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Sample records for plazmennykh preryvatelej toka

  1. A study of a transverse optical klystron experiment in adone (TOKA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscolo, I.; Stagno, V.; Bari Univ.

    1982-01-01

    The storage ring operation of a free electron laser (FEL) can be improved by a prebunching of the electron beam. We study in this paper a layout working as a transverse optical klystron (TOK). The enhancement of the single pass gain and the consequent reduction of the wiggler length in the TOK compared with the FEL suggests that the first device is more suitable for a storage ring such as Adone, where the straight sections are about 2 m long. The figures of the TOKA are carried out using as much as possible the hardware of the FEL experiment which is in progress at Adone (LELA experiment). (orig.)

  2. Regionalni pregled toka kapitala znanja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Čelebič

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Izobraževanje je eden najpomembnejših dejavnikov gospodarskega razvoja. Na ravni držav oziroma regij lahko ugotovimo, da obstaja podobnost med gospodarskim razvojem in izobraževanjem. To se je potrdilo tudi pri slovenskih statističnih regijah. Tiste regije, ki so gospodarsko razvitejše (osrednja slovenska, imajo tudi večjo zalogo in tok kapitala izobrazbe v primerjavi s slabše razvitimi regijami (pomurska, zasavska. Za posamezno slovensko statistično regijo so značilni specifični problemi na področju izobraževanja. Med statističnimi regijami so velike razlike v izobraženosti prebivalstva in vključenosti prebivalstva v izobraževanje, ki se le še poglabljajo. V prispevku so prikazane razmere na področju izobraževanja v osrednji slovenski (gospodarsko najrazvitejši slovenski regiji, pomurski (obmejni, depopulacijski regiji, regiji z največjim deležem kmečkega prebivalstva in zasavski regiji (regiji v industrijskem zatonu. V Sloveniji bi bilo treba čimprej ustanoviti pokrajine (zakon o pokrajinah je še v pripravi in opredeliti specifične probleme na področju izobraževanja ter ukrepe v zvezi s tem.

  3. A modification of the method for determining current efficiency of aluminium electrolytic cells; Modification de la methode permettant de determiner le rendement des cuves dans la production d'aluminium par electrolyse; Izmenenie metoda opredeleniya ehffektivnosti toka v alyuminievykh ehlektroliticheskikh bakakh; Modificacion del metodo para determinar el rendimiento de las celdas utilizadas en la produccion de aluminio por electrolisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradzynski, A [Institute of Basic Technical Problems, Polish Academy of Sciences. Warsaw (Poland); Orman, Z [Institute of Nonferrous Metals, Gliwice (Poland)

    1962-01-15

    de faciliter l'application de cette methode dans les usines d'aluminium et d'eviter toutes les restrictions et tous les dangers qu'entraine la manipulation, en dehors des laboratoires speciaux pour l'etude des radioisotopes, de sources radioactives non scellees. De l'or inactif a ete introduit dans' l'alliage type et dans le bain de la cuve electrolytique. La concentration d'or dans les echantillons d'alliage type et dans les echantillons preleves dans la cuve a ete mesuree apres irradiation de ces echantillons dans un reacteur nucleaire. (author) [Spanish] El procedimiento para determinar el rendimiento de las celdas para la produccion de aluminio por electrolisis fue descrito inicialmente por Rempel y col. y fue perfeccionado por Bozoky y col. que emplearon el radioisotopo {sup 198}Au. Este procedimiento consiste en preparar aleaciones tipo de aluminio con {sup 198}Au y medir la elevada actividad especifica de muestras de la aleacion con un tubo Geiger-Mueller, introduciendo plomo como absorbente entre el tubo y la muestra. Los autores midieron la actividad especifica de la aleacion tipo despues de diluirla con una cantidad conocida de aluminio puro. De esta manera, las muestras de aleacion tipo diluida y las muestras tomadas en la celda electrolitica tienen una actividad especifica del mismo orden de magnitud, que puede ser medida sin necesidad de absorbente. Los autores han recurrido al analisis por radiactivacion con objeto de facilitar la aplicacion de este procedimiento en las fabricas de aluminio y evitar las restricciones y los peligros que supone la utilizacion de fuentes de radiacion no encerradas fuera .de los laboratorios de radioisotopos. El procedimiento consiste en introducir oro inactivo en la aleacion tipo y en la masa fundida de la celda electrolitica. Se extraen muestras de la aleacion y del electrolito y, despues de irradiarlas en un reactor nuclear, se determina la concentracion de oro. (author) [Russian] Metod opredeleniya ehffektivnosti toka v

  4. Toka Boot/The Big Jam: Making Music in Rural East Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Gillian; Dunphy, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a community music project in rural East Timor. Australian musician Gillian Howell lived for three months in the isolated town of Lospalos as an Asialink artist-in-residence, where she worked with local community members and visiting Australian musicians to share music and ideas, and to communicate across cultures. Three…

  5. Measurement of crack in rock using transmitted elastic wave; Toka danseiha ni yoru ganbannai kiretsu keisoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomishima, Y [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    With an objective to measure at high accuracy the positions and sizes of cracks existing in rocks, a theoretical study has been carried out on a method which utilizes initial movement characteristics of P-wave. The P-wave which diffracts and propagates at a crack tip has a characteristic that its phase may reverse according to the positional relationship between vibration transmitting and receiving points. This positional relationship is decided by the Poisson ratio of media alone. Therefore, when the P-wave is measured while the vibration transmitting and receiving points are moved sandwiching a crack, the polarity of received waveform is changed from negative to positive at a certain position as a boundary. In order to measure this change at high accuracy, an elastic wave of high frequency is required, but it is not easy to obtain the wave in situ. In contrast, utilizing the initial movement polarity can not only identify the change in the polarity, but also perform measurement at high accuracy. The present study discussed a case where cracks are parallel with a free surface and a case where the cracks have angles with the free surface, whereas it was shown that positions of the upper and lower tips of a crack, and length of the crack can be measured accurately. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Non-destructive inspection technology using a magnetic transmission sensor; Jiki toka sensor wo mochiita hihakai kensa gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obama, H.

    1996-06-01

    A newly developed magnetic sensor for non-destructive inspection has acquired the U.S. patent. The starting point of the invention was an inspection of aluminum broth bags in cup-noodle containers with aluminum leaf cover, which was asked from a food maker. A method was developed, in which the microwave is transmitted through containers below their covers and the reflected wave is detected. Then, development of an inspection apparatus for spot welding parts used for automobiles was requested. Since welding is carried out using large current for the spot welding, magnetic characteristics change greatly, which is a remarkable phenomenon appearing especially for magnetic substances. This was found out to be the same phenomenon as the hardening of swords consisting of high temperature heating, pressurizing, and quenching. This substance with two changes can be considered as another material different from the base metal. Coils fitted to impressions were made, and their test pieces were measured. The correlation coefficient over 0.9 was obtained between measured values and results of tensile strength tests. This apparatus can be applied to the non-destructive inspection of internal defects of castings. 2 figs.

  7. Detection of travel time delay caused by dilation of an artificial fracture due to pressurization; Jinko chika kiretsu kaatsu ni tomonau toka danseiha denpa jikan henka no kenshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K; Moriya, H; Asanuma, H; Niitsuma, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    By revealing the relation between dilation of a subsurface fracture due to pressurization and travel time delay, it may be possible to measure the information as to the subsurface fracture system as a geothermal reservoir. In this study, field experiment was conducted to clarify the relation between the travel time delay of elastic waves and the dilation of fracture, pressure, and incident angles. The travel time delay of P-wave and S-wave tended to increase with the pressurization. When incident angle was about 90{degree} against the fracture, the increase was ranging between 0 and 0.2 ms. The magnitude of this delay could not be explained only by the opening of main fracture. It was considered that there were micro-crack zones around the main fracture. The difference of P-S delay depended on the pressurization and change of the pressure. The delay depended on the incident angle against the fracture. The delay of S-wave showed the polarized wave direction dependency. However, the obtained results might greatly depend on the analytical method and parameters. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Modelling of pressurized water reactor fuel, rod time dependent radial heat flow with boundary element method; Modeliranje spremenljivega radijalnega toplotnega toka tlacnovodne gorivne palice z metodo robnih elementov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarler, B [Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1987-07-01

    The basic principles of the boundary element method numerical treatment of the radial flow heat diffusion equation are presented. The algorithm copes the time dependent Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions, temperature dependent material properties and regions from different materials in thermal contact. It is verified on the several analytically obtained test cases. The developed method is used for the modelling of unsteady radial heat flow in pressurized water reactor fuel rod. (author)

  9. Palaeolithic/Mesolithic stratigraphic sequences at Údolí samoty and Janova zátoka rock shelters (Northern Bohemia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Novák, J.; Novák, Martin; Sázelová, S.; Demek, J.; Hladilová, Š.; Peša, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 4 (2013), s. 469-488 ISSN 0342-734X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08169S Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Pleistocene/Holocene boundary * Northern Bohemia * stratigraphic sequences * rock shelters * environment Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  10. Injection of Plasma Blobs into A Mirror Trap With Adiabatic Plasma Compression: ''ASPA'' Device; Injection d'Amas de Plasma dans un Piege a Miroirs avec Compression Adiaba Tique - Machine 'ASPA'; Inzhektsiya plazmennykh sgustkov v probochnuyu lovushku s adiabaticheskim szhatiem plazmy. Ustanovka ''ASPA''; Inyeccion de Plasmoides en una Trampa de Espejos con Compresion Adiabatica. La Instalacion 'ASPA'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babichev, A. P.; Burjak, E. M.; Gorbunova, E. F.; Karchevskij, A. I.; Muromkin, Ju. A. [Institut Atomnoj Ehnergii, Im. I.V. Kurchatova, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-04-15

