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Sample records for playing key roles

  1. Metabolism plays the key roles in Th cells differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hosseinzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing rate of autoimmunity in recent decades cannot be related to only genetic instabilities and disorders. Diet can directly influence our health. Studies have shown that there is a relationship between nutritional elements and alteration in the immune system. Among immune cells, the function of T lymphocyte is important in directing immune response. T CD4+ cells lead other immune cells to respond to pathogens by secreting cytokines. HIV+ patients, who have largely lost their T CD4+ cells, are susceptible to opportunistic infections, which do not normally affect healthy people. It seems that the metabolism of T cells is critical for their differentiation and their consequent functions. After activation, T cells need to undergo clonal expansion, which is a high energy- consuming process. Studies have shown that specific metabolites deprivation or their excess supply affects T CD4+cells subsets differentiation. Abnormal induction of subsets of T CD4+ cells causes some autoimmunity reactions and hyper-sensitivity as well, which may result from imbalance of diet uptake. In this mini-review, we describe the findings about fatty acids, glucose, amino acids, and vitamins, which are effective in determining the fates of T CD4+ cells. These findings may help us uncover the role of diet in autoimmune diseases.

  2. Parliamentarians play key role in linking population and social development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Mr. Hirofunti Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the UNFPA, delivered the statement of Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UNFPA at the International Meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Social Development. The International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (ICPPD) in Cairo in September 1994 made a significant impact on the attitudes and support of parliamentarians regarding population issues. The Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (AFPPD) brought together a group of parliamentarians from all over the world to discuss population issues and social development. The World Summit included in its deliberations the accumulated experiences of earlier international conferences dealing with social economic issues. The ICPD Program of Action addressed concerns relevant to the agenda of the Social Summit: the crucial contribution that early population stabilization will make towards the attainment of sustainable development; the significant role of integrated policies on population and development in creating employment; the importance of population policies and programs in alleviating poverty; the contributions of reproductive health policies, including high-quality family planning services, to the enhancement of the status of women and to the achievement of gender equality; the synergy between education, family planning, and the general improvement of the human condition; and the relationship between population pressures, poverty, and environmental degradation. The ICPD Program of Action also identified critically important population and development objectives, such as ensuring access to education, especially of girls; reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality; and providing universal access to reproductive health and family planning services. Now the challenge is to mobilize the necessary resources for the Social Summit.

  3. Phytochelatins play a key role in arsenic accumulation and tolerance in the aquatic macrophyte Wolffia globosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xin; Uroic, M. Kalle; Xie Wanying; Zhu Yongguan; Chen Baodong; McGrath, Steve P.; Feldmann, Jörg; Zhao Fangjie

    2012-01-01

    The rootless duckweed Wolffia globosa can accumulate and tolerate relatively large amounts of arsenic (As); however, the underlying mechanisms were unknown. W. globosa was exposed to different concentrations of arsenate with or without L-buthionine sulphoximine (BSO), a specific inhibitor of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Free thiol compounds and As(III)–thiol complexes were identified and quantified using HPLC – high resolution ICP-MS – accurate mass ESI-MS. Without BSO, 74% of the As accumulated in the duckweed was complexed with phytochelatins (PCs), with As(III)–PC 4 and As(III)–PC 3 being the main species. BSO was taken up by the duckweed and partly deaminated. The BSO treatment completely suppressed the synthesis of PCs and the formation of As(III)–PC complexes, and also inhibited the reduction of arsenate to arsenite. BSO markedly decreased both As accumulation and As tolerance in W. globosa. The results demonstrate an important role of PCs in detoxifying As and enabling As accumulation in W. globosa. - Highlights: ► W. globosa can accumulate and tolerate relatively large amounts of arsenic. ► Majority of the As accumulated in W. globosa was complexed with phytochelatins (PCs). ► As(III)–PC 4 and As(III)–PC 3 are the main complex species. ► Complexation of arsenite with phytochelatins plays a key role in As tolerance and accumulation. - Complexation of arsenite with phytochelatins plays a key role in both arsenic tolerance and accumulation in the aquatic macrophyte Wolffia globosa.

  4. Quantitative proteomics reveals that peroxidases play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mudassar Nawaz; Sakata, Katsumi; Hiraga, Susumu; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-12-05

    Soybean is an important legume crop that exhibits markedly reduced growth and yields under flooding conditions. To unravel the mechanisms involved in recovery after flooding in soybean root, gel-free proteomic analysis was performed. Morphological analysis revealed that growth suppression was more severe with increased flooding duration. Out of a total of 1645 and 1707 identified proteins, 73 and 21 proteins were changed significantly during the recovery stage following 2 and 4 days flooding, respectively. Based on the proteomic, clustering, and in silico protein-protein interaction analyses, six key enzymes were analyzed at the mRNA level. Lipoxygenase 1, which was increased at the protein level during the recovery period, was steadily down-regulated at the mRNA level. The peroxidase superfamily protein continuously increased in abundance during the course of recovery and was up-regulated at the mRNA level. HAD acid phosphatase was decreased at the protein level and down-regulated at the transcript level, while isoflavone reductase and an unknown protein were increased at both the protein and mRNA levels. Consistent with these findings, the enzymatic activity of peroxidase was decreased under flooding stress but increased significantly during the recovery sage. These results suggest that peroxidases might play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean roots through the scavenging of toxic radicals.

  5. The transcription factor NFATp plays a key role in susceptibility to TB in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Via

    Full Text Available In T cells, the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells p (NFATp is a key regulator of the cytokine genes tumor necrosis factor (TNF and interferon-γ (IFN-γ. Here, we show that NFATp-deficient (NFATp(-/- mice have a dramatic and highly significant increase in mortality after Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb infection as compared to mortality of control animals after MTb infection. Animals deficient in NFATp have significantly impaired levels of TNF and IFN-γ transcription and protein expression in naïve or total CD4(+ T cells, but display wild-type levels of TNF mRNA or protein from MTb-stimulated dendritic cells (DC. The rapid mortality and disease severity observed in MTb-infected NFATp(-/- mice is associated with dysregulated production of TNF and IFN-γ in the lungs, as well as with increased levels of TNF, in their serum. Furthermore, global blocking of TNF production by injection of a TNF neutralizaing agent at 6 weeks, but not 12 weeks, post-MTb-infection further decreased the survival rate of both wild-type and NFATp(-/- mice, indicating an early role for TNF derived from cells from the monocyte lineage in containment of infection. These results thus demonstrate that NFATp plays a critical role in immune containment of TB disease in vivo, through the NFATp-dependent expression of TNF and IFN-γ in T cells.

  6. Novel Pectate Lyase Genes of Heterodera glycines Play Key Roles in the Early Stage of Parasitism.

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    Huan Peng

    Full Text Available Pectate lyases are known to play a key role in pectin degradation by catalyzing the random cleavage of internal polymer linkages (endo-pectinases. In this paper, four novel cDNAs, designated Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7, that encode pectate lyases were cloned and characterized from the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. The predicted protein sequences of HG-PEL-3, HG-PEL-4 and HG-PEL-6 differed significantly in both their amino acid sequences and their genomic structures from other pectate lyases of H. glycines (HG-PEL-1, HG-PEL-2 and HG-PEL-7. A phylogenetic study revealed that the pectate lyase proteins of H. glycines are clustered into distinct clades and have distinct numbers and positioning of introns, which suggests that the pectate lyase genes of H. glycines may have evolved from at least two ancestral genes. A Southern blot analysis revealed that multiple Hg-pel-6-like genes were present in the H. glycines genome. In situ hybridization showed that four novel pectate lyases (Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7 were actively transcribed in the subventral esophageal gland cells. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay supported the finding that the expression of these genes was strong in the egg, pre-parasitic second-stage juvenile (J2 and early parasitic J2 stages and that it declined in further developmental stages of the nematode. This expression pattern suggests that these proteins play a role in the migratory phase of the nematode life cycle. Knocking down Hg-pel-6 using in vitro RNA interference resulted in a 46.9% reduction of the number of nematodes that invaded the plants and a 61.5% suppression of the development of H. glycines females within roots compared to the GFP-dsRNA control. Plant host-derived RNAi induced the silencing of the Hg-pel-6gene, which significantly reduced the nematode infection levels at 7 Days post inoculation (dpi. Similarly, this procedure reduced the number of female adults at 40 dpi

  7. The nonstructural proteins of Nipah virus play a key role in pathogenicity in experimentally infected animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Yoneda

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV P gene encodes P protein and three accessory proteins (V, C and W. It has been reported that all four P gene products have IFN antagonist activity when the proteins were transiently expressed. However, the role of those accessory proteins in natural infection with NiV remains unknown. We generated recombinant NiVs lacking V, C or W protein, rNiV(V-, rNiV(C-, and rNiV(W-, respectively, to analyze the functions of these proteins in infected cells and the implications in in vivo pathogenicity. All the recombinants grew well in cell culture, although the maximum titers of rNiV(V- and rNiV(C- were lower than the other recombinants. The rNiV(V-, rNiV(C- and rNiV(W- suppressed the IFN response as well as the parental rNiV, thereby indicating that the lack of each accessory protein does not significantly affect the inhibition of IFN signaling in infected cells. In experimentally infected golden hamsters, rNiV(V- and rNiV(C- but not the rNiV(W- virus showed a significant reduction in virulence. These results suggest that V and C proteins play key roles in NiV pathogenicity, and the roles are independent of their IFN-antagonist activity. This is the first report that identifies the molecular determinants of NiV in pathogenicity in vivo.

  8. AF10 plays a key role in the survival of uncommitted hematopoietic cells.

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    Raquel Chamorro-Garcia

    Full Text Available Hematopoiesis is a complex process regulated by both cell intrinsic and cell extrinsic factors. Alterations in the expression of critical genes during hematopoiesis can modify the balance between stem cell differentiation and proliferation, and may ultimately give rise to leukemia and other diseases. AF10 is a transcription factor that has been implicated in the development of leukemia following chromosomal rearrangements between the AF10 gene and one of at least two other genes, MLL and CALM. The link between AF10 and leukemia, together with the known interactions between AF10 and hematopoietic regulators, suggests that AF10 may be important in hematopoiesis and in leukemic transformation. Here we show that AF10 is important for proper hematopoietic differentiation. The induction of hematopoietic differentiation in both human hematopoietic cell lines and murine total bone marrow cells triggers a decrease of AF10 mRNA and protein levels, particularly in stem cells and multipotent progenitors. Gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrate that over- or under-expression of AF10 leads to apoptotic cell death in stem cells and multipotent progenitors. We conclude that AF10 plays a key role in the maintenance of multipotent hematopoietic cells.

  9. Induction of AGAMOUS gene expression plays a key role in ripening of tomato sepals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, B K; Jenkins, S M; Say, B

    1998-03-01

    In vitro culture of VFNT Cherry tomato sepals (calyx) at 16-21 degrees C results in developmental changes that are similar to those that occur in fruit tissue [10]. Sepals become swollen, red, and succulent, produce ethylene, and have increased levels of polygalacturonase RNA. They also produce many flavor volatiles characteristic of ripe tomato fruit and undergo similar changes in sugar content [11]. We examined the expression of the tomato AGAMOUS gene, TAG1, in ripening, in vitro sepal cultures and other tissues from the plant and found that TAG1 RNA accumulates to higher levels than expected from data from other plants. Contrary to reports on the absence of AGAMOUS in sepals, TAG1 RNA levels in green sepals from greenhouse-grown plants is detectable, its concentration increasing with in vitro ripening to levels that were even higher than in red, ripe fruit. Sepals of fruit on transgenic tomato plants that expressed TAG1 ectopically were induced by low temperature to ripen in vivo, producing lycopene and undergoing cell wall softening as is characteristic of pericarpic tissue. We therefore propose that the induction of elevated TAG1 gene expression plays a key role in developmental changes that result in sepal ripening.

  10. The PICALM protein plays a key role in iron homeostasis and cell proliferation.

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    Paula B Scotland

    Full Text Available The ubiquitously expressed phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly (PICALM protein associates with the plasma membrane, binds clathrin, and plays a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Alterations of the human PICALM gene are present in aggressive hematopoietic malignancies, and genome-wide association studies have recently linked the PICALM locus to late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Inactivating and hypomorphic Picalm mutations in mice cause different degrees of severity of anemia, abnormal iron metabolism, growth retardation and shortened lifespan. To understand PICALM's function, we studied the consequences of PICALM overexpression and characterized PICALM-deficient cells derived from mutant fit1 mice. Our results identify a role for PICALM in transferrin receptor (TfR internalization and demonstrate that the C-terminal PICALM residues are critical for its association with clathrin and for the inhibitory effect of PICALM overexpression on TfR internalization. Murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs that are deficient in PICALM display several characteristics of iron deficiency (increased surface TfR expression, decreased intracellular iron levels, and reduced cellular proliferation, all of which are rescued by retroviral PICALM expression. The proliferation defect of cells that lack PICALM results, at least in part, from insufficient iron uptake, since it can be corrected by iron supplementation. Moreover, PICALM-deficient cells are particularly sensitive to iron chelation. Taken together, these data reveal that PICALM plays a critical role in iron homeostasis, and offer new perspectives into the pathogenesis of PICALM-associated diseases.

  11. A novel microglial subset plays a key role in myelinogenesis in developing brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Holtman, Inge; Krueger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system that contribute to homeostasis and neuroinflammation. Although known to play an important role in brain development, their exact function has not been fully described. Here we show that in contrast to healthy adult and inflammation......-activated cells, neonatal microglia show a unique myelinogenic and neurogenic phenotype. A CD11c+ microglial subset that predominates in primary myelinating areas of the developing brain expresses genes for neuronal and glial survival, migration and differentiation. These cells are the major source of insulin...

  12. Histidine Metabolism and IGPD Play a Key Role in Cefquinome Inhibiting Biofilm Formation of Staphylococcus xylosus

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    Yong-hui Zhou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus xylosus (S. xylosus is an AT-rich and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS. It is normally regarded as non-pathogenic, however, recent studies have demonstrated that it is related to human opportunistic infections and bovine mastitis. In addition, S. xylosus strains have the ability to form biofilm. Biofilms are also involved in chronic infections and antibiotic resistance, there are only a few reports about cefquinome inhibiting S. xylosus biofilm formation and the protein targets of cefquinome. In our study, we found that sub-MICs of cefquinome were sufficient to inhibit biofilm formation. To investigate the potential protein targets of cefquinome, we used iTRAQ for the analyses of cells at two different conditions: 1/2-MIC (0.125 μg/mL cefquinome treatment and no treatment. Using iTRAQ technique and KEGG database analysis, we found that proteins differently expression in histidine metabolism pathway may play a role in the process by which 1/2-MIC (0.125 μg/mL cefquinome inhibits S. xylosus biofilm formation. Interestingly, we found a sharply down-regulated enzyme [A0A068E9J3 imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase (IGPD] involved in histidine metabolism pathway in cefquinome-treated cells. We demonstrated the important role of IGPD in sub-MICs cefquinome inhibiting biofilm formation of S. xylosus by gene (hisB knockout, IGPD enzyme activity and histidine content assays. Thus, our data sheds light on important role of histidine metabolism in S. xylosus biofilm formation; especially, IGPD involved in histidine metabolism might play a crucial role in sub-MICs cefquinome inhibition of biofilm formation of S. xylosus, and we propose IGPD as an attractive protein target of cefquinome.

  13. [Key role played by the gut associated lymphoid tissue during human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnon-Miszczycha, Delphine; Lucht, Frédéric; Roblin, Xavier; Pozzetto, Bruno; Paul, Stéphane; Bourlet, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is the site of numerous immunological disturbances during HIV-1 infection. It constitutes the largest reservoir for HIV, not or very poorly susceptible to antiretroviral therapy (ART), making it a major obstacle to HIV cure. Moreover, the GALT is involved in systemic immune activation in HIV-infected individuals: intestinal damage due to viral replication and severe CD4(+) T cell depletion in the GALT leads to microbial translocation, a key driver of immune activation, and in turn, disease progression. In this review, we describe the role of the GALT in HIV infection and we discuss therapeutic options to decrease the intestinal viral reservoir and to preserve immune function in the gut of HIV-infected people. Achieving these goals is necessary for a long-term infection control after the interruption of ART. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  14. Cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase plays a key role in lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ho-Jin; Lee, Su-Min; Son, Byung-Gap; Lee, Soh-Hyun; Ryoo, Zae Young; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Park, Jeen-Woo; Park, Dong-Chan; Song, Byoung J; Veech, Richard L; Song, Hebok; Huh, Tae-Lin

    2004-09-17

    NADPH is an essential cofactor for many enzymatic reactions including glutathione metabolism and fat and cholesterol biosynthesis. We have reported recently an important role for mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in cellular defense against oxidative damage by providing NADPH needed for the regeneration of reduced glutathione. However, the role of cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) is still unclear. We report here for the first time that IDPc plays a critical role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis. During differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, both IDPc enzyme activity and its protein content were increased in parallel in a time-dependent manner. Increased expression of IDPc by stable transfection of IDPc cDNA positively correlated with adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells, whereas decreased IDPc expression by an antisense IDPc vector retarded adipogenesis. Furthermore, transgenic mice with overexpressed IDPc exhibited fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. In the epididymal fat pads of the transgenic mice, the expressions of adipocyte-specific genes including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were markedly elevated. The hepatic and epididymal fat pad contents of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA in the transgenic mice were significantly lower, whereas the total triglyceride and cholesterol contents were markedly higher in the liver and serum of transgenic mice compared with those measured in wild type mice, suggesting that the consumption rate of those lipogenic precursors needed for fat biosynthesis must be increased by elevated IDPc activity. Taken together, our findings strongly indicate that IDPc would be a major NADPH producer required for fat and cholesterol synthesis.

  15. Amygdalar glutamatergic neuronal systems play a key role on the hibernating state of hamsters

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    Facciolo Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excitatory transmitting mechanisms are proving to play a critical role on neuronal homeostasis conditions of facultative hibernators such as the Syrian golden hamster. Indeed works have shown that the glutamatergic system of the main olfactory brain station (amygdala is capable of controlling thermoregulatory responses, which are considered vital for the different hibernating states. In the present study the role of amygdalar glutamatergic circuits on non-hibernating (NHIB and hibernating (HIB hamsters were assessed on drinking stimuli and subsequently compared to expression variations of some glutamatergic subtype mRNA levels in limbic areas. For this study the two major glutamatergic antagonists and namely that of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR, 3-(+-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl-propyl-1-phosphonate (CPP plus that of the acid α-amine-3-hydroxy-5-metil-4-isoxazol-propionic receptor (AMPAR site, cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX were infused into the basolateral amygdala nucleus. Attempts were made to establish the type of effects evoked by amygdalar glutamatergic cross-talking processes during drinking stimuli, a response that may corroborate their major role at least during some stages of this physiological activity in hibernators. Results From the behavioral results it appears that the two glutamatergic compounds exerted distinct effects. In the first case local infusion of basolateral complexes (BLA with NMDAR antagonist caused very great (p Conclusion We conclude that predominant drinking events evoked by glutamatergic mechanisms, in the presence of prevalently down regulated levels of NR1/2A of some telencephalic and hypothalamic areas appear to constitute an important neuronal switch at least during arousal stage of hibernation. The establishment of the type of glutamatergic subtypes that are linked to successful hibernating states, via drinking stimuli, may have useful bearings toward sleeping disorders.

  16. How coaching can play a key role in the development of nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Liz

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore empirically the role that coaching plays in the development of nurse managers in order to inform further research and policy makers about the potential utility and value of this means of development. There is evidence of the importance of the role of nurse managers who are first line managers of a team of nurses within any health sector. However, there appears to be little understanding of the United Kingdom wide scope of nurse manager development across the United Kingdom and the means to increase its effectiveness. At the same time, it appears that some nurse managers receive coaching to help in their development. This is a mixed methods study, using a pragmatist paradigm. Data was gathered from a quantitative survey and qualitative interviews. This paper is reporting the results of the qualitative interviews only. Twenty-one qualitative interviews were undertaken with nurse managers, coaches and directors of nursing to draw out their own experiences of coaching for nurse managers. Thematic analysis framework was used for data interrogation, identifying new patterns and emerging themes. Themes that emerged from interviews include how nurse managers were introduced to coaching, how they balanced transitions, the role of reflection, the value of relationships and overlaps between clinical supervision, mentoring and coaching. Findings show that following coaching, nurse managers gained increased resilience, confidence and better coping mechanisms. This resulted in perceived improved team management and cohesion and appeared to lead to better quality of care for patients. This study suggests the importance of nurse managers accessing coaching, to enable transformational leadership of their teams of nurses. It suggests also the importance of organisations supporting a coaching culture, to ensure staff satisfaction, motivation and improved quality of patient care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. NLRP3 inflammasome plays a key role in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Simon A; Ng, Jeffrey; Lueng, Alan; Khajah, Maitham; Parhar, Ken; Li, Yan; Lam, Victor; Potentier, Mireille S; Ng, Kelvin; Bawa, Misha; McCafferty, Donna-Marie; Rioux, Kevin P; Ghosh, Subrata; Xavier, Ramnik J; Colgan, Sean P; Tschopp, Jurg; Muruve, Daniel; MacDonald, Justin A; Beck, Paul L

    2011-06-01

    Attenuated innate immune responses to the intestinal microbiota have been linked to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). Recent genetic studies have revealed that hypofunctional mutations of NLRP3, a member of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) superfamily, are associated with an increased risk of developing CD. NLRP3 is a key component of the inflammasome, an intracellular danger sensor of the innate immune system. When activated, the inflammasome triggers caspase-1-dependent processing of inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1β and IL-18. In the current study we sought to assess the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis through its regulation of innate protective processes. To investigate this role, Nlrp3(-/-) and wildtype mice were assessed in the dextran sulfate sodium and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid models of experimental colitis. Nlrp3(-/-) mice were found to be more susceptible to experimental colitis, an observation that was associated with reduced IL-1β, reduced antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10, and reduced protective growth factor TGF-β. Macrophages isolated from Nlrp3(-/-) mice failed to respond to bacterial muramyl dipeptide. Furthermore, Nlrp3-deficient neutrophils exhibited reduced chemotaxis and enhanced spontaneous apoptosis, but no change in oxidative burst. Lastly, Nlrp3(-/-) mice displayed altered colonic β-defensin expression, reduced colonic antimicrobial secretions, and a unique intestinal microbiota. Our data confirm an essential role for the NLRP3 inflammasome in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis and provide biological insight into disease mechanisms associated with increased risk of CD in individuals with NLRP3 mutations. Copyright © 2010 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  18. MERS-CoV Accessory ORFs Play Key Role for Infection and Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menachery, Vineet D.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Cockrell, Adam S.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Yount, Boyd L.; Graham, Rachel L.; McAnarney, Eileen T.; Douglas, Madeline G.; Scobey, Trevor; Beall, Anne; Dinnon, Kenneth; Kocher, Jacob F.; Hale, Andrew E.; Stratton, Kelly G.; Waters, Katrina M.; Baric, Ralph S.; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    2017-08-22

    ABSTRACT

    While dispensable for viral replication, coronavirus (CoV) accessory open reading frame (ORF) proteins often play critical roles during infection and pathogenesis. Utilizing a previously generated mutant, we demonstrate that the absence of all four Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) accessory ORFs (deletion of ORF3, -4a, -4b, and -5 [dORF3-5]) has major implications for viral replication and pathogenesis. Importantly, attenuation of the dORF3-5 mutant is primarily driven by dysregulated host responses, including disrupted cell processes, augmented interferon (IFN) pathway activation, and robust inflammation.In vitroreplication attenuation also extends toin vivomodels, allowing use of dORF3-5 as a live attenuated vaccine platform. Finally, examination of ORF5 implicates a partial role in modulation of NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Together, the results demonstrate the importance of MERS-CoV accessory ORFs for pathogenesis and highlight them as potential targets for surveillance and therapeutic treatments moving forward.

    IMPORTANCEThe initial emergence and periodic outbreaks of MERS-CoV highlight a continuing threat posed by zoonotic pathogens to global public health. In these studies, mutant virus generation demonstrates the necessity of accessory ORFs in regard to MERS-CoV infection and pathogenesis. With this in mind, accessory ORF functions can be targeted for both therapeutic and vaccine treatments in response to MERS-CoV and related group 2C coronaviruses. In addition, disruption of accessory ORFs in parallel may offer a rapid response platform to attenuation of future emergent strains based on both SARS- and MERS-CoV accessory ORF mutants.

  19. Increasing Physical Activity among Adults with Disabilities: Doctors Can Play a Key Role

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Dianna Carroll, a senior health scientist with CDC’s Division of Human Development and Disability, talks about the role of doctors and other health professionals in increasing physical activity among adults with disabilities.

  20. KEYING AND ROLE PLAY IN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: GENDER, AGE AND RACE CUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA DUMBRAVĂ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study comes as a sequel to other two papers published in this journal in 2010 and 2012 being part of a larger research that approaches business communication from the perspective of Goffman’s theory of the relational dimension of meaning. The paper starts from the premise that meaning is generated within the context of each specific interaction, as a result of a culturally determined process of framing, during which inherited patterns of thought and behavior establish well defined positions from which the interlocutors perceive and respond to one another. It also aims at further analyzing the process of keying by identifying the paradigm shifts that individualize business encounters according to gender, age, and race cues, as well as the communication malfunctions induced by keying errors (misunderstandings, conflict and discrimination.

  1. Thioredoxin plays a key role in retinal neuropathy prior to endothelial damage in diabetic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Xiang; Li, Chen; Liu, Junli; Zhang, Chenghong; Fu, Yuzhen; Wang, Nina; Ma, Haiying; Lu, Heyuan; Kong, Hui; Kong, Li

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic metabolic syndrome that results in changes in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. With diabetes for a long time, it increases the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and long-term morbidity and mortality. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that neuron damage occurs earlier than microvascular complications in DR patients, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We investigated diabetes-induced retinal neuropathy and elucidated key molecular events to identify new...

  2. Make Time to Recharge: Growth and Renewal Play Key Roles in Sustaining School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago-Severson, Ellie; Blum-DeStefano, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Being a school leader in any role is hard, gratifying, and a gift of love. While it can be enormously satisfying to serve students, teachers, families, and school communities, leaders need to refill themselves in order to continue giving to others. This article highlights a learning-oriented model of leadership development and capacity building…

  3. Increasing Physical Activity among Adults with Disabilities: Doctors Can Play a Key Role

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-22

    In this podcast, Dr. Dianna Carroll, a senior health scientist with CDC’s Division of Human Development and Disability, talks about the role of doctors and other health professionals in increasing physical activity among adults with disabilities.  Created: 4/22/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  4. RE: Forests and forest management plays a key role in mitigating climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Larsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    as also reported by Naudts et al. By ignoring the link between forestry and fossil carbon pools and not considering development in the absence of forest management, there is no accounting for the effect on GHG emissions, and no basis for estimating the contribution of forest management to cl......The report by Naudts et al. concludes that forest management in Europe during the last 260 years has failed to result in net CO2 removal from the atmosphere. The authors have reached this conclusion through their failure to consider a key factor in their otherwise comprehensive analysis....... The authors present an analysis of net carbon emissions from forest, but omit substitution effects related to the link between forest management and the fossil carbon pool. The link between fossil and terrestrial carbon pools is however critical for modelling climate impacts. To conclude as they do...

  5. CD155/PVR plays a key role in cell motility during tumor cell invasion and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, Kevin E; Ilag, Leodevico L; Jay, Daniel G; Eustace, Brenda K; Stewart, Jean K; Zehetmeier, Carol; Torella, Claudia; Simeone, Marina; Roy, Jennifer E; Unger, Christine; Louis, David N

    2004-01-01

    Invasion is an important early step of cancer metastasis that is not well understood. Developing therapeutics to limit metastasis requires the identification and validation of candidate proteins necessary for invasion and migration. We developed a functional proteomic screen to identify mediators of tumor cell invasion. This screen couples Fluorophore Assisted Light Inactivation (FALI) to a scFv antibody library to systematically inactivate surface proteins expressed by human fibrosarcoma cells followed by a high-throughput assessment of transwell invasion. Using this screen, we have identified CD155 (the poliovirus receptor) as a mediator of tumor cell invasion through its role in migration. Knockdown of CD155 by FALI or by RNAi resulted in a significant decrease in transwell migration of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells towards a serum chemoattractant. CD155 was found to be highly expressed in multiple cancer cell lines and primary tumors including glioblastoma (GBM). Knockdown of CD155 also decreased migration of U87MG GBM cells. CD155 is recruited to the leading edge of migrating cells where it colocalizes with actin and αv-integrin, known mediators of motility and adhesion. Knockdown of CD155 also altered cellular morphology, resulting in cells that were larger and more elongated than controls when plated on a Matrigel substrate. These results implicate a role for CD155 in mediating tumor cell invasion and migration and suggest that CD155 may contribute to tumorigenesis

  6. Kalrn plays key roles within and outside of the nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandela Prashant

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human KALRN gene, which encodes a complex, multifunctional Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor, has been linked to cardiovascular disease, psychiatric disorders and neurodegeneration. Examination of existing Kalrn knockout mouse models has focused only on neuronal phenotypes. However, Kalirin was first identified through its interaction with an enzyme involved in the synthesis and secretion of multiple bioactive peptides, and studies in C.elegans revealed roles for its orthologue in neurosecretion. Results We used a broad array of tests to evaluate the effects of ablating a single exon in the spectrin repeat region of Kalrn (KalSRKO/KO; transcripts encoding Kalrn isoforms containing only the second GEF domain can still be produced from the single remaining functional Kalrn promoter. As expected, KalSRKO/KO mice showed a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and a passive avoidance deficit. No changes were observed in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle or tests of depression-like behavior. Growth rate, parturition and pituitary secretion of growth hormone and prolactin were deficient in the KalSRKO/KO mice. Based on the fact that a subset of Kalrn isoforms is expressed in mouse skeletal muscle and the observation that muscle function in C.elegans requires its Kalrn orthologue, KalSRKO/KO mice were evaluated in the rotarod and wire hang tests. KalSRKO/KO mice showed a profound decrease in neuromuscular function, with deficits apparent in KalSR+/KO mice; these deficits were not as marked when loss of Kalrn expression was restricted to the nervous system. Pre- and postsynaptic deficits in the neuromuscular junction were observed, along with alterations in sarcomere length. Conclusions Many of the widespread and diverse deficits observed both within and outside of the nervous system when expression of Kalrn is eliminated may reflect its role in secretory granule function and its expression outside of the nervous system.

  7. Swimming motility plays a key role in the stochastic dynamics of cell clumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Xianghong; Nellas, Ricky B; Byrn, Matthew W; Russell, Matthew H; Bible, Amber N; Alexandre, Gladys; Shen, Tongye

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic cell-to-cell interactions are a prerequisite to many biological processes, including development and biofilm formation. Flagellum induced motility has been shown to modulate the initial cell–cell or cell–surface interaction and to contribute to the emergence of macroscopic patterns. While the role of swimming motility in surface colonization has been analyzed in some detail, a quantitative physical analysis of transient interactions between motile cells is lacking. We examined the Brownian dynamics of swimming cells in a crowded environment using a model of motorized adhesive tandem particles. Focusing on the motility and geometry of an exemplary motile bacterium Azospirillum brasilense, which is capable of transient cell–cell association (clumping), we constructed a physical model with proper parameters for the computer simulation of the clumping dynamics. By modulating mechanical interaction (‘stickiness’) between cells and swimming speed, we investigated how equilibrium and active features affect the clumping dynamics. We found that the modulation of active motion is required for the initial aggregation of cells to occur at a realistic time scale. Slowing down the rotation of flagellar motors (and thus swimming speeds) is correlated to the degree of clumping, which is consistent with the experimental results obtained for A. brasilense. (paper)

  8. Swimming motility plays a key role in the stochastic dynamics of cell clumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xianghong; Nellas, Ricky B.; Byrn, Matthew W.; Russell, Matthew H.; Bible, Amber N.; Alexandre, Gladys; Shen, Tongye

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic cell-to-cell interactions are a prerequisite to many biological processes, including development and biofilm formation. Flagellum induced motility has been shown to modulate the initial cell-cell or cell-surface interaction and to contribute to the emergence of macroscopic patterns. While the role of swimming motility in surface colonization has been analyzed in some detail, a quantitative physical analysis of transient interactions between motile cells is lacking. We examined the Brownian dynamics of swimming cells in a crowded environment using a model of motorized adhesive tandem particles. Focusing on the motility and geometry of an exemplary motile bacterium Azospirillum brasilense, which is capable of transient cell-cell association (clumping), we constructed a physical model with proper parameters for the computer simulation of the clumping dynamics. By modulating mechanical interaction (‘stickiness’) between cells and swimming speed, we investigated how equilibrium and active features affect the clumping dynamics. We found that the modulation of active motion is required for the initial aggregation of cells to occur at a realistic time scale. Slowing down the rotation of flagellar motors (and thus swimming speeds) is correlated to the degree of clumping, which is consistent with the experimental results obtained for A. brasilense.

  9. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase plays a key role in regulating MAPKAPK2 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Tatsuhiko; Kawai, Kayoko; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    One of three major families of the mitogen-activated kinases (MAPK), p38 as well as JNK, has been shown to transduce extracellular stress stimuli into cellular responses by phospho-relay cascades. Among p38 families, p38α is a widely characterized isoform and the biological phenomena are explained by its kinase activity regulating functions of its downstream substrates. However, its specific contributions to each phenomenon are yet not fully elucidated. For better understanding of the role of MAPKs, especially p38α, we utilized newly established mouse fibroblast cell lines originated from a p38α null mouse, namely, a parental cell line without p38α gene locus, knockout of p38α (KOP), Zeosin-resistant (ZKOP), revertant of p38α (RKOP), and Exip revertant (EKOP). EKOP is smaller in size but grows faster than the others. Although comparable amounts of ERK and JNK are expressed in each cell line, ERK is highly phosphorylated in EKOP even in normal culture conditions. Serum stimulation after serum starvation led to ERK phosphorylation in RKOP and ZKOP, but not in EKOP as much. On the contrary, relative phosphorylation level of JNK to total JNK in response to UV was low in RKOP. And its phosphorylation as well as total JNK is slightly lower in EKOP. RKOP is less sensitive to UV irradiation as judged by the survival rate. Stress response upon UV or sorbitol stimuli, leading to mitogen activate protein kinase activated kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) phosphorylation, was only observed in RKOP. Further experiments reveal that MAPKAPK2 expression is largely suppressed in ZKOP and EKOP. Its expression was recovered by re-introduction of p38α. The loss of MAPKAPK2 expression accompanied by the defect of p38α is confirmed in an embryonic extract prepared from p38α null mice. These data demonstrate that p38 signal pathway is regulated not only by phosphorylation but also by modulation of the expression of its component. Together, we have established cell lines that can be used in

  10. Pro-inflammatory cytokines play a key role in the development of radiotherapy-induced gastrointestinal mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Richard M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucositis is a toxic side effect of anti-cancer treatments and is a major focus in cancer research. Pro-inflammatory cytokines have previously been implicated in the pathophysiology of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal mucositis. However, whether they play a key role in the development of radiotherapy-induced gastrointestinal mucositis is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterise the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gastrointestinal tract using a rat model of fractionated radiotherapy-induced toxicity. Methods Thirty six female Dark Agouti rats were randomly assigned into groups and received 2.5 Gys abdominal radiotherapy three times a week over six weeks. Real time PCR was conducted to determine the relative change in mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF in the jejunum and colon. Protein expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF in the intestinal epithelium was investigated using qualitative immunohistochemistry. Results Radiotherapy-induced sub-acute damage was associated with significantly upregulated IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF mRNA levels in the jejunum and colon. The majority of pro-inflammatory cytokine protein expression in the jejunum and colon exhibited minimal change following fractionated radiotherapy. Conclusions Pro-inflammatory cytokines play a key role in radiotherapy-induced gastrointestinal mucositis in the sub-acute onset setting.

  11. The regulation of the chloroplast proton motive force plays a key role for photosynthesis in fluctuating light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Ute; Correa Galvis, Viviana; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Strand, Deserah D

    2017-06-01

    Plants use sunlight as their primary energy source. During photosynthesis, absorbed light energy generates reducing power by driving electron transfer reactions. These are coupled to the transfer of protons into the thylakoid lumen, generating a proton motive force (pmf) required for ATP synthesis. Sudden alterations in light availability have to be met by regulatory mechanisms to avoid the over-accumulation of reactive intermediates and maximize energy efficiency. Here, the acidification of the lumen, as an intermediate product of photosynthesis, plays an important role by regulating photosynthesis in response to excitation energy levels. Recent findings reveal pmf regulation and the modulation of its composition as key determinants for efficient photosynthesis, plant growth, and survival in fluctuating light environments. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene plays a key role in the quality of corm and yield of cormels in gladiolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seng, Shanshan; Wu, Jian; Sui, Juanjuan; Wu, Chenyu; Zhong, Xionghui; Liu, Chen; Liu, Chao; Gong, Benhe; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main storage compound in underground organs like corms. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) plays a key role in regulating starch biosynthesis in storage organs and is likely one of the most important determinant of sink strength. Here, we identify an AGPase gene (GhAGPS1) from gladiolus. The highest transcriptional levels of GhAGPS1 were observed in cormels and corms. Transformation of GhAGPS1 into Arabidopsis rescued the phenotype of aps1 mutant. Silencing GhAGPS1 in gladiolus corms by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) decreased the transcriptional levels of two genes and starch content. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of leaf and corm sections confirmed that starch biosynthesis was inhibited. Corm weight and cormel number reduced significantly in the silenced plants. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibiting the expression of AGPase gene could impair starch synthesis, which results in the lowered corm quality and cormel yield in gladiolus. -- Highlights: •Cormel quantity was reduced significantly in silenced Gladiolus plants. •Corm quality was declined significantly in silenced Gladiolus plants. •Starch synthesis was inhibited in silenced Gladiolus plants.

  13. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene plays a key role in the quality of corm and yield of cormels in gladiolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seng, Shanshan, E-mail: seshsh108@126.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Yuan Mingyuan Western Road 2#, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Jian [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Yuan Mingyuan Western Road 2#, Beijing 100193 (China); Sui, Juanjuan [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Yuan Mingyuan Western Road 2#, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Biology, Fuyang Normal College, Qinghe Western Road 100#, Fuyang 236037, Anhui (China); Wu, Chenyu; Zhong, Xionghui; Liu, Chen; Liu, Chao; Gong, Benhe; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Yuan Mingyuan Western Road 2#, Beijing 100193 (China); Yi, Mingfang, E-mail: ymfang@cau.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, China Agricultural University, Yuan Mingyuan Western Road 2#, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2016-05-20

    Starch is the main storage compound in underground organs like corms. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) plays a key role in regulating starch biosynthesis in storage organs and is likely one of the most important determinant of sink strength. Here, we identify an AGPase gene (GhAGPS1) from gladiolus. The highest transcriptional levels of GhAGPS1 were observed in cormels and corms. Transformation of GhAGPS1 into Arabidopsis rescued the phenotype of aps1 mutant. Silencing GhAGPS1 in gladiolus corms by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) decreased the transcriptional levels of two genes and starch content. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of leaf and corm sections confirmed that starch biosynthesis was inhibited. Corm weight and cormel number reduced significantly in the silenced plants. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibiting the expression of AGPase gene could impair starch synthesis, which results in the lowered corm quality and cormel yield in gladiolus. -- Highlights: •Cormel quantity was reduced significantly in silenced Gladiolus plants. •Corm quality was declined significantly in silenced Gladiolus plants. •Starch synthesis was inhibited in silenced Gladiolus plants.

  14. Nitric oxide synthase and oxidative-nitrosative stress play a key role in placental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triquell, María Fernanda; Díaz-Luján, Cintia; Romanini, María Cristina; Ramirez, Juan Carlos; Paglini-Oliva, Patricia; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Fretes, Ricardo Emilio

    2018-03-25

    The innate immune response of the placenta may participate in the congenital transmission of Chagas disease through releasing reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates. Placental explants were cultured with 1 × 10 6 and 1 × 10 5 trypomastigotes of Tulahuen and Lucky strains and controls without parasites, and with the addition of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) as the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. Detachment of the syncytiotrophoblast (STB) was examined by histological analysis, and the nitric oxide synthase, endothelial (eNOS), and nitrotyrosine expressions were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, as well as the human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels in the culture supernatant through ELISA assays. Parasite load with qPCR using Taqman primers was quantified. The higher number of T. cruzi (10 6 ) increased placental infection, eNOS expression, nitrosative stress, and STB detachment, with the placental barrier being injured by oxidative stress. The higher number of parasites caused deleterious consequences to the placental barrier, and the inhibitors (l-NAME and NAC) prevented the damage caused by trypomastigotes in placental villi but not that of the infection. Moreover, trophoblast eNOS played a key role in placental infection with the highest inoculum of Lucky, demonstrating the importance of the enzyme and nitrosative-oxidative stress in Chagas congenital transmission. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Gasdermin D plays a key role as a pyroptosis executor of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Jiang, Mingzuo; Chu, Yi; Wang, Weijie; Chen, Di; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Di; Fan, Daiming; Nie, Yongzhan; Shao, Feng; Wu, Kaichun; Liang, Jie

    2017-12-20

    Gasdermin D (GSDMD)-executed programmed necrosis is involved in inflammation and controls interleukin (IL)-1β release. However, the role of GSDMD in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear. We investigated the role of GSDMD in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis. Human liver tissues from patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and control individuals were obtained to evaluate GSDMD expression. Gsdmd knockout (Gsdmd -/- ) mice, obese db/db mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates were fed with methionine-choline deficient (MCD) or control diet to induce steatohepatitis. The Gsdmd -/- and WT mice were also used in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD model. In addition, Alb-Cre mice were administered an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector that expressed the gasdermin-N domain (AAV9-FLEX-GSDMD-N) and were fed with either MCD or control diet for 10 days. GSDMD and its pyroptosis-inducing fragment GSDMD-N were upregulated in liver tissues of human NAFLD/NASH. Importantly, hepatic GSDMD-N protein levels were significantly higher in human NASH and correlated with the NAFLD activity score and fibrosis. GSDMD-N remained a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of NASH. MCD-fed Gsdmd -/- mice exhibit decreased severity of steatosis and inflammation compared with WT littermates. GSDMD was associated with the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP-1 [CCL2]) and persistent activation of the NF-ĸB signaling pathway. Gsdmd -/- mice showed lower steatosis, mainly because of reduced expression of the lipogenic gene Srebp1c (Srebf1) and upregulated expression of lipolytic genes, including Pparα, Aco [Klk15], Lcad [Acadl], Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14. Alb-Cre mice administered with AAV9-FLEX-GSDMD-N showed significantly aggravated steatohepatitis when fed with MCD diet. As an executor of pyroptosis, GSDMD plays a key role in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis, by controlling cytokine secretion, NF-ĸB activation, and lipogenesis

  16. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  17. Calcineurin plays key roles in the dimorphic transition and virulence of the human pathogenic zygomycete Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Chan; Li, Alicia; Calo, Silvia; Heitman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Many pathogenic fungi are dimorphic and switch between yeast and filamentous states. This switch alters host-microbe interactions and is critical for pathogenicity. However, in zygomycetes, whether dimorphism contributes to virulence is a central unanswered question. The pathogenic zygomycete Mucor circinelloides exhibits hyphal growth in aerobic conditions but switches to multi-budded yeast growth under anaerobic/high CO₂ conditions. We found that in the presence of the calcineurin inhibitor FK506, Mucor exhibits exclusively multi-budded yeast growth. We also found that M. circinelloides encodes three calcineurin catalytic A subunits (CnaA, CnaB, and CnaC) and one calcineurin regulatory B subunit (CnbR). Mutations in the latch region of CnbR and in the FKBP12-FK506 binding domain of CnaA result in hyphal growth of Mucor in the presence of FK506. Disruption of the cnbR gene encoding the sole calcineurin B subunit necessary for calcineurin activity yielded mutants locked in permanent yeast phase growth. These findings reveal that the calcineurin pathway plays key roles in the dimorphic transition from yeast to hyphae. The cnbR yeast-locked mutants are less virulent than the wild-type strain in a heterologous host system, providing evidence that hyphae or the yeast-hyphal transition are linked to virulence. Protein kinase A activity (PKA) is elevated during yeast growth under anaerobic conditions, in the presence of FK506, or in the yeast-locked cnbR mutants, suggesting a novel connection between PKA and calcineurin. cnaA mutants lacking the CnaA catalytic subunit are hypersensitive to calcineurin inhibitors, display a hyphal polarity defect, and produce a mixture of yeast and hyphae in aerobic culture. The cnaA mutants also produce spores that are larger than wild-type, and spore size is correlated with virulence potential. Our results demonstrate that the calcineurin pathway orchestrates the yeast-hyphal and spore size dimorphic transitions that contribute to

  18. Upregulation of NOXA by 10-Hydroxycamptothecin plays a key role in inducing fibroblasts apoptosis and reducing epidural fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihang Dai

    2017-01-01

    the first to demonstrate that upregulation of NOXA by HCPT plays a key role in inducing fibroblast apoptosis and in reducing epidural fibrosis. These findings might provide a potential therapeutic target for preventing epidural fibrosis following laminectomy.

