi akar tuba 20ml/l air, K2 (Konsentrasi akar tuba 25ml/l air, K3 (Konsentrasi akar tuba 30ml/l air, K4 (Konsentrasi umbi gadung 20ml/l air, K5 (Konsentrasi umbi gadung 25ml/l air, K6 (Konsentrasi umbi gadung 30ml/l air, K7 (Konsentrasi akar tuba 20 ml/l air +umbi gadung 30ml/l air, K8 (Konsentrasi akar tuba 30 ml/l air +umbi gadung 20ml/l air. Pengamatan meliputi persentase mortalitas larva P. xlostella , persentase larva yang menjadi pupa, persentase larva yang menjadi imago Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Insektisida nabati akar tuba dan umbi gadung berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap mortalitas larva Plutella xylostella yakni dapat menyebabkan tingkat mortalitas sebesar 86,67 % dengan konsentrasi paling efektif pada perlakuan K8 yaitu ektrak akar tuba 30ml/l air + umbi gadung 20ml/l air. Perlakuan ekstrak nabati akar tuba lebih efektif dengan metode celup sedangkan ekstrak umbi gadung lebih efektif dengan metode tetes. Penggunaan perlakuan kombinasi insektisida nabati lebih efektif dibandingkan dengan pemberian insektisida nabati tunggal.Kata kunci: Plutella xylostella, Akar tuba, Umbi gadung 

  11. Sub-lethal effects of Vip3A toxin on survival, development and fecundity of Heliothis virescens and Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Asim; Wright, Denis J

    2015-11-01

    The assessment of sub-lethal effects is important to interpret the overall insecticide efficacy in controlling insect pest populations. In addition to the lethal effect, sub-lethal effects may also occur in exposed insects. Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) have shown a broad spectrum of insecticidal activity against many insect pest species. In this study the sub-lethal effects of the Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal toxin Vip3A on the development and reproduction of Heliothis virescens F. and Plutella xylostella L. were evaluated in the laboratory. The results indicated that the sub-lethal concentration of Vip3A increased the duration of the larval and pupal stages as compared with the control treatment for both species. The percent pupation and percent adult emergence were significantly lower for Vip3A-treated insects. The proportion of pairs that produced eggs and the longevity of adults were not significantly different between treatments. H. virescens and P. xylostella treated with Vip3A showed an 11 and 17 % decrease in their intrinsic rate of increase (rm) respectively compared with untreated insects. The results from this study will be helpful to develop the strategy to incorporate Vip 3A containing crops in an integrated pest management programme.

  12. IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO SERINE PROTEASES AND THEIR POTENTIAL INVOLVEMENT IN PROPHENOLOXIDASE ACTIVATION IN Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Gang; Xu, Xiao-Xia; Yu, Jing; Li, Lin-Miao; Ju, Wen-Yan; Jin, Feng-Liang; Freed, Shoaib

    2016-09-01

    The proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) is a humoral defense mechanism in insects and crustaceans. Phenoloxidase (PO) is produced as an inactive precursor namely, proPO and is activated via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO-activating proteinase. The current research reports two novel serine proteinase genes (PxSP1-768 bp and PxSP2-816 bp) from Plutella xylostella, encoding 255 and 271 amino acid residues, respectively. Tissue distribution analyses by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) revealed the resultant genes to be primarily expressed in the hemocytes, while quantitative-RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay showed that transcription level of PxSP1 and PxSP2 increased significantly after injection of the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana. Purified recombinant fusion proteins of PxSP2 and PxSP1 were injected to New Zealand white rabbits and polyclonal antibodies were generated with the titers of 1:12,800. After silencing the expression of PxSP2 by RNAi, the PO activity decreased significantly. The results show that PxSP2 is involved in prophenoloxidase activation in P. xylostella. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Keefektivan Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. isolat Indigenous pagaralam sumatera selatan pada media beras terhadap larva Plutella xylostella Linn. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Pudjiastuti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of study was to investigate the effectiveness of Beauveria bassiana isolate cultured in half-ripe rice media against third-instar larvae of Plutella xylostella. The research used 10 isolates consisted of 4 isolates that were originnally collected from Pagaralam i.e. PD1 (isolated from P. xylostella cadaver, PD2, PD8, PD9B (from Crysodeixis chalcites cadaver, and 6 isolates from other areas as comparison, i.e. CCW3 (from Crysodeixis chalcites cadaver, BBL (from Hypothenemus hampei cadaver, CH (from Conomorpha cramerella cadaver, CPJW (from H. hampei cadavi, WC (from Nilaparvata lugens cadaver, and WSJT (from Leptocorixa acuta cadaver. The parameters that were measured were mortality of larvae, time of death and behaviour of larvae after application. Result of the test showed that B. bassiana isolated from L. acuta (WSJT isolate caused the highest mortality i.e. 73.34 %, with the highest spore density 5.6x107 spore ml-1 (in half-rice media and 3.0x107 spore ml-1 (GYA media. The lowest LT50 was 19.27 hours, and was obtained from the application of PD9B. After application of B. bassiana, the behaviour of larvae was slightly change from a healthy one to less in consuming of food and then die.

  14. Genome-wide identification and characterization of putative lncRNAs in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Tingting; He, Weiyi; Shen, Xiujing; Zhao, Qian; Bai, Jianlin; You, Minsheng

    2018-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are of particular interest because of their contributions to many biological processes. Here, we present the genome-wide identification and characterization of putative lncRNAs in a global insect pest, Plutella xylostella. A total of 8096 lncRNAs were identified and classified into three groups. The average length of exons in lncRNAs was longer than that in coding genes and the GC content was lower than that in mRNAs. Most lncRNAs were flanked by canonical splice sites, similar to mRNAs. Expression profiling identified 114 differentially expressed lncRNAs during the DBM development and found that majority were temporally specific. While the biological functions of lncRNAs remain uncharacterized, many are microRNA precursors or competing endogenous RNAs involved in micro-RNA regulatory pathways. This work provides a valuable resource for further studies on molecular bases for development of DBM and lay the foundation for discovery of lncRNA functions in P. xylostella. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors Influencing Male Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Capture Rates in Sex Pheromone-Baited Traps on Canola in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miluch, C E; Dosdall, L M; Evenden, M L

    2014-12-01

    Optimization of male moth trapping rates in sex pheromone-baited traps plays a key role in managing Plutella xylostella (L.). We investigated various ways to increase the attractiveness of pheromone-baited traps to P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems in AB, Canada. Factors tested included pheromone blend and dose, addition of a green leaf volatile to the pheromone at different times during the season, lure type, trap color, and height. The industry standard dose of 100 μg of pheromone (four-component blend) per lure (ConTech Enterprises Inc., Delta, British Columbia [BC], Canada) captured the most moths in the two lure types tested. Traps baited with pheromone released from gray rubber septa captured more males than those baited with red rubber septa. Traps baited with lures in which Z11-16: Ac is the main component attracted significantly more moths than those in which Z11-16: Ald is the main component. The addition of the green leaf volatile, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, to pheromone at a range of doses, did not increase moth capture at any point during the canola growing season. Unpainted white traps captured significantly more male moths than pheromone-baited traps that were painted yellow. Trap height had no significant effect on moth capture. Recommendations for monitoring P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems of western Canada include using a pheromone blend with Z11-16: Ac as the main component released from gray rubber septa at a dose of 100 μg. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  16. Cloning and analysis of peptidoglycan recognition protein-LC and immune deficiency from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ming-Yue; Yang, Pei-Jin; Rao, Xiang-Jun

    2018-02-01

    Peptidoglycan (PGN) exists in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as a component of the cell wall. PGN is an important target to be recognized by the innate immune system of animals. PGN recognition proteins (PGRP) are responsible for recognizing PGNs. In Drosophila melanogaster, PGRP-LC and IMD (immune deficiency) are critical for activating the Imd pathway. Here, we report the cloning and analysis of PGRP-LC and IMD (PxPGRP-LC and PxIMD) from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), the insect pest of cruciferous vegetables. PxPGRP-LC gene consists of six exons encoding a polypeptide of 308 amino acid residues with a transmembrane region and a PGRP domain. PxIMD cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 251 amino acid residues with a death domain. Sequence comparisons indicate that they are characteristic of Drosophila PGRP-LC and IMD homologs. PxPGRP-LC and PxIMD were expressed in various tissues and developmental stages. Their mRNA levels were affected by bacterial challenges. The PGRP domain of PxPGRP-LC lacks key residues for the amidase activity, but it can recognize two types of PGNs. Overexpression of full-length and deletion mutants in Drosophila S2 cells induced expression of some antimicrobial peptide genes. These results indicate that PxPGRP-LC and PxIMD may be involved in the immune signaling of P. xylostella. This study provides a foundation for further studies of the immune system of P. xylostella. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Toxicity and residual control of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae with Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner and insecticides Toxicidade e controle residual de Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae com Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner e inseticidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Pedroso de Moraes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plutella xylostella L. is the most important worldwide pest of cruciferous plants and indiscriminate use of insecticides has led to the resistance of the species to different groups. This research was conducted to compare the toxicity and persistence of two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis to P. xylostella larvae. Concentrations between 125 and 500g 100L-1 of water of the commercial products were evaluated and compared to the insect growth inhibitor diflubenzuron and to the neurotoxic pyrethroid deltamethrin. The efficacy of the insecticides was compared between treated plants kept indoor greenhouse and outdoor. Third instar larvae were more susceptible to B. thuringiensis than first instar ones. Agree and Dipel showed similar control rates of third instars until 10 days after treatment, but on the 15th day, Agree was significantly more efficient than Dipel. Both B. thuringiensis formulations showed a reduction in mortality after 10 days when the treated plants were exposed to natural weather conditions in comparison to the same treatments kept inside greenhouse. Dimilin (100g 100L-1 of water and deltamethrin (30ml of commercial product 100L-1 of water were not efficient to control third instar larvae of P. xylostella. This inefficiency cannot be attributed to a resistant population of P. xylostella since the larval population used in the experiments was not subjected to insecticide pressure, once the crop was organically cultivated all year round. The results showed that both formulations of B. thuringiensis are sound alternatives for the control of the diamondback moth in organically conducted cruciferous crops, considering the high residual control provided under subtropical weather conditions.Larvas de Plutella xylostella L. são as principais pragas de crucíferas cultivadas e o uso excessivo e indiscriminado de inseticidas tem levado a resistência da espécie para diferentes grupos de inseticidas. Este trabalho foi conduzido para

  18. Effect of insecticides and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) genotype on a predator and parasitoid and implications for the evolution of insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Mao; Collins, Hilda L; Onstad, David; Roush, Rick; Zhang, Qingwen; Shelton, Anthony M

    2012-04-01

    In the laboratory and in cages in the greenhouse, we evaluated the toxicity of two insecticides (lambda-cyhalothrin and spinosad) on the parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Cresson), and the predator, Coleomegilla maculate (DeGeer), both natural enemies of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Lambda-cyhalothrin was very toxic to both natural enemies. Spinosad was less toxic to C. maculata adults and larvae, and slightly toxic to D. insulare. Both natural enemies suppressed P. xylostella populations in cages with 80% spinosad-treated and 20% nontreated plants; such suppression was not seen when lambda-cyhalothrin was used. Using broccoli, Brassica oleracea L. variety italica, a common host for P. xylostella, we also studied direct and indirect effects of both natural enemies in the presence and absence of the two insecticides and to different P. xylostella genotypes: resistant to the insecticide, susceptible, or heterozygous. Neither natural enemy could distinguish host genotype if P. xylostella were feeding on nontreated plants. They could also not distinguish between larvae feeding on spinosad-treated plants and nontreated plants, but D. insulare could distinguish between larvae feeding on lambda-cyhalothrin treated and nontreated plants. Our studies suggest that lambda-cyhalothrin has direct toxicity to these two natural enemies, can affect their host foraging and acceptance of P. xylostella and consequently would not be compatible in conserving these natural enemies in a program for suppression of P. xylostella. In contrast, our studies suggest that treatment with spinosad has much less effect on these natural enemies and would allow them to help suppress populations of P. xylostella. These findings are discussed in relation to the evolution of insecticide resistance and suppression of the pest populations.

  19. Determinação do número de ínstares larvais em Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae Number of larval instars in Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae

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    Marcelo Coutinho Picanço

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar indiretamente o número de ínstares larvais em Plutella xylostella. No Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, à temperatura de 24,5±4ºC, fotofase de 12 horas e UR de 70±5%, lagartas foram alimentadas em placas de Petri com folhas frescas de repolho. Diariamente uma quantidade variável de lagartas foi recolhida, fervida e conservada em álcool a 70%. As cápsulas cefálicas de noventa e seis (96 lagartas foram medidas sob lupa estereoscópica. A quantidade de ínstares e respectiva razão de crescimento foram determinadas pela análise de hipóteses. Na regra de decisão para a seleção da hipótese mais adequada, consideraram-se como pontos de rejeição da hipótese: i a sobreposição dos intervalos de confiança para médias da largura de cápsula cefálica entre ínstares sucessivos; ii o menor valor do coeficiente de determinação da regressão linear (R2; e iii a discordância do valor estimado da razão de crescimento (K em relação ao intervalo de variação de K proposto por Dyar. Lagartas de P. xylostella foram agrupadas e os ínstares descritos considerando-se que as larguras de cápsula cefálica, em média, estariam nos intervalos (p 2= 0,87. A distribuição dos valores da largura da cápsula cefálica seguiu a regra de Dyar.The present work was carried out to verify indirectly the number of larvae instars in Plutella xylostella. In the Insects Biology Laboratory of Universidade Federal de Viçosa, (temperature 24.5±4ºC; 12 hours photophase and 70±5% RU, larvae were fed in Petri dishes with fresh leaves of cabbage. Daily, they were picked up, boiled and conserved in 70% alcohol. Ninety six (96 cephalic capsules were measured through a magnifying glass estereoscopy. Both number of instars and respective growth rate were evaluated. To reject the hypothesis, the confidance limits for averages of the widths between successive cephalic

  20. EFICIÊNCIA DE INSETICIDAS PARA O CONTROLE DE Plutella xylostella (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE NA CULTURA DO REPOLHO (Brassica oleracea var. capitata COMPARISON OF INSECTICIDE CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS OF Plutella xylostella (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE IN CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Shigeo Takatsuka

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi conduzido em uma área sob plantio contínuo de repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata em Goianápolis - GO, no período de setembro a novembro de 1996, visando comparar inseticidas para o controle da traça-das-crucíferas (Plutella xylostella. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: teflubenzuron, nas doses de 25 mL, 30 mL e 40 mL de produto comercial (p.c./100 L de água; chlorfenapyr, nas doses de 30 mL, 50 mL e 100 mL de p.c./100 L de água; deltamethrin, na dose de 30 mL de p.c./100 L de água; e testemunha. Para cada tratamento realizaram-se aplicações semanais após o transplantio. As avaliações foram realizadas na colheita, contando-se o número de furos causados pela traça, em cinco cabeças comerciais de repolho, tomadas ao acaso, por parcela. Pôde-se concluir que os inseticidas teflubenzuron e chlorfenapyr foram mais eficientes que deltamethrin no controle da traça-das-crucíferas P. xylostella nas doses testadas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Inseticida; traça; controle químico.

    The research was carried out in an area under continuous cabbage cropping (Brassica oleracea var. capitata in Goianápolis, Goiás State, Brazil, from September to November 1996. The aim was to compare insecticides for diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella control. The experimental design was randomized blocks with eight treatments and four replications. The treatments were teflubenzuron in the doses of 25 mL, 30 mL and 40 mL of commercial product (c.p. / 100 L of water; chlorfenapyr in the doses of 30 mL, 50 mL and 100 mL of c.p./ 100 L of water; deltamethrin in the dose of 30 mL of c.p. / 100 L of water; and control. Treatments were applied weekly

  1. Piperolein B and piperchabamide D isolated from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) as larvicidal compounds against the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ki Seon; Kim, Young Kook; Park, Kee Woong; Kim, Young Tae

    2017-08-01

    There is growing demand for the development of alternative pest control agents that are effective as well as non-toxic to human health and the environment. Plant protection products derived from plant extracts are an eco-friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides. The aim of this study was to identify larvicidal compounds isolated from a natural source against Plutella xylostella L. In a larvicidal activity assay, several solvent fractions from the methanol extract of Piper nigrum L. fruit showed larvicidal effects against P. xylostella. Screening results indicated that chloroform extract was the most effective against P. xylostella larvae. Two compounds with insecticidal activity in the chloroform fraction were identified as piperolein B and piperchabamide D by spectroscopic analyses, including mass spectrometry and NMR, and by comparison to published data. At applications of 0.1 mg mL -1 concentration, piperolein B and piperchabamide D, respectively, induced 96.7 ± 5.8% and 79.2 ± 16.6% mortality rates of P. xylostella larvae 4 days post-application. Our results demonstrate that piperolein B and piperchabamide D isolated from P. nigrum are the major constituents of the extract demonstrating insecticidal properties for the control of P. xylostella larvae. These plant-derived compounds should become useful alternatives to synthetic chemicals after studying their insecticidal mechanisms. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Identification of immunity-related genes in Plutella xylostella in response to fungal peptide destruxin A: RNA-Seq and DGE analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Xu, Xiaoxia; Xu, Jin; Zhu, Xun; Li, Shuzhong; Zhou, Xianqiang; Yu, Jialin; Xu, Xiaojing; Hu, Qiongbo; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Jin, Fengliang

    2017-09-08

    Plutella xylostella has become the major lepidopteran pest of Brassica owing to its strong ability of resistance development to a wide range of insecticides. Destruxin A, a mycotoxin of entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, has broad-spectrum insecticidal effects. However, the interaction mechanism of destruxin A with the immune system of P. xylostella at genomic level is still not well understood. Here, we identified 129 immunity-related genes, including pattern recognition receptors, signal modulators, few members of main immune pathways (Toll, Imd, and JAK/STAT), and immune effectors in P. xylostella in response to destruxin A at three different time courses (2 h, 4 h, and 6 h). It is worthy to mention that the immunity-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis exhibited 30, 78, and 72 up-regulated and 17, 13, and 6 down-regulated genes in P. xylostella after destruxin A injection at 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h, respectively, compared to control. Interestingly, our results revealed that the expression of antimicrobial peptides that play a vital role in insect immune system was up-regulated after the injection of destruxin A. Our findings provide a detailed information on immunity-related DEGs and reveal the potential of P. xylostella to limit the infection of fungal peptide destruxin A by increasing the activity of antimicrobial peptides.

  3. Linking Life Table and Predation Rate for Biological Control: A Comparative Study of Eocanthecona furcellata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Fed on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the predator-prey relationship and to compare predation rates, we studied the life table and predation rate of the predator Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) when reared on two major crucifer pests, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate, and net predation rates of E. furcellata reared on P. xylostella were 292.4 offspring, 0.1389 d(-1), 1.1490 d(-1), and 644.1 third instars of P. xylostella, respectively. These values are significantly higher than those reared on S. litura, i.e., 272.3 offspring, 0.1220 d(-1), 1.1298 d(-1), and 863.1 third instars of S. litura. To evaluate the predation potential of E. furcellata fed on P. xylostella and S. litura, we combined both the growth rate and predation rate to calculate the finite predation rate (ω); our results showed that E. furcellata is an effective predator of both S. litura (ω = 1.6029) and P. xylostella (ω = 1.4277). © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Involvement of microRNA miR-2b-3p in regulation of metabolic resistance to insecticides in Plutella xylostella.

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    Etebari, K; Afrad, M H; Tang, B; Silva, R; Furlong, M J; Asgari, S

    2018-03-24

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, has developed extremely high levels of resistance to chlorantraniliprole and other classes of insecticides in the field. As microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in various biological processes through gene regulation, we examined the miRNA profile of P. xylostella in response to chlorantraniliprole exposure. RNA sequencing analysis showed that insecticide treatment caused significant changes in the abundance of some miRNAs. Increasing exposure time and insecticide concentration induced more dysregulated miRNAs in P. xylostella larvae. We also screened potential target genes for some of the differentially expressed miRNAs (such as miR-2b-3p, miR-14b-5p and let-7-5p), which may play important roles in insecticide resistance development. Exposure of P. xylostella larvae to chlorantraniliprole caused considerable overexpression in the transcript levels of potential target genes cytochrome P450 9f2 (CYP9F2) and 307a1 (CYP307a1). Application of miR-2b-3p and miR-14b-5p mimics significantly suppressed the relative transcript levels of CYP9F2 and CYP307a1, respectively, in a P. xylostella cell line. Furthermore, enrichment of P. xylostella diet with miR-2b-3p mimics significantly increased mortality in deltamethrin-resistant larvae when exposed to deltamethrin. The results suggest that miR-2b-3p may suppress CYP9F2 transcript levels in P. xylostella and consequently inhibit larval detoxification pathways. The findings provide an insight into possible role of miRNAs in regulation of metabolic resistance of insects to insecticides. © 2018 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Effects of Insecticides on the Fluidity of Mitochondrial Membranes of the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella, Resistant and Susceptible to Avermectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Liang, P.; Shi, X.; Gao, X.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of various insecticides on the fluidity of mitochondrial membranes and cross-resistance were investigated in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) using strains that were both resistant and susceptible to avermectin. The resistant strain of P. xylostella, AV-R, developed 1078-fold resistance to avermetins with a high level of cross-resistance to the analogs of avermectins, ivermectin and emamectin benzoate. It had more than 1000 times greater resistance when compared with the avermectin-susceptible strain, XH-S. Mitochondrial membrane fluidity was measured by detecting fluorescence polarization using DPH (1,6-Diphenyl -1,3,5-hexatriene) as the fluorescence probe. Abamectin, emamectin benzoate, ivermectin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate decreased the fluidity of mitochondrial membranes in the XH-S strain at 25°C. However, fipronil and acephate did not change the fluidity of mitochondrial membrane when the concentration of these insecticides was 1×10-4 mol/L. Membrane fluidity increased as the temperature increased. The thermotropic effect on the polarization value of DPH increased as the insecticide concentration was increased. There was a significant difference of mitochondrial membrane fluidity between both XH-S and AV-R when temperature was less than 25°C and no difference was observed when the temperature was more than 25°C. The low-dose abamectin (0.11 mg/L) in vivo treatment caused a significant change of membrane fluidity in the XH-S strain and no change in the AV-R strain. However, a high-dose abamectin (11.86 mg/L) resulted in 100% mortality of the XH-S strain. In vivo treatment may cause a significant change of membrane fluidity in the AV-R strain PMID:20345311

  6. Two novel sodium channel mutations associated with resistance to indoxacarb and metaflumizone in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Liang; Su, Wen; Zhang, Jian-Heng; Yang, Yi-Hua; Dong, Ke; Wu, Yi-Dong

    2016-02-01

    Indoxacarb and metaflumizone belong to a relatively new class of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs). Due to intensive use of indoxacarb, field-evolved indoxacarb resistance has been reported in several lepidopteran pests, including the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, a serious pest of cruciferous crops. In particular, the BY12 population of P. xylostella, collected from Baiyun, Guangdong Province of China in 2012, was 750-fold more resistant to indoxacarb and 70-fold more resistant to metaflumizone compared with the susceptible Roth strain. Comparison of complementary DNA sequences encoding the sodium channel genes of Roth and BY12 revealed two point mutations (F1845Y and V1848I) in the sixth segment of domain IV of the PxNav protein in the BY population. Both mutations are located within a highly conserved sequence region that is predicted to be involved in the binding sites of local anesthetics and SCBIs based on mammalian sodium channels. A significant correlation was observed among 10 field-collected populations between the mutant allele (Y1845 or I1848) frequencies (1.7% to 52.5%) and resistance levels to both indoxacarb (34- to 870-fold) and metaflumizone (1- to 70-fold). The two mutations were never found to co-exist in the same allele of PxNav , suggesting that they arose independently. This is the first time that sodium channel mutations have been associated with high levels of resistance to SCBIs. F1845Y and V1848I are molecular markers for resistance monitoring in the diamondback moth and possibly other insect pest species. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Construction and characterisation of near-isogenic Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) strains resistant to Cry1Ac toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xun; Lei, Yanyuan; Yang, Yanjv; Baxter, Simon W; Li, Jianhong; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Guo, Zhaojiang; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-02-01

    Resistance to insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has arisen in multiple populations of the worldwide Brassica pest Plutella xylostella (L.). To help elucidate the mechanism of resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in a population from Florida, two pairs of near-isogenic lines (NILs) were developed. NILs were generated using either backcross or recombinant inbred line methodologies and evaluated for near-isogenicity with inter-simple-sequence-repeat (ISSR) markers. Backcross line BC6F4 maintained a similar level of Cry1Ac resistance to parental strain DBM1Ac-R (>5000-fold) yet showed 98.24% genetic similarity to the susceptible parental strain DBM1Ac-S. Single-pair backcrosses between DBM1Ac-S and BC6F4 revealed that Cry1Ac resistance was controlled by one recessive autosomal locus. BC6F4 exhibited high levels of cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ah but not to Cry1Ca or Cry1Ie. Near-isogenic strains were constructed to provide a reliable biological system to investigate the mechanism of Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella. These data suggest that resistance to Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ah is probably caused by the alteration of a common receptor not recognised by Cry1Ca or Cry1Ie. Understanding Bt toxin cross-resistance provides valuable information to consider when developing pest control strategies to delay resistance evolution. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Electroantennogram Responses to Plant Volatiles Associated with Fenvalerate Resistance in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houjun, Tian; Lin, Shuo; Chen, Yong; Chen, Yixin; Zhao, Jianwei; Gu, Xiaojun; Wei, Hui

    2018-05-28

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is the main destructive insect pest of brassica vegetables around the world, and has developed resistance to numerous insecticides. Although host plant volatiles are important in pest control, the mechanism of low-level insecticide resistance in P. xylostella due to plant volatiles has not been examined. Here, electroantennograms (EAGs) were used to compare the responses of adult male and female DBMs of a susceptible strain (S-strain) and a derived resistant strain, Fen-R-strain (6.52-fold more resistant than the S-strain), to different concentrations of nine plant volatiles. We found significantly different relative EAG responses between S-strain and Fen-R-strain males to different concentrations of methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate, and octanal. The relative EAG responses of S-strain and Fen-R-strain females to different concentrations of β-myrcene, methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate, and allyl isothiocyanate were significantly different. Fen-R-strain females showed lower EAG responses to most of the tested plant volatiles (at concentrations of 1:10) than males, except for allyl isothiocyanate. A larger difference in relative EAG response to α-farnesene and β-myrcene was found between S-strain and Fen-R-strain females than between males of the two strains. A larger difference in relative EAG response to octanal, nonanal, and octan-1-ol was found between S-strain and Fen-R-strain males than between females of the two strains. These results illustrate the relationship between the function of plant volatiles and resistance in an insect pest species, and provide a scientific basis for resistance evolutionary theory in pest management research.

  9. Potencial para desarrollar tolerancia a las deltaendotoxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki en Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

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    M. A. Silva-Flores

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio demuestra el potencial de Plutella xylostella L. para desarrollar tolerancia a las entomotoxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk. Las poblaciones bajo estudio fueron una susceptible y otra sometida a presión de selección. La primera se crió durante ocho generaciones sin ningún tratamiento de insecticida, a la novena generación se le estimó la concentración letal mediana y la 65; con la segunda se inició la selección de la población tratada con Btk. Cuatro generaciones continuas de la población resistente se expusieron a la concentración de Btk correspondiente a la CL65 estimada en la población susceptible de P. xylostella. La entomotoxina utilizada en el experimento correspondió a Btk formulada al 6.4 % (Javelin® WG, Novartis México. En los bioensayos, se cortaron discos de hojas de col (Brassica oleracea L. de 90 mm de diámetro, se sumergieron durante 10 segundos en diferentes concentraciones de entomotoxinas y en cajas petri se infestaron con larvas de tercer instar; se trataron 10 larvas por concentración con tres repeticiones respectivas, el porcentaje de mortalidad se cuantificó 48 horas después. El análisis de los datos se realizó asumiendo el modelo Probit, mediante regresión lineal y usando el programa PcProbit; con él se estimó la CL50, CL65, y la CL95. Además se calculó la resistencia relativa. Los resultados indican que el porcentaje de mortalidad de P. xylostella disminuye más del 50 % después de ser sometida a presión de selección y el factor de tolerancia obtenido fue de aproximadamente 14 veces

  10. Overexpression of the mulberry latex gene MaMLX-Q1 enhances defense against Plutella xylostella in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Liu Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purified mulberry latex chitinase (MLX has a role in defense against some lepidopteran insects. In this study, a full length chitinase gene, MaMLX-Q1, of 1405 bp with a 1140 bp open reading frame, was obtained from mulberry leaves by the degenerate primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR procedure. The gene encoded a mature protein with the predicted molecular mass of 39.38 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI of 6.43; it contained two chitin-binding domains and a hydrolase family 19 chitinase domain. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis grouped it in the class I chitinase protein group. Heterogeneous expression of this MaMLX-Q1 in Arabidopsis showed non-visible alterations in growth phenotype, except for the higher transcriptional expression of MaMLX-Q1 when compared to that of wild-type Arabidopsis. This ectopic MaMLX-Q1 exhibited toxicity to the growth and development of Plutella xylostella larvae, causing significantly lower weight gain and higher mortality. These results indicate an application of MaMLX-Q1 as an insecticide for plant protection.

  11. ISSR-PCR: tool for discrimination and genetic structure analysis of Plutella xylostella populations native to different geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, O; Gevrey, M; Arvanitakis, L; Gers, C; Bordat, D; Legal, L

    2007-04-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) is considered as the most destructive pest of Brassicaceae crops world-wide. Its migratory capacities and development of insecticide resistance in many populations leads to more difficulties for population management. To control movement of populations and apparitions of resistance carried by resistant migrant individuals, populations must be identified using genetic markers. Here, seven different ISSR markers have been tested as a tool for population discrimination and genetic variations among 19 DBM populations from Canada, USA, Brazil, Martinique Island, France, Romania, Austria, Uzbekistan, Egypt, Benin, South Africa, Réunion Island, Hong Kong, Laos, Japan and four localities in Australia were assessed. Two classification methods were tested and compared: a common method of genetic distance analyses and a novel method based on an advanced statistical method of the Artificial Neural Networks' family, the Self-Organizing Map (SOM). The 188 loci selected revealed a very high variability between populations with a total polymorphism of 100% and a global coefficient of gene differentiation estimated by the Nei's index (Gst) of 0.238. Nevertheless, the largest part of variability was expressed among individuals within populations (AMOVA: 73.71% and mean polymorphism of 94% within populations). Genetic differentiation among the DBM populations did not reflect geographical distances between them. The two classification methods have given excellent results with less than 1.3% of misclassified individuals. The origin of the high genetic differentiation and efficiency of the two classification methods are discussed.

  12. Laccase 1 gene from Plutella xylostella (PxLac1) and its functions in humoral immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze-Hua; Hu, Rong-Min; Ye, Xi-Qian; Huang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin; Shi, Min

    Laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) is a phenoloxidase found in many insect species. The Laccase 1 gene from Plutella xylostella (PxLac1) was cloned, and its expression patterns and functions were determined using qPCR and RNAi methods. The results showed that the expression levels of PxLac1 were consistently high in all larval stages, and the most abundant was in the midgut during the 4th instar stage. Moreover, the expression of PxLac1 was up-regulated in response to bacterial infection, and decreased 24 h after being parasitized by Cotesia vestalis. Further analyses indicated that the effect of parasitization on PxLac1 was induced by active C. vestalis Bracovirus (CvBV). Haemocyte-free hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity was suppressed when PxLac1 was treated with RNAi. Our results provide evidence for a connection between the Laccase 1 gene and insect immunity, and revealed that parasitoid polydnavirus suppresses host PO activity via PxLac1 regulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (L. in Southern Africa: Research Trends, Challenges and Insights on Sustainable Management Options

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    Honest Machekano

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella, is a global economic pest of brassicas whose pest status has been exacerbated by climate change and variability. Southern African small-scale farmers are battling to cope with increasing pressure from the pest due to limited exposure to sustainable control options. The current paper critically analysed literature with a climate change and sustainability lens. The results show that research in Southern Africa (SA remains largely constrained despite the region’s long acquaintance with the insect pest. Dependency on broad-spectrum insecticides, the absence of insecticide resistance management strategies, climate change, little research attention, poor regional research collaboration and coordination, and lack of clear policy support frameworks, are the core limitations to effective DBM management. Advances in Integrated Pest Management (IPM technologies and climate-smart agriculture (CSA techniques for sustainable pest management have not benefitted small-scale horticultural farmers despite the farmers’ high vulnerability to crop losses due to pest attack. IPM adoption was mainly limited by lack of locally-developed packages, lack of stakeholders’ concept appreciation, limited alternatives to chemical control, knowledge paucity on biocontrol, climate mismatch between biocontrol agents’ origin and release sites, and poor research expertise and funding. We discuss these challenges in light of climate change and variability impacts on small-scale farmers in SA and recommend climate-smart, holistic, and sustainable homegrown IPM options propelled through IPM-Farmer Field School approaches for widespread and sustainable adoption.

  14. Preliminary studies on inherited sterility for field management of diamondback moth (plutella xylostella) (Lepidoptera: plutellidae) on crucifiers in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewusie, E.A.; Nkumsah, A.K.; Alimatu, S.; Osae, M.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: plutellidae) is the most destructive insect pest crucifiers in Ghana and the world over. It is estimated to cost about USD 1 billion to control annually worldwide. Reliance on chemicals as the sole control measure for diamondback moth has resulted in the development of a myriad of problems including resistance, high residue levels on produce, destruction of natural enemies and pest resurgence among others. Inherited sterility in Lepidoptera insects has a potential for suppressing DBM populations. We conducted this study to evaluate the use of the technique to manage the diamond back moth in Ghana. When 3 - 4 day old pupae were treated with 130 Gy and 150 Gy of gamma radiation, 47% and 46% respectively of the male pupae developed as normal adults while 40% and 17% respectively of the female pupae developed as normal adults. However, radiation-induced reductions in fecundity and egg viability were expressed in the parental and first filial (F 1 ) generations. Sterility exceeded 66% in the treated parental male and 92% in the treated parental female in both treatments as compared with 78% and 95% in treated F 1 male and female, respectively. The sex ratio was skewed in favour of males in the parental progeny. These results indicate the possibility of using inherited sterility for DBM control. (au)

  15. Optimum timing of insecticide applications against diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in cole crops using threshold catches in sex pheromone traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V; Guerrero, A

    2001-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata), cauliflower (B oleracea var botrytis) and knol khol (B oleracea gongylodes) crops at two different locations in Karnataka State (India) to optimize the timing of insecticide applications to control the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, using sex pheromone traps. Our results indicate that applications of cartap hydrochloride as insecticide during a 12-24 h period after the pheromone traps had caught on average 8, 12 and 16 males per trap per night in cabbage, cauliflower and knol khol, respectively, were significantly more effective than regular insecticide sprays at 7, 9, 12 or 15 days after transplantation. This was demonstrated by estimation of the mean number of eggs and larvae per plant, the percentage of holes produced, as well as the marketable yield of the three crops at each location. A good correlation between the immature stages, infestation level, the estimated crop yield and the number of moths caught in pheromone traps was also found, indicating the usefulness of pheromone-based monitoring traps to predict population densities of the pest.

  16. Larvicidal activity and structure activity relationship of cinnamoyl amides from Zanthoxylum armatum and their synthetic analogues against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vishal; Reddy, S G Eswara; Bhardwaj, Anuja; Dolma, Shudh Kirti; Kumar, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamoyl amides isolated from Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) and their synthetic analogues were tested for their insecticidal activity against the second instar larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) to determine the promising structures with insecticidal activity. Most of the test compounds showed promising activity against larvae of P. xylostella. However, the activities of different compounds varied depending on the presence of different substituents at various positions of both the aromatic rings A and B. Among the tested compounds, 8, N-(3-bromo-4-methoxyphenethyl)cinnamamide showed best larvicidal activity with an LC50 = 62.13 mg/L followed by 6, N-(3׳-bromophenethyl)cinnamamide (LC50=128.49 mg/L) and 2 N-(4׳-methoxyphenylethyl)cinnamamide (LC50 = 225.65 mg/L).

  17. Effects of 200 Gy 60Co-γ Radiation on the Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes, Hsp70 Genes, and Serum Molecules of Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxue; Luo, Lingyan; Karthi, Sengodan; Zhang, Ke; Luo, Jianjun; Hu, Qiongbo; Weng, Qunfang

    2018-04-26

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is one of the notorious pests causing substantial loses to many cruciferous vegetables across the nations. The effects of 60 Co-γ radiation on physiology of P. xylostella were investigated and the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella . First, in our research, we detected Oxidase system and stress response mechanism of irradiated pupae, the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella . The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were increased significantly in contrast the level of peroxidase (POD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were decreased in 12⁻24 h post-treatment. The heat shock proteins (Hsps) gene expression level was significant increasing, maximum > 2-folds upregulation of genes were observed in peak. However, they also had a trend of gradual recovery with development. Second, we detected the testis lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity found that in male adults testis they increased significantly than control during its development. Thus the present research investigation highlights that the 60 Co-γ radiation treatments alters the physiological development of diamondback moth. The results showed that 200 Gy dosage resulted in stress damage to the body and reproductive system of the diamondback moth.

  18. Environment polluting conventional chemical control compared to an environmentally friendly IPM approach for control of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Farooq, Muhammad; Nasim, Wajid; Akram, Waseem; Khan, Fawad Zafar Ahmad; Jaleel, Waqar; Zhu, Xun; Yin, Haichen; Li, Shuzhong; Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Jin, Fengliang

    2017-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is recognized as a widely distributed destructive insect pest of Brassica worldwide. The management of this pest is a serious issue, and an estimated annual cost of its management has reached approximately US$4 billion. Despite the fact that chemicals are a serious threat to the environment, lots of chemicals are applied for controlling various insect pests especially P. xylostella. An overreliance on chemical control has not only led to the evolution of resistance to insecticides and to a reduction of natural enemies but also has polluted various components of water, air, and soil ecosystem. In the present scenario, there is a need to implement an environmentally friendly integrated pest management (IPM) approach with new management tactics (microbial control, biological control, cultural control, mating disruption, insecticide rotation strategies, and plant resistance) for an alternative to chemical control. The IPM approach is not only economically beneficial but also reduces the environmental and health risks. The present review synthesizes published information on the insecticide resistance against P. xylostella and emphasizes on adopting an alternative environmentally friendly IPM approach for controlling P. xylostella in China.

  19. Evaluation of alternative Plutella xylostella control by two Isaria fumosorosea conidial formulations - oil-based formulation and wettable powder - combined with Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Xiao-Ge; He, Yu-Rong; Lu, Li-Hua; Zhao, Rui

    2015-12-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for controlling the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The control efficacy of two Isaria fumosorosea conidial formulations - wettable powder and oil-based formulation - combined with Bacillus thuringiensis against P. xylostella was tested. In the laboratory, the combined application of two pathogens increased larval mortality either in an additive or a synergistic way. P. xylostella larvae treated with oil-based formulation died sooner than larvae infected with wettable powder. For pot and field experiments, each formulation was applied alone or combined with B. thuringiensis 668 µg mL(-1) , and then larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence rate, female longevity and fecundity were recorded. In pot experiments there was no evidence of any antagonistic effects between the two pathogens. Combined application of B. thuringiensis and a high concentration of the two I. fumosorosea formulations resulted in higher mortality (84.4 and 86.2%) with minimum pupation (15.6 and 11.9%) and adult emergence rates (8.7 and 7.0%). Female longevity and fecundity were significantly reduced by the two formulations at high concentration compared with the control. Similar results were also observed in field experiments. The combined application of I. fumosorosea and B. thuringiensis is a promising alternative strategy for P. xylostella control. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effects of 200 Gy 60Co-γ Radiation on the Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes, Hsp70 Genes, and Serum Molecules of Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, is one of the notorious pests causing substantial loses to many cruciferous vegetables across the nations. The effects of 60Co-γ radiation on physiology of P. xylostella were investigated and the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella. First, in our research, we detected Oxidase system and stress response mechanism of irradiated pupae, the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were increased significantly in contrast the level of peroxidase (POD and glutathione S-transferase (GST were decreased in 12–24 h post-treatment. The heat shock proteins (Hsps gene expression level was significant increasing, maximum > 2-folds upregulation of genes were observed in peak. However, they also had a trend of gradual recovery with development. Second, we detected the testis lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and acid phosphatase (ACP activity found that in male adults testis they increased significantly than control during its development. Thus the present research investigation highlights that the 60Co-γ radiation treatments alters the physiological development of diamondback moth. The results showed that 200 Gy dosage resulted in stress damage to the body and reproductive system of the diamondback moth.

  1. Efeito de produtos a base de óleo de nim em diferentes formulações no controle de Plutella xylostella (L.,1758) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), em couve

    OpenAIRE

    Mondego, Janaina Marques [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diferentes doses e formulações de óleo de nim, seu poder residual e a decomposição no armazenamento, visando o controle de Plutella xylostella (L.), em couve. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório, sob condições controlada de temperatura (25 ± 2°C) umidade relativa (70 ± 10%) e fotofase (12 horas). Foram utilizadas diferentes doses e formulações do produto a base de nim. As doses utilizadas para larvas de primeiro instar foram:...

  2. Identification of multiple small heat-shock protein genes in Plutella xylostella (L.) and their expression profiles in response to abiotic stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xi’en; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    We identify and characterize 14 small heat-shock protein (sHSP) genes from the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), a destructive pest. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that, except for sHSP18.8 and sHSP19.22, the other 12 DBM sHSPs belong to five known insect sHSP groups. Developmental expression analysis revealed that most sHSPs peaked in the pupal and adult stages. The transcripts of sHSPs display tissue specificity with two exhibiting constitutive expression in four tested tiss...