    The paper describes the main features of the ''ASPA'' device, designed for studies of the adiabatic compression of plasma in a magnetic mirror trap. The vacuum chamber is housed in a solenoid (4 m in length, 1 m in diameter) on whose axis there is a maximum quasi-stationary driving field of 5000 Oe. A titanium injector or co-axial plasma gun generates the deuterium plasma. The plasma blob is injected along the axis and enters the compression zone - a glass tube 10 cm in diameter. A pulsed mirror magnetic field is formed by two coils 20 cm apart (mirror ratio 1:2) ; the maximum pulsed mirror field is 40 kOe, its rise time approximately 40 {mu}s and decay time 350 {mu}s. The composition and energy distributions of the ion component of the plasma in the titanium and coaxial injectors were investigated by mass spectrometry. A microwave interferometer was used to measure , the density of the plasma blob as it moved from the injector to the compression zone. The authors also investigated the passage of the plasma blob through the magnetic mirrors at fields up to 20 kOe. In some experiments the mirror field was parallel to the driving magnetic field, whereas in others it was anti-parallel; in other words a field of the diverter type, with two regions of zero field, was formed. For both the titanium and the co-axial injectors, the injected plasma blob penetrated comparatively freely the magnetic mirror that was parallel to the guiding magnetic field, whereas it hardly penetrated at all when the field was of the diverter type. The authors have thus demonstrated the possibility of removing the heavy impurities from an injected blob by using a pulsed magnetic gate which forms regions of zero magnetic field and whose magnetic lines lead to the walls of the chamber. In provisional experiments on adiabatic plasma compression in a mirror trap, the authors found hard X-radiation (of 30 keV) and studied the effect of the initial magnetic field and the parameters of the plasma blob on the intensity and hardness of this radiation. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent les principales caracteristiques de la machine ASPA qui a ete construite en vue d'etudier la compression adiabatique du plasma dans un piege a miroirs magnetiques. La chambre a vide du dispositif se trouve dans un solenoiede (de 4 m de longueur et 1 m de diametre) sur l'axe duquel on peut creer un champ magnetique de guidage longitudinal quasi stationnaire d'une intensite maximum de 5 kOe. Pour produire le plasma, on a utilise un injecteur a.titane ou un canon a plasma coaxial. L'amas de plasma etait injecte le long de l'axe de l'installation et penetrait dans une zone de compression formee d'un tube en verre de 10 cm de diametre. Le champ magnetique a miroirs etait cree a l'aide de deux bobines distantes de 20. cm l'une de l'autre (rapport de miroir 1/2). Le champ magnetique puise maximum dans les miroirs s'elevait a 40 kOe, le temps de montee du champ a Tilde-Operator 40 {mu}s et son temps de chute a 350 {mu}s. La composition et la distribution selon l'energie de la composante ioniquedu plasma dans l'injecteur a titane et dans l'injecteur coaxial ont ete etudiees par spectroscopie de masse. A l'aide d'un interferometre a micro-ondes, ona mesure la densite de l'amasde plasma au cours de son deplacement de l'injecteur vers la zone de compression. On a egalement etudie le passage de cet amas a travers le piege a miroirs pour des champs de 20 kOe. Dans certaines experiences, le champ de miroir etait parallele au champ magnetique de guidage, alors que dans d'autres il etait antiparallele; en d'autres termes, un champ du type 'diverteur' se formait avec deux regions de champ nul. On montre que dans le cas de l'injecteur a titane, comme dans celui de l'injecteur coaxial, l'amas de plasma injecte passe assez facilement a travers le miroir magnetique lorsque la direction de celui-ci coincide avec celle du champ magnetique de guidage, alors qu'il ne le traverse pratiquement pas en presence d'un champ du type 'diverteur'. Sur la base de ces experiences, les auteurs montrent qu'il est possible d'eliminer les impuretes lourdes du plasma a l'aide d'une porte magnetique puisee qui cree des regions ou le champ magnetique est nul et ou les lignes de forces magnetiques rejoignent les parois de la chambre. Au cours des experiences preliminaires sur la compression adiabatique du plasma dans le piege a miroirs, les auteurs ont constate la presence de rayons X durs (de 30 keV) et etudie l'influence que le champ magnetique initial et les caracteristiques de l'amas de plasma exercent sur l'intensite et la durete de ces rayons. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se explican las caracteristicas principales de la instalacion 'ASPA', construida para investigar la compresion adiabatica de un plasma en una trampa de espejo magnetico. La camara de vacio de la instalacion esta situada en un solenoide (4 m de longitud, 1 m de diametro)en cuyo eje puede crearse un campo magnetico cuasi estacionario longitudinal que actua de guia, de 5 kOe de intensidad maxima. Para generar el plasma de deuterio los autores utilizaron un inyector de titanio o un canon coaxial de plasma. Despues de ser inyectado a lo largo del eje de la instalacion, el plasmoide penetro en la region de compresion, formada por un tubo de vidrio de 10 cm de diametro. El campo magnetico pulsado, con una configuracion de espejo, se creo mediante dos bobinas situadas a 20 cm de distancia entre sf (la razon de espejo era de 1:2). La intensidad maxima del campo magnetico pulsado en los espejos era de 40 kOe, el tiempo de crecimiento del campo magnetico de Tilde-Operator 40 {mu}s, el tiempo de desintegracion del campo de 350 {mu}s. Los autores investigaron por espectrometria de masas la composicion y distribucion energetica del componente ionico del plasma en el. inyector de titanio y en el coaxial. Con ayuda de un interferometro de microondas midieron la densidad del plasmoide al pasar del inyector a la region de compresion. Investigaron tambien el paso del plasmoide a traves del espejo magnetico, para una intensidad del campo de 20 kOe como maximo. En algunos experimentos, el campo del espejo era paralelo al campo magnetico guia, en otros, antiparalelo, es decir, se creo un campo desviador con dos regiones de intensidad nula. Pudo comprobarse que el plasmoide inyectado (con un inyector de titanio o con uno coaxial) atraviesa con bastante facilidad el espejo magnetico cuando la direccion del campo del espejo coincide con la del campo magnetico guia, que no lo atraviesa cuando el campo es de tipo desviador. Basandose en estos experimentos, los autores demostraron la posibilidad de eliminar las impurezas pesadas de un plasma inyectado, utilizando una puerta magnetica pulsada que crea regiones en las que la intensidad del campo magnetico es nula y las lfneas.de fuerza magnetica se dirigen hacia las paredes de la camara. En los experimentos provisionales sobre compresion adiabatica del plasma en una trampa de espejo los autores observaron rayos X duros (de 30 keV de energia); investigaron la influencia ejercida por el campo magnetico inicial y los parametros del plasmoide sobre la intensidad y la dureza de estos rayos. (author) [Russian] Privedeny osnovnye harakteristiki ustanovki ''Aspa'', postroennoj dlja issledovanija adiabaticheskogo szhatija plazmy v lovushke s probochnoj-konfiguraciej magnitnogo polja. Vakuumnaja kamera ustanovki pomeshhaetsja v solenoide (dlina 4 metra, diametr 1 metr), na osi kotorogo mozhet sozdavat'sja prodol'noe vedushhee kvazistacionarnoe magnitnoe pole s naprjazhennost'ju do 5 kje. V kachestve istochnika dejterievoj plazmy ispol'zovalis' titanovyj inzhektor ili koaksial'naja plazmennaja pushka. Plazmennyj sgustok inzhektirovalsja vdol' osi ustanovki i postupal v rabochuju oblast' szhatija, kotoraja predstavljala soboj stekljannuju trubu diametrom 10 sm. Impul'snoe magnitnoe pole probochnoj konfiguracii sozdavalos' dvumja katushkami, rasstojanie mezhdu kotorymi 20 sm (probochnoe otnoshenie 1:2). Maksimal'naja naprjazhennost' impul'snogo magnitnogo polja v probkah sostavljaet 40 kje, vremja narastanija magnitnogo polja Tilde-Operator 40 mksek, a vremja spada polja 350 mksek. Provodilis' mass-spektrometricheskie issledovanija sostava i jenergeticheskih raspredelenij ionnoj komponenty plazmy v titanovom i koaksial'nom inzhektorah. S pomoshh'ju mikrovolnovogo interferometra izmerjalas' plotnost' plazmennogo sgustka pri ego dvizhenii ot inzhektora k rabochej oblasti szhatija. Issledovalos', takzhe, prohozhdenie plazmennogo sgustka cherez magnitnuju probku s naprjazhennost'ju polja do 20 kje. V odnih opytah pole probki bylo parallel'no vedushhemu magnitnomu polju, a v drugih - antiparallel'no, t.e. sozdavalos'' pole divertornogo tipa s dvumja oblastjami nulevoj naprjazhennosti polja. Pokazano, chto inzhektiruemyj plazmennyj sgustok (kak dlja titanovogo, tak i dlja koaksial'nogo inzhektorov) otnositel'no svobodno pronikaet cherez magnitnuju probku, kogda pole probki sovpadaet po napravleniju s vedushhim magnitnym polem; i prakticheski ne prohodit v sluchae polja divertornogo tipa. Na osnovanii jetih opytov pokazana vozmozhnost' otsechki tjazhelyh primesej inzhektiruemoj plazmy s pomoshh'ju impul'snogo magnitnogo zatvora, sozdajushhego oblasti s nulevoj naprjazhennost'ju magnitnogo polja i vyhodom magnitnyh silovyh linij na stenki kamery. V predvaritel'nyh jeksperimentah po adiabaticheskomu szhatiju plazmy v lovushke probochnoj konfiguracii zaregistrirovano zhestkoe rentgenovskoe izluchenie (jenergija 30 kjev) i issledovano vlijanie nachal'nogo magnitnogo polja i parametrov plazmennogo sgustka na intensivnost' i zhestkost' jetogo izluchenija. (author)

  11. Change of the equivalent circuit constants accompanied by the degradation and recovery of efficiency on a-Si solar cells; A-Si taiyo denchi no koritsu no rekka to kaifuku ni tomonau toka kairo teisu no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahisa, K; Kojima, T; Nakamura, K; Koyanagi, T; Yanagisawa, T [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Investigations were given on how the equivalent circuit constants change when efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells changes with time in light degradation and temperature recovery. In the experiment, light irradiation tests under a constant temperature and light intensity condition, followed by recovery tests under a constant temperature and constant weak light intensity or constant temperature condition were repeated continuously. According to the result of an experiment on single layer type cells, the change in each equivalent circuit constant in association with degradation in efficiency and file factor and variation in recovery is reversible mostly. However, a slightly irreversible component was recognized only in the initial degradation process in series resistance and diode factor values. With regard to stacked cells, it was suggested that the main players to determine cell characteristics during the processes of deterioration and recovery take turns among the three layers as follows: the shape of the time-based change in the efficiency comes different and is not saturating; as the efficiency decreases, the extent of the change increases in the diode factor and series resistance; and the path the deterioration takes differs from that the recovery takes. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Interferences in an information circuit of relay protection and automatics with convergence with a line powering a direct current micromotor. Pomekhi v informatsionnoy tsepi releynoy zashchity i avtomatiki pri sblizhenii s liniey, pitayushchey mikrodvigatel postoyannogo toka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarov, V.S.; Yarnykh, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility is examined of development of interferences in information circuits of RP and AP with their convergence with lines powering micromotors used in control circuits. It is indicated that with start-up of the micromotors in the information circuits, adjustments can be made which exceed in level and duration the operating signal. Results are presented of experimental measurements and interferences in the circuit of block signalling of the EPP. A technique is obtained for calculating the developed interferences.

  13. Detection of shear-wave traveltime delay by using wavelet transform and characterization of an artificial subsurface fracture; Wavelet henkan ni yoru toka S ha denpa jikan henka no koseido kenshutsu to jinko chika kiretsu no seijo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K; Moriya, H; Asanuma, H; Niitsuma, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    As characterization of artificial cracks formed underground by using the water pressure fracturing method, experiments have been carried out to detect relationship of pressurization and S-wave propagation time with the polarizing direction dependence. Openings are created when pressure in the vicinity of the artificial cracks increases greater than reopening pressure of micro cracks. Elastic wave velocity decreases in this region because of water in the opened micro cracks. Anisotropy is created in the S-wave propagation velocity due to influence from anisotropic reopening region when the artificial cracks are pressurized, and is separated into two components which polarize orthogonally with each other (micro splitting). Field experiments conducted at the Higashi-hachimantai field were analyzed by using wavelet transform. It was possible to detect the S-wave arrival time at high accuracy, and the arrival of an orthogonally polarized wave was observed in 0.03 to 0.11 ms after the arrival of the S-wave. Possibility was indicated on separation of the two components in the orthogonally polarized wave of the S-wave if the micro splitting is used. If this mechanism is elucidated, it may be possible to extract information on cracking systems (direction of micro crack orientation and crack density). 8 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Equivalent CTOD concept based on the local approach and its application to fracture performance evaluation of welded joints; Local approach ni motozuku toka CTOD gainen no teian to tsugite hakai seino hyoka eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, M.; Minami, F.; Toyoda, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, T.; Arimochi, K. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Glover, A. [Nova Gas Transmission Ltd., Calgary (Canada); North, T. [University of Toronto (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A proposal was given on an equivalent crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) concept which relates quantitatively fracture performance of a structural member with the result of a three-point bending CTOD test via the Weibull stress based on a local approach. The equivalent CTOD is defined as a CTOD in which a three-point CTOD test piece and a structural member provide the same Weibull stress. Experimental and analytical discussions were performed on X80 steel welded joints. Effectiveness of the equivalent CTOD concept was verified from the fact that the fracture performance in welded joints with a large width estimated from the result of the three-point bending CTOD test using the equivalent CTOD concept showed good correspondence with the fracture performance obtained in the experiments. On the other hand, the result of estimation using the conventional CTOD concept is considerably smaller than measurements. As an application of the equivalent CTOD concept, a new determination procedure was introduced on required fracture tenacity to ensure deformation performance required on structural elements. The required CTOD value shows a trend that the smaller the ratio of yield stress of the welded metals to that in the base material, the greater the required CTOD grows. 16 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Self-adaptive treatment of time dependent nonlinear nonhomogeneous radial heat flow in reactor components with boundary element method; Samoadaptivno obravnanje spemenljivega nelinearnega nehomogenoga radialnega topltnega toka v reaktorskih komponentah z metodo robnih elementov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarler, B; Alujevic, A [Univerza B. Kardelja, Institut ' Jozef Stefan' , Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    The basic principles of self-adaptive algorithm for treatment of transient nonlinear nonhomogeneous radial heat flow, based on direct Boundary Element method formulation, are presented. The indicators of discretization error are developed, together with binary-tree strategy for manipulation with time domain mesh, assuring automatic optimisation of calculation procedure with respect to predetermined error. The developed method is particularly suitable for use in a spectrum of extremely nonlinear cases, occurring in thermal analyses of reactor components.(author)

  16. Equivalent CTOD concept based on the local approach and its application to fracture performance evaluation of welded joints; Local approach ni motozuku toka CTOD gainen no teian to tsugite hakai seino hyoka eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, M; Minami, F; Toyoda, M [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, T; Arimochi, K [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Glover, A [Nova Gas Transmission Ltd., Calgary (Canada); North, T [University of Toronto (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A proposal was given on an equivalent crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) concept which relates quantitatively fracture performance of a structural member with the result of a three-point bending CTOD test via the Weibull stress based on a local approach. The equivalent CTOD is defined as a CTOD in which a three-point CTOD test piece and a structural member provide the same Weibull stress. Experimental and analytical discussions were performed on X80 steel welded joints. Effectiveness of the equivalent CTOD concept was verified from the fact that the fracture performance in welded joints with a large width estimated from the result of the three-point bending CTOD test using the equivalent CTOD concept showed good correspondence with the fracture performance obtained in the experiments. On the other hand, the result of estimation using the conventional CTOD concept is considerably smaller than measurements. As an application of the equivalent CTOD concept, a new determination procedure was introduced on required fracture tenacity to ensure deformation performance required on structural elements. The required CTOD value shows a trend that the smaller the ratio of yield stress of the welded metals to that in the base material, the greater the required CTOD grows. 16 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Change in concentration distribution and equivalent rate constant with flow velocity in a boundary layer around a catalyst of non-uniform surface activity; Kotai shokubai taihyomen no kassei no fukin`itsusei ni motozuku kankyo sonai nodo bunpu oyobi toka hanno sokudo teisu no ryusoku ni yoru henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, J [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-09-25

    In a flow system for vapor/solid catalytic reactions, there is a concentration distribution along the external catalyst surface, observed in the vicinity of the surface. Change in the reaction rate constant is followed for the case where the concentration distribution varies by flow. A 2-dimensional numerical model in which flow field and property conditions are simplified is used to analyze the change on the assumption that high-activity and low-activity sites are regularly distributed over the external catalyst surface. The transport equations for the reactants are numerically solved for given flow fields. It is found that the concentration distribution shape and equivalent reaction rate constant are almost the same as those in a stationary system at Pecret number of around 10 or lower, the concentration distribution gradually becomes uniform whereas equivalent rate constant increases as flow rate increases at Pecret number in a range from around 10 to 10{sup 6}, and they are almost constant at Pecret number beyond around 10{sup 6}. 3 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Attempt to measure the temperature, pressure and particle velocity of pyrocastic surge with penetrator-type gauge. ; Airdropping experiment at Unzen volcano. Penetrator hoshiki ni yoru kasai surge no ondo, atsuryoku, ryushi sokudo sokutei no kokoromi. ; Unzendake ni okeru toka jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, H. (Science Education Institute of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan)); Kamata, K.; Sange, K. (Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Science); Nakada, S. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Science); Kamata, H. (Geological Survey of Japan, Osaka Office, Osaka (Japan))

    1992-08-01

    This paper describes development of a penetrator intended of measuring temperatures, pressures, and particle velocities of air blasts and pyroclastic surges occurring in volcanos, and its airdropping experiment. This device forms a spear with a total length of 150 cm to 160 cm disposed with wings at the tail, and a stopper to prevent the spear from penetrating into ground deeper than 60 cm. The device for measuring temperatures suspends metal pieces of 16 kinds in total including such metals as lead and tin, and such alloys as eutectic solders and type lead to enable measuring a temperature range from 100[degree]C to 810[degree]C . The device for measuring pressures consists of a square pipe with a length little shorter than one meter, twisted to 22.5[degree] at three locations, each of the 16 faces made from the twisting being attached with two blast meters (using lead and copper foils, serving also as particle velocity meters). Twelve prototype devices have been dropped (not having been recovered yet) on five points of the east side slope of Mt. Unzen using a helicopter. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Modeliranje kretanja automobilskih jedinica realnim vojnim saobraćajnim tokom u koloni / Movement modeling of real military column traffic automobile units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir S. Gordić

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazan model za ocenu efikasnosti i optimizaciju kretanja organizovanog vojnog saobraćajnog toka u koloni. Razrađeni i usavršeni model obezbeđuje brzu i jednostavnu realizaciju istraživanja motorizovanih kolona različitih karakteristika. Prikazani su model, metodologija i rezultati imitacionog modeliranja realnog organizovanog vojnog saobraćajnog toka automobilskih jedinica u koloni. Rad predstavlja originalan doprinos istraživanju realnog vojnog saobraćajnog toka u koloni. / Target of this research was appraisal efficiency and optimization developments of organized column traffic. Elaborated and perfected model provides quick and simple target research realization for the motorized columns with different characteristics. In this work, model, methodology and results of imitation modeling, for real organized column traffic, have been shown. Work represents an original contribution to effective military column traffic.