  19. What Role Does The Executive Officer Play In Ensuring Senior Officer Success Building An Organization Of Trust Is Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY WHAT ROLE DOES THE EXECUTIVE OFFICER PLAY IN ENSURING SENIOR OFFICER SUCCESS? BUILDING AN ORGANIZATION OF...talk, demonstrate respect, create transparency, right wrongs, show loyalty , deliver results, get better, confront reality, clarify expectations...When speaking for the senior leader, the exec must ensure commander’s intent is conveyed clearly and accurately. It is for this reason that execs

  20. Disturbance of Oligodendrocyte Function Plays a Key Role in the Pathogenesis of Schizophrenia and Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Miyata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ and major depressive disorder (MDD are thought to be multifactorial diseases related to both genetic and environmental factors. However, the genes responsible and the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of SZ and MDD remain unclear. We previously reported that abnormalities of disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1 and DISC1 binding zinc finger (DBZ might cause major psychiatric disorders such as SZ. Interestingly, both DISC and DBZ have been further detected in oligodendrocytes and implicated in regulating oligodendrocyte differentiation. DISC1 negatively regulates the differentiation of oligodendrocytes, whereas DBZ plays a positive regulatory role in oligodendrocyte differentiation. We have reported that repeated stressful events, one of the major risk factors of MDD, can induce sustained upregulation of plasma corticosterone levels and serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (Sgk1 mRNA expression in oligodendrocytes. Repeated stressful events can also activate the SGK1 cascade and cause excess arborization of oligodendrocyte processes, which is thought to be related to depressive-like symptoms. In this review, we discuss the expression of DISC1, DBZ, and SGK1 in oligodendrocytes, their roles in the regulation of oligodendrocyte function, possible interactions of DISC1 and DBZ in relation to SZ, and the activation of the SGK1 signaling cascade in relation to MDD.

  1. The TvLEGU-1, a Legumain-Like Cysteine Proteinase, Plays a Key Role in Trichomonas vaginalis Cytoadherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Rendón-Gandarilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper was to characterize a Trichomonas vaginalis cysteine proteinase (CP legumain-1 (TvLEGU-1 and determine its potential role as a virulence factor during T. vaginalis infection. A 30-kDa band, which migrates in three protein spots (pI~6.3, ~6.5, and ~6.7 with a different type and level of phosphorylation, was identified as TvLEGU-1 by one- and two-dimensional Western blot (WB assays, using a protease-rich trichomonad extract and polyclonal antibodies produced against the recombinant TvLEGU-1 (anti-TvLEGU-1r. Its identification was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Immunofluorescence, cell binding, and WB assays showed that TvLEGU-1 is upregulated by iron at the protein level, localized on the trichomonad surface and in lysosomes and Golgi complex, bound to the surface of HeLa cells, and was found in vaginal secretions. Additionally, the IgG and Fab fractions of the anti-TvLEGU-1r antibody inhibited trichomonal cytoadherence up to 45%. Moreover, the Aza-Peptidyl Michael Acceptor that inhibited legumain proteolytic activity in live parasites also reduced levels of trichomonal cytoadherence up to 80%. In conclusion, our data show that the proteolytic activity of TvLEGU-1 is necessary for trichomonal adherence. Thus, TvLEGU-1 is a novel virulence factor upregulated by iron. This is the first report that a legumain-like CP plays a role in a pathogen cytoadherence.

  2. IgG receptor FcγRIIB plays a key role in obesity-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgren, Nathan C; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Boggan, Brigid-Meghan D; Tanigaki, Keiji; Yuhanna, Ivan S; Chambliss, Ken L; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W

    2015-02-01

    There is a well-recognized association between obesity, inflammation, and hypertension. Why obesity causes hypertension is poorly understood. We previously demonstrated using a C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic mouse that CRP induces hypertension that is related to NO deficiency. Our prior work in cultured endothelial cells identified the Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) as the receptor for CRP whereby it antagonizes endothelial NO synthase. Recognizing known associations between CRP and obesity and hypertension in humans, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that FcγRIIB plays a role in obesity-induced hypertension in mice. Using radiotelemetry, we first demonstrated that the hypertension observed in transgenic mouse-CRP is mediated by the receptor, indicating that FcγRIIB is capable of modifying blood pressure. We then discovered in a model of diet-induced obesity yielding equal adiposity in all study groups that whereas FcγRIIB(+/+) mice developed obesity-induced hypertension, FcγRIIB(-/-) mice were fully protected. Levels of CRP, the related pentraxin serum amyloid P component which is the CRP-equivalent in mice, and total IgG were unaltered by diet-induced obesity; FcγRIIB expression in endothelium was also unchanged. However, whereas IgG isolated from chow-fed mice had no effect, IgG from high-fat diet-fed mice inhibited endothelial NO synthase in cultured endothelial cells, and this was an FcγRIIB-dependent process. Thus, we have identified a novel role for FcγRIIB in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension, independent of processes regulating adiposity, and it may entail an IgG-induced attenuation of endothelial NO synthase function. Approaches targeting FcγRIIB may potentially offer new means to treat hypertension in obese individuals. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. IgG Receptor FcγRIIB Plays a Key Role in Obesity-Induced Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgren, Nathan C.; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Boggan, Brigid-Meghan D.; Tanigaki, Keiji; Yuhanna, Ivan S.; Chambliss, Ken L.; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W.

    2015-01-01

    There is a well-recognized association between obesity, inflammation, and hypertension. Why obesity causes hypertension is poorly understood. We previously demonstrated using a C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic mouse that CRP induces hypertension that is related to NO deficiency. Our prior work in cultured endothelial cells identified the Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) as the receptor for CRP whereby it antagonizes endothelial NO synthase. Recognizing known associations between CRP and obesity and hypertension in humans, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that FcγRIIB plays a role in obesity-induced hypertension in mice. Using radiotelemetry, we first demonstrated that the hypertension observed in transgenic mouse-CRP is mediated by the receptor, indicating that FcγRIIB is capable of modifying blood pressure. We then discovered in a model of diet-induced obesity yielding equal adiposity in all study groups that whereas FcγRIIB+/+ mice developed obesity-induced hypertension, FcγRIIB−/− mice were fully protected. Levels of CRP, the related pentraxin serum amyloid P component which is the CRP-equivalent in mice, and total IgG were unaltered by diet-induced obesity; FcγRIIB expression in endothelium was also unchanged. However, whereas IgG isolated from chow-fed mice had no effect, IgG from high-fat diet–fed mice inhibited endothelial NO synthase in cultured endothelial cells, and this was an FcγRIIB-dependent process. Thus, we have identified a novel role for FcγRIIB in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension, independent of processes regulating adiposity, and it may entail an IgG-induced attenuation of endothelial NO synthase function. Approaches targeting FcγRIIB may potentially offer new means to treat hypertension in obese individuals. PMID:25368023

  4. The Preferential Infection of Astrocytes by Enterovirus 71 Plays a Key Role in the Viral Neurogenic Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Min; Guo, Sujie; Fan, Shengtao; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Ying; Liao, Yun; Wang, Jianbin; Zhao, Ting; Wang, Lichun; Che, Yanchun; Wang, Jingjing; Ma, Na; Liu, Longding; Yue, Lei; Li, Qihan

    2016-01-01

    The pathological manifestations of fatal cases of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) are characterized by inflammatory damage to the central nervous system (CNS). Here, the dynamic distribution of EV71 in the CNS and the subsequent pathological characteristics within different regions of neonatal rhesus macaque brain tissue were studied using a chimeric EV71 expressing green fluorescence protein. The results were compared with brain tissue obtained from the autopsies of deceased EV71-infected HFMD patients. These observations suggested that the virus was prevalent in areas around the blood vessels and nerve nuclei in the brain stem and showed a preference for astrocytes in the CNS. Interestingly, infected astrocytes within the in vivo and in vitro human and macaque systems exhibited increased expression of excitatory neurotransmitters and cytokines that also stimulated the neuronal secretion of the excitatory neurotransmitters noradrenalin and adrenalin, and this process most likely plays a role in the pathophysiological events that occur during EV71 infection.

  5. Adaptation Mechanism of the Aspartate Receptor: Electrostatics of the Adaptation Subdomain Play a Key Role in Modulating Kinase Activity†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, Diane J.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The aspartate receptor of the Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium chemotaxis pathway generates a transmembrane signal that regulates the activity of the cytoplasmic kinase CheA. Previous studies have identified a region of the cytoplasmic domain that is critical to receptor adaptation and kinase regulation. This region, termed the adaptation subdomain, contains a high density of acidic residues, including specific glutamate residues that serve as receptor adaptation sites. However, the mechanism of signal propagation through this region remains poorly understood. This study uses site-directed mutagenesis to neutralize each acidic residue within the subdomain to probe the hypothesis that electrostatics in this region play a significant role in the mechanism of kinase activation and modulation. Each point mutant was tested for its ability to regulate chemotaxis in vivo and kinase activity in vitro. Four point mutants (D273N, E281Q, D288N, and E477Q) were found to superactivate the kinase relative to the wild-type receptor, and all four of these kinase-activating substitutions are located along the same intersubunit interface as the adaptation sites. These activating substitutions retained the wild-type ability of the attractant-occupied receptor to inhibit kinase activity. When combined in a quadruple mutant (D273N/E281Q/D288N/E477Q), the four charge-neutralizing substitutions locked the receptor in a kinase-superactivating state that could not be fully inactivated by the attractant. Similar lock-on character was observed for a charge reversal substitution, D273R. Together, these results implicate the electrostatic interactions at the intersubunit interface as a major player in signal transduction and kinase regulation. The negative charge in this region destabilizes the local structure in a way that enhances conformational dynamics, as detected by disulfide trapping, and this effect is reversed by charge neutralization of the adaptation sites. Finally, two

  6. Rich biotin content in lignocellulose biomass plays the key role in determining cellulosic glutamic acid accumulation by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jingbai; Xiao, Yanqiu; Liu, Ting; Gao, Qiuqiang; Bao, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Lignocellulose is one of the most promising alternative feedstocks for glutamic acid production as commodity building block chemical, but the efforts by the dominant industrial fermentation strain Corynebacterium glutamicum failed for accumulating glutamic acid using lignocellulose feedstock. We identified the existence of surprisingly high biotin concentration in corn stover hydrolysate as the determining factor for the failure of glutamic acid accumulation by Corynebacterium glutamicum . Under excessive biotin content, induction by penicillin resulted in 41.7 ± 0.1 g/L of glutamic acid with the yield of 0.50 g glutamic acid/g glucose. Our further investigation revealed that corn stover contained 353 ± 16 μg of biotin per kg dry solids, approximately one order of magnitude greater than the biotin in corn grain. Most of the biotin remained stable during the biorefining chain and the rich biotin content in corn stover hydrolysate almost completely blocked the glutamic acid accumulation. This rich biotin existence was found to be a common phenomenon in the wide range of lignocellulose biomass and this may be the key reason why the previous studies failed in cellulosic glutamic acid fermentation from lignocellulose biomass. The extended recording of the complete members of all eight vitamin B compounds in lignocellulose biomass further reveals that the major vitamin B members were also under the high concentration levels even after harsh pretreatment. The high content of biotin in wide range of lignocellulose biomass feedstocks and the corresponding hydrolysates was discovered and it was found to be the key factor in determining the cellulosic glutamic acid accumulation. The highly reserved biotin and the high content of their other vitamin B compounds in biorefining process might act as the potential nutrients to biorefining fermentations. This study creates a new insight that lignocellulose biorefining not only generates inhibitors, but also keeps nutrients

  7. The Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Enzyme FabI Plays a Key Role In the Development of Liver Stage Malarial Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Santha Kumar, T. R.; Nkrumah, Louis J.; Coppi, Alida; Retzlaff, Silke; Li, Celeste D.; Kelly, Brendan J.; Moura, Pedro A.; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Freundlich, Joel S.; Valderramos, Juan-Carlos; Vilcheze, Catherine; Siedner, Mark; Tsai, Jennifer H.-C.; Falkard, Brie; Sidhu, Amar bir Singh; Purcell, Lisa A.; Gratraud, Paul; Kremer, Laurent; Waters, Andy P.; Schiehser, Guy; Jacobus, David P.; Janse, Chris J.; Ager, Arba; Jacobs, William R.; Sacchettini, James C.; Heussler, Volker; Sinnis, Photini; Fidock, David A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Fatty acid biosynthesis has been viewed as an important biological function of and therapeutic target for Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stage infection. This apicoplast-resident type II pathway, distinct from the mammalian type I process, includes FabI. Here, we report synthetic chemistry and transfection studies concluding that Plasmodium FabI is not the target of the antimalarial activity of the bacterial FabI inhibitor triclosan. Disruption of fabI in P. falciparum or the rodent parasite P. berghei does not impede blood stage growth. In contrast, mosquito-derived fabI-deficient P. berghei sporozoites are markedly less infective for mice and typically fail to complete liver stage development in vitro. This is characterized by an inability to form intra-hepatic merosomes that normally initiate blood stage infections. These data illuminate key differences between liver and blood stage parasites in their requirements for host versus de novo synthesized fatty acids, and create new prospects for stage-specific antimalarial interventions. PMID:19064257

  8. Sucrose in Cyanobacteria: From a Salt-Response Molecule to Play a Key Role in Nitrogen Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Kolman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the biosphere, sucrose is mainly synthesized in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, green algae and land plants, as part of the carbon dioxide assimilation pathway. Even though its central position in the functional biology of plants is well documented, much less is known about the role of sucrose in cyanobacteria. In those prokaryotes, sucrose accumulation has been associated with salt acclimation, and considered as a compatible solute in low-salt tolerant strains. In the last years, functional characterizations of sucrose metabolizing enzymes, metabolic control analysis, cellular localization of gene expressions, and reverse genetic experiments have revealed that sucrose metabolism is crucial in the diazotrophic growth of heterocystic strains, and besides, that it can be connected to glycogen synthesis. This article briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge of sucrose physiological functions in modern cyanobacteria and how they might have evolved taking into account the phylogenetic analyses of sucrose enzymes.

  9. The maternal nucleolus plays a key role in centromere satellite maintenance during the oocyte to embryo transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulka, Helena; Langerova, Alena

    2014-04-01

    The oocyte (maternal) nucleolus is essential for early embryonic development and embryos originating from enucleolated oocytes arrest at the 2-cell stage. The reason for this is unclear. Surprisingly, RNA polymerase I activity in nucleolus-less mouse embryos, as manifested by pre-rRNA synthesis, and pre-rRNA processing are not affected, indicating an unusual role of the nucleolus. We report here that the maternal nucleolus is indispensable for the regulation of major and minor satellite repeats soon after fertilisation. During the first embryonic cell cycle, absence of the nucleolus causes a significant reduction in major and minor satellite DNA by 12% and 18%, respectively. The expression of satellite transcripts is also affected, being reduced by more than half. Moreover, extensive chromosome bridging of the major and minor satellite sequences was observed during the first mitosis. Finally, we show that the absence of the maternal nucleolus alters S-phase dynamics and causes abnormal deposition of the H3.3 histone chaperone DAXX in pronuclei of nucleolus-less zygotes.

  10. The human lipodystrophy gene product Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2/seipin plays a key role in adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiqin; Yechoor, Vijay K; Chang, Benny Hung-Junn; Li, Ming V; March, Keith L; Chan, Lawrence

    2009-10-01

    Mutations in the Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2 gene (BSCL2) are the underlying defect in patients with congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2. BSCL2 encodes a protein called seipin, whose function is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of Bscl2 in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation. Bscl2 mRNA is highly up-regulated during standard hormone-induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells in vitro. However, this up-regulation does not occur during mesenchymal stem cell (C3H10T1/2 cells) commitment to the preadipocyte lineage. Knockdown of Bscl2 by short hairpin RNA in C3H10T1/2 cells has no effect on bone morphogenetic protein-4-induced preadipocyte commitment. However, knockdown in 3T3-L1 cells prevents adipogenesis induced by a standard hormone cocktail, but adipogenesis can be rescued by the addition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist pioglitazone at an early stage of differentiation. Interestingly, pioglitazone-induced differentiation in the absence of standard hormone is not associated with up-regulated Bscl2 expression. On the other hand, short hairpin RNA-knockdown of Bscl2 largely blocks pioglitazone-induced adipose differentiation. These experiments suggest that Bscl2 may be essential for normal adipogenesis; it works upstream or at the level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, enabling the latter to exert its full activity during adipogenesis. Loss of Bscl2 function thus interferes with the normal transcriptional cascade of adipogenesis during fat cell differentiation, resulting in near total loss of fat or lipodystrophy.

  11. Enhanced reality live role playing

    OpenAIRE

    Söderberg, Jonas; Waern, Annika; Åkesson, Karl-Petter; Björk, Staffan; Falk, Jennica

    2004-01-01

    Live role-playing is a form of improvisational theatre played for the experience of the performers and without an audience. These games form a challenging application domain for ubiquitous technology. We discuss the design options for enhanced reality live role-playing and the role of technology in live role-playing games.

  12. The role of play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Play is seen as an activity that is fun, voluntary, offers escape, and is fundamentally exciting. Play is however, more than that; it is a working model of flexibility! There is a vital link between play, psychological development and learning. Moreover, the importance of play has gained importance

  13. Hepcidin Plays a Key Role in 6-OHDA Induced Iron Overload and Apoptotic Cell Death in a Cell Culture Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Elevated brain iron levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD. However, the precise mechanism underlying abnormal iron accumulation in PD is not clear. Hepcidin, a hormone primarily produced by hepatocytes, acts as a key regulator in both systemic and cellular iron homeostasis. Objective. We investigated the role of hepcidin in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA induced apoptosis in a cell culture model of PD. Methods. We downregulated hepcidin using siRNA interference in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells and made a comparison with control siRNA transfected cells to investigate the role of hepcidin in 6-OHDA induced neurodegeneration. Results. Hepcidin knockdown (32.3%, P<0.0001 upregulated ferroportin 1 expression and significantly (P<0.05 decreased intracellular iron by 25%. Hepcidin knockdown also reduced 6-OHDA induced caspase-3 activity by 42% (P<0.05 and DNA fragmentation by 29% (P=0.086 and increased cell viability by 22% (P<0.05. In addition, hepcidin knockdown significantly attenuated 6-OHDA induced protein carbonyls by 52% (P<0.05 and intracellular iron by 28% (P<0.01, indicating the role of hepcidin in oxidative stress. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that hepcidin knockdown protected N27 cells from 6-OHDA induced apoptosis and that hepcidin plays a major role in reducing cellular iron burden and oxidative damage by possibly regulating cellular iron export mediated by ferroportin 1.

  14. Human CD134 (OX40) expressed on T cells plays a key role for human herpesvirus 6B replication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamata, Satoshi; Nagasaka, Miwako; Kawabata, Akiko; Kishimoto, Kenji; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Mori, Takeshi; Morioka, Ichiro; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Iijima, Kazumoto; Yamada, Hideto; Kawamoto, Shinichiro; Yakushijin, Kimikazu; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Mori, Yasuko

    2018-05-01

    CD134 (OX40), which is a cellular receptor for human herpesvirus-6B (HHV-6B) and expresses on activated T cells, may play a key role for HHV-6B replication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Therefore, we examined the CD134 expression on T cells and HHV-6B replication after allo-HSCT, and analyzed the correlation between them. Twenty-three patients after allo-HSCT were enrolled. The percentages of CD134-positive cells within the CD4 + and CD8 + cell populations were measured by flow cytometry, and the viral copy number of HHV-6B was simultaneously quantified by real-time PCR. The correlation between CD134 and HHV-6B viral load was then statistically analyzed. HHV-6B reactivation occurred in 11 of 23 patients (47.8%). CD134 expression was seen on T cells and was coincident with the time of peak viral load. The percentage of CD134-positive cells decreased significantly when HHV-6B DNA disappeared (p = .005 in CD4 + T cells, p = .02 in CD8 + T cells). In the 4 patients who underwent umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT), the viral load varied with the percentage of CD134-positive cells. In the comparison between the HHV-6B reactivation group and non-reactivation group, maximum percentages of CD134-positive cells among CD4 + T cells in reactivation group were significantly higher than those in non-reactivation group (p = .04). This is the first study to show that a correlation of CD134 expression on T cells with HHV-6B replication after allo-HSCT, especially in UCBT. The results possibly indicate that CD134 on T cells plays a key role for HHV-6B replication after allo-HSCT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The MqsRA Toxin-Antitoxin System from Xylella fastidiosa Plays a Key Role in Bacterial Fitness, Pathogenicity, and Persister Cell Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merfa, Marcus V.; Niza, Bárbara; Takita, Marco A.; De Souza, Alessandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Through the formation of persister cells, bacteria exhibit tolerance to multidrug and other environmental stresses without undergoing genetic changes. The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are involved in the formation of persister cells because they are able to induce cell dormancy. Among the TA systems, the MqsRA system has been observed to be highly induced in persister cells of Xylella fastidiosa (causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis—CVC) activated by copper stress, and has been described in Escherichia coli as related to the formation of persister cells and biofilms. Thus, we evaluated the role of this TA system in X. fastidiosa by overexpressing the MqsR toxin, and verified that the toxin positively regulated biofilm formation and negatively cell movement, resulting in reduced pathogenicity in citrus plants. The overexpression of MqsR also increased the formation of persister cells under copper stress. Analysis of the gene and protein expression showed that this system likely has an autoregulation mechanism to express the toxin and antitoxin in the most beneficial ratio for the cell to oppose stress. Our results suggest that this TA system plays a key role in the adaptation and survival of X. fastidiosa and reveal new insights into the physiology of phytopathogen-host interactions. PMID:27375608

  16. The RNA chaperone, Hfq, controls two luxR-type regulators and plays a key role in pathogenesis and production of antibiotics in Serratia sp. ATCC 39006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Nabil M; Williamson, Neil R; Ramsay, Joshua P; Poulter, Simon; Bandyra, Kasia J; Salmond, George P C

    2011-10-01

    Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 (S39006) is a Gram-negative bacterium that is virulent in plant (potato) and animal (Caenorhabditis elegans) models. It produces two secondary metabolite antibiotics, a prodigiosin and a carbapenem, and the exoenzymes, pectate lyase and cellulase. A complex regulatory network that includes quorum sensing (QS) controls production of prodigiosin. While many aspects of the regulation of the metabolites and exoenzymes are well understood, the potential role in this network of the RNA chaperone Hfq and dependent small regulatory RNAs has not been characterized. Hfq is an RNA chaperone involved in post-transcriptional regulation that plays a key role in stress response and virulence in diverse bacterial species. To explore whether Hfq-dependent processes might contribute to the regulation of antibiotic production we constructed an S39006 Δhfq mutant. Production of prodigiosin and carbapenem was abolished in this mutant strain, while production of the QS signalling molecule, butanoyl homoserine lactone (BHL), was unaffected. Using transcriptional fusions, we found that Hfq regulates the QS response regulators, SmaR and CarR. Additionally, exoenzyme production and swimming motility were decreased in a Δhfq mutant, and virulence was attenuated in potato and C. elegans models. These results suggest that an Hfq-dependent pathway is involved in the regulation of virulence and secondary metabolite production in S39006. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Nitric Oxide Plays a Key Role in Ovariectomy-Induced Apoptosis in Anterior Pituitary: Interplay between Nitric Oxide Pathway and Estrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros, Fernanda A.; Duvilanski, Beatriz H.; Cabilla, Jimena P.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the estrogenic status produce deep changes in pituitary physiology, mainly because estrogens (E2) are one of the main regulators of pituitary cell population. Also, E2 negatively regulate pituitary neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity and expression and may thereby modulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), an important regulator of cell death and survival. Little is known about how ovary ablation affects anterior pituitary cell remodelling and molecular mechanisms that regulate this process have not yet been elucidated. In this work we used freshly dispersed anterior pituitaries as well as cell cultures from ovariectomized female rats in order to study whether E2 deficiency induces apoptosis in the anterior pituitary cells, the role of NO in this process and effects of E2 on the NO pathway. Our results showed that cell activity gradually decreases after ovariectomy (OVX) as a consequence of cell death, which is completely prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor. Furthermore, there is an increase of fragmented nuclei and DNA cleavage thereby presenting the first direct evidence of the existence of apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland after OVX. NO production and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) expression in anterior pituitary cells increased concomitantly to the apoptosis. Inhibition of both, NO synthase (NOS) and sGC activities prevented the drop of cell viability after OVX, showing for the first time that increased NO levels and sGC activity observed post-OVX play a key role in the induction of apoptosis. Conversely, E2 and prolactin treatments decreased nNOS expression and activity in pituitary cells from OVX rats in a time- and E2 receptor-dependent manner, thus suggesting interplay between NO and E2 pathways in anterior pituitary. PMID:27611913

  18. Nitric Oxide Plays a Key Role in Ovariectomy-Induced Apoptosis in Anterior Pituitary: Interplay between Nitric Oxide Pathway and Estrogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia A Ronchetti

    Full Text Available Changes in the estrogenic status produce deep changes in pituitary physiology, mainly because estrogens (E2 are one of the main regulators of pituitary cell population. Also, E2 negatively regulate pituitary neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS activity and expression and may thereby modulate the production of nitric oxide (NO, an important regulator of cell death and survival. Little is known about how ovary ablation affects anterior pituitary cell remodelling and molecular mechanisms that regulate this process have not yet been elucidated. In this work we used freshly dispersed anterior pituitaries as well as cell cultures from ovariectomized female rats in order to study whether E2 deficiency induces apoptosis in the anterior pituitary cells, the role of NO in this process and effects of E2 on the NO pathway. Our results showed that cell activity gradually decreases after ovariectomy (OVX as a consequence of cell death, which is completely prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor. Furthermore, there is an increase of fragmented nuclei and DNA cleavage thereby presenting the first direct evidence of the existence of apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland after OVX. NO production and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC expression in anterior pituitary cells increased concomitantly to the apoptosis. Inhibition of both, NO synthase (NOS and sGC activities prevented the drop of cell viability after OVX, showing for the first time that increased NO levels and sGC activity observed post-OVX play a key role in the induction of apoptosis. Conversely, E2 and prolactin treatments decreased nNOS expression and activity in pituitary cells from OVX rats in a time- and E2 receptor-dependent manner, thus suggesting interplay between NO and E2 pathways in anterior pituitary.

  19. Nitric Oxide Plays a Key Role in Ovariectomy-Induced Apoptosis in Anterior Pituitary: Interplay between Nitric Oxide Pathway and Estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchetti, Sonia A; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Quinteros, Fernanda A; Duvilanski, Beatriz H; Cabilla, Jimena P

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the estrogenic status produce deep changes in pituitary physiology, mainly because estrogens (E2) are one of the main regulators of pituitary cell population. Also, E2 negatively regulate pituitary neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity and expression and may thereby modulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), an important regulator of cell death and survival. Little is known about how ovary ablation affects anterior pituitary cell remodelling and molecular mechanisms that regulate this process have not yet been elucidated. In this work we used freshly dispersed anterior pituitaries as well as cell cultures from ovariectomized female rats in order to study whether E2 deficiency induces apoptosis in the anterior pituitary cells, the role of NO in this process and effects of E2 on the NO pathway. Our results showed that cell activity gradually decreases after ovariectomy (OVX) as a consequence of cell death, which is completely prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor. Furthermore, there is an increase of fragmented nuclei and DNA cleavage thereby presenting the first direct evidence of the existence of apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland after OVX. NO production and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) expression in anterior pituitary cells increased concomitantly to the apoptosis. Inhibition of both, NO synthase (NOS) and sGC activities prevented the drop of cell viability after OVX, showing for the first time that increased NO levels and sGC activity observed post-OVX play a key role in the induction of apoptosis. Conversely, E2 and prolactin treatments decreased nNOS expression and activity in pituitary cells from OVX rats in a time- and E2 receptor-dependent manner, thus suggesting interplay between NO and E2 pathways in anterior pituitary.

  20. The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor SigV plays a key role in the original model of lysozyme resistance and virulence of Enterococcus faecalis.

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    André Le Jeune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis is one of the leading agents of nosocomial infections. To cause diseases, pathogens or opportunistic bacteria have to adapt and survive to the defense systems encountered in the host. One of the most important compounds of the host innate defense response against invading microorganisms is lysozyme. It is found in a wide variety of body fluids, as well as in cells of the innate immune system. Lysozyme could act either as a muramidase and/or as a cationic antimicrobial peptide. Like Staphylococcus aureus, E. faecalis is one of the few bacteria that are completely lysozyme resistant. RESULTS: This study revealed that oatA (O-acetyl transferase and dlt (D-Alanylation of lipoteicoic acids genes contribute only partly to the lysozyme resistance of E. faecalis and that a specific transcriptional regulator, the extracytoplasmic function SigV sigma factor plays a key role in this event. Indeed, the sigV single mutant is as sensitive as the oatA/dltA double mutant, and the sigV/oatA/dltA triple mutant displays the highest level of lysozyme sensitivity suggesting synergistic effects of these genes. In S. aureus, mutation of both oatA and dlt genes abolishes completely the lysozyme resistance, whereas this is not the case in E. faecalis. Interestingly SigV does not control neither oatA nor dlt genes. Moreover, the sigV mutants clearly showed a reduced capacity to colonize host tissues, as they are significantly less recovered than the parental JH2-2 strain from organs of mice subjected to intravenous or urinary tract infections. CONCLUSIONS: This work led to the discovery of an original model of lysozyme resistance mechanism which is obviously more complex than those described for other Gram positive pathogens. Moreover, our data provide evidences for a direct link between lysozyme resistance and virulence of E. faecalis.

  1. Aerosol Liquid Water Driven by Anthropogenic inorganic salts: Playing a key role in the winter haze formation over North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z.; Liu, Y.; Tan, T.; Wang, Y.; Shang, D.; Xiao, Y.; Li, M.; Zeng, L.; Hu, M.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol liquid water influences ambient particulate matter mass concentrations and aerosol optical properties, and can serve as a reactor for multiphase reactions that perturb local photochemistry1. Our observations revealed that ambient relative humidity, inorganic fraction (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate), and PM2.5 mass concentration generally simultaneously elevated during haze episodes, resulting in the abundant anthropogenic aerosol water in the atmosphere of Beijing. The enrichment of aerosol liquid water may significantly affect the particle phase, which plays a key role in determining the reactive uptake, gas-particle partitioning, and heterogeneous chemical reactivity2. A newly-built three-arm impactor was used to detect the particle rebound fraction. The observations showed the increased RH and inorganic-rich particulate matter led to an increased aerosol liquid water content, and thus a liquid phase state during haze episode during wintertime. Here, we proposed that the transition to a liquid phase state marked the beginning of the haze episode and kicked off a positive feedback loop, wherein the liquid particles readily uptake pollutants that could react to form inorganics which could then uptake more water. The strict controlling strategy of sulfur emissions in China might lead to a decreased sulfate fraction and increased nitrate fraction in PM1. As a result, due to the lower deliquescence RH of nitrate, the feedback loop proposed could start at an even lower RH in the future. Reference1 Herrmann, H., T. Schaefer, A. Tilgner, S. A. Styler, C. Weller, M. Teich, and T. Otto (2015), Tropospheric Aqueous-Phase Chemistry: Kinetics, Mechanisms, and Its Coupling to a Changing Gas Phase, Chemical Reviews, 115(10), 4259-4334.2 M. Kuwata, S. T. Martin (2012), Phase of atmospheric secondary organic material affects its reactivity, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(43):17354-17359

  2. Calcium plays a key role in paraoxon-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells by regulating both endoplasmic reticulum- and mitochondria-associated pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Du, Yi; Ju, Furong; Ma, Shunxiang; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Paraoxon (POX) is one of the most toxic organophosphorus pesticides, but its toxic mechanisms associated with apoptosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate calcium-associated mechanisms in POX-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells. EL4 cells were exposed to POX for 0-16 h. EGTA was used to chelate Ca(2+ ) in extracellular medium, and heparin and procaine were used to inhibit Ca(2+ )efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Z-ATAD-FMK was used to inhibit caspase-12 activity. The apoptotic rate assay, western blotting and immunocytochemistry (ICC) were used to reveal the mechanisms of POX-induced apoptosis. POX significantly increased the expression and activation of caspase-12 and caspase-3, enhanced expression of calpain 1 and calpain 2, and induced the release of cyt c, but did not change the expression of Grp 78. Inhibiting caspase-12 activity alleviated POX-induced upregulation of calpain 1 and caspase-3, promoted POX-induced upregulation of calpain 2, and reduced POX-induced cyt c release, suggesting that there was a cross-talk between the ER-associated pathway and mitochondria-associated apoptotic signals. Attenuating intracellular calcium concentration with EGTA, heparin or procaine decreased POX-induced upregulation of calpain 1, calpain 2, caspase-12 and caspase-3, and reduced POX-induced cyt c release. After pretreatment with EGTA or procaine, POX significantly promoted expression of Grp 78. Calcium played a key role in POX-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells by regulating both ER- and mitochondria-associated pathways. The cross-talk of ER- and mitochondria-associated pathways was accomplished through calcium signal.

  3. Extracellular Zn2+ Influx into Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons Plays a Key Role for Pathogenesis of 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Parkinson's Disease in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Haruna; Nishio, Ryusuke; Morioka, Hiroki; Takeda, Atsushi

    2018-04-29

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disease characterized by a selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. The exact cause of the neuronal loss remains unclear. Here, we report a unique mechanism of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration, in which extracellular Zn 2+ influx plays a key role for PD pathogenesis induced with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats. 6-OHDA rapidly increased intracellular Zn 2+ only in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of brain slices and this increase was blocked in the presence of CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn 2+ chelator, and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist, indicating that 6-OHDA rapidly increases extracellular Zn 2+ influx via AMPA receptor activation in the SNpc. Extracellular Zn 2+ concentration was decreased under in vivo SNpc perfusion with 6-OHDA and this decrease was blocked by co-perfusion with CNQX, supporting 6-OHDA-induced Zn 2+ influx via AMPA receptor activation in the SNpc. Interestingly, both 6-OHDA-induced loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and turning behavior to apomorphine were ameliorated by co-injection of intracellular Zn 2+ chelators, i.e., ZnAF-2DA and N,N,N',N'-Tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN). Co-injection of TPEN into the SNpc blocked 6-OHDA-induced increase in intracellular Zn 2+ but not in intracellular Ca 2+ . These results suggest that the rapid influx of extracellular Zn 2+ into dopaminergic neurons via AMPA receptor activation in the SNpc induces nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration, resulting in 6-OHDA-induced PD in rats.

  4. CLMP Is Essential for Intestinal Development, but Does Not Play a Key Role in Cellular Processes Involved in Intestinal Epithelial Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Christine S.; Hsiao, Nai-Hua; Conroy, Siobhan; Paredes, Joana; Ribeiro, Ana S.; Sribudiani, Yunia; Seruca, Raquel; Hofstra, Robert M. W.; Westers, Helga; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    2013-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in CLMP have been found in patients with Congenital Short Bowel Syndrome (CSBS), suggesting that its encoded protein plays a major role in intestinal development. CLMP is a membrane protein that co-localizes with tight junction proteins, but its function is largely

  5. RegA Plays a Key Role in Oxygen-Dependent Establishment of Persistence and in Isocitrate Lyase Activity, a Critical Determinant of In vivo Brucella suis Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Abdou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available For aerobic human pathogens, adaptation to hypoxia is a critical factor for the establishment of persistent infections, as oxygen availability is low inside the host. The two-component system RegB/A of Brucella suis plays a central role in the control of respiratory systems adapted to oxygen deficiency, and in persistence in vivo. Using an original “in vitro model of persistence” consisting in gradual oxygen depletion, we compared transcriptomes and proteomes of wild-type and ΔregA strains to identify the RegA-regulon potentially involved in the set-up of persistence. Consecutive to oxygen consumption resulting in growth arrest, 12% of the genes in B. suis were potentially controlled directly or indirectly by RegA, among which numerous transcriptional regulators were up-regulated. In contrast, genes or proteins involved in envelope biogenesis and in cellular division were repressed, suggesting a possible role for RegA in the set-up of a non-proliferative persistence state. Importantly, the greatest number of the RegA-repressed genes and proteins, including aceA encoding the functional IsoCitrate Lyase (ICL, were involved in energy production. A potential consequence of this RegA impact may be the slowing-down of the central metabolism as B. suis progressively enters into persistence. Moreover, ICL is an essential determinant of pathogenesis and long-term interactions with the host, as demonstrated by the strict dependence of B. suis on ICL activity for multiplication and persistence during in vivo infection. RegA regulates gene or protein expression of all functional groups, which is why RegA is a key regulator of B. suis in adaptation to oxygen depletion. This function may contribute to the constraint of bacterial growth, typical of chronic infection. Oxygen-dependent activation of two-component systems that control persistence regulons, shared by several aerobic human pathogens, has not been studied in Brucella sp. before. This work

  6. Designing and Evaluating an Online Role Play in Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrastinski, Stefan; Watson, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify, through a literature review, key issues regarding how online role plays can be designed and to apply them when designing a role play on conflict management. Design/methodology/approach: By drawing on the key issues identified in the literature review, a role play on conflict management was designed and…

  7. Identification of protein expression alterations in gefitinib-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma: PCNT and mPR play key roles in the development of gefitinib-associated resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chi-Chen [Institute of Biomedical Science, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Science, and Rong Hsing Research Center for Translational Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research and Education, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jing-Ting [Department of Medical Science and Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lin, Meng-Wei [Department of Medical Science and Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Department of Applied Science, National Hsinchu University of Education, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chan, Chia-Hao [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hsinchu Mackay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu 30071, Taiwan (China); Wen, Yueh-Feng [Department of Medical Science and Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital Hsinchu Branch, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wu, Shin-Bei [Department of Applied Science, National Hsinchu University of Education, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chung, Ting-Wen [Department of Medical Science and Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lyu, Kevin W. [Lutheran Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Global Scholars Program, St. George' s University/Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Chou, Hsiu-Chuan, E-mail: chouhc@mail.nhcue.edu.tw [Department of Applied Science, National Hsinchu University of Education, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); and others

    2015-11-01

    Gefitinib is the first-line chemotherapeutic drug for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which comprises nearly 85% of all lung cancer cases worldwide. However, most patients eventually develop drug resistance after 12–18 months of treatment. Hence, investigating the drug resistance mechanism and resistance-associated biomarkers is necessary. Two lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, PC9 and gefitinib-resistant PC9/Gef, were established for examining resistance mechanisms and identifying potential therapeutic targets. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used for examining global protein expression changes between PC9 and PC9/Gef. The results revealed that 164 identified proteins were associated with the formation of gefitinib resistance in PC9 cells. Additional studies using RNA interference showed that progesterone receptor membrane component 1 and pericentrin proteins have major roles in gefitinib resistance. In conclusion, the proteomic approach enabled identifying of numerous proteins involved in gefitinib resistance. The results provide useful diagnostic markers and therapeutic candidates for treating gefitinib-resistant NSCLC. - Highlights: • 164 proteins associated with gefitinib resistance were identified through proteomic analysis. • In this study, a lung adenocarcinoma and its gefitinib resistant partner were established. • mPR and PCNT proteins have evidenced to play important roles in gefitinib resistance.

  8. Identification of protein expression alterations in gefitinib-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma: PCNT and mPR play key roles in the development of gefitinib-associated resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chi-Chen; Chen, Jing-Ting; Lin, Meng-Wei; Chan, Chia-Hao; Wen, Yueh-Feng; Wu, Shin-Bei; Chung, Ting-Wen; Lyu, Kevin W.; Chou, Hsiu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Gefitinib is the first-line chemotherapeutic drug for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which comprises nearly 85% of all lung cancer cases worldwide. However, most patients eventually develop drug resistance after 12–18 months of treatment. Hence, investigating the drug resistance mechanism and resistance-associated biomarkers is necessary. Two lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, PC9 and gefitinib-resistant PC9/Gef, were established for examining resistance mechanisms and identifying potential therapeutic targets. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used for examining global protein expression changes between PC9 and PC9/Gef. The results revealed that 164 identified proteins were associated with the formation of gefitinib resistance in PC9 cells. Additional studies using RNA interference showed that progesterone receptor membrane component 1 and pericentrin proteins have major roles in gefitinib resistance. In conclusion, the proteomic approach enabled identifying of numerous proteins involved in gefitinib resistance. The results provide useful diagnostic markers and therapeutic candidates for treating gefitinib-resistant NSCLC. - Highlights: • 164 proteins associated with gefitinib resistance were identified through proteomic analysis. • In this study, a lung adenocarcinoma and its gefitinib resistant partner were established. • mPR and PCNT proteins have evidenced to play important roles in gefitinib resistance.