  3. Seletividade fisiológica de inseticidas aos inimigos naturais de Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae em brássicas Insecticide physiological selectivity to natural enemies of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae in Brassicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Bacci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A conservação de inimigos naturais é um componente fundamental no manejo integrado de pragas. Neste trabalho, estudou-se a seletividade de sete inseticidas usados no manejo de Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae ao parasitóide Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae e aos predadores Discodon sp. (Coleoptera: Cantharidae e Lasiochilus sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae. Os organofosforados metamidofós e paratiom metílico e o carbamato carbaril foram altamente tóxicos aos três inimigos naturais estudados. Dimetoato apresentou seletividade em favor do Discodon sp., na dose e subdose. O inseticida acefato apresentou alto impacto ao Discodon sp., no momento da aplicação e seu efeito foi reduzido com a metade da concentração do princípio ativo. Deltametrina apresentou seletividade à O. sokolowskii nas duas dosagens. Já permetrina foi seletiva a Lasiochilus sp., somente na subdose. Discodon sp. foi mais tolerante à dose e subdose do dimetoato e à subdose do acefato do que O. sokolowskii e Lasiochilus sp. O predador Lasiochilus sp. foi mais tolerante à dose e subdose da permetrina do que O. sokolowskii e Discodon sp. O parasitóide O. sokolowskii foi mais tolerante à dose e subdose da deltametrina do que Lasiochilus sp. e Discodon sp. Os resultados desta pesquisa foram obtidos em condições de exposição extrema, portanto indicam que os inseticidas seletivos possivelmente não serão prejudiciais aos inimigos naturais, em condições de campo.The conservation of natural enemies is a fundamental component in the integrated pest management. In this work, one studied the selectivity of seven insecticides, used in the management of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, to the parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, and to the predators Discodon sp. (Coleoptera: Cantharidae and Lasiochilus sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae. The organophosphates methamidophos and methyl parathion

  4. Biologia de Ceraeochrysa claveri Navás (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae predando Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae Biology of Ceraeochrysa claveri Navás (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae Preying on Plutella x ylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricélia Ferreira Almeida

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ceraeochrysa claveri Navás (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae é um predador encontrado em vários agroecossistemas, predando insetos pequenos e de tegumento mole. Seu alto potencial reprodutivo e elevada capacidade de busca o tornam capazes de predar ovos e larvas de Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae nas partes mais internas da cabeça do repolho, onde outros inimigos naturais não conseguem. Essas características podem favorecer a utilização desse predador no controle biológico dessa praga. Neste trabalho, o objetivo é avaliar o desenvolvimento, reprodução e capacidade de predação de C. claveri, quando ovos e larvas de P. xylostella foram ofertados em condições de laboratório. Foram avaliadas as seguintes dietas: 1 ovos; 2 larvas de segundo ínstar; 3 ovos + larvas de segundo ínstar. O desenvolvimento e a viabilidade das formas imaturas de C. claveri foi melhor nas dietas que continham ovos da presa. A oviposição e longevidade também foram maiores nessas dietas, independentemente da presença de larvas. Contudo, o tipo de dieta não afetou a razão sexual e o peso das larvas no oitavo dia de vida. Em média, cada larva de C. claveri foi capaz de predar 1611 ovos ou 135 larvas de segundo ínstar de P. xylostella durante seu desenvolvimento. O predador foi capaz de aumentar a população 218 vezes a cada 42 dias, alimentando-se, exclusivamente, de ovos da presa. Concluiu-se que o predador apresenta potencial para ser utilizado no controle biológico de P. xylostella.Ceraeochrysa claveri Navás (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae is a predator found in several agricultural ecosystems and it preys on small and soft body insects. Its high reproductive potential and forage capacity makes it able of preying eggs and larvae of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae internally hidden on cabbage head, where other natural enemies usually do not reach. These characteristics are important when choosing this predator to be used within

  5. Down-regulation of a novel ABC transporter gene (Pxwhite) is associated with Cry1Ac resistance in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Zhu, Xun; Xia, Jixing; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-04-01

    Biopesticides or transgenic crops based on Cry toxins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) effectively control agricultural insect pests. The sustainable use of Bt biopesticides and Bt crops is threatened, however, by the development of Cry resistance in the target pests. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is the first pest that developed resistance to a Bt biopesticide in the field, and a recent study has shown that the resistance of P. xylostella to Cry1Ac is caused by a mutation in an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene (ABCC2). In this study, we report that down-regulation of a novel ABC transporter gene from ABCG subfamily (Pxwhite) is associated with Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella. The full-length cDNA sequence of Pxwhite was cloned and analyzed. Spatial-temporal expression detection revealed that Pxwhite was expressed in all tissues and developmental stages, and highest expressed in Malpighian tubule tissue and in egg stage. Sequence variation analysis of Pxwhite indicated the absence of constant non-synonymous mutations between susceptible and resistant strains, whereas midgut transcript analysis showed that Pxwhite was remarkably reduced in all resistant strains and further reduced when larvae of the moderately resistant SZ-R strain were subjected to selection with Cry1Ac toxin. Furthermore, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated suppression of Pxwhite gene expression significantly reduced larval susceptibility to Cry1Ac toxin, and genetic linkage analysis confirmed that down-regulation of Pxwhite gene is tightly linked to Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that Pxwhite gene is involved in Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification and Characterization of the Gene CYP340W1 from Plutella xylostella and Its Possible Involvement in Resistance to Abamectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xue; Yang, Jiaqiang; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Yang, Fengshan; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-03-18

    Abamectin has been used to control the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (P. xylostella), which is a major agricultural pest that can rapidly develop resistance against insecticides including abamectin. Although cytochrome P450 has been confirmed to play an important role in resistance in P. xylostella, the specific P450 genes associated with the resistance are unclear. The full-length cDNA of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP340W1 was cloned and characterized in the present study. The cDNA assembly yielded a sequence of 1929 bp, containing the open reading frame (ORF) 1491 bp and encodes a 496-amino acid peptide. CYP340W1 was expressed in all P. xylostella developmental stages but its expression level was highest in larvae and especially in the heads of larvae. The expression of CYP340W1 was significantly higher in an abamectin-resistant strain (ABM-R) than in its susceptible counterpart (ABM-S). In addition, expression of CYP340W1 was increased when the ABM-R strain was exposed to abamectin. When injected into third-stage ABM-R larvae, CYP340W1 dsRNA significantly reduced CYP340W1 expression at 6 h and reduced expression by 83% at 12 h. As a consequence of RNAi, the mortality of the injected abamectin-resistant larvae increased after a 48-h exposure to abamectin. The results indicate that the overexpression of CYP340W1 plays an important role in abamectin resistance in P. xylostella.

  7. Analysis of persistent changes to γ-aminobutyric acid receptor gene expression in Plutella xylostella subjected to sublethal amounts of spinosad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, X-H; Wu, Q-J; Zhang, Y-J; Long, Y-H; Wu, X-M; Li, R-Y; Wang, M; Tian, X-L; Jiao, X-G

    2016-07-25

    A multi-generational approach was used to investigate the persistent effects of a sub-lethal dose of spinosad in Plutella xylostella. The susceptibility of various sub-populations of P. xylostella to spinosad and the effects of the insecticide on the gene expression of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR) were determined. The results of a leaf dip bioassay showed that the sensitivity of P. xylostella to spinosad decreased across generations. The sub-strains had been previously selected based on a determined LC25 of spinosad. Considering that GABA-gated chloride channels are the primary targets of spinosad, the cDNA of P. xylostella was used to clone GABARα by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The mature peptide cDNA was 1477-bp long and contained a 1449-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 483 amino acids. The resulting amino acid sequence was used to generate a neighbor-joining dendrogram, and homology search was conducted using NCBI BLAST. The protein had high similarity with the known GABAR sequence from P. xylostella. Subsequent semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time PCR analyses indicated that the GABAR transcript levels in the spinosad-resistant strain (RR, 145.82-fold) and in Sub1 strain (selected with LC25 spinosad for one generation) were the highest, followed by those in the spinosad-susceptible strain, the Sub10 strain (selected for ten generations), and the Sub5 strain (selected for five generations). This multi-generational study found significant correlations between spinosad susceptibility and GABAR gene expression, providing insights into the long-term effects of sub-lethal insecticide exposure and its potential to lead to the development of insecticide-resistant insect populations.

  8. Plutella xylostella granulovirus late gene promoter activity in the context of the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, He-Lin; Hu, Yuan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Li, Lu-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Within Baculoviridae, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of replication in betabaculoviruses, despite extensive studies in alphabaculoviruses. In this study, the promoters of nine late genes of the betabaculovirus Plutella xylostella granulovirus (PlxyGV) were cloned into a transient expression vector and the alphabaculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) genome, and compared with homologous late gene promoters of AcMNPV in Sf9 cells. In transient expression assays, all PlxyGV late promoters were activated in cells transfected with the individual reporter plasmids together with an AcMNPV bacmid. In infected cells, reporter gene expression levels with the promoters of PlxyGV e18 and AcMNPV vp39 and gp41 were significantly higher than those of the corresponding AcMNPV or PlxyGV promoters, which had fewer late promoter motifs. Observed expression levels were lower for the PlxyGV p6.9, pk1, gran, p10a, and p10b promoters than for the corresponding AcMNPV promoters, despite equal numbers of late promoter motifs, indicating that species-specific elements contained in some late promoters were favored by the native viral RNA polymerases for optimal transcription. The 8-nt sequence TAAATAAG encompassing the ATAAG motif was conserved in the AcMNPV polh, p10, and pk1 promoters. The 5-nt sequence CAATT located 4 or 5 nt upstream of the T/ATAAG motif was conserved in the promoters of PlxyGV gran, p10c, and pk1. The results of this study demonstrated that PlxyGV late gene promoters could be effectively activated by the RNA polymerase from AcMNPV, implying that late gene expression systems are regulated by similar mechanisms in alphabaculoviruses and betabaculoviruses.

  9. Chlorpyrifos-induced hormesis in insecticide-resistant and -susceptible Plutella xylostella under normal and high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z Z; Zhang, F; Wu, Z L; Yu, Z Y; Wu, G

    2016-06-01

    Hormesis induced by insecticides at the dosage lower than what ostensibly directly causes death on insects was studied. This paper reports the effects of the in vivo application of varied concentrations of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on Plutella xylostella (DBM). The insecticide concentrations applied included 0.000025-2.5 mg l-1, which are far lower than LC1 (7.2 mg l-1), for the CPF-susceptable (Si) DBM, and 250 mg l-1 which is far below LC1 (1286 mg l-1), for the CPF-resistant (Rc) DBM, as well as LC10- and LC50-doses for both strains. Significant hormesis was found with the 'hermetic-CPFs', i.e., 0.0025 mg l-1 for Si DBM and 2.5 mg l-1 for Rc DBM, at the normal or high temperature either in a 24 h or under a long-term treatment. These doses of CPF significantly stimulated the development and increased the fecundity of Si and Rc DBM at 25°C with approximately 23.5-29.8% activity increase on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and 30.5-91.3% increase on glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) at 25 or 38°C in 4-24 h. The enzymatic activities were significantly reduced by LC50-CPF at 25°C in vivo, but the inhibition was relieved significantly, if the insects were first subjected to a hormetic-CPF pretreatment. It was remarkable that the average rates of enzymatic activity increase were 67.5-76.6% for AChE and 366-546% for GSTs. Consequently, it was concluded that the hormesis on Si and Rc DBM could be induced by CPF doses far below LC1 at normal or high temperature in short- or long-term treatment. These findings might help to improve the current insect control practices in the field.

  10. Behavioral responses of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to green leaf volatiles of Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V; Guerrero, A

    2000-12-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) from Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata L. have been identified as 1-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexen-3-ol, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, hexyl acetate, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, by their mass spectra and retention times in comparison with authentic samples. No isothiocyanates were found in the extract. The activity of these chemicals has been determined on mated and unmated males and females of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella in the laboratory (wind tunnel) and in the field. On unmated males, mixtures of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenal, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol with the pheromone induced attractant/arresting behavior in 80-100% of the males tested, significantly higher than the effect induced by the pheromone alone. On mated males and unmated females the effect of the GLVs alone or in combination with the pheromone was poor, while on mated females these compounds elicited upwind flight and arresting behavior in 40-60% of the females assayed. There was no synergism when these chemicals were mixed with the pheromone. In the field, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, the most active GLV in laboratory tests, when mixed with the pheromone in 1:1 ratio, enhanced 6-7-fold the number of females and 20-30% the number of males caught by traps over those baited with the pheromone alone. Our results indicate that the enhancement of the attraction of both males and females of the DBM to traps baited with pheromone blended with the relatively inexpensive and environmentally safe (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate may be important for future control strategies of the pest.

  11. Interaction between Short-Term Heat Pretreatment and Fipronil on 2nd Instar Larvae of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaojun; Tian, Sufen; Wang, Dehui; Gao, Fei; Wei, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Based on the cooperative virulence index (c.f.) and LC50 of fipronil, the interaction effect between short-term heat pretreatment and fipronil on 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was assessed. The results suggested that pretreatment of the tested insects at 30 °C for 2, 4 and 8h could somewhat decrease the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations. The LC50 values of fipronil increased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were below zero. These results indicated that real mortalities were less than theoretical ones and antagonism was found in the treatments of fipronil at 0.39 and 0.78 mg/L after heat pretreatment at 30 °C at 2, 4 and 8 h. However, pretreatment at 30 °C for 12h could increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations, the LC50 of fipronil decreased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were above zero, which indicated real mortalities were higher than theoretical ones. Pretreatment of the tested insects at 35 °C for 2, 4, 8 and 12h was found to increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations which resulted in the decrease of LC50 values of fipronil and c.f. above zero in all treatments with only one exception. Most interactions were assessed as synergism. The results indicated that cooperative virulence index (c.f.) may be adopted in hormetic effect assessment. PMID:20877489

  12. Transcript and Protein Profiling Analysis of the Destruxin A-Induced Response in Larvae of Plutella xylostella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaolin; Fan, Jiqiao; Qiu, Baoli; Ren, Shunxiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Destruxins (dtxs) are the mycotoxin produced by certain entomopathogenic fungi, such as Metarhizium anisopliae, Aschersonia sp, Alternaria brassicae and Ophiosphaerella herpotrichae. It can affect a wide variety of biological processes in insects, including innate immune, Ca2+ channel in cells, and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Dtxs have been used as biological control agent for a long time, however, their molecular mechanism of action is still unknown. Principal Findings In this study, both digital gene expression (DGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) approaches were adopted to examine the effects of dtx A on Plutella xyllostella (L.) larvae. By using DGE and 2-DE analyses, 1584 genes and 42 protein points were identified as being up- or down regulated at least 2-fold in response to dtx A. Firstly, injection of dtx A to larvae accelerated the increase of peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP), which could activate the Toll signal pathway inducing production of antibacterial substances such as cecropin and gloverin. Dtx A also stimulated prophenoloxidase (proPO) system which plays an important role in innate immunity and leads to melanization of external organisms. Secondly, dtx A suppressed the expression of genes related to the Toll pathway, and induced expression of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins), especially the serpin 2 that blocked process of the proPO system. Finally, other physiological process like xenobiotics detoxification, apoptosis, calcium signaling pathway and insect hormone biosynthesis, were also mediated in response to dtx A toxicity. Conclusions Transcript and protein profiling analyses will provide an insight into the potential molecular mechanism of action in P. xylostella larvae in response to dtx A. PMID:23585848

  13. Transcriptome-based identification and characterization of genes commonly responding to five different insecticides in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Kim, Kyungmun; Kwon, Deok Ho; Jeong, In Hong; Clark, J Marshall; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2018-01-01

    When the 3rd instar larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, were pretreated with sublethal doses (LC 10 ) and then subsequently exposed to lethal doses (LC 50 ) of chlorantraniliprole, cypermethrin, dinotefuran, indoxacarb and spinosad via leaf dipping, their tolerance to insecticides was significantly enhanced. To identify genes that commonly respond to the treatment of different insecticides and are responsible for the tolerance enhancement, transcriptomic profiles of larvae treated with sublethal doses of the five insecticides were compared with that of untreated control. A total of 117,181 transcripts with a mean length of 662bp were generated by de novo assembly, of which 35,329 transcripts were annotated. Among them, 125, 143, 182, 215 and 149 transcripts were determined to be up-regulated whereas 67, 45, 60, 60 and 38 genes were down-regulated following treatments with chlorantraniliprole, cypermethrin, dinotefuran, indoxacarb and spinosad, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed little differences in their GO profiles between treatments with different insecticides except for spinosad. Finally, the DEGs commonly responding to all insecticides were selected for further characterization, and some of their over-transcription levels were confirmed by quantitative PCR. The most notable examples of commonly responding over-transcribed genes were two cytochrome P450 genes (Cyp301a1 and Cyp9e2) and nine cuticular protein genes. In contrast, several genes composing the mitochondrial energy generation system were significantly down-regulated in all treated larvae. Considering the distinct structure and mode of action of the five insecticides tested, the differentially expressed genes identified in this study appear to be involved in general chemical defense at the initial stage of intoxication. Their possible roles in the tolerance/resistance development were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  14. Oviposition deterrent activities of Pachyrhizus erosus seed extract and other natural products on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basukriadi, Adi; Wilkins, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    An extract of a rotenone-containing plant yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, seeds was tested against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in a greenhouse to determine its potential as an oviposition deterrent and compared with coumarin and rutin, known as diamondback moth oviposition deterrent compounds, rotenone, and an extract of Peruvian cube root, at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). Oviposition deterrent index (ODI) was used to determine effects of extracts or compounds in inhibiting oviposition of diamondback moth. Coumarin showed a stronger deterrent effect than the yam bean seed extract with a higher ODI value. On the contrary, rotenone, rutin, and the cube root extract, containing 6.7% (w/w) of rotenone, showed no significant deterrent effects having low or negative ODI values, suggesting that the deterrent effect of the yam bean seed extract is not due to rotenone content of the yam bean seeds. The extract of yam bean seed and coumarin partially deterred the moth from laying eggs on treated leaves in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentration for 50% deterrency of coumarin and the yam bean seed extract were 0.11 and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. However, the yam bean seed extract showed a residual deterrent effect on the moth even at 3 d after the treatment and is probably because of its low volatile nature. A long-term deterrency of the yam bean seed extract is an advantage over coumarins. Both the yam bean seed extract and coumarin deterred diamondback moth from laying eggs in total darkness, indicating their nonvisual deterrent effect. This made the extract an effective deterrence to diamondback moth in light and in darkness. To conclude, this study revealed the potential of the crude extract of the yam bean seed to prevent diamondback moth from ovipositing on its plant host. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  15. Field trials in South China to control the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) using radiation-induced sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, R.; Xia, D.; Gu, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella by the sterile insect technique (SIT). Our studies included mating characteristics, sterility of the F 1 generation, dispersal and recapture of irradiated moths, as well as control of DBM using SIT and F 1 sterility, and an economic evaluation of F 1 sterility to protect cabbage. Male DBM mated an average of 16 times and female DBM mated an average of 4 times. However, irradiated male DBM only mated an average of 7.2 times. Seventy percent of matings occurred from 18:00-24:00 h with an average duration of 80 min. Irradiated male moths and untreated male moths exhibited the same attraction to female moths. After 10 days, most (94.2%) of the released, sterile DBM were recaptured within 40 m of the release site. Only one DBM was recaptured at 120 m from the release site. The area of dispersal was calculated to be 696 m 2 during the first three days. In a field study to control DBM by releases of irradiated insects, the ratio of sterile to wild DBM was 4.7:1. During this study, the egg sterility in the F 1 and F 2 generations was 79.0% and 81.7%, respectively. The developmental times for the F 1 and F 2 generations were 4 and 12 days longer, respectively, than for DBM in the control area. Thus, the number of DBM generations was reduced in the treated field. With successive releases over two generations, the control effectiveness was 80.8% in the F 1 generation and 79.1% in the F 2 generation. The cost of using F 1 sterility to control DBM in a small field was similar to the cost of using pesticides. Therefore, the use of F 1 sterility should be an economically viable control strategy for DBM that also would help protect the environment from the overuse of pesticides. (author)

  16. Toxicity of Lavandula angustifolia oil constituents and spray formulations to insecticide-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant Plutella xylostella and its endoparasitoid Cotesia glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chang Geun; Hieu, Tran Trung; Lee, Si Hyeock; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Kwon, Min; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Plutella xylostella is one of the most serious insect pests of cruciferous crops. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of 21 constituents from Lavandula angustifolia essential oil (LA-EO) and another 16 previously known LA-EO constituents and the toxicity of six experimental spray formulations containing the oil (1-6 g L(-1) sprays) to susceptible KS-PX and pyrethroid-resistant JJ-PX P. xylostella larvae, as well as to its endoparasitoid Cotesia glomerata adults. Linalool and linalool oxide (LC50 = 0.016 mg cm(-3) ) were the most toxic fumigant compounds and were 10.7-fold less toxic than dichlorvos to KS-PX larvae. Either residual or fumigant toxicity of these compounds was almost identical against larvae from either of the two strains. Against C. glomerata, dichlorvos (LC50 = 7 × 10(-6)  mg cm(-3) ) was the most toxic insecticide. LA-EO was ∼1430 times less toxic than dichlorvos. The oil applied as 6 g L(-1) spray and emamectin benzoate 21.5 g L(-1) emulsifiable concentrate provided 100% mortality against larvae from either of the two strains. Reasonable P. xylostella control in greenhouses can be achieved by a spray formulation containing the 6 g L(-1) oil as potential contact-action fumigant. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Genome-wide identification of long non-coding RNA genes and their association with insecticide resistance and metamorphosis in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feiling; Guo, Dianhao; Yuan, Zhuting; Chen, Chen; Xiao, Huamei

    2017-11-20

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a class of noncoding RNA >200 bp in length that has essential roles in regulating a variety of biological processes. Here, we constructed a computational pipeline to identify lncRNA genes in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), a major insect pest of cruciferous vegetables. In total, 3,324 lncRNAs corresponding to 2,475 loci were identified from 13 RNA-Seq datasets, including samples from parasitized, insecticide-resistant strains and different developmental stages. The identified P. xylostella lncRNAs had shorter transcripts and fewer exons than protein-coding genes. Seven out of nine randomly selected lncRNAs were validated by strand-specific RT-PCR. In total, 54-172 lncRNAs were specifically expressed in the insecticide resistant strains, among which one lncRNA was located adjacent to the sodium channel gene. In addition, 63-135 lncRNAs were specifically expressed in different developmental stages, among which three lncRNAs overlapped or were located adjacent to the metamorphosis-associated genes. These lncRNAs were either strongly or weakly co-expressed with their overlapping or neighboring mRNA genes. In summary, we identified thousands of lncRNAs and presented evidence that lncRNAs might have key roles in conferring insecticide resistance and regulating the metamorphosis development in P. xylostella.

  18. Over-expression of UDP-glycosyltransferase gene UGT2B17 is involved in chlorantraniliprole resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuxia; Zhu, Bin; Gao, Xiwu; Liang, Pei

    2017-07-01

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are phase II detoxification enzymes widely distributed within living organisms. Their involvement in the biotransformation of various lipophilic endogenous compounds and phytoalexins in insects has been documented. However, the roles of this enzyme family in insecticide resistance have rarely been reported. Here, the functions of UGTs in chlorantraniliprole resistance in Plutella xylostella were investigated. Treatment with sulfinpyrazone and 5-nitrouracil (both inhibitors of UGT enzymes) significantly increased the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole against the third instar larvae of P. xylostella. Among the 23 UGT transcripts examined, only UGT2B17 was found to be over-expressed (with a range from 30.7- to 77.3-fold) in all four chlorantraniliprole-resistant populations compared to the susceptible one (CHS). The knock-down of UGT2B17 by RNA interference (RNAi) dramatically increased the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole by 27.4% and 29.8% in the CHS and CHR (resistant) populations, respectively. In contrast, exposure to phenobarbital significantly increased the relative expression of UGT2B17 while decreasing the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole to the larvae by 14.0%. UGT2B17 is involved in the detoxification of chlorantraniliprole, and its over-expression may play an important role in chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. These results shed some light upon and further our understanding of the mechanisms of diamide insecticide resistance in insects. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. PxAPN5 serves as a functional receptor of Cry2Ab in Plutella xylostella (L.) and its binding domain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Xu, Lian; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Chen, Qing-Xi; Zhu, Yu-Jing

    2017-12-01

    Lepidopteran midgut aminopeptidases N (APNs) are widely studied for their potential roles as one of the receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal toxins. In the present study, a loss of function analyses by RNAi (RNA interference) silencing of the Plutella xylostella APN5 (PxAPN5), a binding protein of Bt crystal toxin Cry2Ab, were performed. The knocking down of PxAPN5 in P. xylostella larvae greatly reduced their susceptibility to Cry2Ab and led to a decrease of Cry2Ab binding to P. xylostella midgut. Four truncated fragments of PxAPN5 were further constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli (E.coli) to find the binding region of PxAPN5 to Cry2Ab. The ligand blot result indicated that D1 domain (residues 1-262) and D3 domain (residues 510-620) of PxAPN5 could specially bind to Cry2Ab. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bacteria abundance and diversity of different life stages of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), revealed by bacteria culture-dependent and PCR-DGGE methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Pan, Qin-Jian; Tian, Hong-Gang; Douglas, Angela E; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-03-01

    Microbial abundance and diversity of different life stages (fourth instar larvae, pupae and adults) of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., collected from field and reared in laboratory, were investigated using bacteria culture-dependent method and PCR-DGGE analysis based on the sequence of bacteria 16S rRNA V3 region gene. A large quantity of bacteria was found in all life stages of P. xylostella. Field population had higher quantity of bacteria than laboratory population, and larval gut had higher quantity than pupae and adults. Culturable bacteria differed in different life stages of P. xylostella. Twenty-five different bacterial strains were identified in total, among them 20 strains were presented in larval gut, only 8 strains in pupae and 14 strains in adults were detected. Firmicutes bacteria, Bacillus sp., were the most dominant species in every life stage. 15 distinct bands were obtained from DGGE electrophoresis gel. The sequences blasted in GenBank database showed these bacteria belonged to six different genera. Phylogenetic analysis showed the sequences of the bacteria belonged to the Actinobacteri, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Serratia sp. in Proteobacteria was the most abundant species in larval gut. In pupae, unculturable bacteria were the most dominant species, and unculturable bacteria and Serratia sp. were the most dominant species in adults. Our study suggested that a combination of molecular and traditional culturing methods can be effectively used to analyze and to determine the diversity of gut microflora. These known bacteria may play important roles in development of P. xylostella. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Evaluation of the time-concentration-mortality responses of Plutella xylostella larvae to the interaction of Isaria fumosorosea with the insecticides beta-cypermethrin and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Xiao-ge; He, Yu-rong; Lu, Li-hua; Zhao, Rui

    2015-02-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for controlling Plutella xylostella, a cosmopolitan pest of crucifers. In this study, bioassays were conducted to evaluate the interaction between Isaria fumosorosea and sublethal doses of two insecticides, beta-cypermethrin and Bacillus thuringiensis, against P. xylostella. Data of each assay were in good agreement with the time-concentration-mortality model, indicating a strong dependence of the fungus and insecticide interaction on both concentration and post-exposure time. Using beta-cypermethrin 58-116 µg mL(-1) or B. thuringiensis 222.5-890 µg mL(-1) with the fungus significantly enhanced fungal efficacy. The LC50 values of the fungus declined over a 1-7 day period after exposure, and the LT50 values decreased with increasing concentration. Based on LC50 or LC90 estimates, synergism between the fungus and beta-cypermethrin resulted in a 2.7-28.3-fold reduction in LC50 values and a 12.1-19.6-fold reduction in LC90 values, while synergism of the fungus with B. thuringiensis led to a 2.4-385.0-fold reduction in LC50 values and a 4.4-151.7-fold reduction in LC90 values. Results show that sublethal doses of B. thuringiensis and beta-cypermethrin can synergise I. fumosorosea activity on P. xylostella, suggesting that combination of I. fumosorosea with the two insecticides might offer an integrated approach to controlling P. xylostella in practice. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. [Interaction of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and the parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) with larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Hugo J G; Marques, Edmilson J; Barros, Reginaldo; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2006-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are broadly applied to control diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Diamondback moth is a major pest of cruciferous worldwide, and resistance of this pest to insecticide has been often reported. Thus, this research investigated the interactions among the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., and the larval-pupal parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) before and after application of the fungi on DBM larvae offered to the parasitoid. The experiment was carried out at 26+/-l degreeC, 75+/- 5% RH and 12h photophase using a completely randomized design, with eight treatments with six replications each. The isolates E9 of M. anisopliae and ESALQ 447 of B. bassiana, were used at the concentration of 10(7) conidia ml(-1). The results showed that M. anisopliae and B. bassiana reduced the parasitism of P. xylostella by O. sokolowskii. Additive effects were found on the mortality of P. xylostella with the different combinations among the fungi and parasitoid, except for the treatment B. bassiana inoculated 24h before exposition of the larvae to O. sokolowskii. The isolates were more efficacious when applied after exposition of the larvae to the parasitoid. The efficiency of O. sokolowskii was negatively influenced by the presence of the fungi, mainly when the fungi were applied 24h before diamondback's larvae were exposed to the parasitoid. The association of the fungi with the parasitoid presents potential to be tested in field. The use of these natural enemies in the integrated management of P. xylostella may economically improve the cabbage productive system, especially for organic farming.

  3. Seleção e caracterização de estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas no controle da traça-das-crucíferas Plutella xylostella Selection and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective to control the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella

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    Patrícia Teles Medeiros

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar e caracterizar, no Banco de Germoplasma de Bacillus spp., da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, as estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis mais tóxicas à Plutella xylostella, por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. Das 203 estirpes testadas, sete causaram 100% de mortalidade e foram semelhantes à estirpe padrão utilizada, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Elas apresentaram proteínas de 130 kDa e 65 kDa, presença de genes cry1 e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e redondos. As estirpes selecionadas oferecem novas perspectivas de controle de P. xylostella.The aim of this work was to select and characterize the most toxic Bacillus thuringiensis strains, from the Germplasm Bank of Bacillus spp. of Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, against Plutella xylostella. Strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. It was observed that seven out of the 203 strains tested showed high toxicity compared to the standard used B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (HD-1, which showed 100% mortality. Selected strains showed features described for lepidoptera regarding the protein of 130 kDa and 65 kDa; profile and features were obtained through the PCR reactions, making possible to identify the presence of cry1 and cry2 genes. Moreover, the scanning electron microscopy showed the bipiramydal, cubed and round crystal forms. The selected strains offer new perspectives to control P. xylostella.

  4. Uji Efektifitas Beberapa Konsentrasi Larutan Daun Kirinyuh (Choromolaena odorata (L. King & Robinson Terhadap Ulat Tritip (Plutella xylostella L Pada Tanaman Kubis (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata Di Laboratorium

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    Firdaus Firdaus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulat tritip, Plutella xylostella, merupakan hama cosmopolitan yang memiliki kecendrungan tinggi untuk resisten terhadap insektisida konvensional.  Oleh karenanya perlu terus dikaji bahan alternative yang berpotensi insektisidal untuk hama ini.  Kirinyuh, Chromolaena odorata, merupakan gulma invasive yang memiliki kandungan senyawa dengan  potensi insektisidal.   Penelitian ini  telah dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Hama dan Penyakit Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Islam Riau, Jalan Kaharudin Nasution, Kelurahan Simpang Tiga, Kecamatan Bukit Raya, Pekanbaru KM 11; dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh interaksi konsentrasi filtrate daun kirinyuh dengan dua cara aplikasi (metoda tetes/topical dan metoda celup daun/pakan. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap ( RAL faktorial, dimana faktor pertama adalah berbagai tingkat konsentrasi larutan daun kirinyuh ( D terdiri dari 5 taraf perlakuan yaitu : kontrol, 150 gr/liter air, 300 gr/liter air, 450 gr/liter air dan 600 gr/liter air dan faktor kedua adalah cara aplikasi ( A yang terdiri dari 2 taraf perlakuan dimana  cara pertama yaitu larutan yang ditetesi secara topikal ketubuh larva dan bahan makan larva yang dicelupkan kedalam larutan. Parameter yang diamati dalam penelitian ini adalah : persentase mortalitas larva Plutella xylostella, persentase larva menjadi pupa, persentase pupa menjadi imago dan dampak perlakuan terhadap progeni.Dari hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa pemberian berbagai tingkat konsentrasi filtrat kirinyuh dan cara aplikasi larutan daun kirinyuh secara interaksi berpengaruh secara nyata terhadap parameter pengamatan persentase mortalitas larva, persentase larva menjadi pupa, dan persentase pupa menjadi imago. Kombinasi perlakuan terbaik yaitu pada konsentrasi tertinggi yang di uji 600 g bahan per liter air dan metode celup daun.  Sedangkan perlakuan utama tingkat konsentrasi larutan kirinyuh berpengaruh nyata terhadap seluruh parameter pengamatan. Pengaruh

  5. Brasicáceas y perspectivas de control biológico del insecto plaga Plutella xylostella (Lepidóptera: Plutellidae utilizando Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieth Mena Guerrero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available La Plutella xylostella (L. es un insecto plaga que afecta principalmente los cultivos de brasicáceas o crucíferas como el repollo, coliflor, brócoli y rábano, entre otros. Las limitaciones del rendimiento y calidad de estos cultivos se deben principalmente al difícil manejo de esta plaga. En la actualidad, para controlar la P. xylostella se utilizan insecticidas de síntesis química, como piretroides, carbamatos u organofosforados, los cuales tienen acción inmediata pero causan efectos adversos en la salud y en el ambiente. Adicionalmente, la ausencia de enemigos naturales capaces de controlar a sus poblaciones, y su resistencia a numerosos insecticidas convencionales hacen que este insecto se establezca rápidamente en áreas productoras de brasicáceas. Se calcula que los costos mundiales asociados al control de la P. xylostella, sumados a las pérdidas en la producción agrícola, están entre cuatro y cinco billones de dólares anuales. Se han propuesto alternativas seguras, efectivas y de menor impacto ambiental, como el control biológico, que permite la producción sostenible de los cultivos de brasicáceas. La industria agrícola y forestal reconoce a la bacteria entomopatógena Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt como una buena alternativa biológica a los insecticidas químicos, puesto que es inocua sobre el ambiente y su toxicidad es altamente selectiva, ligada a su estrecho rango de especificidad sobre diferentes insectos plaga de los órdenes Lepidóptera, Coleóptera y Díptera. En esta revisión se presentan las posibilidades actuales que se pueden emplear para el control de la P. xylostella utilizando modelos investigativos basados en ensayos biológicos con Bt. Dichas posibilidades buscan superar las desventajas existentes en relación con la plaga P. xylostella y los cultivos de brasicáceas, además de entender la fisiología de Bt bajo condiciones que permitan incrementar la eficacia en el control biológico.

  6. Lack of fitness costs and inheritance of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in a near-isogenic strain of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xun; Yang, Yanjv; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Xia, Jixing; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-02-01

    Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulations in insects may be associated with fitness costs. A lack of costs enables resistance alleles to persist, which may contribute to the rapid development and spread of resistance in populations. To assess the fitness costs associated with Bt Cry1Ac resistance in Plutella xylostella, life tables were constructed for a near-isogenic resistant strain (NIL-R) and a susceptible strain in this study. No fitness costs associated with Cry1Ac resistance in NIL-R were detected, based on the duration of egg and larval stages, the survival of eggs and larvae, adult longevity, fecundity, net reproductive rate, gross reproduction rate, finite rate of increase and mean generation time. Based on log dose-probit lines, resistance in NIL-R is incompletely recessive and results from a single, autosomal, recessive locus; the degree of dominance was estimated to be -0.74 and -0.71 for F1 (resistant ♀ × susceptible ♂) and F1 ' (susceptible ♀ × resistant ♂) progeny respectively. Assessment of near-isogenic Cry1Ac-resistant and Cry1Ac-susceptible strains of P. xylostella indicated that resistance is not accompanied with fitness costs, and that resistance is incompletely recessive. These findings should be useful in managing the development of Bt Cry1Ac resistance. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. A whole genome screening and RNA interference identify a juvenile hormone esterase-like gene of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaojun; Kumar, Sunil; Kim, Eunjin; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) plays a crucial role in preventing precocious metamorphosis and stimulating reproduction. Thus, its hemolymph titer should be under a tight control. As a negative controller, juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) performs a rapid breakdown of residual JH in the hemolymph during last instar to induce a larval-to-pupal metamorphosis. A whole genome of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, has been annotated and proposed 11 JHE candidates. Sequence analysis using conserved motifs commonly found in other JHEs proposed a putative JHE (Px004817). Px004817 (64.61 kDa, pI=5.28) exhibited a characteristic JHE expression pattern by showing high peak at the early last instar, at which JHE enzyme activity was also at a maximal level. RNA interference of Px004817 reduced JHE activity and interrupted pupal development with a significant increase of larval period. This study identifies Px004817 as a JHE-like gene of P. xylostella. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Possible Insecticidal Mechanisms Mediated by Immune-Response-Related Cry-Binding Proteins in the Midgut Juice of Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Keyu; Gu, Yuqing; Liu, Xiaoping; Lin, Yi; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-03-15

    Cry toxins are insecticidal toxin proteins produced by a spore-forming Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Interactions between the Cry toxins and the receptors from midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs), such as cadherin, alkaline phosphatase, and aminopeptidase, are key steps for the specificity and insecticidal activity of Cry proteins. However, little is known about the midgut juice proteins that may interfere with Cry binding to the receptors. To validate the hypothesis that there exist Cry-binding proteins that can interfere with the insecticidal process of Cry toxins, we applied Cry1Ab1-coupled Sepharose beads to isolate Cry-binding proteins form midgut juice of Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua. Trypsin-like serine proteases and Dorsal were found to be Cry1Ab1-binding proteins in the midgut juice of P. xylostella. Peroxidase-C (POX-C) was found to be the Cry1Ab1-binding protein in the midgut juice of S. exigua. We proposed possible insecticidal mechanisms of Cry1Ab1 mediated by the two immune-related proteins: Dorsal and POX-C. Our results suggested that there exist, in the midgut juice, Cry-binding proteins, which are different from BBMV-specific receptors.

  9. Genome wide discovery of long intergenic non-coding RNAs in Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and their expression in insecticide resistant strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etebari, Kayvan; Furlong, Michael J.; Asgari, Sassan

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in genomic imprinting, cancer, differentiation and regulation of gene expression. Here, we identified 3844 long intergenic ncRNAs (lincRNA) in Plutella xylostella, which is a notorious pest of cruciferous plants that has developed field resistance to all classes of insecticides, including Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins. Further, we found that some of those lincRNAs may potentially serve as precursors for the production of small ncRNAs. We found 280 and 350 lincRNAs that are differentially expressed in Chlorpyrifos and Fipronil resistant larvae. A survey on P. xylostella midgut transcriptome data from Bt-resistant populations revealed 59 altered lincRNA in two resistant strains compared with the susceptible population. We validated the transcript levels of a number of putative lincRNAs in deltamethrin-resistant larvae that were exposed to deltamethrin, which indicated that this group of lincRNAs might be involved in the response to xenobiotics in this insect. To functionally characterize DBM lincRNAs, gene ontology (GO) enrichment of their associated protein-coding genes was extracted and showed over representation of protein, DNA and RNA binding GO terms. The data presented here will facilitate future studies to unravel the function of lincRNAs in insecticide resistance or the response to xenobiotics of eukaryotic cells. PMID:26411386

  10. RNA interference of pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide receptor suppresses mating behavior by inhibiting sex pheromone production in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Weon; Shrestha, Sony; Kim, A Young; Park, Seok Joo; Yang, Chang Yeol; Kim, Yonggyun; Koh, Young Ho

    2011-04-01

    Sex pheromone production is regulated by pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) in many lepidopteran species. We cloned a PBAN receptor (Plx-PBANr) gene from the female pheromone gland of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Plx-PBANr encodes 338 amino acids and has conserved structural motifs implicating in promoting G protein coupling and tyrosine-based sorting signaling along with seven transmembrane domains, indicating a typical G protein-coupled receptor. The expression of Plx-PBANr was found only in the pheromone gland of female adults among examined tissues and developmental stages. Heterologous expression in human uterus cervical cancer cells revealed that Plx-PBANr induced significant calcium elevation when challenged with Plx-PBAN. Female P. xylostella injected with double-stranded RNA specific to Plx-PBANr showed suppression of the receptor gene expression and exhibited significant reduction in pheromone biosynthesis, which resulted in loss of male attractiveness. Taken together, the identified PBAN receptor is functional in PBAN signaling via calcium secondary messenger, which leads to activation of pheromone biosynthesis and male attraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization and biotoxicity of Hypnea musciformis-synthesized silver nanoparticles as potential eco-friendly control tool against Aedes aegypti and Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roni, Mathath; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Nicoletti, Marcello; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Khater, Hanem F; Wei, Hui; Canale, Angelo; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Higuchi, Akon; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Two of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century comprise food production and disease control. Eco-friendly control tools against mosquito vectors and agricultural pests are urgently needed. Insecticidal products of marine origin have a huge potential to control these pests. In this research, we reported a single-step method to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of the seaweed Hypnea musciformis, a cheap, nontoxic and eco-friendly material, that worked as reducing and stabilizing agent during the biosynthesis. The formation of AgNP was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgNP were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD analyses. AgNP were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 40-65nm. Low doses of H. musciformis aqueous extract and seaweed-synthesized AgNP showed larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the cabbage pest Plutella xylostella. The LC50 value of AgNP ranged from 18.14 to 38.23ppm for 1st instar larvae (L1) and pupae of A. aegypti, and from 24.5 to 38.23ppm for L1 and pupae of P. xylostella. Both H. musciformis extract and AgNP strongly reduced longevity and fecundity of A. aegypti and P. xylostella adults. This study adds knowledge on the toxicity of seaweed borne insecticides and green-synthesized AgNP against arthropods of medical and agricultural importance, allowing us to propose the tested products as effective candidates to develop newer and cheap pest control tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A three amino acid deletion in the transmembrane domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit confers high-level resistance to spinosad in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xingliang; Lansdell, Stuart J; Zhang, Jianheng; Millar, Neil S; Wu, Yidong

    2016-04-01

    Spinosad is a macrocyclic lactone insecticide that acts primarily at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of target insects. Here we describe evidence that high levels of resistance to spinosad in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) are associated with a three amino acid (3-aa) deletion in the fourth transmembrane domain (TM4) of the nAChR α6 subunit (Pxα6). Following laboratory selection with spinosad, the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella exhibited 940-fold resistance to spinosad. In addition, the selected insect population had 1060-fold cross-resistance to spinetoram but, in contrast, no cross-resistance to abamectin was observed. Genetic analysis indicates that spinosad resistance in SZ-SpinR is inherited as a recessive and autosomal trait, and that the 3-aa deletion (IIA) in TM4 of Pxα6 is tightly linked to spinosad resistance. Because of well-established difficulties in functional expression of cloned insect nAChRs, the analogous resistance-associated deletion mutation was introduced into a prototype nAChR (the cloned human α7 subunit). Two-electrode voltage-clamp recording with wild-type and mutated nAChRs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that the mutation causes a complete loss of agonist activation. In addition, radioligand binding studies indicated that the 3-aa deletion resulted in significantly lower-affinity binding of the extracellular neurotransmitter-binding site. These findings are consistent with the 3-amino acid (IIA) deletion within the transmembrane domain of Pxα6 being responsible for target-site resistance to spinosad in the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. MONITORING RESISTENSI POPULASI Plutella xylostella, L TERHADAP RESIDU EMAMEKTIN BENZOAT DI SENTRA PRODUKSI TANAMAN KUBIS PROPINSI JAWA TENGAH (Monitoring the Resistance of Plutella xylostella, L Population against Emamektin Benzoate Residues

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    Udi Tarwotjo

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this research to know the susceptible of P. xylostella population against emamectin benzoate insecticide, to monitor the resistance development of  P. xylostella against insecticides by determine of a diagnostic concentration, to determine the resistance mechanism of P. xylostella population. P. xylostella  was collected from central of Java areas from August 2011 up to September 2012.  The data from bioassay test was analized using Probit analysis to obtain LC50 value. The suseptibility test of the insect resulted show that Puasan population (Ngablak FR value was 3.97 and it was higher than  the Selo population (Cepogo. The concentration of 2443.99 ppb as selected diagnostic consentration. The test result of diagnostic concentration validation indicated that the value of calculated c2 of all the tested population was lower than the value of c2table. Therefore the diagnostic concentration of 2443.99 ppb can be used monitoring device of susceptible P, xylostella population. The resistance mechanism of the P. xylostella to the insecticide resulted from the increase in the detoxification rate in the insect body by MFO enzyme, but non-specific esterase enzyme activity did not reflect the esterase activity.