  20. Keser bojong: Idealisasi Pencitraan Jaipongan Karya Gugum Gumbira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Mulyadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Gugum Gumbira’s Jaipongan as a dance genre has been more than ten repertoires, among oth- ers, are: Keser Bojong, Rendeng Bojong, Toka-Toka, Iring-Iring Daun Puring, Setra Sari, Senggot, Sonteng, Ringkang Gumiwang, Pencug Bojong, Rawayan, Kawung Anten, etc. However, among those works, Gugum Gumbira states his Keser Bojong’s dance repertoire as having the most ideal image. The question is, what aspects build that ideal image? Clearly, this is related to various value dimensions attributed to that dance repertoire. To discuss this issue, the writers use Richard E. Palmer’s Hermeneutics as interpretation system to reveal the “hidden” meaning beyond the texts (1969: 16-31. The scope of discussion covers dimension of concept and dance construction as well as other artistic devices.   Keywords: Jaipongan, Keser Bojong, Image, Gugum Gumbira.

  1. Prognostički značaj određivanja koncentracija citokina članova superfamilije tumor nekrozis faktora alfa kod obolelih od sepse

    OpenAIRE

    Lendak, Dajana

    2015-01-01

    Uvod: Nespecifičnost kliničke slike sepse, velike individualne razlike u odgovoru organizma na infekciju kao i neophodnost adekvatne inicijalne procene težine kliničke slike, toka i ishoda bolesti, čine istraživanja biomarkera koji bi doprineli pravovremenom postavljanju dijagnoze i adekvatnoj prognozi bolesti izuzetno značajnim. Do sada je ispitivano preko 200 biomarkera od kojih ni jedan nije pokazao zadovoljavajuću senzitivnost i specifičnost. Uloga B limfocita u patogenezi sepse pri tome ...

  2. Dijagnostički i prognostički značaj markera disfunkcije endotela i poremećaja mehanizma hemostaze u sepsi

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlović, Dunja

    2015-01-01

    Uvod: Sepsa je jedan od vodećih uzroka smrtnosti u jedinicama intenzivnog lečenja i van njih uprkos implementaciji novih dijagnostičkih i terapijskih protokola širom sveta. Multiorganska disfunkcija (MODS), koja predstavlja najtežu formu nepovoljnog toka sepse, je u osnovi svojih patofizioloških dešavanja obeležena promenama, koje se dešavaju na nivou kapilara, pre svega u endotelu. Poremećaji koagulacije koji se javljaju kao posledica ovih promena u endotelu su pr...

  3. Vzpostavitev proizvodnje prezračevanih kuhinjskih stropov

    OpenAIRE

    Bučar, Primož

    2014-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je predstavljen nov koncept kuhinjskega stropa, ki z odprtinami za prezračevanje omogoča uporabo zavržene toplote in predstavlja ogromen potencial za prihranek energije iz večjih kuhinj. V prvem delu diplome so predstavljeni rezultati numerične simulacije toka v realni kuhinji in opravljena analiza učinkovitosti odsesavanja kuhinjskih par z inovativno obliko kuhinjskega stropa. V drugem delu diplome je pripravljen zagonski elaborat za vzpostavitev proizvodnega procesa ku...

  4. The Electric Field in an MHD Duct with Permeable Electrodes when the Hall Effect is Present in the Flow of the Moving Medium; 042d 041b 0414

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emec, Ju. P.; Panasevich, L. L. [Institut Elektrodinamiki AN USSR, Kiev, USSR (Ukraine)

    1968-11-15

    The authors provide a solution to the problem of current distribution in a magnetohydrodynamic duct with permeable electrodes in which the conductivity of the moving medium is assumed to have a tensorial character. Permeable electrodes strongly influence the current distribution in the neighbourhood of the conducting walls of the duct. By appropriate blowing or sucking of the electrically conducting medium, we can suppress the end effects on the electrodes (due to the Hall effect in the flow and to the geometry of the duct); in this way the current distribution can be evened out. The authors find in their paper the necessary and sufficient conditions for which the current density takes on limited values near both ends of a permeable electrode. The velocity distribution on the conducting wall will be variable in sign as in some places there will be a blowing effect, mothers a sucking one. Another effect associated with the use of permeable electrodes is related to the integral characteristics of MHD converters. Thus, given anisotropic conductivity (due to the Hall effect) in a linear MHD duct with two permeable electrodes, the properties of Hall and Faraday energy converters will be combined if the conducting medium is blown through one electrode and sucked through the second. A flow scheme of this kind is studied in the paper. Mathematically, when the electric field is found a solution is obtained to the Riemann-Gilbert heterogeneous boundary value problem with discontinuous coefficients. This problem reduces to the Riemann boundary value problem (in the case of a zone belonging to a class of automorphic functions) and its solution, based on the properties of Cauchy integrals, is obtained in closed form. (author) [Russian] Daetsja reshenie zadachi o raspredelenii toka v magnitogidrodinamicheskom kanale s pronicaemymi jelektrodami pri tenzornom haraktere provodimosti dvizhushhejsja sredy. Nalichie pronicaemyh jelektrodov okazyvaet sushhestvennoe vlijanie na

  5. DUŠA, NJENE (STRAN)POTI, DRUŽBENO NADZORSTVO IN KAPITALIZEM

    OpenAIRE

    Kanduč, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Tekst uvodoma osvetli razmerje med telesom in „dušo“, pravzaprav duševnimi pojavi, saj te metafizične entitete ni niti v objektivnem niti v subjektivnem svetu – za razliko od konkretnega, nenehno spreminjajočega se toka zavestnih izkušenj (ki so za posameznika nekaj najbolj realnega, čeprav še vedno ne vemo, kako nastanejo in čemu služijo) –, za nameček pa je tudi ni mogoče utemeljiti ali pojasniti z evolucijsko teorijo. Duša (v svoji enoviti in nesmrtni formi), ki jo Bog podari le človeški „...

  6. Načrtovanje in optimizacija brezžičnega merilnega sistema z Wi-Fi modulom

    OpenAIRE

    RAŽMAN, ROK

    2015-01-01

    Namen tega dela je opisati načrtovanje in optimizacijo delovanja brezžičnega merilnega sistema, ki zajema mikrokrmnilnik, Wi-Fi modul in napajalno vezje, in je priključen na ciljni senzor. Umeščen bo v zelo omejen prostor in to predstavlja precejšno težavo z vidika načrtovanja. Vir napajanja je omrežna izmenična napetost, kar pomeni, da mora sistem vključevati majhen, a dovolj zmogljiv AC-DC pretvornik. Največji porabnik toka v sistemu je Wi-Fi modul. Vse omejitve morajo biti upoštevane in vs...

  7. A double toe-to-hand transfer in a young girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    A 14 years old girl lost all the fingers of her right hand except the thumb in a Toka (fodder chopping machine) 4 months ago. The fingers had been amputated at the level of the metacarpophalangeal joint. A double toe transfer was done using the second and third toes of her right foot to reconstruct the second and third digits of her right hand using microvascular technique. Bones were fixed with K-wires, corresponding tendons and nerves were attached, the dorsalis pedis artery was anastamosed end-to-side to the radial artery and the vein was anastamosed to the cephalic vein. The patient recovered well. K-wires were removed at 6 weeks and physiotherapy was started. After 4 months, the patient was able to use the hand for normal hand function and could make a tripod pinch. (author)

  8. Electrical Equipment of Electrical Stations and Substations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-25

    flocronthoro ’roka "rNUSPONUS reuepa’rop Tpexzaamor TOKA 6C. so, iso ynpomxeuuoe 63aeg (O#cms1poHM reHepaTop C ObiBeleHnbumH WeCTblo KoimaUU itA3...currents during short circuit on the terminals/grippers: the turbogenerators 12): .I1’ 1.5; the hydraulic generators 0a:I. ,-0 (.PA >3) ISO ---01...330TATl 111-31500/110 BC- 17,5 (10,5) 6800 5600 7600 123 397 Bll - 10,5 (17) C11 - 6.3 (6) TJATI 11-000/I10 - 8583 5275 7700 129 474 TLI, 11’--I.U500/I 1o

  9. Computation of the Spitzer function in stellarators and tokamaks with finite collisionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kernbichler Winfried

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Spitzer function, which determines the current drive efficiency in toka- maks and stellarators is modelled for finite plasma collisionality with help of the drift kinetic equation solver NEO-2 [1]. The effect of finite collisionality on the global ECCD efficiency in a tokamak is studied using results of the code NEO-2 as input to the ray tracing code TRAVIS [2]. As it is known [3], specific features of the generalized Spitzer function, which are absent in asymptotic (collisionless or highly collisional regimes result in current drive from a symmetric microwave spectrum with respect to parallel wave numbers. Due to this effect the direction of the current may become independent of the microwave beam launch angle in advanced ECCD scenarii (O2 and X3 where due to relatively low optical depth a significant amount of power is absorbed by trapped particles.

  10. Arc in a Gas Flowing Through a Magnetic Field; Duga v potoke gaza pri nalichii magnitnogo polya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, V. Ju.; Vasil' eva, I. A.; Ul' janov, K. N. [Vsesojuznyj Jelektrotehnicheskij Institut Im.V.I. Lenina, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-10-15

    The authors have previously shown that ad.c. electric arc can be used in the pre-ionizer of a non-equilibrium MHD generator. The pre-ionizer must be located immediately before the duct inlet, where the magnetic field is fairly strong and may have a substantial effect on the current in the gas flow. In the present paper they consider the behaviour of an electric arc in a gas flowing through a magnetic field. The experiments were carried out with argon, using the apparatus described in Ref. [1] of the paper. The flow was set up in a closed glass loop by means of an electromagnetic accelerator (MHD motor). By suitably treating and adjusting the loop it was possible to conduct the investigations in spectrally pure argon. The pressure varied between 1 and 100 mm Hg, and the flow velocity V{sub 0}{<=} 10{sup 4} cm/sec. The magnetic field in the accelerator (B{sub 1}) and near the arc (B{sub 2}) varied between zero and 7 x 10{sup 3} Oe. The spatial distribution of the electron concentration (n{sub e}) and the electron temperature (T{sub e}) were measured using probe and spectrum analysis methods. The gas temperature (T{sub g} ) was measured by the hot wire method and the flow velocity with the help of pitot tubes. Experiments were carried out in both decelerating and accelerating magnetic fields. (author) [Russian] Jelektricheskaja duga postojannogo toka mozhet byt' ispol'zovana v kachestve jelementa predionizatora v neravnovesnom MGDG. Predionizator dolzhen byt' raspolozhen neposredstvenno pered kanalom generatora v oblasti dostatochno sil'nogo magnitnogo polja, kotoroe mozhet sushhestvenno povlijat' na protekanie toka v potoke. Issledovano povedenie jelektricheskoj dugi v potoke pri nalichii magnitnogo polja. Jeksperimenty byli vypolneny v argone na ustanovke, opisannoj v rabote [1] . Potok v zamknutom stekljannom konture sozdavalsja pri pomoshhi jelektromagnitnogo uskoritelja (MGD dvigatelja). Sootvetstvujushhaja obrabotka i trenirovka kontura davala vozmozhnost

  11. Radiation-pulse transmission via a long cable without a preamplifier and/or a pulse transformer; Transmission d'impulsions de rayonnement par cable long sans l'adjonction d'un preamplificateur ou d'un transformateur d'impulsions; Peredacha impul'snykh izluchenij no kabelyu na dal'nie rasstoyaniya bez predvaritel'nogo usileniya i/ili bez preobrazovaniya impul'sov; Transmision de impulsos por cables de gran longitud sin preamplificador y/o transformador de impulsos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, H; Tohyama, T [Kobe Kogyo Corporation, Okubo, Akashi, Hyogo (Japan)