  9. Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Holocytochrome c Synthase and the Key Roles Played by Cysteines and Histidine of the Heme Attachment Site, Cys-XX-Cys-His*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Shalon E.; San Francisco, Brian; Mendez, Deanna L.; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S.; Rodgers, Kenton R.; Bretsnyder, Eric C.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome c assembly requires the covalent attachment of heme by thioether bonds between heme vinyl groups and a conserved CXXCH motif of cytochrome c/c1. The enzyme holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS) binds heme and apocytochrome c substrate to catalyze this attachment, subsequently releasing holocytochrome c for proper folding to its native structure. We address mechanisms of assembly using a functional Escherichia coli recombinant system expressing human HCCS. Human cytochrome c variants with individual cysteine, histidine, double cysteine, and triple cysteine/histidine substitutions (of CXXCH) were co-purified with HCCS. Single and double mutants form a complex with HCCS but not the triple mutant. Resonance Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy support the proposal that heme puckering induced by both thioether bonds facilitate release of holocytochrome c from the complex. His-19 (of CXXCH) supplies the second axial ligand to heme in the complex, the first axial ligand was previously shown to be from HCCS residue His-154. Substitutions of His-19 in cytochrome c to seven other residues (Gly, Ala, Met, Arg, Lys, Cys, and Tyr) were used with various approaches to establish other roles played by His-19. Three roles for His-19 in HCCS-mediated assembly are suggested: (i) to provide the second axial ligand to the heme iron in preparation for covalent attachment; (ii) to spatially position the two cysteinyl sulfurs adjacent to the two heme vinyl groups for thioether formation; and (iii) to aid in release of the holocytochrome c from the HCCS active site. Only H19M is able to carry out these three roles, albeit at lower efficiencies than the natural His-19. PMID:25170082

  10. Mechanisms of mitochondrial holocytochrome c synthase and the key roles played by cysteines and histidine of the heme attachment site, Cys-XX-Cys-His.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Shalon E; San Francisco, Brian; Mendez, Deanna L; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S; Rodgers, Kenton R; Bretsnyder, Eric C; Kranz, Robert G

    2014-10-17

    Mitochondrial cytochrome c assembly requires the covalent attachment of heme by thioether bonds between heme vinyl groups and a conserved CXXCH motif of cytochrome c/c1. The enzyme holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS) binds heme and apocytochrome c substrate to catalyze this attachment, subsequently releasing holocytochrome c for proper folding to its native structure. We address mechanisms of assembly using a functional Escherichia coli recombinant system expressing human HCCS. Human cytochrome c variants with individual cysteine, histidine, double cysteine, and triple cysteine/histidine substitutions (of CXXCH) were co-purified with HCCS. Single and double mutants form a complex with HCCS but not the triple mutant. Resonance Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy support the proposal that heme puckering induced by both thioether bonds facilitate release of holocytochrome c from the complex. His-19 (of CXXCH) supplies the second axial ligand to heme in the complex, the first axial ligand was previously shown to be from HCCS residue His-154. Substitutions of His-19 in cytochrome c to seven other residues (Gly, Ala, Met, Arg, Lys, Cys, and Tyr) were used with various approaches to establish other roles played by His-19. Three roles for His-19 in HCCS-mediated assembly are suggested: (i) to provide the second axial ligand to the heme iron in preparation for covalent attachment; (ii) to spatially position the two cysteinyl sulfurs adjacent to the two heme vinyl groups for thioether formation; and (iii) to aid in release of the holocytochrome c from the HCCS active site. Only H19M is able to carry out these three roles, albeit at lower efficiencies than the natural His-19. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. miR-181c-BRK1 axis plays a key role in actin cytoskeleton-dependent T cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shok Ping; Ioannou, Nikolaos; Ramsay, Alan G; Darling, David; Gäken, Joop; Mufti, Ghulam J

    2018-05-01

    MicroRNAs are short endogenous noncoding RNAs that play pivotal roles in a diverse range of cellular processes. The miR-181 family is important in T cell development, proliferation, and activation. In this study, we have identified BRK1 as a potential target of miR-181c using a dual selection functional assay and have showed that miR-181c regulates BRK1 by translational inhibition. Given the importance of miR-181 in T cell function and the potential role of BRK1 in the involvement of WAVE2 complex and actin polymerization in T cells, we therefore investigated the influence of miR-181c-BRK1 axis in T cell function. Stimulation of PBMC derived CD3 + T cells resulted in reduced miR-181c expression and up-regulation of BRK1 protein expression, suggesting that miR-181c-BRK1 axis is important in T cell activation. We further showed that overexpression of miR-181c or suppression of BRK1 resulted in inhibition of T cell activation and actin polymerization coupled with defective lamellipodia generation and immunological synapse formation. Additionally, we found that BRK1 silencing led to reduced expressions of other proteins in the WAVE2 complex, suggesting that the impairment of T cell actin dynamics was a result of the instability of the WAVE2 complex following BRK1 depletion. Collectively, we demonstrated that miR-181c reduces BRK1 protein expression level and highlighted the important role of miR-181c-BRK1 axis in T cell activation and actin polymerization-mediated T cell functions. ©2018 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  12. The transcription factors CREB and c-Fos play key roles in NCAM-mediated neuritogenesis in PC12-E2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, U; Novitskaya, V; Pedersen, N

    2001-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) stimulates axonal outgrowth by activation of the Ras-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and by generation of arachidonic acid. We investigated whether the transcription factors, cyclic-AMP response-element binding protein (CREB) and c-Fos play...... roles in this process by estimating NCAM-dependent neurite outgrowth from PC12-E2 cells grown in co-culture with NCAM-negative or NCAM-positive fibroblasts. PC12-E2 cells were transiently transfected with expression plasmids encoding wild-type or dominant negative forms of CREB and c-Fos or an activated...... form of the MAPK kinase, MEK2. Alternatively, PC12-E2 cells were treated with arachidonic acid, the cAMP analogue dBcAMP, or protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors. The negative forms of CREB and c-Fos inhibited neurite outgrowth mediated by NCAM, arachidonic acid, dBcAMP, or MEK2. Neither CREB nor c...

  13. ATP-binding motifs play key roles in Krp1p, kinesin-related protein 1, function for bi-polar growth control in fission yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Dong Keun; Cho, Bon A; Kim, Hyong Bai

    2005-01-01

    Kinesin is a microtubule-based motor protein with various functions related to the cell growth and division. It has been reported that Krp1p, kinesin-related protein 1, which belongs to the kinesin heavy chain superfamily, localizes on microtubules and may play an important role in cytokinesis. However, the function of Krp1p has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we overexpressed an intact form and three different mutant forms of Krp1p in fission yeast constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in two ATP-binding motifs or by truncation of the leucine zipper-like motif (LZiP). We observed hyper-extended microtubules and the aberrant nuclear shape in Krp1p-overexpressed fission yeast. As a functional consequence, a point mutation of ATP-binding domain 1 (G89E) in Krp1p reversed the effect of Krp1p overexpression in fission yeast, whereas the specific mutation in ATP-binding domain 2 (G238E) resulted in the altered cell polarity. Additionally, truncation of the leucine zipper-like domain (LZiP) at the C-terminal of Krp1p showed a normal nuclear division. Taken together, we suggest that krp1p is involved in regulation of cell-polarized growth through ATP-binding motifs in fission yeast

  14. OsLEA3-2, an abiotic stress induced gene of rice plays a key role in salt and drought tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Duan

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins are involved in tolerance to drought, cold and high salinity in many different organisms. In this report, a LEA protein producing full-length gene OsLEA3-2 was identified in rice (Oryza sativa using the Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE method. OsLEA3-2 was found to be only expressed in the embryo and can be induced by abiotic stresses. The coding protein localizes to the nucleus and overexpression of OsLEA3-2 in yeast improved growth performance compared with control under salt- and osmotic-stress conditions. OsLEA3-2 was also inserted into pHB vector and overexpressed in Arabidopsis and rice. The transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings showed better growth on MS media supplemented with 150 mM mannitol or 100 mM NaCl as compared with wild type plants. The transgenic rice also showed significantly stronger growth performance than control under salinity or osmotic stress conditions and were able to recover after 20 days of drought stress. In vitro analysis showed that OsLEA3-2 was able to protect LDH from aggregation on freezing and inactivation on desiccation. These results indicated that OsLEA3-2 plays an important role in tolerance to abiotic stresses.

  15. Drought-induced defoliation and long periods of near-zero gas exchange play a key role in accentuating metabolic decline of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Aguadé, David; Galiano, Lucía; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2013-10-01

    Drought-induced defoliation has recently been associated with the depletion of carbon reserves and increased mortality risk in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We hypothesize that defoliated individuals are more sensitive to drought, implying that potentially higher gas exchange (per unit of leaf area) during wet periods may not compensate for their reduced photosynthetic area. We measured sap flow, needle water potentials and whole-tree hydraulic conductance to analyse the drought responses of co-occurring defoliated and nondefoliated Scots pines in northeast Spain during typical (2010) and extreme (2011) drought conditions. Defoliated Scots pines showed higher sap flow per unit leaf area during spring, but were more sensitive to summer drought, relative to nondefoliated pines. This pattern was associated with a steeper decline in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance with drought and an enhanced sensitivity of canopy conductance to soil water availability. Near-homeostasis in midday water potentials was observed across years and defoliation classes, with minimum values of -2.5 MPa. Enhanced sensitivity to drought and prolonged periods of near-zero gas exchange were consistent with low levels of carbohydrate reserves in defoliated trees. Our results support the critical links between defoliation, water and carbon availability, and their key roles in determining tree survival and recovery under drought. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Psychodrama: group psychotherapy through role playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, D A

    1992-10-01

    The theory and the therapeutic procedure of classical psychodrama are described along with brief illustrations. Classical psychodrama and sociodrama stemmed from role theory, enactments, "tele," the reciprocity of choices, and the theory of spontaneity-robopathy and creativity. The discussion focuses on key concepts such as the therapeutic team, the structure of the session, transference and reality, countertransference, the here-and-now and the encounter, the group-as-a-whole, resistance and difficult clients, and affect and cognition. Also described are the neoclassical approaches of psychodrama, action methods, and clinical role playing, and the significance of the concept of behavioral simulation in group psychotherapy.

  17. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 released from activated platelets plays a key role in thrombolysis resistance. Studies with thrombi generated in the Chandler loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stringer, H. A.; van Swieten, P.; Heijnen, H. F.; Sixma, J. J.; Pannekoek, H.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the potential role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which is released from the alpha-granules of activated platelets, in thrombolysis resistance, we employed a model (the "Chandler loop") that mimics the formation of arterial thrombi in vivo and that can be manipulated in

  18. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of Role-Playing Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  19. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  20. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA

  1. Deleted in breast cancer 1 limits adipose tissue fat accumulation and plays a key role in the development of metabolic syndrome phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escande, Carlos; Nin, Veronica; Pirtskhalava, Tamar; Chini, Claudia C S; Tchkonia, Tamar; Kirkland, James L; Chini, Eduardo N

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is often regarded as the primary cause of metabolic syndrome. However, many lines of evidence suggest that obesity may develop as a protective mechanism against tissue damage during caloric surplus and that it is only when the maximum fat accumulation capacity is reached and fatty acid spillover occurs into to peripheral tissues that metabolic diseases develop. In this regard, identifying the molecular mechanisms that modulate adipocyte fat accumulation and fatty acid spillover is imperative. Here we identify the deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) protein as a key regulator of fat storage capacity of adipocytes. We found that knockout (KO) of DBC1 facilitated fat cell differentiation and lipid accumulation and increased fat storage capacity of adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. This effect resulted in a "healthy obesity" phenotype. DBC1 KO mice fed a high-fat diet, although obese, remained insulin sensitive, had lower free fatty acid in plasma, were protected against atherosclerosis and liver steatosis, and lived longer. We propose that DBC1 is part of the molecular machinery that regulates fat storage capacity in adipocytes and participates in the "turn-off" switch that limits adipocyte fat accumulation and leads to fat spillover into peripheral tissues, leading to the deleterious effects of caloric surplus. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  2. The ZntA-like NpunR4017 plays a key role in maintaining homeostatic levels of zinc in Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudek, L; Bräu, L; Michalczyk, A A; Neilan, B A; Meeks, J C; Ackland, M L

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of cellular response to zinc exposure provides insights into how organisms maintain homeostatic levels of zinc that are essential, while avoiding potentially toxic cytosolic levels. Using the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme as a model, qRT-PCR analyses established a profile of the changes in relative mRNA levels of the ZntA-like zinc efflux transporter NpunR4017 in response to extracellular zinc. In cells treated with 18 μM of zinc for 1 h, NpunR4017 mRNA levels increased by up to 1300 % above basal levels. The accumulation and retention of radiolabelled (65)Zn by NpunR4107-deficient and overexpressing strains were compared to wild-type levels. Disruption of NpunR4017 resulted in a significant increase in zinc accumulation up to 24 % greater than the wild type, while cells overexpressing NpunR4107 accumulated 22 % less than the wild type. Accumulation of (65)Zn in ZntA(-) Escherichia coli overexpressing NpunR4017 was reduced by up to 21 %, indicating the capacity for NpunR4017 to compensate for the loss of ZntA. These findings establish the newly identified NpunR4017 as a zinc efflux transporter and a key transporter for maintaining zinc homeostasis in N. punctiforme.

  3. The fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabI plays a key role in the development of liver-stage malarial parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Kumar, T R Santha; Nkrumah, Louis J; Coppi, Alida; Retzlaff, Silke; Li, Celeste D; Kelly, Brendan J; Moura, Pedro A; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Freundlich, Joel S; Valderramos, Juan-Carlos; Vilcheze, Catherine; Siedner, Mark; Tsai, Jennifer H-C; Falkard, Brie; Sidhu, Amar Bir Singh; Purcell, Lisa A; Gratraud, Paul; Kremer, Laurent; Waters, Andrew P; Schiehser, Guy; Jacobus, David P; Janse, Chris J; Ager, Arba; Jacobs, William R; Sacchettini, James C; Heussler, Volker; Sinnis, Photini; Fidock, David A

    2008-12-11

    The fatty acid synthesis type II pathway has received considerable interest as a candidate therapeutic target in Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood-stage infections. This apicoplast-resident pathway, distinct from the mammalian type I process, includes FabI. Here, we report synthetic chemistry and transfection studies concluding that Plasmodium FabI is not the target of the antimalarial activity of triclosan, an inhibitor of bacterial FabI. Disruption of fabI in P. falciparum or the rodent parasite P. berghei does not impede blood-stage growth. In contrast, mosquito-derived, FabI-deficient P. berghei sporozoites are markedly less infective for mice and typically fail to complete liver-stage development in vitro. This defect is characterized by an inability to form intrahepatic merosomes that normally initiate blood-stage infections. These data illuminate key differences between liver- and blood-stage parasites in their requirements for host versus de novo synthesized fatty acids, and create new prospects for stage-specific antimalarial interventions.

  4. The communication of endogenous biomolecules (RNA, DNA, protein, hormone) via graft union might play key roles in the new traits formation of graft hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.A.; Ghazal, L.; Arsalan, M.H.; Siddiqui, M.F.

    2018-01-01

    Plant graft hybridization is a fact of a sexual hybridization in which heritable changes trigger by grafting, it can produce hereditable variation types desired by breeders and can be used as a new method for germplasm innovation. This paper aimed to discuss new phenotypic variations such as phenotypic diversity and polyploidy formation discovered in recent years, new evidence supporting genetic material exchange between the rootstock and scion, and the timeliness, direction, and genetic stability of trait formation induced by graft hybridization. The unresolved mechanisms of trait variation were also discussed, and the relationship with exchange of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) genetic information, horizontal gene transfer events of chloroplast and mitochondria, miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation, and pressure-driven trait variations from graft hybridization were performed to clarify the relevant questions. Finally, the future research trend and key questions of graft hybridization were identified. Three clear conclusions for graft hybridization are presented: the new traits of graft hybrids have stable genetic characteristics and can be controlled via selection different genetic plant by grafting, and the products of graft hybrids were safer than those of transgenic plants. (author)

  5. C9orf72 poly GA RAN-translated protein plays a key role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis via aggregation and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn-Bok; Baskaran, Pranetha; Gomez-Deza, Jorge; Chen, Han-Jou; Nishimura, Agnes L; Smith, Bradley N; Troakes, Claire; Adachi, Yoshitsugu; Stepto, Alan; Petrucelli, Leonard; Gallo, Jean-Marc; Hirth, Frank; Rogelj, Boris; Guthrie, Sarah; Shaw, Christopher E

    2017-12-15

    An intronic GGGGCC (G4C2) hexanucleotide repeat expansion inC9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (C9ALS/FTD). Repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation of G4C2 RNA can result in five different dipeptide repeat proteins (DPR: poly GA, poly GP, poly GR, poly PA, and poly PR), which aggregate into neuronal cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions in affected patients, however their contribution to disease pathogenesis remains controversial. We show that among the DPR proteins, expression of poly GA in a cell culture model activates programmed cell death and TDP-43 cleavage in a dose-dependent manner. Dual expression of poly GA together with other DPRs revealed that poly GP and poly PA are sequestered by poly GA, whereas poly GR and poly PR are rarely co-localised with poly GA. Dual expression of poly GA and poly PA ameliorated poly GA toxicity by inhibiting poly GA aggregation both in vitro and in vivo in the chick embryonic spinal cord. Expression of alternative codon-derived DPRs in chick embryonic spinal cord confirmed in vitro data, revealing that each of the dipeptides caused toxicity, with poly GA being the most toxic. Further, in vivo expression of G4C2 repeats of varying length caused apoptotic cell death, but failed to generate DPRs. Together, these data demonstrate that C9-related toxicity can be mediated by either RNA or DPRs. Moreover, our findings provide evidence that poly GA is a key mediator of cytotoxicity and that cross-talk between DPR proteins likely modifies their pathogenic status in C9ALS/FTD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Conserved Epigenetic Mechanisms Could Play a Key Role in Regulation of Photosynthesis and Development-Related Genes during Needle Development of Pinus radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valledor, Luis; Pascual, Jesús; Meijón, Mónica; Escandón, Mónica; Cañal, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Needle maturation is a complex process that involves cell growth, differentiation and tissue remodelling towards the acquisition of full physiological competence. Leaf induction mechanisms are well known; however, those underlying the acquisition of physiological competence are still poorly understood, especially in conifers. We studied the specific epigenetic regulation of genes defining organ function (PrRBCS and PrRBCA) and competence and stress response (PrCSDP2 and PrSHMT4) during three stages of needle development and one de-differentiated control. Gene-specific changes in DNA methylation and histone were analysed by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The expression of PrRBCA and PrRBCS increased during needle maturation and was associated with the progressive loss of H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and the increase in AcH4. The maturation-related silencing of PrSHMT4 was correlated with increased H3K9me3 levels, and the repression of PrCSDP2, to the interplay between AcH4, H3K27me3, H3K9me3 and specific DNA methylation. The employ of HAT and HDAC inhibitors led to a further determination of the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of our target genes. The integration of these results with high-throughput analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa suggests that the specific epigenetic mechanisms that regulate photosynthetic genes are conserved between the analysed species.

  7. Conserved Epigenetic Mechanisms Could Play a Key Role in Regulation of Photosynthesis and Development-Related Genes during Needle Development of Pinus radiata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Valledor

    Full Text Available Needle maturation is a complex process that involves cell growth, differentiation and tissue remodelling towards the acquisition of full physiological competence. Leaf induction mechanisms are well known; however, those underlying the acquisition of physiological competence are still poorly understood, especially in conifers. We studied the specific epigenetic regulation of genes defining organ function (PrRBCS and PrRBCA and competence and stress response (PrCSDP2 and PrSHMT4 during three stages of needle development and one de-differentiated control. Gene-specific changes in DNA methylation and histone were analysed by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP. The expression of PrRBCA and PrRBCS increased during needle maturation and was associated with the progressive loss of H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and the increase in AcH4. The maturation-related silencing of PrSHMT4 was correlated with increased H3K9me3 levels, and the repression of PrCSDP2, to the interplay between AcH4, H3K27me3, H3K9me3 and specific DNA methylation. The employ of HAT and HDAC inhibitors led to a further determination of the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of our target genes. The integration of these results with high-throughput analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa suggests that the specific epigenetic mechanisms that regulate photosynthetic genes are conserved between the analysed species.

  8. Play Therapy: Role in Reading Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the literature concerning the role of play therapy (particularly sandplay and nondirected play therapy) in the improvement of reading. Suggests that the role of play therapy is to support the child, encourage the child, and build self-esteem thus creating the optimal learning environment for reading improvement. (RS)

  9. Restaurant Role-Play in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borya, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Research methods is perceived as a technical and difficult topic by some students. Using role-play to teach it can make it more accessible, meaningful and engaging. Role-playing the familiar roles of customer and waiting staff at a restaurant and discussing the variables that may affect the size of tips can help students to learn some of the key…

  10. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  11. Moving educational role-play beyond entertainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus Henriksen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Educational role-play has long proved an effective tool for consultants trying to develop the skills that employees are using for performing certain job functions. However, while educational role-play often is presented as an entertaining means for learning, such insistence on making learning gam...

  12. I Play Roles, Therefore I Am

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Waade, Anne Marit

    2007-01-01

    -reflecting activity is getting an increasingly growing attention from the media, and the fact that educators, teachers, and development consultants have discovered the potential inherent in role-playing, both as an idea and a strategy. In this essay, we place leisure role-playing in a broader perspective, not only...... Rollespil - i æstetisk, pædagogisk og kulturel sammenhæng (2006), which is the first Danish academic anthology on role-playing as an aesthetic, educational, and cultural phenomenon....

  13. Online role-playing for faculty development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Zahra; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Vyas, Rashmi; Iqbal, Mobeen; Tan, Christina; Diserens, Deborah

    2011-03-01

    There has been a rapid growth of online teaching in the past few years, yet the implementation of role-play for formal educational activities in an online setting is growing more slowly. The use of online role-playing for the development of health professions educators is virtually un-documented in the literature. In the project reported here we use role-playing as a method to motivate and increase active participation in an online web-based discussion on community-based medical education (CBME). The Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education & Research (FAIMER(®) ) Institute hosts virtual group discussions for fellows as part of its fellowship programmes, in order to deepen their knowledge base in health professions education and research. In June 2008, a group of seven FAIMER(®) fellows and faculty members moderated an online discussion on CBME using an online role-play exercise with other fellows and faculty members. Out of a total of 102 fellows, 36 (35.3%) participated actively, which exceeded the typical percentage of list server participation. In addition, a rich discussion resulted in a comprehensive report on the goals, challenges, logistical components, role of Health Ministry policy and the possible ethical mandate of CBME in developing countries. Online role-play encouraged distributed participation among a highly diverse international group of participants, supporting the conclusion that role-playing can be used effectively with mid-career health professional faculty members in the online environment. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  14. Live action role-playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2006-01-01

    Live action role-playing games share a range of characteristics with massively multi-player online games (MMOGs). Because these games have existed for more than 20 years, players of these games have a substantial amount of experience in handling issues pertinent to MMOGs. Survey and review of live...... action role-playing games, whose participant count can be in the thousands, reveal that features such as size, theme, game master-to-player ratio, and others interact to form complex systems that require several different groups of control tools to manage. The way that these games are managed offers...

  15. Some Roles Children Play in Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Nancy; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A child patient may play one of several fixed roles in the family. As scapegoat, his shortcomings are emphasized; as baby, his dependence, weakness, and immaturity are rewarded; as pet, love and praise, some undeserved, are won; and, as peacemaker, he must promote peace at the cost of suppressing his own feelings. (ST)

  16. Role playing research before Dungeons and Dragons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas

    been published (for a review, see Lieberoth & Trier-Knudsen, 2015). Sometimes the therapeutic concept of “”Psychodrama”” is evoked as an earlier 20th century case (and suggested efficacy) of role playing as a positive tool for personal and psychological change, but digging a bit deeper, it turns out...

  17. Educational role-play: moving beyond entertainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus Henriksen, Thomas

    This paper presents a controversial approach to innovating educational role-play. It is argued that we should stop thinking games as an entertaining mean for facilitating participation, and instead try to see games as a content provider and feedback mechanism. A theoretical model is presented...

  18. Rhythmic Reading and Role-Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombarbdo, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    Children listen, act out and recite nursery rhymes and thus learn about rhyming words, absorb the rhythm of English language, and begin to develop speech sound awareness in an interactive and fun way, which can further enhance reading achievement. Encouraging children to dramatize the rhymes leads to role plays which uses basic vocabulary sight…

  19. Epoxy adhesive plays crucial role at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Epoxy adhesives are set to play a vital role in Europe's biggest-ever scientific experiment at the European Centrefor Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, thereby helping scientists gain a better understanding of the origins of the universe." (1/2 page)

  20. Epoxy adhesive plays crucial role at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Epoxy adhesives are set to play a vital role in Europe's biggest-ever scientific experiment at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, thereby helping scientists gain a better understanding of the origins of the universe." (1 page)

  1. The experiences of context on role play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue in question relates to the preparation that has the staff, for the use of the experiences of the context of children of preschool grade of primary school, in the role plays, for evidence that the social aspect that own the game, being a prerequisite for the formation and development of the child's personality, and being a problem under investigation in educational practice in all aspects of Early Childhood Education.

  2. Motivations for Play in Computer Role-Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    , but rather composed of multiple motivational drivers that are heavily interrelated and act in concert. Character uniqueness and Discovery & Immersion were the highest ranked motivational categories. Different levels of detail in motivations for playing single-/multi- Player RPGs were located...

  3. The Correlation of Playing Role-playing Games and Students' Reading Comprehension of Narrative Text

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Praditya

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the correlation of playing Role-Playing Games and students' reading comprehension of narrative text. Thirty (30) ninth grade students who play Role-Playing Games participated in this study. Their frequency in playing Role-Playing Games and their ability in reading comprehension of narrative text are analyzed by using correlation research design. Correlation research design was used in this study in order to find out the tendency of relation between students' frequen...

  4. P-glycoprotein binds to ezrin at amino acid residues 149-242 in the FERM domain and plays a key role in the multidrug resistance of human osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Daria; Zamboni, Silvia; Federici, Cristina; Lugini, Luana; Lozupone, Francesco; De Milito, Angelo; Cecchetti, Serena; Cianfriglia, Maurizio; Fais, Stefano

    2012-06-15

    Overexpression of the mdr1 gene encoding P-glycoprotein (Pgp) exerts a major role in reducing the effectiveness of cytotoxic therapy in osteosarcoma. The interaction between actin and Pgp has been shown to be instrumental in the establishment of multidrug resistance (MDR) in human tumor cells. The cytoskeleton linker ezrin exerts a pivotal role in maintaining the functional connection between actin and Pgp. We investigated the role of ezrin in a human multidrug-resistant osteosarcoma cell line overexpressing Pgp and compared it to its counterpart that overexpresses an ezrin deletion mutant. The results showed that Pgp binds at amino acid residues 149-242 of the N-terminal domain of ezrin. The interaction between ezrin and Pgp occurs in the plasma membrane of MDR cells, where they also co-localize with the ganglioside G(M1) located in lipid rafts. The overexpression of the ezrin deletion mutant entirely restored drug susceptibility of osteosarcoma cells, consistent with Pgp dislocation to cytoplasmic compartments and abrogation of G(M1) /Pgp co-localization at the plasma membrane. Our study provides evidence that ezrin exerts a key role in MDR of human osteosarcoma cells through a Pgp-ezrin-actin connection that is instrumental for the permanence of Pgp into plasma membrane lipid rafts. We also show for the first time that Pgp-binding site is localized to amino acid residues 149-242 of the ezrin Band 4.1, Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (FERM) domain, thus proposing a specific target for future molecular therapy aimed at counteracting MDR in osteosarcoma patients. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  5. TEACHING SPEAKING BY ROLE-PLAY ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilah Fadilah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The students often find some problems in practising English speaking. The problem frequently found is that their native language causes them difficult to use the foreign language. Other reason is because of motivation lack to practice the second language in daily conversation. They are also too shy and afraid to take part in the conversation. Many factors can cause the problem of the students’ speaking skills namely the students’ interest, the material, and the media among others including the technique in teaching English. There are many ways that can be done by the students to develop their ability in speaking English. The appropriate technique used by the English teacher also supports their interested in practising their speaking. One of the techniques that can be applied is role play.

  6. "Prey Play": Learning about Predators and Prey through an Interactive, Role-Play Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Cynthia C. M.; Dodd, Kristen; Drennon, Katherine; Nagle, Jack

    2012-01-01

    "Prey Play" is an interactive role-play activity that provides fifth-grade students with opportunities to examine predator-prey interactions. This four-part, role-play activity allows students to take on the role of a predator and prey as they reflect on the behaviors animals exhibit as they collect food and interact with one another, as well as…

  7. The β-Ketoacyl-CoA Synthase HvKCS1, Encoded by Cer-zh, Plays a Key Role in Synthesis of Barley Leaf Wax and Germination of Barley Powdery Mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Haslam, Tegan M; Krüger, Anna; Schneider, Lizette M; Mishina, Kohei; Samuels, Lacey; Yang, Hongxing; Kunst, Ljerka; Schaffrath, Ulrich; Nawrath, Christiane; Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny

    2018-04-01

    The cuticle coats the primary aerial surfaces of land plants. It consists of cutin and waxes, which provide protection against desiccation, pathogens and herbivores. Acyl cuticular waxes are synthesized via elongase complexes that extend fatty acyl precursors up to 38 carbons for downstream modification pathways. The leaves of 21 barley eceriferum (cer) mutants appear to have less or no epicuticular wax crystals, making these mutants excellent tools for identifying elongase and modification pathway biosynthetic genes. Positional cloning of the gene mutated in cer-zh identified an elongase component, β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (CER-ZH/HvKCS1) that is one of 34 homologous KCSs encoded by the barley genome. The biochemical function of CER-ZH was deduced from wax and cutin analyses and by heterologous expression in yeast. Combined, these experiments revealed that CER-ZH/HvKCS1 has a substrate specificity for C16-C20, especially unsaturated, acyl chains, thus playing a major role in total acyl chain elongation for wax biosynthesis. The contribution of CER-ZH to water barrier properties of the cuticle and its influence on the germination of barley powdery mildew fungus were also assessed.

  8. A Novel Zn2-Cys6 Transcription Factor AtrR Plays a Key Role in an Azole Resistance Mechanism of Aspergillus fumigatus by Co-regulating cyp51A and cdr1B Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kiminori; Paul, Sanjoy; Ohba, Ayumi; Gonoi, Tohru; Watanabe, Akira; Gomi, Katsuya

    2017-01-01

    Successful treatment of aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus is threatened by an increasing incidence of drug resistance. This situation is further complicated by the finding that strains resistant to azoles, the major antifungal drugs for aspergillosis, have been widely disseminated across the globe. To elucidate mechanisms underlying azole resistance, we identified a novel transcription factor that is required for normal azole resistance in Aspergillus fungi including A. fumigatus, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus nidulans. This fungal-specific Zn2-Cys6 type transcription factor AtrR was found to regulate expression of the genes related to ergosterol biosynthesis, including cyp51A that encodes a target protein of azoles. The atrR deletion mutant showed impaired growth under hypoxic conditions and attenuation of virulence in murine infection model for aspergillosis. These results were similar to the phenotypes for a mutant strain lacking SrbA that is also a direct regulator for the cyp51A gene. Notably, AtrR was responsible for the expression of cdr1B that encodes an ABC transporter related to azole resistance, whereas SrbA was not involved in the regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AtrR directly bound both the cyp51A and cdr1B promoters. In the clinically isolated itraconazole resistant strain that harbors a mutant Cyp51A (G54E), deletion of the atrR gene resulted in a hypersensitivity to the azole drugs. Together, our results revealed that AtrR plays a pivotal role in a novel azole resistance mechanism by co-regulating the drug target (Cyp51A) and putative drug efflux pump (Cdr1B). PMID:28052140

  9. Trancending the classrom: A practical guide to remote role plays in teaching international negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolinski, Remigiusz; Kesting, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the pedagogical value of using remote role plays in cross-cultural negotiations between two classes taught simultaneously at different and geographically distant institutions. We argue that remote role-play simulations provide valuable teaching and learning experiences...... of some critical limitations of “traditional” in-class role plays, followed by a practical guide to remote role plays and a report of our experiences with them. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of remote role plays as a teaching tool for international negotiation classes and the key...

  10. Virtual Playgrounds? Assessing the Playfulness of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kerrie Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Millions of children and adults devote much of their leisure time to playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Most observers commonly categorize computer games as a play activity, but this article asks whether MMORPGs contain activities that might not be play. The author examines the phenomenon of online gaming and…

  11. Role-Play and Student Engagement: Reflections from the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Role-play is viewed by scholars as an effective active learning strategy: it encourages participation among passive learners, adds dynamism to the classroom and promotes the retention of material. But what do students think of role-play? This study surveyed 144 students after a role-play activity in a history course and asked them to identify what…

  12. From Togetherness to Equal Partnership in Role Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannikainen, Maritta

    1998-01-01

    Explored different kinds of participation in play and development of joint role play. Observed games and play sessions of a 2-year-old girl in a day care group. Found that the girl proceeded from a feeling of togetherness in a shared space through parallel and successive play actions to reciprocity and equal exchange of play actions. (JPB)

  13. Role-playing for more realistic technical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C; Zeuch, A; Dieckmann, P; Roth, C; Schäfer, S; Völkl, M; Schellberg, D; Herzog, W; Jünger, J

    2005-03-01

    Clinical skills are an important and necessary part of clinical competence. Simulation plays an important role in many fields of medical education. Although role-playing is common in communication training, there are no reports about the use of student role-plays in the training of technical clinical skills. This article describes an educational intervention with analysis of pre- and post-intervention self-selected student survey evaluations. After one term of skills training, a thorough evaluation showed that the skills-lab training did not seem very realistic nor was it very demanding for trainees. To create a more realistic training situation and to enhance students' involvement, case studies and role-plays with defined roles for students (i.e. intern, senior consultant) were introduced into half of the sessions. Results of the evaluation in the second term showed that sessions with role-playing were rated significantly higher than sessions without role-playing.

  14. Teaching clinical interviewing skills using role-playing: conveying empathy to performing a suicide assessment: a primer for individual role-playing and scripted group role-playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Shawn Christopher; Barney, Christine

    2015-03-01

    This article provides a useful introduction to the art of role-playing in both the individual format and the group format using scripted group role-playing (SGRP). Role-playing can provide powerful learning opportunities, but to do so it must be done well. This article imparts guidance toward this goal. SGRP may greatly enhance the acquisition of critical complex interviewing skills, such as suicide assessment and uncovering domestic violence, in health care providers across all disciplines, an educational goal that has not been achievable to date. Although research is at an early stage of development, the hope represented by SGRP is tangible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Insight: Exploring Hidden Roles in Collaborative Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into interaction modes between players in co-located, collaborative games. In particular, hidden traitor games, in which one or more players is secretly working against the group mission, has the effect of increasing paranoia and distrust between players, so this paper looks into the opposite of a hidden traitor – a hidden benefactor. Rather than sabotaging the group mission, the hidden benefactor would help the group achieve the end goal while still having a reason to stay hidden. The paper explores what games with such a role can look like and how the role changes player interactions. Finally, the paper addresses the divide between video game and board game interaction modes; hidden roles are not common within video games, but they are of growing prevalence in board games. This fact, combined with the exploration of hidden benefactors, reveals that hidden roles is a mechanic that video games should develop into in order to match board games’ complexity of player interaction modes.

  16. Negotiating succession in a family business - a role play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelzmann-Knafl, Sabine; Winkler, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    . The role-play offers you the possibility to flexibly address various succession-related aspects in family business. It requires a teacher, who is familiar with the family business literature and particularly the research of succession in family business. Furthermore, because role-plays have their own...... dynamics, the teacher should be familiar with applying role-plays in their teaching. In the teaching notes we offer a way to embed the role-play in a five-hour teaching and learning activity addressing the various issues of succession in family firms. You could, however, do only the role-play, for instance......Negotiating succession is crucial for a family business. This role-play will enable students to simulate a family conference of the Mayer & Huber Ltd, a German-based but internationally operating producer of mechanical and electrical locking systems for the automotive industry. During...

  17. Cooperative learning with role play in Chinese pharmacology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin; Xi, Jinglei

    2012-03-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) and role play are both efficient educational tools for enhancing Chinese student active learning and communication skills. This study was designed to obtain student feedback on the format of CL together with role play in the study of pharmacology in Chinese pharmaceutical undergraduates. CL was used in the self-study of new drugs used clinically but neglected in textbook and class teaching, so that groups of students were assigned to become "specialists" in one area of new drugs. Then, these "specialists" taught their new-found knowledge to other groups in role play approach involving an interaction between the pharmacist and a patient. Student perceptions of CL together with role play were examined using an eight-item survey instrument. Students were satisfied with CL together with role play. Majority of the students believed this teaching method enhanced their learning experience, made them gain more pharmacological expertise, increased the awareness of their career in future and self-educational abilities, and fostered their cooperation spirit and confidence. The materials on CL and role play were also believed pertinent. Only 63.4-76.5% and 63.1-37.3% of the students thought "CL and role-play were very funny" and "I felt very relaxed during CL together with role-play", respectively. CL together with role play is an efficient educational tool for enhancing student active-learning and communication skills. But Chinese students will take some time to adapt to this new teaching method.

  18. Setting Sight on Role Playing: To Accommodate or to Repudiate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Apriani Fata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To set sight on role play by means to look at EFL teacher’s experience and students’ perspectives of role play (RP technique enactment in teaching speaking by using qualitative design. This research was a qualitative study. It was discharged at a Senior high school in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. It provided work for the instrument of observation sheet, field notes and interview guide, and also questionnaire. The methodology designated the combination of four mountainsides to expose in-depth the urgency of role play in which applied since 1936. The result of interview was exposed that the English teacher claimed that role play was a technique applied to promote speaking and it was corroborated by the result of field note. Likewise, regarding students’ perspective depicted that the students indeed agreed on themselves of the usefulness of role play to enhance their speaking skill and motivation. Thus, Students asserted that the learning was more fun and enjoyable through role play itself. It is merely found in this research study that role playing can accommodate students’ need and teacher’s side in English language teaching. Nevertheless, this article applies a small subject as the participant. Therefore, the researchers recommended to have a deep look at reasoning students’ point of view in terms of role play technique implementation in non-English class. And see ascertains how beneficial it is in terms of role play (RP in a large classroom.

  19. IRF8-dependent DCs play a key role in the regulation of CD8 T cell responses to epithelial-derived antigen in the steady state but not in inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joeris, Thorsten

    Along the process of epithelial self-renewal, antigens derived from apoptotic intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are taken up by antigen presenting cells (APCs), transported to gut-draining lymph nodes and crosspresented to CD8 T cells. In steady state, rapid tolerization of CD8 T cells reactive...... towards epithelialderived antigens is crucial to maintain tissue homeostasis. Since IRF8-dependent dendritic dells (IRF8-DCs) have superior cross-presenting capabilities, we aimed to investigate their role in this process. IFABP-tOva mice, expressing the model-antigen Ovalbumin (Ova) in IECs, were used...... as recipients to set up chimeras using either CD11c-cre.Irf8fl/fl bone marrow, which cannot generate IRF8-DCs, or cre-negative Irf8fl/fl control bone marrow. Whereas transfer of Ova-specific CD8 T cells (OT-I cells) to control chimeras resulted in their rapid tolerization, OT-I cells transferred to CD11c...

  20. Does genomic imprinting play a role in autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Cristina; Monk, David

    2011-01-01

    In the 19th century Gregor Mendel defined the laws of genetic inheritance by crossing different types of peas. From these results arose his principle of equivalence: the gene will have the same behaviour whether it is inherited from the mother or the father. Today, several key exceptions to this principle are known, for example sex-linked traits and genes in the mitochondrial genome, whose inheritance patterns are referred to as 'non mendelian'. A third, important exception in mammals is that of genomic imprinting, where transcripts are expressed in a monoallelic fashion from only the maternal or the paternal chromosome. In this chapter, we discuss how parent-of-origin effects and genomic imprinting may play a role in autoimmunity and speculate how imprinted miRNAs may influence the expression of many target autoimmune associated genes.

  1. Galactic Winds and the Role Played by Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Timothy M.; Thompson, Todd A.

    Galactic winds from star-forming galaxies play at key role in the evolution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium. They transport metals out of galaxies, chemically enriching the intergalactic medium and modifying the chemical evolution of galaxies. They affect the surrounding interstellar and circumgalactic media, thereby influencing the growth of galaxies though gas accretion and star formation. In this contribution we first summarize the physical mechanisms by which the momentum and energy output from a population of massive stars and associated supernovae can drive galactic winds. We use the prototypical example of M 82 to illustrate the multiphase nature of galactic winds. We then describe how the basic properties of galactic winds are derived from the data, and summarize how the properties of galactic winds vary systematically with the properties of the galaxies that launch them. We conclude with a brief discussion of the broad implications of galactic winds.

  2. Foreign Ludicity in Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mei-Ya

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on an explorative case study which, in the first place, aimed to ascertain different types of foreign language play in online role-playing in "Second Life," and which, secondly aimed to describe how various sources of contextual support can explain this foreign language play. Students' written conversation was…

  3. Finite-key-size effect in a commercial plug-and-play QKD system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwongkhot, Poompong; Sajeed, Shihan; Lydersen, Lars; Makarov, Vadim

    2017-12-01

    A security evaluation against the finite-key-size effect was performed for a commercial plug-and-play quantum key distribution (QKD) system. We demonstrate the ability of an eavesdropper to force the system to distill key from a smaller length of sifted-key. We also derive a key-rate equation that is specific for this system. This equation provides bounds above the upper bound of secure key under finite-key-size analysis. From this equation and our experimental data, we show that the keys that have been distilled from the smaller sifted-key size fall above our bound. Thus, their security is not covered by finite-key-size analysis. Experimentally, we could consistently force the system to generate the key outside of the bound. We also test manufacturer’s software update. Although all the keys after the patch fall under our bound, their security cannot be guaranteed under this analysis. Our methodology can be used for security certification and standardization of QKD systems.

  4. Table-Top Role Playing Game and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tsui-shan

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to observe whether individuals who engaged in table-top role playing game (TRPG) were more creative. Participants total 170 (52 TRPG players, 54 electronic role playing game (ERPG) players and 64 Non-players) aged from 19 to 63. In the current study, an online questionnaire is used, adopting the verbal subtests of…

  5. Role Playing: Applications in Hostage and Crisis Negotiation Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Romano, Stephen J.; Vecchi, Gregory M.