  14. Geographic spread, genetics and functional characteristics of ryanodine receptor based target-site resistance to diamide insecticides in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Denise; Gutbrod, Oliver; Lümmen, Peter; Matthiesen, Svend; Schorn, Corinna; Nauen, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Anthranilic diamides and flubendiamide belong to a new chemical class of insecticides acting as conformation sensitive activators of the insect ryanodine receptor (RyR). These compounds control a diverse range of different herbivorous insects including diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), a notorious global pest on cruciferous crops, which recently developed resistance due to target-site mutations located in the trans-membrane domain of the Plutella RyR. In the present study we further investigated the genetics and functional implications of a RyR G4946E target-site mutation we recently identified in a Philippine diamondback moth strain (Sudlon). Strain Sudlon is homozygous for the G4946E mutation and has been maintained under laboratory conditions without selection pressure for almost four years, and still exhibit stable resistance ratios of >2000-fold to all commercial diamides. Its F1 progeny resulting from reciprocal crosses with a susceptible strain (BCS-S) revealed no maternal effects and a diamide susceptible phenotype, suggesting an autosomally almost recessive mode of inheritance. Subsequent back-crosses indicate a near monogenic nature of the diamide resistance in strain Sudlon. Radioligand binding studies with Plutella thoracic microsomal membrane preparations provided direct evidence for the dramatic functional implications of the RyR G4946E mutation on both diamide specific binding and its concentration dependent modulation of [(3)H]ryanodine binding. Computational modelling based on a cryo-EM structure of rabbit RyR1 suggests that Plutella G4946E is located in trans-membrane helix S4 close to S4-S5 linker domain supposed to be involved in the modulation of the voltage sensor, and another recently described mutation, I4790M in helix S2 approx. 13 Å opposite of G4946E. Genotyping by pyrosequencing revealed the presence of the RyR G4946E mutation in larvae collected in 2013/14 in regions of ten different countries where

  15. Efeito de sinigrina aplicada em folhas de brássicas sobre características biológicos de Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae = Effect of sinigrin applied on brassics leaves on biological aspects of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

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    Jackeline da Silva Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da ingestão de sinigrina aplicada em folhas de couve e brócolis sobre algumas características biológicas de Plutella xylostella. Foram utilizadas duas cultivares de brássicas: couve-manteiga Da Geórgia e brócolisRamoso Piracicaba Precoce, sendo elas tratadas com soluções de sinigrina a 0,2; 0,4; 0,8; 1,6 e 3,2 mg mL-1, contendo 5% de Tween20®, e uma testemunha, apenas com solução de Tween20®. Avaliou-se a duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupas, longevidade e razão sexual dos adultos, fecundidade das fêmeas, período de incubação e viabilidade da fase de ovo, tendo-se calculado o potencial reprodutivo corrigido (PRC. As médias foram avaliadas pela análise multivariada de agrupamento e de componentesprincipais. O maior potencial reprodutivo foi apresentado pela dose de 0,2 mg mL-1 em couve. As análises multivariadas proporcionaram melhor discriminação dos tratamentos em relação à menor concentração testada. Concluiu-se que baixa concentração de sinigrina, em couve e em brócolis, favorece o desenvolvimento de P. xylostella.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of sinigrin applied to cabbage and broccoli leaves of biological aspects of Plutella xylostella. Two brassica cultivars, cabbage Da Georgia and broccoli Ramoso Piracicaba Precoce, were used and were treated with the following sinigrin solutions: 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 mg mL-1 in solution 5% of Tween 20® and a control with Tween solution. Duration and viability of larval and pupal periods, pupal weight, longevity and sex ratio, female fertility, incubation period and egg viability were evaluated. The corrected reproductive potential index (PRC was also calculated. The means were analyzed by the multivariate analysis of grouping and of main components. The PRC treatments presented 0.2 mg mL-1 in cabbage with larger reproductive potential. The multivariate analysis provided

  16. Koolmot (Plutella xylostella)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PPO Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving,

    2005-01-01

    In deze publicatie informatie over geleide bestrijding van rupsen van de koolmot in koolgewassen. Informatie over de levenscyclus van de koolmot en de schade die zij kunnen aanrichten in het gewas, de beheersstrategie met behulp van feromoonvallen en de bestrijding met behulp van middelen op basis

  17. Temperature-dependent phenology of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): Simulation and visualization of current and future distributions along the Eastern Afromontane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Benignus V; Tonnang, Henri E Z; Mwangi, Evans M; Johansson, Tino; Ambale, Janet; Ndegwa, Paul N; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2017-01-01

    There is a scarcity of laboratory and field-based results showing the movement of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) across a spatial scale. We studied the population growth of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) under six constant temperatures, to understand and predict population changes along altitudinal gradients and under climate change scenarios. Non-linear functions were fitted to continuously model DBM development, mortality, longevity and oviposition. We compiled the best-fitted functions for each life stage to yield a phenology model, which we stochastically simulated to estimate the life table parameters. Three temperature-dependent indices (establishment, generation and activity) were derived from a logistic population growth model and then coupled to collected current (2013) and downscaled temperature data from AFRICLIM (2055) for geospatial mapping. To measure and predict the impacts of temperature change on the pest's biology, we mapped the indices along the altitudinal gradients of Mt. Kilimanjaro (Tanzania) and Taita Hills (Kenya) and assessed the differences between 2013 and 2055 climate scenarios. The optimal temperatures for development of DBM were 32.5, 33.5 and 33°C for eggs, larvae and pupae, respectively. Mortality rates increased due to extreme temperatures to 53.3, 70.0 and 52.4% for egg, larvae and pupae, respectively. The net reproduction rate reached a peak of 87.4 female offspring/female/generation at 20°C. Spatial simulations indicated that survival and establishment of DBM increased with a decrease in temperature, from low to high altitude. However, we observed a higher number of DBM generations at low altitude. The model predicted DBM population growth reduction in the low and medium altitudes by 2055. At higher altitude, it predicted an increase in the level of suitability for establishment with a decrease in the number of generations per year. If climate change occurs as per the selected scenario

  18. Distribution patterns and morphology of sensilla on the antennae of Plutella xylostella (L.)-A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study.

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    Yan, Xi-Zhong; Deng, Cai-Ping; Xie, Jiao-Xin; Wu, Lan-Jun; Sun, Xue-Jun; Hao, Chi

    2017-12-01

    The antennal morphology, types of antennal sensilla, fine structures and distributions of the sensilla in Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) were studied by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. The antenna, scape, pedicel and flagellum were all longer in males than in females. A total of seventeen types of sensilla were identified on the antennae: trichodea (two subtypes), basiconica, coeloconica (three subtypes), Böhm's bristles (two subtypes), styloconica (two subtypes), squamiformia, auricillica, furcatea (three subtypes), cupuliform organs and terminal sensory pegs. Their numbers and distributions were studied in both male and female, and we found some of the sensilla exhibited various degrees of sexual dimorphisms. Sensilla trichodea were the most abundant of all sensillum types whereas terminal peg was present only once per antenna. Sensilla trichodea in males were bigger (subtype I) and more abundant than in females, however, sensilla basiconica and squamiformia were significantly smaller and less abundant in males than in females. Sensilla styloconica II was only found in females. Seven common sensillum types were studied with TEM to reveal its fine internal structure providing morphological evidences of their sensory functions. Sensilla trichodea I, basiconica and coeloconica III have porous walls suggesting olfactory functions. Combined with the sexual dimorphism, sensilla trichodea male P. xylostella might be involved in detecting sexual pheromones and sensilla basiconica of female might respond to host plant volatiles. Whereas sensilla coeloconica (subtype I and II) and Böhm's bristles have nonporous walls suggesting non-olfactory functions. The study presented a thorough inventory of sensilla on the antennae and laid a solid foundation for future functional studies of these sensilla in this important economical pest. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Desempenho de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley e T. exiguum Pinto & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae submetidos a diferentes densidades de ovos de Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

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    Pereira Fabricio Fagundes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley e de Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner submetidos a diferentes densidades de ovos de Plutella xylostella (L.. Para cada espécie, grupos compostos por uma, duas e quatro fêmeas do parasitóide, foram confinadas em tubos de vidro juntamente com 15, 30, 45 e 60 ovos de P. xylostella por 24h. A duração do ciclo (ovo-adulto foi uniforme e exatamente igual a nove dias, tanto para T. pretiosum como para T. exiguum. A porcentagem de parasitismo de T. pretiosum e T. exiguum mais elevada foi encontrada nas combinações de 15 ovos quatro fêmeas-1 e duas fêmeas 15 ovos-1, respectivamente. A viabilidade do parasitismo para T. pretiosum e T. exiguum não foi afetada pelas combinações de parasitóides e ovos para ambas as espécies. A razão sexual foi igual a um para T. pretiosum e variando de 0,6 a 0,8 para T. exiguum. O número de parasitóides emergidos por ovo, de modo geral, foi um. As maiores porcentagens de deformação foram de 33,9 e 17,5% dos descendentes para T. pretiosum e T. exiguum, nos tubos contendo quatro fêmeas para 15 ovos, respectivamente. A combinação mais indicada para T. pretiosum e T. exiguum foi uma fêmea 25 ovos-1 e duas fêmeas 15 ovos-1, respectivamente.

  20. Mutations on M3 helix of Plutella xylostella glutamate-gated chloride channel confer unequal resistance to abamectin by two different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingliang; Puinean, Alin M; O Reilly, Andrias O; Williamson, Martin S; Smelt, Charles L C; Millar, Neil S; Wu, Yidong

    2017-07-01

    Abamectin is one of the most widely used avermectins for agricultural pests control, but the emergence of resistance around the world is proving a major threat to its sustained application. Abamectin acts by directly activating glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) and modulating other Cys-loop ion channels. To date, three mutations occurring in the transmembrane domain of arthropod GluCls are associated with target-site resistance to abamectin: A309V in Plutella xylostella GluCl (PxGluCl), G323D in Tetranychus urticae GluCl1 (TuGluCl1) and G326E in TuGluCl3. To compare the effects of these mutations in a single system, A309V/I/G and G315E (corresponding to G323 in TuGluCl1 and G326 in TuGluCl3) substitutions were introduced individually into the PxGluCl channel. Functional analysis using Xenopus oocytes showed that the A309V and G315E mutations reduced the sensitivity to abamectin by 4.8- and 493-fold, respectively. In contrast, the substitutions A309I/G show no significant effects on the response to abamectin. Interestingly, the A309I substitution increased the channel sensitivity to glutamate by one order of magnitude (∼12-fold). Analysis of PxGluCl homology models indicates that the G315E mutation interferes with abamectin binding through a steric hindrance mechanism. In contrast, the structural consequences of the A309 mutations are not so clear and an allosteric modification of the binding site is the most likely mechanism. Overall the results show that both A309V and G315E mutations may contribute to target-site resistance to abamectin and may be important for the future prediction and monitoring of abamectin resistance in P. xylostella and other arthropod pests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced attraction of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to pheromone-baited traps with the addition of green leaf volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The GLVs, such as 1-hexanol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, elicited strong electroantennographic responses from unmated male and female P. xylostella, whereas (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate only produced a relative weak response. The behavioral responses of unmated moths to GLVs were further tested in Y-tube olfactom...

  2. Influência de genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. na biologia de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae Influence of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on the biology of Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

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    Arlindo Leal Boiça Junior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a influência de alguns genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. no desenvolvimento de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Os genótipos avaliados foram: Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I-919, Manteiga de São José, Manteiga de Monte Alegre, Pires 2 de Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 1. Lagartas recém-eclodidas foram mantida em discos foliares de 8 cm de diâmetro para cada genótipo. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, longevidade e fecundidade de adultos, utilizando análises paramétricas e de agrupamentos para interpretação dos dados. Observou-se um prolongamento em dias no ciclo de P. xylostella, aumento no peso de pupa e maiores valores de viabilidade e fecundidade, durante a segunda geração. O genótipo Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2 foi menos favorável ao desenvolvimento de P. xylostella nas duas gerações, e Couve Comum demonstrou maior influência negativa ao inseto na segunda geração. Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620 foi o mais suscetível nas duas gerações, agrupando com este na segunda geração Pires 2 de Campinas e Manteiga de São José.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on growth of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. The genotypes evaluated were: Manteiga of Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I919, Manteiga of São José, Manteiga of Monte Alegre, Pires 2 of Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 1. Neonate larvae were reared in 8 cm leaf discs of each genotype. The parameters evaluated were: period and viability of the larval and pupal stages, sex ratio, longevity and fecundity of adults. Parametric and Cluster analyses were used for data analysis. Overall, it was observed a developmental delay in the P

  3. Efeito de extratos aquosos de Azadirachta indica, Melia azedarach e Aspidosperma pyrifolium no desenvolvimento e oviposição de Plutella xylostella Effect of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss, Melia azedarach (L. and Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Mart. on the development and oviposition of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

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    Adalci Leite Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados a CL50 e o efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na biologia, oviposição e período embrionário de Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Para determinação da CL50 foram utilizadas concentrações entre 0,03 e 0,8 % para amêndoas de Azadirachta indica (A. Juss. 0,5 e 7,0 % para casca de Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Mart. e 0,5 e 12,5 % para frutos de Melia azedarach (L., obtendo-se as CL50 de 0,06; 2,17 e 2,90%, respectivamente. Verificou-se que os extratos aquosos de todas as espécies vegetais afetaram o desenvolvimento do inseto, principalmente na fase larval. Na fase de pupa, os extratos reduziram a massa e a viabilidade. Houve deformação de adultos para os extratos de A. pyrifolium e M. azedarach e o de A. indica causou maior porcentagem. Todos os extratos possuem efeito tóxico para ovos de P. xylostella, sendo dependente do aumento da concentração. Nos extratos da casca de A. pyrifolium, do fruto de M. azedarach e da amêndoa de A. indica observa-se ação ovicida quando usados na concentração letal de lagartas de primeiro ínstar da praga. Em observações do ovo de P. xylostella com auxílio de um microscópio eletrônico de varredura, verificou-se a existência de microporos onde pode ocorrer a penetração do produto ovicida, além da constatação da textura rugosa da casca do ovo que pode reter ou fixar os extratos.The effects of aqueous extracts of plants on the biology, preference for oviposition and embryonic period of Plutella xylostella were evaluated. Concentrations between 0.03 and 0.8 % for kernel of Azadirachta indica, 0.5 and 7.0% for peel of Aspidosperma pyrifolium and 0.5 and 12.5% for fruits of Melia azedarach were used, with LC50 values of 0.06; 2.17 and 2.90%, respectively, being obtained. It was verified that the aqueous extracts of all of the appraised vegetable species affected the development of the insect, mainly in the larval phase. In the pupae phase, the extracts reduced the

  4. Mis-spliced transcripts of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha6 are associated with field evolved spinosad resistance in Plutella xylostella (L..

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    Simon W Baxter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of insecticide resistance is a global constraint to agricultural production. Spinosad is a new, low-environmental-risk insecticide that primarily targets nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR and is effective against a wide range of pest species. However, after only a few years of application, field evolved resistance emerged in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, an important pest of brassica crops worldwide. Spinosad resistance in a Hawaiian population results from a single incompletely recessive and autosomal gene, and here we use AFLP linkage mapping to identify the chromosome controlling resistance in a backcross family. Recombinational mapping with more than 700 backcross progeny positioned a putative spinosad target, nAChR alpha 6 (Pxalpha6, at the resistance locus, PxSpinR. A mutation within the ninth intron splice junction of Pxalpha6 results in mis-splicing of transcripts, which produce a predicted protein truncated between the third and fourth transmembrane domains. Additional resistance-associated Pxalpha6 transcripts that excluded the mutation containing exon were detected, and these were also predicted to produce truncated proteins. Identification of the locus of resistance in this important crop pest will facilitate field monitoring of the spread of resistance and offer insights into the genetic basis of spinosad resistance in other species.

  5. Thermotolerance, oxidative stress, apoptosis, heat-shock proteins and damages to reproductive cells of insecticide-susceptible and -resistant strains of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L J; Chen, J L; Yang, B L; Kong, X G; Bourguet, D; Wu, G

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we investigated thermotolerance, several physiological responses and damage to reproductive cells in chlorpyrifos-resistant (Rc) and -susceptible (Sm) strains of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella subjected to heat stress. The chlorpyrifos resistance of these strains was mediated by a modified acetylcholinesterase encoded by an allele, ace1R, of the ace1 gene. Adults of the Rc strain were less heat resistant than those of the Sm strain; they also had lower levels of enzymatic activity against oxidative damage, higher reactive oxygen species contents, weaker upregulation of two heat shock protein (hsp) genes (hsp69s and hsp20), and stronger upregulation of two apoptotic genes (caspase-7 and -9). The damage to sperm and ovary cells was greater in Rc adults than in Sm adults and was temperature sensitive. The lower fitness of the resistant strain, compared with the susceptible strain, is probably due to higher levels of oxidative stress and apoptosis, which also have deleterious effects on several life history traits. The greater injury observed in conditions of heat stress may be due to both the stronger upregulation of caspase genes and weaker upregulation of hsp genes in resistant than in susceptible individuals.

  6. Identification and characterization of NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase gene and cytochrome b₅ gene from Plutella xylostella: possible involvement in resistance to beta-cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi'en; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-03-10

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and cytochrome b5 (b5) are essential for cytochrome P450 mediated biological reactions. CPR and b5 in several insects have been found to be associated with insecticide resistance. However, CPR and b5 in the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, are not characterized and their roles remain undefined. A full-length cDNA of CPR encoding 678 amino acids and a full-length cDNA of b5 encoding 127 amino acids were cloned from DBM. Their deduced amino acid sequences shared high identities with those of other insects and showed characteristics of classical CPRs and b5s, respectively. The mRNAs of both genes were detectable in all developmental stages with the highest expression levels occurring in the 4th instar larvae. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that their transcripts were most abundant in gut. Transcripts of CPR and b5 in the beta-cypermethrin resistant DBM strain were 13.2- and 2.84-fold higher than those in the beta-cypermethrin susceptible strain, respectively. The expression levels of CPR and b5 were enhanced by beta-cypermethrin at the concentration of 12 mg L(-1) (~LC10). The results indicate that CPR and b5 may play essential roles in the P450 mediated resistance of DBM to beta-cypermethrin or even other insecticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Tea Saponin-Treated Host Plants on Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in Larvae of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuo; Chen, Yixin; Bai, Yan; Cai, Hongjiao; Wei, Hui; Tian, Houjun; Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Yong; Yang, Guang; Gu, Xiaojun; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2018-06-06

    Tea saponin (TS) is extracted from the seeds of the tea plant and is generally regarded as a safe compound that has insecticidal properties and can act synergistically with other compounds. In this study, the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were compared in midgut tissues of third instar larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The larvae were fed on three different host plants, cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata [Capparales: Brassicaceae]), radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radiculus Persi [Capparales: Brassicaceae]), or rape (Brassica campestris L. [Capparales: Brassicaceae]), that had been treated with TS. Higher SOD, POD, and CAT activities were found in DBM larvae fed on cabbage after LC20 (concentration that induced 20% larval mortality) or LC50 (concentration that induced 50% larval mortality) treatment than on the control. On rape, TS treatments led to lower SOD and CAT activities than in the control and to higher POD activities after 24 h. MDA content increased in larvae fed on rape but decreased in larvae fed on radish after 12 h. Our results indicated that DBM larvae are more susceptible to TS on rape than on cabbage and radish, suggesting that this treatment may be an economic and effective means of controlling DBM on rape.

  8. Testing insecticidal activity of novel chemically synthesized siRNA against Plutella xylostella under laboratory and field conditions.

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    Liang Gong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last 60 years, synthetic chemical pesticides have served as a main tactic in the field of crop protection, but their availability is now declining as a result of the development of insect resistance. Therefore, alternative pest management agents are needed. However, the demonstration of RNAi gene silencing in insects and its successful usage in disrupting the expression of vital genes opened a door to the development of a variety of novel, environmentally sound approaches for insect pest management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six small interfering RNAs (siRNAs were chemically synthesized and modified according to the cDNA sequence of P. xylostella acetylcholine esterase genes AChE1 and AChE2. All of them were formulated and used in insecticide activity screening against P. xylostella. Bioassay data suggested that Si-ace1_003 and Si-ace2_001 at a concentration of 3 µg cm(-2 displayed the best insecticidal activity with 73.7% and 89.0%, mortality, respectively. Additional bioassays were used to obtain the acute lethal concentrations of LC50 and LC90 for Si-ace2_001, which were 53.66 µg/ml and 759.71 µg/ml, respectively. Quantitative Real-time PCR was used to confirm silencing and detected that the transcript levels of P. xylostella AChE2 (PxAChE2 were reduced by 5.7-fold compared to the control group. Consequently, AChE activity was also reduced by 1.7-fold. Finally, effects of the siRNAs on treated plants of Brassica oleracea and Brassica alboglabra were investigated with different siRNA doses. Our results showed that Si-ace2_001 had no negative effects on plant morphology, color and growth of vein under our experimental conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The most important finding of this study is the discovery that chemically synthesized and modified siRNA corresponding to P. xylostella AChE genes cause significant mortality of the insect both under laboratory and field conditions, which provides a novel strategy to control P

  9. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, Shanivarsanthe Leelesh; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Srinivasa Murthy, Kottilingam; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Verghese, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n=13) and adults (n=12) of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%), followed by bacilli (15.4%). Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%), bacilli (16.7%) and flavobacteria (16.7%). Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32μmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus - KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans - KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26μmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Discovery of Organophosphate Resistance-Related Genes Associated With Well-known Resistance Mechanisms of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) by RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Lin, Yu-Yu; Chang, Chia-Che; Hua, Kuo-Hsun; Chen, Mei-Ju May; Huang, Li-Hsin; Chen, Chien-Yu

    2016-04-22

    Pesticide resistance poses many challenges for pest control, particularly for destructive pests such as diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella). Organophosphates have been used in the field since the 1950s, leading to selection for resistance-related gene variants and the development of resistance to new insecticides in the diamondback moth. Identifying actual and potential genes involved in resistance could offer solutions for control. This study established resistant diamondback moth strains from two different collections using mevinphos. Two sets of transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) data were generated for pairs of mevinphos-resistant versus susceptible (wild-type) strains. One susceptible strain containing 14 giga base pairs was assembled into a reference-based assembly using published scaffold sequences as reference. Differential expression data between resistant and susceptible strains revealed 944 transcripts (803 with annotations) showing upregulation and 427 transcripts (150 with annotations) showing downregulation. Around 6.8% of the differential expression transcripts (65) could be categorized as associated with well-known resistance mechanisms such as penetration, detoxification, and behavior response; of these 65 transcripts, 38 showed upregulation, and 12 relating to penetration were upregulated when the transcripts of 19 cytochrome P450s, 2 zeta-class glutathione S-transferases, and 4 ATP-binding cassette transporters showed upregulation. In addition, 11 groups of transcripts related to olfactory perception appeared to be downregulated in trade-off situations. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction expression results were consistent with RNA-Seq data. Possible roles of these differentially expressed genes in resistance mechanisms are discussed in this study. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanivarsanthe Leelesh Ramya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n = 13 and adults (n = 12 of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%, followed by bacilli (15.4%. Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%, bacilli (16.7% and flavobacteria (16.7%. Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32 µmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus – KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans – KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26 µmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM.

  12. Identification of multiple small heat-shock protein genes in Plutella xylostella (L.) and their expression profiles in response to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi'en; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    We identify and characterize 14 small heat-shock protein (sHSP) genes from the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), a destructive pest. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that, except for sHSP18.8 and sHSP19.22, the other 12 DBM sHSPs belong to five known insect sHSP groups. Developmental expression analysis revealed that most sHSPs peaked in the pupal and adult stages. The transcripts of sHSPs display tissue specificity with two exhibiting constitutive expression in four tested tissues. Expression of sHSP18.8 in fourth instar larvae is not induced by the tested abiotic stressors, and unless sHSP21.8 is not sensitive to thermal stress, 12 sHSPs are significantly up-regulated. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of all sHSPs are reduced under oxidative stress. Food deprivation leads to significant down-regulation of three sHSPs. The majority of sHSPs show expression variation to various heavy metals, whereas mRNA abundances of sHSP22.1 and sHSP 28.9 are reduced by four heavy metals. The responses of sHSPs to indoxacarb and cantharidin are varied. Beta-cypermethrin and chlorfenapyr exposure results in an increase of 13 sHSP transcripts and a reduction of 12 sHSP transcripts, respectively. These results show that different sHSPs might play distinct roles in the development and regulation of physiological activities, as well as in response to various abiotic stresses of DBM.

  13. Genetic Structure and Demographic History Reveal Migration of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from the Southern to Northern Regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Jin, Gui-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin; Meng, Xiang-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is one of the most destructive insect pests of cruciferous plants worldwide. Biological, ecological and genetic studies have indicated that this moth is migratory in many regions around the world. Although outbreaks of this pest occur annually in China and cause heavy damage, little is known concerning its migration. To better understand its migration pattern, we investigated the population genetic structure and demographic history of the diamondback moth by analyzing 27 geographical populations across China using four mitochondrial genes and nine microsatellite loci. The results showed that high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity occurred in the diamondback moth populations, a finding that is typical for migratory species. No genetic differentiation among all populations and no correlation between genetic and geographical distance were found. However, pairwise analysis of the mitochondrial genes has indicated that populations from the southern region were more differentiated than those from the northern region. Gene flow analysis revealed that the effective number of migrants per generation into populations of the northern region is very high, whereas that into populations of the southern region is quite low. Neutrality testing, mismatch distribution and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses based on mitochondrial genes all revealed that deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and sudden expansion of the effective population size were present in populations from the northern region but not in those from the southern region. In conclusion, all our analyses strongly demonstrated that the diamondback moth migrates within China from the southern to northern regions with rare effective migration in the reverse direction. Our research provides a successful example of using population genetic approaches to resolve the seasonal migration of insects. PMID:23565158

  14. Crystal structure of ryanodine receptor N-terminal domain from Plutella xylostella reveals two potential species-specific insecticide-targeting sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lianyun; Liu, Chen; Qin, Juan; Wang, Jie; Dong, Shengjie; Chen, Wei; He, Weiyi; Gao, Qingzhi; You, Minsheng; Yuchi, Zhiguang

    2018-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are large calcium-release channels located in sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. They play a central role in excitation-contraction coupling of muscle cells. Three commercialized insecticides targeting pest RyRs generate worldwide sales over 2 billion U.S. dollars annually, but the structure of insect RyRs remains elusive, hindering our understanding of the mode of action of RyR-targeting insecticides and the development of insecticide resistance in pests. Here we present the crystal structure of RyR N-terminal domain (NTD) (residue 1-205) at 2.84 Å resolution from the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, a destructive pest devouring cruciferous crops all over the world. Similar to its mammalian homolog, DBM RyR NTD consists of a beta-trefoil folding motif and a flanking alpha helix. Interestingly, two regions in NTD interacting with neighboring domains showed distinguished conformations in DBM relative to mammalian RyRs. Using homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulation, we created a structural model of the N-terminal three domains, showing two unique binding pockets that could be targeted by potential species-specific insecticides. Thermal melt experiment showed that the stability of DBM RyR NTD was higher than mammalian RyRs, probably due to a stable intra-domain disulfide bond observed in the crystal structure. Previously DBM NTD was shown to be one of the two critical regions to interact with insecticide flubendiamide, but isothermal titration calorimetry experiments negated DBM NTD alone as a major binding site for flubendiamide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interspecific competition between Diadegma semiclausum Hellen and Diadegma mollipla (Holmgren), parasitoids of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L), feeding on a new host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbach, A; Löhr, B; Vidal, S

    2008-04-01

    Interspecific competition between an introduced parasitoid species aimed at controlling a herbivorous pest species and a native parasitoid parasitising the same host may influence the success of classical biological control programmes. In Kenya, interspecific competition between an introduced and a local parasitoid on two diamondback moth populations (DBM, Plutella xylostella) was investigated on two different host plants. We tested simultaneous and delayed competition of the local parasitoid Diadegma mollipla Holmgren and its exotic congenus D. semiclausum Hellen on a newly aquired DBM host plant (snowpea) in the laboratory. Under simultaneous competition, D. mollipla produced more progeny than D. semiclausum on snowpea. A head start of D. Mollipla, of four and eight hours before its congenus was introduced, resulted in a similar number of progeny of both species. In delayed competition (time intervals of 24 h, 48 h and 72 h), progeny production was similar for both parasitoids when the time interval was 24 h, irrespective of which species parasitized first. More progeny was produced by the species which attacked first, when the time interval was greater than 24 h, although it was only significant at 72 h. Competitive abilites of both parasitoids on the new host plant differed largely between laboratory and semi-field conditions. The influence of two host plants (snowpea and cabbage) on competition was studied in the greenhouse with different host and parasitoid densities. Parasitism levels of D. semiclausum were significantly higher than those of D. mollipla, regardless of host plant, host and parasitoid densities, but progeny production of D. mollipla on snowpea was still slightly higher than on cabbage. As compared to the confinement of parasitoids and larvae to small containers, D. mollipla parasitized very few larvae in the cages. Competitive ability of the two parasitoid species tested was influenced both by the density of the searching females and by

  16. Characterisation of a radiation-resistant strain of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Aizawai with improved toxicity to larval plutella xylostella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadi, N.M.; Boo, J.M.L.; Jangi, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    A radiation-resistant strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Aizawai which was previously shown to be more toxic against larval Plutell xylostella was further characterized. Some of the growth characteristics of the mutant strain were quite different from those of the parent strain. In shake flask culture, its lag period was shorter and its cell yield was lower. The growth rate, however, was the same as that of the parent. Electron microscope studies show that the insecticidal parasporal crystals from the mutant strain are significantly bigger than those produced by the parent strain. The average length and width of the crystals were 1.25 and 0.53 um respectively whereas those of the parent were 0.87 and 0.35 um, respectively. The crystals from the mutant strain were also more toxic. The LC 50 was 0.30 ug crystal protein per ml as against 0.66 ug crystal protein per ml for those from the parent strain. Protein profile of the crystals obtained with SDS-PA gel electrophoresis showed that the mutant strain produced an additional polypeptide of 143 KDa polypeptide. The mutant strain also has an additional high molecular weight plasmid. The improved toxicity may have been brought about by a number of factors including an alteration in the regulatory mechanism that control the synthesis of the polypeptides that make up the crystals. (Auth.). 5 figs.; 21 refs.; 2 tabs

  17. Identification of a novel cytochrome P450 gene, CYP321E1 from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) and RNA interference to evaluate its role in chlorantraniliprole resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z; Lin, Q; Chen, H; Li, Z; Yin, F; Feng, X

    2014-12-01

    Insect cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) play an important role in catalysis of many reactions leading to insecticides resistance. Our previous studies on transcriptome analysis of chlorantraniliprole-resistant development in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella revealed that up-regulation of cytochrome P450s are one of the main factors leading to the development of chlorantraniliprole resistance. Here, we report for the first time a novel cytochrome P450 gene CYP321E1, which belongs to the cytochrome P450 gene family CYP321. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analyses indicated that CYP321E1 was expressed at all developmental stages of P. xylostella but was highest in the fourth-instar larvae; furthermore, the relatively high expression was observed in the midgut of the fourth-instar larvae, followed by fat bodies and epidermis. The expression of CYP321E1 in P. xylostella was differentially affected by three representative insecticides, including alphamethrin, abamectin and chlorantraniliprole. Among them, the exposure to chlorantraniliprole resulted in the largest transcript level of this cytochrome P450 gene. The findings suggested potential involvement of CYP321E1 in chlorantraniliprole resistance of P. xylostella. To assess the functional link of CYP321E1 to chlorantraniliprole resistance, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing by double stranded RNA (dsRNA) injecting was used. Results revealed that injection delivery of dsRNA can greatly reduce gene expression after 24 h. As a consequence of RNAi, a significant increment in mortality of larvae injected CYP321E1 dsRNA was observed after 24 h of exposure to chlorantraniliprole. These results strongly support our notion that this novel cytochrome P450 gene plays an important role in chlorantraniliprole detoxification in the diamondback moth and is partly responsible for its resistance.

  18. A reference gene set for sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, based on genome and transcriptome digital gene expression analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peng; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Hong, Duan-Yang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xing-Liang; Zuo, Ling-Hua; Tang, Xian-Fu; Xu, Wei-Ming; He, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Female moths synthesize species-specific sex pheromone components and release them to attract male moths, which depend on precise sex pheromone chemosensory system to locate females. Two types of genes involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways play essential roles in this important moth behavior. To understand the function of genes in the sex pheromone pathway, this study investigated the genome-wide and digital gene expression of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes in various adult tissues in the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, which is a notorious vegetable pest worldwide. A massive transcriptome data (at least 39.04 Gb) was generated by sequencing 6 adult tissues including male antennae, female antennae, heads, legs, abdomen and female pheromone glands from DBM by using Illumina 4000 next-generation sequencing and mapping to a published DBM genome. Bioinformatics analysis yielded a total of 89,332 unigenes among which 87 transcripts were putatively related to seven gene families in the sex pheromone biosynthesis pathway. Among these, seven [two desaturases (DES), three fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR) one acetyltransferase (ACT) and one alcohol dehydrogenase (AD)] were mainly expressed in the pheromone glands with likely function in the three essential sex pheromone biosynthesis steps: desaturation, reduction, and esterification. We also identified 210 odorant-degradation related genes (including sex pheromone-degradation related genes) from seven major enzyme groups. Among these genes, 100 genes are new identified and two aldehyde oxidases (AOXs), one aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), five carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs), five UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), eight cytochrome P450 (CYP) and three glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) displayed more robust expression in the antennae, and thus are proposed to participate in the degradation of sex pheromone components and plant volatiles. To date, this is the most

  19. N-Substituted 5-Chloro-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2H-ones: Synthesis, Insecticidal Activity Against Plutella xylostella (L. and SAR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of N-substituted 5-chloro-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2H-one derivatives were synthesized based on our previous work; all compounds were characterized by spectral data and tested for in vitro insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella. The results showed that the synthesized pyridazin-3(2H-one compounds possessed good insecticidal activities, especially the compounds 4b, 4d, and 4h which showed > 90% activity at 100 mg/L. The structure-activity relationships (SAR for these compounds were also discussed.

  20. Kopūstinės kandies (Plutella xylostella L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutelidae) skraidymo ir kenkimo intensyvumo dinamika vasarinių rapsų ir gūžinių kopūstų pasėliuose

    OpenAIRE

    Vyšniauskaitė, Sigrida

    2013-01-01

    Magistrantūros studijų baigiamajame darbe pateikiami kopūstinės kandies skraidymo bei kenkimo dinamikos vasarinių rapsų ir gūžinių kopūstų pasėliuose tyrimų rezultatai. Darbo objektas – kopūstinė kandis (Plutella xylostella L.) Darbo metodai – kopūstinės kandies skraidymo dinamika tirta naudojant feromonines “delta” tipo gaudykles, 2012 m. gegužės – rugpjūčio mėnesiais, vasarinių rapsų ir ankstyvųjų bei vėlyvųjų baltagūžių kopūstų pasėliuose. Vasarinių rapsų pasėlyje buvo įrengta 12 ga...

  1. The Entomopathogenic Fungi Isaria fumosorosea Plays a Vital Role in Suppressing the Immune System of Plutella xylostella: RNA-Seq and DGE Analysis of Immunity-Related Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Xu, Xiaoxia; Shakeel, Muhammad; Li, Shuzhong; Wang, Shuang; Zhou, Xianqiang; Yu, Jialin; Xu, Xiaojing; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Jin, Fengliang

    2017-01-01

    Most, if not all, entomopathogenic fungi have been used as alternative control agents to decrease the insect resistance and harmful effects of the insecticides on the environment. Among them, Isaria fumosorosea has also shown great potential to control different insect pests. In the present study, we explored the immune response of P. xylostella to the infection of I. fumosorosea at different time points by using RNA-Sequencing and differential gene expression technology at the genomic level. To gain insight into the host-pathogen interaction at the genomic level, five libraries of P. xylostella larvae at 12, 18, 24, and 36 h post-infection and a control were constructed. In total, 161 immunity-related genes were identified and grouped into four categories; immune recognition families, toll and Imd pathway, melanization, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The results of differentially expressed immunity-related genes depicted that 15, 13, 53, and 14 up-regulated and 38, 51, 56, and 49 were down-regulated in P. xylostella at 12, 18, 24, and 36 h post-treatment, respectively. RNA-Seq results of immunity-related genes revealed that the expression of AMPs was reduced after treatment with I. fumosorosea . To validate RNA-Seq results by RT-qPCR, 22 immunity-related genes were randomly selected. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that I. fumosorosea has the potential to suppress the immune response of P. xylostella and can become a potential biopesticide for controlling P. xylostella .

  2. The Entomopathogenic Fungi Isaria fumosorosea Plays a Vital Role in Suppressing the Immune System of Plutella xylostella: RNA-Seq and DGE Analysis of Immunity-Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most, if not all, entomopathogenic fungi have been used as alternative control agents to decrease the insect resistance and harmful effects of the insecticides on the environment. Among them, Isaria fumosorosea has also shown great potential to control different insect pests. In the present study, we explored the immune response of P. xylostella to the infection of I. fumosorosea at different time points by using RNA-Sequencing and differential gene expression technology at the genomic level. To gain insight into the host-pathogen interaction at the genomic level, five libraries of P. xylostella larvae at 12, 18, 24, and 36 h post-infection and a control were constructed. In total, 161 immunity-related genes were identified and grouped into four categories; immune recognition families, toll and Imd pathway, melanization, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs. The results of differentially expressed immunity-related genes depicted that 15, 13, 53, and 14 up-regulated and 38, 51, 56, and 49 were down-regulated in P. xylostella at 12, 18, 24, and 36 h post-treatment, respectively. RNA-Seq results of immunity-related genes revealed that the expression of AMPs was reduced after treatment with I. fumosorosea. To validate RNA-Seq results by RT-qPCR, 22 immunity-related genes were randomly selected. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that I. fumosorosea has the potential to suppress the immune response of P. xylostella and can become a potential biopesticide for controlling P. xylostella.

  3. Draft Genome Assembly of a Wolbachia Endosymbiont of Plutella australiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Christopher M; Baxter, Simon W

    2017-10-26

    Wolbachia spp. are endosymbiotic bacteria that infect around 50% of arthropods and cause a broad range of effects, including manipulating host reproduction. Here, we present the annotated draft genome assembly of Wolbachia strain wAus, which infects Plutella australiana , a cryptic ally of the major Brassica pest Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth). Copyright © 2017 Ward and Baxter.