    1962-04-15

    vkhodnym konturam malogo vkhodnogo kompleksnogo soprotivleniya, prikhoditsya neskol'ko peresmatrivat' ehti kontury. Rassmatrivayutsya i sravnivayutsya drug s drugom tri vkhodnykh kontura, a imenno (No. 1) po vidu napryazheniya, (No. 1) po vidu napryazheniya i toka i (No. 3) po vidu toka. Kontur No. 1 ochen' pokhozh na obychnyj kontur s ehlektronnymi lampami. Byl postroen chuvstvitel'nyj sledyashchij mekhanizm izlucheniya al'fa-luchej s katodnoj nagruzkoj i so smeshcheniem obratnoj svyazi; on byl uspeshno ispol'zovan bez ushcherba dlya ustojchivosti postoyannogo toka v kachestve kontura s bol'shim vkhodnym kompleksnym soprotivleniem svyshe 10 megaomov. Bol'shaya chast' radiatsionnykh detektorov mozhet rassmatrivat'sya kak generatory toka. Takim obrazom, vykhodnye signaly detektorov mogut napravlyat'sya v usilitel' toka s malym vkhodnym kompleksnym soprotivleniem. EHto ustrojstvo sootvetstvuet vidu No. 3, i ono daet velikolepnuyu amplitudu impul'sa, no vvidu bystrogo toka impul'sov i maloj vkhodnoj integriruyushchej konstanty vremeni verkhnij predel chastoty usilitelya dolzhen prevyshat' 10 megagerts. Ustrojstvo No. 2 yavlyaetsya kombinatsiej vidov No. 1 i No. 3. Signaly detektora napravlyayutsya cherez soprotivlenie priblizitel'no v 100 kiloomov v usilitel' toka s malym vkhodnym kompleksnym soprotivleniem. Soprotivlenie izmenyaet vkhodyashchuyu integriruyushchuyu konstantu vremeni do nuzhnoj velichiny i snizhaet trebovaniya, pred{sup y}avlyaemye k verkhnemu predelu chastoty ehlektronnogo kontura priblizitel'no do 2 megagerts. Bolee togo, ehto ustrojstvo pozvolyaet sokhranit' proportsional'noe sootnoshenie mezhdu amplitudoj impul'sa i ehnergiej radiatsii. Omicheskoe soprotivlenie sluzhit takzhe predokhranitel'nym ustrojstvom dlya gazovykh detektorov. Kabel', soedinyayushchij soprotivlenie s usilitelem toka, mozhet byt' prolozhen na rasstoyanie bolee 500 metrov bez iskazheniya formy impul'sa, pri uslovii ispol'zovaniya koaksial'nogo kabelya i pri uslovii, chto vkhodnoe

  12. MANEJO FITOTÉCNICO DA BANANEIRA, CULTIVAR D' ANGOLA (AAB, VISANDO AO CONTROLE DA SIGATOKA-NEGRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA DE JESUS BARBOSA CAVALCANTE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate management systems for the control of Black Siga- toka in the cultivation of banana D'Angola cultivar. The experiment was installed and carried out at Embrapa Acre, Rio Branco - AC with the treatments distributed in randomized complete blocks with six replications consisting of different planting densities, corresponding to T1 - (1.111 plants ha-1; T2 - 1.666 plants ha-1; T3 - 2.000 plants ha-1; T4 - 1.333 plants ha-1; T5 - 2.500 plants ha-1 and; T6 - 1.111 plants ha-1 under rubber trees. The evaluations were carried out during two cycles of production. Plants of cv. D'Angola (AAB cultivated in 3.0 x 3.0 m, shaded by the rubber trees, presented higher plant height, higher number of functional leaves at flowering and harvest, higher average bunch weight, greater weight of the bunches, longer cycle production and reduced severity of black sigatoka. Highest yields were obtained when we adopted higher densities. The banana intercropping with rubber trees proved to be a good alternative to permit cultivation of cv. D'Angola (long banana.

  13. ICRF Mode Conversion Studies with Phase Contrast Imaging and Comparisons with Full-Wave Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, N.; Bonoli, P. T.; Lin, Y.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.; Porkolab, M.; Jaeger, E. F.; Harvey, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    Waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) are widely used to heat toka-mak plasmas. In a multi-ion-species plasma, the FW converts to ion cyclotron waves (ICW) and ion Bernstein waves (IBW) around the ion-ion hybrid resonance (mode conversion). The mode converted wave is of interest as an actuator to optimise plasma performance through flow drive and current drive. Numerical simulations are essential to describe these processes accurately, and it is important that these simulation codes be validated. On Alcator C-Mod, direct measurements of the mode converted waves have been performed using Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI), which measures the line-integrated electron density fluctuations. The results were compared to full-wave simulations AORSA and TORIC. AORSA is coupled to a Fokker-Planck code CQL3D for self-consistent simulation of the wave electric field and the minority distribution function. The simulation results are compared to PCI measurements using synthetic diagnostic. The experiments were performed in D-H and D- 3 He plasmas over a wide range of ion species concentrations. The simulations agreed well with the measurements in the strong absorption regime. However, the measured fluctuation intensity was smaller by 1-2 orders of magnitudes in the weakly abosorbing regime, and a realistic description of the plasma edge including dissipation and antenna geometry may be required in these cases.

  14. Final report of the project performance assessment and economic evaluation of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.; Anttila, M.; Hautojaervi, A.

    1993-05-01

    The publication is the final report of project Performance Assessment and Economic Evaluation of Nuclear Waste Management (TOKA) at the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland), forming part of the Publicly Financed Nuclear Waste Management Research Programme (JYT). The project covers safety and cost aspects of all phases of nuclear waste management. The main emphasis has been on developing an integrated system of models for performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories. During the four years the project has so far been in progress, the total amount of work has been around 14 person-years. Computer codes are the main tools in the project, they are either developed by the project team or acquired from abroad. In-house model development has been especially active in groundwater flow, near-field and migration modelling. The quantitative interpretation of Finnish tracer experiments in the laboratory and natural analogue studies at Palmottu support performance assessments via increased confidence in the migration concepts used. The performance assessment philosophy adopted by the team consists of deterministic modelling and pragmatic scenario analysis. This is supported by the long-term experience in practical performance assessment of the team, and in theoretical probabilistic modelling exercises. The radiological risks of spent fuel transportation from the Loviisa nuclear power plant to Russia have been analysed using a probabilistic computer code and Finnish traffic accident statistics. The project assists the authorities in the annual assessment of utility estimates of funding needs for future nuclear waste management operations. The models and methods used within the project are tested in international verification/validation projects

  15. Fast Plasma from a Coaxial Gun; Plasma Rapide Produit par un Canon Coaxial; Bystraya plazma iz koaksial'nogo inzhektora; Produccion de Plasma Rapido Mediante un Inyector Coaxial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, J.; Henins, I. [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1966-04-15

    vzaimodejstvija radial'nogo toka plazmy i magnitnogo polja toka, protekajushhego vdol' central'nogo jelektroda. Vozmushhenie toka dvizhetsja cherez inzhektirovannyj gaz v napravlenii sopla inzhektora so skorost'ju Tilde-Operator 2,5 x 10{sup 7} sm/sek., akkumuliruja za soboj jenergiju magnitnogo polja i kineticheskuju jenergiju plazmy. Inzhektor so svoej akkumulirovannoj jenergiej vypolnjaet funkciju generatora moshhnosti s nizkim impedansom, vybrasyvajushhego v vakuum za predely sopla struju toka, kotoraja javljaetsja istochnikom bystroj plazmy ( Tilde-Operator 5 x 10{sup 17} dejtronov, Tilde-Operator 10{sup 8} sm/sek). V jetih jeksperimentah issledujutsja struja toka i plazma, kotoruju ona obrazuet. Mehanizm uskorenija slozhen i nedostatochno izuchen, odnako v obshirnoj serii jeksperimentov poluchena znachitel'naja informacija. Dlja diagnostiki ispol'zovalis' sledujushhie metody: vneshnie odnovitkovye diamagnitnye zondy, pojasa Rogovskogo vnutri vakuumnoj kamery, jelektricheskie zondy, vneshnie emkostnye zondy, magnitnyj i jelektrostaticheskij analiz chastic, spektroskopija, fotografija svetovyh izobrazhenij na misheni, vremja proleta s napravljajushhim polem i bez nego, d-d nejtrony iz ob{sup e}ma plazmy i dr. Skladyvaetsja predstavlenie, chto pered soplom inzhektora proishodit slozhnyj jelektromagnitnyj process- Process uskorenija zavisit ot nizkoj plotnosti gaza tam v protivopolozhnost' vysokoj plotnosti vnutri prozhektora. Bystraja plazma v osnovnom poluchaetsja iz gaza , adsorbirovannogo na jelektrodah. Jeto vyzyvaet neobhodimost' v chistom vakuume s tem, chtoby izbezhat' zagrjaznenija sil'no ionizirovannymi bystrymi ionami primesej (C{sup 5+}, 10{sup 8} sm/sek). Material jelektroda isparjaetsja, odnako ne vyzyvaet sil'nogo zagrjaznenija, poskol'ku ono pojavljaetsja pozdno. Vysokoe naprjazhenie, uskorjajushhee iony, svjazano s bystrym rasshireniem v vakuum magnitnogo potoka, vmorozhennogo v struju. Bystraja plazma imeet uzkoe konicheskoe raspredelenie s provalom v centre

  16. Turbulent Heating of Plasma by a Direct-Current Discharge; Chauffage Turbulent du Plasma par le Courant d'une Decharge Directe; ТУРБУЛЕНТНЫЙ НАГРЕВ ПЛАЗМЫ ТОКОМ ПРЯМОГО РАЗРЯДА; Calentamiento Turbulento del Plasma por una Corriente de Descarga Directa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babykin, M. V.; Gavrin, P. P.; Zavojskij, E. K.; Rudakov, L. I.; Skorjupin, V. A. [Institut Atomnoj Ehnergii Im. I.V. Kurchatova, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-04-15

    , durante la inestabilidad de la corriente. Se ha observado que, en un plasma con turbulencia intensa, el espesor de la capa superficial es considerablemente mayor que c/{omega}{rho}. Se propone una explicacion de este hecho. Se estudia el mecanismo de calentamiento del plasma durante la inestabilidad de la corriente. En la memoria se expone una teoria detallada de este fenomeno. (author) [Russian] V doklade izlagajutsja rezul'taty jeksperimentov po turbulentnomu nagrevu plazmy tokom prjamogo razrjada v lovushke s magnitnymi probkami. Issledovalis' takzhe adiabaticheskoe szhatie nagretoj plazmy i nekotorye svojstva turbulentnoj plazmy. Magnitnoe pole narastalo do 9 kje za 1,75 msek. Pri poljah ot 0,5 do 9 kje lovushka zapolnjalas' dejterievoj plazmoj plotnost'ju 10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} sm-3 iz titanovyh inzhektorov. Odnovremenno mezhdu ih koncevymi jelektrodami vkljuchalas' emkost' prjamogo razrjada, zarjazhennaja do 10 Division-Sign 30 kv i sostavljajushhaja v razlichnyh opytah 0,2, 0,8 i 2,65 mkf. Razrjad nachinalsja v moment vstrechi plazmennyh struj. Vnachale on aperiodicheskij, s medlennym narastaniem toka, i na oscillogrammah nabljudajutsja kolebanija, svidetel'stvujushhie o neustojchivosti toka. Soprotivlenie plazmy, opredelennoe po toku i naprjazheniju na plazme, znachitel'no bol'she rasschitannogo po vremeni kulonovskih stolknovenij. Vnachale ono ravno 50-60 om i po mere zapolnenija lovushki i nagreva plazmy padaet do desjatyh dolej oma. Shumy na oscillogrammah toka prekrashhajutsja i razrjad stanovitsja kolebatel'nym. Pokazano, chto dlitel'nost' aperiodicheskogo rezhima opredeljaetsja vremenem zapolnenija. Iz izmerenij raspredelenija potenciala sleduet, chto do perehoda razrjada v kolebatel'nyj rezhim osnovnoe padenie potenciala proishodit v seredine lovushki, v oblasti ponizhennoj plotnosti. Zdes' tokovye skorosti maksimal'ny, i dolzhna razvivat'sja intensivnaja turbulentnost'. V rezul'tate voznikaet anomal'noe soprotivlenie plazmy i pogloshhaetsja znachitel

  17. Transition Processes in Superconducting Magnetic Systems; ПЕРЕХОДНЫЕ ПРОЦЕССЫ В СВЕРХПРОВОДЯЩИХ МАГНИТНЫХ СИСТЕМАХ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sychev, V. V.; Zenkevich, V. B.; Andrianov, V. V. [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Institut Vysokih Temperatur, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-12-15

    processami, svjazannymi s perehodom chasti obmotki v normal'noe sostojanie. V svjazi s jetim programma rabot po sozdaniju sverhprovodjashhej magnitnoj sistemy MGD generatora predusmatrivala issledovanie processov, v kotoryh ukazannaja specifika projavljaetsja naibolee polno. Jeksperimenty provodilis' s nebol'shimi solenoidami. Poluchennye rezul'taty vyjavljajut nekotorye zakonomernosti processa perehoda sverhprovodjashhej obmotki v normal'noe sostojanie. Issledovany takzhe processy, svjazannye s izmeneniem toka v sverhprovodjashhem solenoide. V chastnosti, jeksperimental'no opredeljalis' zavisimost' mezhdu potokoscepleniem solenoida i tokom, ostatochnoe potokosceplenie, svjaz' mezhdu induktivnost'ju i tokom, poteri pri peremagnichivanii solenoida i dr. Rassmatrivaetsja vozmozhnost' teoreticheskogo obob- shhenija poluchennyh rezul'tatov. (author)

  18. New Instruments and Principles for the Dimensional Measurement and Measurement of Spacing of Reactor Components; Nouveaux Instruments et Procedes de Mesure des Dimensions et de l'Espacement des Elements d'un Reacteur; Novye pribory i printsipy izmereniya razmerov i raspolozheniya komponentov reaktora; Nuevos Instrumentos y Principios para Medir las Dimensiones y la Separacion Entre Componentes de Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, P. [Institut Dr. Foerster, Reutlingen, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1965-09-15

    vihrevyh tokov dlja izmerenija tolshhiny listov i kontejnerov iz cvetnyh i austenitnyh metallov s pomoshh'ju perehodnyh katushek; b) metod vihrevyh tokov dlja izmerenija tolshhiny stenok trub s pomoshh'ju prohodnyh katushek. Opisyvajutsja prigodnye dlja jetogo pribory i ih primenenie. Izmerenie tolshhiny stenok uzlov reaktora iz cvetnyh metallov po 'metodu magnitnogo sharai . Ob'jasnjaetsja princip jetogo novogo vida izmerenij, oblast' ego primenenija (osobenno dlja tochechnyh izmerenij) i opisyvaetsja primenjaemyj na praktike pribor. Izmerenie materialov nemagnitnyh pokrytij na magnitnoj osnove. Ob'jasnjajutsja principy izmerenij (metody magnitnogo polja postojannogo toka i peremennogo toka) i opisyvajutsja pribory dlja izmerenija nemagnitnyh pokrytij tolshhinoj ot 3 mikron do 20 mm. Osobo rassmatrivaetsja problema otlozhenija stellita na ferritnyh stenkah korpusov reaktorov. Izmerenie pokrytij, neprovodjashhih jelektrichestvo,-na materialah iz cvetnyh metallov. Ob'jasnjaetsja princip takogo izmerenija (vihrevye toki). Opisyvaetsja pribor dlja .takih izmerenij i tipichnye primery izmerenij. Privodjatsja beskontaktnye tehnologicheskie izmerenija fizicheskih razmerov metallicheskih komponentov reaktora. Ob{sup j}asnjajutsja razlichnye metody izmerenija chernyh i cvetnyh metallov (metod magnitnogo polja postojannogo toka i peremennogo toka, metody vihrevyh tokov). Opisyvajutsja pribory i primery distancionnogo izmerenija diametra oval'nosti, iskazhenija i t.d. komponentov reaktora. Opisyvajutsja metody opredelenija raspolozhenija takih komponentov v 'gorjachej' zone reaktora. ' Opisyvaetsja pribor dlja registracii profilja poverhnosti i neposredstvennogo opredelenija haraktera nerovnosti (''Rauhtiefe'', ''Glaettungstiefe'', GLA value i RMS value). Rassmatrivajutsja tipichnye primery ispol'zovanija jetogo pribora opredelenija nerovnostej komponentov reaktora. Osoboe vnimanie udeljaetsja vozmozhnosti ispol'zovanija nebol'shogo universal'nogo datchika v ''gorjachih'' zonah i