    2008-01-01

    Role playing has been a mainstay of behavioral assessment for decades. In recent years, however, this analogue strategy has also enjoyed widespread application in the field of law enforcement. Most notably, role-play procedures have become an integral component of assessment and training efforts in hostage and crisis negotiation, which attempts to…

  6. Role-Playing and Religion: Using Games to Educate Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Adam L.

    2008-01-01

    I have been experimenting with using role-playing and games in my religion classes for several years and have found that students respond well to these pedagogical tools and methods. After reviewing my experiences, I explore the reasons for students' positive response. I argue that role-playing games capitalize on our students' educational…

  7. When is role playing really experiential? Case studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boess, S.; Saakes, D.; Hummels, C.C.M.; B. Ullmer, xx; A. Schmidt, xx; E. Hornecker, xx; C. Hummels, xx; R. Jacob, xx; E. van der Hoven, xx

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents and evaluates examples from our work with role playing exercises in design, both in design education and in our own design work. Rationales for role playing in design are: communication within the design process, the increase of technological complexity, the experience and

  8. A Historical Journey in Science Education through Role Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Smita

    2013-01-01

    In order to avoid a routine classroom environment, teachers often employ the use of role-plays. This is an effective strategy because it is essential for teachers to engage their students with information through various methods. Role-playing provides the children with the opportunity to incorporate multiple senses into a knowledge-based, fun…

  9. The Use of Role Play in the Training of Hypnotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shirley

    A model has been developed for using role play in the supervision and training of hypnotherapy. Specific techniques can be role played by trainee and supervisor which can enable the trainee to develop skill and confidence in the use of hypnotic techniques. Hypnotic induction, listening, observing and providing feedback, relaxation,…

  10. Is it play? Towards a reconceptualisation of role-play from an activity theory perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a reconceptualisation of role play on the basis of the Cultural-Historical theory (Vygotskij -Leont'ev - El'konin). The theory conceives of play as a specific mode of activity defined by a format that includes three basic parameters (rules, degrees of freedom and involvement).

  11. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuss, D.J.; Louws, J.; Wiers, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of

  12. Qualitative Evaluation of a Role Play Bullying Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Gordon L; Brown, Kathryn; Grubb, Paula; Shay, Amy; Montoya, Karen

    Bullying against nurses is becoming a pervasive problem. In this article, a role play simulation designed for undergraduate nursing students is described. In addition, the evaluation findings from a subsample of students who participated in a role play simulation addressing bullying behaviors are reported. Focus group sessions were completed with a subset of eight students who participated in the intervention. Sessions were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Colaizzi's procedural steps for qualitative analysis. Themes derived from the data were "The Experience of Being Bullied", "Implementation of the Program", "Desired Outcome of the Program", and "Context of Bullying in the Nursing Profession". Role play simulation was an effective and active learning strategy to diffuse education on bullying in nursing practice. Bullying in nursing was identified as a problem worthy of incorporation into the undergraduate nursing curriculum. To further enhance the learning experience with role play simulation, adequate briefing instructions, opportunity to opt out of the role play, and comprehensive debriefing are essential.

  13. GIS plays key role in NYC Rescue and Relief Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    New York City, Sept. 17—The posters of missing loved ones are pasted onto New York City walls and street signs six days after 2 hijacked commercial airlines destroyed the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan on September 11. Several miles uptown from “ground zero,” heightened security hovers around the city's Office of Emergency Management rescue and relief command center, an around-the-clock operation. Police, firefighters, military, officials with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, communications technicians, and a beehive of others work in controlled chaos in this cavernous, convention center-sized hall, lined with computers and adorned with several American flags.After the original command center at 7 World Trade Center collapsed to rubble as an after-effect of the plane strikes, city officials scrambled to recreate it. Alan Leidner, director of New York's citywide geographic information systems (GIS), and who is with the Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications, knew that maps would be an integral component of the rescue and relief efforts. Maps provide emergency workers and others with accurate and detailed scientific data in the form of visual aids upon which they can make informed decisions.

  14. Landsat plays a key role in reducing hunger on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2016-08-24

    The United Nations’ Department of Economic and Social Affairs predicts 9.7 billion people will sit down every day to the global dinner table by 2050. If this prediction is correct, the world is going to need more crops, more livestock, and more efficient agricultural practices.

  15. Time perspective as a predictor of massive multiplayer online role-playing game playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukavska, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between the time perspective (TP) personality trait and massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) playing. We investigate the question of frequency of playing. The TP was measured with Zimbardo's TP Inventory (ZTPI), which includes five factors-past negative, past positive, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future. The study used data from 154 MMORPG players. We demonstrated that TP partially explained differences within a group of players with respect to the frequency of playing. Significant positive correlations were found between present factors and the amount of time spent playing MMORPGs, and significant negative correlation was found between the future factor and the time spent playing MMORPGs. Our study also revealed the influence of future-present balance on playing time. Players who scored lower in future-present balance variables (their present score was relatively high compared with their future score) reported higher values in playing time. In contrast to referential studies on TP and drug abuse and gambling, present fatalistic TP was demonstrated to be a stronger predictor of extensive playing than present hedonistic TP, which opened the question of motivation for playing. The advantage of our study compared with other personality-based studies lies in the fact that TP is a stable but malleable personality trait with a direct link to playing behavior. Therefore, TP is a promising conceptual resource for excessive playing therapy.

  16. Playing Against the Modern World? : Role-Playing Games in Late Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Playing Reality is an anthology of articles on live role-playing, a new art from where the Nordic countries are at the front edge. This book covers a wide range of topics and genres, from practical advice, historical reviews and visions of possible futures to semiotic and philosophical analysis. They Show some of the diversity of participatory arts, and will thus be of interest for anyone in the fields of art, education or performance. It wouldn't be misleading to claim that live role-playing...

  17. The function of game and role playing in adult education

    OpenAIRE

    Žáková, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    The subjects of this work are game, role and role playing in upbringing, education and training, and in personnel practice. The work uses knowledge of pedagogy, psychology and sociology, and focuses on social interaction and personality development. It introduces basic educational, training and therapeutic methods and procedures, including methods in the field of adult education, where the core of these methods lies in playing roles. It presents brief characteristics of individual methods, in...

  18. Creative Classrooms through Game-Based Role-Play Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    studies a framework that anchors the curriculum in game-based role-play scenarios and offers affordances for the learners to immerse themselves in the multiple perspectives of the roles. In this way of introducing problem based learning in immersive narrative environments, the learners are provided......-based role-play scenarios as a learning tool that can integrate the curriculum in meaningful context, and how it has impacted on the interaction and creative learning experiences in the class....

  19. The Many Faces of Role-Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitchens, Michael; Drachen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Role-playing games have grown and evolved into a large number of forms in the last thirty years, spanning digital as well as non-digital media. They demonstrate a wide variety in the number of participants, style of play and the formal and informal systems that govern them. Despite this diversity...... players at least seem to think they know when something is a role-playing game. Yet there is no commonly accepted definition which both captures games generally accepted as role-playing games and distinguishes them from other, similar, games which begs the question, whether roleplaying games are united...... by anything more than a colloquial name. Additionally, research involving these games is hampered by lack of a widely accepted definition of what constitutes a roleplaying game, as it is then not even possible to clearly delineate the subject of such research. In this paper various example of role-playing...

  20. PERSONALITY AND CHARACTER PREFERENCE IN ROLE-PLAYING GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Ramos-Villagrasa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In role-playing games players perform participative and episodic stories. Personality is a psychological construct associated with decision processes in many aspects of life. In this study, we analyzed if Big Five Personality Factors were related to game character preferences in the role-playing game “Dungeons & Dragons”. Results show that Personality is related only in the decision of character’s class. We also study the relationship between Personality and plots in role-playing games (action, intrigue, mystery, and personal relationships. Finally, recommendations to further investigation were given.

  1. The key role of extracellular vesicles in the metastatic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyun; Achreja, Abhinav; Iessi, Elisabetta; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Mizzoni, Davide; Di Raimo, Rossella; Nagrath, Deepak; Fais, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, have a key role in the paracrine communication between organs and compartments. EVs shuttle virtually all types of biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, metabolites and even pharmacological compounds. Their ability to transfer their biomolecular cargo into target cells enables EVs to play a key role in intercellular communication that can regulate cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis and migration. This has led to the emergence of EVs as a key player in tumor growth and metastasis through the formation of "tumor niches" in target organs. Recent data have also been shown that EVs may transform the microenvironment of primary tumors thus favoring the selection of cancer cells with a metastatic behavior. The release of EVs from resident non-malignant cells may contribute to the metastatic processes as well. However, cancer EVs may induce malignant transformation in resident mesenchymal stem cells, suggesting that the metastatic process is not exclusively due to circulating tumor cells. In this review, we outline and discuss evidence-based roles of EVs in actively regulating multiple steps of the metastatic process and how we can leverage EVs to impair metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. TOOLS FOR COLABORATIVE LEARNING: A ROLE-PLAYING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ortiz-de-Urbina Criado

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Role-playing is an active participation tool that facilitates cooperative learning. It has also proved to be more effective in developing competencies than traditional methods. This technique is essential to make theory and practice compatible as is required in order to adapt subjects to the new education system based on the Bolonia’s agreement, especially in Social Sciences disciplines. Consequently, the objective of this paper is to show the effect and use of role-playing applied to management area. Therefore, we analyze and design the role-playing, putting it in practice in the classroom in Human Resource Management subject of different academic degrees. To conclude, this paper has shown the importance of role-playing as a learning tool and development of skills like work cooperation, problem and conflict solving, decision making, and managing complex systems.

  3. Case studies and role play: learning strategies in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen; Pai, Daiane Dal; Aliti, Graziella Badin; Hoefel, Heloísa Karnas; Azzolin, Karina de Oliveira; Busin, Lurdes; Unicovsky, Margarita Ana Rubin; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2016-01-01

    to report professors' experience in a public university of Southern region of Brazil using case studies and role play as learning strategies for nursing care of hospitalized adults. learning experience report from the Nursing Care of Adults I class of nursing undergraduate course. the development of case studies and role play considered health care needs from epidemiological profile of chronic noncommunicable diseases morbidity and mortality, nursing as an assisting method, and social aspects of hospitalized individuals. Role play planning was made by creating a stage in laboratory of practices and dialogues comprising students and professors interaction. case studies and role play encouraged students to active search for learning and brought theory closer to real health care situations.

  4. Effect of combined teaching method (role playing and storytelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of combined teaching method (role playing and storytelling) on creative ... Remember me ... Background and Purpose: Storytelling promotes imagination and satisfies curiosity in children and creates learning opportunities in them.

  5. Older women play predominant role in building social ties and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... Older women play predominant role in building social ties and preventing ... brief demonstrates their contribution to building social cohesion and driving ... From learning to policy-oriented research: Lessons from South Africa's ...

  6. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ; Louws, J; Wiers, RW

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORP...

  7. Penerapan Metode Role Playing Dalam Meningkatkan Motivasi Belajar Anak Usia Play Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Anita Alfiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSalah satu faktor penting dalam kegiatan belajar (KBM untuk anak usia play group adalah guru yang memahami berbagai macam karakterisik peserta didik dan peduli terhadap kebutuhan anak didiknya.Namun Dari hasil penelitian dan kenyataan di lapangan, menunjukkan bahwa pelaksanaan kegiatan belajar mengajar (KBM untuk anak-anak usia play group masih banyak kelemahan dan kekurangannya karenanya  guru juga harus mampu menguasai teknik dan metode dalam  mengajar B untuk anak.Anak didik pada usia play group.Dengan demikian, metode pembelajaran merupakan alat untuk menciptakan proses belajar mengajar.Subana dan Sunarti (2000 : 20 Berpendapat metode adalah rencana penyajian bahan yang menyeluruh dengan urutan yang sistematis berdasarkan approach tertentu. Jadi metode merupakan cara melaksanakan pekerjaan, sedangkan approach, dapat tumbuh beberapan metode. Role Playing adalah suatu cara penguasaan bahan-bahan pelajaran melalui pengembangan imajinasi dan penghayatan siswa. Pengembangan imajinasi dan penghayatan dilakukan siswa dengan memerankannya sebagai tokoh hidup atau benda mati. Permainan ini pada umumnya dilakukan lebih dari satu orang, hal itu bergantung kepada apa yang diperankan.Role Playing yakni memainkan peranan dari peran-peran yang sudah pasti berdasarkan kejadian terdahulu, yang dimaksudkan untuk menciptakan kembali situasi sejarah/peristiwa masa lalu, menciptakan kemungkinan-kemungkinan kejadian masa yang akan datang, menciptakan peristiwa mutakhir yang dapat diperkaya atau mengkhayal situasi pada suatu tempat dan atau waktu tertentu. berarti metode (Role Playing adalah metode pembelajaran yang di dalamnya menampakkan adanya perilaku pura-pura dari siswa yang terlihat dan atau peniruan situasi dari tokoh-tokoh sejarah sedemikian rupa. Dengan demikian  metode Bermain Peran (RolePlayingadalah metode yang melibatkan siswa untuk pura-pura memainkan peran/ tokoh yang terlibat dalam proses sejarah. Teknik ini juga digunakan untuk dapat

  8. Representation of Cultural Role-Play for Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Thomas; Pepe, Aaron; Rosenzweiz, Larry; Paulus, John; Yi, Ahn Na

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Defense (000) has successfully applied a number of methods for cultural familiarization training ranging from stand-up classroom training, to face-to-face live role-play, to so-called smart-cards. Recent interest has turned to the use of single and mUlti-player gaming technologies to augment these traditional methods of cultural familiarization. One such system, termed CulturePad, has been designed as a game-based role-play environment suitable for use in training and experimentation involving cultural roleplay scenarios. This paper describes the initial CulturePad effort focused on a literature review regarding the use of role-play for cultural training and a feasibility assessment of using a game-mediated environment for role-play. A small-scale pilot involving cultural experts was conducted to collect qualitative behavioral data comparing live role-play to game-mediated role-play in a multiplayer gaming engine.

  9. Character Play – The use of game characters in multi- player Role Playing Games across platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, M.; Brolund, T.

    2008-01-01

    histories of game characters. This article presents results from a comprehensive empirical study of the way complex game characters are utilized by players in multiplayer role-playing games across two different media platforms. The results indicate that adult players are capable of comprehending...... and utilizing game characters with well-defined personalities and backgrounds, as well as rules-based components. Furthermore, that the game format plays a significant role in the pattern of usage of the character elements. This pattern appears directly linked with variations in the way that the different game...

  10. Contrasting Roles of Dopamine and Noradrenaline in the Motivational Properties of Social Play Behavior in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; van Kerkhof, Linda W M; Servadio, Michela; van Swieten, Maaike M H; Houwing, Danielle J; Aalderink, Mandy; Driel, Nina V; Trezza, Viviana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2016-02-01

    Social play behavior, abundant in the young of most mammalian species, is thought to be important for social and cognitive development. Social play is highly rewarding, and as such, the expression of social play depends on its pleasurable and motivational properties. Since the motivational properties of social play have only sporadically been investigated, we developed a setup in which rats responded for social play under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a key role in incentive motivational processes, and both dopamine and noradrenaline have been implicated in the modulation of social play behavior. Therefore, we investigated the role of dopamine and noradrenaline in the motivation for social play. Treatment with the psychostimulant drugs methylphenidate and cocaine increased responding for social play, but suppressed its expression during reinforced play periods. The dopamine reuptake inhibitor GBR-12909 increased responding for social play, but did not affect its expression, whereas the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine decreased responding for social play as well as its expression. The effects of methylphenidate and cocaine on responding for social play, but not their play-suppressant effects, were blocked by pretreatment with the dopamine receptor antagonist α-flupenthixol. In contrast, pretreatment with the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002 prevented the play-suppressant effect of methylphenidate, but left its effect on responding for social play unaltered. In sum, the present study introduces a novel method to study the incentive motivational properties of social play behavior in rats. Using this paradigm, we demonstrate dissociable roles for dopamine and noradrenaline in social play behavior: dopamine stimulates the motivation for social play, whereas noradrenaline negatively modulates the motivation for social play behavior and its expression.

  11. The Role of Play in Children’s Palliative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Boucher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Play is the universal language of childhood and the time and opportunity to play is every child’s right. The role of play as a vehicle for communication, a tool for distraction and its value in the holistic development of a normal child is without dispute. The role and value of play increase proportionately when a child is made more vulnerable through illness or disability. Despite this, providing time and opportunities to play can be overlooked or considered to be of little importance or relevance when the focus of the adult carers is the amelioration of clinical symptoms of the illness and on lessening the psychological impact the illness may have on the child. This paper outlines the role and the value of play as an integral component in the provision of palliative care for children with chronic, life-threatening and life-limiting conditions. It will show how providing appropriate equipment, sufficient time and relevant play opportunities not only improves the very sick child’s psychological wellbeing, but also allows the child to cast aside the confines and restrictions imposed upon them by their illness and for a few golden moments to be nothing more than a child at play.

  12. Sex Differences in Depression: Does Inflammation Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Heather M; Padin, Avelina C; Kuo, Jennifer L; Hughes, Spenser; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-10-01

    Women become depressed more frequently than men, a consistent pattern across cultures. Inflammation plays a key role in initiating depression among a subset of individuals, and depression also has inflammatory consequences. Notably, women experience higher levels of inflammation and greater autoimmune disease risk compared to men. In the current review, we explore the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and depression and describe how this link may be particularly relevant for women. Compared to men, women may be more vulnerable to inflammation-induced mood and behavior changes. For example, transient elevations in inflammation prompt greater feelings of loneliness and social disconnection for women than for men, which can contribute to the onset of depression. Women also appear to be disproportionately affected by several factors that elevate inflammation, including prior depression, somatic symptomatology, interpersonal stressors, childhood adversity, obesity, and physical inactivity. Relationship distress and obesity, both of which elevate depression risk, are also more strongly tied to inflammation for women than for men. Taken together, these findings suggest that women's susceptibility to inflammation and its mood effects may contribute to sex differences in depression. Depression continues to be a leading cause of disability worldwide, with women experiencing greater risk than men. Due to the depression-inflammation connection, these patterns may promote additional health risks for women. Considering the impact of inflammation on women's mental health may foster a better understanding of sex differences in depression, as well as the selection of effective depression treatments.

  13. Role-playing in the problem-based learning class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2012-01-01

    Learning and teaching have been conceptualized and executed in many styles, such as self-learning, peer learning, and interaction between the learner and mentor. Today, openness to alternative ideas and embracing innovative approaches in nursing education are encouraged in order to meet students' learning interests and needs, and to address ever-changing healthcare requests. Problem-based learning has been widely adopted in nursing education, with various positive effects on students' learning, such as motivated learning, team work, problem-solving skills and critical thinking. Role-plays have been demonstrated as an effective learning strategy that includes an active and experiential feature that facilitates students' autonomy in their health-related learning. However, there is a lack of discussion of whether and how role-play can be used in problem-based learning (PBL). This paper shows the development of a classroom-based innovation using role-play in the PBL class for higher diploma year-one nurse students (a total of 20 students, five per group). This paper consists of five sections: a) the literature on PBL and nurse education, and role-plays as the innovation; b) the PBL case scenario with the illustration of the two role-play scripts, c) student evaluation on role-play in the PBL class; d) discussions on both achievements and limitations of this innovation, and e) the conclusion. It is hoped that this paper will be an example to other nurse educators who are keen on exploring interactive and student-driven learning and teaching strategies in the PBL class. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Verbal Communication of Story Facilitators in Multi-player Role-Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Brolund, Thea; Hitchens, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study, the ver......Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study......, the verbal communication of game masters in a series of role-playing game sessions is categorized and analyzed depending on form and content, using protocol analysis, establishing a model for the verbal communication of game masters....

  15. What role can nuclear power play in mitigating global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to look at nuclear fission, as one of the available options, and evaluate qualitatively the extent to which it can play a role in greenhouse gas reduction strategies during the next three decades. No attempt will be made here to make a quantitative comparison with alternative energy supplies, or with energy efficiency measures

  16. A Recruiting and Hiring Role-Play: An Experiential Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Robert; Collins, Marianne K.

    2012-01-01

    Creating experiential learning opportunities that engage students, meet marketing curricula objectives, and fit the application in a traditional semester course is extremely challenging. This paper describes a role-playing simulation offered concurrently to the professional selling and sales management classes in which the selling students act as…

  17. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ROLE PLAY IN TEACHING SPEAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Suryani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Speaking is one of essential skills that should be mastered by students. In fact, the students face difficulties in speaking such as difficulty to arrange the sentences, fear of making mistakes, and lack of motivation. It is supported by Nunan (1993, he states that there are some challenges in teaching speaking skill in EFL classroom namely lack of motivation, and they tend to use their first language. Related to those problems, role play is offered to overcome the problems in speaking. The aim of the research was to know the effect of using role play in teaching speaking. The research used pre-experimental design with one group pre test and post test design which consist of 30 students as the sample. The data were obtained by using pre test and post test. Then, obtained data were analyzed by using SPSS 20. The result of the research showed that significance value was .00 and it is lower than the significance level .05. It means that the null hypothesis was rejected. Thus, teaching speaking by using role play has a significant effect on improving the students’ speaking ability.    Keywords: role play, speaking, motivation

  18. From MMORPG to a Classroom Multiplayer Presential Role Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaeta, Heinz; Jimenez, Felipe; Nussbaum, Miguel; Gajardo, Ignacio; Andreu, Juan Jose; Villalta, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has grown enormously, with communities of players reaching into the millions. Their fantasy narratives present multiple challenges created by the virtual environment and/or other players. The games' potential for education stems from the fact that players are immersed in a…

  19. Player-Character Dynamics in Multi- Player Role Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; McIlwain, D.; Brolund, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive empirical study of the impact of integrating complex game characters in multi-player Role Playing Games across tabletop and digital formats. Players were provided with characters that had detailed background history, personality and goals. Player...

  20. Confronting Prejudiced Comments: Effectiveness of a Role-Playing Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Timothy J.; McDonough, Tracy A.; Bodle, James H.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether a role-playing exercise, similar to that developed by Plous (2000), increases students' ability to generate effective responses to prejudiced comments. We assessed social psychology students' (n = 23) ability to respond to prejudiced comments before and after the exercise, and compared their performance to that of 2 other…

  1. CGRP may play a causative role in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, L H; Haderslev, P A; Jacobsen, V B

    2002-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been detected in increased amounts in external jugular venous blood during migraine attacks. However, it is unknown whether this is secondary to migraine or whether CGRP may cause headache. In a double-blind crossover study, the effect of human alphaCGRP...... attacks may play a causative role....

  2. Using Role-Playing Games to Broaden Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Jennifer R.; Rauch, Sebastien; Helgegren, Ida; Kain, Jaan-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In today's complex society, there is an increasing demand to include a wider set of skills in engineering curricula, especially skills related to policy, society and sustainable development. Role-playing and gaming are active learning tools, which are useful for learning relationships between technology and society, problem solving in…

  3. Designing Role-Playing Video Games for Ethical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrier, Karen

    2017-01-01

    How can we better design games, such as role-playing video games (RPGs), to support the practice of ethical thinking? Ethical thinking is a critical component of twenty-first century citizenship and we need to design ways to creatively support its practice. This study investigates how male participants, ages 18-34, make ethical decisions in three…

  4. The Ecology of Role Play: Intentionality and Cultural Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the evolutionary function of children's pretence. The everyday, cultural environment that children engage with is of a highly complex structure. Human adaptation, thus, becomes, by analogy, an equally complex process that requires the development of life skills. Whilst in role play children engage in "mimesis" and…

  5. Understanding the role played by parents, culture and the school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the role played by parents, culture and the school curriculum in socializing young women on sexual health issues in rural South African communities. ... highlight a need for designing interventions that can create awareness for parents on the current developmental needs and sexual behavior of adolescents.

  6. Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games as Arenas for Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates contemporary research on the use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) in language education. The development and key features of these games are explored. This is followed by an examination of the theories proposed as a basis for game-based learning, and the claims made regarding the value of…

  7. MODEL ROLE PLAYING DALAM PEMBELAJARAN SIKLUS AKUNTANSI PERUSAHAAN DAGANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarot Tri Tri Bowo Santoso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Accounting lesson is considered as a difficult lesson by most students in SMK/SMA. It is even sometimes worse with the less ability of accounting teachers to select learning methods thatcan attract students’ attention and thought. Therefore, it is necessary to find an alternative learning which can help students to involve in the real situation which is fun and memorable. The learning model which can fulfill the fun situation is the role playing. The steps to implement this model in the learning of accounting cycle for trade firm are to divide students in groups and to give each of them an opportunity to play a role. In practice, each student changers the role weekly based on the order. The model makesstuents easier to understand the basic accounting and leads the teachers evaluate the materials if the lack of conformity occurs during the learning.

  8. Nuclear energy: a key role despite problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear energy is projected to be the fastest growing power source and a key to meeting power demands in spite of the many problems facing the nuclear industry in the form of delays, protests, and cancellations. Pressures for a nuclear moratorium will slow the industry, Mr. Anderson feels, but in the long run nuclear reactors will make up an increasing share of the power generating capacity. The Arthur D. Little Co. projects a fourfold increase between 1975 and 1985 on the basis of 10-year lead times for construction of nuclear power plants. Half the new generating capacity after 1985 will be nuclear. Problems besetting every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle result from debates over proliferation, waste disposal, reactor safety, and environmental damage and lead to controversy over regulations and licensing. U.S. utilities are not ordering reactors, but manufacturers are finding markets in other countries. Financial difficulties have kept domestic utilities from undertaking large investment programs until they can resolve problems of fuel costs and rate structures. New construction is inevitable, however, to meet future electrical requirements. Nuclear companies, which number nearly 1300 manufacturers and service providers, need to develop a better public image by working together to demonstrate their ability to manage the risks and uncertainties

  9. The role of play objects and object play in human cognitive evolution and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Felix; Johannsen, Niels N; Högberg, Anders; Nowell, April; Lombard, Marlize

    2018-01-01

    In this contribution, we address a major puzzle in the evolution of human material culture: If maturing individuals just learn their parental generation's material culture, then what is the origin of key innovations as documented in the archeological record? We approach this question by coupling a life-history model of the costs and benefits of experimentation with a niche-construction perspective. Niche-construction theory suggests that the behavior of organisms and their modification of the world around them have important evolutionary ramifications by altering developmental settings and selection pressures. Part of Homo sapiens' niche is the active provisioning of children with play objects - sometimes functional miniatures of adult tools - and the encouragement of object play, such as playful knapping with stones. Our model suggests that salient material culture innovation may occur or be primed in a late childhood or adolescence sweet spot when cognitive and physical abilities are sufficiently mature but before the full onset of the concerns and costs associated with reproduction. We evaluate the model against a series of archeological cases and make suggestions for future research. © 2018 The Authors Evolutionary Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The role of play objects and object play in human cognitive evolution and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Niels N.; Högberg, Anders; Nowell, April; Lombard, Marlize

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In this contribution, we address a major puzzle in the evolution of human material culture: If maturing individuals just learn their parental generation's material culture, then what is the origin of key innovations as documented in the archeological record? We approach this question by coupling a life‐history model of the costs and benefits of experimentation with a niche‐construction perspective. Niche‐construction theory suggests that the behavior of organisms and their modification of the world around them have important evolutionary ramifications by altering developmental settings and selection pressures. Part of Homo sapiens' niche is the active provisioning of children with play objects — sometimes functional miniatures of adult tools — and the encouragement of object play, such as playful knapping with stones. Our model suggests that salient material culture innovation may occur or be primed in a late childhood or adolescence sweet spot when cognitive and physical abilities are sufficiently mature but before the full onset of the concerns and costs associated with reproduction. We evaluate the model against a series of archeological cases and make suggestions for future research. PMID:29446561

  11. Play a Starring Role in Your Textbook: A Digital Web Platform with an Embedded Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielvogel, Laura; Spielvogel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we introduce our digital e-textbook web platform with an integrated role-playing game, which has been created for "introduction to anthropology" courses. We believe that textbooks have the potential to do more to motivate students' pursuit of learning if their material (topically organised chapters supported by…

  12. How Does the Use of Role-Play Affect the Learning of Year 4 Children in a Predominately EAL Class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Katrina; Mistry, Malini Tina

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates role-play activities and how they can be used within learning for English as an Additional Language (EAL) pupils in a Key Stage 2 setting in England. Through observations, results showed effective role-play activities can be beneficial to EAL pupils, allowing them to practice words and phrases in a relaxed atmosphere…

  13. Social interactions in massively multiplayer online role-playing gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Helena; Griffiths, Mark D

    2007-08-01

    To date, most research into massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has examined the demographics of play. This study explored the social interactions that occur both within and outside of MMORPGs. The sample consisted of 912 self-selected MMORPG players from 45 countries. MMORPGs were found to be highly socially interactive environments providing the opportunity to create strong friendships and emotional relationships. The study demonstrated that the social interactions in online gaming form a considerable element in the enjoyment of playing. The study showed MMORPGs can be extremely social games, with high percentages of gamers making life-long friends and partners. It was concluded that virtual gaming may allow players to express themselves in ways they may not feel comfortable doing in real life because of their appearance, gender, sexuality, and/or age. MMORPGs also offer a place where teamwork, encouragement, and fun can be experienced.

  14. GeoQuest an Interactive Role Playing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraffi, Sabina; Sacerdoti, Francesco; Scamardella, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    The acquisition of knowledge and enhancing skills at actual time requires different approaches, involving students as much as possible, taking advantage of informal learning strengths and opportunities of formal learning. In this perspective, the game seems to be a perfect vehicle, not a single student's playing but a cooperative one. The GeoQuest project consists of an interactive role-playing game which involves all students using a patented system: the "teaching projector". This system allows the interaction of the class group through the use of smartphones and tablets, and it shows in real-time the game progress to the whole class. Our role-playing game is based on three routes at different degrees. The students, divided into several categories (physicist, chemists, disseminators, technicians, historians) have to follow a geological trail in order to discover the present and the past of the Earth. During the path, students have to pass some doors in teamwork; they allow assessment and represent the main sharing/disclosure moment. The doors allow to modulate the activities according to single lesson, teaching unit, module. Main Objectives: Working on PC by themselves, students could be even more alone: it needs a best fitting between ICT and cooperative learning. Role-playing helps students to reach their goals easily through cooperation; this in order to avoid the risk of loneliness of Inquiry Based Science Education, preserving entirely the educational value. Science Research now is based on field expert interaction: the role-playing game categories reflect the necessary team to get their goal. The several roles allow everyone to enhance their own skills. the "teaching projector" allows students to comment and to evaluate the groups activities and route them, providing real-time corrections to everybody. The playing categories represent all the aspects of the research areas: from scientists (physicists, chemists), to technicians, to disseminators and

  15. Character selecting advisor for a role-playing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, Carol L.; Berlanga, Felicia

    1994-01-01

    Role-playing games have been a source of much pleasure and merriment for people of all ages. The process of developing a character for a role-playing game is usually very, very time consuming, delaying what many players consider the most entertaining part of the game. An expert system has been written to assist a player in creating a character by guiding the player through a series of questions. This paper discusses the selection of this topic, the knowledge engineering, the software development, and the resulting program that cuts the time of character development from about 4 hours to 30 minutes. The program was written on a PC and an Apollo in CLIPS 4.3 and currently runs on the Apollo.

  16. What role does taste play in school meal interventions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Kayla; Olsen, Anne Marie; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    dialogue around taste on factors such as physical and psychological well-being, empowerment, school enjoyment, and academic outcomes. By taking steps to accurately evaluate and improve the taste of school food and by creating avenues for students to express their opinions and develop a meaningful sense......School lunch plays an important role in the well-being of students. However, studies have given evidence that school lunch may not be satisfactory to students. Evidence shows that taste plays an influential role in students’ food decisions and eating experiences. This narrative review finds...... that interventions around improving school lunch mainly focus on increasing intake of target foods or food groups, and few studies exist that examine other outcomes such as food enjoyment or well-being. Future interventions could explore the impact of increasing student engagement around school lunch and opening...

  17. Women play larger role in Latin America's commercial urban waste ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 juin 2016 ... The research examines the role women play in marketing urban waste as a commercial enterprise and their important contribution to municipal recyclable waste activities. This book ... De courts téléromans pour encourager l'éducation financière et l'inclusion des femmes au Pérou. Le fait de ne pas avoir ...

  18. Economy and technology roles played by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Eiji

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of the survey analysis made by Atomic Energy Commission on the roles in economy and technology played in the nuclear energy development and utilization, the following are described: economic roles in nuclear energy development and utilization (the present state of nuclear power industry in Japan and the economy effects); technological roles in the same (the present state of nuclear power technology in Japan and the technology effects). The economy effects in other areas are on higher level than in other industries etc. Then, in the technology effects, system technology and quality control in the nuclear power possess significant effects in other areas. While the nuclear energy development and utilization is important in Japan's energy security, it is contributing largely to the economy and society in Japan. (Mori, K.)

  19. Drama and Role Playing in Teaching Practice: The Role of Group Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çerkez, Yagmur; Altinay, Zehra; Altinay, Fahriye; Bashirova, Elnara

    2012-01-01

    The research study aims to explore the essence of group work in drama and role playing for teaching practice inline with the nature of collaborative learning process. This research study has qualitative nature by capturing experiences of volunteer ninety pre-service teachers about group works, gained skills from drama and role playing in their…

  20. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Louws, Jorik; Wiers, Reinout W

    2012-09-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORPG players and 90 nonplayers using a Web-based questionnaire regarding their gaming behavior, problems as consequences of gaming, and game motivations and tested their statistical associations. Results indicated that (a) MMORPG players are significantly more likely to experience gaming-related problems relative to nonplayers, and that (b) the gaming motivations escapism and mechanics significantly predicted excessive gaming and appeared as stronger predictors than time investment in game. The findings support the necessity of using measures that distinguish between different types of online games. In addition, this study proves useful regarding the current discussion on establishing (online) gaming addiction as a diagnosis in future categorizations of psychopathology.

  1. NHE8 plays important roles in gastric mucosal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Li, Jing; Chen, Huacong; Wang, Chunhui

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 8 is an apically expressed membrane protein in the intestinal epithelial cells. It plays important roles in sodium absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine. Although NHE8 mRNA has been detected in the stomach, the precise location and physiological role of NHE8 in the gastric glands remain unclear. In the current study, we successfully detected the expression of NHE8 in the glandular region of the stomach by Western blotting and located NHE8 protein at the apical membrane in the surface mucous cells by a confocal microscopic method. We also identified the expression of downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA) in the surface mucous cells in the stomach. Using NHE8−/− mice, we found that NHE8 plays little or no role in basal gastric acid production, yet NHE8−/− mice have reduced gastric mucosal surface pH and higher incidence of developing gastric ulcer. DRA expression was reduced significantly in the stomach in NHE8−/− mice. The propensity for gastric ulcer, reduced mucosal surface pH, and low DRA expression suggest that NHE8 is indirectly involved in gastric bicarbonate secretion and gastric mucosal protection. PMID:23220221

  2. Agroecology: the key role of arbuscular mycorrhizas in ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianinazzi, Silvio; Gollotte, Armelle; Binet, Marie-Noëlle; van Tuinen, Diederik; Redecker, Dirk; Wipf, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    The beneficial effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant performance and soil health are essential for the sustainable management of agricultural ecosystems. Nevertheless, since the 'first green revolution', less attention has been given to beneficial soil microorganisms in general and to AM fungi in particular. Human society benefits from a multitude of resources and processes from natural and managed ecosystems, to which AM make a crucial contribution. These resources and processes, which are called ecosystem services, include products like food and processes like nutrient transfer. Many people have been under the illusion that these ecosystem services are free, invulnerable and infinitely available; taken for granted as public benefits, they lack a formal market and are traditionally absent from society's balance sheet. In 1997, a team of researchers from the USA, Argentina and the Netherlands put an average price tag of US $33 trillion a year on these fundamental ecosystem services. The present review highlights the key role that the AM symbiosis can play as an ecosystem service provider to guarantee plant productivity and quality in emerging systems of sustainable agriculture. The appropriate management of ecosystem services rendered by AM will impact on natural resource conservation and utilisation with an obvious net gain for human society.

  3. PDGFRα plays a crucial role in connective tissue remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Shinjiro; Ishii, Yoko; Hamashima, Takeru; Yamamoto, Seiji; Mori, Hisashi; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Shen, Jie; Inoue, Ran; Nishizono, Hirofumi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Majima, Masataka; Abraham, David; Miyawaki, Toshio; Sasahara, Masakiyo

    2015-12-07

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) plays a pivotal role in the remodeling of connective tissues. Emerging data indicate the distinctive role of PDGF receptor-α (PDGFRα) in this process. In the present study, the Pdgfra gene was systemically inactivated in adult mouse (α-KO mouse), and the role of PDGFRα was examined in the subcutaneously implanted sponge matrices. PDGFRα expressed in the fibroblasts of Pdgfra-preserving control mice (Flox mice), was significantly reduced in the sponges in α-KO mice. Neovascularized areas were largely suppressed in the α-KO mice than in the Flox mice, whereas the other parameters related to the blood vessels and endothelial cells were similar. The deposition of collagen and fibronectin and the expression of collagen 1a1 and 3a1 genes were significantly reduced in α-KO mice. There was a significantly decrease in the number and dividing fibroblasts in the α-KO mice, and those of macrophages were similar between the two genotypes. Hepatocyte growth factor (Hgf) gene expression was suppressed in Pdgfra-inactivated fibroblasts and connective tissue. The findings implicate the role of PDGFRα-dependent ECM and HGF production in fibroblasts that promotes the remodeling of connective tissue and suggest that PDGFRα may be a relevant target to regulate connective tissue remodeling.

  4. The role of play themes in non-directive play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Virginia; Edge, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    Describing the processes underlying play therapy is important for evidence based practice in child therapy. Employing play themes to describe children's play session contents is in widespread use by practitioners, but an adequate classification of these themes for non-directive play therapy practice has not yet been established. This article sets out to fill this gap by first describing how themes can be distinguished and distilled from the contents of play therapy contents. Second, a classification of main themes and sub-themes with exemplars to illustrate these concepts which is compatible with non-directive play therapy practice is set out. Finally a pilot project with experienced play therapists to test this classification in practice is suggested, along with the research questions that will need to be investigated in the shorter and longer terms.

  5. Facilitating social work role plays in online courses: The use of video conferencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Fitch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Role plays have served an instrumental role in social work education by providing opportunities for students to acquire interaction skills. This project tested various online video conferencing tools to facilitate role plays for students who live in different locations and who are unable to be at the same place at the same time. Key features of the technology included the ability to facilitate real-time interaction, compatibility with laptops and Wi-Fi connections, and the ability to record sessions for later viewing and feedback. Method: Case study design. Results: Students were able to use the videoconferencing software with minimal support. Video quality was not always ideal with contributing factors being the time of day students used the software. There were no distinguishable time and effort demands associated with the online video conferencing compared to classroom role plays. Some students found use of the technology caused them to feel disconnected from their peers compared to face-to-face encounters, while other students found the encounter more intimate in that the pressure to perform in front of others was not felt. Implications: Video conferencing is a promising tool to facilitate social work role plays. Future research needs to assess the acquisition of specific skills compared to traditional classroom students.

  6. Role Playing Game (RPG on nursing undergraduate course: educational potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Nathale Soares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of a Role Playing Game as an educational strategy in Undergraduate Nursing course, emphasizing its subjective implications in understanding aspects of the profession. This is a qualitative study, conducted through an evaluative research, of deployment analysis type. Nursing students of the 3rd period participated. The instrument to collection was Memories of Game, reports prepared by students after game sessions. The game is a non-traditional educational strategy that enabled approach to students through professional practice, active participation, self-reflection and reflection on professional practice. This strategy favored individualization processes, allowing students to experience situations similar to the nursing practice and exercise skills such as teamwork and creativity. The expansion of studies that address the subjective processes in higher education, through simulation games, can contribute to better design of health development processes.

  7. [Vascular depression in the elderly. Does inflammation play a role?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscogliosi, Giovanni; Andreozzi, Paola; Chiriac, Iulia Maria; Ettorre, Evaristo; Vulcano, Achiropita; Servello, Adriana; Marigliano, Benedetta; Marigliano, Vincenzo

    2011-06-01

    Vascular depression in the elderly. Does inflammation play a role?Depression is the most common comorbidity in the elderly, and it is a major determinant of disability. The late-onset depression in highly associated to cardiovascular disease. Depressive symptoms may follow vascular brain damage, especially when mood regulating areas are affected. However depression is strongly associated to vascular disease even when there is no manifest brain damage. Recently great attention has been given to chronic inflammation, both related to depression and vascular disease. Both experimental and clinical evidence shows that a rise in the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids in depressed patients is associated with defect in serotonergic function. Chronic inflammation may underlie many forms of depression associated with vascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The importance of the inflammation hypothesis of depression lies is that psychotropic drugs may have central anti-inflammatory action, and that new generation of central anti-inflammatory drugs may be useful in depression treatment.

  8. DREAM plays an important role in platelet activation and thrombogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungho; Tseng, Alan; Barazia, Andrew; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2017-01-01

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a transcriptional repressor, is known to modulate pain responses. However, it is unknown whether DREAM is expressed in anucleate platelets and plays a role in thrombogenesis. By using intravital microscopy with DREAM-null mice and their bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrated that both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell DREAMs are required for platelet thrombus formation following laser-induced arteriolar injury. In a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model, we found that compared with wild-type (WT) control and nonhematopoietic DREAM knockout (KO) mice, DREAM KO control and hematopoietic DREAM KO mice showed a significant delay in time to occlusion. Tail bleeding time was prolonged in DREAM KO control mice, but not in WT or DREAM bone marrow chimeric mice. In vivo adoptive transfer experiments further indicated the importance of platelet DREAM in thrombogenesis. We found that DREAM deletion does not alter the ultrastructural features of platelets but significantly impairs platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate secretion induced by numerous agonists (collagen-related peptide, adenosine 5′-diphosphate, A23187, thrombin, or U46619). Biochemical studies revealed that platelet DREAM positively regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity during platelet activation. Using DREAM-null platelets and PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors, we observed that platelet DREAM is important for α-granule secretion, Ca2+ mobilization, and aggregation through PI3K class Iβ (PI3K-Iβ). Genetic and pharmacological studies in human megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells showed that DREAM is important for A23187-induced Ca2+ mobilization and its regulatory function requires Ca2+ binding and PI3K-Iβ activation. These results suggest that platelet DREAM regulates PI3K-Iβ activity and plays an important role during thrombus formation. PMID:27903531

  9. BAP1 PLAYS A SURVIVAL ROLE IN CUTANEOUS MELANOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Miao, Benchun; Ji, Zhenyu; Njauw, Jenny Ching-Ni; Jönsson, Göran; Frederick, Dennie Tompers; Tsao, Hensin

    2014-01-01

    Although the pattern of BAP1 inactivation in ocular melanoma specimens and in the BAP1 cutaneous/ocular melanoma (CM/OM) predisposition syndrome suggests a tumor suppressor function, the specific role of this gene in the pathogenesis of cutaneous melanoma is not fully understood. We thus set out to characterize BAP1 in cutaneous melanoma and discovered an unexpected pro-survival effect of this protein. Tissue and cell lines analysis showed that BAP1 expression was maintained, rather than lost, in primary melanomas compared to nevi and normal skin. Genetic depletion of BAP1 in melanoma cells reduced proliferation and colony forming capability, induced apoptosis and inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. On the molecular level, suppression of BAP1 led to a concomitant drop in the protein levels of survivin a member of anti-apoptotic proteins and a known mediator of melanoma survival. Restoration of survivin in melanoma cells partially rescued the growth-retarding effects of BAP1 loss. In contrast to melanoma cells, stable overexpression of BAP1 into immortalized but non-transformed melanocytes did suppress proliferation and reduce survivin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that BAP1 may play a growth-sustaining role in melanoma cells, but that its impact on ubiquitination underpins a complex physiology which is context and cell dependent. PMID:25521456

  10. Doublecortin May Play a Role in Defining Chondrocyte Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxia Ge

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic development of articular cartilage has not been well understood and the role of doublecortin (DCX in determination of chondrocyte phenotype is unknown. Here, we use a DCX promoter-driven eGFP reporter mouse model to study the dynamic gene expression profiles in mouse embryonic handplates at E12.5 to E13.5 when the condensed mesenchymal cells differentiate into either endochondral chondrocytes or joint interzone cells. Illumina microarray analysis identified a variety of genes that were expressed differentially in the different regions of mouse handplate. The unique expression patterns of many genes were revealed. Cytl1 and 3110032G18RIK were highly expressed in the proximal region of E12.5 handplate and the carpal region of E13.5 handplate, whereas Olfr538, Kctd15, and Cited1 were highly expressed in the distal region of E12.5 and the metacarpal region of E13.5 handplates. There was an increasing gradient of Hrc expression in the proximal to distal direction in E13.5 handplate. Furthermore, when human DCX protein was expressed in human adipose stem cells, collagen II was decreased while aggrecan, matrilin 2, and GDF5 were increased during the 14-day pellet culture. These findings suggest that DCX may play a role in defining chondrocyte phenotype.