  4. The Development of Endemic Baculoviruses on Thediamond Blackmoth (DBM) Plutella Xylostella Linnaeus. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) for Control of the Pest in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibata, G

    2002-01-01

    One of the DFDI (RNR) cluster projects on vegetable pest management was designed to develop methods of of DBM control on brassica crops in Kenya has been exploring the use of endemic pathogens as potential control agents. Initial surveys for endemic pathogens identified P.xylostella granulovirus (PxyGV) on farms in Kenya. Subsequently 14 genetically distinguishable isolates were identified from field collected material. These were purified and ranging bioassays showed these isolates were pathogenic to Kenya strains of DBM with LC 5 0's varing from 2.3x10 6 to 3.9x10 7 occlusion bodies (OB) per ml for second instar DBM. One isolate designated (Nya-01) was selected and subsequently used for trial in Kenya. The trials showed that unformulated PlxyGV applied at weekly intervals at a rate of 3.0 x 10 1 3 OB/ha could control DBM on Kale more effectively than available chemical insecticides. After application, infection rates in DBM can reach 90%. Further field trials are currently underway to determine the lowest effective dose rate for this virus when applied as a formulation. Initial virus production studies using in vivo propagation in 2nd instar DBM reared on cabbage showed an initial productivity of 4.0 + 0.44x10 1 0 OB per larva

  5. Integrated Control of Cabbage Pests Plutella xylostella (L) and Crocidolomia binotalis (Z) by Release of Irradiated Moths and the Parasitoid Diadegma semiclausums (H) under Field Cage and a Small Area Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singgih-Sutrisno

    2005-01-01

    The impact of the release of irradiated Diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L) with a dose of 200 Gy was studied in field cage experiments by releasing of irradiated and untreated DBM at a 9:1 ratio. Releasing male and female (F-1) of irradiated DBM caused a considerable level of sterility in the subsequent generations. The sterility level in those respective generations were 73.03% and 73.30%, while the release of the F-1 male only induced a level of sterility of about 55.40% and 56.44%. Inundative releases of irradiated males caused the level of sterility to reach about 44.78% and 68.01% in F-1 and F-2 respectively. The effect of the release of irradiated male Cabbage web worm (CWW) moths Crocidolomia binotalis (Z), and the release of both sexes on the population were studied under laboratory cage conditions. There was a significant difference between the effects of releasing irradiated male only and both sexes at a level of F ≤ 0.001, where the percentage of egg hatch were 22.78% and 24.75% respectively in the F-1 and F-2 generations. The effects of combining two tactics, inherited sterility and the release of parasitoid Diadegma semiclausums (H) for controlling DBMS were studied. The pupal viability in the F-1 generation was 32.5% as compared to the untreated DBMS. The impacts of respective single tactic the release of F-1 males and parasitoid D. semiclausums on the pupal viability were 57.5% and 81%. The effects of the release of sub sterile insects in a small area of about 1000 m 2 located at an isolated area in the forest in Malang, East Java was found that average number of moths caught per week from first to the fifth month at the release area was about 89.42% as compared to those at the control area. The highest level of parasitation of D, semiclausums was found in the second instar larvae of DBMS. Population growth of parasitoid D. semiclausums from the first generation to the eleventh generation increased till to the fifth generation larvae

  6. 4 Parasitism of Plutella xylostella.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Plutellidae) Populations on Cabbage Brassica oleracea var. ... Agricultural Research Centers, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana ... production of cabbage, 26.2% of the variation in parasitism was due to the ... Fertiliser use included a split application of 450 kg/ha of 15:15:15 NPK at 7 ... and of no economic impact.

  7. Plutella australiana (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae), an overlooked diamondback moth revealed by DNA barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jean-François; Hebert, Paul DN

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Plutella was thought to be represented in Australia by a single introduced species, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), the diamondback moth. Its status as a major pest of cruciferous crops, and the difficulty in developing control strategies has motivated broad-ranging studies on its biology. Prior genetic work has generally supported the conclusion that populations of this migratory species are connected by substantial gene flow. However, the present study reveals the presence of two genetically divergent lineages of this taxonin Australia. One shows close genetic and morphological similarity with the nearly cosmopolitan Plutella xylostella. The second lineage possesses a similar external morphology, but marked sequence divergence in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene, coupled with clear differences in genitalia. As a consequence, members of this lineage are described as a new species, Plutella australiana Landry & Hebert, which is broadly distributed in the eastern half of Australia. PMID:24167421

  8. Plutella australiana (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae), an overlooked diamondback moth revealed by DNA barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jean-François; Hebert, Paul Dn

    2013-01-01

    The genus Plutella was thought to be represented in Australia by a single introduced species, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), the diamondback moth. Its status as a major pest of cruciferous crops, and the difficulty in developing control strategies has motivated broad-ranging studies on its biology. Prior genetic work has generally supported the conclusion that populations of this migratory species are connected by substantial gene flow. However, the present study reveals the presence of two genetically divergent lineages of this taxonin Australia. One shows close genetic and morphological similarity with the nearly cosmopolitan Plutella xylostella. The second lineage possesses a similar external morphology, but marked sequence divergence in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene, coupled with clear differences in genitalia. As a consequence, members of this lineage are described as a new species, Plutella australiana Landry & Hebert, which is broadly distributed in the eastern half of Australia.

  9. Cryptic Plutella species show deep divergence despite the capacity to hybridize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kym D; Baker, Gregory J; Powis, Kevin J; Kent, Joanne K; Ward, Christopher M; Baxter, Simon W

    2018-05-29

    Understanding genomic and phenotypic diversity among cryptic pest taxa has important implications for the management of pests and diseases. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., has been intensively studied due to its ability to evolve insecticide resistance and status as the world's most destructive pest of brassicaceous crops. The surprise discovery of a cryptic species endemic to Australia, Plutella australiana Landry & Hebert, raised questions regarding the distribution, ecological traits and pest status of the two species, the capacity for gene flow and whether specific management was required. Here, we collected Plutella from wild and cultivated brassicaceous plants from 75 locations throughout Australia and screened 1447 individuals to identify mtDNA lineages and Wolbachia infections. We genotyped genome-wide SNP markers using RADseq in coexisting populations of each species. In addition, we assessed reproductive compatibility in crossing experiments and insecticide susceptibility phenotypes using bioassays. The two Plutella species coexisted on wild brassicas and canola crops, but only 10% of Plutella individuals were P. australiana. This species was not found on commercial Brassica vegetable crops, which are routinely sprayed with insecticides. Bioassays found that P. australiana was 19-306 fold more susceptible to four commonly-used insecticides than P. xylostella. Laboratory crosses revealed that reproductive isolation was incomplete but directionally asymmetric between the species. However, genome-wide nuclear SNPs revealed striking differences in genetic diversity and strong population structure between coexisting wild populations of each species. Nuclear diversity was 1.5-fold higher in P. australiana, yet both species showed limited variation in mtDNA. Infection with a single Wolbachia subgroup B strain was fixed in P. australiana, suggesting that a selective sweep contributed to low mtDNA diversity, while a subgroup A strain infected just 1

  10. Tritrophic choice experiments with Bt plants, the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, T.H.; Potting, R.P.J.; Denholm, I.; Clark, S.J.; Clark, A.J.; Stewart, C.N.; Poppy, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Parasitoids are important natural enemies of many pest species and are used extensively in biological and integrated control programmes. Crop plants transformed to express toxin genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide high levels of resistance to certain pest species, which is likely

  11. Host location behavior of Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in ambient and moderately elevated ozone in field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, D.M.; Himanen, S.J.; Nissinen, A.; Nerg, A.-M.; Holopainen, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    In field O 3 -enrichment experiments increased herbivore densities have been reported, which could be due to negatively affected host location behavior of natural enemies. We addressed the impact of doubling background O 3 on the host location of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae by conducting 24-h trials in an open-air O 3 -fumigation system during two consecutive years. Two circles (radii 1.40 and 4.00 m) of Plutella xylostella-infested potted cabbage plants were placed in the O 3 and ambient plots. Female wasps were released into each plot from the center, and observed 5 times over a 24-h period to assess their host location capability. Thereafter, plants were kept in laboratory conditions until larvae pupation to determine parasitism rates. No significant differences were detected between ambient and O 3 -enriched environments either in the number of wasps found in the field, or in the percentages of parasitized larvae. This suggests that moderately elevated O 3 will not affect the behavior of this parasitoid. - Atmospheric ozone increases do not directly affect the biological control of the cabbage pest, Plutella xylostella

  12. Host location behavior of Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in ambient and moderately elevated ozone in field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, D.M. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: delia.pinto@uku.fi; Himanen, S.J. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, A. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Nerg, A.-M.; Holopainen, J.K. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    In field O{sub 3}-enrichment experiments increased herbivore densities have been reported, which could be due to negatively affected host location behavior of natural enemies. We addressed the impact of doubling background O{sub 3} on the host location of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae by conducting 24-h trials in an open-air O{sub 3}-fumigation system during two consecutive years. Two circles (radii 1.40 and 4.00 m) of Plutella xylostella-infested potted cabbage plants were placed in the O{sub 3} and ambient plots. Female wasps were released into each plot from the center, and observed 5 times over a 24-h period to assess their host location capability. Thereafter, plants were kept in laboratory conditions until larvae pupation to determine parasitism rates. No significant differences were detected between ambient and O{sub 3}-enriched environments either in the number of wasps found in the field, or in the percentages of parasitized larvae. This suggests that moderately elevated O{sub 3} will not affect the behavior of this parasitoid. - Atmospheric ozone increases do not directly affect the biological control of the cabbage pest, Plutella xylostella.

  13. Transient expression of protein tyrosine phosphatases encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus inhibits insect cellular immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. A.; Kim, Yonggyun

    2008-01-01

    Several immunosuppressive factors are associated with parasitism of an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) encodes a large number of putative protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which may play a role in inhibiting host cellular immunity. To address this inhibitory hypothesis of CpBV-PTPs, we performed transient expression of individual CpBV-PTPs in hemocytes of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and analyzed their cellular immune responses. Two different forms of CpBV-PTPs were chosen and cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector under the control of the p10 promoter of baculovirus: one with the normal cysteine active site (CpBV-PTP1) and the other with a mutated active site (CpBV-PTP5). The hemocytes transfected with CpBV-PTP1 significantly increased in PTP activity compared to control hemocytes, but those with CpBV-PTP5 exhibited a significant decrease in the PTP activity. All transfected hemocytes exhibited a significant reduction in both cell spreading and encapsulation activities compared to control hemocytes. Co-transfection of CpBV-PTP1 together with its double-stranded RNA reduced the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of CpBV-PTP1 and resulted in recovery of both hemocyte behaviors. This is the first report demonstrating that the polydnaviral PTPs can manipulate PTP activity of the hemocytes to interrupt cellular immune responses.

  14. GENOMIC FEATURES OF COTESIA PLUTELLAE POLYDNAVIRUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUCai-ling; ZHUXiang-xiong; FuWen-jun; ZHAOMu-jun

    2003-01-01

    Polydnavirus was purified from the calyx fluid of Cotesia plutellae ovary. The genomic features of C. plutellae polydnavirus (CpPDV) were investigated. The viral genome consists of at least 12 different segments and the aggregate genome size is a lower estimate of 80kbp. By partial digestion of CpPDV DNA with BamHI and subsequent ligation with BamHI-cut plasmid Bluescript, a representative library of CpPDV genome was obtained.

  15. Radiation technique for the destruction of plutella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Plutella can be destroyed by cultivation technique where cabbage is grown interchangebly with other plants, biological technique where the natural enemy of plutella is used, and chemical technique where insecticide is used. Those method do not better results than the sterile male technique which can be either nuclear or chemical in nature. Laboratory, semifield research, and research in a limited field have been carried out when applying the sterile male technique. (SMN)

  16. Complex inheritance of larval adaptation in Plutella xylostella to a novel host plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henniges-Janssen, K.; Reineke, A.; Heckel, D.G.; Groot, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Studying the genetics of host shifts and range expansions in phytophagous insects contributes to our understanding of the evolution of host plant adaptation. We investigated the recent host range expansion to pea, in the pea-adapted strain (P-strain) of the crucifer-specialist diamondback moth,

  17. Effect of chemical additives on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) against Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, L.; Qiu, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, Z.; Xu, L.; Wu, C.; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, X.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2013), s. 1075-1080 ISSN 0022-0493 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : additives * Bacillus thuringiensis * biocontrol Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2013 http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1603/EC12288

  18. Study of the biology of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    oviposit in eggs of Plutella xylostella L. In the no-choice test, parasitism in eggs of H. ... KEYWORDS: Trichogramma chilonis, Maruca vitrata, biology, Plutella xylostella ..... synthetic sex pheromone of P. xylostella (Reddy et al., 2002), it did not.

  19. Proteomic and properties analysis of botanical insecticide rhodojaponin III-induced response of the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhodojaponin III, as a botanical insecticide, affects a wide variety of biological processes in insects, including reduction of feeding, suspension of development, and oviposition deterring of adults in a dose-dependent manner. However, the mode of these actions remains obscure. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, a comparative proteomic approach was adopted to examine the effect of rhodojaponin III on the Plutella xyllostella (L.. Following treating 48 hours, newly emergence moths were collected and protein samples were prepared. The proteins were separated by 2-DE, and total 31 proteins were significantly affected by rhodojaponin III compared to the control identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. These differentially expressed proteins act in the nervous transduction, odorant degradation and metabolic change pathways. Further, gene expression patterns in treated and untreated moths were confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. RNAi of the chemosensory protein (PxCSP gene resulted in oviposition significantly increased on cabbage plants treated with rhodojaponin III. CONCLUSIONS: These rhodojaponin III-induced proteins and gene properties analysis would be essential for a better understanding of the potential molecular mechanism of the response to rhodojaponin III from moths of P. xylostella.

  20. Changes of sex pheromone communication systems associated with tebufenozide and abamectin resistance in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Cao, Guang-Chun; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2010-05-01

    Many insect pests have evolved resistance to insecticides. Along with this evolution, the sex pheromone communication system of insects also may change, and subsequently reproductive isolation may occur between resistant and susceptible populations. In this study of the diamondback moth, we found that resistant females (especially Abamectin resistant females) produced less sex pheromone and displayed a lower level of calling behavior. Resistant males showed higher EAG responsiveness to the sex pheromone mixture of females, and responded to a broader range of ratios between the two major components compared to the responses of susceptible moths. In addition, wind tunnel experiments indicated that changes associated with insecticide resistance in the Abamectin resistant strain (Aba-R) significantly reduced female attractiveness to susceptible males. Furthermore, mating choice experiments confirmed that non-random mating occurred between the two different strains. Aba-R females with an abnormal pheromone production and blend ratio exhibited significantly lower mating percentages with males from either their own strain or other strains, which corroborates the results obtained by the wind tunnel experiments. The implications of this non-random mating for insect speciation and insecticide resistance management are discussed.

  1. Identification of the pheromone biosynthesis genes from the sex pheromone gland transcriptome of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da-Song; Dai, Jian-Qing; Han, Shi-Chou

    2017-11-24

    The diamondback moth was estimated to increase costs to the global agricultural economy as the global area increase of Brassica vegetable crops and oilseed rape. Sex pheromones traps are outstanding tools available in Integrated Pest Management for many years and provides an effective approach for DBM population monitoring and control. The ratio of two major sex pheromone compounds shows geographical variations. However, the limitation of our information in the DBM pheromone biosynthesis dampens our understanding of the ratio diversity of pheromone compounds. Here, we constructed a transcriptomic library from the DBM pheromone gland and identified genes putatively involved in the fatty acid biosynthesis, pheromones functional group transfer, and β-oxidation enzymes. In addition, odorant binding protein, chemosensory protein and pheromone binding protein genes encoded in the pheromone gland transcriptome, suggest that female DBM moths may receive odors or pheromone compounds via their pheromone gland and ovipositor system. Tissue expression profiles further revealed that two ALR, three DES and one FAR5 genes were pheromone gland tissue biased, while some chemoreception genes expressed extensively in PG, pupa, antenna and legs tissues. Finally, the candidate genes from large-scale transcriptome information may be useful for characterizing a presumed biosynthetic pathway of the DBM sex pheromone.

  2. Identification of the pheromone biosynthesis genes from the sex pheromone gland transcriptome of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Da-Song; Dai, Jian-Qing; Han, Shi-Chou

    2017-01-01

    The diamondback moth was estimated to increase costs to the global agricultural economy as the global area increase of Brassica vegetable crops and oilseed rape. Sex pheromones traps are outstanding tools available in Integrated Pest Management for many years and provides an effective approach for DBM population monitoring and control. The ratio of two major sex pheromone compounds shows geographical variations. However, the limitation of our information in the DBM pheromone biosynthesis damp...

  3. Studies on population fluctuation of diamondback moth, plutella xylostella L. at the Khao khor high-land agricultural research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keawchoung, P.; Limohpasmanee, W.; Malakrong, A.; Kodcharint, P.

    1994-01-01

    The population Fluctuation of diamondback moth were studied by using the yellow sticky trap at Khao Khor high-land Agricultural Research Station during August-October 1993 and February-April 1994. The maximum and minimum number of diamondback moth were 24.89 and 0.1 adult/trap/6 days. When number of diamondback moth was low, they distributed in clump pattern. But the distribution would change to be clump or random pattern when number of diamondback moth was high. Temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and age of cabbage had no effects on number of caugh moth. The number of moth was highly relative with number of larva 7th day later

  4. Radiation induced F1 sterility in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., and tropical army worm, Spodoptera litura F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrisno, S.; Hoedaya, M.S.; Sutardji, D.; Rahayu, A.

    1993-01-01

    A 300 Gy dose of gamma irradiation can be used as the sterilizing dose for the diamond-back moth (DBM). This caused 90% sterility of the moths. Releases of irradiated moths into the normal populations (nine irradiated to one normal) in laboratory cages, field cages and small field plots reduced the F 1 population by 61, 55 and 42%, respectively. The effects of substerilizing doses of 175 and 200 Gy to the irradiated parents caused 26 and 36% sterilities, respectively. The dose of 175 Gy caused the levels of sterility of the male and female F 1 progeny to be 54 and 74%, respectively, while the dose of 200 Gy caused 56% sterility of the F 1 male and 71% of the F 1 female. The sterility of the F 2 population was nearly the same as that of the irradiated parents. At a radiation doses of 175 Gy the sterility of F 2 males was about 11% and of females 37%. At a dose of 200 Gy the levels of sterility of the males and females were 9 and 14%, respectively. Gamma irradiation did not affect the fecundity of the irradiated parents or of the F 1 and F 2 progeny. The average number of eggs produced by one pair of DBM moths was 180. The viabilities of unirradiated pupae, irradiated parents, F 1 and F 2 at a dose of 200 Gy were 94, 89, 54 and 65%, respectively. The effect of releasing F 1 sterile moths into untreated populations at a ratio of 45:1 could be a reduction in the population by 22%. Delta traps baited with the sex pheromone Sj showed the highest trapping efficiency. The highest population of DBMs in the dry season is in May and the lowest point is in July. The longevity of the tropical army worm was slightly affected by gamma irradiation. The dose of irradiation did not affect the viability of the pupae. A substerilizing dose of 100 Gy caused 43% parental sterility, 76% F 1 sterility and 54% F 2 sterility. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation on the karyotype of plutella xylostella l., and the histology of the testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noran, A.M.; Nadia, M.T.K.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to produce semi-sterile Palatal xylo stella males that can compete with the wild males for the normal females, with the resulting progeny being sterile. Semi-sterile males were produced by exposing male pupae 24 hours before emergence to gamma (Co 60 ) irradiation at a dose of 175 Gy. The chromosome study was done through squashes of the testes with aceto-orsin staining from fourth in star larvae of the irradiated male parent, the F I males resulting from crosses between irradiated parents, from crosses between irradiated males and normal females and vice versa. For the histological study, the irradiated males were crossed with normal females to get the F Is and the resulting progeny then used to subsequently get the F2, F and F4 generations, respectively. Back crosses to the normal males or females for each of these generations were also carried out. Samples of the testes of resulting males from every cross were removed and subjected to the usual processing for preparation of glass slides using haematoxlin and eosin staining. Exposure to 175 Gy was found to be sufficient to cause chromosomal aberrations like short- and long chain formations or a combination of both as well as ring formations in the treated groups. The least number of translocations obtained were from crosses of Fl males (from normal male x irradiated female) with normal females while the highest from F Is resulting from crosses between both irradiated parents. Cytological changes observed in the testes of the Fl generation included emergence of vacuoles in place of germ cells, displacement of spermatocytes from the periphery to the center of the testes and disintegration of spermatocytes and spermatozoal bundles. However, the damages were not permanent as recovery were detected in testes from subsequent generations. It is likely that the effects of gamma irradiation on the karyotype and histology of the testis of the males are determined by the female parent as recovery was fastest in progenies from crosses and backcrosses to the normal females. (Author)

  6. Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): táticas para o manejo integrado em brássicas

    OpenAIRE

    Thuler, Robson Thomaz [UNESP

    2006-01-01

    O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Biologia e Criação de Insetos (LBCI) da FCAV-UNESP, para avaliar o efeito da interação entre resistência de cultivares de brássicas, inseticidas químicos e produtos vegetais e Trichogramma no controle de P/utella xy/ostella. Para tanto, avaliou-se a biologia de P. xy/ostella nas cultivares de repolho: Chato de Quintal (CQ), Midori (MD), Roxo Precoce (RP) e Híbrido Roxo (HR) e, nas cultivares de couve, Geórgia (CM) e Híbrido Geórgia HS20 (HS20) em ...

  7. Abstrak Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Ir.Fatahuddin, MP

    2012-01-01

    PENERAPAN TEKNOLOGI PERBANYAKAN DAN PELEPASAN Diadegma semiclausum SEBAGAI AGENS PENGENDALI HAYATI Plutella xylostella PADA TANAMAN PENERAPAN TEKNOLOGI PERBANYAKAN DAN PELEPASAN Diadegma semiclausum SEBAGAI AGENS PENGENDALI HAYATI Plutella xylostella PADA TANAMAN

  8. Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) and its parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum show different gustatory and longevity responses to a range of nectar and honeydew sugars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, K.; Wäckers, F.L.; Stingli, A.; Van Lenteren, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Parasitoids as well as many of their herbivorous hosts, depend on carbohydrate-rich food during the adult stage. Different types of nectar and honeydew vary with regard to their sugar composition. In order to successfully exploit a food source, the insect must show a positive gustatory response to

  9. Brevicoryne brassicae aphids interfere with transcriptome responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to feeding by Plutella xylostella caterpillars in a density-dependent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, Anneke; Broekgaarden, Colette; Castellanos Uribe, Marcos; May, Sean; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Plants are commonly attacked by multiple herbivorous species. Yet, little is known about transcriptional patterns underlying plant responses to multiple insect attackers feeding simultaneously. Here, we assessed transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to simultaneous feeding by

  10. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: A field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree,

  11. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: a field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree,

  12. POTENCIAL DE USO DO SILÍCIO NO MANEJO INTEGRADO DA TRAÇA-DAS-CRUCÍFERAS, Plutella xylostella, EM PLANTAS DE REPOLHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIANA MORAIS DE FREITAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The abusive use of pesticides results in contamination of the environment, food and people. The aim of this research was to evaluate the use of silicon in the integrated management of Diamondback moth, as a physical barrier, reducing the use of pesticides. Agrosilício was the source of silicon used in the research. This product has 23% of silicon. Discs of cabbage were sunk in water (control and on four solutions containing 3, 6, 9 e 12 kg.ha-1 of silicon, in 10 replicates. The discs were offered to 2o instar larvae, reared in laboratory, and morphological and behavior responses were recorded in the first 24 hours. Feeding preference, mortality and jaw damage were evaluated. Treatments had a significant effect in all variables. Larvae were more attracted and mortality was high in treatment with 12 kg.ha-1 of silicon. Silicon damaged larvae jaw, limiting ingestion and causing high mortality. Silicon in the integrated management of diamondback moth may contribute to reduction of pesticides use.

  13. Brevicoryne brassicae aphids interfere with transcriptome responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to feeding by Plutella xylostella caterpillars in a density-dependent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, Anneke; Broekgaarden, Colette; Castellanos Uribe, Marcos; May, Sean; Loon, van Joop J.A.; Dicke, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Plants are commonly attacked by multiple herbivorous species. Yet, little is known about transcriptional patterns underlying plant responses to multiple insect attackers feeding simultaneously. Here, we assessed transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to simultaneous feeding by

  14. A reference gene set for sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, based on genome and transcriptome digital gene expression analyses

    OpenAIRE

    He, Peng; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Hong, Duan-Yang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xing-Liang; Zuo, Ling-Hua; Tang, Xian-Fu; Xu, Wei-Ming; He, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background Female moths synthesize species-specific sex pheromone components and release them to attract male moths, which depend on precise sex pheromone chemosensory system to locate females. Two types of genes involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways play essential roles in this important moth behavior. To understand the function of genes in the sex pheromone pathway, this study investigated the genome-wide and digital gene expression of sex pheromone biosynthesi...

  15. Expression of Cry1Ac toxin-binding region in Plutella xyllostella cadherin-like receptor and studying their interaction mode by molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Xiao; Zhong, Jianfeng; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Cunzheng; Xie, Yajing; Lin, Manman; Xu, Chongxin; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Xianjin

    2018-05-01

    Cadherin-like protein has been identified as the primary Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxin receptor in Lepidoptera pests and plays a key role in Cry toxin insecticidal. In this study, we successfully expressed the putative Cry1Ac toxin-binding region (CR7-CR11) of Plutella xylostella cadherin-like in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The expressed CR7-CR11 fragment showed binding ability to Cry1Ac toxin under denaturing (Ligand blot) and non-denaturing (ELISA) conditions. The three-dimensional structure of CR7-CR11 was constructed by homology modeling. Molecular docking results of CR7-CR11 and Cry1Ac showed that domain II and domain III of Cry1Ac were taking part in binding to CR7-CR11, while CR7-CR8 was the region of CR7-CR11 in interacting with Cry1Ac. The interaction of toxin-receptor complex was found to arise from hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction. Through the computer-aided alanine mutation scanning, amino acid residues of Cry1Ac (Met341, Asn442 and Ser486) and CR7-CR11 (Asp32, Arg101 and Arg127) were predicted as the hot spot residues involved in the interaction of the toxin-receptor complex. At last, we verified the importance role of these key amino acid residues by binding assay. These results will lay a foundation for further elucidating the insecticidal mechanism of Cry toxin and enhancing Cry toxin insecticidal activity by molecular modification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Genetics of Chemoreception in the Labella and Tarsi of Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Plutella xylostella (Li and Qin, 2011), C. medinalis (Liu et al., 2013) and A. ipsilon (Gu et al., 2013), to antennal-specific in other species including A...pattern analysis in the Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Appl. Entomol. Zool. 46, 497e504. Lin, H., Mann, K.J

  17. Gene Silencing in Adult Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Through Oral Delivery of Double-Stranded RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    able to reduce resistance to permethrin in Plutella xylostella. To develop dsRNA as a means of population con- trol of mosquitoes, either alone or in...diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, reduces larval resistance to permethrin. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 39, 38–46. Blandin S, Moita LF, Kocher T, Wilm M

  18. Development and mass-rearing of cabbage pests (Plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis) on semisynthetic diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjarief, Sri Hariani (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1983-07-01

    Heavy damage to cabbage plantations in Indonesia as caused by plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis furnished economic justification of research on the sterile-male approach to eradication of this species. The sterile-male technique requires a mass-production of these insects, therefore studies were initiated on rearing larvae in artificial diets. A series of media based on biochemical and biological ingredients were tested. Larvae of the second instar were kept on artificial medium up to 14 days reaching the fourth instar (prepupae). The observation was carried out on the rates pupation, adult emergence and eggs production, continuous to their progenies. No morphological damaged are found on the diet-reared insects. A complete absence of cholesterol in the diet for crocidolomia binotalis brought on the emergence of non-fecund adults.

  19. Identification and Characterization of Pheromone Receptors and Interplay between Receptors and Pheromone Binding Proteins in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xyllostella

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Mengjing; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B.; Liu, Chengcheng; Lin, Kejian; Gu, Shaohua; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Jingjiang; Wang, Guirong

    2013-01-01

    Moths depend on olfactory cues such as sex pheromones to find and recognize mating partners. Pheromone receptors (PRs) and Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to be associated with olfactory signal transduction of pheromonal compounds in peripheral olfactory reception. Here six candidate pheromone receptor genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella were identified and cloned. All of the six candidate PR genes display male-biased expression, which is a typical characteristic...

  20. Identification of Genes Involved in Chemoreception in Plutella xyllostella by Antennal Transcriptome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shiyong; Cao, Depan; Wang, Guirong; Liu, Yang

    2017-09-20

    Perception of environmental and habitat cues is of significance for insect survival and reproduction. Odor detection in insects is mediated by a number of proteins in antennae such as odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), odorant binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and odorant degrading enzymes. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the adult male and female antennal transcriptomes of a destructive agricultural pest, the diamondback moth Plutella xyllostella. In these transcriptomes, we identified transcripts belonging to 6 chemoreception gene families related to ordor detection, including 54 ORs, 16 IRs, 7 gustatory receptors (GRs), 15 CSPs, 24 OBPs and 2 SNMPs. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis of expression patterns indicated that some of these ORs and IRs have clear sex-biased and tissue-specific expression patterns. Our results lay the foundation for future characterization of the functions of these P. xyllostella chemosensory receptors at the molecular level and development of novel semiochemicals for integrated control of this agricultural pest.

  1. The development and mass-rearing of cabbage pests (Plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis) on semisynthetic diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjarief, Sri Hariani

    1983-01-01

    Heavy damage to cabbage plantations in Indonesia as caused by plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis furnished economic justification of research on the sterile-male approach to eradication of this species. The sterile-male technique requires a mass-production of these insects, therefore studies were initiated on rearing larvae in artificial diets. A series of media based on biochemical and biological ingridients were tested. Larvae of the second instar were kept on artificial medium up to 14 days reaching the fourth instar (prepupae). The observation was carried out on the rates pupation, adult emergence and eggs production, continuoous to their progenies. No morphological damaged are found on the diet-reared insects. A complete absence of cholesterol in the diet for crocidolomia binotalis brought on the emergence of non-fecund adults. (author)

  2. Anthocoris nemorum (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) as predator of cabbage pests - voracity and prey preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marie-Louise Rugholm; Enkegaard, Annie; Bang, Camilla Nordborg

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed with adult female Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) at 20°C ± 1°C, L16:D8, 60–70% RH to determine voracity and preference on cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), diamondback moth larvae (Plutella xylostella L....... The results showed that A. nemorum is a voracious predator of B. brassicae, P. xylostella and F. occidentalis and can therefore be considered as a potential candidate for biological control in cabbage....

  3. A functional F analogue of AcMNPV GP64 is from the Agrotis segetum granulovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, F.; Wang, M.; Tan, Y.; Deng, F.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.H.; Wang, H.

    2008-01-01

    The envelope fusion protein F of Plutella xylostella granulovirus is a computational analogue of the GP64 envelope fusion protein of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Granulovirus (GV) F proteins were thought to be unable to functionally replace GP64 in the AcMNPV pseudotyping

  4. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Insect ecology studies and insect pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, B.

    1992-01-01

    This document reviews the activities of the Pest Control Research Group in Indonesia. Pests under study are the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), the sugar cane borer (Chilo auricilius), bean flies (Agromyza spp.), tobacco insects (Heliothis armigera and Spodoptera litura) and cotton insects, especially the pink bollworm

  5. Effects of temperature and nonionizing ultraviolet radiation treatments of eggs of five host insects on production of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for biological control applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichogramma are used worldwide as biological control against insect pests, attacking eggs of over 200 species. Eggs of Spodoptera litura, Corcyra cephalonica, Plutella xylostella and Helicoverpa armigera were tested to consider the effect of temperature and radiation on parasitization, emergence of...

  6. Entomopathogenic fungi as biological control agents of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)and compatibility with chemical insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to evaluate the efficiency of entomopathogenic fungi against Plutella xylostella (L.) and the compatibility of the most virulent isolates with some of the insecticides registered for use on cabbage crops. Pathogenicity tests used isolates of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium rileyi...

  7. Arabidopsis genotypes resistant and susceptible to diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Putellidea): No net effects on insect growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutella xylostella (L.), diamondback moth (DBM) is a destructive pest of the Brassicaceae including Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynhold. Ecotypes of Arabidopsis vary in the amounts of leaf area consumed when fed on by DBM, which has been used as a measure of resistance to DBM. Recombinant inbred lin...

  8. Plant competition in pest-suppressive intercropping systems complicates evaluation of herbivore responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukovinszky, T.; Tréfás, H.; Van Lenteren, J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.; Fremont, J.

    2004-01-01

    In the light of current theories on the effects of intercropping on pest reduction, population responses of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and the life history traits of the large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae) were studied in a Brussels

  9. INTERCROPPING AND NITROGEN MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collard (Brassica oleracea var. acephala D.C) is an important source of income to many smallscale farmers in Kenya and also is a major dietary component for many Kenyans. The production of collards is, however, constrained by several pests, with diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) larvae being the major pest.

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninsin, KD. Vol 23, No 1 (2015) - Articles Insecticide Use Practices in Cocoa Production in Four Regions in Ghana Abstract PDF · Vol 23, No 2 (2015) - Articles Cross-resistance assessment in cartap- and esfenvalerateselected strains of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Abstract PDF.

  11. Flavonoids from cabbage are feeding stimulants for diamondback moth larvae additional to glucosinolates : chemoreception and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van J.J.A.; Wang, C.Z.; Nielsen, J.K.; Gols, R.; Qiu, Y.T.

    2002-01-01

    In caterpillars two styloconic contact chemoreceptors on the maxillary galea are assumed to contain the main taste receptors involved in host plant selection. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. is a specialist feeder of plants in the Brassicaceae, a plant family characterized by the

  12. Synthesis and Bioactivities of Novel Pyrazole Oxime Derivatives Containing a 5-Trifluoromethylpyridyl Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to find novel biologically active pyrazole oxime compounds, a series of pyrazole oxime derivatives containing a 5-trifluoromethylpyridyl moiety were synthesized. Preliminary bioassays indicated that most title compounds were found to display good to excellent acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus at a concentration of 200 μg/mL, and some designed compounds still showed excellent acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus at the concentration of 10 μg/mL, especially since the inhibition rates of compounds 8e, 8f, 8l, 8m, 8n, 8p, and 8q were all 100.00%. Interestingly, some target compounds exhibited moderate to good insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella and Aphis craccivora at a concentration of 200 μg/mL; furthermore, compounds 8e and 8l possessed outstanding insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella under the concentration of 50 μg/mL.

  13. Non-Host Plant Volatiles Disrupt Sex Pheromone Communication in a Specialist Herbivore

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fumin; Deng, Jianyu; Schal, Coby; Lou, Yonggen; Zhou, Guoxin; Ye, Bingbing; Yin, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhihong; Shen, Lize

    2016-01-01

    The ecological effects of plant volatiles on herbivores are manifold. Little is known, however, about the impacts of non-host plant volatiles on intersexual pheromonal communication in specialist herbivores. We tested the effects of several prominent constitutive terpenoids released by conifers and Eucalyptus trees on electrophysiological and behavioral responses of an oligophagous species, Plutella xylostella, which feeds on Brassicaceae. The non-host plant volatile terpenoids adversely affe...

  14. Propheromones that release pheromonal carbonyl compounds in light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Macaulay, E D; Pickett, J A

    1984-05-01

    Pheromonal carbonyl compounds; (Z)-11-hexadecanal, (E)-citral, and 2-heptanone were treated with six alcohols to give acetals or ketals, some of which acted as propheromones by releasing the pheromonal carbonyl compounds in ultraviolet or simulated sunlight. Highest yields of pheromone were obtained from adducts prepared witho-nitrobenzyl alcohol ando-nitrophenylethane-1,2-diol. Adducts from (Z)-11-hexadecenal and these two alcohols were employed in lures to catch diamondback moths,Plutella xylostella (L.).

  15. Developing a neem-based pest management product: laboratory evaluations of neem extracts on insect pests resistance to synthetic pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Permana, A.D.; Rahadian, R.; Wibowo, S.A

    1998-12-16

    Laboratory studies has been conducted as a part of a project aimed at the development of a neem-based insecticide for pest management purposes. Permethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, and neem (Azadirachta indica) products were tested against larvae of Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella, and Helicoverpa armigera collected from several locations in West Java, Indonesia. The results of bioassay showed that the average LC{sub 50} values of permethrin for Plutella xylostella had been 60-100 fold higher as compared with the normal dosage recommended. Similarly, the LC{sub 50} values obtained for Helicoverpa armigera had been 46-73 fold as compared with the recommended dosage. These facts suggest that both insects have developed resistance to permethrin. The results of bioassay with neem-products tested against Plutella xylostella and Helicoverpa armigera larvae showed that statistically LC{sub 50} values of neem-products for each strain of either Plutella xylostella or Helicoverpa armigera were not significantly different one to another. We also found that neem-treated insects, even though they were not killed directly by the insecticide, were not able to molt to the next instar or pupae, so that very low percentage of adults emerged. The susceptibility of neem-products could not be easily determined by only measuring the LC{sub 50} values from the larval stage, but the disruption of the growth and development of the insect should be considered as well. Our findings suggest that neem-products could be used effectively to control insects which have developed resistance to conventional insecticide. (author)

  16. Studies on F1 radiation sterilization of diamondback moth and mulberry wild silkworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rongxing; Xia Darong; Cu Weiping; Chu Jiming; Zhang Yanjun

    1993-01-01

    The study began in 1988 under the aegis of the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme on Radiation Induced F 1 Sterility in Lepidoptera for Area-Wide Control. During the following four years the control of the mulberry wild silkworm (Bombyx mandarina Moore) and the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) by means of radiation induced sterility was studied. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 6 tabs

  17. Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Expression Analysis by Real-Time RT-PCR in Four Lepidopteran Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zan; He, Guiling; Yang, Liwen; Li, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is an efficient and widely used technique to monitor gene expression. Housekeeping genes (HKGs) are often empirically selected as the reference genes for data normalization. However, the suitability of HKGs used as the reference genes has been seldom validated. Here, six HKGs were chosen (actin A3, actin A1, GAPDH, G3PDH, E2F, rp49) in four lepidopteran insects Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), Plutella xylostella L. (Plutellidae...

  18. Insect Attraction versus Plant Defense: Young Leaves High in Glucosinolates Stimulate Oviposition by a Specialist Herbivore despite Poor Larval Survival due to High Saponin Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites used in plant defense. For insects specialized on Brassicaceae, such as the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), glucosinolates act as “fingerprints” that are essential in host plant recognition. Some plants in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae) contain, besides glucosinolates, saponins that act as feeding deterrents for P. xylostella larvae, preventing their survival on the plant. Two-choice oviposition tests were conducted to study the preference of P. xylostella among Barbarea leaves of different size within the same plant. P. xylostella laid more eggs per leaf area on younger leaves compared to older ones. Higher concentrations of glucosinolates and saponins were found in younger leaves than in older ones. In 4-week-old plants, saponins were present in true leaves, while cotyledons contained little or no saponins. When analyzing the whole foliage of the plant, the content of glucosinolates and saponins also varied significantly in comparisons among plants that were 4, 8, and 12 weeks old. In Barbarea plants and leaves of different ages, there was a positive correlation between glucosinolate and saponin levels. This research shows that, in Barbarea plants, ontogenetical changes in glucosinolate and saponin content affect both attraction and resistance to P. xylostella. Co-occurrence of a high content of glucosinolates and saponins in the Barbarea leaves that are most valuable for the plant, but are also the most attractive to P. xylostella, provides protection against this specialist herbivore, which oviposition behavior on Barbarea seems to be an evolutionary mistake. PMID:24752069

  19. Insect attraction versus plant defense: young leaves high in glucosinolates stimulate oviposition by a specialist herbivore despite poor larval survival due to high saponin content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R Badenes-Perez

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites used in plant defense. For insects specialized on Brassicaceae, such as the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, glucosinolates act as "fingerprints" that are essential in host plant recognition. Some plants in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae contain, besides glucosinolates, saponins that act as feeding deterrents for P. xylostella larvae, preventing their survival on the plant. Two-choice oviposition tests were conducted to study the preference of P. xylostella among Barbarea leaves of different size within the same plant. P. xylostella laid more eggs per leaf area on younger leaves compared to older ones. Higher concentrations of glucosinolates and saponins were found in younger leaves than in older ones. In 4-week-old plants, saponins were present in true leaves, while cotyledons contained little or no saponins. When analyzing the whole foliage of the plant, the content of glucosinolates and saponins also varied significantly in comparisons among plants that were 4, 8, and 12 weeks old. In Barbarea plants and leaves of different ages, there was a positive correlation between glucosinolate and saponin levels. This research shows that, in Barbarea plants, ontogenetical changes in glucosinolate and saponin content affect both attraction and resistance to P. xylostella. Co-occurrence of a high content of glucosinolates and saponins in the Barbarea leaves that are most valuable for the plant, but are also the most attractive to P. xylostella, provides protection against this specialist herbivore, which oviposition behavior on Barbarea seems to be an evolutionary mistake.