  19. 100-Mc counting system; Ensemble de comptage a 100 megacycles; Schetnaya sistema na 100 megatsiklov; Sistema contador de 100 megaciclos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugarman, R; Higinbotham, W A; Yonda, A H [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, NY (United States)

    1962-04-15

    vklyucheniya toka s tranzistorami i germanievymi tunnel'nymi diodami. Vse kriticheskie skhemy imeyut vremya narastaniya i razbros vremeni v razmere dvukh nanosekund i menee. K logicheskim ehlementam otnosyatsya ogranichitel' amplitudy impul'sov, diskriminator, mnogokanal'naya skhema sovpadenij, chetyrekhkratnyj raspredelitel' impul'sov i shkala na 8 delenij. Rasshivatel' pozvolyaetogranichitelyu ili vykhodu diskriminatora sozdavat' lyubye kombinatsii chetyrekh ehlementov. Kazhdyj ehlement predstavlyaet soboj otdel'nyj smennyj modul'. EHlementy vzaimosvyazany s kabelem na 50 om ne menee, chem s odnoj zamykayushchej skhemoj. Bol'shinstvo modul'nykh vkhodov i vykhodov sovmestimy, i diskriminator, naprimer, mozhet libo privodit' v dvizhenie skhemu sovpadenij, libo privodit'sya v dvizhenie po skheme sovpadenij s pomoshch'yu vklyuchayushchikh kabelej. Dlya obespecheniya raboty na bol'shoj skorosti, a takzhe khoroshej stabil'nosti po vremeni i temperature, tranzistory rabotayut na edinom zaryadnom usilenii libo v vide vklyucheniya toka, libo v linejnom vide kak rasprostranennyj usilitel'. Kazhdyj tunnel'nyj diod obespechivaet dopolnitel'noe vklyuchaemoe zaryadnoe usilenie v razmere ot 2 do 5 s takoj zhe stabil'nost'yu i polosno-propusknym ustrojstvom v kachestve tranzistorov. Kazhdyj modul' prednaznachen dlya ispol'zovaniya do postoyannoj skorosti scheta v razmere 100 megaimpul'sov v sekundu. Vysokie rabochie tsikly sistemy yavlyayutsya vozmozhnymi blagodarya vzaimosvyazyam postoyannogo toka i blagodarya ogranicheniyu dvojnoj linii zaderzhki s tsel'yu vosstanovleniya mezhdu impul'sami. Dlya skorostej scheta do 50 megatsiklov ne predpolagaetsya nikakoj poteri pri rabote sistemy. Bazisnyj diskriminator imeet chuvstvitel'nost', kotoruyu mozhno prisposobit' dlya 2-10 milliamper so sparennym vykhodom postoyannogo toka v razmere 10 milliamper pri potentsiale zemli. Vremya narastaniya i padeniya na vykhode sostavlyaet 1 nanosekundu; shirina impul'sa ustanavlivaetsya s pomoshch'yu kabelya

  20. Calculated activities of some isotopes in the RA reactor highly enriched fuel significant for possible environmental contamination - Operational report; Radni izvestaj - Proracun aktivnosti nekih izotopa u visokoobogacenom uranskom gorivu reaktora RA, znacajnih sa gledista moguce kontaminacije okoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulovic, V; Martinc, R; Cupac, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1976-12-15

    This report contains calculation basis and obtained results of activities for three groups of isotopes in the RA reactor 80% enriched fuel element. The following isotopes are included: 1) {sup 85m}Kr, {sup 87}Kr, {sup 88}Kr, {sup 131}J, {sup 132}J, {sup 133}J, {sup 134}J, {sup 135}J, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 138}Xe i {sup 138}Cs, 2) {sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 91}Sr, {sup 92}Sr, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 97}Zr, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 105}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 129m}Te, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 144}Ce, kao i 3) {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu i {sup 240}Pu. It was estimated that the fuel is exposed to mean neutron flux. The periodicity of reactor operation is taken into account. Calculation results are given dependent on the time of exposure. These results are to be used as source data for Ra reactor safety analyses. [Serbo-Croat] Izlozene su osnove i prikazani su rezultati izvedenog proracuna aktivnosti tri grupe izotopa u gorivnom elementu reaktora RA sa 80% obogacenim uranom - 235. Obuhvaceni su: 1) {sup 85m}Kr, {sup 87}Kr, {sup 88}Kr, {sup 131}J, {sup 132}J, {sup 133}J, {sup 134}J, {sup 135}J, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 138}Xe i {sup 138}Cs, zatim, 2) {sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 91}Sr, {sup 92}Sr, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 97}Zr, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 105}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 129m}Te, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 144}Ce, kao i 3) {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu i {sup 240}Pu. Pretpostavljeno je da se gorivo ozracuje na srednjem fluksu neutrona, a periodicnost rada reaktora je uvazavana. Rezultati proracuna, dati u numerickom obliku, sistematizovani su kao funkcija toka vremena ozracivanja goriva. Ovi rezultati bice korisceni kao izvorni podaci kod izrade sigurnosnih analiza za reaktor RA (author)

  1. A general-purpose pulse amplifier; Amplificateur d'impulsions universel; Universal'nyj usilitel' impul'sov; Amplificador de impulsos para uso general

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, K B [Forsogsanlaeg Riso, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1962-04-15

    usilitelej''. Putem ispol'zovaniya odnogo osnovnogo usilitelya, no s razlichnymi skhemami obratnoj svyazi, primenenie ehtogo metoda daet vozmozhnost' poluchat' predvaritel'nye usiliteli i osnovnye usiliteli s nailuchshimi vozmozhnostyami preobrazovaniya impul'sov i v otnoshenii predstavlyayushchikh naibol'shij interes parametrov, takikh kak, naprimer, kharakteristika linejnosti, ustojchivosti i peregruzki. Tak kak ehtot metod trebuet ispol'zovaniya parallel'noj obratnoj svyazi, to on osobenno khorosho podkhodit dlya predvaritel'nykh usilitelej, tak kak bol'shaya chast' detektorov yavlyaetsya v to zhe samoe vremya generatorami toka. Opisyvaetsya usilitel', dejstvuyushchij v kachestve operatsionnogo usilitelya. Naibolee vazhnymi spetsifikatsiyami yavlyayutsya: usilenie v 90 dB ot postoyannogo toka - 10 kgts, padayushchee zatem priblizitel'no po 20 dB na dekadu do dostizheniya 15 mgts (usilenie v 30 dB). S ehtim usilitelem ispol'zuyutsya chetyre lampy. Dlya bol'shinstva operatsij preobrazovaniya impul'sov potrebnost' v stabilizirovannom istochnike ehlektroehnergii otpadaet, a ustojchivost' budet zaviset' isklyuchitel'no ot ustojchivosti ispol'zovannoj skhemy obratnoj svyazi. (author)

  2. Linear capacity storage devices; Memoires lineaires a condensateurs; Linejnye kondensatornye nakopitel'nye ustrojstva; Dispositivos de almacenamiento de condensador, con caracteristicas lineales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brovchenko, V G [Ordena Lenina Institut Atomnoj Ehnergii Imeni I.V. Kurchatova AN, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1962-04-15

    nakopleniya informatsii kondensatornymi nakopitel'nymi ustrojstvami. Opisyvayutsya dve skhemy nakopitelej, rabotayushchikh linejno v bol'shom diapazone amplitud vykhodnykh signalov. V odnoj iz skhem signal oshibki izmeryaetsya differentsial'nym usilitelem. Blagodarya bol'shomu koehffitsientu usileniya usilitelya dostigaetsya vysokaya linejnost' raboty ehtogo ustrojstva. Vtoraya skhema skonstruirovana dlya raboty s impul'sami nanosekundnogo diapazona dlitel'nostej. Vkhodnye impul'sy standartnoj dlitel'nosti zapirayut pentod, v anode kotorogo raspolozhen kondensator pamyati. Tak kak zaryadka kondensatora proizvoditsya ot anodnogo pitaniya cherez generator toka, tok zaryadki ostaetsya pochti postoyannym pri izmenenii potentsiala kondensatora. Pentod imeet bol'shoe vnutrennee soprotivlenie, poehtomu posle okonchaniya vkhodnogo impul'sa tok cherez pentod pochti raven nachal'noj velichine, a zaryad, nakoplennyj kondensatorom, zapominaetsya. Dlitel'nost' pamyati informatsii ogranichena velichinami vykhodnogo soprotivleniya generatora toka i R{sub i} pentoda. Dlya uvelicheniya dlitel'nosti pamyati pered kondensatorom mozhet byt' vklyuchen diod. (author)

  3. Use of alpha-radiation for the industrial measurement of surface weight; Utilisation du rayonnement alpha pour les mesures industrielles de poids superficiel; Primenenie al'fa-oblucheniya dlya promyshlennogo izmereniya vesa naruzhnogo pokrova; Empleo industrial de los rayos alfa para la medicion de pesos por unidad de superficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perette, J; Maugest, J [Compagnie d' Applications et Recherches Atomiques, Saint-Denis (France)

    1962-01-15

    los rayos alfa para llevar a cabo mediciones industriales del peso por unidad de superficie de materiales de espesor reducido. El aprovechamiento industrial de estas tecnicas pudo desarrollarse gracias al perfeccionamiento de nuevos aparatos que, si bien aplican tecnicas tradicionales, fueron especialmente disenados para el empleo de rayos alfa. Para compensar las variaciones de la capacidad de absorcion en el intervalo que media entre la fuente y el detector, es indispensable emplear un metodo diferencial de dos recorridos. La alimentacion de las camaras de ionizacion con corriente alterna permite utilizar circuitos de amplificacion y de deteccion alternos sin necesidad de transformar previamente la corriente de ionizacion. El intervalo de medicion abarca de 6 a 55 gramos por metro cuadrado, con una aproximacion del 1 por ciento en condiciones de perfecta estabilidad. Los autores describen el dispositivo completo utilizado para efectuar mediciones continuas en las maquinas industriales. La tecnica descrita puede adaptarse igualmente a los rayos beta. (author) [Russian] Vozmozhnosti ispol'zovaniya al'fa-oblucheniya dlya promyshlennogo izmereniya vesa naruzhnogo pokrova tonkikh materialov uzhe neodnokratno izlagalis'. Primenenie ehtikh metodov v promyshlennosti stalo vozmozhno blagodarya issledovaniyam, proizvedennym s pomoshch'yu novoj apparatury, kotoraya naryadu s ispol'zovaniem ee v obychnykh usloviyakh spetsial'no prisposoblena dlya primeneniya al'fa-oblucheniya. Primenenie differentsial'nogo metoda s dvumya kanalami neobkhodimo dlya uravnoveshivaniya kolebanij, kotorye mogut byt' pogloshcheny rasstoyaniem mezhdu istochnikom i detektorom. Peremennoe snabzhenie ionizatsionnykh kamer pozvolyaet ispol'zovat' pere- mennye usilitel'nye kontury i provodit' obnaruzhenie bez predvaritel'nogo prevrashcheniya ionizatsionnogo toka. Izmerenie provoditsya shkaloj s deleniem ot shesti do 55 grammov na kvadratnyj metr s tochnost'yu do odnogo protsenta v usloviyakh khoroshej

  4. Mobilization and attenuation of metals downstream from a base-metal mining site in the Matra Mountains, northeastern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odor, L.; Wanty, R.B.; Horvath, I.; Fugedi, U.; ,

    1999-01-01

    Regional geochemical baseline values have been established for Hungary by the use of low-density stream-sediment surveys of flood-plain deposits of large drainage basins and of the fine fraction of stream sediments. The baseline values and anomaly thresholds thus produced helped to evaluate the importance of high toxic element concentrations found in soils in a valley downstream of a polymetallic vein-type base-metal mine. Erosion of the mine dumps and flotation dump, losses of metals during filtering, storage and transportation, human neglects, and operational breakdowns, have all contributed to the contamination of a small catchment basin in a procession of releases of solid waste. The sulfide-rich waste material weathers to a yellow color; this layer of 'yellow sand' blankets a narrow strip of the floodplain of Toka Creek in the valley near the town of Gyongyosoroszi. Contamination was spread out in the valley by floods. Metals present in the yellow sand include Pb, As, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Sb. Exposure of the local population to these metals may occur through inhalation of airborne particulates or by ingestion of these metals that are taken up by crops grown in the valley. To evaluate the areal extent and depth of the contamination, active stream sediment, flood-plain deposits, lake or reservoir sediments, soils, and surface water were sampled along the erosion pathways downstream of the mine and dumps. The flood-plain profile was sampled in detail to see the vertical distribution of elements and to relate the metal concentrations to the sedimentation and contamination histories of the flood plain. Downward migration of mobile Zn and Cd from the contaminated upper layers under supergene conditions is observed, while vertical migration of Pb, As, Hg and Sb appears to be insignificant. Soil profiles of 137Cs which originated from above-ground atomic bomb tests and the Chernobyl accident, provide good evidence that the upper 30-40 cm of the flood-plain sections, which