  11. Children's Engagement in Play at Home: A Parent's Role in Supporting Play Opportunities during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForett, Doré R.; Mendez, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined parents' developmentally appropriate beliefs about young children's play and parents' views on their child's play skills. This exploratory secondary data analysis was drawn from data on low-income African-American and Latino parents and their children (n = 109) participating in Head Start programmes in the USA. Compared with…

  12. Using Online Role-Play to Promote Collaborative Argument and Collective Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr-Stevens, Candance; Beach, Richard; Boeser, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how students use online role-play to collaborate and change real school policy. Playing different characters in an online role-play, students explore controversial aspects of Internet filtering and adopt a plan to change their school's policy. Through engaging in collaborative argumentation during their role-play, students…

  13. The role of play in Danish child care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    of child care. To illustrate how play is a developmental activitity for children, an example of a social fantasy play episode is analysed in order to substantiate the claim: that children’s self-organised play-activities propels social development, authenticity and democratic values.......Children’s play is an immensely central part of child care in Scandinavia. This chapter describes how children’s play with peers and friends is supported by the pedagogical environment of Danish child care. It is argued that play is an existential project for children and that opportunites to play...... freely teaches children to become part of the social order, to become good friends and to solve differences through negotiation. Throughout the chapter the environment facilitating children’s play is illustrated with reference to typical Danish child care practices and research results on quality...

  14. Copy number variation plays an important role in clinical epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Heather; Shen, Yiping; Avallone, Jennifer; Sheidley, Beth R.; Pinsky, Rebecca; Bergin, Ann M.; Berry, Gerard T.; Duffy, Frank H.; Eksioglu, Yaman; Harris, David J.; Hisama, Fuki M.; Ho, Eugenia; Irons, Mira; Jacobsen, Christina M.; James, Philip; Kothare, Sanjeev; Khwaja, Omar; Lipton, Jonathan; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Markowitz, Jennifer; Maski, Kiran; Megerian, J. Thomas; Neilan, Edward; Raffalli, Peter C.; Robbins, Michael; Roberts, Amy; Roe, Eugene; Rollins, Caitlin; Sahin, Mustafa; Sarco, Dean; Schonwald, Alison; Smith, Sharon E.; Soul, Janet; Stoler, Joan M.; Takeoka, Masanori; Tan, Wen-Han; Torres, Alcy R.; Tsai, Peter; Urion, David K.; Weissman, Laura; Wolff, Robert; Wu, Bai-Lin; Miller, David T.; Poduri, Annapurna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of copy number abnormalities detectable by chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing in patients with epilepsy at a tertiary care center. Methods We identified patients with ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures and clinical CMA testing performed between October 2006 and February 2011 at Boston Children’s Hospital. We reviewed medical records and included patients meeting criteria for epilepsy. We phenotypically characterized patients with epilepsy-associated abnormalities on CMA. Results Of 973 patients who had CMA and ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures, 805 patients satisfied criteria for epilepsy. We observed 437 copy number variants (CNVs) in 323 patients (1–4 per patient), including 185 (42%) deletions and 252 (58%) duplications. Forty (9%) were confirmed de novo, 186 (43%) were inherited, and parental data were unavailable for 211 (48%). Excluding full chromosome trisomies, CNV size ranged from 18 kb to 142 Mb, and 34% were over 500 kb. In at least 40 cases (5%), the epilepsy phenotype was explained by a CNV, including 29 patients with epilepsy-associated syndromes and 11 with likely disease-associated CNVs involving epilepsy genes or “hotspots.” We observed numerous recurrent CNVs including 10 involving loss or gain of Xp22.31, a region described in patients with and without epilepsy. Interpretation Copy number abnormalities play an important role in patients with epilepsy. Given that the diagnostic yield of CMA for epilepsy patients is similar to the yield in autism spectrum disorders and in prenatal diagnosis, for which published guidelines recommend testing with CMA, we recommend the implementation of CMA in the evaluation of unexplained epilepsy. PMID:24811917

  15. Using dramatic role-play to develop emotional aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Dinapoli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As university educators, we need to prepare students for the transition from the information age to what Daniel H. Pink (2005 calls the conceptual age, which is governed by artistry, empathy and emotion, by including in the curricula activities that stimulate both hemispheres of the brain. This can be done by promoting activities that energize what Daniel Goleman (1995 refers to as emotional intelligence, and it further maintains that, as Paul Ekman (2003 suggests, the ability to detect feelings improves communication. Recognizing the need to include in the curricula procedures that help develop students’ right brain aptitudes and enhance their communication skills, I have endeavoured to introduce dramatic scene study as a sustained activity in my English for Specific Purposes courses at the Universidad de Valencia. My aim was to energize the students’ creative and emotional aptitudes, as well as to dynamize effective teamwork. This article sustains that dramatic role-play, based on scripted scene study and related improvisational activities, is one way of achieving this.

  16. Negative ratings play a positive role in information filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2011-11-01

    The explosive growth of information asks for advanced information filtering techniques to solve the so-called information overload problem. A promising way is the recommender system which analyzes the historical records of users’ activities and accordingly provides personalized recommendations. Most recommender systems can be represented by user-object bipartite networks where users can evaluate and vote for objects, and ratings such as “dislike” and “I hate it” are treated straightforwardly as negative factors or are completely ignored in traditional approaches. Applying a local diffusion algorithm on three benchmark data sets, MovieLens, Netflix and Amazon, our study arrives at a very surprising result, namely the negative ratings may play a positive role especially for very sparse data sets. In-depth analysis at the microscopic level indicates that the negative ratings from less active users to less popular objects could probably have positive impacts on the recommendations, while the ones connecting active users and popular objects mostly should be treated negatively. We finally outline the significant relevance of our results to the two long-term challenges in information filtering: the sparsity problem and the cold-start problem.

  17. Sleep apps: what role do they play in clinical medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Christopher P; Williams, Adrian J

    2017-11-01

    Today's smartphones boast more computing power than the Apollo Guidance Computer. Given the ubiquity and popularity of smartphones, are we already carrying around miniaturized sleep labs in our pockets? There is still a lack of validation studies for consumer sleep technologies in general and apps for monitoring sleep in particular. To overcome this gap, multidisciplinary teams are needed that focus on feasibility work at the intersection of software engineering, data science and clinical sleep medicine. To date, no smartphone app for monitoring sleep through movement sensors has been successfully validated against polysomnography, despite the role and validity of actigraphy in sleep medicine having been well established. Missing separation of concerns, not methodology, poses the key limiting factor: The two essential steps in the monitoring process, data collection and scoring, are chained together inside a black box due to the closed nature of consumer devices. This leaves researchers with little room for influence nor can they access raw data. Multidisciplinary teams that wield complete power over the sleep monitoring process are sorely needed.

  18. Could Lipoprotein Lipase Play a Role in Alzheimer's Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Blain

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent literature on the role of lipoprotein lipase in the central nervous system with a focus on its recently described role in synaptic remodeling. This novel role could have implication for Alzheimer's disease treatment.

  19. ROL-PLAYING AND GENDER ROLES JUEGOS DE ROL Y ROLES DE GÉNERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ramón Carbó García

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role playing games evolution from the Gender perspective. The authors analyze the evolution of the role playing games and the progressive incorporation of women to this form of games.El artículo analiza la evolución de los juegos de rol desde la perspectiva de los estudios de género. Los autores analizan la evolución de los juegos de rol y la incorporación progresiva de las mujeres a esta forma de ocio.

  20. Hevin plays a pivotal role in corneal wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam S Chaurasia

    with exogenous administration of rhHevin. Thus, hevin plays a pivotal role in the corneal wound healing.

  1. Melatonin plays a protective role in postburn rodent gut pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghoul, Walid M; Abu-Shaqra, Steven; Park, Byeong Gyu; Fazal, Nadeem

    2010-05-17

    Melatonin is a possible protective agent in postburn gut pathophysiological dynamics. We investigated the role of endogenously-produced versus exogenously-administered melatonin in a major thermal injury rat model with well-characterized gut inflammatory complications. Our rationale is that understanding in vivo melatonin mechanisms in control and inflamed tissues will improve our understanding of its potential as a safe anti-inflammatory/antioxidant therapeutic alternative. Towards this end, we tested the hypothesis that the gut is both a source and a target for melatonin and that mesenteric melatonin plays an anti-inflammatory role following major thermal injury in rats with 3rd degree hot water scald over 30% TBSA. Our methods for assessing the gut as a source of melatonin included plasma melatonin ELISA measurements in systemic and mesenteric circulation as well as rtPCR measurement of jejunum and terminal ileum expression of the melatonin synthesizing enzymes arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and 5-hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in sham versus day-3 postburn rats. Our melatonin ELISA results revealed that mesenteric circulation has much higher melatonin than systemic circulation and that both mesenteric and systemic melatonin levels are increased three days following major thermal injury. Our rtPCR results complemented the ELISA data in showing that the melatonin synthesizing enzymes AA-NAT and HIOMT are expressed in the ileum and jejunum and that this expression is increased three days following major thermal injury. Interestingly, the rtPCR data also revealed negative feedback by melatonin as exogenous melatonin supplementation at a dose of 7.43 mg (32 micromole/kg), but not 1.86 mg/kg (8 micromole/kg) drastically suppressed AA-NAT mRNA expression. Our methods also included an assessment of the gut as a target for melatonin utilizing computerized immunohistochemical measurements to quantify the effects of exogenous melatonin

  2. Assessing Women's Responses to Sexual Threat: Validity of a Virtual Role-Play Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rowe, Lorelei Simpson; McDonald, Renee; Platt, Cora G.; Gomez, Gabriella S.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of a role-play procedure that uses virtual reality technology to assess women's responses to sexual threat. Forty-eight female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either a standard, face-to-face role-play (RP) or a virtual role-play (VRP) of a sexually coercive situation. A multimethod assessment…

  3. "The Learning Sticks": Reflections on a Case Study of Role-Playing for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sue; Thomas, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Use of role-plays to develop deep student-learning has many advocates. Role-play is a powerful approach for learning that develops relevant skills in a range of disciplines and situations. In Higher Education, sustainability programmes role-play pedagogy appears to have great relevance for developing the competencies that these graduates will…

  4. Predicting The Outcome of Marketing Negotiations: Role-Playing versus Unaided Opinions

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong; Philip D. Hutcherson

    2005-01-01

    Role -playing and unaided opinions were used to forecast the outcome of three negotiations. Consistent with prior re search, role-playing yielded more accurate predictions. In two studies on marketing negotiations, the predictions based on role-playing were correct for 53% of the predictions while unaided opinions were correct for only 7% (p

  5. Using Role-Play for Expert Science Communication with Professional Stakeholders in Flood Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Lindsey; Stokes, Alison; Crowley, Kate; Roberts, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores role-play pedagogies in learning and communicating about cutting-edge flood science by flood risk management professionals in local government. It outlines role-play process/structure and evaluates participant perceptions of their learning experiences. Issues were impacts of prior role-play experience on attitudes brought to…

  6. Heroes of Resiliency and Reciprocity: Teachers' Supporting Role for Reconceptualizing Superhero Play in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kathleen I.

    2016-01-01

    Superhero play is a specialised form of fantasy play with considerable appeal to young children. During superhero play, children have opportunities to pretend and often to play different types of roles within a safe and caring environment. When guided appropriately in an early childhood classroom, superhero play gives young children opportunities…

  7. Corporate strategy in turbulent environments: Key roles of the corporate level

    OpenAIRE

    Caldart, Adrian A.; Ricart, Joan E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution during the period 1986-2002 of the corporate strategy of Lujan, a highly successful car components manufacturer headquartered in Spain, as a way to explore how the corporate level influences the successful evolution of a company exposed to a "turbulent" environment over a long period. We find that the corporate level plays three key roles. First, it drives a firm's evolution by developing a cognitive representation of the firm's competitive landscape. Second,...

  8. Could borate have played a role in the RNA World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grew, E. S.; Bada, J. L.; Hazen, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Two scenarios have been proposed for boron to play a critical role in the stabilization of ribose and other sugars in the ribonucleic acid (RNA) World, >3.8 Ga ago. One scenario envisages oligomeric RNA being synthesized in subaerial intermountane desert valleys in which groundwater was enriched in borate from breakdown of tourmaline (Benner et al. 2012 doi: 10.1021/ar200332w). In the alternative scenario, borates are enriched in hydrothermal environments (3.8 Ma as they are today and (2) plate tectonics was the prevailing regime. The postulated non-marine borate deposits would have been associated with continental collision and subduction with volcanism releasing B, whereas in the second scenario, ocean floor caught up in an early phase of subduction is considered a favorable site for borate formation. Because borate deposits are typically ephemeral and poorly preserved, the lack of evidence in the geologic record for these scenarios does not invalidate them. For example, the oldest reported non-marine borate deposits analogous to the type postulated in first scenario are only 20 Ma, but metamorphosed borates of Precambrian age have been interpreted to have non-marine evaporite precursors, the oldest being 2.4-2.1 Ga in the Liaoning-Jilin area, China. The first B minerals so far reported in the geologic record are metamorphic dravite-schorl tourmalines in the 3.7-3.8 Ga Isua supracrustal belt (southern West Greenland), where there is good evidence for seafloor spreading and subduction. The precursors to the Isua tourmalines are reported to include B-bearing marine clay minerals and detrital tourmaline. The relatively high Li contents in zircon from Jack Hills, Australia, have been cited as evidence for the presence of granitic (s. l.) "protocontinental" crust by 4.3 Ga (Ushikuba et al. 2008 doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2008.05.032; Valley et al. 2010 Rec Geol Surv W Aust, 5-7), but the existence of conventional plate tectonics prior to 3.8 Ga remains controversial

  9. How practitioners approach gameplay requirements? An exploration into the context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Lutz, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Gameplay requirements are central to game development. In the business context of massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMOGs) where game companies' revenues rely on players' monthly subscriptions, gameplay is also recognized as the key to player retention. However, information on what

  10. Trusted Sources: The Role Scientific Societies Can Play in Improving Public Opinions on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, C.; Cairns, A.; Buhrman, J.

    2012-12-01

    Public acceptance of the scientific consensus regarding climate change has eroded and misinformation designed to confuse the public is rapidly proliferating. Those issues, combined with an increase of politically motivated attacks on climate scientists and their research, have led to a place where ideology can trump scientific consensus as the foundation for developing policy solutions. The scientific community has been, thus far, unprepared to respond effectively to these developments. However, as a scientific society whose members engage in climate science research, and one whose organizational mission and vision are centered on the concepts of science for the benefit of humanity and ensuring a sustainable future, the American Geophysical Union can, and should, play an important role in reversing this trend. To that end, in 2011, AGU convened a Leadership Summit on Climate Science Communication, in which presidents, executive directors, and senior public policy staff from 17 scientific organizations engaged with experts in the social sciences regarding effective communication of climate science and with practitioners from agriculture, energy, and the military. The discussions focused on three key issues: the environment of climate science communication; public understanding of climate change; and the perspectives of consumers of climate science-based information who work with specific audiences. Participants diagnosed previous challenges and failings, enumerated the key constituencies that need to be effectively engaged, and identified the critical role played by cultural cognition—the influence of group values, particularly around equality and authority, individualism, and community; and the perceptions of risk. Since that meeting, AGU has consistently worked to identify and explore ways that it, and its members, and improve the effectiveness of their communication with the public about climate change. This presentation will focus on the insights AGU has

  11. Medical Students' Acquisition of Adolescent Interview Skills after Coached Role Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Paritosh; Fisher, Jennifer H; Hanson, Janice L

    2018-04-01

    To develop and evaluate an educational activity designed to teach the adolescent Home, Education and employment, Eating, Activities, Drugs, Sexuality, Suicide/depression, and Safety (HEADS) examination. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were third-year medical students in their pediatric clerkships. Students received an article on the HEADS interview and attended an adolescent medicine educational session. The session included individualized goal-setting and coached role play. Students' skills in doing a HEADS interview were evaluated through a standardized patient encounter (SPE) with a checklist and a retrospective pre- and post-test survey. The SPE checklist was used to assess whether the students included questions in 6 key areas of a HEADS interview. One hundred fifty-two students participated. During the SPE, 90% of students queried the adolescent's home life, 91% education, 82% activities, 84% drug/substance abuse, 95% sexual history, and 61% symptoms of depression. Pre- and postintervention data were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis Test and showed a statistically significant difference in the students' ability to list key topic areas of the HEADS exam (P interview using the HEADS exam (P interview during a SPE. Only three-fifths of the students, however, included questions about symptoms of depression. Coached role play with goal-setting facilitated effective learning of this approach to adolescent interviewing. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Game-playing in interdisciplinary design and planning teams : A role-play simulation as a learning method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruil, A.W.; Van der Toorn Vrijthoff, W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present our experiences in setting up and fulfilling a role-play simulation in an academic context. This simulation was set up for the first time in February 2010 to teach 260 students in their final semester in the Bachelor, the bachelor 6, of the Faculty of Architecture how to

  13. Playing in "Trelis Weyr": Investigating Collaborative Practices in a "Dragons of Pern" Role-Play-Game Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive case study examined adolescents' and emerging adults' literate and social practices within the context of a role-play-game (RPG) forum, investigating the ways participants read and collaboratively composed within this space. As a researcher, I was interested in how this space functioned and how the interactions between…

  14. Motivations to play specifically predict excessive involvement in massively multiplayer online role-playing games: evidence from an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetta Dauriat, Francesca; Zermatten, Ariane; Billieux, Joël; Thorens, Gabriel; Bondolfi, Guido; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have linked massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) with possible problematic usage or internet addiction. The main goal of the present study was to assess links between motivations to play in MMORPGs and addictive involvement in such types of games. A total of 696 gamers responded to an online survey. Five distinct motivations to play were identified in gamers: achievement, socializing, immersion, relaxing and escaping. Multiple regression analysis revealed that addictive MMORPG use patterns are predicted by achievement, escapism and socializing motives. Gender was also a significant predictor of problematic involvement in MMORPGs. Moreover, addictive MMORPG use positively correlated with the weekly time devoted to playing MMORPGs. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The Influence of an Educational Course on Language Expression and Treatment of Gaming Addiction for Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyoung Won; Kim, Seo Young; Shim, Miseon; Im, Chang-Hwan; Shon, Young-Min

    2013-01-01

    Addiction to Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) among juveniles has become a serious problem in Korea and has led to legislation prohibiting juveniles from playing games after midnight. One key factor in gaming addiction is the so-called narrative, or story, gamers create for themselves while playing. This study investigated how…

  16. Prototyping Tool for Web-Based Multiuser Online Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Shusuke; Kamada, Masaru; Yonekura, Tatsuhiro

    This letter proposes a prototyping tool for Web-based Multiuser Online Role-Playing Game (MORPG). The design goal is to make this tool simple and powerful. The tool is comprised of a GUI editor, a translator and a runtime environment. The GUI editor is used to edit state-transition diagrams, each of which defines the behavior of the fictional characters. The state-transition diagrams are translated into C program codes, which plays the role of a game engine in RPG system. The runtime environment includes PHP, JavaScript with Ajax and HTML. So the prototype system can be played on the usual Web browser, such as Fire-fox, Safari and IE. On a click or key press by a player, the Web browser sends it to the Web server to reflect its consequence on the screens which other players are looking at. Prospected users of this tool include programming novices and schoolchildren. The knowledge or skill of any specific programming languages is not required to create state-transition diagrams. Its structure is not only suitable for the definition of a character behavior but also intuitive to help novices understand. Therefore, the users can easily create Web-based MORPG system with the tool.

  17. Key players and team play: anaerobic microbial communities in hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Schleinitz, Kathleen M; Vogt, Carsten

    2012-05-01

    Biodegradation of anthropogenic pollutants in shallow aquifers is an important microbial ecosystem service which is mainly brought about by indigenous anaerobic microorganisms. For the management of contaminated sites, risk assessment and control of natural attenuation, the assessment of in situ biodegradation and the underlying microbial processes is essential. The development of novel molecular methods, "omics" approaches, and high-throughput techniques has revealed new insight into complex microbial communities and their functions in anoxic environmental systems. This review summarizes recent advances in the application of molecular methods to study anaerobic microbial communities in contaminated terrestrial subsurface ecosystems. We focus on current approaches to analyze composition, dynamics, and functional diversity of subsurface communities, to link identity to activity and metabolic function, and to identify the ecophysiological role of not yet cultured microbes and syntrophic consortia. We discuss recent molecular surveys of contaminated sites from an ecological viewpoint regarding degrader ecotypes, abiotic factors shaping anaerobic communities, and biotic interactions underpinning the importance of microbial cooperation for microbial ecosystem services such as contaminant degradation.

  18. Do quarks play an explicit role as nuclear constituents ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1986-10-01

    Experimental signatures for explicit roles of quarks as nuclear constituents are looked for. It is stressed that hyperons in nuclei may reveal unique information on nuclear interior and possible quark deconfinement. Future directions of hypernuclear spectroscopy are discussed. (author)

  19. The Role of Structural Characteristics in Problematic Video Game Play: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    The research literature suggests that the structural characteristics of video games may play a considerable role in the initiation, development and maintenance of problematic video game playing. The present study investigated the role of structural characteristics in video game playing behaviour within a sample of 421 video game players aged…

  20. Assessing the Role of Energy in Development and Climate Policies - Conceptual Approach and Key Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Garg, Amit

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from China, India and South...... Africa, and some other countries. It concludes that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being. Several policy goals related to sustainable development, energy, and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals...

  1. The role of primary care in adult weight management: qualitative interviews with key stakeholders in weight management services

    OpenAIRE

    Blane, David N.; Macdonald, Sara; Morrison, David; O’Donnell, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Primary care has a key role to play in the prevention and management of obesity, but there remain barriers to engagement in weight management by primary care practitioners. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders in adult weight management services on the role of primary care in adult weight management. Methods Qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with nine senior dietitians involved in NHS weight management from seven Scottish health bo...

  2. Beyond self-selection in video game play: an experimental examination of the consequences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M

    2007-10-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the study of video games. Existing work is limited by the use of correlational designs and is thus unable to make causal inferences or remove self-selection biases from observed results. The recent development of online, socially integrated video games (massively multiplayer online role-playing games [MMORPGs]) has created a new experience for gamers. This randomized, longitudinal study examined the effects of being assigned to play different video game types on game usage, health, well-being, sleep, socializing, and academics. One hundred 18- to 20-year-old participants (73% male; 68% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to play arcade, console, solo computer, or MMORPG games for 1 month. The MMORPG group differed significantly from other groups after 1 month, reporting more hours spent playing, worse health, worse sleep quality, and greater interference in "real-life" socializing and academic work. In contrast, this group also reported greater enjoyment in playing, greater interest in continuing to play, and greater acquisition of new friendships. MMORPGs represent a different gaming experience with different consequences than other types of video games and appear to pose both unique risks and benefits from their use.

  3. Some personal notes on role plays as an excellent teaching tool : commentary on "using and developing role plays in teaching aimed at preparing for social responsibility".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Iris

    2013-12-01

    Role plays are extremely valuable tools to address different aspects of teaching social responsibility, because they allow students to "live through" complex ethical decision making dilemmas. While role plays are getting high marks from students because their entertainment value is high, their educational value depends on their closeness to students' work experience and the skills of the teacher in helping students comprehend the lessons they are meant to convey.

  4. Benzodiazepines still play a role in modern psychiatric therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Videbech, Poul; Osler, Merete

    2017-01-01

    , and that BZ cause traffic accidents, increased mortality and dementia. In Denmark, the use of BZ has been substantially reduced. In this article it is argued, that not all patients habituate, that most of the epidemiological findings are hampered by confounding, and that there still is a role for long...

  5. Scavenger Receptor BI Plays a Role in Facilitating Chylomicron Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Out, R.; Kruijt, J.K.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Hildebrand, R.B.; Vos, P. de; Eck, M. van; Berkel, T.J.C. van

    2004-01-01

    The function of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in mediating the selective uptake of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol esters is well established. However, the potential role of SR-BI in chylomicron and chylomicron remnant metabolism is largely unknown. In the present

  6. Motivation within Role-Playing as a Means to Intensify College Students' Educational Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burenkova, Olga Mikhailovna; Arkhipova, Irina Vladimirovna; Semenov, Sergei Aleksandrovich; Samarenkina, Saniya Zakirzyanovna

    2015-01-01

    This article covers college students' educational activity issues while studying a foreign language; analyzes special aspects of motivation introduction, their specific features. It also defines role and structure of role-playing. The authors come to the conclusion that introduction of role-playing in an educational process will bring it closer to…

  7. Can Role-Play with Virtual Humans Teach Interpersonal Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    2007, with concentrations in cinema -television and technology commercialization. He has led several mixed-reality- and game-based training efforts at...options was: t(19) = 2.10, p = .07. Because the wording of the options was identical for both role-players, this result may indicate that the...related potential limitation of our experimental design is that the pretest and posttest versions of the SJT are identical . It could be argued that

  8. Efficacy of Role Play in Concert with Lecture to Enhance Student Learning of Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L. Elliott

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous reports that active learning increases student understanding, many barriers still exist that prevent faculty from shedding the traditional passive lecture and adopting active learning strategies in the classroom. This study looks at the use of role play as an active learning technique to convey new material, or as reinforcement to traditional lecture. A pre- and post-test survey was utilized to determine student learning gains, along with an anonymous survey to determine student attitudes about role play. Student learning gains are similar regardless of class size, role-playing participation or learning style, and reflect an increase in lower order cognition. Attitudes and learning gains indicate role play is preferable as a reinforcement technique, although the order does not matter if both lecture and role play are utilized to convey information. These data provide insight into the best practices of role-playing implementation in concert with traditional lecture format.

  9. A conserved glutamine plays a central role in LOV domain signal transmission and duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Abigail I.; Ko, Wen-Huang; Harper, Shannon M.; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2009-01-01

    Light is a key stimulus for plant biological functions, several of which are controlled by light-activated kinases known as phototropins, a group of kinases that contain two light-sensing domains (LOV, Light-Oxygen-Voltage domains) and a C-terminal serine/threonine kinase domain. The second sensory domain, LOV2, plays a key role in regulating kinase enzymatic activity via the photochemical formation of a covalent adduct between a LOV2 cysteine residue and an internally-bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) chromophore. Subsequent conformational changes in LOV2 lead to the unfolding of a peripheral Jα helix, and ultimately, phototropin kinase activation. To date, the mechanism coupling bond formation and helix dissociation has remained unclear. Previous studies found that a conserved glutamine residue (Q513 in the Avena sativa phototropin 1 LOV2 (AsLOV2) domain) switches its hydrogen-bonding pattern with FMN upon light stimulation. Located in the immediate vicinity of the FMN binding site, this Gln residue is provided by the Iβ strand that interacts with the Jα helix, suggesting a route for signal propagation from the core of the LOV domain to its peripheral Jα helix. To test whether Q513 plays a key role in tuning the photochemical and transduction properties of AsLOV2, we designed two point mutations, Q513L and Q513N, and monitored the effects on the chromophore and protein using a combination of UV-visible absorbance and circular dichroism spectroscopy, limited proteolysis, and solution NMR. The results show that these mutations significantly dampen the changes between the dark and lit state AsLOV2 structures, leaving the protein in a pseudo-dark state (Q513L) or a pseudo-lit state (Q513N) conformation. Further, both mutations changed the photochemical properties of this receptor, particularly the lifetime of the photoexcited signaling states. Together, these data establish that this residue plays a central role in both spectral tuning and signal propagation from

  10. The significance and perspectives of role playing as a teaching method in process oriented nursing education

    OpenAIRE

    小松, 万喜子; 冨岡, 詔子; 山崎, 章恵; 柳澤, 節子; 百瀬, 由美子

    1999-01-01

    This study was to report the results of students' responses to role playing which has been introduced as a teaching method in adult nursing clinical practice. About 80% of 79 students participated, positively evaluated their experiences in role playing as useful to their clinical practice, with 20% claiming negatively as not useful. An overall result suggested the usefulness of role playing as a method to enhance students' general readiness to their clinical practice. As students with negativ...

  11. Role-play and the Industrial Revolution: an STS approach to the teaching of steam engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabka, Diego; Pereira de Pereira, Alexsandro; Lima Junior, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    Role-play is an interesting, although underexplored, way of teaching physics in high school. This paper presents a science-technology-society (STS) approach to the teaching of heat engines based on a role-play of the Industrial Revolution. Enacting the role-play, students are presented not only to scientific concepts, but also to the social and technological controversies of industrial development.

  12. Transferring Psycho-pedagogical Role-Play in Digital Environments: Tools and Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Aquila, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Since its origins, role-play technique has been adapted and applied in various ways to different settings and contexts, and for different purposes. It is used in many disciplines, such as psychology, organizational change, sociology and pedagogy. Psychodrama, sociodrama and simulation settings represent different implementations of role-play, which have been exploited in psychotherapy, education, business, organizational and training contexts. Role-play has been extensively recognised as a po...

  13. Benzodiazepines still play a role in modern psychiatric therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Videbech, Poul; Osler, Merete

    2017-01-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZ) are widely used for anxiety across psychiatric diagnoses, but for the last decades regulation has been increasingly tight due to problems with tolerance, addiction, withdrawal symptoms and cognitive side effects. Some guidelines claim that BZ only work for a few weeks......, and that BZ cause traffic accidents, increased mortality and dementia. In Denmark, the use of BZ has been substantially reduced. In this article it is argued, that not all patients habituate, that most of the epidemiological findings are hampered by confounding, and that there still is a role for long...

  14. The embodied energy in trade: What role does specialization play?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasim, Anwar A.

    2015-01-01

    Many industrialized countries are net importers of embodied energy and emissions, while many developing countries are net exporters. We examine the role of specialization in driving these trade patterns by conducting a spatial index decomposition analysis on the embodied energy in net exports for 41 economies. The results reveal that industrialized countries have generally offshored energy intensive production, which many developing countries specialize in. We find that specialization, on average, makes the biggest contribution, accounting for roughly 50% of a country's embodied energy in net exports. However, other factors, namely energy intensity and the trade balance, combine to make an equally important contribution. In summary, specialization, despite its significant role, is not the only cause of the embodied energy trade patterns observed between industrialized and developing countries. - Highlights: • The embodied energy in net exports is decomposed into three contributors. • The three contributors are intensity, specialization, and the trade balance. • On average, specialization accounts for roughly 50% of embodied energy flows. • The combination of intensity and trade balance effects is equally important.

  15. Theoretical aspects of business role-playing game for senior students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faychuk Olena Leonidivna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with some theoretically grounded features of the business role-playing game determined to improve the learning process of senior students (specialization «Social work». The authors give the classification of business role-playing games, benefits and effective application of the rules of role-plays, and possibilities of using them in the learning process. Business role-playing games provide students’ initiative, emotional saturation of the learning process and help to assimilate the basic theoretical knowledge.

  16. OPEC fund will continue to play it vital role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, H

    1986-09-01

    An interview elicits personal views on the role of and issues related to the OPEC Fund from one of those responsible for its founding. Hurtado comments that the Fund is not likely to change direction, although it accepts the agricultural and industrial development priorities of recipients. He also notes a weakness in the International Fund for Agricultural Development. A shortfall of income as Member Countries respond to falling oil prices will require some management changes in the future, but he sees greater unity among OPEC and Third World countries as a result of current economic strains. The industrialized world, which has provided only one sixth as much aid as OPEC, could apply its savings from current low import prices to help developing countries. North-South cooperation is cyclical, and he expects the current situation to have a positive effect on cooperation.

  17. Does the magnetic expansion factor (fs) play a role in solar wind acceleration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Samantha; Arge, Charles N.; Pihlstrom, Ylva

    2017-08-01

    For the past 25 years, magnetic expansion factor (fs) has been a key parameter used in the calculation of terminal solar wind speed (vsw) in both the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model and its predecessor the Wang-Sheeley (WS) model. Since the discovery of an inverse relationship between fs and vsw, the physical role that magnetic expansion factor plays in the acceleration of the solar wind has been explored and debated. In this study, we investigate whether magnetic expansion factor plays a causal role in determining the terminal speed of the solar wind or merely serves as proxy. To do so, we explore how fs, as determined by WSA, relates to vsw for two different scenarios: 1) extended periods where the fast solar wind emerges from the centers of large coronal holes, and 2) periods where the solar wind emerges from pseudostreamers. For these same scenarios, we will also consider an alternative empirical relationship between solar wind speed and the minimum angular distance at the photosphere of a solar wind source to the nearest coronal hole boundary (i.e., DCHB, θb). We then compare these two different prediction techniques directly with heliospheric observations (i.e., ACE, STEREO-A & B, Ulysses) of solar wind speed to determine whether one clearly out performs the other.

  18. Symbiotic bacteria of helminths: what role may they play in ecosystems under anthropogenic stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, N J

    2016-11-01

    Symbiotic bacteria are a common feature of many animals, particularly invertebrates, from both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. These bacteria have increasingly been recognized as performing an important role in maintaining invertebrate health. Both ecto- and endoparasitic helminths have also been found to harbour a range of bacterial species which provide a similar function. The part symbiotic bacteria play in sustaining homeostasis of free-living invertebrates exposed to anthropogenic pressure (climate change, pollution), and the consequences to invertebrate populations when their symbionts succumb to poor environmental conditions, are increasingly important areas of research. Helminths are also susceptible to environmental stress and their symbiotic bacteria may be a key aspect of their responses to deteriorating conditions. This article summarizes the ecophysiological relationship helminths have with symbiotic bacteria and the role they play in maintaining a healthy parasite and the relevance of specific changes that occur in free-living invertebrate-bacteria interactions under anthropogenic pressure to helminths and their bacterial communities. It also discusses the importance of understanding the mechanistic sensitivity of helminth-bacteria relationships to environmental stress for comprehending the responses of parasites to challenging conditions.

  19. Perineuronal nets play a role in regulating striatal function in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunchul Lee

    Full Text Available The striatum is the primary input nucleus of the basal ganglia, a collection of nuclei that play important roles in motor control and associative learning. We have previously reported that perineuronal nets (PNNs, aggregations of chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs, form in the matrix compartment of the mouse striatum during the second postnatal week. This period overlaps with important developmental changes, including the attainment of an adult-like gait. Here, we investigate the identity of the cells encapsulated by PNNs, characterize their topographical distribution and determine their function by assessing the impact of enzymatic digestion of PNNs on two striatum-dependent behaviors: ambulation and goal-directed spatial learning. We show PNNs are more numerous caudally, and that a substantial fraction (41% of these structures surrounds parvalbumin positive (PV+ interneurons, while approximately 51% of PV+ cells are ensheathed by PNNs. The colocalization of these structures is greatest in dorsal, lateral and caudal regions of the striatum. Bilateral digestion of striatal PNNs led to an increase in both the width and variability of hind limb gait. Intriguingly, this also resulted in an improvement in the acquisition rate of the Morris water maze. Together, these data show that PNNs are associated with specific elements of striatal circuits and play a key role in regulating the function of this important structure in the mouse.

  20. Perineuronal nets play a role in regulating striatal function in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunchul; Leamey, Catherine A; Sawatari, Atomu

    2012-01-01

    The striatum is the primary input nucleus of the basal ganglia, a collection of nuclei that play important roles in motor control and associative learning. We have previously reported that perineuronal nets (PNNs), aggregations of chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), form in the matrix compartment of the mouse striatum during the second postnatal week. This period overlaps with important developmental changes, including the attainment of an adult-like gait. Here, we investigate the identity of the cells encapsulated by PNNs, characterize their topographical distribution and determine their function by assessing the impact of enzymatic digestion of PNNs on two striatum-dependent behaviors: ambulation and goal-directed spatial learning. We show PNNs are more numerous caudally, and that a substantial fraction (41%) of these structures surrounds parvalbumin positive (PV+) interneurons, while approximately 51% of PV+ cells are ensheathed by PNNs. The colocalization of these structures is greatest in dorsal, lateral and caudal regions of the striatum. Bilateral digestion of striatal PNNs led to an increase in both the width and variability of hind limb gait. Intriguingly, this also resulted in an improvement in the acquisition rate of the Morris water maze. Together, these data show that PNNs are associated with specific elements of striatal circuits and play a key role in regulating the function of this important structure in the mouse.

  1. Men in Bangladesh play a role in family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, S B

    1992-08-01

    More and more men are convincing their wives to use family planning in Bangladesh. In this conservative, Moslem country, women are not allowed to leave the homes so husbands must go to buy methods especially rural areas. 70% of women who use oral contraceptives (OCs), IUDs, or condoms report that their husbands obtain these method for them. many couples are poor peasants. Contraceptive prevalence is not 23.2%. Female sterilization and OCs are the 2 most popular methods (9% each) followed by condoms (2%), IUD (1.7%), and vasectomy (1.5%). The total fertility rate is 4.8 which is higher than the goal of 3.5 Bangladesh hoped to reach by 1995. In 1975, 30% of women believed fate determines family size but now only 8% think that. Attitude changes about family size have occurred despite illiteracy and poverty. Traditional religious beliefs are still prevalent in rural areas making it difficult for wives to speak to their husbands about family planning. Husband-wife communication is more open among urban, middle class couples. The long lasting hormonal implant, Norplant, holds promise as a means for Bangladesh to reach its goal. About 4500 women now have Norplant and government and nongovernment clinics plan to insert it into around 20,000 more women. A study of 2586 potential acceptors of Norplant at family clinics in Bangladesh 3 other developing countries shows that counseling diminishes the anxiety women and their husbands experience about Norplant and its side effects. A study in Bangladesh reveals higher continuation rates of Norplant for women whose husbands underwent counseling than for those whose husbands did not undergo counseling. Family planning advertisements on the radio, TV, and in newspapers have convinced couples to use family planning, but the advertisements tend to not explaining how to use family planning. Men are key to the changes in attitude about family planning in Bangladesh.

  2. Statistical properties of online avatar numbers in a massive multiplayer online role-playing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Ren, Fei; Gu, Gao-Feng; Tan, Qun-Zhao; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-02-01

    Massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) have been very popular in the past few years. The profit of an MMORPG company is proportional to how many users registered, and the instant number of online avatars is a key factor to assess how popular an MMORPG is. We use the online-offline logs on an MMORPG server to reconstruct the instant number of online avatars per second and investigate its statistical properties. We find that the online avatar number exhibits one-day periodic behavior and clear intraday pattern, the fluctuation distribution of the online avatar numbers has a leptokurtic non-Gaussian shape with power-law tails, and the increments of online avatar numbers after removing the intraday pattern are uncorrelated and the associated absolute values have long-term correlation. In addition, both time series exhibit multifractal nature.

  3. Cysteine homeostasis plays an essential role in plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Consolación; Bermúdez, M Ángeles; Romero, Luis C; Gotor, Cecilia; García, Irene

    2012-01-01

    • Cysteine is the metabolic precursor of essential biomolecules such as vitamins, cofactors, antioxidants and many defense compounds. The last step of cysteine metabolism is catalysed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL), which incorporates reduced sulfur into O-acetylserine to produce cysteine. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the main OASTL isoform OAS-A1 and the cytosolic desulfhydrase DES1, which degrades cysteine, contribute to the cytosolic cysteine homeostasis. • Meta-analysis of the transcriptomes of knockout plants for OAS-A1 and for DES1 show a high correlation with the biotic stress series in both cases. • The study of the response of knockout mutants to plant pathogens shows that des1 mutants behave as constitutive systemic acquired resistance mutants, with high resistance to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, salicylic acid accumulation and WRKY54 and PR1 induction, while oas-a1 knockout mutants are more sensitive to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. However, oas-a1 knockout mutants lack the hypersensitive response associated with the effector-triggered immunity elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 avrRpm1. • Our results highlight the role of cysteine as a crucial metabolite in the plant immune response. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. IFT46 plays an essential role in cilia development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Hwang, Kyu-Seok; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Ji-Ae, Kim; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Ko, Je Yeong; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Jeong, Yun-Mi; You, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Joon; Park, Doo-Sang; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Aizawa, Shinichi; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Park, Jong-Hoon; Zhou, Weibin; Kim, Nam-Soon; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based structures that project into the extracellular space. Ciliary defects are associated with several human diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, primary ciliary dyskinesia, left-right axis patterning, hydrocephalus and retinal degeneration. However, the genetic and cellular biological control of ciliogenesis remains poorly understood. The IFT46 is one of the highly conserved intraflagellar transport complex B proteins. In zebrafish, ift46 is expressed in various ciliated tissues such as Kupffer’s vesicle, pronephric ducts, ears and spinal cord. We show that ift46 is localized to the basal body. Knockdown of ift46 gene results in multiple phenotypes associated with various ciliopathies including kidney cysts, pericardial edema and ventral axis curvature. In ift46 morphants, cilia in kidney and spinal canal are shortened and abnormal. Similar ciliary defects are observed in otic vesicles, lateral line hair cells, olfactory pits, but not in Kupffer’s vesicle. To explore the functions of Ift46 during mouse development, we have generated Ift46 knock-out mice. The Ift46 mutants have developmental defects in brain, neural tube and heart. In particular Ift46(−/−) homozygotes displays randomization of the embryo heart looping, which is a hallmark of defective left-right (L/R) axis patterning. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IFT46 has an essential role in vertebrate ciliary development. PMID:25722189

  5. Paraflocculus plays a role in salicylate-induced tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yali; Liu, Junxiu; Jiang, Qin; Duan, Qingchuan; Mao, Lanqun; Ma, Furong

    2017-09-01

    Tinnitus impairs quality of life of about 1-2% of the whole population. In most severe situation, tinnitus may cause social isolation, depression and suicide. Drug treatments for tinnitus are generally ineffective, and the mechanisms of tinnitus are still undetermined. Accumulating evidence suggests that tinnitus is related to changes of widespread brain networks. Recent studies propose that paraflocculus (PFL), which is indirectly connected to various cortical regions, may be a gating zone of tinnitus. So we examined the electrophysiological changes and neurotransmitter alterations of the PFL in a rat model of sodium salicylate (SS)-induced tinnitus. We found that spontaneous firing rate (SFR) of the putative excitatory interneurons of the PFL was significantly increased. The level of glutamic acid, which is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system, was also dramatically increased in the PFL after SS treatment. These results confirmed the hyperactivity of PFL in the rats with SS-treatment, which might be due to the increased glutamic acid. Then we examined the SFR of the auditory cortex (AC), the center for auditory perception, before and after electrical stimulation of the PFL. 71.4% (105/147) of the recorded neurons showed a response to the stimulation of the PFL. The result demonstrated that stimulation of the PFL could modulate the activity of the AC. Our study suggests a role of PFL in SS-induced tinnitus and AC as a potential target of PFL in the process of tinnitus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. HJV and HFE Play Distinct Roles in Regulating Hepcidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Wang, Hao; An, Peng; Tao, Yunlong; Deng, Jiali; Zhang, Zhuzhen; Shen, Yuanyuan; Chen, Caiyong; Min, Junxia; Wang, Fudi

    2015-05-20

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is an iron overload disease that is caused by mutations in HFE, HJV, and several other genes. However, whether HFE-HH and HJV-HH share a common pathway via hepcidin regulation is currently unclear. Recently, some HH patients have been reported to carry concurrent mutations in both the HFE and HJV genes. To dissect the roles and molecular mechanisms of HFE and/or HJV in the pathogenesis of HH, we studied Hfe(-/-), Hjv(-/-), and Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) double-knockout mouse models. Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) mice developed iron overload in multiple organs at levels comparable to Hjv(-/-) mice. After an acute delivery of iron, the expression of hepcidin (i.e., Hamp1 mRNA) was increased in the livers of wild-type and Hfe(-/-) mice, but not in either Hjv(-/-) or Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) mice. Furthermore, iron-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 was not detected in the livers of Hjv(-/-) or Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) mice. We generated and phenotypically characterized Hfe(-/-)Hjv(-/-) double-knockout mice. In addition, because they faithfully phenocopy clinical HH patients, these mouse models are an invaluable tool for mechanistically dissecting how HFE and HJV regulate hepcidin expression. Based on our results, we conclude that HFE may depend on HJV for transferrin-dependent hepcidin regulation. The presence of residual hepcidin in the absence of HFE suggests either the presence of an unknown regulator (e.g., TFR2) that is synergistic with HJV or that HJV is sufficient to maintain basal levels of hepcidin.