  20. Differential host growth regulation by the solitary endoparasitoid, Meteorus pulchricornis in two hosts of greatly differing mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Sano, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiharu

    2010-09-01

    Solitary koinobiont endoparasitoids generally reduce the growth of their hosts by a significant amount compared with healthy larvae. Here, we compared the development and host usage strategies of the solitary koinobiont endoparasitoid, Meteorus pulchricornis, when developing in larvae of a large host species (Mythimna separata) and a much smaller host species (Plutella xylostella). Caterpillars of M. separata were parasitized as L2 and P. xylostella as L3, when they weighed approximately 2mg. The growth of parasitized M. separata larvae was reduced by almost 95% compared with controls, whereas parasitized P. xylostella larvae grew some 30% larger than controls. Still, adult wasps emerging from M. separata larvae were almost twice as large as wasps emerging from P. xylostella larvae, had larger egg loads after 5 days and produced more progeny. Survival to eclosion was also higher on M. separata than on P. xylostella, although parasitoids developed significantly faster when developing on P. xylostella. Our results provide evidence that koinobionts are able to differentially regulate the growth of different host species. However, there are clearly also limitations in the ability of parasitoids to regulate phenotypic host traits when size differences between different host species are as extreme as demonstrated here.

  1. Insecticidal Constituents from Buddlej aalbiflora Hemsl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Yun; Shen, Jing; Zhou, Yu; Wei, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Eleven known compounds, deoxymikanolide (1), 1,3-dihydroxyxanthone (2), kumatakenin (3), apigenin (4), chrysin (5), kaempferol (6), Iso-kaempferol (7), luteolin (8), luteolin-3',4'-dimethylether-7-O-β-glucoside (9), luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside (10) and quercetin (11) were identified in MeOH extract of Buddleja albiflora Hemsl (Oleaceae). These compounds (each, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 mg mL -1 ) were tested for insecticidal activity against 3rd and 4th-instar larvae of Plutella xylostella, 3rd-instar larvae of Mythimna separata and 3rd-instar larvae of Macrosiphoniella sanborni. The lowest 50% anti-feedant concentration (AFC 50 ) against P. xylostella and 50% lethal concentration (LC 50 ) against P. xylostella and M. sanborni were observed as 0.0058, 0.0046 and 3.4048 mg L -1 , respectively.

  2. Characterization of joining sites of a viral histone H4 on host insect chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    Full Text Available A viral histone H4 (CpBV-H4 is encoded in a polydnavirus, Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV. It plays a crucial role in parasitism of an endoparasitoid wasp, C. plutellae, against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, by altering host gene expression in an epigenetic mode by its N-terminal tail after joining host nucleosomes. Comparative transcriptomic analysis between parasitized and nonparasitized P. xylostella by RNA-Seq indicated that 1,858 genes were altered at more than two folds in expression levels at late parasitic stage, including 877 up-regulated genes and 981 down-regulated genes. Among parasitic factors altering host gene expression, CpBV-H4 alone explained 16.3% of these expressional changes. To characterize the joining sites of CpBV-H4 on host chromosomes, ChIP-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing was applied to chromatins extracted from parasitized larvae. It identified specific 538 ChIP targets. Joining sites were rich (60.2% in AT sequence. Almost 40% of ChIP targets included short nucleotide repeat sequences presumably recognizable by transcriptional factors and chromatin remodeling factors. To further validate these CpBV-H4 targets, CpBV-H4 was transiently expressed in nonparasitized host at late larval stage and subjected to ChIP-Seq. Two kinds of ChIP-Seqs shared 51 core joining sites. Common targets were close (within 1 kb to genes regulated at expression levels by CpBV-H4. However, other host genes not close to CpBV-H4 joining sites were also regulated by CpBV-H4. These results indicate that CpBV-H4 joins specific chromatin regions of P. xylostella and controls about one sixth of the total host genes that were regulated by C. plutellae parasitism in an epigenetic mode.

  3. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE ON THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE AND ITS PARASITOID DIADEGMA SEMICLAUSUM (HYMENOPTERA: ICHNEUMONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosma Hasibuan, Nilly Christalia, F.X. Susilo1, and Nur Yasin .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Potential Impact of Metarhizium anisopliae on the Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae and Its Parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae.  Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of the Metarhizium anisopliae against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid, Diadegma  semiclausum. A completely randomized design consisted of 5 treatments (4 concentrations of conidial suspension: 5 x 104, 3.5 x 105, 2.5 x 106, 1.2 x 107 conidia/ml and control was used.  The results indicated that the mortality of P. xylostella larvae were significantly induced by the fungal treatments.  A significant reduction in pupation and adult emergence of P. xylostella was also detected in all treatments when compared with that in the control. The fungus might also result in a male-biased sex ratio of the surviving P. xylostella. When applied at a concentration of 1.2 x 107 conidia/ml, M.  anisopliae might significantly reduce the survival of the parasitoid, D. semiclausum. Thus, despite its potential as a biological control agent against P. xylostella, the entomomogenous fungus M. anisopliae was also detrimental to the larvae parasitoid D. semiclausum.

  4. Study of Various Extracts of Ayapana triplinervis for their Potential in Controlling Three Insect Pests of Horticultural Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalljee, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical groups of Ayapana triplinervis, extracted successively with hexane, petroleum ether, methanol, chloroform: methanol (1:1, and chloroform: methanol (4:1 were studied for their effects on Plutella xylostella, Crocidolomia binotalis and Myzus persicae, three serious pests of horticultural crops in Mauritius. The most bioactive extracts were further fractionated into groups using Thin Layer Chromatography, and seven of those exhibiting strongest activity were tested on each of the three test insects. Results showed that the alkaloids and tannins exhibited greatest feeding deterrence in P. xylostella and C. binotalis, followed by phenols and flavonoids. In the case of M. persicae, A. triplinervis extracts disrupted growth and development of the nymphs, had significant pest control properties, and were good candidates for further study on their potential as botanical pesticides, in the context of an organic farming/ sustainable agriculture system, as an environmentallyfriendly alternative to synthetic insecticides.

  5. Suscetibilidade da traça-das-crucíferas a Bacillus thuringiensis em repolho no Distrito Federal - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v8i1.995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Plutella xylostella é a mais importante praga das brássicas em todo o mundo. Com o objetivo de se estudar um método de controle desta praga mais eficiente e menos danoso ao meio ambiente, avaliou-se a eficiência de dois bioinseticidas a base de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt e um inseticida químico a base de deltametrina no controle de P. xylostella em repolho no Distrito Federal. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Cada parcela foi formada por quatro linhas com 20 plantas. Os bioinseticidas a base de Bt foram os mais eficientes no controle de P. xylostella. A testemunha e o tratamento químico não diferiram entre si e apresentaram resultados significativamente inferiores em relação ao percentual de cabeças comercializáveis quando comparado com os bioinseticidas. Este trabalho comprovou a eficiência dos bioinseticidas a base de Bt no controle de P. xylostella em repolho no Distrito Federal.

  6. Description of the Diadegma fenestrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae Attacking the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Lep.: Gelechiidae New to Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diadegma fenestrale is known as a parasitoid of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella. The potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller is one of the most destructive pest of potatoes. Also, we found this species attacking the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Ratio of parasitism is 20-30% and cocoon of lepidopteran was parasitic ichneumonid species after 3 days. This species and the genus Diadegma are recorded for the first time from Korea. In this paper, description of the parasitoid and photographs of the diagnostic characteristics are provided.

  7. Efficacy of Intercropping as a Management Tool for the Control on Insect Pests of Cabbage in Ghana 1H m 2m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timbilla, JA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of intercropping cabbage with other vegetables and herbs as a management tool in migitating insect pests problems of cabbage was investigated in the field at Kwadaso, Kumasi during a three season period in the forest region of Ghana. The results showed that Plutella xylostella could be effectively controlled when cabbage is intercropped with onion, spearmint and tomato. However, there is the need to control Hellula undalis in endemie areas with pesticides up to six weeks after transplanting. Both Karate (cyhalothrin and Dipel 2X (the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki were effective in mitigating the problem of H. undalis in the intercropping experiments and both are recommended.

  8. Evidence of an aggregation pheromone in the flea beetle,Phyllotreta Cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, C; Weiss, M J

    1992-06-01

    Laboratory olfactometer bioassays and field trapping experiments showed that the flea beetle,Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), was highly attracted by oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.) when flea beetles were on the plant. This attraction was mediated by a flea beetle-produced aggregation pheromone based upon: (1) Oilseed rape damaged mechanically, or byP. cruciferae, or by diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella (L.), did not attractP. cruciferae. (2) Contact with the plants or feeding was required for the production of aggregation pheromone because oilseed rape alone was not attractive when separated from flea beetles by a screen. (3) Equal numbers of males and females were attracted.

  9. Azadirachtin derivatives from seed kernels of Azadirachta excelsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanokmedhakul, Somdej; Kanokmedhakul, Kwanjai; Prajuabsuk, Thirada; Panichajakul, Sanha; Panyamee, Piyanan; Prabpai, Samran; Kongsaeree, Palangpon

    2005-07-01

    Three new azadirachtin derivatives, named azadirachtins O-Q (1-3), along with the known azadirachtin B (4), azadirachtin L (5), azadirachtin M (6) 11alpha-azadirachtin H (7), 11beta-azadirachtin H (8), and azadirachtol (9) were isolated from seed kernels of Azadirachta excelsa. Their structures were established by spectroscopic techniques, and the structure of 3 was confirmed by X-ray analysis. Compounds 1-7 and 9 exhibited toxicity to the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) with an LD50 of 0.75-1.92 microg/g body weight, in 92 h.

  10. Influences of Cry1Ac broccoli on larval survival and oviposition of diamondback moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dengxia; Cui, Shusong; Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yumei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Larval survival and oviposition behavior of three genotypes of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), (homozygous Cry1Ac-susceptibile, Cry1Ac-resistant, and their F1 hybrids), on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) broccoli expressing different levels of Cry1Ac protein were evaluated in laboratory. These Bt broccoli lines were designated as relative low, medium, and high, respectively, according to the Cry1Ac content. Untransformed brocccoli plants were used as control. Larval survival of diamondback moth on non-Bt leaves was not significantly different among the three genotypes. The Cry1Ac-resistant larvae could survive on the low level of Bt broccoli plants, while Cry1Ac-susceptible and F1 larvae could not survive on them. The three genotypes of P. xylostella larvae could not survive on medium and high levels of Bt broccoli. In oviposition choice tests, there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid by the three P. xylostella genotypes among different Bt broccoli plants. The development of Cry1Ac-susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella on intact Bt plants was also tested in greenhouse. All susceptible P. xylostella larvae died on all Bt plants, while resistant larvae could survive on broccoli, which expresses low Cry1Ac protein under greenhouse conditions. The results of the greenhouse trials were similar to that of laboratory tests. This study indicated that high dose of Bt toxins in broccoli cultivars or germplasm lines is required for effective resistance management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  11. Parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum em ovos da traça-das-crucíferas sob diferentes temperaturas Parasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum on diamondback moth eggs under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, em ovos de Plutella xylostella (L.(Leptoptera: Plutellidae nas temperaturas de 18; 20; 22; 25; 28; 30 e 32ºC, avaliando-se número de ovos parasitados diariamente, porcentagem acumulada de parasitismo, número total de ovos parasitados por fêmea e longevidade de fêmeas. O ritmo de parasitismo durante as primeiras 24 horas, oscilou de 1,6 a 16 ovos parasitados por fêmea de T. pretiosum nas temperaturas entre 18 e 32ºC. O parasitismo acumulado de ovos de P. xylostella, nas temperaturas de 18; 20; 22; 25; 28; 30 e 32ºC, atingiu 80%, aos 2; 16; 11; 3; 5; 4 e 7 dias, por T. pretiosum. As maiores taxas de parasitismo ocorreram nas faixas térmicas de 25; 28 e 30ºC. A longevidade média de fêmeas de T. pretiosum nas faixas térmicas compreendidas entre 18 e 32ºC, variaram de 2,3 a 13,3 dias.The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae was studied, under temperatures of 18; 20; 22; 25; 28; 30 and 32°C aiming to evaluate the number of days with parasitism, cumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and their longevity. Parasitism during the first 24 hours ranged from 1.6 to 16 eggs of P. xylostella per T. pretiosum female in the range of 18 to 32°C. Cumulated egg parasitism of P. xylostella by T. pretiosum reached 80% after 2; 16; 11; 3; 5; 4 and 7 days at 18; 20; 22; 25; 28; 30 and 32°C. Higher parasitism rates were recorded at 25; 28 and 30°C while longevity of T. pretiosum females varied from 2.3 to 13.3 days under temperatures of 18 to 32°C.

  12. Isolamento e caracterização de estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis coletadas em solos do oeste baiano - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v7i2.999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 21 amostras de solos da região oeste da Bahia, foram isoladas nove estirpes de B. thuringiensis. As estirpes de B. thuringiensis foram testadas contra lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Plutella xylostella e Anthonomus grandis. Das nove estirpes, duas apresentaram efetividade, a S2183 contra S. frugiperda e a S2186 contra S. frugiperda, A. gemmatalis e P. xylostella. Com relação ao A. grandis, nenhuma das estirpes apresentou mortalidade acima de 70%. Estas estirpes foram submetidas à bioensaios para cálculo da CL50 e a caracterizações bioquímicas e moleculares. Em bioensaio, a S2183 não apresentou efetividade nas doses recomendadas contra os insetos testados e S2186 apresentou uma CL50 de 375 µg/mL apenas para P. xylostella. As estirpes apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 100 e 70 kDa. Somente S2186 apresentou produtos de PCR para o gene cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, apresentando-se semelhante ao padrão B. thuringiensis subespécie kurstaki.

  13. Phytophagy of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae fed on prey and Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. J. Grigolli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the development and reproduction of the zoophytophagous predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed kale, broccoli and cabbage affects its. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed on larvae of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae as prey with kale, cabbage, or broccoli. In the nymph period, the duration and prey consumption were similar with all the Brassicacea cultivar. However, nymph viability was higher for predators with broccoli leaves. The mean weight of 5th-instar nymphs, newly emerged females and the sex ratio were similar among the Brassicacea cultivars, while newly emerged males were heavier with kale and broccoli leaves. The supply of broccoli leaves resulted in greater oviposition, higher number of eggs per egg mass and longer longevity of P. nigrispinus males and females. Furthermore, the consumption of P. xylostella larvae by adult predators was higher with these cultivars. The net reproductive rate (R0 and mean generation time (T were highest for predators with prey and broccoli leaves. The reproductive parameters of P. nigrispinus were enhanced when fed on P. xylostella larvae with and broccoli leaves, which can be an alternative diet in laboratory rearing of this predator.

  14. Identification and developmental profiling of microRNAs in diamondback moth, Plutellaxylostella (L..

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    Pei Liang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a group of small RNAs involved in various biological processes through negative regulation of mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level. Although miRNA profiles have been documented in over two dozen insect species, few are agricultural pests. In this study, both conserved and novel miRNAs in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., a devastating insect pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, were documented. High-throughput sequencing of a small RNA library constructed from a mixed life stages of P. xylostella, including eggs, 1st to 4th (last instar larvae, pupae and adults, identified 384 miRNAs, of which 174 were P. xylostella specific. In addition, temporal expressions of 234 miRNAs at various developmental stages were investigated using a customized microarray analysis. Among the 91 differentially expressed miRNAs, qRT-PCR analysis was used to validate highly expressed miRNAs at each stage. The combined results not only systematically document miRNA profiles in an agriculturally important insect pest, but also provide molecular targets for future functional analysis and, ultimately, genetic-based pest control practice.

  15. Translational Control of Host Gene Expression by a Cys-Motif Protein Encoded in a Bracovirus.

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    Eunseong Kim

    Full Text Available Translational control is a strategy that various viruses use to manipulate their hosts to suppress acute antiviral response. Polydnaviruses, a group of insect double-stranded DNA viruses symbiotic to some endoparasitoid wasps, are divided into two genera: ichnovirus (IV and bracovirus (BV. In IV, some Cys-motif genes are known as host translation-inhibitory factors (HTIF. The genome of endoparasitoid wasp Cotesia plutellae contains a Cys-motif gene (Cp-TSP13 homologous to an HTIF known as teratocyte-secretory protein 14 (TSP14 of Microplitis croceipes. Cp-TSP13 consists of 129 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 13.987 kDa and pI value of 7.928. Genomic DNA region encoding its open reading frame has three introns. Cp-TSP13 possesses six conserved cysteine residues as other Cys-motif genes functioning as HTIF. Cp-TSP13 was expressed in Plutella xylostella larvae parasitized by C. plutellae. C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV was purified and injected into non-parasitized P. xylostella that expressed Cp-TSP13. Cp-TSP13 was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector and used to infect Sf9 cells to transiently express Cp-TSP13. The synthesized Cp-TSP13 protein was detected in culture broth. An overlaying experiment showed that the purified Cp-TSP13 entered hemocytes. It was localized in the cytosol. Recombinant Cp-TSP13 significantly inhibited protein synthesis of secretory proteins when it was added to in vitro cultured fat body. In addition, the recombinant Cp-TSP13 directly inhibited the translation of fat body mRNAs in in vitro translation assay using rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Moreover, the recombinant Cp-TSP13 significantly suppressed cellular immune responses by inhibiting hemocyte-spreading behavior. It also exhibited significant insecticidal activities by both injection and feeding routes. These results indicate that Cp-TSP13 is a viral HTIF.

  16. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of Novel Phthalic Acid Diamides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫涛; 李玉新; 李永强; 王多义; 陈伟; 刘卓; 李正名

    2012-01-01

    In order to discover novel insecticides with the new action mode on ryanodine receptor (RyR), a series of novel phthalic acid diamide derivatives were designed and synthesized. All compounds were characterized by 1H NMR spectra and HRMS. The preliminary results of biological activity assessment indicated that some title compounds exhibited excellent insecticidal activities against Mythimna separata, Spodoptera exigua, and Plutella xylostella. The title compound 3-nitro-N-cyclopropyl-N'-[2-methyl-4-(perfluoropropan-2-yl)phenyl]phthalamidte (4a) was more efficient against diamondback moths than the control (chlorantraniliprole). The effects of some title compounds on intracellular calcium of neurons from the Spodoptera exigua proved that the title compounds were RyR activators.

  17. Non-Host Plant Volatiles Disrupt Sex Pheromone Communication in a Specialist Herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fumin; Deng, Jianyu; Schal, Coby; Lou, Yonggen; Zhou, Guoxin; Ye, Bingbing; Yin, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhihong; Shen, Lize

    2016-01-01

    The ecological effects of plant volatiles on herbivores are manifold. Little is known, however, about the impacts of non-host plant volatiles on intersexual pheromonal communication in specialist herbivores. We tested the effects of several prominent constitutive terpenoids released by conifers and Eucalyptus trees on electrophysiological and behavioral responses of an oligophagous species, Plutella xylostella, which feeds on Brassicaceae. The non-host plant volatile terpenoids adversely affected the calling behavior (pheromone emission) of adult females, and the orientation responses of adult males to sex pheromone were also significantly inhibited by these terpenoids in a wind tunnel and in the field. We suggest that disruption of both pheromone emission and orientation to sex pheromone may explain, at least in part, an observed reduction in herbivore attack in polyculture compared with monoculture plantings. We also propose that mating disruption of both male and female moths with non-host plant volatiles may be a promising alternative pest management strategy. PMID:27585907

  18. Les principaux ravageurs des choux pommés [Brassica oleracea var capitata subs sabouda à Bukavu et ses environs

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    Walangululu, JM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Major Pests of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata subs sabouda in Bukavu and Around. As stated by farmers growing vegetables and as observed on local markets, cabbage in Bukavu and around is damaged by pests. The present work was intended to identify pests damaging this crop, which is now a cash crop in this region, in order to design control methods. Results revealed that one aphid species (Brevicoryne brassicaej, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum and some Caterpillar species (Plutella xylostella, Hellula undalis, Spodoptera exempta and Trichoplusia ni are major pests causing a loss of plantlets estimated from 0 to 53.8 %, mainly one month after planting. Damage on the first five leaves of the head of cabbage, estimated from 3.5 to 55.8 % of plants were attributed to sporadic pests as the tobacco cricket (Brachytrupes mem-branaceus, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum, chickens, some grasshoppers, snails and a tortoise beetle species (Henosepilachna elateris.

  19. Impacto de inseticidas sobre parasitóides da traça-das-crucíferas em repolho, no Distrito Federal

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    Castelo Branco Marina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar os parasitóides da Plutella xylostella(L. presentes em áreas de cultivo do Distrito Federal, tratadas ou não com inseticidas, onde larvas do inseto foram coletadas. Foram identificados quatro parasitóides: Apantelessp. (Braconidae, Oomyzus sokolowiskii (Kurdjumov (Eulophidae, Diadegmasp. (Ichneumonidae e Actiasp. (Tachinidae. Onível de parasitismo nas áreas não tratadas com inseticidas variou de 5% a 94%, enquanto em áreas tratadas variou de 11% a 87%. A maior parte das larvas de traça-das-crucíferas foram encontradas nas cabeças de repolho ou na parte inferior das folhas da saia das plantas. Esta distribuição de larvas sobre as plantas deve permitir que estas escapem do contato com o inseticida, e, conseqüentemente, os parasitóides podem sobreviver nas plantas tratadas.

  20. Isolation of BAC Clones Containing Conserved Genes from Libraries of Three Distantly Related Moths: A Useful Resource for Comparative Genomics of Lepidoptera

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    Yuji Yasukochi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths, is the second largest animal order and includes numerous agricultural pests. To facilitate comparative genomics in Lepidoptera, we isolated BAC clones containing conserved and putative single-copy genes from libraries of three pests, Heliothis virescens, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Plutella xylostella, harboring the haploid chromosome number, =31, which are not closely related with each other or with the silkworm, Bombyx mori, (=28, the sequenced model lepidopteran. A total of 108–184 clones representing 101–182 conserved genes were isolated for each species. For 79 genes, clones were isolated from more than two species, which will be useful as common markers for analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, as well as for comparison of genome sequence among multiple species. The PCR-based clone isolation method presented here is applicable to species which lack a sequenced genome but have a significant collection of cDNA or EST sequences.

  1. Synthetic sex pheromone use for field trapping of diamondback moth males

    OpenAIRE

    MICHEREFF, MIRIAN FERNANDES FURTADO; VILELA, EVALDO FERREIRA; MICHEREFF FILHO, MIGUEL; MAFRA-NETO, AGENOR

    2000-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a atração dos machos da traça-das-crucíferas (Plutella xylostella L., Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) por diferentes formulações do feromônio sexual sintético. Os tratamentos consistiram em: 1) formulação comercial; 2) Z11,16:Ald; 3) Z11,16:Ac; 4) mistura 7:3 de 2+3; 5) mistura 5:5 de 2+3; 6) septos de borracha com hexano (testemunha); e 7) cinco fêmeas virgens. A formulação comercial do feromônio sexual sintético propiciou maior captura de machos, não dif...

  2. Non-Host Plant Volatiles Disrupt Sex Pheromone Communication in a Specialist Herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fumin; Deng, Jianyu; Schal, Coby; Lou, Yonggen; Zhou, Guoxin; Ye, Bingbing; Yin, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhihong; Shen, Lize

    2016-09-02

    The ecological effects of plant volatiles on herbivores are manifold. Little is known, however, about the impacts of non-host plant volatiles on intersexual pheromonal communication in specialist herbivores. We tested the effects of several prominent constitutive terpenoids released by conifers and Eucalyptus trees on electrophysiological and behavioral responses of an oligophagous species, Plutella xylostella, which feeds on Brassicaceae. The non-host plant volatile terpenoids adversely affected the calling behavior (pheromone emission) of adult females, and the orientation responses of adult males to sex pheromone were also significantly inhibited by these terpenoids in a wind tunnel and in the field. We suggest that disruption of both pheromone emission and orientation to sex pheromone may explain, at least in part, an observed reduction in herbivore attack in polyculture compared with monoculture plantings. We also propose that mating disruption of both male and female moths with non-host plant volatiles may be a promising alternative pest management strategy.

  3. Effect of substerilization doses of radiation on the biology of diamondback moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, D.; Mansor, M.

    1993-01-01

    The pupae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, were exposed to four substerilizing doses (100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy) of gamma radiation. The fecundity, sterility and progeny development of parental crosses and certain F 1 backcrosses (progeny of irradiated males) were studied in the laboratory. All doses caused sterility in the parental crosses and F 1 backcrosses. Doses above 20 Gy greatly affected the development of larvae in parental crosses of irradiated females with normal males and of irradiated males with irradiated females, as no pupation was observed. The study indicated that a dose between 150 and 200 Gy would be suitable for inherited sterility of the diamondback moth. However, the backcross of progeny from irradiated males showed no significant increase in inheritance of deleterious effects. (author). 10 refs, 7 tabs

  4. Does thermal variability experienced at the egg stage influence life history traits across life cycle stages in a small invertebrate?

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    Kun Xing

    Full Text Available Although effects of thermal stability on eggs have often been considered in vertebrates, there is little data thermal stability in insect eggs even though these eggs are often exposed in nature to widely fluctuating ambient conditions. The modularity of development in invertebrates might lead to compensation across life cycle stages but this remains to be tested particularly within the context of realistic temperature fluctuations encountered in nature. We simulated natural temperate fluctuations on eggs of the worldwide cruciferous insect pest, the diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (L., while maintaining the same mean temperature (25°C±0°C, 25±4°C, 25±6°C, 25±8°C, 25±10°C, 25±12°C and assessed egg development, survival and life history traits across developmental stages. Moderate fluctuations (25±4°C, 25±6°C did not influence performance compared to the constant temperature treatment, and none of the treatments influenced egg survival. However the wide fluctuating temperatures (25±10°C, 25±12°C slowed development time and led to an increase in pre-pupal mass, although these changes did not translate into any effects on longevity or fecundity at the adult stage. These findings indicate that environmental effects can extend across developmental stages despite the modularity of moth development but also highlight that there are few fitness consequences of the most variable thermal conditions likely to be experienced by Plutella xylostella.

  5. Pest control and resistance management through release of insects carrying a male-selecting transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Samuel, Tim; Morrison, Neil I; Walker, Adam S; Marubbi, Thea; Yao, Ju; Collins, Hilda L; Gorman, Kevin; Davies, T G Emyr; Alphey, Nina; Warner, Simon; Shelton, Anthony M; Alphey, Luke

    2015-07-16

    Development and evaluation of new insect pest management tools is critical for overcoming over-reliance upon, and growing resistance to, synthetic, biological and plant-expressed insecticides. For transgenic crops expressing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis ('Bt crops') emergence of resistance is slowed by maintaining a proportion of the crop as non-Bt varieties, which produce pest insects unselected for resistance. While this strategy has been largely successful, multiple cases of Bt resistance have now been reported. One new approach to pest management is the use of genetically engineered insects to suppress populations of their own species. Models suggest that released insects carrying male-selecting (MS) transgenes would be effective agents of direct, species-specific pest management by preventing survival of female progeny, and simultaneously provide an alternative insecticide resistance management strategy by introgression of susceptibility alleles into target populations. We developed a MS strain of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, a serious global pest of crucifers. MS-strain larvae are reared as normal with dietary tetracycline, but, when reared without tetracycline or on host plants, only males will survive to adulthood. We used this strain in glasshouse-cages to study the effect of MS male P. xylostella releases on target pest population size and spread of Bt resistance in these populations. Introductions of MS-engineered P. xylostella males into wild-type populations led to rapid pest population decline, and then elimination. In separate experiments on broccoli plants, relatively low-level releases of MS males in combination with broccoli expressing Cry1Ac (Bt broccoli) suppressed population growth and delayed the spread of Bt resistance. Higher rates of MS male releases in the absence of Bt broccoli were also able to suppress P. xylostella populations, whereas either low-level MS male releases or Bt broccoli

  6. Influência da fase embrionária dos ovos da traça-das-crucíferas sobre fêmeas de Trichogramma pretiosum com diferentes idades Influence of diamondback moth embrionary egg stage on Trichogramma pretiosum females of different ages

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Plutella xylostella é considerada a praga mais importante das crucíferas. O método de controle mais utilizado para essa praga é o químico. Contudo, esta espécie de inseto vem desenvolvendo resistência aos inseticidas aplicados. O controle biológico com espécies do gênero Trichogramma é considerado uma alternativa no controle dessa praga. Porém, poucos são os trabalhos que mencionam aspectos biológicos desse parasitóide sobre esta praga. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a influência da fase embrionária dos ovos do hospedeiro P. xylostella sobre fêmeas de T. pretiosum com diferentes idades. Fêmeas do parasitóide foram divididas em cinco lotes, compostos por espécimes recém-emergidos com 24; 48; 72 e 96 horas de idade. Cada lote continha dez fêmeas de T. pretiosum. Para cada fêmea de cada lote, foi oferecida uma cartela contendo 30 ovos de P. xylostella com um, dois e três dias de idade. As maiores taxas de parasitismo foram observadas em fêmeas com idade superior a 48 horas, independente do desenvolvimento embrionário do hospedeiro. Em ovos com três dias de desenvolvimento embrionário verificou-se que, para fêmeas recém-emergidas e com 48 horas de idade, a taxa de viabilidade foi superior apenas em relação àquelas com 96 horas de idade. Ao se avaliar os descendentes de T. pretiosum provenientes de ovos com um dia de desenvolvimento embrionário, verificou-se que os maiores valores de longevidade foram obtidos quando as fêmeas desse parasitóide eram recém-emergidas.Plutella xylostella is one of the most important pests of Cruciferae. Chemicals have been used to control this insect, but the rapid development of resistance is a serious constraint to this method. Biological control with Trichogramma species has been reported as an alternative to control diamondback moth. However few works report biological parameters of this parasitoid interacting with this pest. This work was carried out to evaluate the influence of egg

  7. Possible Contributions of Jatropha curcas L. to Rural Poverty Alleviation in Senegal: Vision and Facts

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    Baudoin, JP.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Les groupes chimiques de Ayapana triplinervis, extraits successivement au moyen de l'hexane, de l'éther de pétrole, du méthanol, de la chloroforme: méthanol (1:1 et de la chloroforme: méthanol (4:1 ont été étudiés pour leurs effets sur le Plutella xylostella, les Crocidolomia binotalis et les Myzus persicae, trois insectes nuisibles aux cultures horticoles à l'Ile Maurice. Les extraits bioactifs ont été fractionnés davantage en divers groupes en utilisant la chromatographie et sept d'entre eux montrant l'activité la plus forte ont été examinés sur chacun des trois insectes. Les résultats ont montré que les alcaloïdes et les tannins sont les groupes chimiques ayant la plus grande dissuasion d'alimentation dans les larves de P. xylostella et de C. binotalis, suivis des phénols et des flavonoïdes. Dans le cas des M. persicae, les extraits de A. triplinervis ont perturbé la croissance et le développement des nymphes, et sont des bons candidats pour les études plus poussées dans le contexte d'agriculture biologique et durable.

  8. Toxicities of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentine, Joseph A; Jansson, Richard K; Starner, Van R; Halliday, W Ross

    2002-12-01

    The toxicity of a number of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to five species of Lepidoptera was investigated using diet and foliar bioassays. The emamectin benzoate homologues B1a and B1b were equally toxic in the diet and foliar assays to Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), Heliothis virescens (F.), Tricoplusia ni (Hübner), and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), within each of these species. Plutella xylostella (L.) was the most sensitive species to emamectin benzoate. The AB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound in the diet assay. However, in the foliage assay AB1a was 4.4-fold less toxic to S. exigua than the parent compound. The MFB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound to P. xylostella, and 3.1 to 6.2 times as toxic as the parent compound to the other species in the diet assay. The order of toxicity of the photodegradates were AB1a > MFB1a > FAB1a > 8,9-Z-MAB1a > PAB1a.

  9. Release and Degradation of Microencapsulated Spinosad and Emamectin Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin Bin; Zhang, Shao Fei; Chen, Peng Hao; Wu, Gang

    2017-09-07

    The dynamics of release and degradation of the microencapsulation formulation containing spinosad (SP) and emamectin benzoate (EM) were evaluated in the present study. SP and EM were microencapsulated using biodegradable poly-lactic acid (PLA) as the wall material. Their release from and degradation within the prepared SP and EM microspheres (SP-EM-microspheres) were studied. It was found that the encapsulation significantly prolonged the insecticide release. The release could be further extended if the external aqueous phase was pre-saturated with the insecticides and the microspheres were additionally coated with gelatin. On the other hand, increasing the water content of the emulsion or the hydrophilic polycaprolactone (PCL) content in the PLA/PCL mixture accelerated the release. Due to the photolysis and hydrolysis of SP and EM by sunlight, the toxicity of the non-encapsulated insecticides in water declined continuously from 0 through the 9 th day (d), and dissipated in 13 d. In contrast, an aqueous suspension containing 5% SP-EM-microspheres maintained a mostly constant toxicity to Plutella xylostella for 17 d. The biodegradable SP-EM-microspheres showed significantly higher long-term toxicity to P. xylostella due to lower release, reduced photolysis and hydrolysis of the encapsulated insecticides, which were affected by the varied preparation conditions.

  10. Purification and Properties of an Insecticidal Metalloprotease Produced by Photorhabdus luminescens Strain 0805-P5G, the Entomopathogenic Nematode Symbiont

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    Feng-Chia Hsieh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 13 Photorhabdus luminescens strains were screened for proteolytic activity. The P. luminescens strain 0805-P5G had the highest activity on both skim milk and gelatin plates. The protease was purified to electrophoretical homogeneity by using a two-step column chromatographic procedure. It had a molecular weight of 51.8 kDa, as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The optimum pH, temperature, as well as pH and thermal stabilities were 8, 60 °C, 5–10, and 14–60 °C, respectively. It was completely inhibited by EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline. Bioassay of the purified protease against Galleria mellonella by injection showed high insecticidal activity. The protease also showed high oral toxicity to the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella of a Taiwan field-collected strain, but low toxicity to an American strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that the purified protease of P. luminescens has direct toxicity to P. xylostella and biopesticide potentiality.

  11. A Floral Fragrance, Methyl Benzoate, is An Efficient Green Pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Zhang, Aijun

    2017-02-01

    Over-reliance on synthetic pesticides in insect pest control has caused widespread public and scientific concerns for human health and the environment, especially since many insect pests have already developed resistances to conventional pesticides and Bt products. For this reason, there is a considerable interest in development of alternative control methods for insect pest management. Based on laboratory studies, we report that methyl benzoate (MB), a naturally-occurring compound in many plants, may possess toxicity against various stages of a variety of insect pests, including the brown marmorated stinkbug, Halyomorpha halys, diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, as well as the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Based on our laboratory toxicity data, MB was at least 5 to 20 times more toxic than the conventional pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), sulfur & pyrethrin mixture, and some organic commercial products available on the market against H. halys, P. xylostella, and M. sexta, eggs. Because MB is considered an environment-friendly, it has great potential to be used as an alternative tool to synthetic pesticide for insect pest management in crop production, thereby, reducing threats to natural ecosystems and human health caused by over-application of conventional synthetic pesticides.

  12. Isolation, characterization and toxicity of native Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from different hosts and habitats in Iran

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    Ghassemi-Kahrizeh Akbar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, aerobic, facultative anaerobic and endospore-forming bacterium. Different strains of this species have the ability to produce parasporal crystalline inclusions which are toxic to larvae of different insect orders and other invertebrates and cause rapid death of the host. To determine the importance of this species in microbial control, we collected native strains and studied their virulence on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. More than 148 samples were collected from Alborz, Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces. Experimental samples, including soil samples from forests, fruit gardens, agricultural fields, diseased and dead larvae, were transferred to a laboratory in sterile plastic containers. For evaluating B. thuringiensis isolates virulence, a cabbage leaf dip method with 106 cell · ml−1 concentration of various Bt isolates was applied to diamondback moths. Larval mortality was recorded 72 h after treatment. Based on bioassay results, all isolates were classified into three high, medium and low virulence groups. Protein level characterization based on the SDS-PAGE gel analysis showed that two isolates from a high virulence group have proteins of high molecular masses of 121 and 109 kDa. Results revealed that there is a positive correlation between protein masses and virulence of isolates. In addition, this research introduced nine strains that are highly toxic to P. xylostella and would be valuable as insecticidal agents for controlling lepidopteran pests.

  13. Mechanisms relevant to the enhanced virulence of a dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin metabolically engineered entomopathogen.

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    Min-Nan Tseng

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae MA05-169 is a transformant strain that has been metabolically engineered to express dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin biosynthesis genes. In contrast to the wild type strain, the transformant displays a greater resistance to environmental stress and a higher virulence toward target insect host. However, the underlying mechanisms for these characteristics remain unclear; hence experiments were initiated to explore the possible mechanism(s through physiological and molecular approaches. Although both transformant and wild type strains could infect and share the same insect host range, the former germinated faster and produced more appressoria than the latter, both in vivo and in vitro. The transformant showed a significantly shorter median lethal time (LT50 when infecting the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella and the striped flea beetle (Phyllotreta striolata, than the wild type. Additionally, the transformant was more tolerant to reactive oxygen species (ROS, produced 40-fold more orthosporin and notably overexpressed the transcripts of the pathogenicity-relevant hydrolytic enzymes (chitinase, protease, and phospholipase genes in vivo. In contrast, appressorium turgor pressure and destruxin A content were slightly decreased compared to the wild type. The transformant's high anti-stress tolerance, its high virulence against five important insect pests (cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora, diamondback moth Pl. xylostella, striped flea beetle Ph. striolata, and silverleaf whitefly Bemisia argentifolii and its capacity to colonize the root system are key properties for its potential bio-control field application.

  14. Insecticidal and Feeding Deterrent Effects of Fraxinellone from Dictamnus dasycarpus against Four Major Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fraxinellone, a well-known and significant naturally occurring compound isolated from Meliaceae and Rutaceae spp. has been widely used as a drug for the treatment of tumors. On the other hand, fraxinellone exhibited a variety of insecticidal activities including feeding-deterrent activity, inhibition of growth, and larvicidal activity. The present study focused on the antifeedant and larvicidal activities of fraxinellone against the larvae of Lepidoptera, including Mythimna separata, Agrotis ypsilon, Plutella xylostella, and one kind of sanitary pest, Culux pipiens pallens. Meanwhile, the ovicidal activities and the effects of fraxinellone on the larval development of M. separata were also observed. The LC50 values of fraxinellone against 3rd instar larvae of M. separata, 2nd instar larvae of P. xylostella and 4th instar larvae of C. pipiens pallens were 15.95/6.43/3.60 × 10−2 mg mL−1, and its AFC50 values against 5th instar larvae of M. separata, 2nd instar larvae of P. xylostella and 2nd instar larvae of A. ypsilon were 10.73/7.93/12.58 mg mL−1, respectively. Compared with the control group, fraxinellone obviously inhibited the pupation rate and the growth of M. separata. Once M. separata was treated with fraxinellone at concentrations of 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 mg mL−1, respectively, the stages from the larvae to adulthood and the egg hatching duration were prolonged to 1/2/3, and 4/3/4 days, respectively. Additionally, fraxinellone strongly inhibited the development rate and the egg hatch proportion of M. separata.

  15. Gamma irradiation on canola seeds affects herbivore-plant and host-parasitoid interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akandeh, M.; Kocheili, F.; Rasekh, A.; Soufbaf, M.

    2017-01-01

    As an agricultural modernization, gamma irradiation is an important method for enhancing crop yield and quality. Nevertheless, its use can alter other plant traits such as nutrition and resistance to different biotic/abiotic stresses that consequently affect plant-insect interactions. A tritrophic system was utilized based on two canola mutant lines produced through gamma irradiation (RGS 8-1 and Talaye 8-3). Plutella xylostella (L.), as a worldwide pest of Brassicaceae and Cotesia vestalis (Holiday) as a key biocontrol agent of P. xylostella were examined for the potential indirect effects of canola seed irradiation on the experimental insects' performance when acting on the respective mutant lines. This study showed that physical mutation did not affect plant nitrogen and herbivore-damaged total phenolics; however, phenolic compounds showed greater concentration in damaged leaves than undamaged leaves of both mutant and control plants. The relative growth rate and pupal weight of P. xylostella reared on RGS 8-1 were significantly higher than those reared on the control RGS. There was no significant difference by performance parameters of the parasitoid, C. vestalis, including total pre-oviposition period, adult longevity, adult fresh body weight of males and females, pupal weight, forewing area, and total longevity of both sexes on tested canola cultivars in comparison with their mutant lines. Life table parameters of C. vestalis on mutant lines of both cultivars, RGS and Talaye, were not significantly different from their control treatments. Comprehensive studies should be conducted to find out the mechanisms under which gamma rays affect plant-insect interactions. (author)

  16. MAPK Signaling Pathway Alters Expression of Midgut ALP and ABCC Genes and Causes Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin in Diamondback Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhu, Xun; Baxter, Simon W.; Zhou, Xuguo; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1). Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt biopesticide in four independent P. xylostella strains were all associated with differential expression of a midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP) outside this locus and a suite of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C (ABCC) genes inside this locus. The interplay between these resistance genes is controlled by a previously uncharacterized trans-regulatory mechanism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Molecular, biochemical, and functional analyses have established ALP as a functional Cry1Ac receptor. Phenotypic association experiments revealed that the recessive Cry1Ac resistance was tightly linked to down-regulation of ALP, ABCC2 and ABCC3, whereas it was not linked to up-regulation of ABCC1. Silencing of ABCC2 and ABCC3 in susceptible larvae reduced their susceptibility to Cry1Ac but did not affect the expression of ALP, whereas suppression of MAP4K4, a constitutively transcriptionally-activated MAPK upstream gene within the BtR-1 locus, led to a transient recovery of gene expression thereby restoring the susceptibility in resistant larvae. These results highlight a crucial role for ALP and ABCC genes in field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac and reveal a novel trans-regulatory signaling mechanism responsible for modulating the expression of these pivotal genes in P. xylostella. PMID:25875245

  17. MAPK signaling pathway alters expression of midgut ALP and ABCC genes and causes resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in diamondback moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojiang Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L., was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1. Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt biopesticide in four independent P. xylostella strains were all associated with differential expression of a midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP outside this locus and a suite of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C (ABCC genes inside this locus. The interplay between these resistance genes is controlled by a previously uncharacterized trans-regulatory mechanism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. Molecular, biochemical, and functional analyses have established ALP as a functional Cry1Ac receptor. Phenotypic association experiments revealed that the recessive Cry1Ac resistance was tightly linked to down-regulation of ALP, ABCC2 and ABCC3, whereas it was not linked to up-regulation of ABCC1. Silencing of ABCC2 and ABCC3 in susceptible larvae reduced their susceptibility to Cry1Ac but did not affect the expression of ALP, whereas suppression of MAP4K4, a constitutively transcriptionally-activated MAPK upstream gene within the BtR-1 locus, led to a transient recovery of gene expression thereby restoring the susceptibility in resistant larvae. These results highlight a crucial role for ALP and ABCC genes in field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac and reveal a novel trans-regulatory signaling mechanism responsible for modulating the expression of these pivotal genes in P. xylostella.