  5. Plasma-Column Equilibrium in Tokamak-5; L'Equilibre d'une Colonne de Plasma dans l'Installation Tokamak-5; Issledovanie ravnovesiya plazmennogo shnura na ustanovke Tokamak-5; El Equilibrio de una Columna de Plasma en la Instalacion 'Tokamak-5'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhovatov, V. S. [Institut Atomnoj Ehnergii, Im. I.V. Kurchatova, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-04-15

    . Se preparo un experimento para estimar la importancia de la contribucion al mantenimiento del equilibrio de la columna de plasma en el Tokamak, que es debido al mecanismo de cortocircuito de las corrientes de deriva por el diafragma conductor. A este fin, se dividio el diafragma en seis segmentos, aislados unos de otros. En el proceso de la descarga, con B{sub z} = 0, entre los segmentos superiores y los inferiores se observo una diferencia de potencial unipolar, casi de un orden de magnitud mayor que la temperatura electronica, calculada a partir de la conductividad electrica media del plasma. Para el valor optimo de B{sub z}, la diferencia de potencial era casi nula y, con un aumento posterior de B{sub z}, cambiaba de signo. Se observo una dependencia analoga, respecto de B{sub z}, en el caso de las corrientes que circulaban entre los segmentos al cerrar el circuito mediante resistencias de algunos ohmios. El contacto electrico de todos los segmentos entre sf, no producia una variacion apreciable de la magnitud del desplazamiento de la columna de plasma, ni de otras caracteristicas de la descarga. El valor, que se ha medido, de la corriente entre segmentos, no es suficiente para explicar la disparidad antes mencionada, tanto mas cuanto que se observa tambien estando los segmentos aislados. Se examinan las causas posibles de dicha discrepancia y los motivos de la aparicion de la gran diferencia de potencial entre los segmentos. (author) [Russian] Rabota posvjashhena issledovaniju uslovij ravnovesija plazmennogo shnura v ustanovke Toka- mak-5. Jeta ustanovka imeet sledujushhie parametry: bol'shoj radius mednogo kozhuha V = 62,5 sm, ego malyj radius b = 25 sm, malyj radius lajnera -20 sm, radius otverstija diafragmy - 15 sm (centr otverstija diafragmy i centr poperechnogo sechenija kozhuha sovpadajut), naprjazhennost' prodol'nogo magnitnogo polja B{sub 0} =6 Division-Sign 12 kje, velichina toka v plazme J = 15 Division-Sign 20 ka. Opyty provodilis' pri nachal

  6. Injection Experiments in Jutphaas; Injection au Centre de Jutphaas; Ehksperimenty s inzhektsiej v institute fiziki plazmy v yutfaas; Experimentos de Inyeccion en Jutphaas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Kluiver, H.; Brandt, H. B.; Strijland, W.; Huizenga, W. [Fom-Instituut voor Plasma-Fysica, Runhuizen, Jutphaas (Netherlands)

    1966-04-15

    10 a 20 {mu}s disminuyen al 20% del valor que tenian antes de la interrupcion del haz; a continuacion decrecen mas lentamente, con una constante de tiempo de 50 {mu}s. El sondeo radial del plasma acusaba un aumento considerable de la corriente colectada hacia el centro, con una disminucion simultanea del tiempo de decrecimiento. Las mediciones sugieren que, durante la inyeccion, se acumula una carga espacial positiva en el centro, que va llenando continuamente la region exterior, mas adiabatica, de la cuspide. Despues de interrumpir el haz, el numero de particulas de la region no adiabatica disminuye con rapidez, mientras que las particulas de la region adiabatica desaparecen mas lentamente (50 {mu}s). (author) [Russian] Provodilis' jeksperimenty po inzhekcii parallel'no osi magnitnogo polja antiprobochnoj geometrii v neadiabaticheskom rezhime. Na modeli s jelektronnym puchkom polovina inzhektirovannogo toka vremenno zahvatyvaetsja. Ustanovleno, chto zavisimost' vremeni uderzhanija ot magnitnogo polja soglasuetsja s raschetom traektorij. Pri vneshnih jelektrostaticheskih poljah bylo dostignuto polnoe uderzhanie za iskljucheniem poter', svjazannyh s rassejaniem na ostatochnom gaze. Byli polucheny protonnye puchki v 75 ma pri 17 kv iz ionnogo istochnika s impul'sami dlitel'nost'ju 2 mksek. Pri naprjazhennosti polja 13 kGs v lovushku vhodil polnyj tok v 35 ma, iz kotoryh 15 ma vyhodili cherez protivopolozhnyj konec ee. Kol'cevoj kollektor v shheli lovushki izmerjal poteri. Ustanovleno, chto vremja spada sostavljalo 50 mksek, chto primerno v dva raza prevyshaet nashu luchshuju ocenku vremeni perezarjadki i v desjat' raz - velichinu, poluchennuju iz analiza neabatichnosti orbit. Integrirovanie tokov po kol'cevoj shheli daet poterju v 10-20 ma. Iz jetih dannyh vytekaet srednjaja plotnost' 0,5 x 10{sup 9} ionov/sm{sup 3}. Zond special'noj formy, sobirajushhij tol'ko gorjachie iony, pokazal v obshhem to zhe povedenie toka, chto i obychnye zondy. Pri davlenii H{sub 2} v 10

  7. Plasma Equilibrium in a Torus with High-Frequency Fields and Plasma Heating Resulting from the Development of a Powerful Beam of ''Escaping Electrons''; Plasma Torique: Stabilisation au Moyen de Champs de Haute Frequence et Chauffage par Formation d'un Flux Intense d'Electrons 'Emballes'; Ehksperimental'noe issledovanie ravnovesiya plazmy v tore pri nalichii vysokochastotnykh polej i nagreva plazmy za schet razvitiya moshchnogo puchka ''ubegayushchikh ehlektronov''; Equilibrio del Plasma en un Toro, en Presencia de Campos de Alta Frecuencia, y Calentamiento del Plasma por el Desarrollo de un Haz Potente de 'Electrones Desbocados '

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkhanov, R. A.; Kirov, A. G.; Stotland, M. A.; Malykh, N. I.; Horasanov, G. L.; Vishnevskij, N. K.; Gutkin, T. I.; Jampol' skij, I. R. [Fiziko-Tehnicheskij Institut Gosudarstvennogo Komiteta po Ispol' zovaniju Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Sukhumi, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-04-15

    razvertka svechenija plazmy vo vremeni s pomoshh'ju jelektronno- opticheskogo preobrazovatelja; v) izmerenija povedenija (polnoj intensivnosti rentgenovskogo izluchenija vo vremeni s pomoshh'ju scintilljacionnogo schetchika; g) izmerenie toka v plazme i naprjazhenija na obhode. Rezul'taty jeksperimentov pokazyvajut, chto podzhigajushhee vysokochastotnoe pole s chastotoj f = 8,3 Mgc), sozdaet plazmu, kasajushhujusja stenok, so srednej plotnost'ju P{sub e} = 5 * 10{sup 12} * 10{sup 13} sm{sup -3} i jelektronnoj temperaturoj porjadka neskol'kih jelektronvol't. Pri nalozhenii na jetu plazmu vrashhajushhegosja kvadrupol'nogo vysokochastotnogo polja plazma otzhimaetsja ot stenok, lokalizuetsja v centre i temperatura ee uvelichivaetsja. Issledovalsja rezhim nagreva'sil'nym jelektricheskim polem v otsutstvie vrashhajushhegosja vysokochastotnogo kvadrupol'nogo polja. V jetom sluchae, kogda jelektricheskoe pole ravno E{sub z} = 100 * 200 v/sm v plazme razvivaetsja tok Jp =3 * 5 ka, kotoryj imeet sushhestvenno omicheskij harakter pri sil'nom zatuhanii. V to zhe vremja naprjazhenie na obhode takzhe ves'ma sil'no zatuhaet po sravneniju s holostym hodom, chto ukazyvaet na jeffektivnoe pogloshhenie jEhnergii kontura plazmoj. Velichina jEhnergii, pogloshhennoj plazmoj v techenie pervogo poluperioda toka, t.e. za vremja okolo 1 mksek, sostavljaet primerno 20 dzh; pri jetom okazyvaetsja, chto provodimost' plazmy anomal'no mala. V rezhime nagreva sil'nym jelektricheskim polem nabljudaetsja intensivnaja vspyshka rentgenovskogo izluchenija s jenergiej porjadka 100 kjev, a takzhe izluchenie mikrovolnovyh shumov na chastotah blizkih k plazmennoj. (author)

  8. Joule Heating of Plasma in the Toroidal Tokamak-3 Device; Chauffage du Plasma par Effet Joule, dans l'Installation Torique; Dzhoulev nagrev plazmy na toroidal'noj ustanovke Tokamak-3; Calentamiento de un Plasma por Efeto Joule en la Instalacion Toroidal Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcimovich, L. A.; Afrosimov, V. V.; Gladkovskij, I. P.; Mirnov, S. V.; Petrov, M. P.; Strelkov, V. S. [Institut Atomnoj Ehnergii, Im. I.V. Kurchatova, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-04-15

    calculadora, de un sistema de ecuaciones que comprende la ecuacion electrotecnica y la de equilibrio, permite determinar la variacion de la temperatura del plasma y su concentracion en funcion del tiempo, asf como la variacion del radio y del desplazamiento de la columna de plasma basandose en la variacion medida experimentalmente, de la corriente del plasma, de la tension y de las senales captadas por sondas magneticas y por el radiointerferometro en funcion del tiempo. La funcion calculada para la temperatura aumenta durante el proceso hasta alcanzar de 100 a 200 eV. Las mediciones espectroscopicas de la temperatura electronica dan valores proximos a los calculados. Los resultados de las mediciones del espectro energetico del flujo de atomos neutros rapidos concuerdan satisfactoriamente con los calculados partiendo del supuesto de que el espectro ionico del plasma es proximo al espectro de Maxwell con una temperatura de 100 eV aproximadamente. Se observa una desviacion significativa de la naturaleza de ese espectro con respecto al espectro de Maxwell en un regimen inestable de descarga en los momentos que corresponden a las inestabilidades caracteristicas de la columna de plasma. Ademas, se ha observado una diferencia perceptible en el flujo de atomos neutros procedentes de la parte 'superior' e 'inferior' de la columna, lo que puede explicarse por la presencia dentro de la columna de flujos ionicos de deriva animados de grandes velocidades transversales. (author) [Russian] V ustanovke Tokamak-3 vodorodnaja plazma sozdaetsja i nagrevaetsja kol'cevym jelektricheskim tokom velichinoj v 40-60 ka. Vremja protekanija toka 20-30 msek. Bol'shaja chast' opytov provedena pri velichine stabilizirujushhego prodol'nogo magnitnogo polja 25 000 je. S pomoshh'ju tokov, propuskaemyh po special'nym korrektirujushhim vitkam, kompensirovalas' poperechnaja sostavljajushhaja rassejannogo magnitnogo polja. Pri jetom v techenie razrjada ne proishodilo zametnogo smeshhenija centra shnura ot

  9. Diagnosis of Massive Pulmonary Embolism in Man by Radioisotope Scanning; Diagnostic par Scintigraphy de l'Embolie Pulmonaire Massive chez l'Homme; Diagnostika massivnoj legochnoj ehmbolii u cheloveka s pomoshch'yu radioizotopnogo skennirovaniya; Diagnostico de la Embolia Pulmonar Masiva en el Hombre por Exploracion Radioisotopica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Jr., H. N.; Sabiston, Jr., D. C.; Iio, M.; Langan, J. K. [Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1964-10-15

    acumulacion disminuida de radiactividad en las regiones afectadas. Se comprobo la utilidad clinica de esta tecnica para diagnosticar embolias pulmonares masivas en el hombre y para descubrir oclusiones vasculares en ciertos pacientes afectados de cor pulmonale. Los estudios en perros permitieron determinar la rapidez con que progresa la revascularizacion despues de una embolia pulmonar experimental. Se efectuaron varias exploraciones centelleograficas una vez retirados los embolos experimentales. La circulacion se restablecio en todo el pulmon algunas semanas despues de haber eliminado los embolos pulmonares cronicos en los perros. Los agregados de seroalbumina humana han conservado su poder antigenico en los conejos, los cobayos y los perros, pero los estudios realizados no han permitido comprobar que las particulas tengan poder antigenico alguno en el hombre. Gracias al rapido metabolismo de los macroagregados, la dosis de radiacion recibida por el paciente se mantiene bastante inferior a los valores admisibles. El empleo de albuminas de elevada actividad especifica permite limitar considerablemente las cantidades inyectadas; no se observan, por lo tanto, efectos cardiovasculares tales como aumentos de presion en la arteria pulmonar, ni alteraciones del electrocardiograma o del ritmo respiratorio. (author) [Russian] Krupnye chasticy al'bumina syvorotki cheloveka, mechennye jodom-131 ili hromom-51, ispol'zovalis' dlja opredelenija regional'nogo toka krovi v legkih u sobak i cheloveka. Posle vnutrivennogo vvedenija chasticy, nakaplivajushhiesja v legkih, dajut chetkoe izobrazhenie konturov legkih pri scintilljacionnom skenniro- vanii. U pacientov s legochnymi abscessami, pnevmoniej, atelektazom, rakom legkih i trombojembolicheskoj bolezn'ju legkih nabljudalos' ponizhenie nakoplenija radioaktivnosti v porazhennyh uchastkah. Byl najden metod, kotoryj budet prigoden v klinike dlja diagnostiki massivnoj legochnoj jembolii u cheloveka i demonstracii zakuporki sosudov u nekotoryh