  7. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  8. Access Not Denied? The Role American Localities Can Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen B. Marrow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available San Francisco represents a unique case in the United States in that it has enacted a set of inclusive policies at the local level to increase unauthorized immigrants’ access to and utilization of health care. Based on interviews conducted with 36 primary care providers working in the city’s public safety net in 2009, I examine how this inclusive local policy environment both reinforces and constrains their aspirational views of unauthorized immigrants as morally “deserving” patients, and how it operates to help provide care to unauthorized immigrants. On one hand, this environment reinforces safety-net providers’ aspirational views by creating a more legal-status-blind environment that encourages unauthorized immigrants to come in for care, and by facilitating their abilities to offer key services to and advocate for unauthorized immigrant patients. At the same time, this environment constrains their aspirational views by operating through an institutional structure whose bureaucratic rules effectively deter some unauthorized immigrants from accessing care, and by explicitly delimiting unauthorized immigrants’ access to care to the realm of select primary medical services. These results highlight the great potential of, but also the limitations and internal dilemmas constituting, local “right to care” strategies that seek to ameliorate unauthorized immigrants’ health vulnerability in what is still a hostile U.S. federal context.En matière d’accès aux soins des immigrants illégaux, San Francisco constitue aux Etats-Unis un cas à part. La municipalité californienne a en effet voté un ensemble de politiques inclusives au niveau local visant à élargir cet accès. Sur la base d’entretiens réalisés auprès de 36 prestataires de soins primaires qui travaillaient dans le système de protection sociale de la ville en 2009, j’ai examiné d’une part la manière dont ces politiques locales inclusives renforcent et

  9. Online-offline activities and game-playing behaviors of avatars in a massive multiplayer online role-playing game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Tan, Qun-Zhao

    2009-11-01

    Massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are very popular in China, which provides a potential platform for scientific research. We study the online-offline activities of avatars in an MMORPG to understand their game-playing behavior. The statistical analysis unveils that the active avatars can be classified into three types. The avatars of the first type are owned by game cheaters who go online and offline in preset time intervals with the online duration distributions dominated by pulses. The second type of avatars is characterized by a Weibull distribution in the online durations, which is confirmed by statistical tests. The distributions of online durations of the remaining individual avatars differ from the above two types and cannot be described by a simple form. These findings have potential applications in the game industry.

  10. Exploring the use of role play in a school-based programme to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring the use of role play in a school-based programme to reduce teenage pregnancy. ... South African Journal of Education ... study was undertaken of the use of role plays by Grade 8 learners, at eight urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal high schools, as part of a programme to reduce the prevalence of teenage pregnancy.

  11. Learning by Doing in Leadership Education: Experiencing Followership and Effective Leadership Communication through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Filiz; Lebron, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a role-play exercise to illustrate the influence of followership styles and effective communication on leader-follower relationship formation and development. We provide the pedagogical theory and evidence behind using role-plays in classroom settings, followed by a literature review pertaining to…

  12. The Strategic Micro-Firm: A Role Play In Management Training for Dynamic Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabe, Federico; Busco, Cristiano; Davidsen, Pal I.; Lambri, Maurizio; Zatta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the main characteristics of the role-playing game "Strategic Micro-Firm" which aims to reproduce the fundamental features of a complex supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: A specific role-playing game is presented, in which a Balanced Scorecard is used as the reporting device and is…

  13. E-learning Constructive Role Plays for EFL Learners in China's Tertiary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lin; Suwanthep, Jitpanat

    2011-01-01

    Recently, speaking has played an increasingly important role in second/foreign language settings. However, in many Chinese universities, EFL students rarely communicate in English with other people effectively. The existing behavioristic role plays on New Horizon College English (NHCE) e-learning do not function successfully in supplementing EFL…

  14. Teacher's Guide to Canal. The Middlesex Canal: A Role Playing Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Cary W.; Tedesco, Paul H.

    The document consists of a role-playing game and related teacher's guide designed to illustrate decision-making processes leading to the building of the Middlesex Canal in Massachusetts in 1793. The primary educational objective is to involve students in the decision-making process through role play. The game is designed to facilitate…

  15. What Role Does Taste Play in School Meal Studies? A Narrative Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Kayla; Olsen, Annemarie; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    School meals play an important role in student well-being. However, studies have given evidence that school meals may not be satisfactory to students. Evidence suggests that taste plays an influential role in students' food decisions and eating experiences. This review of current research finds that studies around improving school meals mainly…

  16. Enhancing Role-Play Activities with Pocket Camcorder Technology: Strategies for Counselor-Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sara Meghan; Thanasiu, Page L.

    2011-01-01

    Counselor-educators can benefit from specific guidelines and creative suggestions when implementing role-play and technology-related teaching strategies in counseling training programs. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to: (a) discuss the use of role-play and video recording in counselor education; (b) introduce counselor-educators to…

  17. Role-Playing in Science Education: An Effective Strategy for Developing Multiple Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Elaine V.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2009-01-01

    Role-playing can be an engaging and creative strategy to use in the college classroom. Using official accounts, personal narratives, and diaries to recreate a particular time period, event, or personality, the instructional strategy alternately referred to as role-playing, dramatic improvisation, or first-person characterization can be an…

  18. Role Playing in Physical Education to Teach in the Affective Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalot-Rivera, Amaury

    2014-01-01

    Using role playing during physical education provides limitless opportunities for intervention and for the demonstration of personal and social qualities. The purpose of this article is to provide easy steps for implementing role playing as a strategy to teach social skills to students in the physical education setting.

  19. What Students Need: Exploring Teachers' Views via Imagined Role-Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazkis, Rina; Nejad, Masomeh Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Role-playing is an unscripted dramatic technique that encourages participants to improvise behaviors that illustrate expected actions of persons involved in defined situations. However, among various uses in developing professionals, the use of role-playing in teacher education is rather rare. To give all students the opportunity to participate in…

  20. 25 CFR 900.229 - What role will the awarding official play during an appeal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What role will the awarding official play during an appeal? 900.229 Section 900.229 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Post-Award Contract Disputes § 900.229 What role will the awarding official play...

  1. The Evaluation of Role-Playing in the Context of Teaching Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, Nadja; Eilks, Ingo; Feierabend, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Role-plays are a common pedagogical tool in the Social Sciences. As an imitation of societal practices, role-plays are thought to support the development of argumentation and decision-making skills among learners. However, argumentation and decision making are also goals in science education in general and in socioscientific issues-oriented…

  2. Comparing Role-Playing Activities in Second Life and Face-to-Face Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Noh, Jeongmin J.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared student performances in role-playing activities in both a face-to-face (FTF) environment and a virtual 3D environment, Second Life (SL). We found that students produced a similar amount of communication in the two environments, but the communication styles were different. In SL role-playing activities, students took more…

  3. You Must Participate: Violating Research Ethical Principles through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses the use of role-play to teach research ethics in three semesters of a research methods class. Small groups of students were assigned one of nine ethical norms discussed in the course textbook and the American Sociological Association Code of Ethics. Each group role-played the violation of their assigned ethic to the class. The…

  4. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  5. Using a Corporate Partnership to Enhance Learning in a Sourcing Negotiation Role-play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Janet L.; Eboch, Karen; Gilberg, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Although role-plays can be effective teaching tools for buyer-supplier negotiation, learning can be somewhat limited because typically novices are negotiating with each other. We describe how we collaborated with a corporate partner, CACI International, to develop and implement a repeatable sourcing and negotiation role-play that helps to address…

  6. Mars Colony: Using Role-Play as a Pedagogical Approach to Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Nathan; Wood, Aja; Soldan, Katie; Tai, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss role-play as a pedagogical strategy to engage kindergarten and first-grade students in science and engineering. They present a five-part Mars colony lesson that they developed for a blended class, during which students role-play a space-exploration story that enables them to gain a firsthand perspective of what…

  7. Role-Play in Literature Lectures: The Students' Assessment of Their Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riain, Isobel Ní; Dawson, Ciarán; McCarthy, Marian

    2018-01-01

    The following article is based on a piece of qualitative research on the use of role-play in a literature module in the Modern Irish Dept. of University College Cork, Ireland, in 2015. There were 18 students involved in the research. The aim of the research was to investigate if students associate learning with the use of role-play in literature…

  8. Rules out of Roles: Differences in Play Language and Their Developmental Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongho; Kellogg, David

    2007-01-01

    Using a discourse analytic approach from the work of Hoey (1991) and a dual processing model from Wray (2000), this paper compares the language produced by the same classes of children when they are engaged in role-play and when they are playing rule-based games. We find that role-play tends to be richer in "frozen" pair parts, where the responses…

  9. Exploring the use of role play in a school-based programme to reduce teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Can the use of a method such as role play help reduce sexual risk behaviour among KwaZulu-Natal learners? A study was undertaken of the use of role plays by Grade 8 learners, at eight urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal high schools, as part of a programme to reduce the prevalence of teenage pregnancy. Within the framework of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, learners participated in role plays covering five topics - choice, self-respect and emotional abuse; partner coercion/negotiation about having sex; visiting the clinic for contraception; perceived and purchasing value of the child support grant; and testing for HIV. We report on the organisation, implementation and evaluation of the role plays. Data from facilitators, educators and learners were triangulated and suggest that role play has potential for building self-efficacy among learners with respect to sexual behaviour.

  10. Senataxin plays an essential role with DNA damage response proteins in meiotic recombination and gene silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier J Becherel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Senataxin, mutated in the human genetic disorder ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2, plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity by coordination of transcription, DNA replication, and the DNA damage response. We demonstrate that senataxin is essential for spermatogenesis and that it functions at two stages in meiosis during crossing-over in homologous recombination and in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI. Disruption of the Setx gene caused persistence of DNA double-strand breaks, a defect in disassembly of Rad51 filaments, accumulation of DNA:RNA hybrids (R-loops, and ultimately a failure of crossing-over. Senataxin localised to the XY body in a Brca1-dependent manner, and in its absence there was incomplete localisation of DNA damage response proteins to the XY chromosomes and ATR was retained on the axial elements of these chromosomes, failing to diffuse out into chromatin. Furthermore persistence of RNA polymerase II activity, altered ubH2A distribution, and abnormal XY-linked gene expression in Setx⁻/⁻ revealed an essential role for senataxin in MSCI. These data support key roles for senataxin in coordinating meiotic crossing-over with transcription and in gene silencing to protect the integrity of the genome.

  11. Self-Actualization of Youth Subculture Members (Role-Playing Movement as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Zhuravleva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the research of youth subculture members’ self-actualization (role-playing movement as an example. It describes certain characteristics of role-players’ self-actualization, its structure, and also its gender and age specific features. It has been proven that the level of self-actualization of the members of the role-playing movement is higher than of the people who are not interested in it and that taking part in role-playing games is a more significant factor for the self-actualization of the personality than the gender and age of the players.

  12. Good alarm design plays a vital role in successful DCS implementation: Hard learned lessons from petrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.; Rothenberg, D.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear operators are eager to update their automation infrastructure, but are apprehensive due to the consequences of failure. The process industries have learned that alarm design is critical to a successful Distributed Control System (DCS) implementation. This paper shares valuable insight into how alarms play a key role in successful management of upsets, help focus operator attention, and supply critical information during periods of high stress. (authors)

  13. Proto-Acting as a New Concept: Personal Mimicry and the Origins of Role Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brown

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Proto-acting is introduced here as a new concept that refers to a set of processes that are intermediate between everyday role playing (in the Erving Goffman sense and dramatic acting. Its most characteristic process is the voluntary act of personal mimicry, which can occur in everyday contexts, such as quoting someone during conversation, or in performance contexts, such as impressionism. Proto-acting involves character portrayal, but on a much simpler and more transient scale than in dramatic acting, where a person may portray a character for an extended period of time during a stage performance. For example, this might involve impersonating the characters while reading a bedtime story to a child, or children themselves portraying characters while engaging in pretend play. Other key features of proto-acting are that it tends to be driven by gesture, have minimal scripting, and involve short bouts of alternation between the self and characters. Proto-acting, as based on personal mimicry, might provide a cognitive foundation for dramatic acting in human development. Moreover, proto-acting itself might be underlain evolutionarily by the process of pantomime, which often involves intentional mimicry of the actions of other people. Hence, the proto-acting concept is able to shed light on processes relevant to cognition, development, the performing arts, and human evolution.

  14. Role-play as a pedagogical method to prepare students for practice: The students’ voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Westrup

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss how and why role-play supports students in gaining insights into complex leadership situations. We give voice to the students by illustrating their experiences in a role-playing activity involving a human resource management issue designed, performed, and evaluated as part of a management program. The results show that the role-playing supports the students by stimulating them to understand the issue from various perspectives, hence performing an overall change of perspectives. The role-playing exercise also enabled the students to create a collective understanding of the situation. The active social interactions and conversations of role-playing contributed to establishing a sense of community among the students. We argue that role-play could be a viable and forceful pedagogical method whereby teachers give their students the opportunity to prepare for practice. However, to implement role-play as an alternative method of learning requires that the method is a part of the institutional learning space.

  15. Role-playing is an effective instructional strategy for genetic counseling training: an investigation and comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Yan; Song, Ming; Xiao, Wen-Gang; Bai, Yun

    2016-09-02

    Genetic diseases represent a significant public health challenge in China that will need to be addressed by a correspondingly large number of professional genetic counselors. However, neither an official training program for genetic counseling, nor formal board certification, was available in China before 2015. In 2009, a genetic counseling training program based on role-playing was implemented as a pilot study at the Third Military Medical University to train third-year medical students. Questionnaires on participant attitudes to the program and role-playing were randomly administered to 324 students after they had finished their training. Pre- and post-training instructional tests, focusing on 42 key components of genetic counseling, were administered randomly to 200 participants to assess mastery of each component. Finally, scores in final examinations of 578 participants from 2009 to 2011 were compared to scores obtained by 614 non-participating students from 2006 to 2008 to further assess program efficacy. Both the training program and the instructional strategy of role-playing were accepted by most participants. Students believed that role-playing improved their practice of genetic counseling and medical genetics, enhanced their communication skills, and would likely contribute to future professional performance. The average understanding of 40 of the key points in genetic counseling was significantly improved, and most students approached excellent levels of mastery. Scores in final examinations and the percentages of students scoring above 90 were also significantly elevated. Role-playing is a feasible and effective instructional strategy for training genetic counselors in China as well as in other developing countries.

  16. Neurospora COP9 signalosome integrity plays major roles for hyphal growth, conidial development, and circadian function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Zhou

    Full Text Available The COP9 signalosome (CSN is a highly conserved multifunctional complex that has two major biochemical roles: cleaving NEDD8 from cullin proteins and maintaining the stability of CRL components. We used mutation analysis to confirm that the JAMM domain of the CSN-5 subunit is responsible for NEDD8 cleavage from cullin proteins in Neurospora crassa. Point mutations of key residues in the metal-binding motif (EX(nHXHX(10D of the CSN-5 JAMM domain disrupted CSN deneddylation activity without interfering with assembly of the CSN complex or interactions between CSN and cullin proteins. Surprisingly, CSN-5 with a mutated JAMM domain partially rescued the phenotypic defects observed in a csn-5 mutant. We found that, even without its deneddylation activity, the CSN can partially maintain the stability of the SCF(FWD-1 complex and partially restore the degradation of the circadian clock protein FREQUENCY (FRQ in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that CSN containing mutant CSN-5 efficiently prevents degradation of the substrate receptors of CRLs. Finally, we found that deletion of the CAND1 ortholog in N. crassa had little effect on the conidiation circadian rhythm. Our results suggest that CSN integrity plays major roles in hyphal growth, conidial development, and circadian function in N. crassa.

  17. Extracellular histones play an inflammatory role in acid aspiration-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanlin; Wen, Zongmei; Guan, Li; Jiang, Ping; Gu, Tao; Zhao, Jinyuan; Lv, Xin; Wen, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is a key feature in acid aspiration-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the factors that trigger inflammation are unclear. The authors hypothesize that extracellular histones, a newly identified inflammatory mediator, play important roles in the pathogenesis of ARDS. The authors used a hydrochloric acid aspiration-induced ARDS model to investigate whether extracellular histones are pathogenic and whether targeting histones are protective. Exogenous histones and antihistone antibody were administered to mice. Heparin can bind to histones, so the authors studied whether heparin could protect from ARDS using cell and mouse models. Furthermore, the authors analyzed whether extracellular histones are clinically involved in ARDS patients caused by gastric aspiration. Extracellular histones in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of acid-treated mice were significantly higher (1.832 ± 0.698) at 3 h after injury than in sham-treated group (0.63 ± 0.153; P = 0.0252, n = 5 per group). Elevated histones may originate from damaged lung cells and neutrophil infiltration. Exogenous histones aggravated lung injury, whereas antihistone antibody markedly attenuated the intensity of ARDS. Notably, heparin provided a similar protective effect against ARDS. Analysis of plasma from ARDS patients (n = 21) showed elevated histones were significantly correlated with the degree of ARDS and were higher in nonsurvivors (2.723 ± 0.2933, n = 7) than in survivors (1.725 ± 0.1787, P = 0.006, n = 14). Extracellular histones may play a contributory role toward ARDS by promoting tissue damage and systemic inflammation and may become a novel marker reflecting disease activity. Targeting histones by neutralizing antibody or heparin shows potent protective effects, suggesting a potentially therapeutic strategy.

  18. Sexually dimorphic role for vasopressin in the development of social play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Paul

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well-established role of vasopressin (AVP in adult social behavior, its role in social development is relatively unexplored. In this paper, we focus on the most prominent social behavior of juvenile rats, social play. Previous pharmacological experiments in our laboratory suggested that AVP regulates play in a sex- and brain region-specific manner in juvenile rats. Here we investigate the role of specific AVP systems in the emergence of social play. We first characterize the development of play in male and female Wistar rats and then ask whether the development of AVP mRNA expression correlates with the emergence of play. Unexpectedly, play emerged more rapidly in weanling-aged females than in males, resulting in a sex difference opposite of that typically reported for older, juvenile rats. AVP mRNA and play were correlated in males only, with a negative correlation in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and a positive correlation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These findings support the hypothesis that AVP acts differentially on multiple systems in a sex-specific manner to regulate social play and suggest a role for PVN and BNST AVP systems in the development of play. Differential neuropeptide regulation of male and female social development may underlie well-documented sex differences in incidence, progression, and symptom severity of behavioral disorders during development.

  19. Multilayered Regulation of Ethylene Induction Plays a Positive Role in Arabidopsis Resistance against Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Rongxia; Su, Jianbin; Meng, Xiangzong; Li, Sen; Liu, Yidong; Xu, Juan; Zhang, Shuqun

    2015-09-01

    Ethylene, a key phytohormone involved in plant-pathogen interaction, plays a positive role in plant resistance against fungal pathogens. However, its function in plant bacterial resistance remains unclear. Here, we report a detailed analysis of ethylene induction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst). Ethylene biosynthesis is highly induced in both pathogen/microbe-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), and the induction is potentiated by salicylic acid (SA) pretreatment. In addition, Pst actively suppresses PAMP-triggered ethylene induction in a type III secretion system-dependent manner. SA potentiation of ethylene induction is dependent mostly on MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE6 (MPK6) and MPK3 and their downstream ACS2 and ACS6, two type I isoforms of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthases (ACSs). ACS7, a type III ACS whose expression is enhanced by SA pretreatment, is also involved. Pst expressing the avrRpt2 effector gene (Pst-avrRpt2), which is capable of triggering ETI, induces a higher level of ethylene production, and the elevated portion is dependent on SALICYLIC ACID INDUCTION DEFICIENT2 and NONEXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1, two key players in SA biosynthesis and signaling. High-order ACS mutants with reduced ethylene induction are more susceptible to both Pst and Pst-avrRpt2, demonstrating a positive role of ethylene in plant bacterial resistance mediated by both PAMP-triggered immunity and ETI. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. RECORDED-ROLE PLAY IN EFL CLASSROOM: A WAY OF MAXIMIZING STUDENTS‟ POTENTIAL IN SPEAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krismiyati Krismiyati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English for non English Department students will be quite a challenge as the students have various background and interest. Handling those students in a big number in a class that requires them to speak is another impending challenge. This is an action research on role-play in English classroom for Information Technology students. This study tries to see whether recorded-role play could maximize students‘ potential in speaking. This study involved 30 students taking English course in Information Technology Faculty. The students were given a situation in which they had to act the role play. They drafted the role -play before they recorded it. The result shows that students felt less tense in acting the role. They also got more time to practice their pronunciation before recording. It even gave students who felt reluctant and shy in the class to actively participate. In addition, students could play around with the supporting background sound to show their creativity. Surprisingly, most students do their best to show their effort in their speaking as the end-product would be played in the classroom, even the most quiet students performed really well. Finally, this recorded-role play proved to be an effective way to maximize students‘ potential in speaking.

  1. Cultural scripts, memories of childhood abuse, and multiple identities: a study of role-played enactments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Jane; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the reports of satanic, sexual, and physical abuse of persons instructed to role-play either dissociative identity disorder (DID) (n = 33), major depression (n = 33), or a college student who experienced minor adjustment problems ("normal") (n = 33) across a number of trials that included role-played hypnosis. As hypothesized, more of the participants who were asked to role-play DID reported at least one instance of satanic ritual abuse and sexual abuse compared with those who role-played depression or a college student with minor adjustment problems. DID role-players reported more incidents of sexual abuse and more severe physical and sexual abuse than did the major depression role-players. Further, the DID role-players differed from the normal role-players on all the measures of frequency and severity of physical and sexual abuse. Participants in all groups reported more frequent and severe incidents of physical abuse after role-played hypnosis than they did prior to it.

  2. Adult play fighting and potential role of tail signals in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Adult strepsirrhines have been completely neglected in the study of animal play. I focused on adult play fighting and the role of tail-play as a signal in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Tail-play is performed during play fighting, when lemurs anoint or, more rarely, wave their tails toward the playmate. During the prereproductive period, male and female lemurs engaged in play fighting with comparable frequencies, as was expected to occur in monomorphic species such as L. catta. The dyads showing low aggression rates engaged most frequently in play fighting, and polyadic play was frequently performed. Signals seem to be important in avoiding escalation to real aggression, especially when the playfulness of performers can be misunderstood by recipients. Tail-play was most frequent (a) in the dyads with low grooming rates (low familiarity degree) and (b) during the most risky play sessions (polyadic ones). Thus, tail-play can be considered as a useful tool for play communication in ringtailed lemurs. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. The role of structural characteristics in problem video game playing: a review

    OpenAIRE

    King, DL; Delfabbro, PH; Griffiths, MD

    2010-01-01

    The structural characteristics of video games may play an important role in explaining why some people play video games to excess. This paper provides a review of the literature on structural features of video games and the psychological experience of playing video games. The dominant view of the appeal of video games is based on operant conditioning theory and the notion that video games satisfy various needs for social interaction and belonging. However, there is a lack of experimental and ...

  4. Problematic usage among highly-engaged players of massively multiplayer online role playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christopher S; Malesky, L Alvin

    2008-08-01

    One popular facet of Internet gaming is the massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Some individuals spend so much time playing these games that it creates problems in their lives. This study focused on players of World of Warcraft. Factor analysis revealed one factor related to problematic usage, which was correlated with amount of time played, and personality characteristics of agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extraversion.

  5. The role played by recruitment agencies in the emigration of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role played by recruitment agencies in the emigration of South African nurses. ... Many nurses who leave the Republic of South Africa might use recruitment agencies' assistance. These concerns raised by ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  6. Biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation: What role can economic instruments play?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ring, I.; Drechsler, M.; Teeffelen, van A.J.A.; Irawan, S.; Venter, O.

    2010-01-01

    Tradable permits and intergovernmental fiscal transfers play an increasing role in both biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation. In comparison to regulatory and planning approaches these economic instruments offer a more flexible and cost-effective approach to biodiversity conservation.

  7. Highlight: Private sector could play a major role in feeding Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-08

    Sep 8, 2014 ... Highlight: Private sector could play a major role in feeding Africa ... scale, we will need to involve the private sector," said IDRC President Jean Lebel. ... There is ample evidence that addressing gender inequalities and ...

  8. Learner Interaction in a Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG): A Sociocultural Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the linguistic and social interaction of four intermediate EFL learners during game play in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Twelve illustrative episodes drawn from the participants' text chat, collected in four 70-minute sessions held over a one-month period, are analyzed from a…

  9. What Can Students Learn in an Extended Role-Play Simulation on Technology and Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    In a small course on technology and society, students participated in an extended role-play simulation for two weeks. Each student played a different adult character in a fictional community, which faces technological decisions in three scenarios set in the near future. The three scenarios involved stem cell research, nanotechnology, and privacy.…

  10. A Taxonomy of Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytheway, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Initiated in response to informal reports of vocabulary gains from gamers at universities in New Zealand and the Netherlands, this qualitative study explored how English language learners autonomously learn vocabulary while playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Using research processes inherent in Grounded Theory, data…

  11. Exploring the Use of Role Play in a School-Based Programme to Reduce Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Myra; Diamini, Nthabiseng; Khanyile, Zama; Mpanza, Lloyd; Sathiparsad, Reshma

    2012-01-01

    Can the use of a method such as role play help reduce sexual risk behaviour among KwaZulu-Natal learners? A study was undertaken of the use of role plays by Grade 8 learners, at eight urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal high schools, as part of a programme to reduce the prevalence of teenage pregnancy. Within the framework of Bandura's Social Cognitive…

  12. Using Analogy Role-Play Activity in an Undergraduate Biology Classroom to Show Central Dogma Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego®…

  13. The branding role that product labelling plays within integrated marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. This study focuses on empirically determining the branding role that product labelling plays as a strategic element in Integrated Marketing Communication functioning within the food and beverage industry. This research topic was selected for a number of reasons. Firstly, there is a general misconception of the definition of the term Integrated Marketing Communication. Secondly, there is also an emergence of the perception that labelling plays an important role as a strategic element i...

  14. Using group role-playing games with gifted children and adolescents: A psychosocial intervention model

    OpenAIRE

    Rosselet, J. G.; Stauffer, S. D.

    2013-01-01

    Gifted children develop asynchronously, often advanced for their age cognitively, but at or between their chronological and mental ages socially and emotionally (Robinson, 2008). In order to help gifted children and adolescents develop and practice social and emotional self-regulation skills, we investigated the use of an Adlerian play therapy approach during pen-and-paper role-playing games. Additionally, we used Goffman's (1961, 1974) social role identification and distance to encourage par...

  15. How Might Civilian Technology Firms Play A Role In The Defense Industrial Base Going Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    CIVILIAN TECHNOLOGY FIRMS PLAY A ROLE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE GOING FORWARD? by Daniel J. Shipman December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Mie...2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HOW MIGHT CIVILIAN TECHNOLOGY FIRMS PLAY A ROLE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL...the competitive business environment of Department of Defense (DOD) vendors and whether the market is favorable for non-traditional, technology

  16. Teaching to Play Performing a Main Role -- Effective Method of Pretend Play Facilitation in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrova, Vlasta

    2013-01-01

    We compared the efficiency of teacher's direct and indirect intervention into pretend play. Three hundred sixty-eight kindergarten children and 92 qualified kindergarten teachers were involved in the study. In the control group, a teacher indirectly initiated a play, creating a playing corner adjusted to the theme of the pretend play and during…

  17. Enhancing interest in statistics among computer science students using computer tool entrepreneur role play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judi, Hairulliza Mohamad; Sahari @ Ashari, Noraidah; Eksan, Zanaton Hj

    2017-04-01

    Previous research in Malaysia indicates that there is a problem regarding attitude towards statistics among students. They didn't show positive attitude in affective, cognitive, capability, value, interest and effort aspects although did well in difficulty. This issue should be given substantial attention because students' attitude towards statistics may give impacts on the teaching and learning process of the subject. Teaching statistics using role play is an appropriate attempt to improve attitudes to statistics, to enhance the learning of statistical techniques and statistical thinking, and to increase generic skills. The objectives of the paper are to give an overview on role play in statistics learning and to access the effect of these activities on students' attitude and learning in action research framework. The computer tool entrepreneur role play is conducted in a two-hour tutorial class session of first year students in Faculty of Information Sciences and Technology (FTSM), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, enrolled in Probability and Statistics course. The results show that most students feel that they have enjoyable and great time in the role play. Furthermore, benefits and disadvantages from role play activities were highlighted to complete the review. Role play is expected to serve as an important activities that take into account students' experience, emotions and responses to provide useful information on how to modify student's thinking or behavior to improve learning.

  18. The implementation of role play in education of pre-service vocational teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, L.; Pardjono, P.

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to: 1) explain the enhancement of students’ understanding about models of learning through role-play approach, and 2) find out the students’ response to the implementation of role-playing. Role-play is a technique that allows students to explore realistic situations by interacting with other people in a managed way in order to develop experience and trial different strategies in a supported environment. This is a Classroom Action Research consisting 2 cycles, held in the Apparel Pre-service Teacher Education Programs, Universitas Negeri Surabaya in 2016, in the subject of Teaching and Learning Strategy. The number of research subject is 54 students. Data collected by giving test and questionnaire. The data analyzed by descriptive analysis. The result states that:1) Role-play succeeds to improve student understanding of learning models; 2) The student’s’ response shows that the role-play is an exciting activity, provide an opportunity for students to be creative, and easy to be applied. Role-play has flexibility for implemented at the university level, accelerates the student’s understanding of learning materials, trains the students’ independence, responsibility, awareness to others as important provisions to become a teacher.

  19. The right thalamus may play an important role in anesthesia-awakening regulation in frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhu Fan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies have shown that the mammalian thalamus is a key structure for anesthesia-induced unconsciousness and anesthesia-awakening regulation. However, both the dynamic characteristics and probable lateralization of thalamic functioning during anesthesia-awakening regulation are not fully understood, and little is known of the evolutionary basis of the role of the thalamus in anesthesia-awakening regulation. Methods An amphibian species, the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis was used in the present study. The frogs were immersed in triciane methanesulfonate (MS-222 for general anesthesia. Electroencephalogram (EEG signals were recorded continuously from both sides of the telencephalon, diencephalon (thalamus and mesencephalon during the pre-anesthesia stage, administration stage, recovery stage and post-anesthesia stage. EEG data was analyzed including calculation of approximate entropy (ApEn and permutation entropy (PE. Results Both ApEn and PE values differed significantly between anesthesia stages, with the highest values occurring during the awakening period and the lowest values during the anesthesia period. There was a significant correlation between the stage durations and ApEn or PE values during anesthesia-awakening cycle primarily for the right diencephalon (right thalamus. ApEn and PE values for females were significantly higher than those for males. Discussion ApEn and PE measurements are suitable for estimating depth of anesthesia and complexity of amphibian brain activity. The right thalamus appears physiologically positioned to play an important role in anesthesia-awakening regulation in frogs indicating an early evolutionary origin of the role of the thalamus in arousal and consciousness in land vertebrates. Sex differences exist in the neural regulation of general anesthesia in frogs.

  20. Role-play facilitates children's mindreading of those with atypical color perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumi, Fumikazu; Koyasu, Masuo

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role-play experience on children's mindreading ability. Forty-one primary school children (20 boys, 21 girls, mean age: 9.37 years, range: 8-11 years) were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an order issued by a "manager" who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two managers: one was a monkey manager with normal color vision, and the other was a dog manager with restricted color vision. The monkey manager could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog manager saw some objects in different colors. Participants were required to respond according to the manager's instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog manager saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions, according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey manager. Before the test phase, participants in the role-play group were provided a role-play experience in which they assumed the role of the dog manager with restricted color vision. The experimental data were analyzed using a 2 × 2 mixed-design ANOVA (role-play condition × communication partner condition) to examine differences in the error rate. Both main effects and its interaction were significant. According to the post-hoc analyses, participants in the no-role-play condition made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas no such difference was found among participants in the role-play condition. These results suggest that role-play experience could facilitate mindreading of characters with restricted color vision.

  1. Integration of simulations and visualizations into classroom contexts through role playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysey, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    While simulations create a novel way to engage students, the idea of numerical modeling may be overwhelming to a wide swath of students - particularly non-geoscience majors or those students early in their earth science education. Yet even for these students, simulations and visualizations remain a powerful way to explore concepts and take ownership over their learning. One approach to bring these tools into the classroom is to introduce them as a component of a larger role-playing activity. I present two specific examples of how I have done this within a general education course broadly focused on water resources sustainability. In the first example, we have created an online multi-player watershed management game where players make management decisions for their individual farms, which in turn set the parameters for a watershed-scale groundwater model that continuously runs in the background. Through the simulation students were able to influence the behavior of the environment and see feedbacks on their individual land within the game. Though the original intent was to focus student learning on the hydrologic aspects of the watershed behavior, I have found that the value of the simulation is actually in allowing students to become immersed in a way that enables deep conversations about topics ranging from environmental policy to social justice. The second example presents an overview of a role playing activity focused on a multi-party negotiation of water rights in the Klamath watershed. In this case each student takes on a different role in the negotiation (e.g., farmer, energy producer, government, environmental advocate, etc.) and is presented with a rich set of data tying environmental and economic factors to the operation of reservoirs. In this case the simulation model is very simple, i.e., a mass balance calculator that students use to predict the consequences of their management decisions. The simplicity of the simulator, however, allows for

  2. Bile salt-stimulated lipase plays an unexpected role in arthritis development in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Lindquist

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to explore the hypothesis that bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL, in addition to being a key enzyme in dietary fat digestion during early infancy, plays an important role in inflammation, notably arthritis. METHODS: Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA and pristane-induced arthritis (PIA in rodents are commonly used experimental models that reproduce many of the pathogenic mechanisms of human rheumatoid arthritis, i.e. increased cellular infiltration, synovial hyperplasia, pannus formation, and erosion of cartilage and bone in the distal joints. We used the CIA model to compare the response in BSSL wild type (BSSL-WT mice with BSSL-deficient 'knock-out' (BSSL-KO and BSSL-heterozygous (BSSL-HET littermates. We also investigated if intraperitoneal injection of BSSL-neutralizing antibodies affected the development or severity of CIA and PIA in mice and rats, respectively. RESULTS: In two consecutive studies, we found that BSSL-KO male mice, in contrast to BSSL-WT littermates, were significantly protected from developing arthritis. We also found that BSSL-HET mice were less prone to develop disease compared to BSSL-WT mice, but not as resistant as BSSL-KO mice, suggesting a gene-dose effect. Moreover, we found that BSSL-neutralizing antibody injection reduced both the incidence and severity of CIA and PIA in rodents. CONCLUSION: Our data strongly support BSSL as a key player in the inflammatory process, at least in rodents. It also suggests the possibility that BSSL-neutralizing agents could serve as a therapeutic model to reduce the inflammatory response in humans.

  3. SERPINA3K plays antioxidant roles in cultured pterygial epithelial cells through regulating ROS system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengpeng Zhu

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that SERPINA3K, a serine proteinase inhibitor, has antioxidant activity in the cornea. Here we investigated the antioxidant effects of SERPINA3K on the pterygial, which is partially caused by oxidative stress in pathogenesis. The head part of primary pterygial tissue was dissected and then cultured in keratinocyte serum-free defined medium (KSFM. The cultured pterygial epithelial cells (PECs were treated with SERPINA3K. The cell proliferation and migration of PECs were measured and analyzed. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay were performed. It showed that SERPINA3K significantly suppressed the cell proliferation of PECs in a concentration-dependent manner, compared with cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells. SERPINA3K also inhibited the cell migration of PECs. Towards its underlying mechanism, SERPINA3K had antioxidant activities on the PECs by significantly inhibiting NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4, which is an important enzyme of ROS generation, and by elevating the levels of key antioxidant factors of ROS: such as NAD(PH dehydrogenase (quinone 1 (NQO1, NF-E2-related factor-2 (NRF2 and superoxide dismutases (SOD2. Meanwhile, SERPINA3K down-regulated the key effectors of Wnt signaling pathway: β-catenin, nonphospho-β-catenin, and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6. We provided novel evidence that SERPINA3K had inhibitory effects on pterygium and SERPINA3K played antioxidant role via regulating the ROS system and antioxidants.

  4. Autophagy plays an important role in protecting Pacific oysters from OsHV-1 and Vibrio aestuarianus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Pierrick; Moreau, Kevin; Segarra, Amélie; Tourbiez, Delphine; Travers, Marie-Agnès; Rubinsztein, David C; Renault, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Recent mass mortality outbreaks around the world in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, have seriously affected the aquaculture economy. Although the causes for these mortality outbreaks appear complex, infectious agents are involved. Two pathogens are associated with mass mortality outbreaks, the virus ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) and the bacterium Vibrio aestuarianus. Here we describe the interactions between these 2 pathogens and autophagy, a conserved intracellular pathway playing a key role in innate immunity. We show for the first time that autophagy pathway is present and functional in Pacific oysters and plays an important role to protect animals from infections. This study contributes to better understand the innate immune system of Pacific oysters.

  5. Reflecting on Role Play in Geographic Education: The Case of the Banana War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Hilda E.

    2004-01-01

    Debates over the nature and extent of globalization raise many issues to be addressed in a geographic education. In this paper, I briefly review case method instruction and role-play as teaching strategies suitable for material on globalization and other geographic subject matter, and then sketch an overview of an undergraduate geography role-play…

  6. On-Line Role-Play as a Teaching Method in Engineering Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Adolfo; Conde, Olga Ma.; Quintela, Ma. Ángeles; Mirapéix, Jesús Ma.; López-Higuera, José Miguel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose adapting role-play teaching methodology to engineering studies. The role of a maintenance technician, a relevant job profile for engineering graduates is has chosen. The interaction is based on email exchange, with the instructor included in the simulation to help guide the activity and achieve learning objectives. In this…

  7. Toll-like receptor 4 plays a protective role in pulmonary tuberculosis in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branger, Judith; Leemans, Jaklien C.; Florquin, Sandrine; Weijer, Sebastiaan; Speelman, Peter; van der Poll, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) play an essential role in the innate recognition of microorganisms by the host. To determine the role of TLR4 in host defense against lung tuberculosis, TLR4 mutant (C3H/HeJ) and wild-type (C3H/HeN) mice were intranasally infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TLR4

  8. The role played by different TiO2 features on the photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Luca; Meroni, Daniela; Falletta, Ermelinda; Ferretti, Anna Maria; Gervasini, Antonella; Cappelletti, Giuseppe; Ardizzone, Silvia

    2017-12-01

    Photocatalytic reactions promoted by TiO2 can be affected by a large number of oxide features (e.g. surface area, morphology and phase composition). In this context, the role played by the surface characteristics (e.g. surface acidity, wettability, etc.) has been often disregarded. In this work, pristine and Ta-doped TiO2 nanomaterials with different phase composition (pure anatase and anatase/brookite mixture) were synthesized by sol-gel and characterized under the structural and morphological point of view. A careful characterization of the acid properties of the materials has been performed by liquid-solid acid-base titration by means of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA) adsorption to determine the acid site density and average acid strength. Photocatalytic tests were performed in the degradation of paracetamol (acetaminophen) under UV irradiation and results were discussed in the light of the detailed scenarios describing the different oxides. The surface acidity of the samples, was recognized as one of the key parameters controlling the photocatalytic activity. A possible molecule degradation route is proposed on the ground of GC-MS and ESI-MS analyses.