  18. Gamma irradiation on canola seeds affects herbivore-plant and host-parasitoid interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akandeh, M.; Kocheili, F.; Rasekh, A. [Dept. of Entomology, Shahid Chamran Univ of Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soufbaf, M., E-mail: msoufbaf@nrcam.org [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    As an agricultural modernization, gamma irradiation is an important method for enhancing crop yield and quality. Nevertheless, its use can alter other plant traits such as nutrition and resistance to different biotic/abiotic stresses that consequently affect plant-insect interactions. A tritrophic system was utilized based on two canola mutant lines produced through gamma irradiation (RGS 8-1 and Talaye 8-3). Plutella xylostella (L.), as a worldwide pest of Brassicaceae and Cotesia vestalis (Holiday) as a key biocontrol agent of P. xylostella were examined for the potential indirect effects of canola seed irradiation on the experimental insects' performance when acting on the respective mutant lines. This study showed that physical mutation did not affect plant nitrogen and herbivore-damaged total phenolics; however, phenolic compounds showed greater concentration in damaged leaves than undamaged leaves of both mutant and control plants. The relative growth rate and pupal weight of P. xylostella reared on RGS 8-1 were significantly higher than those reared on the control RGS. There was no significant difference by performance parameters of the parasitoid, C. vestalis, including total pre-oviposition period, adult longevity, adult fresh body weight of males and females, pupal weight, forewing area, and total longevity of both sexes on tested canola cultivars in comparison with their mutant lines. Life table parameters of C. vestalis on mutant lines of both cultivars, RGS and Talaye, were not significantly different from their control treatments. Comprehensive studies should be conducted to find out the mechanisms under which gamma rays affect plant-insect interactions. (author)

  19. Parasitismo de traça-das-crucíferas por Oomyzus sokolowskii Parasitism of diamondback moth by Oomyzus sokolowskii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Sherley Araújo da Silva-Torres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade de parasitismo do parasitoide larval-pupal Oomyzus sokolowskii, submetido a diferentes densidades do hospedeiro traça-das-crucíferas (Plutella xylostella, em laboratório, casa telada e campo. Em laboratório e campo, O. sokolowskii foi exposto às densidades de 2, 4, 8 e 16 lagartas. Em laboratório, empregaram-se recipientes de 300 mL e, em campo, plantas de couve foram confinadas em gaiolas de organza (30x50 cm. Em casa telada, foram utilizadas microparcelas compostas por seis plantas de repolho infestadas com 25, 50, 85 ou 100 lagartas. O número de lagartas parasitadas aumentou de acordo com a densidade do hospedeiro e variou de 1,7 a 10,4, em laboratório, e de 0,61 a 7,0, em campo. Em casa telada, a maior taxa de parasitismo foi observada nas microparcelas com densidades mais elevadas do hospedeiro. O tempo de exposição aos parasitoides proporcionou maior taxa de parasitismo após 72 horas (24 horas, 52,4% e 72 horas, 80,7% independentemente da densidade. Oomyzus sokolowskii responde positivamente ao incremento na densidade de P. xylostella, embora a taxa de parasitismo permaneça constante independentemente da disponibilidade do hospedeiro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the parasitism capacity of the larval-pupal parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii submitted to different densities of the host diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, in the laboratory, greenhouse and field. In the laboratory and in the field, O. sokolowskii was exposed to densities of 2, 4, 8 or 16 larvae. In the laboratory, 300 mL recipient were used, and in the field kale plants were placed in cages (30x50 cm. In the greenhouse, microparcels consisted of six cabbage plants each infested with 25, 50, 85 or 100 larvae. The number of parasitized larvae increased with host density and varied from 1.7 to 10.4 (laboratory and from 0.61 to 7.0 (field. In the greenhouse, parasitism rate was higher in microparcels with

  20. UTILIZACIÓN DEL SUBPRODUCTO DE FIQUE: LICOR VERDE, COMO CONTROLADOR DE PLAGAS EN EL CULTIVO DE REPOLLO (Brassica oleracea DO FIQUE SUBPRODUTOS UTILIZAÇÃO: LICOR VERDE COMO UM CONTROLADOR DE PRAGAS NA CULTURA DO REPOLHO (Brassica oleracea FIQUE SUBPRODUCT UTILIZATION: GREEN LIQUOR AS A PEST CONTROL IN THE CULTURE OFCABBAGE (Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHON F. IMBACHÍ-HOYOS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En el vivero forestal 'La Florida' de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Cauca CRC, se evaluó el efecto del extracto de fique (Furcraea sp como controlador de plagas en el cultivo de repollo (Brassica oleracea. Se utilizaron cuatro tratamientos (blanco, solución extracto de fique al 30% v/v, 20% v/v, 10% v/v. Las mediciones se hicieron durante seis semanas para vigor, altura, diámetro, daño por plagas y daño por enfermedades. La aplicación fue de una vez durante las tres primeras semanas; y las tres siguientes la aplicación fue de dos por semana. Los resultados se analizaron utilizando el paquete estadístico SPSS 11.5, se realizó una ANOVA con un nivel de confianza del 95% (p = 0,05 y una prueba de Tuckey. El análisis muestra que la aplicación del extracto dos veces por semana (extracto de fique al 30% v/v, presentó el mejor control de plagas, disminuyendo la presencia de daños por las plagas: mariposa blanca (Pieris sp. palomilla (Plutella xylostella y áfidos (Brevicoryne brassicae y Myzus persicae.No viveiro floresta 'La Florida' da Corporação Autônoma Regional do Cauca (CRC se abalizou o efeito do extrato de fique (Furcraea sp como controlador de plagas no cultivo de repolho (Brassica oleracea. Utilizarão- se quatro tratamentos (Branco, solução extrato de fique a 30% v/v, 20% v/v e 10% v/v. As medições fizeram-se durante seis semanas para vigor, altura, diâmetro, dano por pragas y dano por enfermidades. A aplicação foi de uma vez durante as três primeiras semanas; y as três seguintes a aplicação foi de duas por semanas. Os resultados analisaram-se utilizando o paquete estadístico SPSS 11.5, realizaram-se uma ANOVA com um nível de confiança dos 95% (p = 0,05 e uma proba de Tuckey. A análise mostra que a aplicação do extrato duas vezes por semana (extrato de fique a 30% v/v, apresentou o melhor controle de pragas reduzindo a presencia de danos por as pragas: Borboleta branca (Pieris sp, mariposa (Plutella

  1. Spread ability of diamondblack moth (Plutella xylotella L) steriled by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rongxin; Fang Julian; Xia Darong; Chu Jiming; Feng Chunsheng

    1990-01-01

    The spread ability of the radiation steriled diamondblack moth (DBM) is reported. It shows that the 94.2% of DBM is spread in 40 m duration of 10 days and a few of moths are 120 m. It indicates that the spread of steriled DBM is definitely time limit, the spread area is withinca. 700 m 2 in the first three days

  2. Interação tritrófica e influência de produtos químicos e vegetais no complexo: brássicas x traça-das-crucíferas x parasitóides de ovos Tritrofic interaction and influence of insecticides and plant products on the complex: brassica diamondback moth egg parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Thomaz Thuler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a interação tritrófica no complexo hospedeiro-vegetal (brássicas x praga/hospedeiro-natural Plutella xylostella Linnaeus x inseto-entomófago (parasitóides - Trichogrmma pretiosum Riley e T. exiguum Pinto & Platner, associada a alguns produtos químicos e vegetais com efeito inseticida, utilizando-se os cultivares de repolho verde - Chato de quintal e híbrido Midori; roxo - Roxo precoce e Híbrido roxo - TPC00682; e couve manteiga - Geórgia e hibrido Geórgia HS20, pulverizadas com os inseticidas: lufenuron (2,52 ml/100L e deltametrina (32 ml/100L, os produtos vegetais óleo de nim a 0,16 % e extrato pirolenhoso a 3,0 %, controle (água. Foi avaliada a interação das cultivares com os compostos por meio da exposição de lagartas recém-eclodidas aos produtos, avaliando-se os insetos nas fases de desenvolvimento até a emergência dos adultos. Para avaliar o efeito desses compostos sobre os parasitóides, foram empregados ovos de uma geração F2 de P. xylostella oriunda de lagartas alimentadas com folhas de brássicas, pulverizadas com esses produtos. A associação de produtos químicos ou vegetais, com efeito inseticida, com as cultivares de brássicas permitiu o manejo mais eficaz, especialmente na interação extrato pirolenhoso x a cultivar de repolho Chato de quintal. Observa-se que a interação entre as cultivares e os produtos pode ser prejudicial à atuação do parasitóide Trichogramma, sendo necessária uma avaliação criteriosa para minimizar o efeito sobre inimigos naturais.The aim of this work was to evaluate the tritrofic interaction in brassica complex: host-vegetable (brassica vs. pest/natural-host (Plutella xylostella vs. entomophagous-insect (parasitoid - Trichogramma pretiosum and Trichogramma exiguum, combined with chemical and vegetable products with insecticide action. The cultivar used were: green cabbage - Chato de quintal and Midori hybrid; purple cabbage - Roxo Precoce and purple hybrid

  3. Eficácia do indoxacarb para o controle de pragas em hortaliças Efficacy of indoxacarb in the control of vegetable pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Martinelli

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência do indoxacarb foi avaliada no controle dos lepidópteros-pragas em hortaliças: Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponeumatidae, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em três locais diferentes nas culturas do repolho e tomate. Os inseticidas utilizados foram indoxacarb (no tomate de 2,4 a 6,0 g i.a./100 L e no repolho de 18 a 42 g i.a./ha, esfenvalerate (apenas no tomate de 1,75 g i.a./100 L, metomil (no tomate na dose de 21,5 g i.a./100 L e no repolho a 172 g i.a./ha, deltametrina (apenas no repolho na dose de 6 g i.a./ha e triflumuron (apenas no tomate na dose de 15 g i.a./100 L. Adotou-se o delineamento estatístico em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições em todos os experimentos. Todas as doses avaliadas do produto indoxacarb apresentaram excelente desempenho no controle de P. xylostella e T. ni. Assim, a menor dose avaliada (18 g i.a./ha pode ser recomendada para o controle dessas pragas. Todos os produtos avaliados alcançaram níveis de eficiência maiores que 80% no controle de H. zea na cultura do tomate. Indoxacarb foi tão eficiente quanto o produto padrão adotado (triflumuron. N. elegantalis foi eficientemente controlada pelos inseticidas avaliados após nove aplicações, sendo que indoxacarb pode ser recomendado na menor dose utilizada (2,4 g i.a./100 L.The efficacy of indoxacarb was evaluated for controlling lepidopterous pests on vegetables: Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponeumatidae, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The experiments were carried out at three different sites on cabbage and tomato crops. The utilized insecticides were indoxacarb (for tomato from 2.4 to 6.0 g a.i./100 L and for cabbage from 18 to 42 g i.a./ha, esfenvalerate (only for tomato at 1.75 g a.i./100 L

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12435-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hromosome 2 map 4915084... 40 0.24 7 ( AY934834 ) Cotesia plutellae clone 501-510 NADH dehydrogenas... 40 0....25 2 ( AY934846 ) Cotesia plutellae clone 641-646 NADH dehydrogenas... 40 0.25 2 ( AY934845 ) Cotesia plutella...e clone 631-636 NADH dehydrogenas... 40 0.25 2 ( AY934844 ) Cotesia plutellae c...lone 611-620 NADH dehydrogenas... 40 0.25 2 ( AY934842 ) Cotesia plutellae clone 581-583 NADH dehydrogenas...... 40 0.25 2 ( AY934840 ) Cotesia plutellae clone 561-570 NADH dehydrogenas... 40 0.25 2 ( AY934839 ) Cotesia plutella

  5. Passive Adsorption of Volatile Monoterpene in Pest Control: Aided by Proximity and Disrupted by Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofikoya, Adedayo O; Kim, Tae Ho; Abd El-Raheem, Ahmed M; Blande, James D; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2017-11-08

    Plant volatiles mediate a range of interactions across and within trophic levels, including plant-plant interactions. Volatiles emitted by a plant may trigger physiological responses in neighboring plants or adhere to their surfaces, which, in turn, may affect the responses of the neighboring plant to herbivory. These volatiles are subject to chemical reactions during transport in air currents, especially in a polluted atmosphere. We conducted a field experiment to test for the adsorption of dispenser-released myrcene on the surfaces of cabbage plants and the effects of distance from the dispenser and elevated ozone levels (1.4× ambient) on the process. We also tested the effects of the same treatments on oviposition on cabbage plants by naturally occurring Plutella xylostella. Under low ambient ozone conditions of central Finland, there was evidence for the adsorption and re-release of myrcene by cabbage plants growing at a distance of 50 cm from myrcene dispensers. This effect was absent at elevated ozone levels. The number of eggs deposited by P. xylostella was generally lower in plots under elevated ozone compared to ambient control plots. Our results indicate that passive adsorption and re-release of a volatile monoterpene can occur in nature; however, this process is dependent upon the distance between emitter source and receiver plants as well as the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in the air. We conclude that, in the development of field-scale use of plant volatiles in modern pest control, the effects of distances and air pollution should be considered.

  6. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blankson W Amoabeng

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae, Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae, Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae, chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae, tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae, physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae, castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae. In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis, all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from

  7. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  8. Tri-Trophic Insecticidal Effects of African Plants against Cabbage Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabeng, Blankson W.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Gitau, Catherine W.; Nicol, Helen I.; Stevenson, Phil C.

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  9. Characterization of a novel gene encoding ankyrin repeat domain from Cotesia vestalis polydnavirus (CvBV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Min; Chen Yafeng; Huang Fang; Liu Pengcheng; Zhou Xueping; Chen Xuexin

    2008-01-01

    Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) is an endoparasitoid of Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae and injects a polydnavirus (CvBV) into its host during oviposition. In this report we describe the characterization of a gene (CvBV805) and its products. CvBV805 is located on the segment S8 of CvBV genome; it has a size of 909 bp and encodes a predicted protein of 125 amino acids. This protein contains an ankyrin repeat domain with a high degree of similarity with IκB-like genes. Gene transcripts were detected in extracts of the host as early as 2 h post-parasitization (p.p.) and continued to be detected through 24 h. Tissue-specific expression patterns showed that CvBV805 might be involved in early host immunosuppression. CvBV805 was detected in parasitized hosts at 12 h p.p. and in rBac-eGFP-CvBV805-infected Tn-5B1-4 cells at 72 h.p.i. by using western blots analysis. The size of the protein expressed in the host hemocytes and infected Tn-5B1-4 cells was 17 kDa and 56 kDa (including eGFP), respectively, which nearly corresponded with the predicted molecular weight (14.31 kDa) of CvBV805, suggesting that the protein did not undergo extensive post-translational modification. The protein was confirmed to be present within the nuclear region in hemocytes of the parasitized P. xylostella larvae at 48 h p.p. using confocal laser scanning microscopy

  10. Brood size and sex ratio in response to host quality and wasp traits in the gregarious parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory study investigated whether the larval-pupal parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii females adjust their brood size and sex ratio in response to body size and stage of Plutella xylostella larval hosts, as well as to their own body size and the order of oviposition. These factors were analyzed using multiple regression with simultaneous entry of them and their two-way interactions. Parasitoids brood size tended to increase with host body size at parasitism when the 4th instar larval host was attacked, but did not change when the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae were attacked. Parasitoids did not vary in brood size according to their body size, but decreased with their bouts of oviposition on a linear trend from 10 offspring adults emerged per host in the first bout of oviposition down to eight in the third. Parasitoid offspring sex ratio did not change with host instar, host body weight, wasp body size, and oviposition bout. Proportions of male offspring per brood were from 11% to 13% from attacking the 2nd to 4th instar larvae and from 13% to 16% across three successive bouts of oviposition, with a large variation for smaller host larvae and wasps. When fewer than 12 offspring were emerged from a host, one male was most frequently produced; when more than 12 offspring were emerged, two or more males were produced. Our study suggests that O. sokolowskii females may optimize their clutch size in response to body size of mature P. xylostella larvae, and their sex allocation in response to clutch size.

  11. Monoterpene and herbivore-induced emissions from cabbage plants grown at elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Terhi; Reddy, G. V. P.; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    The warming of the lower atmosphere due to elevating CO 2 concentration may increase volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from plants. Also, direct effects of elevated CO 2 on plant secondary metabolism are expected to lead to increased VOC emissions due to allocation of excess carbon on secondary metabolites, of which many are volatile. We investigated how growing at doubled ambient CO 2 concentration affects emissions from cabbage plants ( Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) damaged by either the leaf-chewing larvae of crucifer specialist diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella L.) or generalist Egyptian cotton leafworm ( Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval)). The emission from cabbage cv. Lennox grown in both CO 2 concentrations, consisted mainly of monoterpenes (sabinene, limonene, α-thujene, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, myrcene, α-pinene and γ-terpinene). ( Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate, sesquiterpene ( E, E)- α-farnesene and homoterpene ( E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) were emitted mainly from herbivore-damaged plants. Plants grown at 720 μmol mol -1 of CO 2 had significantly lower total monoterpene emissions per shoot dry weight than plants grown at 360 μmol mol -1 of CO 2, while damage by both herbivores significantly increased the total monoterpene emissions compared to intact plants. ( Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate, ( E, E)- α-farnesene and DMNT emissions per shoot dry weight were not affected by the growth at elevated CO 2. The emission of DMNT was significantly enhanced from plants damaged by the specialist P. xylostella compared to the plants damaged by the generalist S. littoralis. The relative proportions of total monoterpenes and total herbivore-induced compounds of total VOCs did not change due to the growth at elevated CO 2, while insect damage increased significantly the proportion of induced compounds. The results suggest that VOC emissions that are induced by the leaf-chewing herbivores will not be influenced by elevated CO 2 concentration.

  12. Identification of receptors of main sex-pheromone components of three Lepidopteran species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Murai, Masatoshi; Yasuda, Tetsuya; Kugimiya, Soichi; Ozawa, Rika; Toyohara, Haruhiko; Takabayashi, Junji; Miyoshi, Hideto; Nishioka, Takaaki

    2008-09-01

    Male moths discriminate conspecific female-emitted sex pheromones. Although the chemical components of sex pheromones have been identified in more than 500 moth species, only three components in Bombyx mori and Heliothis virescens have had their receptors identified. Here we report the identification of receptors for the main sex-pheromone components in three moth species, Plutella xylostella, Mythimna separata and Diaphania indica. We cloned putative sex-pheromone receptor genes PxOR1, MsOR1 and DiOR1 from P. xylostella, M. separata and D. indica, respectively. Each of the three genes was exclusively expressed with an Or83b orthologous gene in male olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) that are surrounded by supporting cells expressing pheromone-binding-protein (PBP) genes. By two-electrode voltage-clamp recording, we tested the ligand specificity of Xenopus oocytes co-expressing PxOR1, MsOR1 or DiOR1 with an OR83b family protein. Among the seven sex-pheromone components of the three moth species, the oocytes dose-dependently responded only to the main sex-pheromone component of the corresponding moth species. In our study, PBPs were not essential for ligand specificity of the receptors. On the phylogenetic tree of insect olfactory receptors, the six sex-pheromone receptors identified in the present and previous studies are grouped in the same subfamily but have no relation with the taxonomy of moths. It is most likely that sex-pheromone receptors have randomly evolved from ancestral sex-pheromone receptors before the speciation of moths and that their ligand specificity was modified by mutations of local amino acid sequences after speciation.

  13. A single sex pheromone receptor determines chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Uchino, Keiro; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishioka, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2011-06-01

    In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z)-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol), is sufficient to elicit full sexual behavior. We have previously shown that the sex pheromone receptor BmOR1 mediates specific detection of bombykol in the antennae of male silkmoths. However, it is unclear whether the sex pheromone receptor is the minimally sufficient determination factor that triggers initiation of orientation behavior towards a potential mate. Using transgenic silkmoths expressing the sex pheromone receptor PxOR1 of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in BmOR1-expressing neurons, we show that the selectivity of the sex pheromone receptor determines the chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth. Bombykol receptor neurons expressing PxOR1 responded to its specific ligand, (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald), in a dose-dependent manner. Male moths expressing PxOR1 exhibited typical pheromone orientation behavior and copulation attempts in response to Z11-16:Ald and to females of P. xylostella. Transformation of the bombykol receptor neurons had no effect on their projections in the antennal lobe. These results indicate that activation of bombykol receptor neurons alone is sufficient to trigger full sexual behavior. Thus, a single gene defines behavioral selectivity in sex pheromone communication in the silkmoth. Our findings show that a single molecular determinant can not only function as a modulator of behavior but also as an all-or-nothing initiator of a complex species-specific behavioral sequence.

  14. Molecular evolution of the odorant and gustatory receptor genes in lepidopteran insects: implications for their adaptation and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engsontia, Patamarerk; Sangket, Unitsa; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-08-01

    Lepidoptera (comprised of butterflies and moths) is one of the largest groups of insects, including more than 160,000 described species. Chemoreception plays important roles in the adaptation of these species to a wide range of niches, e.g., plant hosts, egg-laying sites, and mates. This study investigated the molecular evolution of the lepidopteran odorant (Or) and gustatory receptor (Gr) genes using recently identified genes from Bombyx mori, Danaus plexippus, Heliconius melpomene, Plutella xylostella, Heliothis virescens, Manduca sexta, Cydia pomonella, and Spodoptera littoralis. A limited number of cases of large lineage-specific gene expansion are observed (except in the P. xylostella lineage), possibly due to selection against tandem gene duplication. There has been strong purifying selection during the evolution of both lepidopteran odorant and gustatory genes, as shown by the low ω values estimated through CodeML analysis, ranging from 0.0093 to 0.3926. However, purifying selection has been relaxed on some amino acid sites in these receptors, leading to sequence divergence, which is a precursor of positive selection on these sequences. Signatures of positive selection were detected only in a few loci from the lineage-specific analysis. Estimation of gene gains and losses suggests that the common ancestor of the Lepidoptera had fewer Or genes compared to extant species and an even more reduced number of Gr genes, particularly within the bitter receptor clade. Multiple gene gains and a few gene losses occurred during the evolution of Lepidoptera. Gene family expansion may be associated with the adaptation of lepidopteran species to plant hosts, especially after angiosperm radiation. Phylogenetic analysis of the moth sex pheromone receptor genes suggested that chromosomal translocations have occurred several times. New sex pheromone receptors have arisen through tandem gene duplication. Positive selection was detected at some amino acid sites predicted to be

  15. A single sex pheromone receptor determines chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sakurai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol, is sufficient to elicit full sexual behavior. We have previously shown that the sex pheromone receptor BmOR1 mediates specific detection of bombykol in the antennae of male silkmoths. However, it is unclear whether the sex pheromone receptor is the minimally sufficient determination factor that triggers initiation of orientation behavior towards a potential mate. Using transgenic silkmoths expressing the sex pheromone receptor PxOR1 of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in BmOR1-expressing neurons, we show that the selectivity of the sex pheromone receptor determines the chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth. Bombykol receptor neurons expressing PxOR1 responded to its specific ligand, (Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald, in a dose-dependent manner. Male moths expressing PxOR1 exhibited typical pheromone orientation behavior and copulation attempts in response to Z11-16:Ald and to females of P. xylostella. Transformation of the bombykol receptor neurons had no effect on their projections in the antennal lobe. These results indicate that activation of bombykol receptor neurons alone is sufficient to trigger full sexual behavior. Thus, a single gene defines behavioral selectivity in sex pheromone communication in the silkmoth. Our findings show that a single molecular determinant can not only function as a modulator of behavior but also as an all-or-nothing initiator of a complex species

  16. Validation of reference genes for quantitative expression analysis by real-time rt-PCR in four lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zan; He, Guiling; Yang, Liwen; Li, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is an efficient and widely used technique to monitor gene expression. Housekeeping genes (HKGs) are often empirically selected as the reference genes for data normalization. However, the suitability of HKGs used as the reference genes has been seldom validated. Here, six HKGs were chosen (actin A3, actin A1, GAPDH, G3PDH, E2F, rp49) in four lepidopteran insects Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), Plutella xylostella L. (Plutellidae), Chilo suppressalis Walker (Crambidae), and Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Noctuidae) to study their expression stability. The algorithms of geNorm, NormFinder, stability index, and ΔCt analysis were used to evaluate these HKGs. Across different developmental stages, actin A1 was the most stable in P. xylostella and C. suppressalis, but it was the least stable in B. mori and S. exigua. Rp49 and GAPDH were the most stable in B. mori and S. exigua, respectively. In different tissues, GAPDH, E2F, and Rp49 were the most stable in B. mori, S. exigua, and C. suppressalis, respectively. The relative abundances of Siwi genes estimated by 2(-ΔΔCt) method were tested with different HKGs as the reference gene, proving the importance of internal controls in qPCR data analysis. The results not only presented a list of suitable reference genes in four lepidopteran insects, but also proved that the expression stabilities of HKGs were different among evolutionarily close species. There was no single universal reference gene that could be used in all situations. It is indispensable to validate the expression of HKGs before using them as the internal control in qPCR.

  17. Características biológicas de parasitóide de ovos criados em diferentes hospedeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Lisboa Meira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de Trichogramma são agentes biológicos que contribuem para o controle de lepidópteros. Objetivou-se neste trabalho identificar qual espécie de Trichogramma apresenta melhor desempenho biológico quando criados em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae e Plutella xylostella Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Desta forma os parâmetros biológicos avaliados no período de ovo a adulto foram duração de ovo a adulto e percentual de emergência e no estágio adulto avaliou-se número de ovos parasitados, número de indivíduos por ovo e razão sexual em Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Planter (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae e Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Planter (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae.  Para o período de ovo a adulto, A. kuehniella, H. zea e P. xylostella não apresentaram diferença quando criados com as mesmas espécies de Trichogramma para a duração do ciclo de desenvolvimento e não houve diferença para o percentual de emergência entre os três hospedeiros em estudo. Em relação aos parâmetros avaliados no estágio adulto, para número de ovos parasitados, somente A. kuehniella, diferenciou entre as espécies de Trichogramma. O número de indivíduos por ovo, os maiores valores foram observados quando as espécies de Trichogramma foram criadas com ovos de H. zea. A razão sexual, T. atopovirilia diferiu apenas para A. kuehniella. As duas espécies de Trichogramma estão aptas a se desenvolverem nos hospedeiros A. kuehniella e P. xylostella. Contudo para o hospedeiro H. zea, T. exiguum foi à espécie que obteve melhor desempenho, parasitando maior número de ovos e obtendo maior número de indivíduos por ovo.

  18. Construction of a recombinant Bacillus velezensis strain as an integrated control agent against plant diseases and insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jong Yul; Liu, Qin; Choi, Jae Young; Wang, Yong; Shim, Hee Jin; Xu, Hong Guang; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Je, Yeon Ho

    2009-10-01

    To construct a new recombinant strain of Bacillus velezensis that has antifungal and insecticidal activity via the expression of the insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein, a B. thuringiensis expression vector (pHT1K-1Ac) was generated that contained the B. thuringiensis cry1Ac gene under the control of its endogenous promoter in a minimal E. coli-B. thuringiensis shuttle vector (pHT1K). This vector was introduced into a B. velezensis isolate that showed high antifungal activities against several plant diseases, including rice blast (Magnaporthe grisea), rice sheath blight (Rhizotonia solani), tomato gray mold (Botrytis cinerea), tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans), and wheat leaf rust (Puccinia recondita), by electroporation. The recombinant B. velezensis strain was confirmed by PCR using cry1Ac-specific primers. Additionally, the recombinant strain produced a protein approximately 130 kDa in size and parasporal inclusion bodies similar to B. thuringiensis. The in vivo antifungal activity assay demonstrated that the activity of the recombinant B. velezensis strain was maintained at the same level as that of wild-type B. velezensis. Furthermore, it exhibited high insecticidal activity against a lepidopteran pest, Plutella xylostella, although its activity was lower than that of a recombinant B. thuringiensis strain, whereas wild-type B. velezensis strain did not show any insecticidal activity. These results suggest that this recombinant B. velezensis strain can be used to control harmful insect pests and fungal diseases simultaneously in one crop.

  19. High tunnels: protection for rather than from insect pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwell, Laura L; Thompson, Sarah L; Kaplan, Ian; Foster, Ricky E

    2017-12-01

    High tunnels are a season extension tool creating a hybrid of field and greenhouse growing conditions. High tunnels have recently increased in the USA and thus research on their management is lacking. One purported advantage of these structures is protection from common field pests, but evidence to support this claim is lacking. We compared insect pest populations in high tunnels with field production over two years for three crops: tomato, broccoli and cucumber. Greenhouse pests (e.g. aphids, whiteflies) were more prevalent in high tunnels, compared to field plots. Hornworms (tobacco (Manduca sexta L.) and tomato (M. quinquemaculata Haworth)), a common field pest on tomato, were also more abundant in high tunnels, requiring chemical control while field populations were low. The crucifer caterpillar complex (imported cabbageworm (Pieris rapae L.), diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) and cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni Hübner)) was also more abundant in high tunnels in 2010. Cucumber beetle (striped (Acalymma vittatum F.) and spotted (Diabrotica undecimpunctata Mannerheim)) densities were higher in high tunnels in 2010 and field plots in 2011. The common assumption that high tunnels offer protection from field pests was not supported. Instead, high tunnel growing conditions may facilitate higher pest populations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Mosquitocidal carbamates with low toxicity to agricultural pests: an advantageous property for insecticide resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swale, Daniel R; Carlier, Paul R; Hartsel, Joshua A; Ma, Ming; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2015-08-01

    Insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae is well documented, and widespread agricultural use of pyrethroids may exacerbate development of resistance when pyrethroids are used in vector control. We have developed carbamate anticholinesterases that possess a high degree of An. gambiae:human selectivity for enzyme inhibition. The purpose of this study was to assess the spectrum of activity of these carbamates against other mosquitoes and agricultural pests. Experimental carbamates were potent inhibitors of mosquito acetylcholinesterases, with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Similar potencies were observed for Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster enzymes. Although meta-substituted carbamates were potent inhibitors, two ortho-substituted carbamates displayed poor enzyme inhibition (IC50 ≥ 10(-6)  M) in honey bee (Apis mellifera), Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) and lepidopteran agricultural pests (Plutella xylostella and Ostrinia nubilalis). Enzyme inhibition results were confirmed by toxicity studies in caterpillars, where the new carbamates were 2-3-fold less toxic than propoxur and up to tenfold less active than bendiocarb, indicating little utility of these compounds for crop protection. The experimental carbamates were broadly active against mosquito species but not agricultural pests, which should mitigate selection for mosquito insecticide resistance by reducing agricultural uses of these compounds. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Induction and transmission of tolerance to the synthetic pesticide emamectin benzoate in field and laboratory populations of diamondback moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Baker, G; Powis, K J; Roush, R T; Schmidt, O

    2010-08-01

    Field surveys of pest insect pest populations in agroecosystems reveal low but significant levels of tolerance to synthetic and biological pesticides but fail to uncover resistance alleles in test crosses. To study the potential of inducible mechanisms to generate tolerance to synthetic pesticides, we performed baseline susceptibility studies in field and laboratory populations of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), to commercial formulations of emamectin benzoate. Pesticide exposure in the field caused elevated levels of tolerance, which decreased in field-collected populations after maintaining insects with pesticide-free diet in the laboratory. Because no significant resistance alleles were identified in back-crossed individuals, the observed increase in tolerance was probably not based on preexisting recessive resistance mechanisms in the population. Instead, the genetic analysis after five and 12 generations is compatible with a transient up-regulation of an immune and metabolic status in tolerant insects that can be transmitted to offspring by a maternal effect. Although the epigenetic effects contributed to incremental increases in tolerance in the first five generations, other resistance mechanisms that are transmitted genetically predominate after 12 generations of increased exposure to the pesticide.

  2. Monitoring of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) resistance to spinosad, indoxacarb, and emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J Z; Collins, H L; Li, Y X; Mau, R F L; Thompson, G D; Hertlein, M; Andaloro, J T; Boykin, R; Shelton, A M

    2006-02-01

    Six to nine populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), were collected annually from fields of crucifer vegetables in the United States and Mexico from 2001 to 2004 for baseline susceptibility tests and resistance monitoring to spinosad, indoxacarb, and emamectin benzoate. A discriminating concentration for resistance monitoring to indoxacarb and emamectin benzoate was determined based on baseline data in 2001 and was used in the diagnostic assay for each population in 2002-2004 together with a discriminating concentration for spinosad determined previously. Most populations were susceptible to all three insecticides, but a population from Hawaii in 2003 showed high levels of resistance to indoxacarb. Instances of resistance to spinosad occurred in Hawaii (2000), Georgia (2001), and California (2002) as a consequence of a few years of extensive applications in each region. The collaborative monitoring program between university and industry scientists we discuss in this article has provided useful information to both parties as well as growers who use the products. These studies provide a baseline for developing a more effective resistance management program for diamondback moth.

  3. Effect of age, photoperiod and host availability on the parasitism behavior of Oomyzus sokolowskii Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Efeito da idade, fotoperiodo e disponibilidade de hospedeiro no comportamento de parasitismo de Oomyzus sokolowskii Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva-Torres, Christian S.A.; Barros, Reginaldo; Torres, Jorge B. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia - Entomologia], e-mail: sherleyjbt@yahoo.com

    2009-07-15

    The high reproduction rate, potential to cause damage, wide geographic distribution and resistance to insecticides of Plutella xylostella (L.) makes difficult its efficient control. However, larvae and pupae of this pest are naturally parasitized by Oomyzus Sokolowskii (Kurdjumov), providing opportunities to improve the natural parasitism. This study investigated the effects of the age of adult parasitoids, host availability and time of exposure on O. sokolowskii parasitism behavior. The number of larvae encounters by parasitoid females and the parasitism rate increased with parasitoid age up to 96 h. The parasitization was higher when wasps received a constant number of hosts daily in comparison with a random number (13.3 versus 8.9 larvae parasitized). Female parasitization activity was maintained up to the age of 20 days in both treatments and exhibited similar longevity (constant host = 33.5 d; and random host = 34.7 d). The progeny produced per female and the number of parasitoids emerged per host significantly decreased as wasps aged. There was no significant effect of the light regime (12 h darkness or 12 h light exposure) on the parasitization, although parasitoid was more active after 3 h of light exposure. Therefore, further studies on field application of O. sokolowskii should consider the release of 48 h - to 72 h - old parasitoids at dawn as a way to increase the success of host parasitization. (author)

  4. Diversity and abundance of lepidopteran populations from selected crops of district faisalabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalik, S.; Rana, S.A.; Khan, H.A.; Ashfaq, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lepidopterans are represented by one of the most diverse group of insects. They are phytophagous as well as pollinators at the same time. During present study four crops i.e Wheat, Fodder, Brassica and Vegetables were sampled to assess the diversity and abundance of Lepidopteran populations. A total of 2811 specimens belonging to 14 species and 6 families were recorded. Pieris brassicae (29.46%) was the dominant species followed by Trichoplusia ni (19.28%), Helicoverpa Zea (11.78%), Helicoverpa armigera (11.60%), Spodoptera exigua (6.65%), Psedoplusia includes (5.09%), Spodoptera litura (3.81%), Agrotis ipsilon (4.87%), Plutella xylostella (2.92%), Lymatria dispar (2.24%), Pieris rapae (0.92%), Galleria mellonella (0.71%), Evergestris rimosalis (0.53%) and Menduca sexta (0.14%). Significant differences were observed among different crops by applying Shannon Diversity Index and T- test. CA (Cluster analysis) represented the species association with different crops. Majority of the species showed association with Vegetables and Fodder and least association was observed with Wheat. Such types of studies are necessary to design integrated pest management programs to control these pests. (author)

  5. Synthesis and Bioactivity of N-Benzoyl-N'-[5-(2'-substituted phenyl-2-furoyl] Semicarbazide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zining Cui

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to find novel chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs with good activity, benzoylphenylurea, a typical kind of CSIs, was chosen as the lead compound and 15 novel derivatives containing furan moieties were designed by converting the urea linkage of benzoylphenylureas into a semicarbazide and changing the aniline part into furoyl groups. The title compounds were synthesized by the reaction of substituted benzoyl isocyanates with 5-(substituted phenyl-2-furoyl hydrazine, and the structures were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses (compound E2. The bioassay results indicated that the title compounds exhibit good insecticidal activity, especially towards Plutella xylostella L., but had lower fungicidal activity. Inspiringly, the title compounds possessed obvious anticancer activity against human promyelocytic leukemic cell line (HL-60, and some of the title compounds also had activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Bel-7402, human gastric carcinoma cell line (BGC-823, and human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (KB. The results indicated that the linkage in the lead compounds was important to the bioactivity and spectra. The modification on the urea linkage is an effective strategy to discover new pesticide and drug candidates.

  6. Genome-Wide Host-Pathogen Interaction Unveiled by Transcriptomic Response of Diamondback Moth to Fungal Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Jian Chu

    Full Text Available Genome-wide insight into insect pest response to the infection of Beauveria bassiana (fungal insect pathogen is critical for genetic improvement of fungal insecticides but has been poorly explored. We constructed three pairs of transcriptomes of Plutella xylostella larvae at 24, 36 and 48 hours post treatment of infection (hptI and of control (hptC for insight into the host-pathogen interaction at genomic level. There were 2143, 3200 and 2967 host genes differentially expressed at 24, 36 and 48 hptI/hptC respectively. These infection-responsive genes (~15% of the host genome were enriched in various immune processes, such as complement and coagulation cascades, protein digestion and absorption, and drug metabolism-cytochrome P450. Fungal penetration into cuticle and host defense reaction began at 24 hptI, followed by most intensive host immune response at 36 hptI and attenuated immunity at 48 hptI. Contrastingly, 44% of fungal genes were differentially expressed in the infection course and enriched in several biological processes, such as antioxidant activity, peroxidase activity and proteolysis. There were 1636 fungal genes co-expressed during 24-48 hptI, including 116 encoding putative secretion proteins. Our results provide novel insights into the insect-pathogen interaction and help to probe molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal infection to the global pest.

  7. Parasitism performance and fitness of Cotesia vestalis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae infected with Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae: implications in integrated pest management strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Kermani

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth (DBM Plutella xylostella (L. has traditionally been managed using synthetic insecticides. However, the increasing resistance of DBM to insecticides offers an impetus to practice integrated pest management (IPM strategies by exploiting its natural enemies such as pathogens, parasitoids, and predators. Nevertheless, the interactions between pathogens and parasitoids and/or predators might affect the effectiveness of the parasitoids in regulating the host population. Thus, the parasitism rate of Nosema-infected DBM by Cotesia vestalis (Haliday (Hym., Braconidae can be negatively influenced by such interactions. In this study, we investigated the effects of Nosema infection in DBM on the parasitism performance of C. vestalis. The results of no-choice test showed that C. vestalis had a higher parasitism rate on non-infected host larvae than on Nosema-treated host larvae. The C. vestalis individuals that emerged from Nosema-infected DBM (F1 and their progeny (F2 had smaller pupae, a decreased rate of emergence, lowered fecundity, and a prolonged development period compared to those of the control group. DBM infection by Nosema sp. also negatively affected the morphometrics of C. vestalis. The eggs of female C. vestalis that developed in Nosema-infected DBM were larger than those of females that developed in non-infected DBM. These detrimental effects on the F1 and F2 generations of C. vestalis might severely impact the effectiveness of combining pathogens and parasitoids as parts of an IPM strategy for DBM control.

  8. Atmospheric transformation of plant volatiles disrupts host plant finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Blande, James D.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-09-01

    Plant-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in plant-insect interactions. Atmospheric pollutants such as ozone (O3) can react with VOCs and affect the dynamics and fidelity of these interactions. However, the effects of atmospheric degradation of plant VOCs on plant-insect interactions remains understudied. We used a system comprising Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata (cabbage) and the specialist herbivore Plutella xylostella to test whether O3-triggered VOC degradation disturbs larval host orientation, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Larvae oriented towards both constitutive and larva-induced cabbage VOC blends, the latter being the more attractive. Such behaviour was, however, dramatically reduced in O3-polluted environments. Mechanistically, O3 rapidly degraded VOCs with the magnitude of degradation increasing with O3 levels. Furthermore, we used Teflon filters to collect VOCs and their reaction products, which were used as odour sources in behavioural tests. Larvae avoided filters exposed to O3-transformed VOCs and spent less time searching on them compared to filters exposed to original VOCs, which suggests that some degradation products may have repellent properties. Our study clearly demonstrates that oxidizing pollutants in the atmosphere can interfere with insect host location, and highlights the need to address their broader impacts when evaluating the ecological significance of VOC-mediated interactions.