  10. High-voltage-powered transistorized preamplifier; Pre-amplificateur transistorise avec alimentation haute tension; Vysokovol'tnyj ehnergeticheskij predvaritel'nyj usilitel' na tranzistorakh; Preamplificador transistorizado alimentado con alta tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jr, W E; Wakefield, A W [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1962-04-15

    perekhodom p-n-p uvelichilo edinichnyj tolchok napryazheniya v dinamicheskom diapazone ot 1 millivol'ta do 5 vol't. Stabilizatsiya rabochego napryazheniya dlya skhemy ehmitternogo vykhoda obespechivaetsya nebol'shim zenerovskim diodom. Potreblenie toka tipichnym distantsionnym stsintillyatsionnym detektorom, v kotorom primenena dannaya skhema, kolebletsya ot 0,35 do 0,65 milliamper, v to vremya, kak vysokoe napryazhenie, podavaemoe na stsintillyatsionnyj detektor, izmenyaetsya ot 800 do 1500 vol't. Pribor obsluzhivaet 500 futov koaksial'noj linii v 52 oma s poterej 25-protsentov amplitudy impul'sa; on ispol'zovalsya s distantsionnymi detektorami stsintillyatsionnogo tipa i s nejtronnymi detektorami tipa BF{sub 3} s otlichnymi rezul'tatami. (author)

  11. Gamma Monitoring of Land Surfaces; Controle Gamma des Surfaces Terrestres; 0413 0410 041c 041c 0410 - 0414 ; Control de la Actividad Gamma en la Superficie del Terreno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ophel, I. L.; Jones, A. R. [Environmental Research and Radiation Dosimetry Branch, Division of Biology and Health Physics, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1960-07-01

    ha acoplado un dispositivo para transportar una fuente patron de radio. El aparato es insensible a los rayos cosmicos y cuando el vehiculo se desplaza a 16 km/h las lecturas efectuadas representan el 80 por ciento de las obtenidas cuando el contador permanece inmovil. La medicion de la radiactividad en las carreteras que atraviesan la zona del reactor, acompanada de lecturas complementarias en puntos fijos de control distantes 100 metros de la carretera y 3.2 km entre si, ha demostrado que la radiacion ambiente en las carreteras es muy uniforme, alcanzando un promedio de 6 {mu}r/h. Los valores hallados en los puntos de control varian de 4,5 a 7,0 {mu}r/h. (author) [Russian] Bystroe provedenie dozimetricheskogo kontrolja zemnoj poverhnosti polezno dlja opredelenija razmerov ploshhadi, popavshej pod vozdejstvie radioaktivnogo zagrjaznenija vozduha ili dlja obnaruzhenija dlitel'nogo zarazhenija okruzhajushhej sredy. Dlja podgotovitel'nogo issledovanija mesta, kotoroe okruzhaet ploshhadku jenergeticheskogo rajona NPD okolo Chok-River, ispol'zovalsja massivnyj kontrol'nyj pribor, sposobnyj proizvodit' nepreryvnuju registraciju pri ustanovke ego na avtomobile. On sostoit iz antracenovogo kristallicheskogo schetchika gamma-luchej so shemoj fotoumnozhitelja usilenija impul'sov skorosti scheta - usilitel' postojannogo toka - 1 tA serija impul'sov samopisca.' Jeto oborudovanie vesit 28 kilogrammov i ustanavlivaetsja pri pomoshhi dvuh boltov na bufer villisa. Ego mozhno snjat' i ustanovit' na trenozhnike na takuju zhe vysotu nad zemlej. Vnutri avtomobilja ustanavlivaetsja rtutnaja batareja. Shemy rabotajut na poluprovodnikah. Dlja standartnogo istochnika radiokalibrovki ustanavlivajutsja zazhimnye prisposoblenija. Pribor ne chuvstvitelen k kosmicheskomu izlucheniju i pri skorosti dvizhenija mashiny 16 km/chas otschety dostigajut 80% teh, kotorye poluchajutsja pri nepodvizhnoj ustanovke schetchika. Obsledovanie dorogi na territorii NPD pri schete, snjatom takzhe na ustanovlennyh

  12. Electromagnetic Instabilities in a Collisionless Plasma; Instabilites Electromagnetiques des Plasmas sans Collisions; Ehlektromagnitnye neustojchivosti besstolknovitel'nykh plazm; Inestabilidad Electromagnetica en un Plasma sin Colisiones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laval, G.; Pellat, R.; Vuillemin, M. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Seine (France)

    1966-04-15

    son constantes a lo largo de las lineas de comente. En geometria plana, por ejemplo, las funciones de distribucion de las particulas dependen solamente de la energia y del momento del hamiltoniano de una particula segun el eje OZ. El equilibrio es no homogeneo en OX las deformaciones son invariantes segun OZ, esto es, la direccion de las corrientes. Se construye una funcion de Liapounoff cuya reduccion alminimo permite obtener todos los estados de estabilidad marginal, asi como una condicion suficiente de estabilidad. Se demuestran asilos resultados propuestos en la literatura relativos a los argumentos de modos marginales o de equilibrios vecinos. Se calcula tambien el indice de crecimiento de las inestabilidades. Para las 'estricciones tetas con campo inverso' se halla un indice de crecimiento del orden de [v{sub e}(th)/{lambda}](a{sub e}/{lambda}){sup 3/2}; {lambda} es la escala delgradientededensidad del plasma, v{sub e}(th) y a{sub e} son la velocidad termica y el radio de Larmor de los electrones. El resultado concuerda mejor con las observaciones experimentales que la teoria resistiva de Furth, Killeen y Rosenbluth. El indice de crecimiento de las inestabilidades de la 'estriccion de nucleo rigido' es del orden de i [v{sub i}(th)/{lambda}](m{sub e}/{beta}m{sub i}){sup 1/2}(a{sub i}/{lambda}){sup 2}; m{sub e} y m{sub i} son las masas de los electrones y de los iones, y la definicion de {beta} es la habitual. En los experimentos MEST y EPPE de Fontenay-aux-Roses, este indice de crecimiento es mucho mas lento que el de los modos de cizallamiento resistivos. (author) [Russian] Izuchaetsja ustojchivost' neodnorodnoj i besstolknovitel'noj plazmy po otnosheniju k jelektro- . magnitnym vozmushhenijam. Makroskopicheskie parametry ravnovesija zavisjat lish' ot koordinaty ortogonal'noj sistemy, poskol'ku nesomyj plazmoj tok napravlen po drugoj osi koordinat. Rassmatrivaemye vozmushhenija postojanny po vsem linijam toka. Naprimer, v ploskoj geometrii funkcii raspredelenija

  13. Stabilization by Shear and Negative V''; Stabilisation au Moyen du Croisement de Lignes de Champ et de l'Emploi d'un V'' Negatif; Stabilizatsiya spomoshch'yu shira i otritsatel'nogo V{sup ;} Estabilizacion por Cizallamiento y Empleo de V'' Negativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furth, H. P.; Killeen, J. [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Rosenbluth, M. N. [General Atomic Division, General Dynamics Corporation and University of California (San Diego), La Jolla, CA (United States); Coppi, B. [University of California (San Diego), La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1966-04-15

    vypolnjaetsja, to kak dissipativnyj inkrement, tak i kriticheskoe {beta} dlja ''balonnyh'' mod zavisjat ot velichiny Tilde-Operator rRc {gamma}/L{sup 2} , gde g - radius plazmy, L - dlina vdol' linij polja mezhdu ''horoshimi'' i ''plohimi'' oblastjami, R{sub c} srednij radius krivizny i, nakonec, {gamma} formfaktor, zavisjashhij ot detal'noj konstrukcii. Podobnye soobrazhenija rasprostranjajutsja i na vintovye mody. Ispol'zuja rezul'taty chislennyh raschetov, my obsudim strukturu, ustojchivost' i preimushhestva neskol'kih reshenij so ''stacionarnoj tochkoj'', imejushhih otricatel'noe V''. Princip sostoit v tom, chtoby sozdat' napravlenija blagoprijatnogo VB, a zatem sozdat' vrashhatel'noe preobrazovanie, oslabljaemoe v blagoprijatnyh oblastjah (dostigaja 0 v stacionarnoj tochke). Otricatel'nye vklady v velichinu V'' priobretajut bol'shoj ves, stanovjas' beskonechnymi v stacionarnoj tochke. Rassmatrivajutsja tri tipa reshenija: 1) Linejnye periodicheski-mul'tipol'nye rjady S ispol'zovanija vintovyh 1 = 2 i 4, ili 1=3 ''formirujushhih polej'' s estestvennymi stacionarnymi tochkami; i putem nalozhenija 1 = 0 i 2, 1 = 1 i 3, ili 1 = 0 i 3 ''gofrirujushhih polej'', dlja togo, chtoby sozdat' blagoprijatnye oblasti {Delta}B. 2) Vintovoe ravnovesie putem ispol'zovanija bol'shoj vintovoj krivizny s cel'ju sozdanija blagoprijatnyh oblastej {Delta}B i ostanovki vrashhatel'nogo preobrazovanija s pomoshh'ju toka na osevom provodnike, vokrug kotorogo navita vintovaja trubka dlja ravnovesnogo potoka. 3) Toroidal'noe ravnovesie s ispol'zovaniem bol'shoj toroidal'noj krivizny dlja sozdanija blagoprijatnyh oblastej {Delta}B. Vrashhatel'noe preobrazovanie sozdaetsja s pomoshh'ju spiral'nyh vitkov 1 =2 i stacionarnaja tochka obrazuetsja blagodarja vspomogatel'nomu poloidal'nomu-polju. (author)

  14. Interaction Between Hf Waves and Plasma in Delta-2; Interaction dans 'Delta-2' d'une Onde Progressive Electromagnetique de Haute Frequence et d'un Plasma; Vzaimodejstvie vysokochastotnoj ehlektromagnitnoj begushchej volny s plazmoj na ustanovke ''Del'ta-2'; Interaccion de una Onda Progresiva Electromagnetica de Alta Frecuencia con el Plasma en la Instalacion 'Delta-2'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breus, S. N.; Kurdjumov, V. N.; Levin, M. L.; Osovec, S. M.; Popova, N. Ja.; Popov, I. A.; Hodataev, K. V.; Shimchuk, V. P. [Radiotehnicheskij Institut AN SSSR, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-04-15

    las corrientes transversales en el plasma. Este campo tiene una estructura compleja y, posiblemente, esta determinado, como indica una teorfa aproximada, por el efecto toroidal. La existencia de los campos magneticos cuasi-estacionarios guarda al parecer una relacion con las oscilaciones del plasma que se han observado, de 200 a 500 kHz, correspondientes, aproximadamente, a las oscilaciones de Alfven en dichos campos. La presencia de campos y de corrientes cuasi-estacionarios hace que sea mas diffcil separar el plasma de las paredes de la camara de descarga y lograr la constriccion ulterior. Sin embargo, las corrientes constantes axiales, por si mismas, no pueden dar lugar a la aparicion de inestabilidades del tipo cinetico, ya que las velocidades electronicas que les corresponden son menores que la velocidad de fase de la onda progresiva, la cual es, aproximadamente, igual a 5 * 10{sup 7} cm/s, es decir, apreciablemente menor que la velocidad termica de los electrones. (author) [Russian] Izlagajutsja rezul'taty issledovanija vzaimodejstvija plotnoj plazmy s vysokochastotnym polem magnitnoj volny, begushhej vdol' toroidal'noj razrjadnoj kamery (bol'shoj diametr - 700 mm, malyj - 85 mm). Begushhaja volna vozbuzhdaetsja na chastote f = 2,4 Mgc trehfaznym avtogeneratorom moshhnost'ju okolo 50 Mvt s dlitel'nost'ju impul'sa okolo 250 i 350 mksek. Pri jeksperimentah diapazon nachal'nyh davlenij sostavljal 0,1 - 0,001 tor, a amplituda vysokochastotnogo magnitnogo polja na poverhnosti plazmy dostigala 500-600 je. V jetih uslovijah osnovnye javlenija, opredeljajushhie vzaimodejstvie plazmy s polem begushhej volny, svjazany s nalichiem nelinejnyh jeffektov i, prezhde vsego, s pojavleniem postojannoj sostavljajushhej prodol'nogo toka, kotoraja dostigala znachenij neskol'kih tysjach amper. V centre kamery v oblasti malyh polej provodimost' plazmy byla porjadka (3 - 4)*10{sup 14} CGSE, chto pri stepeni ionizacii, blizkoj k 100%, sootvetstvuet jelektronnoj temperature 8 - 12 jev. V

  15. Plasma Confinement in Low-Density C Stellarator Discharges; Confinement du Plasma dans des Decharges a Faible Densite dans le Stellarator C; УДЕРЖАНИЕ ПЛАЗМЫ В ''СТЕЛЛАРАТОРЕ С'' ПРИ НИЗКОЙ ПЛОТНОСТИ РАЗРЯДА; Confinamiento de Plasma en Descargas de Baja Densidad en el Stellarator C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodiek, W.; Grove, D. J.; Kessler, J. O. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1966-04-15

    skorosti poteri plazmy (otkachka) mogut imet' mesto iz-za omicheskih tokov nagreva. Odnako ranee provedennye jeksperimenty pokazali, chto otkachka sushhestvuet dazhe togda, kogda toki (normal'no neobhodimye dlja predotvrashhenija ohlazhdenija i rekombinacii) namnogo nizhe kriticheskih znachenij dlja vozbuzhdenija ionnyh voln. Odin jeksperiment, kotoryj, kazalos', podtverzhdaet gipotezu ionnyh volnovyh kolebanij, dopuskaet al'ternativnoe tolkovanie. Nastojashhij doklad posvjashhen jeksperimentam na ''stellaratore S'', v kotoryh provedeny izmerenija pri blizkih k nulju omicheskih tokah nagreva. Oni provodilis' pri nizkih nachal'nyh davlenijah (2-3 x 10{sup -6} tor) vodoroda i temperaturah jelektronov 1-2 jev. Uderzhivajushhee pole ravnjalos' obychno 12,3 kg; nebol'shoe kolichestvo izmerenij provodilos' pri 35 kg. Vrashhatel'noe preobrazovanie, ravnoe 0,75 {pi} bylo osushhestvleno s pomoshh'ju spiral'nyh obmotok s Script-Small-L =2 i Script-Small-L = 3. V jetih jeksperimentah s nizkoj plotnost'ju i nizkoj temperaturoj v''stellaratore S''sushhestvuet anomal'naja skorost' poter' pri chetyreh uslovijah raboty: 1) omicheskij nagrev, 2) nagrev za schet jelektronnogo ciklotronnogo rezonansa, 3) mikrovolnovyj omicheskij nagrev i 4) bez nagreva. My prihodim k vyvodu, chto ni nalichie aksial'nogo toka maloj velichiny, ni izmenenie plotnosti v predelah 5 x 10{sup 9} Less-Than-Or-Equal-To n{sub e} Less-Than-Or-Equal-To 2 x 10{sup 11} sm{sup -3} ne vlijajut, kak predstavljaetsja, na postojannuju vremeni poter' plazmy poperek uderzhivajushhego magnitnogo polja. Skorost' poter' nel'zja otnesti za schet otsutstvija ravnovesija, svjazannogo s konechnoj provodimost'ju. Vremja polnogo ischeznovenija plazmy vychisljaetsja po formule t 0,9 v/T{sub e} msek (V v kg, T{sub e} v jev; radius plazmy = 5 sm), pravil'nost' kotoroj nabljudalas' Hinnovom i Bishopom pri plotnostjah okolo 10{sup 13} sm{sup -3}. (author)