  9. Nuclear science fights malaria. Radiation and molecular techniques can play targeted roles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, Steffen; Khan, Baldip; Robinson, Alan; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    Malaria is the most important insect transmitted disease. Globally there are 300 to 500 million clinical cases of malaria a year. They result in two million deaths per year (one every 30 seconds), more than 90% of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa. More than 90% of those affected are children less than five years old. The economic impact of the disease is felt disproportionately by poor families who may spend a fourth of their annual income on prevention and control measures. The causative agents are parasites of the genus Plasmodium and they are transmitted only by female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Among key strategies to control malaria are the surveillance of anti-malarial drug efficacy through monitoring the levels of drug resistance, and the reduction of mosquito populations. Nuclear techniques can play important roles in these efforts to combat malaria. This article reports on IAEA activities associated with drug-resistant malaria and describes how molecular methods making use of radioactive isotopes can provide a great advantage in the diagnosis of resistance. The article further presents the IAEA's plans for initiating a research programme to assess the feasibility of developing the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as a complementary method to control the vector of malaria

  10. Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Bermain Peran (Role Playing dalam Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Ekonomi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Hartati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Berdasarkan observasi di SMA N 1 Wadaslintang proses pembelajararan masih didominasi guru, ini membuat siswa pasif sehingga hasil belajar rendah. Upaya mencapai kompetensi pembelajaran adalah melakukan perbaikan dengan menerapkan model pembelajaran Role playing. Permasalahan: (1 apakah keaktifan siswa dengan penerapan model pembelajaran Role Playing dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar?, (2 bagaimana respon/tanggapan siswa dengan penerapan model Role Playing?. Tujuan: (1 mengetahui aktifitas siswa yang dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar, (2 mengetahui respon/tanggapan siswa terhadap model Role Playing. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian tindakan kelas yang dilaksanakan dalam 2 siklus, masing-masing siklus dua kali pertemuan dan beberapa tahap yaitu perencanaan, pelaksanaan, pengamatan dan refleksi. Data yang diperoleh dalam penelitian ini meliputi: keaktifan siswa, hasil belajar, dan respon siswa. Siklus I aktifitas siswa sebesar 57,82% (cukup aktif, rata-rata nilai hasil belajar 72 ketuntasan klasikal 68,18% dan respon siswa 64,58% (positif. Siklus II keaktifan siswa menjadi 78,9% (aktif, rata-rata nilai hasil belajar 84 ketuntasan klasikal 95,45% dan respon siswa meningkat menjadi 77,56% (positif. Simpulan dari penelitian ini adalah (1 meningkatnya keaktifan siswa dengan model pembelajaran Role Playing dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa, (2 respon/tanggapan siswa menunjukan respon positif selama proses pembelajaran. Saran dari penelitian ini yaitu (1 Pembelajaran menggunakan model role playing dapat disesuaikan dengan materi yang ada dengan catatan guru harus menerangkan terlebih dahulu materi yang akan dipelajari, (2 model pembelajaran role playing memerlukan penguasaan materi yang baik jadi sebelum melakukan proses role playing disarankan siswa lebih banyak membaca materi agar proses pembelajaran lebih aktif. � Based on observation, economic teacher at SMA N 1 Wadaslintang implement teacher center learning, student being pasive and student

  11. An exploratory study of the association between online gaming addiction and enjoyment motivations for playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Z; Williams, GA; Griffiths, MD

    2015-01-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are a popular form of entertainment used by millions of gamers worldwide. Potential problems relating to MMORPG play have emerged, particularly in relation to being addicted to playing in such virtual environments. In the present study, factors relating to online gaming addiction and motivations for playing in MMORPGs were examined to establish whether they were associated with addiction. A sample comprised 1,167 gamers who were survey...

  12. Role-play as an educational tool in medication communication skills: Students' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, S H; Kalpana, L; Veena, R M; Bharath Kumar, V D

    2016-10-01

    Medication communication skills are vital aspects of patient care that may influence treatment outcomes. However, traditional pharmacology curriculum deals with imparting factual information, with little emphasis on patient communication. The current study aims to explore students' perceptions of role-play as an educational tool in acquiring communication skills and to ascertain the need of role-play for their future clinical practice. This questionnaire-based study was done in 2 nd professional MBBS students. A consolidated concept of six training cases, focusing on major communication issues related to medication prescription in pharmacology, were developed for peer-role-play sessions for 2 nd professional MBBS ( n = 122) students. Structured scripts with specific emphasis on prescription medication communication and checklists for feedback were developed. Prevalidated questionnaires measured the quantitative aspects of role-plays in relation to their relevance as teaching-learning tool, perceived benefits of sessions, and their importance for future use. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. The role-play concept was well appreciated and considered an effective means for acquiring medication communication skills. The structured feedback by peers and faculty was well received by many. Over 90% of the students reported immense confidence in communicating therapy details, namely, drug name, purpose, mechanism, dosing details, and precautions. Majority reported a better retention of pharmacology concepts and preferred more such sessions. Most students consider peer-role-play as an indispensable tool to acquire effective communication skills regarding drug therapy. By virtue of providing experiential learning opportunities and its feasibility of implementation, role-play sessions justify inclusion in undergraduate medical curricula.

  13. Role-play as an educational tool in medication communication skills: Students’ perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, S. H.; Kalpana, L.; Veena, R. M.; Bharath Kumar, V. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Medication communication skills are vital aspects of patient care that may influence treatment outcomes. However, traditional pharmacology curriculum deals with imparting factual information, with little emphasis on patient communication. The current study aims to explore students’ perceptions of role-play as an educational tool in acquiring communication skills and to ascertain the need of role-play for their future clinical practice. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire-based study was done in 2nd professional MBBS students. A consolidated concept of six training cases, focusing on major communication issues related to medication prescription in pharmacology, were developed for peer-role-play sessions for 2nd professional MBBS (n = 122) students. Structured scripts with specific emphasis on prescription medication communication and checklists for feedback were developed. Prevalidated questionnaires measured the quantitative aspects of role-plays in relation to their relevance as teaching–learning tool, perceived benefits of sessions, and their importance for future use. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. Results: The role-play concept was well appreciated and considered an effective means for acquiring medication communication skills. The structured feedback by peers and faculty was well received by many. Over 90% of the students reported immense confidence in communicating therapy details, namely, drug name, purpose, mechanism, dosing details, and precautions. Majority reported a better retention of pharmacology concepts and preferred more such sessions. Conclusions: Most students consider peer-role-play as an indispensable tool to acquire effective communication skills regarding drug therapy. By virtue of providing experiential learning opportunities and its feasibility of implementation, role-play sessions justify inclusion in undergraduate medical curricula. PMID:28031605

  14. On play and playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Dusko

    2013-12-01

    The paper offers a review of the development of the concept of play and playing. The true beginnings of the development of the theories of play are set as late as in the 19th century. It is difficult to define play as such; it may much more easily be defined through its antipode--work. In the beginning, play used to be connected with education; it was not before Freud's theory of psychoanalysis and Piaget's developmental psychology that the importance of play in a child's development began to be explained in more detail. The paper further tackles the role of play in the adult age. Detailed attention is paid to psychodynamic and psychoanalytic authors, in particular D. W. Winnicott and his understanding of playing in the intermediary (transitional) empirical or experiential space. In other words, playing occupies a space and time of its own. The neuroscientific concept of playing is also tackled, in the connection with development as well.

  15. Bearings with a key role in nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.

    1981-01-01

    The most critical period during the operation of heavy-duty pumps occurs at run-up, when sudden high loads coincide with below normal oil pressure. When those pumps are a key component of a nuclear reactor safety-system, reliability takes on a special meaning. Electricite de France recently invited a British company, Michell Bearings, to find a solution to these 'black-start' problems, the details of which are described in the following article

  16. Facilitating pragmatic skills through role-play in learners with language learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoola, Fareeaa; Flack, Penelope S; Karrim, Saira B

    2017-07-26

    Role-based learning involves the process whereby learners acquire skills, knowledge and understanding through the assumption of roles within real-life settings. Role-play holds potential as an effective learning strategy for children; however, there is limited research on the use of role-play as a therapy method within the field of speech-language pathology. Children with language learning disability (LLD) typically present with difficulties in social communication, which can negatively affect their social and academic achievement. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of role-play as a therapy approach targeting the pragmatic skills of stylistic variation and requesting for clarification in learners with LLD. The use of combined positivist and interpretivist paradigms allowed for the implementation of an embedded mixed methods design. An experimental pretest-posttest design was implemented. Eight participants, who were learners with a diagnosis of LLD, were purposefully selected. Data collection was conducted over five phases, utilising the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (4th Ed.) Pragmatics Profile, discourse completion tasks, session plans and session records. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and were supplemented by qualitative data from session records. Results revealed improvements in stylistic variation and requesting for clarification post role-play intervention, with minimal changes in the control group. Limitations of the study have been reported for consideration when interpreting results. Role-play as a therapy approach targeting two pragmatic skills, stylistic variation and requesting for clarification, was found to be beneficial for learners with LLD. Recommendations for the implementation of role-play as a therapy approach were made.

  17. Facilitating pragmatic skills through role-play in learners with language learning disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareeaa Abdoola

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role-based learning involves the process whereby learners acquire skills, knowledge and understanding through the assumption of roles within real-life settings. Role-play holds potential as an effective learning strategy for children; however, there is limited research on the use of role-play as a therapy method within the field of speech-language pathology. Children with language learning disability (LLD typically present with difficulties in social communication, which can negatively affect their social and academic achievement. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of role-play as a therapy approach targeting the pragmatic skills of stylistic variation and requesting for clarification in learners with LLD. Method: The use of combined positivist and interpretivist paradigms allowed for the implementation of an embedded mixed methods design. An experimental pretest-posttest design was implemented. Eight participants, who were learners with a diagnosis of LLD, were purposefully selected. Data collection was conducted over five phases, utilising the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (4th Ed. Pragmatics Profile, discourse completion tasks, session plans and session records. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and were supplemented by qualitative data from session records. Results: Results revealed improvements in stylistic variation and requesting for clarification post role-play intervention, with minimal changes in the control group. Limitations of the study have been reported for consideration when interpreting results. Conclusion: Role-play as a therapy approach targeting two pragmatic skills, stylistic variation and requesting for clarification, was found to be beneficial for learners with LLD. Recommendations for the implementation of role-play as a therapy approach were made.

  18. Turkish Foreign Language Learners' Roles and Outputs: Introducing an Innovation and Role-Playing in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Cigdem; Comoglu, Irem; Baran, Bahar

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to design of the two activities "introducing an innovation" and "role playing" in Second Life (SL) and to evaluate qualitatively Turkish foreign language learner's roles and outputs before, while, and after the implementation of the activities. The study used community of inquiry model consisting of cognitive…

  19. Comparison of Classic vs. Role plays Teaching Methods on the Menstrual Hygiene Behavior of Secondary School Girls in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ostovar

    2013-09-01

    Background & aim: Awareness about the different aspects of health during puberty plays an important role in the health of girls and finally on their health future pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to to compare the effect of role playing and classical training methods in the the improvement of puberty health among secondary school girls in Yasouj City, Iran. Methods: In this study, the educational need during puberty school girls in the interview was determined. The two schools girls were randomly selected (students any school-60. Next, a knowledge and attitude questionnaire and a behavior checklist related to the main puberty health problems were completed. Then one of the schools randomly was selected as educational interventions schools and other were studied as controls. After grouping the students into four groups of 15, intervention were conducted in four sessions including: role-play, question and answer, and lecture. In the control group, all number of school students received training on puberty health through a classical education (lectures. The results were subsequently compared. Data were analyzed by Student t-test paired t-test, and analysis of variance. Results: The results of this study showed that the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior related to health matters during puberty showed significant improvement in the girls before and after implementation of educational intervention through role play (p<0.05.Thus, the mean score in group role play before intervention was 2.35±1.53 and after was 3.96±1.27 , The mean performance score before intervention 6.04±2.34 and after was, 8.61±1.55, respectively, while in classical group differences were not statistically significant (p<0.05 Conclusion: In comparison with the classical method of health education, teaching through role play significantly improved the level of knowledge, attitude and practice related to puberty health among adolescent girls. Key Words: Education, Adolescent Girls

  20. ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Stanković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Key performance indicators are financial and non financial indicators that organizations use inorder to estimate and fortify how successful they are, aiming previously established long lastinggoals. Appropriate selection of indicators that will be used for measuring is of a greatest importance.Process organization of business is necessary to be constitute in order to realize such effective andefficient system or performance measuring via KPI. Process organization also implies customerorientation and necessary flexibility in nowadays condition of global competition.Explanation of process organization, the way of KPI selection, and practical example of KPImeasuring in Toyota dealerships are presented in this paper.

  1. Facilitating open dialogue — IDRC plays a key role in Latin America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-04-01

    Apr 1, 2011 ... Together with the effects of country-specific financial shocks, this has ... led to environmental damage and strained social and healthcare networks. The growing inequality has also created a new sense of social polarization.

  2. The sustainable seafood movement is a Governance concert, with the audience playing a key role

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barclay, Kate; Miller, Alice

    2018-01-01

    Private standards, including ecolabels, have been posed as a governance solution for the global fisheries crisis. The conventional logic is that ecolabels meet consumer demand for certified "sustainable" seafood, with "good" players rewarded with price premiums or market share and "bad" players

  3. GTPase activity plays a key role in the pathobiology of LRRK2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulan Xiong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 gene are associated with late-onset, autosomal-dominant, familial Parkinson's disease (PD and also contribute to sporadic disease. The LRRK2 gene encodes a large protein with multiple domains, including functional Roc GTPase and protein kinase domains. Mutations in LRRK2 most likely cause disease through a toxic gain-of-function mechanism. The expression of human LRRK2 variants in cultured primary neurons induces toxicity that is dependent on intact GTP binding or kinase activities. However, the mechanism(s underlying LRRK2-induced neuronal toxicity is poorly understood, and the contribution of GTPase and/or kinase activity to LRRK2 pathobiology is not well defined. To explore the pathobiology of LRRK2, we have developed a model of LRRK2 cytotoxicity in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Protein domain analysis in this model reveals that expression of GTPase domain-containing fragments of human LRRK2 are toxic. LRRK2 toxicity in yeast can be modulated by altering GTPase activity and is closely associated with defects in endocytic vesicular trafficking and autophagy. These truncated LRRK2 variants induce similar toxicity in both yeast and primary neuronal models and cause similar vesicular defects in yeast as full-length LRRK2 causes in primary neurons. The toxicity induced by truncated LRRK2 variants in yeast acts through a mechanism distinct from toxicity induced by human alpha-synuclein. A genome-wide genetic screen identified modifiers of LRRK2-induced toxicity in yeast including components of vesicular trafficking pathways, which can also modulate the trafficking defects caused by expression of truncated LRRK2 variants. Our results provide insight into the basic pathobiology of LRRK2 and suggest that the GTPase domain may contribute to the toxicity of LRRK2. These findings may guide future therapeutic strategies aimed at attenuating LRRK2-mediated neurodegeneration.

  4. Facilitating open dialogue — IDRC plays a key role in Latin America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Different levels of government tried to implement aid plans, but soon it became ... for land planning and housing, functional health systems, and environmental cleanup. ... Participation and open dialogue are at the centre of a similar process in rural ... A Web portal allows them to communicate with their peers on disease ...

  5. Astrocytes play a key role in activation of microglia by persistent Borna disease virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauder Christian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV infection of the rat brain is associated with microglial activation and damage to certain neuronal populations. Since persistent BDV infection of neurons is nonlytic in vitro, activated microglia have been suggested to be responsible for neuronal cell death in vivo. However, the mechanisms of activation of microglia in neonatally BDV-infected rat brains remain unclear. Our previous studies have shown that activation of microglia by BDV in culture requires the presence of astrocytes as neither the virus nor BDV-infected neurons alone activate microglia. Here, we evaluated the mechanisms whereby astrocytes can contribute to activation of microglia in neuron-glia-microglia mixed cultures. We found that persistent infection of neuronal cells leads to activation of uninfected astrocytes as measured by elevated expression of RANTES. Activation of astrocytes then produces activation of microglia as evidenced by increased formation of round-shaped, MHCI-, MHCII- and IL-6-positive microglia cells. Our analysis of possible molecular mechanisms of activation of astrocytes and/or microglia in culture indicates that the mediators of activation may be soluble heat-resistant, low molecular weight factors. The findings indicate that astrocytes may mediate activation of microglia by BDV-infected neurons. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that microglia activation in the absence of neuronal damage may represent initial steps in the gradual neurodegeneration observed in brains of neonatally BDV-infected rats.

  6. Beyond the brochure. Administrators play key role in positioning the practice, aligning marketing with mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redling, Bob

    2007-04-01

    Marketing doesn't start and stop with a glossy brochure, a display ad in the local Yellow Pages or a Web site. Those are merely tactics that a medical group practice might use to position its physicians' services in the community. Marketing and planning support a medical group's mission and vision--and its strategic plan. The adminstrator must demonstrate this connection to physicians and educate them about what marketing really is.

  7. Nuclear localization signal of ING4 plays a key role in its binding to p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xin; Wang Kesheng; Wang Zhiqin; Xu Lusheng; Wang Qingwan; Chen Fei; Wei Dongzhi; Han Zeguang

    2005-01-01

    ING4, a novel member of ING family, is recently reported to interact with tumor suppressor p53 and negatively regulate the cell growth with significant G2/M arrest of cell cycle in HepG2 cells through upregulation of p53-inducible gene p21. However, which region of ING4 could have contributed to the binding to p53 remains largely unclear. Herein, the GST-pulldown experiments revealed that the middle region of ING4, a potential bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS), could be involved in the binding to p53. Furthermore, the interaction of ING4 to p53 was abrogated in vitro and in vivo when certain mutations or the entire deletion of the NLS domain occurred. More interestingly, the mutations of the NLS domain could alter the ING4 nuclear localization, disrupt the interaction of ING4 with p53, and even, deregulate the p53-inducible gene p21 in MCF-7 cells. All data indicated that the NLS domain of ING4 is essential for the binding of ING4 to p53 and the function of ING4 associated with p53

  8. Continuous miner and friction bolts play key roles in Highland's move underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.J.; Jackson, D.

    1977-01-01

    Exxon has added underground mining operations to the open pits at its Highland uranium mine and mill complex 60 mi northeast of Casper in the Powder River Basin and has, in the process, adopted some innovative mining techniques. A continuous shield miner is being used in conjunction with continuous ground support--thought to be the first truly successful combination of these techniques in a US uranium mine. Highland miners are also making extensive use of ''Split Sets,'' a patented friction rock bolt system invented in 1973, which has proven to be a successful cost-saving substitute for timber supports in Highland's soft, water-saturated, extremely unstable sediments. Initial mine production at Highland began in July 1972, and the mill started up the following October. Design capacity at startup was 2,000 tpd, a figure that has since been expanded to 3,000 tpd through mill modifications but without a major construction program. Current production is about 2 million lb per year of U 3 O 8

  9. ISFET pH Sensitivity: Counter-Ions Play a Key Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizi, Kokab B; Xu, Xiaoqing; Pal, Ashish; Hu, Xiaolin; Wong, H S Philip

    2017-02-02

    The Field Effect sensors are broadly used for detecting various target analytes in chemical and biological solutions. We report the conditions under which the pH sensitivity of an Ion Sensitive Field Effect transistor (ISFET) sensor can be significantly enhanced. Our theory and simulations show that by using pH buffer solutions containing counter-ions that are beyond a specific size, the sensor shows significantly higher sensitivity which can exceed the Nernst limit. We validate the theory by measuring the pH response of an extended gate ISFET pH sensor. The consistency and reproducibility of the measurement results have been recorded in hysteresis free and stable operations. Different conditions have been tested to confirm the accuracy and validity of our experiment results such as using different solutions, various oxide dielectrics as the sensing layer and off-the-shelf versus IC fabricated transistors as the basis of the ISFET sensor.

  10. Second Stage (S-II) Plays Key Role in Apollo missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    This photograph of the Saturn V Second Stage (S-II) clearly shows the cluster of five powerful J-2 engines needed to boost the Apollo spacecraft into earth orbit following first stage separation. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  11. Hexokinase 2, glycogen synthase and phosphorylase play a key role in muscle glycogen supercompensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, José M; Rovira, Jordi; Nielsen, Jakob N

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen-depleting exercise can lead to supercompensation of muscle glycogen stores, but the biochemical mechanisms of this phenomenon are still not completely understood.......Glycogen-depleting exercise can lead to supercompensation of muscle glycogen stores, but the biochemical mechanisms of this phenomenon are still not completely understood....

  12. Maintenance Rehearsal: The Key to the Role Attention Plays in Storage and Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Kimberley A.; Humphreys, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Research with the maintenance-rehearsal paradigm, in which word pairs are rehearsed as distractor material during a series of digit recall trials, has previously indicated that low frequency and new word pairs capture attention to a greater degree than high frequency and old word pairs. This impacts delayed recognition of the pairs and interferes…

  13. The Sustainable Seafood Movement Is a Governance Concert, with the Audience Playing a Key Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Barclay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Private standards, including ecolabels, have been posed as a governance solution for the global fisheries crisis. The conventional logic is that ecolabels meet consumer demand for certified “sustainable” seafood, with “good” players rewarded with price premiums or market share and “bad” players punished by reduced sales. Empirically, however, in the markets where ecolabeling has taken hold, retailers and brands—rather than consumers—are demanding sustainable sourcing, to build and protect their reputation. The aim of this paper is to devise a more accurate logic for understanding the sustainable seafood movement, using a qualitative literature review and reflection on our previous research. We find that replacing the consumer-driven logic with a retailer/brand-driven logic does not go far enough in making research into the sustainable seafood movement more useful. Governance is a “concert” and cannot be adequately explained through individual actor groups. We propose a new logic going beyond consumer- or retailer/brand-driven models, and call on researchers to build on the partial pictures given by studies on prices and willingness-to-pay, investigating more fully the motivations of actors in the sustainable seafood movement, and considering audience beyond the direct consumption of the product in question.

  14. Third Year Medical School Students' Experiences of Revealing Patients' Stories through Role Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansever, Zeliha; Avsar, Zeynep; Tastan, Kenan

    2015-02-01

    Studying medicine is hard and it takes longer time compared to other majors. In addition, medical students find medical education boring. It is now necessary to turn medical education into an enjoyable and interesting way. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of an educational program related to how to learn taking medical history and how an effective patient-doctor interview should be. The program is structured in various scenarios, on the students learning skills, by the "role playing" method. A scenario prepared by the lecturer was employed in this study. While one of the students acted in a doctor role, the other one played in the role of patient's relative. The lecturer always played in the role of patient. After performing the role playing, students' written and oral feedbacks were gathered. Data were analysed by using SPSS 20.0 program. A total of 470 feedbacks (51.3% were given by the female students) were taken from the students. Thirty-three volunteer students, nineteen of them were male, took part in the role playing. In the patient-doctor interview, the field that students were best were greeting the patients and dealing only with patients during the examination. The mean scores were 3.81±0.95 and 3.79±0.94 respectively. The ability to "summarize" and to "address the patient with his/her name" had the lowest scores; the mean scores of the students in these areas were 2.94±1.11 and 2.70±1.31, respectively. Medical education is a long and tough process. Therefore, it should be interesting, attention getting and cheerful. Role playing can be effective in meeting that need.

  15. Role-play experience facilitates reading the mind of individuals with different perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumikazu Furumi

    Full Text Available The present study examined effects of role-play experience on reading the mind of people with different perception. It is normally difficult but very important in daily life to understand people with different characteristics, including those with restricted color vision. We explored the mechanisms of reading the mind of people with different perception. Forty university students were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop computer, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an instruction issued by a partner who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two partners: one was a monkey with normal color vision and the other was a dog with restricted color vision. The monkey could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog saw some objects in different colors (e.g., he saw as yellow objects that the participants saw as red. Participants were required to respond according to the partner's instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions (i.e., mind read, according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey. Before the test phase, the role-play group had a role-play experience in which participants assumed the role of people with restricted color vision. No-role-play participants made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas among role-play participants, there was no difference between conditions. These results suggest that role-play experience facilitates reading the mind of people with perceptual experiences different from our own.

  16. Performing self, performing character: Exploring gender performativity in online role-playing games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Osborne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Online narrative (fiction-based role-playing games and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs provide a ludic structure in which role players enact the gender and sexuality of their avatars. To investigate how role players perceive and perform their avatars' gender and sexuality in online games, I invited role players from MMORPGs and narrative RPGs to participate in an online survey. This study examines how the online game environment mediates players' self-expression and their acceptance of minority identities. Qualitative analysis of the data collected suggests that players who demonstrate empathy with and examination of their avatars' genders and sexualities, and who experience a sense of belonging within the game structure, are able to form positive interpersonal relationships that allow them to accept others' expressed identities.

  17. APPLICATION METHODS TO INCREASE OF ROLE PLAYING ON LEARNING MATERIALS PRESERVING NKRI (PENERAPAN METODE ROLE PLAY UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR PADA MATERI MENJAGA KEUTUHAN NKRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfudin -

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Uncertainty in the nation's economy, the impact of globalization as well as various crises and disasters are problems that may lead to national disintegration which make few groups want to secede from NKRI. All these problems unilaterally are evidences of the unreliability of civic education learning as a subject that mandates to maintain the integrity of NKRI, not in the macro scope but in giving civic education as early as possible from the elementary school. The learning outcomes of civic education learning do not only include the acquisition of knowledge, but more to the acquisition of feeling and behavior. Consequently, in the pre-cycle, the researcher found difficulties to integrate the two domains, which made the learning outcomes below the mini-mum mastery criteria, students’ behavior lacking the feeling of love to their homeland and stu-dents’ motivation in learning low. To solve the problems, the researcher used role play method and as a result, after two cycles, students’ learning outcomes increased. The percentage of stu-dents’ minimum mastery criteria increased from 52% (score 75 to 69% in cycle I and 96% in cycle II. In addition, the students’ were more motivated in learning, followed ceremony in an or-derly manner, and behaved in ways that reflect the love of homeland. It can be concluded that ap-plying role play method in the lesson of preserving the integrity of NKRI at Grade V SDN Cilengkrang North Sumedang Regencey, students’ learning outcomes could be improved. Keywords: Role Play Method, Civic Education Learning, Integrity of The Unitary State of The Republic of Indonesia Abstrak. Ketidakpastian kondisi perekonomian bangsa, pengaruh globalisasi serta berbagai krisis dan bencana merupakan permasalahan yang merujuk ke arah disintegrasi bangsa. Sehingga segelintir kelompok ingin memisahkan diri dari NKRI. Semua permasalahan diatas secara sepihak merupakan suatu bukti ketidak mempanan pembelajaran PKn

  18. Learner interaction in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG): A sociocultural discourse analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the linguistic and social interaction of four intermediate EFL learners during game play in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Twelve illustrative episodes drawn from the participants’ text chat, collected in four 70-minute sessions held over a one-month period, are analyzed from a sociocultural perspective. Qualitative analysis reveals the presence of interactional features associated with the development of sociocultural competence...

  19. Developing pharmacy student communication skills through role-playing and active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz Adrian, Julie Ann; Zeszotarski, Paula; Ma, Carolyn

    2015-04-25

    To evaluate the impact on pharmacy students of a communication course, which used role-playing to develop active-learning skills. Students role-playing pharmacists in patient care scenarios were critiqued by students and pharmacist faculty members. Grading was performed using the rubric inspired by Bruce Berger's Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Written skills were evaluated using student written critique questionnaires. Students completed precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys. Preceptor evaluations were analyzed for course impact. Students demonstrated improvement in oral skills based on role-play scores (45.87/50) after practice sessions. The average score based on the student questionnaire was 9.31/10. Gain was demonstrated in all defined course objectives. Impact on introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) communication objectives was insignificant. Student evaluations for course and teaching strategy reflected a high average. Study results demonstrated improvement in oral and written communication skills that may help improve interprofessional teamwork between pharmacists and other health care providers.

  20. Meningkatkan Kepercayaan Diri Remaja Putri Melalui Layanan Penguasaan Konten Teknik Role Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Ida Farida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui peningkatan kepercayaan diri remaja putri pubertas awal setelah diberikan layanan penguasaan konten dengan teknik role playing. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian pre eksperimen. Populasinya remaja putri pubertas awal kelas VII SMP N 13 Semarang. Teknik sampling yang digunakan purposive sampling, dengan sampel 16 remaja putri pubertas awal yang memiliki kecenderungan kepercayaan diri rendah. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan skala psikologi berupa skala kepercayaan diri. Analisis datanya  menggunakan uji wilcoxon match pair dan deskriptif persentase. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa layanan penguasaan konten dengan teknik role playing dapat meningkatkan kepercayaan diri remaja putri pubertas awal, dengan nilai zhitung = 0 < ztabel = 30. Simpulan dari penelitian ini yakni terdapat peningkatan kepercayaan diri remaja putri pubertas awal setelah diberikan layanan penguasaan konten dengan teknik role playing. This study seeks to find out the increasing confidence of female adolescent in early  puberty  after getting mastery content counseling by role playing technique. This research was using pre-experimental design with  female adolescents of seven graders in SMP N 13 Semarang as the  population. Purposive sampling technique was used  in this study. Sixteen adolescents in their early puberty that had tendency of  low self confidence was used as sample. Method for collecting data was used self confident scale; whereas, the data analysis used wilcoxon match pair test and descriptive percentage. The result of this study showed that counseling of mastery content by role playing technique was able to increase self confidence of female adolescent in early puberity with the score zcount = 0 < ztable= 30. It can concluded that there was increasing of self confidence for female adolescent in early puberty after getting counseling of mastery content by role playing.

  1. Ludic role of religious rituals. The use of play for religious ceremony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciocan Tudor Cosmin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper was made as part of a wider research I made about rituals and their meaning and roles they are playing in the religious system of thinking. The way they are thought, displayed, precisely followed as instructed and believed, makes them a powerful social act that has been always provided by any religion, and also a tool for religion to make the human society what it is today. After I speak about what is a ritual and its religious content in general, I am enumerating roles and functions of play and theatre in particular have, both for profane and religious purpose. Do we still use play/games as adults because they are rewarding, they give us pleasure? They are used as means of relaxation, or for continuing the age of childhood; or it is in our nature to play games in everything we do? In this paper I have emphasized play as adaptive potentiation or adaptive variability useful both in therapy, as in religious ceremony. The relation and comparison of rituals with play is due to the fact that playing is the most engaging behavior performed by man and animals, and it can be found as foundation of almost any ritualist activity.

  2. Fostering creativity, empathy and self-regulation through story-based educational role-play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa

    is an interactive approach to learning that involves students in collaborative, creative problem solving in meaningful contexts. A R&D project in Danish schools has studied how the curriculum for grades 6-10 can be embedded in immersive narrative roleplay scenarios, and the implications for the learners’ motivation...... engaging the learners in narrative educational role-play. These include how the learners engagement in role-play can afford emotionally encoded memory, socially and contextually anchored interactions with the learning material as well as empathy and self-regulation.Based on the findings from the R...

  3. Social Psychological Aspects of Addiction to Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinova T.Y.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of how massively multiplayer online role¬playing games (MMORPG affect the behavior of players. Basing on a series of research, the paper analyzes how massively multiplayer online role¬playing games are created and highlights their specifics that possibly contribute to the development of psychological addiction to such games. The authors describe the outcomes of their own research on motivation in persons with gaming addiction aged 18 and up, with over 1 year of gaming experience. These out-comes suggest that current traditional criteria developed for assessing gaming addiction cannot be applied to this particular form of addictive behavior.

  4. Virtual firm as a role-playing tool for biomedical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonov, Oleg; Soto-Romero, Georges; Guyon, Florent; Courjal, Nadège; Euphrasie, Sebatien; Yahiaoui, Reda; Butterlin, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes design of a role-playing tool based on the experience of the practice firm which allows participants to obtain relevant and practical on-the-job experience. The students played the roles of the employees and the applicants for vacant positions at the virtual firm - a small business specialized in biomedical sector - founded to design the demonstration vehicle for a biomedical device. We found that this innovative concept may be used to improve the young engineers performance and to facilitate their post-graduate integration.

  5. What Role do Metaphors Play in Game-based Learning Processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the role played by metaphors in learning games and game-based learning processes. The aim is to contribute better understanding of the mechanisms of how such games contribute to learning and learning transfer. On the basis of an analytical strategy that emphasises metaphors...... as storylines, actors, acts and movement, three learning games are analysed in order to understand how learningemerges in association to game-embedded metaphors.As shown in this chapter, metaphorsseem to play a profound role in game-based learning, both by providing participantswith a suitcase containing...

  6. What Role do Metaphors Play in Game-Based Learning Processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the role played by metaphors in learning games and game-based learning processes. The aim is to contribute better understanding of the mechanisms of how such games contribute to learning and learning transfer. On the basis of an analytical strategy that emphasises metaphors...... as storylines, actors, acts and movement, three learning games are analysed in order to understand how learning emerges in association to game-embedded metaphors. As shown in this chapter, metaphors seem to play a profound role in game-based learning, both by providing participants with a suitcase containing...

  7. Senior veterinary students' perceptions of using role play to learn communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jennifer C; Bateman, Shane W

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies of veterinary practice have suggested a correlation between well-developed communication skills and job satisfaction, career retention, customer satisfaction, decreased lawsuits, and financial remuneration for veterinarians. Veterinary educators are under growing pressure to teach functional communication skills to veterinary students; however, the methods employed have not been well evaluated. In this study we have evaluated veterinary student's attitudes to learning communication skills by participating in role play. The study indicates that experiential learning modalities such as role play are perceived as effective by students, despite reluctance to participate and some discomfort surrounding participation.

  8. Experiencing the Elicitation of User Requirements and Recording Them in Use Case Diagrams through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costain, Gay; McKenna, Brad

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a role-play exercise used in a second-year tertiary Systems Analysis and Design course, and the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the students' responses to a survey that solicited their perceptions of that role-play experience. The role-play involved students in eliciting user requirements from customers during a Joint…

  9. Exploring the Impact of Role-Playing on Peer Feedback in an Online Case-Based Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Yu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the impact of role-playing on the quality of peer feedback and learners' perception of this strategy in a case-based learning activity with VoiceThread in an online course. The findings revealed potential positive impact of role-playing on learners' generation of constructive feedback as role-playing was associated with higher…

  10. THE ROLE PLAY AND THE CHILD WITH AUTISM IN THE HISTORICAL-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the play of make-believe for children with autism, focusing on the symbolic resources it uses in asserting roles. It is based on the theoretical contributions of the historical-cultural perspective, with Vygotsky as its main exponent. The research was carried out in a public school of Early Childhood Education, in Brasília. From the microgenetic analysis, the research had six children diagnosed with autism, at the ages of 4 and 6 years, included in Special Class, as participants. The play situations were videotaped and later transcribed in episode format. In the data analysis, we identified two axes, namely: 1 The construction of the role play and; 2 Assumption of roles by the child with autism: set design and imagery resources. The results reveal the role of the other (intentional participation in the constitution of play activity, especially the role of the adult. In addition, they demonstrate that pedagogical mediation, including the creation of 'scenarios', is fundamental for the extension of the symbolic experience of the child with autism.

  11. Insights into the key roles of epigenetics in matrix macromolecules-associated wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperigkou, Zoi; Götte, Martin; Theocharis, Achilleas D; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2017-10-24

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic network of macromolecules, playing a regulatory role in cell functions, tissue regeneration and remodeling. Wound healing is a tissue repair process necessary for the maintenance of the functionality of tissues and organs. This highly orchestrated process is divided into four temporally overlapping phases, including hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and tissue remodeling. The dynamic interplay between ECM and resident cells exerts its critical role in many aspects of wound healing, including cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, survival, matrix degradation and biosynthesis. Several epigenetic regulatory factors, such as the endogenous non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs), are the drivers of the wound healing response. microRNAs have pivotal roles in regulating ECM composition during wound healing and dermal regeneration. Their expression is associated with the distinct phases of wound healing and they serve as target biomarkers and targets for systematic regulation of wound repair. In this article we critically present the importance of epigenetics with particular emphasis on miRNAs regulating ECM components (i.e. glycoproteins, proteoglycans and matrix proteases) that are key players in wound healing. The clinical relevance of miRNA targeting as well as the delivery strategies designed for clinical applications are also presented and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gatekeepers’ Roles as a Fundamental Key in Money Laundering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paku Utama

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines problem of money laundering and identifies role of gatekeepers in utilising their expertise to conceal the proceeds of crime. In order to successfully prevent and investigate money laundering, we need to understand the development of anti-money laundering regime and how country like Indonesia adopts this development into its domestic regulations. Nevertheless, it is crucial to comprehend gatekeepers utilising various money laundering mechanisms and offshore financial centres. Scrutinised cases from Indonesia and corporate practices from Singapore on this study highlight how gatekeepers operate in the private sector, wittingly or unwittingly, use their expert knowledge of the international financial system to facilitate criminals and to secure the movement of the proceeds of crime globally. 

  13. Role-play facilitates children’s mindreading of those with atypical color perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumikazu eFurumi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of role-play experience on children’s mindreading ability. Forty-one primary school children (20 boys, 21 girls, mean age: 9.37 years, range: 8–11 years were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an order issued by a manager who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two managers: one was a monkey manager with normal color vision, and the other was a dog manager with restricted color vision. The monkey manager could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog manager saw some objects in different colors. Participants were required to respond according to the manager's instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog manager saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions, according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey manager. Before the test phase, participants in the role-play group were provided a role-play experience in which they assumed the role of the dog manager with restricted color vision. The experimental data were analyzed using a 2 x 2 mixed-design ANOVA (role-play condition x communication partner condition to examine differences in the error rate. Both main effects and its interaction were significant. According to the post-hoc analyses, participants in the no-role-play condition made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas no such difference was found among participants in the role-play condition. These results suggest that role-play experience could facilitate mindreading of characters with

  14. From board to bedside - training the communication competences of medical students with role plays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttenberger, Katharina; Graessel, Elmar; Simon, Cosima; Donath, Carolin

    2014-07-05

    Role plays and standardized patients are often used in medical education and have proven to be effective tools for enhancing the communication skills of medical students. Most course concepts need additional time and teaching staff, and there are only a few studies about role plays in the preclinical segment. We developed a highly consolidated concept for the curricular course of 2nd-year medical students, including ten role plays about five subjects: anamnesis, shared decision making, prevention, breaking bad news, and so-called "difficult interactions". Before the course, all students were asked about their expectations and attitudes toward the course. After the course, all students rated the course, their individual learning progress, whether their expectations had been fulfilled, and re-evaluated their attitudes. Questionnaires were self-report measures and had a quantitative and a short qualitative section and were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Group differences (sex, age, role played) were evaluated with t tests at a Bonferonni-corrected significance level of p = .03 and the non-parametric U-tests. Implementing this practical course concept is possible without incurring additional costs. This paper not only shows how that can be done but also provides 5 examples of role scripts for different training subjects. The course concept was highly appreciated by the students. More than 75% felt that they had learned important communication techniques and would be better able to handle difficult situations. Playing the doctor's role was felt to be more useful than playing the patient's role. Women admitted a higher degree of shyness in the beginning and gave higher ratings to their learning progress than men. Students' most frequent wish in the qualitative analysis was to be able to play the doctor's role at least once. The students' answers showed a differentiated pattern, thus suggesting that the influence of social desirability was minimal. Practical skills

  15. Closing the water cycle - the key role of water and wastewater management in a circular economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Connor, Rick; Koncagul, Engin; Ortigara, Angela

    2017-04-01

    Planetary water boundaries are exceeded locally and regionally as water demand and use are escalating and per capita water availability is decreasing. However, wastewater represents an alternative yet reliable source containing for instance, nutrients (for use as fertilizer) and metals that can be extracted, and can be a source of energy. These characteristics mean that water and wastewater are set to play a key role in the circular economy. Furthermore, wastewater use can generate business opportunities and enhance water, food and energy security, therefore helping to alleviate poverty. However, to increase the collection, treatment and use of wastewater, investments in infrastructure and appropriate (low cost) technologies are needed. Ensuring the development of human and institutional capacity is also essential for proper wastewater management. The UN World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) produces together with several UN-Water Members and Partners the annual World Water Development Report (WWDR). Its 2017 edition "Wastewater: The Untapped Resource" focuses on the critical role of wastewater management for vibrant economies, resilient societies and the maintenance of a healthy environment. Wastewater issues play also a central role in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, most notably through Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target 6.3 that aims to improve water quality by reducing the proportion of untreated wastewater released to the environment and increasing its recycling and safe reuse globally. This target is interlinked with several other targets of SDG 6 ('the water goal') as well as to several other SDGs that relate to, poverty reduction, health, energy and food security, among others. The main policy-relevant messages of the WWDR 2017 will be introduced and linked to socio-hydrological approaches. These messages are an important input to the implementation of the water research agenda of the Panta Rhei initiative of IAHS.

  16. Key role for efflux in the preservative susceptibility and adaptive resistance of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Laura; Sass, Andrea; Baldwin, Adam; Dowson, Christopher G; Donoghue, Denise; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2013-07-01

    Bacteria from the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are encountered as industrial contaminants, and little is known about the species involved or their mechanisms of preservative resistance. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that multiple Bcc species may cause contamination, with B. lata (n = 17) and B. cenocepacia (n = 11) dominant within the collection examined. At the strain level, 11 of the 31 industrial sequence types identified had also been recovered from either natural environments or clinical infections. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) preservative concentrations varied across 83 selected Bcc strains, with industrial strains demonstrating increased tolerance for dimethylol dimethyl hydantoin (DMDMH). Benzisothiazolinone (BIT), DMDMH, methylisothiazolinone (MIT), a blend of 3:1 methylisothiazolinone-chloromethylisothiazolinone (M-CMIT), methyl paraben (MP), and phenoxyethanol (PH), were all effective anti-Bcc preservatives; benzethonium chloride (BC) and sodium benzoate (SB) were least effective. Since B. lata was the dominant industrial Bcc species, the type strain, 383(T) (LMG 22485(T)), was used to study preservative tolerance. Strain 383 developed stable preservative tolerance for M-CMIT, MIT, BIT, and BC, which resulted in preservative cross-resistance and altered antibiotic susceptibility, motility, and biofilm formation. Transcriptomic analysis of the B. lata 383 M-CMIT-adapted strain demonstrated that efflux played a key role in its M-CMIT tolerance and elevated fluoroquinolone resistance. The role of efflux was corroborated using the inhibitor l-Phe-Arg-β-napthylamide, which reduced the MICs of M-CMIT and ciprofloxacin. In summary, intrinsic preservative tolerance and stable adaptive changes, such as enhanced efflux, play a role in the ability of Bcc bacteria to cause industrial contamination.

  17. Understanding earthquakes: The key role of radar images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzori, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of the fault rupture underlying earthquakes greatly improved thanks to the spread of radar images. Following pioneer applications in the eighties, Interferometry from Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) gained a prominent role in geodesy. Its capability to measure millimetric deformations for wide areas and the increased data availability from the early nineties, made InSAR a diffused and accepted analysis tool in tectonics, though several factors contribute to reduce the data quality. With the introduction of analytical or numerical modeling, InSAR maps are used to infer the source of an earthquake by means of data inversion. Newly developed algorithms, known as InSAR time-series, allowed to further improve the data accuracy and completeness, strengthening the InSAR contribution even in the study of the inter- and post-seismic phases. In this work we describe the rationale at the base of the whole processing, showing its application to the New Zealand 2010–2011 seismic sequence

  18. Understanding earthquakes: The key role of radar images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atzori, Simone, E-mail: simone.atzori@ingv.it [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy)

    2013-08-21

    The investigation of the fault rupture underlying earthquakes greatly improved thanks to the spread of radar images. Following pioneer applications in the eighties, Interferometry from Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) gained a prominent role in geodesy. Its capability to measure millimetric deformations for wide areas and the increased data availability from the early nineties, made InSAR a diffused and accepted analysis tool in tectonics, though several factors contribute to reduce the data quality. With the introduction of analytical or numerical modeling, InSAR maps are used to infer the source of an earthquake by means of data inversion. Newly developed algorithms, known as InSAR time-series, allowed to further improve the data accuracy and completeness, strengthening the InSAR contribution even in the study of the inter- and post-seismic phases. In this work we describe the rationale at the base of the whole processing, showing its application to the New Zealand 2010–2011 seismic sequence.