  9. Herbivory by a Phloem-feeding insect inhibits floral volatile production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pareja

    Full Text Available There is extensive knowledge on the effects of insect herbivory on volatile emission from vegetative tissue, but little is known about its impact on floral volatiles. We show that herbivory by phloem-feeding aphids inhibits floral volatile emission in white mustard Sinapis alba measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace volatiles. The effect of the Brassica specialist aphid Lipaphis erysimi was stronger than the generalist aphid Myzus persicae and feeding by chewing larvae of the moth Plutella xylostella caused no reduction in floral volatile emission. Field observations showed no effect of L. erysimi-mediated floral volatile emission on the total number of flower visits by pollinators. Olfactory bioassays suggested that although two aphid natural enemies could detect aphid inhibition of floral volatiles, their olfactory orientation to infested plants was not disrupted. This is the first demonstration that phloem-feeding herbivory can affect floral volatile emission, and that the outcome of interaction between herbivory and floral chemistry may differ depending on the herbivore's feeding mode and degree of specialisation. The findings provide new insights into interactions between insect herbivores and plant chemistry.

  10. Uso do feromônio sexual sintético para captura de machos da traça-das-crucíferas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHEREFF MIRIAN FERNANDES FURTADO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a atração dos machos da traça-das-crucíferas (Plutella xylostella L., Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae por diferentes formulações do feromônio sexual sintético. Os tratamentos consistiram em: 1 formulação comercial; 2 Z11,16:Ald; 3 Z11,16:Ac; 4 mistura 7:3 de 2+3; 5 mistura 5:5 de 2+3; 6 septos de borracha com hexano (testemunha; e 7 cinco fêmeas virgens. A formulação comercial do feromônio sexual sintético propiciou maior captura de machos, não diferindo significativamente de fêmeas virgens e da mistura 5:5 utilizadas como isca. Os componentes isoladamente foram pouco atrativos aos machos. Foram testados cinco modelos de armadilhas. A armadilha Pherocon 1 CP (33,2 machos/armadilha/noite foi a mais eficiente na captura de machos, seguida pelas armadilhas Cilíndrica Aberta, Cilíndrica Fechada, Delta e Redonda Aberta. Três alturas de instalação da armadilha foram avaliadas. Ocorreu significativamente maior captura de machos na altura do ápice das plantas (30 cm do solo. As alturas de 5 e 60 cm não diferiram entre si.

  11. Characterization of an ancient lepidopteran lateral gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wheeler

    Full Text Available Bacteria to eukaryote lateral gene transfers (LGT are an important potential source of material for the evolution of novel genetic traits. The explosion in the number of newly sequenced genomes provides opportunities to identify and characterize examples of these lateral gene transfer events, and to assess their role in the evolution of new genes. In this paper, we describe an ancient lepidopteran LGT of a glycosyl hydrolase family 31 gene (GH31 from an Enterococcus bacteria. PCR amplification between the LGT and a flanking insect gene confirmed that the GH31 was integrated into the Bombyx mori genome and was not a result of an assembly error. Database searches in combination with degenerate PCR on a panel of 7 lepidopteran families confirmed that the GH31 LGT event occurred deep within the Order approximately 65-145 million years ago. The most basal species in which the LGT was found is Plutella xylostella (superfamily: Yponomeutoidea. Array data from Bombyx mori shows that GH31 is expressed, and low dN/dS ratios indicates the LGT coding sequence is under strong stabilizing selection. These findings provide further support for the proposition that bacterial LGTs are relatively common in insects and likely to be an underappreciated source of adaptive genetic material.

  12. Conserved chemosensory proteins in the proboscis and eyes of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiao; Iovinella, Immacolata; Dani, Francesca Romana; Liu, Yu-Ling; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Liu, Yang; Wang, Chen-Zhu; Pelosi, Paolo; Wang, Guirong

    2016-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are endowed with several different functions besides being carriers for pheromones and odorants. Based on a previous report of a CSP acting as surfactant in the proboscis of the moth Helicoverpa armigera , we revealed the presence of orthologue proteins in two other moths Plutella xylostella and Chilo suppressalis , as well as two butterflies Papilio machaon and Pieris rapae , using immunodetection and proteomic analysis. The unusual conservation of these proteins across large phylogenetic distances indicated a common specific function for these CSPs. This fact prompted us to search for other functions of these proteins and discovered that CSPs are abundantly expressed in the eyes of H. armigera and possibly involved as carriers for carotenoids and visual pigments. This hypothesis is supported by ligand-binding experiments and docking simulations with retinol and β-carotene. This last orange pigment, occurring in many fruits and vegetables, is an antioxidant and the precursor of visual pigments. We propose that structurally related CSPs solubilise nutritionally important carotenoids in the proboscis, while they act as carriers of both β-carotene and its derived products 3-hydroxyretinol and 3-hydroxyretinal in the eye. The use of soluble olfactory proteins, such as CSPs, as carriers for visual pigments in insects, here reported for the first time, parallels the function of retinol-binding protein in vertebrates, a lipocalin structurally related to vertebrate odorant-binding proteins.

  13. Assessment of commercially available pheromone lures for monitoring diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenden, M L; Gries, R

    2010-06-01

    Sex pheromone monitoring lures from five different commercial sources were compared for their attractiveness to male diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola, Brassica napus L., fields in western Canada. Lures that had the highest pheromone release rate, as determined by aeration analyses in the laboratory, were the least attractive in field tests. Lures from all the commercial sources tested released more (Z)-11-hexadecenal than (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the most attractive lures released a significantly higher aldehyde to acetate ratio than less attractive lures. Traps baited with sex pheromone lures from APTIV Inc. (Portland, OR) and ConTech Enterprises Inc. (Delta, BC, Canada) consistently captured more male diamondback moths than traps baited with lures from the other sources tested. In two different lure longevity field trapping experiments, older lures were more attractive to male diamondback moths than fresh lures. Pheromone release from aged lures was constant at very low release rates. The most attractive commercially available sex pheromone lures tested attracted fewer diamondback moth males than calling virgin female moths suggesting that research on the development of a more attractive synthetic sex pheromone lure is warranted.

  14. Herbivory by a Phloem-feeding insect inhibits floral volatile production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Martin; Qvarfordt, Erika; Webster, Ben; Mayon, Patrick; Pickett, John; Birkett, Michael; Glinwood, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is extensive knowledge on the effects of insect herbivory on volatile emission from vegetative tissue, but little is known about its impact on floral volatiles. We show that herbivory by phloem-feeding aphids inhibits floral volatile emission in white mustard Sinapis alba measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace volatiles. The effect of the Brassica specialist aphid Lipaphis erysimi was stronger than the generalist aphid Myzus persicae and feeding by chewing larvae of the moth Plutella xylostella caused no reduction in floral volatile emission. Field observations showed no effect of L. erysimi-mediated floral volatile emission on the total number of flower visits by pollinators. Olfactory bioassays suggested that although two aphid natural enemies could detect aphid inhibition of floral volatiles, their olfactory orientation to infested plants was not disrupted. This is the first demonstration that phloem-feeding herbivory can affect floral volatile emission, and that the outcome of interaction between herbivory and floral chemistry may differ depending on the herbivore's feeding mode and degree of specialisation. The findings provide new insights into interactions between insect herbivores and plant chemistry.

  15. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himanen, Sari J.; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Nissinen, Anne; Stewart, C. Neal; Poppy, Guy M.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2009-01-01

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants

  16. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, Sari J. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: sari.himanen@uku.fi; Nerg, Anne-Marja [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, Anne [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Stewart, C. Neal [University of Tennessee, Department of Plant Sciences, Knoxville, TN 37996-4561 (United States); Poppy, Guy M. [University of Southampton, School of Biological Sciences, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants.

  17. Evaluation of insecticidal activity of a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1 against diamondback moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyung Uk; Mun, Hye Yeon; Oh, Hyung Keun; Kim, Seung Bum; Yang, Kwang Yeol; Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Hyang Burm

    2010-08-01

    To identify novel bioinsecticidal agents, a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1, was isolated from a dead larva of the lepidopteran diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) collected from a cabbage field in Korea. In this study, the insecticidal activity of liquid cultures in Luria-Bertani broth (LBB) and nutrient broth (NB) of a bacterial strain, Serratia sp. EML-SE1 against thirty 3rd and 4th instar larvae of the diamondback moth was investigated on a Chinese cabbage leaf housed in a round plastic cage (Ø 10 x 6 cm). 72 h after spraying the cabbage leaf with LBB and NB cultures containing the bacterial strain, the mortalities of the larvae were determined to be 91.7% and 88.3%, respectively. In addition, the insecticidal activity on potted cabbage containing 14 leaves in a growth cage (165 x 83 x 124 cm) was found to be similar to that of the plastic cage experiment. The results of this study provided valuable information on the insecticidal activity of the liquid culture of a Serratia species against the diamondback moth.

  18. Effect of age, photoperiod and host availability on the parasitism behavior of Oomyzus sokolowskii Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva-Torres, Christian S.A.; Barros, Reginaldo; Torres, Jorge B.

    2009-01-01

    The high reproduction rate, potential to cause damage, wide geographic distribution and resistance to insecticides of Plutella xylostella (L.) makes difficult its efficient control. However, larvae and pupae of this pest are naturally parasitized by Oomyzus Sokolowskii (Kurdjumov), providing opportunities to improve the natural parasitism. This study investigated the effects of the age of adult parasitoids, host availability and time of exposure on O. sokolowskii parasitism behavior. The number of larvae encounters by parasitoid females and the parasitism rate increased with parasitoid age up to 96 h. The parasitization was higher when wasps received a constant number of hosts daily in comparison with a random number (13.3 versus 8.9 larvae parasitized). Female parasitization activity was maintained up to the age of 20 days in both treatments and exhibited similar longevity (constant host = 33.5 d; and random host = 34.7 d). The progeny produced per female and the number of parasitoids emerged per host significantly decreased as wasps aged. There was no significant effect of the light regime (12 h darkness or 12 h light exposure) on the parasitization, although parasitoid was more active after 3 h of light exposure. Therefore, further studies on field application of O. sokolowskii should consider the release of 48 h - to 72 h - old parasitoids at dawn as a way to increase the success of host parasitization. (author)

  19. Impacto da temperatura e fotoperíodo no desenvolvimento ovariano e oviposição de traça-das-crucíferas Impact of temperature and photoperiod on ovarian development and oviposition of the Diamondback Moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Crema

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A migração é um fenômeno que pode ocorrer em algumas espécies de insetos e ela geralmente começa quando os ovários não estão desenvolvidos, ou o estão parcialmente. Para traça-das-crucíferas, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae já foi observado que a densidade larval afetou o grau de desenvolvimento ovariano. Neste trabalho foi determinado o impacto da temperatura e do fotoperíodo no desenvolovimento ovariano e na oviposição do inseto. Larvas de quarto estágio foram criadas individualmente em placas de Petri à temperaturas de 14 e 25ºC e fotofase de 8 e 14 h. As fêmeas recém-emergidas foram mortas em um freezer, dissecadas sob um microscópio e o ovário observado. Para determinar o impacto da temperatura sobre a oviposição do inseto, larvas de quarto estágio foram criadas a temperaturas de 14 e 25ºC e, quando os machos e fêmeas emergiram, casais foram colocados individualmente em placas de Petri. Foi determinado o período de pré-oviposição e o número de ovos depositados no primeiro dia. Os resultados mostraram que o grau de desenvolvimento ovariano não foi afetado pela temperatura e fotoperíodo empregados, indicando que estes fatores não afetaram o potencial migratório da espécie. Fêmeas criadas a 25ºC depositaram seus ovos dois dias após a emergência enquanto que fêmeas criadas a 14ºC o fizeram aos cinco dias, sugerindo que o período de pré-oviposição é aumentado a baixas temperaturas. O impacto destes resultados sobre a migração e dispersão da TDC são discutidos.Migration occurs in some insect species, and in many cases it commences when the ovaries are immature. Environmental conditions can affect the rate of ovarian development and oviposition of insects. In the Diamondback Moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae, the larval density affected the rate of ovarian development. In this work we determined the impact of temperatures and photoperiods on DBM ovarian

  20. Efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na oviposição da traça-das-crucíferas, em couve Effect of plants aqueous extracts on oviposition of the diamondback, in kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Manfré Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos aquosos de Achillea millefolium L. (folhas, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas, Bidens pilosa L. (folhas, frutos e ramos, Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (folhas, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (folhas, frutos e ramos, Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (folhas, Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell. Morong (frutos, Mentha crispa L. (folhas e ramos, Nicotiana tabacum L. (folhas, Piper nigrum L. (folhas, Plumbago capensis Thunb. (folhas e ramos, Pothomorphe umbellata L. (folhas, Sapindus saponaria L. (folhas, S. saponaria (frutos, Solanum cernuum Vell. (folhas, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart Coville (casca, Symphytum officinale L. (folhas, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. (folhas, T. catigua (ramos, Trichilia pallida Sw. (folhas e T. pallida (ramos, em relação à preferência para oviposição de Plutella xylostella. Discos de folhas de couve (Brassica oleracea var. acephala cultivar Georgia foram imersos em cada extrato à concentração de 10% (massa/volume por um minuto. Em seguida, foram divididos em quatro partes iguais e duas partes foram colocadas alternadamente com outras duas partes tratadas com água destilada, em uma gaiola. A contagem dos ovos foi feita após 24 horas. Os extratos apresentaram efeito deterrente na oviposição da praga, com exceção do extrato de S. adstringens, que não diferiu da testemunha, tratada apenas com água destilada. Os extratos de E. contortisilliquum, S. saponaria (frutos e T. pallida (folhas foram os mais eficientes, apresentando 100% de deterrência.The effect of aqueous extracts from Achillea millefolium L. (leaves, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (leaves, Bidens pilosa L. (leaves, fruits e branches, Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (leaves, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (leaves, fruits e branches, Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (leaves, Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell. Morong (fruits, Mentha crispa L. (leaves e branches, Nicotiana tabacum L. (leaves, Piper nigrum

  1. Avaliação da eficiência de formulações de Bacillus thuringiensis para o controle de traça-das-crucíferas em repolho no Distrito Federal Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis formulations in controlling Diamondback Moth in cabbage in the Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Castelo Branco

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A traça-das-crucíferas (Plutella xylostella é a praga mais importante do repolho no Distrito Federal. Seu controle é feito basicamente com inseticidas. Novos produtos são constantemente avaliados para o controle da praga e neste trabalho duas novas formulações de Bacillus thuringiensis [Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai (350 e 500 g/hae B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki x B. thuringiensis var. aizawai (350 e 500 ml/ha] foram avaliadas no período de maio a outubro de 1995. Os tratamentos B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki (500 ml/ha, deltametrina (240 ml/ha e uma testemunha sem pulverização foram também incluídos no experimento. O delineamento foi blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os resultados mostraram que B. thuringiensis var. aizawai nas duas dosagens avaliadas e B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki x B. thuringiensis var. aizawai (500 ml/ha foram os produtos mais eficientes. Ao final do experimento larvas e pupas de traça-das-crucíferas foram coletadas no campo e a primeira geração foi submetida a um teste de laboratório onde discos de folhas de repolho foram tratados com as dosagens dos inseticidas a base de B. thuringiensis utilizadas no campo. Larvas de segundo estádio foram colocadas sobre os discos tratados e a mortalidade de larvas avaliada após 72 h. Todos os tratamentos causaram mais de 97% de mortalidade de larvas. O resultado do teste de laboratório sugere que a menor eficiência de B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki x B. thuringiensis var. aizawai (350 ml/ha e B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki (500 ml/ha no teste de campo quando comparada aos demais Bacillus, pode ser devido à mais rápida degradação destes produtos no ambiente.The Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella is the most important cabbage pest in the Federal District. New insecticides are frequently tested for its control and in this study two new Bacillus thuringiensis formulations [B. thuringiensis var. aizawai (350 and 500 g/ha and B

  2. Avaliação de larvicidas de origem microbiana no controle da traça-das-crucíferas em couve-flor Evaluation of microbiological larvicides to control diamondback moth in cauliflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G.S. Dias

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Dois inseticidas biológicos à base de Bacillus thuringiensis subspécies kurstaki (Btk e aizawai (Bta e um inseticida não sistêmico de origem biológica, à base de spinosad, foram avaliados em campo contra a traça-das-crucíferas, Plutella xylostella (L.(Lep.: Plutellidae, em cultivo de couve-flor. O experimento foi realizado em Brazlândia, DF, em uma área de produção regular de hortaliças. A lavoura foi conduzida segundo manejo indicado para a região, sem qualquer intervenção que não o controle da praga. O experimento foi realizado no período de julho a setembro de 2002. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os produtos foram aplicados em função da média do número de furos produzidos pela praga, presentes nas quatro folhas centrais das plantas, sendo os diferentes tratamentos avaliados semanalmente. Quando a média do número de furos atingia valor igual ou superior a seis, os produtos eram aplicados. Adotando-se este procedimento, aplicou-se três vezes o inseticida spinosad e seis vezes os inseticidas Btk e Bta. Os três tratamentos com inseticidas não diferiram entre si, mas diferiram significativamente da testemunha quanto à produção. As áreas tratadas com Btk produziram 78,1% de cabeças comercializáveis, as tratadas com Bta 76,5% e as tratadas com spinosad 75,5%. No controle houve perda de 34,4% da produção. A utilização dos produtos aumentou a receita da cultura da couve-flor em relação à testemunha, nos valores de R$ 2.505,19 com o Btk, R$ 1.954,55 com o Bta e R$ 1.891,65 com spinosad.Two bioinsecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis sub species kurstaki (Btk and aizawai (Bta and non-systemic insecticide of biological origin based on spinosad were evaluated on cauliflower crop for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L. (Lep.:Plutellidae control. The experiment was conducted in a vegetable production area of Brazlândia, Brazil. The crop was conducted

  3. Baculovirus potential for agricultural pests management in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Ayala Sifontes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cuba has an international reputation for implementing widespread biological control of pests, and microbial biocontrol is an integral component of most pest management programs. One class of microbial pesticides however, has not been developed in Cuba, bio-insecticides based on the Baculoviridae. This class of safe and environmentally protective microbial pesticides is used ever more commonly worldwide as an alternative to chemical pesticides. The characteristics of the viruses of this family, particularly their high host specificity, safety to non-target organisms, capacity to persist in nature and create epizootics, and the economy with which they can be produced "in vivo", all make them attractive for incorporation into pest management programs along with other pesticides developed in Cuba. The mass production technology is well understood in Cuba and biofactories already exist for a number of microbial biocontrol products. In the province of Sancti Spíritus, the Plant Protection Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, with the cooperation of the Institute for Sustainable Horticulture, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, are resuming the work which began in the 90´s to develop baculovirus products in support of sustainable agriculture in Cuba. This work is being carried out with the participation of young Canadian and Cuban students and professionals. The program includes research with the multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis viruses of Spodoptera frugiperda (SfMNPV and S. exigua (SeMNPV and the search for native isolates of Baculovirus in Plutella xylostella, three priority pests in Cuba. In other jurisdictions they are well controlled by baculoviruses, and the expectation is that this same result is possible in Cuba.

  4. Identification and genome organization of saponin pathway genes from a wild crucifer, and their use for transient production of saponins in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Kuzina, Vera; Erthmann, Pernille Ø; Fukushima, Ery Odette; Augustin, Jörg M; Olsen, Carl Erik; Scholtalbers, Jelle; Volpin, Hanne; Andersen, Sven Bode; Hauser, Thure P; Muranaka, Toshiya; Bak, Søren

    2015-11-01

    The ability to evolve novel metabolites has been instrumental for the defence of plants against antagonists. A few species in the Barbarea genus are the only crucifers known to produce saponins, some of which make plants resistant to specialist herbivores, like Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth. Genetic mapping in Barbarea vulgaris revealed that genes for saponin biosynthesis are not clustered but are located in different linkage groups. Using co-location with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance, transcriptome and genome sequences, we identified two 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases that form the major triterpenoid backbones. LUP2 mainly produces lupeol, and is preferentially expressed in insect-susceptible B. vulgaris plants, whereas LUP5 produces β-amyrin and α-amyrin, and is preferentially expressed in resistant plants; β-amyrin is the backbone for the resistance-conferring saponins in Barbarea. Two loci for cytochromes P450, predicted to add functional groups to the saponin backbone, were identified: CYP72As co-localized with insect resistance, whereas CYP716As did not. When B. vulgaris sapogenin biosynthesis genes were transiently expressed by CPMV-HT technology in Nicotiana benthamiana, high levels of hydroxylated and carboxylated triterpenoid structures accumulated, including oleanolic acid, which is a precursor of the major resistance-conferring saponins. When the B. vulgaris gene for sapogenin 3-O-glucosylation was co-expressed, the insect deterrent 3-O-oleanolic acid monoglucoside accumulated, as well as triterpene structures with up to six hexoses, demonstrating that N. benthamiana further decorates the monoglucosides. We argue that saponin biosynthesis in the Barbarea genus evolved by a neofunctionalized glucosyl transferase, whereas the difference between resistant and susceptible B. vulgaris chemotypes evolved by different expression of oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs). © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  5. Inhibitory effects of an extract from non-host plants on physiological characteristics of two major cabbage pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastranj, M; Borzoui, E; Bandani, A R; Franco, O L

    2018-06-01

    The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and small white cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae) are the two main serious pests of cruciferous crops (Brassicaceae) that have developed resistance to chemical control methods. In order to avoid such resistance and also the adverse effects of chemical pesticides on the environment, alternative methods have usually been suggested, including the use of plant enzyme inhibitors. Here, the inhibitory effects of proteinaceous inhibitors extracted from wheat, canola, sesame, bean and triticale were evaluated against the digestive α-amylases, larval growth, development and nutritional indecs of the diamondback moth and small white cabbage butterfly. Our results indicated that triticale and wheat extracts inhibited α-amylolytic activity in an alkaline pH, which is in accordance with the moth and butterfly gut α-amylase optimum pH. Dose-dependent inhibition of two crucifer pests by triticale and wheat was observed using spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis. Implementation of specificity studies showed that wheat and triticale-proteinaceous extract were inactive against Chinese and purple cabbage amylase. Triticale and wheat were resistant against insects' gut proteases. Results of the feeding bioassay indicated that triticale-proteinaceous extract could cause a significant reduction in survival and larval body mass. The results of the nutritional indecs also showed larvae of both species that fed on a Triticale proteinaceous inhibitor-treated diet had the lowest values for the efficiency of conversion of ingested food and relative growth rate. Our observations suggested that triticale shows promise for use in the management of crucifer pests.

  6. The Latex Protein MLX56 from Mulberry (Morus multicaulis Protects Plants against Insect Pests and Pathogens

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    Ying-Ping Gai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biotic stresses are major constraints limiting the leaf quality and productivity of mulberry. MLX56 is a unique chitin-binding protein isolated from Shin-Ichinose (Morus alba latex that displays toxicity against lepidopteran caterpillars. In this study, the full-length cDNA encoding MLX56 was isolated from Husang 32 (M. multicaulis and designated HMLX56. Amino acid sequence analysis and protein modeling of three MLX56 proteins showed that they were highly conserved among Morus species. Tissue expression pattern analysis showed that the HMLX56 gene was strongly expressed in mulberry bark and leaves but only slightly expressed in fruits. In addition, analysis of GUS expression indicated that the promoter of HMLX56 showed higher transcriptional activity along the vascular strands, and its activity can be regulated by various environmental factors. Like the MLX56 protein from M. alba, the HMLX56 protein showed toxicity to Plutella xylostella. Moreover, when the HMLX56 gene was ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic plants showed enhanced resistance to aphids, the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Our data suggest that the HMLX56 protein has a lectin-like molecular structure consisting of two hevein-like chitin-binding domains which provide not only chitin-binding activities but also other mechanisms of defense. The information provided here improves our understanding of the potential functions and defense mechanisms of MLX56 proteins, enabling in-depth functional analysis of latex exudates and perhaps facilitating mulberry genetic improvement in the future.

  7. Screening of liquid media and fermentation of an endophytic Beauveria bassiana strain in a bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach for biological control of insect pests could be the use of the endophytic entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolate ATP-02. For the utilization of the endophyte as a commercial biocontrol agent, the fungus has to be mass-produced. B. bassiana was raised in shake flask cultures to produce high concentrations of total spores (TS), which include blastospores (BS) and submerged conidiospores (SCS). The highest concentration of 1.33×109 TS/mL and the highest yield of 5.32×1010 TS/g sucrose was obtained in the TKI broth with 5% sugar beet molasses which consists of 50% sucrose as a carbon source. In spite of the lower sugar concentration (2.5%) the amount of TS could be increased up to 11-times in contrast to the cultivation with 5% sucrose. The scale-up to a 2 L stirred tank reactor was carried out at 25°C, 200–600 rpm and 1 vvm at pH 5.5. A TS yield of 5.2×1010 TS/g sucrose corresponding to a SCS yield of 0.2×1010 SCS/g sucrose was obtained after 216 h. With regards to the culture medium the cost of 1012 TS amounts to 0.24 €. Plutella xylostella larvae, which were fed with oilseed rape leaves treated with spores from fermentation resulted in 77 ± 5% mortality. Moreover, spores from submerged cultivation were able to colonize oilseed rape leaves via leaf application. This is the first report of fermentation of an endophytic B. bassiana strain in a low-cost culture medium to very high yields of TS. PMID:24949278

  8. A Fungal Insecticide Engineered for Fast Per Os Killing of Caterpillars Has High Field Efficacy and Safety in Full-Season Control of Cabbage Insect Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk. PMID:23956386

  9. Research on Vegetable Pest Warning System Based on Multidimensional Big Data

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    Changzhen Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pest early warning technology is part of the prerequisite for the timely and effective control of pest outbreaks. Traditional pest warning system with artificial mathematical statistics, radar, and remote sensing has some deficiency in many aspects, such as higher cost, weakness of accuracy, low efficiency, and so on. In this study, Pest image data was collected and information about four major vegetable pests (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, Phyllotreta striolata (Fabricius, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera, Thripidae in southern China was extracted. A multi-sensor network system was constructed to collect small-scale environmental data on vegetable production sites. The key factors affecting the distribution of pests were discovered by multi-dimensional information, such as soil, environment, eco-climate, and meteorology of vegetable fields, and finally, the vegetable pest warning system that is based on multidimensional big data (VPWS-MBD was implemented. Pest and environmental data from Guangzhou Dongsheng Bio-Park were collected from June 2017 to February 2018. The number of pests is classified as level I (0–56, level II (57–131, level III (132–299, and level IV (above 300 by K-Means algorithm. The Pearson correlation coefficient and the grey relational analysis algorithm were used to calculate the five key influence factors of rainfall, soil temperature, air temperature, leaf surface humidity, and soil moisture. Finally, Back Propagation (BP Neural Network was used for classification prediction. The result shows: I-level warning accuracy was 96.14%, recall rate was 97.56%; II-level pest warning accuracy was 95.34%, the recall rate was 96.45%; III-level pest warning accuracy of 100%, the recall rate was 96.28%; IV-level pest warning accuracy of 100%, recall rate was 100%. It proves that the early warning system can effectively predict vegetable pests and achieve the early warning of

  10. Two adenine nucleotide translocase paralogues involved in cell proliferation and spermatogenesis in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

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    Ryohei Sugahara

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT specifically acts in ADP/ATP exchange through the mitochondrial inner membrane. This transporter protein thereby plays a significant role in energy metabolism in eukaryotic cells. Most mammals have four paralogous ANT genes (ANT1-4 and utilize these paralogues in different types of cells. The fourth paralogue of ANT (ANT4 is present only in mammals and reptiles and is exclusively expressed in testicular germ cells where it is required for meiotic progression in the spermatocytes. Here, we report that silkworms harbor two ANT paralogues, the homeostatic paralogue (BmANTI1 and the testis-specific paralogue (BmANTI2. The BmANTI2 protein has an N-terminal extension in which the positions of lysine residues in the amino acid sequence are distributed as in human ANT4. An expression analysis showed that BmANTI2 transcripts were restricted to the testis, suggesting the protein has a role in the progression of spermatogenesis. By contrast, BmANTI1 was expressed in all tissues tested, suggesting it has an important role in homeostasis. We also observed that cultured silkworm cells required BmANTI1 for proliferation. The ANTI1 protein of the lepidopteran Plutella xylostella (PxANTI1, but not those of other insect species (or PxANTI2, restored cell proliferation in BmANTI1-knockdown cells suggesting that ANTI1 has similar energy metabolism functions across the Lepidoptera. Our results suggest that BmANTI2 is evolutionarily divergent from BmANTI1 and has developed a specific role in spermatogenesis similar to that of mammalian ANT4.

  11. Exploration of Bacillus thuringiensis Berl. from soil and screening test its toxicity on insects of Lepidoptera order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, DT; Pujiastuti, Y.; Suparman, SHK; Damiri, N.; Nugraha, S.; Sembiring, ER; Mulawarman

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a gram-positive bacterium that produces crystal proteins toxic (ᴕ-endotoxin) specific to the target insect, but is not toxic to humans and non-target organisms. This study aims to explore the origin of the soil bacterium B. thuringiensis sub-district Sekayu, Banyuasin, South Sumatra and toxicity to larvae of lepidoptera. Fifty soil samples were taken from Musi Banyuasin District, namely 15 from Kayuare strip 2, 20 from Kayuare and 15 from Lumpatan. Isolation, characterization, identification and screening test were conducted in the laboratorium of Pest and Disease, Agricultural Faculty, Sriwijaya University. Isolat codes were given based on the area origin of the samples. Results of the study showed that from 50 isolates of bacteria that had been isolated, there were 15 bacterial isolates, characterized by morphology and physiology the same as B. thuringiensis, which has round colonies, white, wrinkled edges, slippery, elevation arise, aerobic and gram-positive. Of the 15 codes that contain positive isolates of B. thuringiensis, we have obtained several isolates of the following codes: KJ2D5, KJ2N1, KJ2N4, KJ2B3, KJ3R1, KJ3R2, KJ3R3, KJ3R5, KJ3J3, KJ3J4, KJ3P1, DLM5, DLKK12, and DLKK23. Results of screening tests on insects of the Lepidoptera Order showed that there were six isolates that had toxic to Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera litura insects, ie bacterial isolate codes DLM5, KJ3R3, KJ3R5, KJ3J4, KJ3P1, and DLKK23.

  12. Herbivore-specific, density-dependent induction of plant volatiles: honest or "cry wolf" signals?

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    Kaori Shiojiri

    Full Text Available Plants release volatile chemicals upon attack by herbivorous arthropods. They do so commonly in a dose-dependent manner: the more herbivores, the more volatiles released. The volatiles attract predatory arthropods and the amount determines the probability of predator response. We show that seedlings of a cabbage variety (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, cv Shikidori also show such a response to the density of cabbage white (Pieris rapae larvae and attract more (naive parasitoids (Cotesia glomerata when there are more herbivores on the plant. However, when attacked by diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella larvae, seedlings of the same variety (cv Shikidori release volatiles, the total amount of which is high and constant and thus independent of caterpillar density, and naive parasitoids (Cotesia vestalis of diamondback moth larvae fail to discriminate herbivore-rich from herbivore-poor plants. In contrast, seedlings of another cabbage variety of B. oleracea (var. acephala: kale respond in a dose-dependent manner to the density of diamondback moth larvae and attract more parasitoids when there are more herbivores. Assuming these responses of the cabbage cultivars reflect behaviour of at least some genotypes of wild plants, we provide arguments why the behaviour of kale (B. oleracea var acephala is best interpreted as an honest signaling strategy and that of cabbage cv Shikidori (B. oleracea var capitata as a "cry wolf" signaling strategy, implying a conflict of interest between the plant and the enemies of its herbivores: the plant profits from being visited by the herbivore's enemies, but the latter would be better off by visiting other plants with more herbivores. If so, evolutionary theory on alarm signaling predicts consequences of major interest to students of plant protection, tritrophic systems and communication alike.

  13. cDNA cloning and sequence determination of the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide from the seabuckthorn carpenterworm, Holcocerus hippophaecolus (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zhou, Jiao; Sun, Rongbo; Zhang, Haolin; Zong, Shixiang; Luo, Youqing; Sheng, Xia; Weng, Qiang

    2013-04-01

    The PBAN (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide)/pyrokinin peptides comprise a major neuropeptide family characterized by a common FXPRL amide at the C-terminus. These peptides are actively involved in many essential endocrine functions. For the first time, we reported the cDNA cloning and sequence determination of the PBAN from the seabuckthorn carpenterworm, Holcocerus hippophaecolus, by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of Hh-DH-PBAN contained five peptides: diapause hormone (DH) homolog, α-neuropeptide (NP), β-NP, PBAN, and γ-NP. All of the peptides were amidated at their C-terminus and shared a conserved motif, FXPR (or K) L. Moreover, Hh-DH-PBAN had high homology to the other members of the PBAN peptide family: 56% with Manduca sexta, 66% with Bombyx mori, 77% with Helicoverpa zea, and 47% with Plutella xylostella. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hh-DH-PBAN was closely related to PBANs from Noctuidae, demonstrated by the relatively higher similarity compared with H. zea. In addition, real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that Hh-DH-PBAN mRNA expression peaked in the brain-subesophageal ganglion (Br-SOG) complex, and was also detected at high levels during larval and adult stages. The expression decreased significantly after pupation. These results provided information concerning molecular structure characteristics of Hh-DH-PBAN, whose expression profile suggested that the Hh-DH-PBAN gene might be correlated with larval development and sex pheromone biosynthesis in females of the H. hippophaecolus. 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  14. Cloning and characterization of the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide receptor gene in Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Lytle, Christian; Njauw, Ching-Ni; Altstein, Miriam; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2007-05-15

    In noctuid moths cuticular pigmentation is regulated by the pyrokinin/pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PK/PBAN) family, which also mediates a variety of other functions in moths and other insects. Numerous studies have shown that these neuropeptides exert their functions through activation of the PBAN receptor (PBAN-R), with subsequent Ca(2+) influx, followed by either activation of cAMP or direct activation of downstream kinases. Recently, several PBAN-Rs have been identified, all of which are from the pheromone gland of adult female moths, but evidence shows that functional PK/PBAN-Rs can also be expressed in insect larvae, where they mediate melanization and possibly other functions (e.g., diapause). Here, we identified a gene encoding a G-protein-coupled receptor from the 5th instar larval tissue of the moth Spodoptera littoralis. The cDNA of this gene contains an open reading frame with a length of 1050 nucleotides, which translates to a 350-amino acid, 42-kDa protein that shares 92% amino acid identity with Helicoverpa zea and Helicoverpa armigera PBAN-R, 81% with Bombyx mori PBAN-R and 72% with Plutella xylostella PBAN-R. The S. littoralis PBAN-R gene was stably expressed in NIH3T3 cells and transiently in HEK293 cells. We show that it mediates the dose-dependent PBAN-induced intracellular Ca(2+) response and activation of the MAP kinase via a PKC-dependent but Galphai-independent signaling mechanism. Other PK/PBAN family peptides (pheromonotropin and a C-terminally PBAN-derived peptide PBAN(28-33)NH(2)) also triggered MAP kinase activation. This receptor, together with the previously cloned PBAN-R, may facilitate our understanding of the cell-specific responses and functional diversities of this diverse neuropeptide family.

  15. Insecticides suppress natural enemies and increase pest damage in cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Miranda, Freddy; Bylund, Helena; Björkman, Christer

    2011-06-01

    Intensive use of pesticides is common and increasing despite a growing and historically well documented awareness of the costs and hazards. The benefits from pesticides of increased yields from sufficient pest control may be outweighed by developed resistance in pests and killing of beneficial natural enemies. Other negative effects are human health problems and lower prices because of consumers' desire to buy organic products. Few studies have examined these trade-offs in the field. Here, we demonstrate that Nicaraguan cabbage (Brassica spp.) farmers may suffer economically by using insecticides as they get more damage by the main pest diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), at the same time as they spend economic resources on insecticides. Replicated similarly sized cabbage fields cultivated in a standardized manner were either treated with insecticides according common practice or not treated with insecticides over two seasons. Fields treated with insecticides suffered, compared with nontreated fields, equal or, at least in some periods of the seasons, higher diamondback moth pest attacks. These fields also had increased leaf damage on the harvested cabbage heads. Weight and size of the heads were not affected. The farmers received the same price on the local market irrespective of insecticide use. Rates of parasitized diamondback moth were consistently lower in the treated fields. Negative effects of using insecticides against diamondback moth were found for the density of parasitoids and generalist predatory wasps, and tended to affect spiders negatively. The observed increased leaf damages in insecticide-treated fields may be a combined consequence of insecticide resistance in the pest, and of lower predation and parasitization rates from naturally occurring predators that are suppressed by the insecticide applications. The results indicate biological control as a viable and economic alternative pest management strategy

  16. Terpenoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis attacked by caterpillars and aphids: effects of aphid density on the attraction of a caterpillar parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Anneke; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Cappai, Francesco; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J A

    2017-12-01

    One of the responses of plants to insect attack is the production of volatile organic compounds that mediate indirect defence of plants by attracting natural enemies of the attacking herbivores. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) include terpenoids that play key roles in the attraction of natural enemies. Crosstalk between phytohormonal signalling pathways is well known to affect the regulation of plant defences, including the emission of HIPVs. Thus, simultaneous feeding on the same plant by caterpillars and aphids, can affect the attraction of parasitoids by the plant compared to single insect attack. The role of aphid density in the regulation of HIPV emission by plants under dual attack has not been studied previously. Here, we investigated the attraction of Diadegma semiclausum, a parasitoid of the Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, to volatiles emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana plants, simultaneously attacked by host caterpillars, and by the non-host aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Our study shows that the effect of aphid infestation on parasitoid attraction is influenced by the density of the aphids. Biosynthesis and emission of (E,E)-α-farnesene could be linked to the observed preference of D. semiclausum parasitoids for the HIPV blend emitted by plants dually infested by caterpillars and aphids at a high density compared to dually infested plants with a low aphid density. Parasitoids such as D. semiclausum are important enemies of herbivorous insects and a better understanding of how plants express indirect defence mechanisms in response to multiple insect attack will provide important knowledge on plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions under multiple stress conditions.

  17. Construction of a controlled-release delivery system for pesticides using biodegradable PLA-based microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoxia; Wang, Yan; Yang, Fei; Wang, Xing; Shen, Hong; Cui, Haixin; Wu, Decheng

    2016-08-01

    Conventional pesticides usually need to be used in more than recommended dosages due to their loss and degradation, which results in a large waste of resources and serious environmental pollution. Encapsulation of pesticides in biodegradable carriers is a feasible approach to develop environment-friendly and efficient controlled-release delivery system. In this work, we fabricated three kinds of polylactic acid (PLA) carriers including microspheres, microcapsules, and porous microcapsules for controlled delivery of Lambda-Cyhalothrin (LC) via premix membrane emulsification (PME). The microcapsule delivery system had better water dispersion than the other two systems. Various microcapsules with a high LC contents as much as 40% and tunable sizes from 0.68 to 4.6μm were constructed by manipulating the process parameters. Compared with LC technical and commercial microcapsule formulation, the microcapsule systems showed a significantly sustained release of LC for a longer period. The LC release triggered by LC diffusion and matrix degradation could be optimally regulated by tuning LC contents and particle sizes of the microcapsules. This multi-regulated release capability is of great significance to achieve the precisely controlled release of pesticides. A preliminary bioassay against plutella xylostella revealed that 0.68μm LC-loaded microcapsules with good UV and thermal stability exhibited an activity similar to a commercial microcapsule formulation. These results demonstrated such an aqueous microcapsule delivery system had a great potential to be further explored for developing an effective and environmentally friendly pesticide-release formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Resistance mutation conserved between insects and mites unravels the benzoylurea insecticide mode of action on chitin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Vassilis; Steinbach, Denise; Panteleri, Rafaela; Livadaras, Ioannis; Pickett, John Anthony; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Nauen, Ralf; Vontas, John

    2016-12-20

    Despite the major role of chitin biosynthesis inhibitors such as benzoylureas (BPUs) in the control of pests in agricultural and public health for almost four decades, their molecular mode of action (MoA) has in most cases remained elusive. BPUs interfere with chitin biosynthesis and were thought to interact with sulfonylurea receptors that mediate chitin vesicle transport. Here, we uncover a mutation (I1042M) in the chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) gene of BPU-resistant Plutella xylostella at the same position as the I1017F mutation reported in spider mites that confers etoxazole resistance. Using a genome-editing CRISPR/Cas9 approach coupled with homology-directed repair (HDR) in Drosophila melanogaster, we introduced both substitutions (I1056M/F) in the corresponding fly CHS1 gene (kkv). Homozygous lines bearing either of these mutations were highly resistant to etoxazole and all tested BPUs, as well as buprofezin-an important hemipteran chitin biosynthesis inhibitor. This provides compelling evidence that BPUs, etoxazole, and buprofezin share in fact the same molecular MoA and directly interact with CHS. This finding has immediate effects on resistance management strategies of major agricultural pests but also on mosquito vectors of serious human diseases such as Dengue and Zika, as diflubenzuron, the standard BPU, is one of the few effective larvicides in use. The study elaborates on how genome editing can directly, rapidly, and convincingly elucidate the MoA of bioactive molecules, especially when target sites are complex and hard to reconstitute in vitro.

  19. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: improved net returns via scouting and timing of effective control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2008-04-01

    During 1998-2001, field studies were done to assess the efficacy of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using an action threshold and "reduced-risk" insecticides. The IPM program was compared with a conventional grower-based program. Program performance was evaluated based on management of Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner), Pieris (=Artogeia) rapae (L.), and Plutella xylostella (L.), as well as the economic impact of each program on net returns. The action threshold used in the IPM program consisted of 10% plants infested with T. ni larvae, based on previous small-plot experiment station trials. In all years of the study, the IPM program resulted in significantly lower percentages of plants infested than the conventional program or untreated check. The mean reduction in insecticide applications for the IPM program compared with the conventional program was 23.5%, whereas, on average, the costs of the IPM program were 46.0% higher than the conventional program. Pest reduction in the IPM program resulted in an average of 10.5% higher marketable yields than the conventional program. Percentages of marketable heads in the IPM program ranged from 82 to 99% and from 63 to 96% in the conventional program. Mean net returns for the IPM program exceeded the conventional program by $984.20/ha. These results indicated that the IPM program reduced insecticide use overall, even though costs of the IPM program, with either spinosad or indoxacarb, were sometimes higher. Overall, net returns of the IPM program were higher due to active pest scouting, improved application timing, and increases in marketable yield. Given the potential decrease in insecticide applications and increases in net profit resulting from this IPM program, additional analyses should be conducted to quantify the economic risk, or consistency of the results, to fully evaluate the benefits of the IPM program compared with a conventional program.