  16. Gas-flow detector for uranium contamination on finned-can surface of a reactor fuel; Detecteur a courant gazeux pour deceler la contamination en uranium des nervures des gaines de combustible nucleaire; Gazopotochnyj detektor zagryazneniya uranom rebristoj poverkhnosti obolochki reaktornykh teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov; Detector de flujo gaseoso para medir la contaminacion de uranio en la superficie de la vaina de aletas de los elementos combustibles para reactores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, H; Shiojiri, T; Maeda, Y [Kobe Kogyo Corporation, Okubo, Akashi, Hyogo (Japan)

    1962-04-15

    stavitsya pod otritsatel'noe napryazhenie. Prostranstvo mezhdu toplivnym ehlementom i setkoj sluzhit ulovitel'noj ionizatsionnoj kameroj. Setka sostoit iz parallel'nykh vol'framovykh provodov, zazemlennykh i raspolozhennykh tsilindricheski vokrug toplivnogo ehlementa. Kollektory sostoyat iz 16-ti tonkikh vol'framovykh provolochek, skonstruirovannykh analogichno setke, no kazhdaya provoloka izolirovana ehlektricheski ot drugikh. Vse kollektory soedineny mezhdu soboyu cherez soprotivleniya v 50 kiloomov i cherez pitayushchee soprotivlenie vklyucheny v set' s polozhitel'nym tokom vysokogo napryazheniya. Prostranstvo mezhdu setkoj, kollektorami i katodom sluzhit v kachestve gazovoj umnozhitel'noj kamery, podobno obychnomu proportsional'nomu schetchiku. Kazhdoe soprotivlenie v 50 kiloomov otdelyaet parazitnuyu emkost' podklyuchennogo kollektora ot drugikh emkostej. Vykhodyashchij iz detektora signal napravlyaetsya v usilitel' toka s malym vkhodnym kompleksnym soprotivleniem. Maloe vkhodnoe kompleksnoe soprotivlenie snizhaet takzhe vrednoe vliyanie parazitnoj emkosti vkhodyashchej skhemy. Ehto vedet k polucheniyu khoroshego sootnosheniya signal-pomekha i povyshaet chuvstvitel'nost' obnaruzheniya al'fa-chastits. Do proizvodstva izmerenij v schetchike predvaritel'no sozdaetsya vakuum otkachivaniem pri pomoshchi rotatsionnogo nasosa, posle chego v nego nagnetaetsya gaz PR (90% argona i 10% metana). Blagodarya ispol'zovaniyu ehtogo novogo oborudovaniya nam udalos' obnaruzhit' al'fa-chastitsy, ispuskavshiesya 1 x 10{sup -5} g prirodnogo urana, zagryaznyavshego rebristuyu poverkhnost' obolochki reaktornykh teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov tipa Kvl'der-Kholl; vse teplovydelyayushchie ehlementy reaktora JRR-3 budut provereny ehtim schetchikom. (author)

  17. Transverse Injection Experiment; Injection Transversale; Poslednie dostizheniya v oblasti inzhektirovaniya plazmy poperek magnitnogo polya; Inyeccion Transversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammel, J. E.; Baker, D. A. [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1966-04-15

    ) [Russian] Dvizhenie plazmy, inzhektiruemoj poperek magnitnogo polja, rassmatrivalos' rjadom avtorov. V rannih jeksperimentah s inzhektirovaniem bystroj (5 Division-Sign 7 * 10{sup 7} sm/sek) i plotnoj (10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}) plazmy poperek magnitnogo polja nabljudalos' pojavlenie poljarizacionnogo jelektricheskogo polja,i struja plazmy peresekala magnitnoe pole s E x B drejfom. Magnitnoe pole slabo vozmushhalos' plazmoj (| {Delta}B/B | <0.1), v to vremja kak skorost' drejfa poperek magnitnogo polja naprjazhennost'ju do 5 kgs byla priblizitel'no ravna skorosti inzhektirovannoj strui. Struja szhimalas' v napravlenii perpendikuljarnom V i V po mere prodvizhenija v oblast' sil'nogo magnitnogo polja. V to zhe vremja izmerenija plotnosti jelektronov interferometricheskim metodom s pomoshh'ju He-Ne lazera pokazyvajut, chto poperechnoe pole naprjazhennost'ju do 7 kgs ne vyzyvaet zametnogo smeshhenija strui v napravlenii polja. Predstavljaet interes povedenie strui, kogda ona peresekaet oblast', v kotoroj magnitnoe pole menjaet svoe napravlenie otnositel'no linii nulevogo polja. Pri peresechenii struej . separatrissy mezhdu dvumja magnitnymi silovymi linijami jelektricheskoe pole dolzhno menjat' napravlenie, esli drejf prodolzhaetsja. Struja ostaetsja v oblasti separatrissy, togda kak vdol' silovyh linij magnitnogo polja izmerjajutsja bol'shie toki, svjazyvajushhie perednjuju chast' strui s posledujushhimi chastjami. Izoljatory, postavlennye dlja preryvanija jetogo toka, pozvoljajut strue dvigat'sja v oblast' polja obratnoj poljarnosti. Ispol'zuja induktivnost', svjazannuju s tokom depoljarizacii strui, mozhno proizvesti razdelenie bystryh i medlennyh komponentov strui. Otsechka medlennogo komponenta strui nabljudaetsja s pomoshh'ju interfe- rometricheskih metodov s primeneniem He-Ne lazera. Izmerenija jelektricheskogo polja v neskol'kih tochkah vdol' techenija pokazyvajut nekotorye iz naibolee slozhnyh osobennostej potoka plazmy. (author)

  18. Theoretical Studies of Electron Injection and E-Layer Build-Up in Astron; Etudes Theoriques sur l'Injection d'Electrons et la Formation de la Couche E dans l'Astron; Teoreticheskie izucheniya ehlektronnoj inzhektsii i narashchivaniya sloya-E v ustanovke ''Astron''; Estudios Teoricos de Electrones y Formacion de la Capa E en la Instalacion Astron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killeen, J.; Neil, V. K.; Heckrotte, W. [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1966-04-15

    bolee 160 000 tochek, naprimer 81 v prostranstve g, 12 v g, 19 v P z i 9 v Rg. Na kazhdoj stupeni integracija fe po prostranstvu momenta daet plotnost' toka j{sub {theta}} (r, z, t)j sobstvennoe pole zatem vychisljaetsja putem reshenija uravnenija dlja {psi} (r, z, t). V nastojashhem doklade privoditsja celaja serija opytov, otnosjashhihsja v razlichnym vakuumnym poljam i k razlichnym uslovijam inzhekcii. Poluchennye jelektronnye raspredelenija sil'no otlichajutsja drug ot druga v zavisimosti ot primenjaemogo probochnogo polja. Vo vseh sluchajah imelo mesto obrazovanie oblastej minimal'nogo-V i v nekotoryh iz nih bylo dostignuto reversirovanie polja. (author)

  19. Design and Function of a Brain Scanner for Clinical Use; Etude d'un Appareil de Scintigraphy du Cerveau - Son Role Clinique; Ustrojstvo i funktsiya pribora dlya skennirovaniya mozga i ego klinicheskoe ispol'zovanie; Diseffo y Funcion de un Aparato de Exploracion del Cerebro para Uso Clinico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, W.; Morley, T. P. [Department of Pathological Chemistry and Department of Surgery, University Of Toronto (Canada)

    1964-10-15

    predstavljajutsja v vide asimetrogammagramm i razdel'nyh levogo i pravogo fotograficheskih dvuhrazmernyh izobrazhenij. Impul'sy ot kazhdogo detektora podajutsja na kontur usilitel'-diskriminator i zatem na differencial'nyj kontur, kotoryj pechataet levuju ili pravuju otmetki s cel'ju pokaza preobladanija koncentracii radioaktivnosti sleva ili sprava. Impul'sy ot kazhdogo kontura usiljtel'-diskriminator podajutsja takzhe na pereschetnye ustrojstva, kotorye v svoju ochered' vozbuzhdajut lampy, ustanovlennye v svetonepronicaemom pomeshhenii. Dve lampy, intensivnost' sveta kotooyh poedstavljaet soboj Funkciju aktivnosti, izmerennoj sootvetstvujushhimi detektorami, montirujutsja na obshhej podstavke, peredvigaemoj s pomoshh'ju dvigatelej Sel'sina v sisteme detektora sinhronno s generatorami Sel'sina, tem samym davaja vozmozhnost' primenjat' ustanovlennuju na rasstojanii registrirujushhuju ustanovku. Cilindricheskie linzy fokusirujut lampovye istochniki na plenku, pri jetom registracija kak sprava, tak i sleva osushhestvljaetsja odnovremenno na rentgenovskoj plenke razmerom 28 ch 36 sm. Hotja operator mozhet ustanovit' sootvetstvujushhuju predvaritel'no opredelennuju velichinu srednej sily toka lampy v shirokom diapazone skorosti scheta, operatoru predostavljaetsja bol'shaja svoboda v svjazi s nalichiem v kassete treh plenok, kazhdaja iz kotoryh obespechivaet optimal'nuju kontrastnost' v razlichnom diapazone skorosti scheta. Pacientam vvodilis' 350 mkjuri joda-131 s syvorotochnym al'buminom cheloveka posle predvaritel'noj obrabotki rastvorom Ljugolja. Skennirovanie osushhestvljalos' cherez 24 - 72 chasa. Obychno bylo dostatochno poluchenija odnoj skennogrammy. U nekotoryh pacientov skennogrammy snimalis' povtorno v peredne-zadnem napravlenii. V period s sentjabrja 1961 goda po nojabr' 1962 goda u 653 pacientov bylo snjato 789sken- nogramm. U 109 pacientov iz jetogo chisla diagnoz podtverdilsja, u 88 pacientov byli obnaruzheny opuholi. Byla ustanovlena lokalizacija 23 iz 30 glioblastom i

  20. Anomalous Plasma Diffusion in Magnetic Wells; Diffusion Anormale de Plasma dans des Puits Magnetique; Anomal'naya diffuziya plazmy v magnitnykh yamakh; Difusion Anomala de Plasma en Pozos Magneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T. K.; Guest, G. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1966-04-15

    schet polozhitel'nogo gradienta ({omega} ' {omega}{sub ci}, k{rho} ' 1 ) . Velichina {beta} predpolagaetsja maloj. Nevozmushhennaja plazma otklonjaetsja ot teplovogo ravnovesija lish' za schet azimutal'nogo toka i radial'nogo profilja davlenija, otvechajushhego uderzhaniju. Esli dB/dr> 0 i {Delta}B = R(dB/dr) > B(T{sub e}/T{sub i}), to kojefficient ''diffuzii'' EhV budet: (1) D{sub Up-Tack} Less-Than-Or-Equal-To (cT{sub /}eB )({rho}{sub i}/R) (T{sub e}/T{sub i} + m{sub e}/m{sub i}) Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half gde {rho}{sub i} - ionnyj giroradius, a R- radius plazmennogo shnura. Esli dB/dr javljaetsja polozhitel'noj velichinoj lish' v srednem, to imeetsja dopolnitel'noe trebovanie, chtoby L/R <(T{sub i}/T{sub e}){sup Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half} , gde L javljaetsja dlinoj vdol' V, na kotoroj dB/dr javljaetsja otricatel'noj velichinoj. Obsuzhdajutsja primenenija k razlichnym geometrijam termojadernogo magnitnogo uderzhanija. Rezul'taty v nekotoryh sluchajah obodrjajushhie i govorjat v pol'zu nashih predydushhih vyvodov.o tom, chto stohasticheskaja diffuzija takzhe dopustima dlja sinteza. Otkrytymi voprosami javljajutsja predel {beta} i nelinejnoe povedenie nekotoryh skorostno-prostranstvennyh neustojchivostej pri {omega} Greater-Than-Or-Equal-To {omega}{sub ci} - ionnaja girochastota. Pri vyvode uravnenija 1) my berem D{sub Up-Tack} = {lambda}(cE{sub Up-Tack }/B), {lambda} javljaetsja radial'noj {sup d}linoj peremeshivanija{sup .} My nahodim E{+-} po imejushhejsja svobodnoj jenergii, sostojashhej iz dvuh chlenov SW = SW{sub 0} +SW{sub 1}. Pervyj chlen Greek-Small-Letter-Delta W{sub 0} javljaetsja obychnym stabilizirujushhim chlenom v magnitnoj jame ili 'srednej' jame, esli sohranjajutsja magnitnyj momentu i prodol'nyj invariant J. Chlen Inverted-Question-Mark Wi uchityvaet narushenija adiabaticheskoj invariantnosti. My vychisljaem ego na osnove nelinejnoj termodinamiki. Mozhet imet' mesto bol'shoj polozhitel'nyj vklad v chlen Greek-Small-Letter-Delta W{sub 1} za schet