  20. Inseticidas para o controle da traça-das-crucíferas e impactos sobre a população natural de parasitóides Insecticide evaluation for control of the diamondback moth and impact on natural populations of parasitoids associated with diamondback moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni L. Villas Bôas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A traça-das-crucíferas (TDC Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae é a principal praga da cultura do repolho e seu controle é feito através de inseticidas, com possíveis efeitos adversos na população natural dos seus parasitóides. Nos últimos anos, novos ingredientes ativos foram colocados no mercado, tornando necessária a avaliação da eficiência destes produtos e o impacto na população de parasitóides. Com este objetivo, foi instalado um experimento, de junho a outubro de 2001, na área experimental da Embrapa Hortaliças, com a cultivar Kenzan. Foram utilizados os produtos Spinosad (38,4 g i.a./ha, Thiacloprid (96 g i.a./ha, Indoxacarb (24 g i.a./ha, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (16,8 g i.a./ha, uma nova cepa (S764, concentração de esporos 4 x 10 E 9 de B. thuringiensis (168 g i.a./ha, disponibilizada para teste pela Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia e uma testemunha, sem pulverização. As pulverizações, num total de oito, foram semanais, iniciando-se a partir da formação das cabeças de repolho, quatro semanas após o transplante. Foram efetuadas amostragens semanais em cinco plantas por parcela, contando-se o número de furos e larvas nas quatro folhas centrais da cabeça do repolho. Avaliou-se também o número de larvas na parte externa da cabeça do repolho. A cada 15 dias foram efetuadas coletas de larvas (folhas centrais e externas, que eram levadas ao laboratório para avaliação de parasitismo. Por ocasião da colheita, as cabeças foram avaliadas quanto ao valor comercial, através de notas e porcentagem de cabeças comerciais, além da contagem do número de furos, larvas na cabeça e larvas na planta toda. Os produtos Spinosad, Indoxacarb e B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki foram os mais eficientes para o controle de P. xylostella e não diferiram entre si para os parâmetros avaliados. A utilização desses produtos propiciou a produção de cabeças de repolho com alto padr

  1. Cry64Ba and Cry64Ca, Two ETX/MTX2-Type Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Proteins Active against Hemipteran Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonglei; Wang, Yinglong; Shu, Changlong; Lin, Kejian; Song, Fuping; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario; Zhang, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Genetically modified crops that express insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary approach for control of lepidopteran (moth) and coleopteran (beetle) pests that feed by chewing the plants. However, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. In this study, we describe two Cry toxins (Cry64Ba and Cry64Ca) from Bt strain 1012 that showed toxicity against two important hemipteran rice pests, Laodelphax striatellus and Sogatella furcifera Both of these proteins contain an ETX/MTX2 domain and share common sequence features with the β-pore-forming toxins. Coexpression of cry64Ba and cry64Ca genes in the acrystalliferous Bt strain HD73 - resulted in high insecticidal activity against both hemipteran pests. No toxicity was observed on other pests such as Ostrinia furnacalis , Plutella xylostella , or Colaphellus bowringi Also, no hemolytic activity or toxicity against cancer cells was detected. Binding assays showed specific binding of the Cry64Ba/Cry64Ca toxin complex to brush border membrane vesicles isolated from L. striatellus Cry64Ba and Cry64Ca are Bt Cry toxins highly effective against hemipteran pests and could provide a novel strategy for the environmentally friendly biological control of rice planthoppers in transgenic plants. IMPORTANCE In Asia, rice is an important staple food, whose production is threatened by rice planthoppers. To date, no effective Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein has been shown to have activity against rice planthoppers. We cloned two Bt toxin genes from Bt strain 1012 that showed toxicity against small brown planthoppers ( Laodelphax striatellus ) and white-backed planthoppers ( Sogatella furcifera ). To our knowledge, the proteins encoded by the cry64Ba and cry64Ca genes are the most efficient insecticidal Bt Cry proteins with activity against hemipteran insects reported so far. Cry64Ba and Cry64Ca showed no toxicity against some lepidopteran or coleopteran pests

  2. Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

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    2002-04-01

    under way in Tunisia for suppression of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, and on the island of Mauritius for control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. F{sub 1} sterility programmes for other Lepidopteran pest species also are being considered in other countries.

  3. Evaluation of Lepidoptera population suppression by radiation induced sterility. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    for suppression of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, and on the island of Mauritius for control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. F 1 sterility programmes for other Lepidopteran pest species also are being considered in other countries

  4. The use of F1 sterility and parasitoids for population suppression of lepidopteran pests of crucifers in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singgih Sutrisno Apu

    2002-01-01

    We report on the population suppression of diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and cabbage webworm (CWW) Crocidolomia binotalis Z. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using releases of irradiated (200 Gy) substerile moths. The impact of substerile DBM was studied in field-cages and moths were released at a 9:1 treated:untreated ratio. Our results show that releasing F 1 substerile male and female DBM resulted in a high level of sterility (73.03% and 73.30% in the F 1 and F 2 generations, respectively) in the untreated population, while the release of only F 1 males induced a lower level of sterility (55.40% and 56.44% in the F 1 and F 2 generations, respectively). When substerile moths were released once per generation, the level of sterility was 44.78% in the F 1 and 68.01% in the F 2 generations. The effect of releasing substerile males only, females only, and substerile male and female CWW on the untreated population were studied in the laboratory. Percent egg hatch was 22.17% for male only releases. For female and mixed sex releases these percentages were 28.50% and 24.75%, respectively. For DBM, some studies combined releases of substerile DBM with releases of the parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum (H) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in field-plots. Pupal viability in the F 1 generation in the area that received both parasitoids and substerile DBM was 32.5%. The effect on pupal viability when only a single tactic was used was lower than when both tactics were combined. The release of substerile males only gave a pupal viability of 57.5% and releases of the parasitoid D. semiclausum resulted in 81% pupal viability. When substerile DBM were released into a small isolated forested area in Malang, East Java, the average number of moths caught per week at the release area from June to October 1996 was about 89.42% of that found in the untreated control area. When population fluctuations of wild DBM were followed for 12 months, the lowest

  5. Promising new technology for managing diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in cabbage with pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Everett R

    2002-05-01

    Experiments were conducted in plantings of cabbage in spring 1999 and 2000 to evaluate a novel, new matrix system for delivering sex pheromone to suppress sexual communication by diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The liquid, viscous, slow-release formulation contained a combination of diamondback moth pheromone, a blend of Z-11-hexadecenyl acetate, 27%:Z-11-hexadecen-1-ol, 1%:Z-11-tetradecen-1-ol, 9%:Z-11-hexadecenal, 63%, and the insecticide permethrin (0.16% and 6% w/w of total formulated material, respectively). Field trapping experiments showed that the lure-toxicant combination was highly attractive to male moths for at least four weeks using as little as a 0.05 g droplet of formulated material per trap; and the permethrin insecticide had no apparent influence on response of moths to lure baited traps. Small field plots of cabbage were treated with the lure-toxicant-matrix combination using droplets of 0.44 and 0.05 g each applied to cabbage in a grid pattern at densities ranging from 990 to 4396 droplets/ha to evaluate the potential for disrupting sexual communication of diamondback moth. There was no significant difference in the level of suppression of sexual communication of diamondback moth, as measured by captures of males in pheromone-baited traps located in the treated plots, versus moths captured in untreated control plots, among the treatments regardless of droplet size (0.05 or 0.44 g) or number of droplets applied per ha. Plots treated with the smallest droplet size (0.05 g) and with the fewest number of droplets per ha (990) suppressed captures of male diamondback moths > 90% for up to 3 weeks post treatment. Although laboratory assays showed that the lure-toxicant combination was 100% effective at killing the diamondback moth, the mode of action in the field trials was not determined. The results indicate that the liquid, viscous, slow release formulation containing diamondback moth pheromone could be used to effectively suppress sexual

  6. Seasonal dynamics of three insect pests in the cabbage field in central Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trdan, Stanislav; Vidrih, Matej; Bobnar, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    From the beginning of April until the beginning of November 2006, a seasonal dynamics of three harmful insect species--Swede midge (Contarinia nasturtii [Kieffer], Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp., Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella [L.], Lepidoptera, Plutellidae)--was investigated at the Laboratory Field of the Biotechnical Faculty in Ljubljana (Slovenia). The males were monitored with pheromone traps; the males of Swede midge were trapped with the traps of Swiss producer (Agroscope FAW, Wädenswill), while the adult flea beetles (trap type KLP+) and diamondback moths (trap type RAG) were trapped with the Hungarian traps (Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences). The pheromone capsules were changed in 4-week intervals, while the males were counted on about every 7th day. The first massive occurrence of diamondback moth (1.6 males/trap/day) was established in the second 10 days period of April, and the pest remained active until the 2nd 10 days period of September. The adults were the most numerous in the period between the end of May until the middle of June, but even then their number did not exceed three males caught per day. In the first 10 days period of May, the first adult flea beetles were recorded in the pheromone traps, while their notable number (0.8 males/trap/day) was stated in the third 10 days period of May. Absolutely the highest number of the beetles was recorded in the second (19 adults/trap/day) and in the third (25 adults/trap/day) 10 days of July, and the pest occurred until the beginning of October. The first massive occurrence of Swede midge (0.4 males/trap/day) was established in the second 10 days period of May, while the highest number of males (8/trap/day) were caught in the second 10 days period of July. In the third 10 days period of October, the last adults were found in the traps. Based on the results of monitoring of three cabbage insect pests we ascertained

  7. Entomopathogenic nematodes in the European biocontrol market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, R U

    2003-01-01

    In Europe total revenues in the biocontrol market have reached approximately 200 million Euros. The sector with the highest turn-over is the market for beneficial invertebrates with a 55% share, followed by microbial agents with approximately 25%. Annual growth rates of up to 20% have been estimated. Besides microbial plant protection products that are currently in the process of re-registration, several microbial products have been registered or are in the process of registration, following the EU directive 91/414. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are exceptionally safe biocontrol agents. Until today, they are exempted from registration in most European countries, the reason why SMEs were able to offer economically reasonable nematode-based products. The development of technology for mass production in liquid media significantly reduced the product costs and accelerated the introduction of nematode products in tree nurseries, ornamentals, strawberries, mushrooms, citrus and turf. Progress in storage and formulation technology has resulted in high quality products which are more resistant to environmental extremes occurring during transportation to the user. The cooperation between science, industry and extension within the EU COST Action 819 has supported the development of quality control methods. Today four companies produce EPN in liquid culture, offering 8 different nematode species. Problems with soil insects are increasing. Grubs, like Melolontha melolontha and other scarabaeidae cause damage in orchards and turf. Since the introduction of the Western Corn Rootworm Diabrotica virgifera into Serbia in 1992, this pests as spread all over the Balkan Region and has reached Italy, France and Austria. These soil insect pests are potential targets for EPN. The development of insecticide resistance has opened another sector for EPN. Novel adjuvants used to improve formulation of EPN have enabled the foliar application against Western Flower Thrips and Plutella

  8. Management of lepidopterans through irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, Dheeraj; Parvez, Asif; Kausar, Hina; Srivastava, Meera

    2012-01-01

    suppression by irradiation include Spodoptera litura, S.exigua, S.frugiperda, Helicoverpa armigera, H.zea, Pectinophora gossypiella, Diatraea saccharalis, Cydia pomonella, C.molesta, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, Ephestia kuehniella, Crocidolomia binotalis, Chilo suppressalis, Ostrinia furnacalis, O.nubilalis, Plutella xylostella and Spilosoma obliqua. (author)

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13401-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available musculus c... 139 2e-31 AY651828_5( AY651828 |pid:none) Cotesia plutellae polydnavirus seg... 139 2e-31 AK30... 1e-29 AY651829_10( AY651829 |pid:none) Cotesia plutellae polydnavirus se... 132 1e-29 Z36237_5( Z36237 |pid...K294673_1( AK294673 |pid:none) Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ59320 complet... 127 6e-28 EF067328_9( EF067328 |pid:none) Cotesia plutella..._1( U20807 |pid:none) Bos taurus protein tyrosine phosphatas... 127 8e-28 AY651829_1( AY651829 |pid:none) Cotesia plutella...sph... 126 1e-27 EF067324_5( EF067324 |pid:none) Cotesia plutellae polydnavirus seg... 126 1e-27 AK064263_1(

  10. Climate change and genetically modified insecticidal plants. Plant-herbivore interactions and secondary chemistry of Bt Cry1Ac-toxin producing oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under elevated CO{sub 2} or O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, S.

    2008-07-01

    } and temperature despite differences in carbon and nitrogen concentrations between the non-Bt and Bt line. Feeding of Bt-susceptible diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) larvae was equally inhibited on the Bt line in control conditions, under elevated CO{sub 2} and under O{sub 3} exposure. Constitutive glucosinolate and volatile terpenoid profiles of the non-Bt and Bt line plants were equal. Despite reduced feeding by Bt-susceptible P. xylostella on the Bt line, herbivore-induced increases in volatile terpenoids and glucosinolates were mostly comparable to those on the non-Bt line, with the exception of lowered increases in foliar concentration of 4-methoxy-3- indolylmethylglucosinolate and emissions of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene and alpha- thujene in the Bt-transgenic line. The effectiveness of the transgenic trait, measured as Bt toxin concentration of leaves, was maintained under elevated CO{sub 2} and temperature, separately and in combination, and enhanced under elevated O{sub 3}. As an effect of elevated CO{sub 2}, increased glucosinolate and volatile terpenoid concentrations were detected in both non-Bt and Bt plant lines, whereas O{sub 3} exposure changed concentrations of specific glucosinolates and decreased total terpenoid emissions in both plant types. In tritrophic bioassays, an endoparasitoid of P. xylostella, Cotesia vestalis, was attracted to host-damaged non-Bt and Bt plants under elevated CO{sub 2} compared to control plants, whereas with elevated O{sub 3} the host-damaged Bt plants, which had reduced feeding damage, did not attract the parasitoids. This is in contrast to non-Bt plants, which also remained attractive under O{sub 3} exposure. To conclude, Bt-producing oilseed rape showed equal responses as the non-Bt parent line to the studied abiotic variations in terms of vegetative growth, allocation to constitutive glucosinolates and volatile terpenoids and nontarget herbivore susceptibility. This suggests that these

  11. 1578-IJBCS-Article-Karamoko Diarra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    (Bt), neem oil and methamidophos on larvae of P. xylostella under laboratory conditions. Leaf-dip ... providing income and nutrition and enabling small farms to .... hung vertically to air dry for 2 h. Control ..... brassicas in Asia and Africa. Crop.

  12. Classificação de cultivares de brássicas com relação à resistência à traça-das-crucíferas e à presença de glucosinolatos Brassicas cultivars classification in relation to resistance to diamondback moth and to the presence of glucosinolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Thomaz Thuler

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de cultivares de repolho e de couve na biologia da traça-das-crucíferas; analisar a composição química das plantas, em relação aos glucosinolatos e aplicar a análise multivariada na classificação das cultivares. Foram utilizadas as cultivares: de repolho verde Chato-de-quintal e o híbrido Midori; de repolho roxo Roxo precoce e o híbrido Roxo TPC00682; e de couve-manteiga Geórgia (padrão de suscetibilidade e Geórgia híbrido HS20. Foram avaliadas as características biológicas da praga: viabilidade e duração das fases larval e pupal, razão sexual, fecundidade das fêmeas, longevidade dos adultos e duração e viabilidade da fase de ovo, tendo-se calculado o potencial reprodutivo corrigido (PRC. Obtiveram-se as correlações entre os parâmetros pelo método de Pearson, e realizaram-se análises multivariadas de agrupamento e de componentes principais. Em cromatógrafo líquido, avaliaram-se a presença de sinigrina e de outros glucosinolatos nas plantas. A cultivar Geórgia e os híbridos HS20 e Roxo foram classificados como altamente suscetíveis; 'Roxo precoce' e 'Midori' como suscetíveis e, 'Chato-de-quintal' como moderadamente resistente à Plutella xylostella. As análises multivariadas proporcionam melhor classificação das cultivares, em razão do grau de resistência apresentado. Os materiais genéticos avaliados não apresentam a substância secundária sinigrina.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of cabbage and kale cultivars on the diamondback moth biology; to analyze the plant chemical composition in relation to glucosinolates and to apply the multivariate analysis to classify cultivar resistance. Trials were conduct using: green cabbage cultivar Chato-de-quintal and hybrid Midori; purple cabbage Roxo precoce and purple hybrid TPC00682; kale cultivar Georgia (susceptibility standard and hybrid HS20. The pest biological characteristics evaluated were

  13. Uso de inseticidas para o controle da traça-do-tomateiro e traça-das-crucíferas: um estudo de caso Use of insecticides for controlling the South American Tomato Pinworm and the Diamondback Moth: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Castelo Branco

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Em agosto de 1999, produtores de tomate e brássicas do Núcleo Rural da Taquara tiveram seus cultivos seriamente comprometidos devido à impossibilidade de controle da traça-do-tomateiro e da traça-das-crucíferas. Diversos inseticidas, alguns com o mesmo princípio ativo ou pertencentes ao mesmo grupo químico, eram aplicados de uma a sete vezes por semana sem qualquer eficiência no controle das pragas. Lavouras foram abandonadas em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento. A fim de definir uma estratégia de controle que viabilizasse a produção de tomate e brássicas na região, foi avaliado em laboratório a eficiência da dose comercial de alguns inseticidas usados no controle das duas pragas. Para isso, foram coletadas duas populações de traça-do-tomateiro e uma população de traça-das-crucíferas. Para traça-do-tomateiro, cartap, abamectin, lufenuron, acefate e deltametrina causaram respectivamente 100, 90, 67, 2 e 0% de mortalidade das larvas. Para traça-das-crucíferas, B. thuringiensis, abamectin, cartap, acefate and deltametrina causaram 100; 96; 86; 79 e 5% de mortalidade respectivamente. De acordo com estes resultados foi recomendada a suspensão imediata do uso de piretróides e organofosforados para o controle das duas pragas. Abamectin e cartap foram recomendados para o controle da traça-do-tomateiro e B. thuringiensis para o controle de traça-das-crucíferas.In August 1999, at the "Núcleo Rural da Taquara", Federal District, Brazil, tomato and brassica crops were severely damaged by the South American Tomato Pinworm (Tuta absoluta and the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella. During that time growers related that they had been spraying insecticides one to seven times per week without controlling the pests. In the fields it was observed that there were crops with different ages and levels of chemical residues which allowed the pests to multiplicate continuously. Then it was decided that the first step to solve the

  14. Mesoionic Pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinone Insecticides: From Discovery to Triflumezopyrim and Dicloromezotiaz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenming

    2017-09-19

    virescens (Distant), GLH), but also against representative lepidoptera species Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), DBM) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), FAW). Further optimization based on 3 led to discovery of triflumezopyrim (4), with a 5-pyrimidinylmethyl group, as a potent hopper insecticide for rice usage. Optimization of the substituents on the pyrido- moiety of 3 resulted in discovery of dicloromezotiaz (5) as a lepidoptera insecticide. In this Account, we present the discovery and optimization of mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinone insecticides toward the identification of triflumezopyrim (4) and dicloromezotiaz (5). We hope that knowledge and lessons derived from this discovery program will provide valuable information for future agrochemical and drug discovery. Our successful discovery and commercialization development of two novel insecticides based on meosoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyridiminones may also stimulate interests of scientists from other disciplines to adopt this uncommon yet intriguing heterocycle ring system in pharmaceutical and other material science discovery research.

  15. 111-118 Efficacy of Pepper Tree (Schinus molle)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meseret

    of Botrytis fabae and to manage chocolate spot of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), ... Keywords: Disease incidence/severity, In vitro, In vivo, Plant extract, Schinus molle, Shallo, Vicia faba. 1. ..... extract deters feeding and oviposition of Plutella.

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Populations on Cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata (L.) by Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Ghana Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0855-4307. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  17. Resistance Inheritance of Plutellaxylostella Population to Residual of Emamectin Benzoat

    OpenAIRE

    Udi Tarwotjo; Rully Rahardian

    2017-01-01

    Excessive use of insecticides drives the increasing ability of pests to become resistant. The objectives of this research were to study the susceptibility and the resistance inheritance of the eleven population of P. xylostella to emamectin benzoate. The leaf-dip bioassay was applied to determine the sensitivity of P. xylostella to emamectin benzoate. The offspring of backcrossed F2 were tested whether the resistance was controlled by monogenic. The results showed that the LC50 of the Selo po...

  18. Resistance Inheritance of Plutellaxylostella Population to Residual of Emamectin Benzoat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udi Tarwotjo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Excessive use of insecticides drives the increasing ability of pests to become resistant. The objectives of this research were to study the susceptibility and the resistance inheritance of the eleven population of P. xylostella to emamectin benzoate. The leaf-dip bioassay was applied to determine the sensitivity of P. xylostella to emamectin benzoate. The offspring of backcrossed F2 were tested whether the resistance was controlled by monogenic. The results showed that the LC50 of the Selo population was 53.42 ppb, and the Puasan population was 212.13 ppb. The genetic analysis showed that the backcrosseddegree of dominance (D was less than 1. It was indicated that the P. xylostella resistance to emamectin benzoate was recessive. The value of LC50 of the backcrossed F1♀ x ♂S (177.99 ppb and its reciprocals x ♀R (F1 (201.69 ppb were not significantly different with the value of LC50 resistance population. This suggests that the nature of P. xylostella resistance to emamectin benzoate was controlled by monogenic.The result of the study would be beneficial for developing strategy to maintain susceptible population using refugee plant during lack of their host.

  19. The reduction of population of cabbage pests plutela maculipennis curtis and crocidolomia binotalis zell as affected by the release of radiosterilized moths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedaya, M.S.; Sutrisno, S.; Nasroh, A.; Sastradihardja, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    Moths of plutella maculipennis curtis and crocidolimia binotalis zell radiosterilized with 30 Krad and 40 Krad of gamma radiation respectively were released into a laboratory-cage of 90 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm, a field-cage of 2 m x 2 m x 2 m and an experimental plot of 10 m x 15 m to study their effect on the reduction of F1-population. The release of 450 irradiated moths in the laboratory-cage containing 50 unirradiated moths can reduce the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis by 61.1% and 65.3% respectively. While in the field-cage the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis decreased by 55.6% and 50.55% respectively. The release of about 4.500 irradiated crocidolomia binotalis into an experimental plot containing 500 normal moths can reduce the F1-population by 41.02% in the dry season and 50.55% in the rainy season. The release of about 5.000 irradiated moths of plutella maculipennis into an experimental plot containing about 350 moths of natural population, resulted in a reduction of egg hatch from 85.9% in the unreleased plot to 17.0% in the released plot. (author)

  20. Reduction of population of cabbage pests plutela maculipennis curtis and crocidolomia binotalis zell as affected by the release of radiosterilized moths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoedaya, M.S.; Sutrisno, S.; Nasroh, A.; Sastradihardja, S.I. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1983-10-01

    Moths of plutella maculipennis curtis and crocidolimia binotalis zell radiosterilized with 30 Krad and 40 Krad of gamma radiation respectively were released into a laboratory-cage of 90 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm, a field-cage of 2 m x 2 m x 2 m and an experimental plot of 10 m x 15 m to study their effect on the reduction of F1-population. The release of 450 irradiated moths in the laboratory-cage containing 50 unirradiated moths can reduce the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis by 61.1% and 65.3% respectively, while in the field-cage the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis decreased by 55.6% and 50.55% respectively. The release of about 4,500 irradiated crocidolomia binotalis into an experimental plot containing 500 normal moths can reduce the F1-population by 41.02% in the dry season and 50.55% in the rainy season. The release of about 5,000 irradiated moths of plutella maculipennis into an experimental plot containing about 350 moths of natural population resulted in a reduction of egg hatch from 85.9% in the unreleased plot to 17.0% in the released plot.

  1. Combining ecological and molecular methods to investigate predation of a lepidopteron pest complex of Brassica crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southeast Queensland Brassica crops are attacked by Crocidolomia pavonana F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in late summer and autumn, and Plutella xylsotella (L) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from late autumn through spring. The impact of endemic predatory and parasitic arthropods on each pest was studie...

  2. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on the biology of two parasitoid species of the diamondback moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of two botanical pesticides was tested on two species of parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadromus collaris. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5 were investigated in the laboratory

  3. Radioisotope labelling of several major insect pest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrisno, Singgih

    1981-01-01

    Radioisotope uptake by insects could take place through various parts i.e. mouth, cuticula, intersegmental, secretion and excretion organs. Usually insects are labelled internally by feeding them on an artificial diet containing radioisotope solution. Labelling of several insect pests of cabbage (Crocidolomia binotalis) Zell and Plutella maculipennis Curt and rice (Chilo suppressalis Walker) by dipping of the pupae in 32 P solution showed a promising result. Pupae of Crocidolomia binotalis Zell dipped in 3 ml solution of 32 P with specific activities of 1, 3, 5 and 7 μCi/ml had developed labelled adults of sufficiently high radioactivity levels for ecological studies. Similar results were also obtained with Plutella maculipennis Curt and Chilo suppressalis Walker with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 μCi/ml 32 P solution. The best doses for radioisotope labelling by dipping of the insects Crocidolomia binotalis Zell, Plutella maculipennis Curt, and Chilo suppressalis Walker were 1, 9, and 7 μCi/ml respectivelly. (author)

  4. Radioisotope labelling of several major insect pest. Dipping the pupae in /sup 32/P solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutrisno, S. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1981-12-01

    Radioisotope uptake by insects could take place through various parts i.e. mouth, cuticula, intersegmental, secretion and excretion organs. Usually insects are labelled internally by feeding them on an artificial diet containing radioisotope solution. Labelling of several insect pests of cabbage (Crocidolomia binotalis) Zell and Plutella maculipennis Curt and rice (Chilo suppressalis Walker) by dipping of the pupae in /sup 32/P solution showed a promising result. Pupae of Crocidolomia binotalis Zell dipped in 3 ml solution of /sup 32/P with specific activities of 1, 3, 5 and 7 ..mu..Ci/ml had developed labelled adults of sufficiently high radioactivity levels for ecological studies. Similar results were also obtained with Plutella maculipennis Curt and Chilo suppressalis Walker with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 ..mu..Ci/ml /sup 32/P solution. The best doses for radioisotope labelling by dipping of the insects Crocidolomia binotalis Zell, Plutella maculipennis Curt, and Chilo suppressalis Walker were 1, 9, and 7 ..mu..Ci/ml respectivelly.

  5. Efeito da idade de Trichogramma exiguum e do desenvolvimento embrionário da Traça-das-Crucíferas sobre as características biológicas do parasitóide - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.522 Effect of the age of Trichogramma exiguum and diamondback moth embryonic development on the biological characteristics of the parasitoid - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.522

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cácia Leila Tigre Pereira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do desenvolvimento embrionário dos ovos do hospedeiro P. xylostella sobre fêmeas de Trichogramma exiguum, com diferentes idades. Para tanto, cinquenta fêmeas recém-emergidas ou com 24, 48, 72, e 96 horas após a emergência deste parasitóide foram divididas em cinco lotes. Para cada fêmea, foi oferecida uma cartela, contendo 30 ovos de P. xylostella com um, dois e três dias de idade. As maiores taxas de parasitismo foram observadas em ovos de três dias de desenvolvimento embrionário, independente da idade do parasitóide, com exceção daqueles com 72 horas de idade. A viabilidade não foi influenciada pela idade do parasitóide e nem pela fase embrionária do hospedeiro. A razão sexual foi semelhante nas três fases embrionárias do hospedeiro para fêmeas de T. exiguum com 24, 48 e 72 horas de idade. Ao avaliar os descendentes do parasitóide provenientes de ovos com três, dois e um dia de desenvolvimento embrionário, verificou-se que os maiores valores de longevidade foram obtidos quando foram usadas fêmeas recém-emergidas ou com 48 e 72 horas de vida, respectivamente. Estes resultados indicam a importância da idade do parasitóide, bem como o perído de desenvolvimento embrionário do hospedeiro para manter a qualidade de T. exiguum em laboratório, em uma criação massal, e também nas liberações de campo para o controle biológico de pragas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the embryonic development of eggs from the P. xylostella host on Trichogramma exiguum females of different ages. Fifty females – either just-emerged or 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after emergence of this parasitoid were divided into five groups. Each female was offered a recipient with 30 P. xylostella eggs, which were 1-, 2- and 3-days-old. The greatest rates of parasitism were observed on eggs with 3 days of embryonic development, with exception of those 72-hours

  6. Design, Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Novel Phenylurea Derivatives

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    Jialong Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel phenylurea derivatives were designed and synthesized according to the method of active groups linkage and the principle of aromatic groups bioisosterism in this study. The structures of the novel phenylurea derivatives were confirmed based on ESI-MS, IR and 1H-NMR spectral data. All of the compounds were evaluated for the insecticidal activity against the third instars larvae of Spodoptera exigua Hiibner, Plutella xyllostella Linnaeus, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and Pieris rapae Linne respectively, at the concentration of 10 mg/L. The results showed that all of the derivatives displayed strong insecticidal activity. Most of the compounds presented higher insecticidal activity against S. exigua than the reference compounds tebufenozide, chlorbenzuron and metaflumizone. Among the synthesized compounds, 3b, 3d, 3f, 4b and 4g displayed broad spectrum insecticidal activity.

  7. Design, Synthesis, and Insecticidal Activity of Some Novel Diacylhydrazine and Acylhydrazone Derivatives

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    Jialong Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study a series of diacylhydrazine and acylhydrazone derivatives were designed and synthesized according to the method of active group combination and the principles of aromatic group bioisosterism. The structures of the novel derivatives were determined on the basis on 1H-NMR, IR and ESI-MS spectral data. All of the compounds were evaluated for their in vivo insecticidal activity against the third instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua Hiibner, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner, Plutella xyllostella Linnaeus and Pieris rapae Linne, respectively, at a concentration of 10 mg/L. The results showed that all of the derivatives displayed high insecticidal activity. Most of the compounds presented higher insecticidal activity against S. exigua than the reference compounds tebufenozide, metaflumizone and tolfenpyrad, and approximately identical insecticidal activity against H. armigera, P. xyllostella and P. rapae as the references metaflumizone and tolfenpyrad.

  8. Efeito de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. sobre adultos de Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae = Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. on adults of Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

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    Hugo José Gonçalves dos Santos Júnior

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a seletividade dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. sobre adultos do parasitóide Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov. Foram utilizados os isolados Esalq 447 de B. bassiana e E9 de M. anisopliae, na concentração de 107 conídios mL-1. Os resultados mostraram que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae não reduziram a longevidade média do parasitóide. B. bassiana proporcionou porcentagem de mortalidade total de 26% e porcentagem de mortalidade confirmada de 21%, já M.anisopliae causou mortalidade total de 15% e confirmada de 9%, demonstrando que M. anisopliae foi menos agressivo. Portanto, em função dos resultados apresentados, a implementação no manejo integrado de P. xylostella com M. anisopliae, B. bassiana e O.sokolowskii pode ser uma excelente alternativa para otimizar o sistema produtivo das brássicas.The selectivity of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to adults of the parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov was evaluated. The isolates E9 of M. anisopliae and Esalq 447 of B. bassiana were used at the concentration of 107 conidia mL-1. The results showed that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae reduced significantly the mean longevity of the adults about 6.7 and 4.7 days respectively. B. bassiana induced 26% and 21% of total and confirmed mortalities, respectively, while M. anisopliae caused 15% and 9% of total and confirmedmortalities, showing that the isolate of M. anisopliae was less aggressive. Therefore, in function of the presented results the combination of M. anisopliae, B. bassiana, and O. sokolowskii in the integrated management of P. xylostella may be an excellent alternative for optimizing the cabbage growing system.

  9. Is the possibility of replacing seed dressings containing neonicotinoids with other means of protection viable in major Polish agricultural crops?

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    Matyjaszczyk Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the limitations regarding the use of the neonicotinoids: clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid there are no currently available insecticide seed dressings for oilseed rape in Poland. For maize here is only one seed dressing containing methiocarb available with a very narrow registered scope of use. The impact of limitations on protection possibilities of other major Polish agricultural crops is either negligible or non-existent. In consequence a group of economically important insect pests of maize [dungbeetles (Melolonthidae; click beetles (Elateridae; noctuid moths (Agrotinae] and oilseed rape [leaf miners (Agromyzidae, turnip sawfly (Athalia colibri Christ., cabbage weevils (Curculionidae, cabbage root fly (Hylemyia brassicae Bche., diamond-back moth (Plutella maculipennis Curt.] is left without any legal possibility of chemical control. For the other important pests of the early growth stage of oilseed rape development, there are only pyrethroids available together with one product containing chloropiryfos that can be applied once per vegetation season. Since both maize and oilseed rape are grown in Poland on the area of approximately 1 million ha (each crop, this situation raises concerns about production possibilities as well as development of pest resistance.

  10. AKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA BAGIAN TUMBUHAN CALOPHYLLUM SOULTTRI BURM.F. (CLU IACEAE TERHADAP LARVA LEPIDOPTERA

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    Edy Syahputra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this test was evaluate the insecticidal activity of ectract of some parts of Calophyllum soulattri (Clusiaceae against larvae of three species of Lepidoptera, i. e Crocidolomia pavonana, Plutella xylostela, and Pieris sp.. Extraction of plant materials was done by infusion method using ethanol. The bioassays were conducted by leaf-feeding method. Second-instar larvae were fed extract-treated broccoli leaves of 48 hours, then they were presented with untreated leaves until the surviving larvae larvae reached the fourth-instar stage. The number of dead larvae was recorded daily an larval mortality date were analyzed by probit method. The result showed the gummy bark exudates and bark extract of old and young C. soulattri plants were highly active against C. pavonana. The abrk extact of old C. soulattri plant was also effective against P. xilostella and Pieris sp. The gummy exudates possessed strong insecticidal activity against C. pavonana larvae with LC50 of 0.04% and prolonged the developmental time from second to fourth instar of C. soulattri 2.03-7.25 days compared with control. The bark excudate gave positive respon to alkaloid flavonoid, and tannin test. Futher studies are needed to identify insecticidal compound in those active extracts.

  11. Manejo de pragas no controle de doenças no cultivo de hortícolas

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    W. L. Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Os insetos estão geralmente associados a uma planta, em sua maioria são considerados pragas, principalmente em cultivos agrícolas, sejam como pragas broqueadoras, sugadoras de seiva, ou até mesmo como vetores de fitopatógenos, sendo neste último uma das causas mais preocupantes, uma vez que muitos fitopatógenos patógenos causam doenças que ainda não tem-se um controle eficaz. Sabe-se que no modelo convencional de produção, o manejo das pragas são feitos por controle químico. Este trabalho teve como objetivo fazer uma revisão bibliográfica de trabalhos representativos a respeito do controle de pragas vetores de doenças. A mosca-branca (Bemisia ssp foi o gênero que mais preocupa os produtores, uma vez que se apresentou como praga em uma grande quantidade de plantas hortícolas, e por ser vetor de vírus, doenças a te então, com controle restrito. Pulgões (Aphididae também foram relatados, assim como a traça-das-crucíferas (Plutella xylostela e do tomateiro (Tuta absoluta, controle biológico com o uso de Trichogramma ssp., Beauveria Bassiana, bem como controle físico, químico, etc. De modo geral, vários controles se mostraram viáveis para o controle destas pragas, dentre eles estão o controle químico, físico, genético, biológico e cultural, ambos no intuito de controlar a praga com a finalidade de prevenir a transmissão de doenças por estes. Pest management in disease control in vegetable growingAbstract: The insects are usually associated with a plant, for the most part are considered pests, particularly in agricultural crops, are as broqueadoras pests, sap suckers, or even how plant pathogens vectors, with the latter one of the most disturbing causes a Since many pathogens pathogens cause disease that still has to be an effective control. It is known that the conventional model of production, pest management are made by chemical control. This study aimed to do a literature review of representative works about

  12. Effects of a sex-ratio distorting endosymbiont on mtDNA variation in a global insect pest

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    Cook James M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of mtDNA variation within a species reflect long-term population structure, but may also be influenced by maternally inherited endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia. These bacteria often alter host reproductive biology and can drive particular mtDNA haplotypes through populations. We investigated the impacts of Wolbachia infection and geography on mtDNA variation in the diamondback moth, a major global pest whose geographic distribution reflects both natural processes and transport via human agricultural activities. Results The mtDNA phylogeny of 95 individuals sampled from 10 countries on four continents revealed two major clades. One contained only Wolbachia-infected individuals from Malaysia and Kenya, while the other contained only uninfected individuals, from all countries including Malaysia and Kenya. Within the uninfected group was a further clade containing all individuals from Australasia and displaying very limited sequence variation. In contrast, a biparental nuclear gene phylogeny did not have infected and uninfected clades, supporting the notion that maternally-inherited Wolbachia are responsible for the mtDNA pattern. Only about 5% (15/306 of our global sample of individuals was infected with the plutWB1 isolate and even within infected local populations, many insects were uninfected. Comparisons of infected and uninfected isofemale lines revealed that plutWB1 is associated with sex ratio distortion. Uninfected lines have a 1:1 sex ratio, while infected ones show a 2:1 female bias. Conclusion The main correlate of mtDNA variation in P. xylostella is presence or absence of the plutWB1 infection. This is associated with substantial sex ratio distortion and the underlying mechanisms deserve further study. In contrast, geographic origin is a poor predictor of moth mtDNA sequences, reflecting human activity in moving the insects around the globe. The exception is a clade of Australasian individuals, which may

  13. Gamma Radiation to Increase Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis Thai Strain for Insect Pets Control

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    Chanpaisaeng, Jariya; Keawsompong, Suttipun; Piadang, Nattaya; Tephan, Prakai; Keawchingduang, Wannapa

    2006-09-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates JCPT16 and JCPT68 were gamma-irradiated at 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy. The efficiency of these Bt isolates on S. litura control was also undertaken. It was found that the 4 kGy irradiated JCPT16 isolate had lowest LC 50 of 6.6x10 3 spore/ml while the non-irradiated JCPT 16 isolate had LC 50 of 6.2x10 3 spore/ml. Whereas the irradiated JCPT68 isolate at 8 kGy was noticed to have the lowest LC 50 of 2.7 x 10 3 spores/ml, the non-irradiated JCPT68 had LC 50 of 1.8x10 3 spores/ml. The efficiency test of B. thuringiensis isolate on S. exigua showed that the 2 kGy irradiated JCPT16 isolate had the lowest LC 50 of 2.52x10 4 spores/ml while the non-irradiated JCPT16 isolate had LC 50 of 6.04x10 3 spores/ml. The irradiated JCPT68 isolate at 4 kGy had the lowest LC 50 of 5.41x10 4 spores/ml, the non irradiated JCPT68 had LC 50 of 1.51x10 4 spores/ml. According to LC 50 values, there were no significant differences of efficiency on S. litura and S. exigua control among Bt isolates irradiated at various concentrations. The isolate JCPT16, JCPT35, JCPT50 and JCPT68 irradiated at dose of 10 kGy showed higher UV tolerance. After expose by UV ray, most of irradiated isolates still displayed high efficiency of controlling S. litura, S. exigua and Plutella xylostell.

  14. Capacidade reprodutiva e preferência da traça-das-crucíferas para diferentes brassicáceas Reproductive capacity and preference of the diamondback moth feeding on different brassicacea

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    Sergio A De Bortoli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi comparar diferentes cultivares de brassicáceas em relação à capacidade reprodutiva e preferência para alimentação e oviposição da traça-das-crucíferas. Os experimentos foram realizados utilizando-se as cultivares de repolho Midori, Chato-de-Quintal, híbridos da Top Seed® - Agristar (TPC 308, TPC 681 e TPC 668, couve-flor Bola de Neve, couve brócolis Ramoso Piracicaba Precoce e couve Manteiga da Geórgia, sendo esta última utilizada como padrão de suscetibilidade. Por meio dos dados biológicos de P. xylostella foram estimados os parâmetros necessários para a construção de tabela de vida de fertilidade, para comparação das cultivares testadas em relação à capacidade reprodutiva da praga. Em gaiolas de criação da traça-das-crucíferas foram colocados quatro quartos de folha, dois a dois, que justapostos formavam um círculo de 8 cm de diâmetro, confrontando-se os materiais dois a dois. As partes foram dispostas equidistantemente, para realização do teste de dupla chance de escolha (preferência para alimentação e oviposição e de múltipla chance de escolha, confrontando todos os substratos (preferência para alimentação. As cultivares que proporcionaram melhor desenvolvimento e reprodução para a traça-das-crucíferas foram couve Manteiga da Geórgia e couve brócolis. Para preferência alimentar constatou-se alta suscetibilidade em couve Manteiga e TPC 681 e para preferência de oviposição alta preferência para couve-flor Bola de Neve. Com isso, sugere-se a divisão das cultivares estudadas em quatro classes distintas: repolho Midori como moderadamente resistente (MR; couve-flor Bola de Neve e repolho Chato-de-Quintal como suscetíveis (S; couve brócolis, TPC308, TPC681 e TPC668 como moderadamente suscetíveis (MS; e couve Manteiga como altamente suscetível (AS.We compared different cultivars of crucifer in relation to reproductive capacity and preference for feeding and