  19. Poison gas and thefirst World War: key role ofpharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    Poison gas has been the subject of attention from the French army (Grand Quartier General). The 22sd of April 1915, General Joffre decided that the General Direction for Health Service was in charge of the protection of troops against what he called "this new mode of terror, disease, and death". Actions are been launched to found ways for the protection means and to obtain for the army at least equivalent weapons. Pharmacists will have a leading role thanks to their knowledge in chemistry. Research laboratories were working in two areas: individual protection and production of aggressive agents. Paul Lebeau, Gabriel Bertrand, Alexandre Degrez, Charles Moureu were among many others very committed to fight and remains at the top and to react quickly to ennemy's attacks. At the end of the war, Paul Lebeau received the Legion d'Honneur medal for his contribution to war. The school of pharmacy was recognized as faculty of pharmacy, by a decree of May 14th, 1920. The knowledge that were obtained during this period will be used for the second World War, but the chemical weapon was not much used, as opposed to more recent usage in Vietnam, Irak and Syria.

  20. Exploring the use of role play in a school-based programme to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and, most recently, HIV and AIDS, schools have an important role to play in .... given a basket and invited to go shopping for nappies, rompers, blankets, socks, baby ... in fact, a common concern and provided the opportunity for members to ...

  1. London Debates 2009. What role do museums play in the globalisation of culture ?

    OpenAIRE

    School of Advanced Study

    2010-01-01

    This report underlines the central role museums play in the globalisation of culture, and sets out action points to guide academic research, museum practice and policy-making. A report presenting the most important results of the London Debates, led at the School of Advanced Study in May 2009.

  2. Role-Playing Games for Capacity Building in Water and Land Management: Some Brazilian Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Maria Eugenia; Jacobi, Pedro Roberto; Ducrot, Raphaele

    2007-01-01

    Role-playing games in natural resource management are currently being tested as research, training, and intervention tools all over the world. Various studies point out their potential to deal with complex issues and to contribute to training processes. The objective of this contribution is to analyze the limits and potentialities of this tool for…

  3. A Role-Play Game to Facilitate the Development of Students' Reflective Internet Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admiraal, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are currently the most frequent users of the Internet, many youngsters still have difficulties with a critical, reflective, and responsible use of the Internet. A study was carried out on teaching with a digital role-play game to increase students' reflective Internet skills. In this game, students had to promote a fictional…

  4. Using Role-Play to Enhance Foodborne Illness Crisis Management Capacity in the Produce Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreske, Audrey; Ducharme, Diane; Gunter, Chris; Phister, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne illness outbreaks have measurable public health effects and often lead to negative produce industry impacts. Reducing loss following a crisis event requires a management plan, although many fresh produce industry members don't have one. Evidence-based workshops using a role-play simulated outbreak were delivered to impact crisis…

  5. What Are the Roles that Children's Drawings Play in Inquiry of Science Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the roles that drawing played in the process of children's acquisition of science concepts. Seventy pre-service teachers through four semesters from a Midwest University in the USA developed lesson plans on science concepts and then taught them to 70 young children ages 4-7, respectively. This experience was…

  6. "Try Walking in Our Shoes": Teaching Acculturation and Related Cultural Adjustment Processes through Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Tomaso, Cara C.; Audley, Shannon; Pole, Nnamdi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe several role-playing exercises on acculturation and relevant cultural adjustment processes that we incorporated into Tomcho and Foel's classroom activity on acculturation, and we report data that examine subsequent changes in students' responses on pretest and posttest measures shortly after the activity and present…

  7. What role can ISO 17025 play in the South African mining industry? ; Article

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa March 2013/ Vol 66(1), pp 15-17 What role can ISO 17025 play in the South African mining industry? Pretorius CJ1 and Chesalokile T2 1CSIR. Centre for Mining Innovation 2South African...

  8. The Role of Peer Guided Play for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacek, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood play has a well-established role in the development of social and cognitive skills that may have important implications for intervention with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Yet, social and language skills of children with ASD are developmentally different from those of typically developing children, although these…

  9. Roles High School Principals Play in Establishing a Successful Character Education Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francom, Jacob A.

    2016-01-01

    Principal leadership is crucial to the success of a high school character education initiative. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to identify the roles that high school principals play in developing, implementing, and sustaining a high functioning character education program. Data were collected through interviews and…

  10. The Role the Collegiate American Marketing Association Plays in Professional and Entrepreneurial Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Scovotti, Carol; Pointer, Lucille

    2008-01-01

    Professional student organizations offer members a wide range of learning opportunities for applied marketing experiences. Little research exists in the marketing education literature on the role student organizations play in preparing their members for life beyond school. Understanding what students seek as members of such organizations and how…

  11. Electrostatic Stabilization Plays a Central Role in Autoinhibitory Regulation of the Na+,K+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Qiucen; Garcia, Alvaro; Han, Minwoo

    2017-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase is present in the plasma membrane of all animal cells. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the Na+ and K+ electrochemical potential gradients across the membrane, which are essential in numerous physiological processes, e.g., nerve, muscle, and kidney function. Its cellular a...

  12. Excessive Use of Massively Multi-Player Online Role-Playing Games: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zaheer; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are one of the most interesting innovations in the area of online computer gaming. This pilot study set out to examine the psychological and social effects of online gaming using an online questionnaire with particular reference to excessive and "dependent" online gaming. A self-selecting…

  13. Using Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games for Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Marcus D.; Braswell, Ray

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the use of a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) to foster communication and interaction and to facilitate cooperative learning in an online course. The authors delineate the definition and history of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs), and describe current uses of MMORPGs in education, including…

  14. The Ethanol Project: Exploring Alternative Energy with Role-Play and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a project that includes a two-week series of researching, essay writing, and speaking lessons exploring the broader implications of using ethanol as a fuel. The author, a chemistry teacher, describes how she uses a senate hearing discussion of ethanol fuel subsidies as the forum for a role-play. The four components of the…

  15. Enhancing Information Systems Auditing Knowledge with Role-Playing Game: An Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpinunwatana, Nitaya

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use and effect of a role-playing game on learners' ability in information systems audit. The study is based on experimental research. Information systems control and audit case study and video had been developed. A total of 75 graduate students undertaking a Master's degree in accounting participated in the experiment. The…

  16. Learning Strategies and Learner Attitudes in the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game Cube World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Shu Li

    2016-01-01

    The rapid progress of technology has revolutionized learning and in the field of computer assisted language learning, the use of digital games has expanded significantly. One type of game that has been attracting interest is massively multiplayer online role-playing games (henceforth MMORPGs). Recent research has drawn attention to the potential…

  17. Colonic fermentation may play a role in lactose intolerance in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T; Priebe, MG; Harmsen, HJM; Stellaard, F; Sun, XH; Welling, GW; Vonk, RJ

    The results of our previous study suggested that in addition to the small intestinal lactase activity and transit time, colonic processing of lactose may play a role in lactose intolerance. We investigated whether colonic fermentation of lactose is correlated with lactose intolerance. After 28

  18. Evaluation of a communication skills training course for medical students using peer role-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuob, Nasra Naeim; Qadi, Mahdi Ali; El Deek, Basem Salama; Boker, Abdulaziz Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of using peer role-playing in learning the communication skills as a step in the development of the communication skills training course delivered to pre-clinical medical students. This study was conducted at the King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between September 2014 and February 2015 and comprised medical students. Mixed methods design was used to evaluate the developed communication skills training course. Tests were conducted before and after the communication skills training course to assess the students' self-reported communication. After the course, the students completed a satisfaction survey. Focus groups were conducted to assess the behavioural and organisational changes induced by the course. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis.. Of the293 respondents, 246(84%) were satisfied with the course. Overall, 169(58%) subjects chose the lectures as the most helpful methods for learning the communication skills while 124(42%) considered practical sessions as the most helpful method. Besides, 237(81%) respondents reported that the role-play was beneficial for their learning, while 219(75%) perceived the video-taped role-play as an appropriate method for assessing the communication skills. Peer role-play was found to be a feasible and well-perceived alternative method in facilitating the acquisition of communication skills..

  19. Students as "Humans Chromosomes" in Role-Playing Mitosis and Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnici, Joseph P.; Yue, Joyce W.; Torres, Kieron M.

    2004-01-01

    Students often find it challenging to understand mitosis and meiosis and determine their processes. To develop an easier way to understand these terms, students are asked to role-play mitosis and meiosis and students themselves act as human chromosomes, which help students to learn differences between mitosis and meiosis.

  20. Role-Play Game-Enhanced English for a Specific-Purpose Vocabulary-Acquisition Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang-Chen; Chang, Ben

    2016-01-01

    With the advantages of an engaged and authentic role-play game (RPG), this study aims to develop an RPG-enhanced English for specific purposes (ESP) vocabulary-acquisition framework, providing teachers and students a systematic way to incorporate RPG into ESP learning. The framework is composed of five parts: goal, three-level vocabulary sets, RPG…

  1. Personality Correlates of Self-Report, Role-Playing, and In Vivo Measures of Assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Samuel B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Undergraduates completed self-report inventories of assertiveness, participated in behavior role-playing tasks and in vivo measures of assertiveness, and completed the Personality Research Form E (PRF-E). Of 22 PRF-E scales, 11 had at least one significant correlation with assertiveness measures. Some composites of PRF-E scales were related to…

  2. Sales Role-Plays and Mock Interviews: An Investigation of Student Performance in Sales Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Sudha; Kothandaraman, Prabakar; Kashyap, Rajiv; Ashnai, Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Sales competitions provide students with opportunities to apply their understanding of sales. Despite a long tradition of scholarship on sales role-plays, the answer to what drives student performance in sales competitions remains elusive. In this research, we examine how motivation (work engagement) and ability (cognitive aptitude and…

  3. A Description Grid to Support the Design of Learning Role-Play Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariais, Christelle; Michau, Florence; Pernin, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    To strengthen the motivation of learners, the professional training sector is focusing more and more on game-based learning. In this context, the authors have become interested in the design of Learning Role-Play Game (LRPG) scenarios. The aim of this article is to improve the designers' confidence in the validity of the game-based learning…

  4. Cross-format analysis of the gaming experience in multi-player role playing games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Newman, K.; Brolund, T.

    2007-01-01

    Forming one of the major genres of games, Role Playing Games (RPGs) have proven an extremely portable concept, and the games are situated across various cultural and format-related boundaries. The effect of porting RPGs between formats is however a subject of which very little is known. This paper...

  5. The use of role playing in managerial learning: A socio constructivistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiller, C.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Patin-Saint-Mieux, B.

    2014-01-01

    This research deals with role playing (RP) aimed at assisting learners to optimize their managerial style. While RP is often used in training sessions, contributions on its evaluations have decreased since the beginning of the 1980s. Although RP as a training method had been criticized for several

  6. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  7. The use of role playing in managerial learning: a socio constructivistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiller, Caroline; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Patin-Saint-Mleux, Bertille

    2014-01-01

    This research deals with role playing (RP) aimed at assisting learners to optimize their managerial style. While RP is often used in training sessions, contributions on its evaluations have decreased since the beginning of the 1980s. Although RP as a training method had been criticized for several

  8. Role playing with synthetic cultures: the evasive rules of the game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    This article sums up ten years of experience with over 1400 participants of simulation games using synthetic cultures. Synthetic cultures are scripts for role players. They are derived from the five dimensions of culture in Hofstede¿s model. Playing the synthetic cultures leads to dynamics that

  9. Designing a mobile learning game to investigate the impact of role-playing on helping behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Birgit; Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Schmitz, B., Ternier, S., Klemke, R., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013). Designing a mobile learning game to investigate the impact of role-playing on helping behavior. In D. Hernández-Leo et al. (Eds.), Scaling up Learning for Sustained Impact. Proceedings of European Conference on Technology Enhanced

  10. A Novel Ras Effector Pathway Found to Play Significant Role in Tumor Suppression | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer; photo by Richard Frederickson, Staff Photographer Normal cells have mechanisms to prevent the development of cancer. Among these is a type of tumor suppressor mechanism known as oncogene-induced senescence, or OIS, which halts the uncontrolled growth of cells caused by mutations in oncogenes. The oncogene Ras plays a crucial role in inducing OIS

  11. Designing After-School Learning Using the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Digital games have become popular for engaging students in a range of learning goals, both in the classroom and the after-school space. In this article, I discuss a specific genre of video game, the massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMO), which has been identified as a dynamic environment for encountering 21st-century workplace…

  12. Exploring Game Experiences and Game Leadership in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, YeiBeech; Ryu, SeoungHo

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the in-game experiences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) players focusing on game leadership and offline leadership. MMORPGs have enormous potential to provide gameplayers with rich social experiences through various interactions along with social activities such as joining a game community, team play…

  13. Sustainability and Science Learning: Perceptions from 8th Grade Students Involved with a Role Playing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Sofia; Baptista, Mónica; Freire, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Raising awareness about sustainability is an urgent need and as such education for sustainability has gained relevancy for the last decades. It is acknowledged that science education can work as an important context for educating for sustainability. The goal of the present paper is to describe a role-playing activity about the construction of a…

  14. Understanding Collectivism and Female Genital Cutting through a Family Role-Playing Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study is a test of the effectiveness of a classroom role-playing exercise used to increase the understanding of cultural practices with which many Midwestern college students are uncomfortable. I employed a pre-test/post-test comparison group design. Students enrolled in two sections of a general education global issues course (N = 56) were…

  15. Choices and Chances: The Sociology Role-Playing Game--The Sociological Imagination in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joseph M.; Elias, Vicky L.

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a sociology role-playing game (RPG) used to demonstrate the broad range of social forces, institutions, and structures in a semester-long series of in-class and homework assignments. RPGs and other simulation games have been frequently suggested as a useful teaching methodology because of their unique ability to allow…

  16. Young Children's Role-Playing for Enhancing Personal Intelligences in Multiple Intelligences Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Su-Jeong; Shin, Hwa-Sik; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This article examines young children's role-play in an effort to develop methods with which teachers can enhance children's interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. Examining how MI practice is applied in different cultural and social contexts is important because it can provide new insights on enriching and enhancing curricula and…

  17. Developing Adolescents' Resistance to Sexual Coercion through Role-Playing Activities in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Marion; Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the use of a three dimensional virtual world (3-DVW) to delivery assertiveness training to young adolescents. The case study aims to understand how a sense of presence in VWs facilitates and affect the performance of students role-playing activities to enhance their ability to resist sexual coercion. The results indicate that a…

  18. Role-Playing Game Based Assessment to Fractional Concept in Second Grade Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Fu-Yuan; Hsieh, Mei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    This study developed a set of Role-playing game (RPG), which was used to explore whether significant differences exist in academic performance and learning attitudes between RPG-based assessment and traditional lectures. This study also investigated the satisfaction of students toward the RPG scenario. Research participants included 100 second…

  19. En introduktion til CARM: The Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Simon Bierring

    2014-01-01

    Dette working paper er en introduktion til og kort diskussion af workshopmetoden Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method (CARM), som er en metode udviklet til at afholde workshops på baggrund af resultater fra interaktionsanalyser. Artiklen er den første introduktion til CARM-metoden på dansk, og...

  20. The Use of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games in CALL: An Analysis of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary CALL research reflects renewed interest in digital games. One aspect of this phenomenon namely, use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), has expanded significantly, highlighting the need for a review. This paper analyzes findings from 10 learner-based studies that draw on accounts of SLA informed by cognitive…

  1. Building Fictional Ethos: Analysing the Rhetorical Strategies of Persona Design for Online Role Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr-Stevens, Candance

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative case study that uses discourse and social semiotic analysis methods in order to examine the rhetorical construction of fictional personas within an online role play used for learning in the college classroom. Of special focus are the differing patterns of semiotic resource use (for example, language and…

  2. Role Play in Blended Learning: A Case Study Exploring the Impact of Story and Other Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracup, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Role play is an increasingly popular technique in tertiary education, being student centred, constructivist and suitable for a range of subject areas. The choice of formats is wide open, with options ranging from the traditional face to face performance through to multi-user online computer games. Some teachers prefer to take advantage of features…

  3. Trading Spaces: An Educator's Ethnographic Exploration of Adolescents' Digital Role-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes-Moore, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the author examines a digital role-play in which participants composed an alternate version of "The Hunger Games" (Collins, 2008). Participants imagined characters and posted more than 400 scenes in the online collaboration. The author draws upon ethnographic methods (Merriam, 2009) to describe her participant-observer…

  4. Enhance Learning on Software Project Management through a Role-Play Game in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maratou, Vicky; Chatzidaki, Eleni; Xenos, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a role-play game for software project management (SPM) in a three-dimensional online multiuser virtual world. The Opensimulator platform is used for the creation of an immersive virtual environment that facilitates students' collaboration and realistic interaction, in order to manage unexpected events occurring during the…

  5. Playful empowerment, the role of game design innovation in participatory citizenship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.A.M.; Marsh, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this talk I will address a changing perspective on design, one in which users are defined as social and economical actors who co-create products and services. We will see that the role of play in its contemporary and digital form for instance through games, apps, interactive toys is essential in

  6. Role Playing: Using Scenarios to Teach the Interrelatedness of Work and the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julie M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes appropriate goals for the role-playing model and types of social problems amenable to its use: achieving a balance between family and work, unemployment, management of economic resources, family contributions to worker productivity, and life-cycle influences on work decisions, among others. (SK)

  7. Exploring the use of role play in a school-based programme to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, gender norms in tradi- ... explained that people's beliefs develop from their experiences through social ... In other words, people act upon their in- ... The first role play began by asking learners to think of an occasion where a person ...

  8. Do the COX-2 inhibitors still have a role to play? : guest editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Do the COX-2 inhibitors still have a role to play? : guest editorial. A Beeton. Abstract. No Abstract Available Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia Vol.11(2) 2005: 55-60. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics ...

  9. Parenting Talent: A Qualitative Investigation of the Roles Parents Play in Talent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Amanda L.; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kasson, Sarah C.; Perry, Kyle R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has linked talent development to four factors--early experience, coaching, practice, and motivation. In addition to these factors, contemporary talent experts suggest that parents play a critical role in talent development. The purpose of the present study was to uncover parents' in-time perspectives on the talent development…

  10. Crossing the Border: Science Student Teachers Using Role-Play in Grade 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braund, Martin; Moodley, Trevor; Ekron, Christelle; Ahmed, Zaiboenisha

    2015-01-01

    Drama is used to build knowledge and understanding in science as part of a socio-linguistic, constructivist approach. Role-plays, where learners act as analogues for components and processes, help access abstract ideas. However, a problem restricting many science teachers using these approaches has been that they lack sufficient pedagogical…

  11. An Na+/H+ antiporter gene from wheat plays an important role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    might play an important role in salt and osmotic stress tolerance in plant cells. [Yu J N, Huang J, ..... of TaNHX2 might be related to salt tolerance in wheat. TaNHX2 might also ... This work was supported by National Basic Research Project.

  12. Student Perceptions of a Role-Playing Simulation in an Introductory International Relations Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanello, Sean P.; Kirk, Jason A.; Kromer, Mileah K.

    2013-01-01

    An emerging assumption in undergraduate political science education is that role-playing simulations are an effective teaching tool. While previous studies have addressed the pedagogical advantages of simulations as compared to more traditional teaching techniques, less attention has been paid to student perceptions of these simulations. This…

  13. Social Workers' Perceptions of the Association Between Role Playing Games and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Lis, Eric; Błachnio, Agata; Ring, Lia; Lavenda, Osnat; Mahat-Shamir, Michal

    2018-03-01

    Whereas role-playing and table-top role-play games (RPGs) have been proven to have potential as therapeutic tools, playing RPGs is often stereotypically associated with social incompetence and psychiatric disorders. Knowledge regarding the stereotype and its implications is very scarce specifically among mental health practitioners. Therefore the present study aimed to narrow this gap in knowledge by examining the perception of Social Workers that are considered to be the forefront of mental health-care, in regard to the association between playing RPGs and mental health. A convenience sample of 130 Social Workers, recruited through social networks (e.g. Facebook, WhatsApp etc.), responded to an on-line survey dealing with their perception of their own knowledge on RPGs, the importance of such knowledge and the association between playing RPGs and mental illness. Results indicated an association between having higher knowledge of RPGs and lower perception of a link between playing RPGs and psychopathology. The study's findings emphasize the false stigma and its potential harmful implication on professionals' practice, especially in the context of intake process and primary diagnostic. The effect of familiarity is also discussed in light of the study's findings. • The perception of mental health professionals toward role playing games such as Dungeons and Dragons is understudied. • Social Workers' perception was measured in regard to the connection between use of RPGs and DSM-IV-TR psychopathology. • Greater knowledge of RPGs was found to be associated with lower perception of the connection between use of RPGs and DSM-IV-TR psychopathology.

  14. Interaction with the game and motivation among players of massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Héctor; Carbonell, Xavier; Chamarro, Andrés; Oberst, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about users interacting with Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG) is fundamental in order to prevent their potential negative effects on behavior. For this reason, the present study analyzed the relationship between styles of play and motivations. An online questionnaire asking for socio-demographic details, playing style, characteristics of the game played and motivations for playing, was answered by 430 Spanish-speaking MMORPG players (45.1% males). The identified profile for players, far away from the stereotype of an adolescent, consisted in a person who mainly plays on PvP (Player versus Player) servers, choosing the type of game according to his experience. Regarding motivations, they were interested in relating with other players through the game (Socialization), in discovering the game's possibilities and development of its adventures (Exploration), to a lesser extent in leadership and prestige (Achievement) and, lastly, identification with an avatar and escape from reality (Dissociation). Although part of the reason for playing was escapism and/or stress relief, the main motivation had a social nature. We conclude that MMORPG offer an attractive environment for a broad spectrum of people, and we have not been able to confirm the stereotype of a loner avoiding reality, taking refuge in games.

  15. The key role of eyewitnesses in rapid earthquake impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, Rémy; Steed, Robert; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Roussel, Frédéric; Etivant, Caroline

    2014-05-01

    published after validation. Quake Catcher Networks (QCN) where a cheap USB MEMS motion sensors transform a PC in a seismic station are being deployed in Thessaloniki and Patras (Greece) in collaboration with Stanford University and the USGS. Flashsourcing is also used which is the analysis in real time of traffic surges observed on EMSC's earthquake information website; these surges are caused by the natural convergence of eyewitnesses who rush to the Internet to investigate the cause of the shaking that they have just felt. Within 5 minutes and independently of any seismic data, this detects felt earthquakes, maps the felt area and can detect the presence of damage. We will also explain the roles of social networks in optimising data collection and how citizen involvement has changed our earthquake information services.

  16. Competence of medical students in communicating drug therapy: Value of role-play demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayem, Yasin I; Altabtabaei, Abdulaziz S; Mohamed, Mohamed W; Arrfedi, Mansour M; Aljawder, Hasan S; Aldebous, Fahad A; James, Henry; Al Khaja, Khalid A J; Sequeira, Reginald P

    2016-01-01

    This study used role-play demonstrations to train medical students to communicate drug therapy and evaluated the perceptions on this instructional approach. The second-year medical students who attended a prescription writing session (n = 133), participated in this study. Prescription communication was introduced by using role-play demonstrations. Participant's perceptions were explored by a self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussion. The academic achievement of attendees and nonattendees was compared with an objective structured performance evaluation (OSPE) station that tested students' competence in this skill. Most attendees responded to the questionnaire (81.2%). Almost all respondents expressed their desire to have similar demonstrations in other units. A large proportion of participants reported that role-play demonstrations helped them develop their communication skills, in general, confidence to communicate drug-related information in a prescription, and the ability to explain the aim of drug therapy to patients. Most trainees thought also that they developed skills to communicate instructions on drug use including drug dose, frequency of administration, duration of therapy, adverse drug reactions, and warnings. During the focus group interviews, students thought that role-play was useful but would be more beneficial if conducted frequently in small group as part of the curriculum implementation. The majority of students also reported improved competence in writing a complete prescription. Analysis of attendees and nonattendees grades in the OSPE showed that the former scored higher than the latter group (P = 0.016). Role-play demonstrations were well accepted by medical students and led to the development of their competence in communicating drug therapy to patients.

  17. Malaria treatment policy change in Uganda: what role did evidence play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet; Ssengooba, Freddie; Macq, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2014-09-02

    Although increasing attention is being paid to knowledge translation (KT), research findings are not being utilized to the desired extent. The present study explores the role of evidence, barriers, and factors facilitating the uptake of evidence in the change in malaria treatment policy in Uganda, building on previous work in Uganda that led to the development of a middle range theory (MRT) outlining the main facilitatory factors for KT. Application of the MRT to a health policy case will contribute to refining it. Using a case study approach and mixed methods, perceptions of respondents on whether evidence was available, had been considered and barriers and facilitatory factors to the uptake of evidence were explored. In addition, the respondents' rating of the degree of consistency between the policy decision and available evidence was assessed. Data collection methods included key informant interviews and document review. Qualitative data were analysed using content thematic analysis, whereas quantitative data were analysed using Excel spreadsheets. The two data sets were eventually triangulated. Evidence was used to change the malaria treatment policy, though the consistency between evidence and policy decisions varied along the policy development cycle. The availability of high-quality and contextualized evidence, including effective dissemination, Ministry of Health institutional capacity to lead the KT process, intervention of the WHO and a regional professional network, the existence of partnerships for KT with mutual trust and availability of funding, tools, and inputs to implement evidence, were the most important facilitatory factors that enhanced the uptake of evidence. Among the barriers that had to be overcome were resistance from implementers, the health system capacity to implement evidence, and financial sustainability. The results agree with facilitatory factors identified in the earlier developed MRT, though additional factors emerged. These

  18. Basic roles of key molecules connected with NMDAR signaling pathway on regulating learning and memory and synaptic plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Wang; Rui-Yun Peng

    2016-01-01

    With key roles in essential brain functions ranging from the long-term potentiation (LTP) to synaptic plasticity,the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) can be considered as one of the fundamental glutamate receptors in the central nervous system.The role of NMDA R was first identified in synaptic plasticity and has been extensively studied.Some molecules,such as Ca2+,postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95),calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅱ (CaMK Ⅱ),protein kinase A (PKA),mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) responsive element binding protein (CREB),are of special importance in learning and memory.This review mainly focused on the new research of key molecules connected with learning and memory,which played important roles in the NMDAR signaling pathway.

  19. Computer-supported games and role plays in teaching water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Hoekstra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for an interdisciplinary approach in teaching water management. Computer-supported games and role plays offer the potential of creating an environment in which different disciplines come together and in which students are challenged to develop integrated understanding. Two examples are discussed. The River Basin Game is a common-pool resource game in which participants experience the risk of over-abstractions of water in a river basin and learn how this risk relates to the complexity of the system, the conflict between individual and group optimums and the difficulty in achieving good cooperation. The Globalization of Water Role Play makes participants familiar with the global dimension of water management by letting them experience how national governments can integrate considerations of water scarcity and domestic water productivities into decisions on international trade in commodities like food, cotton and bio-energy. The two examples illustrate that play sessions inspire participants to think about the functioning of systems as a whole and to develop good cooperative courses of action, whereby both uncertainties about the system and the presence of different values and perspectives among participants play a role.

  20. Computer-supported games and role plays in teaching water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2012-08-01

    There is an increasing demand for an interdisciplinary approach in teaching water management. Computer-supported games and role plays offer the potential of creating an environment in which different disciplines come together and in which students are challenged to develop integrated understanding. Two examples are discussed. The River Basin Game is a common-pool resource game in which participants experience the risk of over-abstractions of water in a river basin and learn how this risk relates to the complexity of the system, the conflict between individual and group optimums and the difficulty in achieving good cooperation. The Globalization of Water Role Play makes participants familiar with the global dimension of water management by letting them experience how national governments can integrate considerations of water scarcity and domestic water productivities into decisions on international trade in commodities like food, cotton and bio-energy. The two examples illustrate that play sessions inspire participants to think about the functioning of systems as a whole and to develop good cooperative courses of action, whereby both uncertainties about the system and the presence of different values and perspectives among participants play a role.

  1. Power and Resistance: short theoretical considerations on the role played by humor in public-private conflicts in organizational contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the role played by humor as a form of resistance in organizations. To reach this intent we systemize a wide range of recent literature produced on the subject in the scope of the critical organizational studies. Our objective is to contribute for the consolidation of a field of research in Brazil that is extremely rich specially when at one hand, it stresses the active tensions of the forces in conflict within the process of opinion formation and, on the other hand the conformation of the social interactions in organizational contexts and their consequences for its cultural and dynamic configurations. Conflict is taken here as a crucial element for setting relations in motion. Therefore it cannot assume the functional and disruptive role as assumed by a functional or structural classic approach. Conflict and resistance represent an important interpretative key on the contemporary public-private tensions.

  2. Acute stress in residents playing different roles during emergency simulations: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Roger Daglius; Scalabrini-Neto, Augusto

    2017-06-19

    To investigate acute stress response in residents playing nurse and physician roles during emergency simulations. Sixteen second-year internal medicine residents participated in teams of four (two playing physician roles and two playing nurse roles). Stress markers were assessed in 24 simulations at baseline (T1) and immediately after the scenario (T2), using heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, salivary α-amylase, salivary cortisol and salivary interleukin-1β. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was applied at T2. Continuous data were summarized for the median (1st-3rd interquartile ranges), and the Mann-Whitney U Test was used to compare the groups. The percent variations of the stress markers in the physician and nurse roles, respectively, were the following: heart rate: 70.5% (46.0-136.5) versus 53.0% (29.5-117.0), U=89.00, p=0.35; systolic blood pressure: 3.0% (0.0-10.0) versus 2.0% (-2.0-9.0), U=59.50, p=0.46; diastolic blood pressure: 5.5% (0.0-13.5) versus 0.0% (0.0-11.5), U=91.50, p=0.27; α-amylase: -5.35% (-62.70-73.90) versus 42.3% (12.4-133.8), U=23.00, p=0.08; cortisol: 35.3% (22.2-83.5) versus 42.3% (12.4-133.8), U=64.00, p=0.08); and interleukin-1β: 54.4% (21.9-109.3) versus 112.55% (29.7-263.3), U= 24.00, p=0.277. For the physician and nurse roles, respectively, the average heart rate was 101.5 (92.0-104.0) versus 91.0 (83.0-99.5) beats per minute, U=96.50, p=0.160; and the state anxiety inventory score was 44.0 (40.0-50.0) versus 42.0 (37.50-48.0) points, U= 89.50, p=0.319. Different roles during emergency simulations evoked similar participants' engagement, as indicated by acute stress levels. Role-play strategies can provide high psychological fidelity for simulation-based training, and these results reinforce the potential of role-play methodologies in medical education.

  3. Medical students' perspective about role-plays as a teaching strategy in community medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Iram; Mukhtar, Fatima; Hashmi, Noreen Rahat

    2012-04-01

    To assess the students' perspective about role-plays conducted as a teaching methodology in community medicine. A quasi-experimental study. Department of Community Medicine at Fatima Memorial College of Medicine and Dentistry from July to November 2010. A probability technique of simple random sampling was used to collect 63 students from the third and fourth year MBBS who were randomly distributed in five sub-groups. They were variously ascribed the roles of obsceners, participants and helpers. A questionnaire was distributed to collect student's responses. The data was analyzed on SPSS version 17 to compare the responses. Chi-square test was applied and p-value was fixed at andragogy (p = 0.005) and 48 (76.2%) said that it provoked critical thinking about the subject (p = 0.038). Fifty-four students (85.7%) admitted that their attention span was better in role-plays as compared to lectures (p = 0.047). Role-plays were well accepted by the students as an effective teaching methodology and can be incorporated as a part of teaching strategies in Community Medicine.

  4. A Quantitative Content Analysis of Leveled Vocabulary Embedded within Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This content analysis examined levels of vocabulary within massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). A total of six MMORPGs were studied; three were pay-to-play (P2P), and three were free-to-play (F2P). Sixty hours of game play (10 hours per game) provided the researcher with 50,240 embedded vocabulary words. Each MMORPG was…

  5. What is the role played by physical activity and exercise in the frailty syndrome? Perspectives for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souto Barreto, Philipe

    2010-01-01

    Exercise and physical activity play an important role in physical frailty, but we do not know if they are markers, components and/or correlates of this syndrome. The purpose of this paper is briefly to discuss the potential roles played by physical activity and exercise on the development and progression of frailty, and to propose directions for future research in this field. Exercise practice lowers the levels of some frailty markers, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and uric acid, and also resistance to insulin. The influence of exercise on the main frailty domains is also well established in the literature. Exercise improves muscle strength, gait speed, cognition (particularly executive control related-tasks), weight maintenance, mood and, to a lesser extent, feelings of energy. Although exercise and physical activity positively influence the main frailty markers and domains, most findings were obtained for other elderly populations (e.g., healthy elderly, clinical populations). For future research, efforts must be made to define some key concepts (exercise or physical activity) in selecting study samples and in establishing intervention length. Attention must also be paid to identifying the most efficacious exercise interventions regarding type, frequency, intensity and session duration, and approaching a dose-response relationship between a physically active life-style and frailty. Thus, further research, especially longitudinal randomized controlled trials, is needed to understand the role of physical activity and exercise in the frailty syndrome.

  6. The dlt genes play a role in antimicrobial tolerance of Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Carl Martin Peter; Rybtke, Morten; Givskov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    library for genes that are important for biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance provided evidence that the dlt genes play a role in the tolerance of S. mutans biofilms towards gentamicin. The minimum bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBC-B) for a dltA transposon mutant was eight-fold lower...... and complemented strain confirmed that the dlt genes in S. mutans play a role in biofilm-associated tolerance to gentamicin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analyses of biofilms grown on glass slides showed that the dltA mutant produced roughly the same amount of biofilm as the wild-type, indicating...... that the reduced antimicrobial tolerance of the dltA mutant is not due to a defect in biofilm formation. The products of the dlt genes have been shown to mediate alanylation of teichoic acids, and in accordance the dltA mutant showed a more negatively charged surface than the wild-type, which likely...

  7. The effect of two kinds of role playing on self-evaluation of improved assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, D A

    1992-03-01

    The study investigated the "differential effect of role-playing enactments" hypothesis through self-evaluations of improvement in assertiveness by participants in an assertive training program. Twenty-two nonassertive Israeli students were trained in two groups: mimetic-replications (action modeling, n = 12) and spontaneous (self-produced action, n = 10) role-playing interventions. Comparisons of their scores on the Self-Expression College Scale (CSES) before and after the training showed that both groups significantly improved their self-evaluations, but the mimetic-replication group did better. In particular, this group scored significantly higher on the CSES first factor (the willingness to take risks in situations that involved other, significant persons).

  8. IR-induced autophagy plays a role in survival of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Mi Young; Jang, Eun Yeong; Ryu, Tae Ho; Chung, Dong Min; Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Cells respond to stress with repair, or are diverted into irreversible cell cycle exit (senescence) or are eliminated through programmed cell death. There are two major morphologically distinctive forms of programmed cell death, apoptosis and autophagic cell death. Apoptosis contribute to cell death, whereas autophagy can play a dual role in mediating either cell survival or death in response to various stress stimuli. Here we analysed cellular responses induced by IR. The understanding of an appropriate cellular stress response is of crucial importance in foreseeing the cell fate. Apoptotic feagures were not detected in HeLa under our experimental irradiation condition. Autophagic cell death in HeLa may play an important role in cell protection and can result in cell survival

  9. Do PhD supervisors play a role in bridging academic cultures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliot, Dely; Kobayashi, Sofie

    Our study reports a phenomenological investigation of ten international PhD students’ and nine supervisors’ first-hand experience of being in doctoral supervisory relationships in a Danish setting. In-depth qualitative data were gathered through face-to-face individual interviews, which explored...... differences and challenges experienced as a result of diversity with respect to their educational background and practices, particularly the pedagogic variation. In the same way that the literature suggests that educators play a crucial role in mediating such diversity in the teaching and learning contexts...... relationship (that crosses over academic and non-academic concerns) and the distinct role it plays deserves further attention. Cotterall, S. (2013). More than just a brain: emotions and the doctoral experience. Higher Education Research & Development, 1-14. Wright, T. (2003). Postgraduate research students...

  10. ROLE-PLAYS VS. NATURAL DATA: ASKING FOR A DRINK AT A CAFETERIA IN PENINSULAR SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Bataller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare the data collected, via two methods, from two groups of Peninsular Spanish native speakers in a service encounter scenario. The methods chosen are open role-plays and naturally occurring interactions, two frequently used approaches in the field of pragmatics. The naturalistic data from this study consisted of request-for-service transactions at cafeterias in Valencia, Spain; these were recorded with audio equipment and then analyzed at the illocutionary and discourse levels. The features analyzed were the strategies and mitigating devices used in all phases of the interactions. The structure and length of interactions from each dataset were also compared. The results of this comparative study indicate that the role-play data resembled the naturalistic interactions in some respects, but there were also some significant differences between the two datasets that may be attributed to the particular type of collection method.

  11. On whether mirror neurons play a significant role in processing affective prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Vijayachandra

    2009-02-01

    Several behavioral and neuroimaging studies have indicated that both right and left cortical structures and a few subcortical ones are involved in processing affective prosody. Recent investigations have shown that the mirror neuron system plays a crucial role in several higher-level functions such as empathy, theory of mind, language, etc., but no studies so far link the mirror neuron system with affective prosody. In this paper is a speculation that the mirror neuron system, which serves as a common neural substrate for different higher-level functions, may play a significant role in processing affective prosody via its connections with the limbic lobe. Actual research must apply electrophysiological and neuroimaging techniques to assess whether the mirror neuron systems underly affective prosody in humans.

  12. Danish general practitioners only play a minor role in the coordination of cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsted, R.J.; Guassora, A.D.; Thorsen, T.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite initiatives to integrate treatment and care across organisations, patient trajectories in Danish health-care are not well coordinated. Coordination among many health-care professionals is essential, and it is frequently suggested that a single person should perform the task....... In the majority of cases, GPs had no access to information or were not informed about hospital decisions affecting the patients' trajectories, and they were therefore unable to perform a coordinating role. CONCLUSION: GPs only played a minor or no role at all as coordinators of individual cancer patient...

  13. On-line role-play as a teaching method in engineering studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Cobo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose to adapt the role-play teaching methodology to engineering studies, trying to overcome obstacles like its exclusive association with fantasy games or its demand of social skills. We have chosen the role of a maintenance technician, a relevant job profile for engineering graduates. The interaction is based on email exchange, and the instructor is included in the simulation to guide the activity development and the achievement of the learning objectives. In this paper, our experience with this methodology, its implementation, results and student feedback are presented.

  14. A study of the role played by renewable energies in China's sustainable energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Molin, Huo; Ruoshui, Wang; Martinot, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This paper first provides an overview of the context of renewable energy development in China, including the country's recent renewable energy legislation. Further, it summarizes the current status of renewable energy development and the role it plays in the national energy supply. Next it introduces the national indicative targets for renewable energies in 2010 and 2020, and conducts a long term scenario of the role of renewable energies in China's energy system transition till 2050. It discusses the main risks involved in China's renewable energy development, and proposes some policy measures for risk management. (author)

  15. What Role Can Immigration Play in Shaping Europe’s Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t WHAT ROLE CAN IMMIGRATION PLAY IN SHAPING EUROPE’S FUTURE? BY COLONEL FERNANDO PAGLIALUNGA Italian...country. 37 Few years before, Friedrich Merz, the Christian Democrats’ parliamentary leader, said that foreigners who want to come and work in Germany...Hansen, Immigration and Asylum. From 1900 to the Present, Volume 1 (Santa Barbara , California, 2005), 151. 56 Messina, The Logics and Politics of Post

  16. Setting a good example: Regenerative energies play an important role in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rave, K.

    1995-01-01

    In Schleswig-Holstein the use of regenerative energies is supported more than in any other Land of Germany. Due to the fact that large regions of the Land are situated in strong breeze zones, wind power plays the most important role. Almost 50% of the overall German wind current is gained in Schleswig-Holstein. Furthermore solar energy and water power are also used directly. (orig.) [de

  17. Benefits of Simulation and Role-Playing to Teach Performance of Functional Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail Ross, Mary Ellen; Otto, Dorothy A; Stewart Helton, Anne

    The use of simulation is an innovative teaching strategy that has proven to be valuable in nursing education. This article describes the benefits of a simulation lab involving faculty role-play to teach baccalaureate nursing students how to properly assess the functional status of older adults. Details about the simulation lab, which involved functional assessments of two elderly community-dwelling residents, are presented, along with student and faculty evaluations of this teaching modality.

  18. The importance and possibilities of role playing on children surgery classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goremykin I.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the first experience in the implementation into the pedagogical process of one of the methods of active training — role playing. The need for intensification of medical education process is linked primarily to the rapid increase in the volume required to provide students with information and the lack of training time. The analysis showed that the game significantly increases the level of students' knowledge, but require substantial modernization of the educational process.

  19. Playable Stories: Making Programming and 3D Role-Playing Game Design Personally and Socially Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram-Goble, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory design study of a novel system for learning programming and 3D role-playing game design as tools for social change. This study was conducted at two sites. Participants in the study were ages 9-14 and worked for up to 15 hours with the platform to learn how to program and design video games with personally or socially…

  20. The kidneys play a central role in the clearance of rhGH in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Thygesen, Peter; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2016-01-01

    at treatment of patients with growth hormone disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative importance of the kidneys in the clearance of rhGH. The study employed a newly validated nephrectomy rat model and a population based pharmacokinetic approach to assess renal clearance of rh...... that renal clearance plays a pivotal role in the elimination of rhGH in rats....

  1. The Use of Video Role Play for Teaching Therapeutic Communication Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Ng; Anthony O’Brien; Sandra Mackey; Hong-Gu He; David G. Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Background: Effective Communication is a fundamental skill for practice across health care settings and is a component ofundergraduate nursing programs around the world. Resource materials appropriate for the teaching of communication in an Asiancontext are lacking.Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a self-developed video using role play in facilitating teaching andlearning associated with therapeutic communication.Methods: Videos were produced which demonstrated the...

  2. Direct interaction with the public: making it a "serious game" with role playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercelli, Samuela; Lombardi, Salvatore; Jones, David; Pearce, Jonathan; Persoglia, Sergio; De Vittor, Cinzia; Gemeni, Vassiliki; Svendsen Skriung, Camilla; Bigi, Sabina; Franzese, Carmela; Riley, Nick; McConnell, Brian; Volpi, Valentina; Donda, Federica

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have an important role in the societal process of understanding and evaluating new technologies, but their role is often undermined by the lack of appropriate contexts where a constructive dialogue can take place, thus leading to awareness of issues and correct perception of scientific data. In the case of geoscience the problem can be even harsher, due to the often limited education on the subject, complexity of the imaginative relationship with the underground, lack of social shared representations of key geological features. This contribution reports about an interactive session organised during the 2012 ESOF - European Science Open Forum http://esof2012.org/ for the FP7 project RISCS - 'Research into Impacts and Safety in CO2 Storage' http://www.riscs-co2.eu/ and in collaboration with the FP7 project CGS Europe http://www.cgseurope.net/ . The session saw the participation of about 100 people. The RISCS project is a European project which has explored the potential environmental impacts of the geological storage of CO2, as a technology for abating CO2 emissions. The session was meant to introduce the participants to the information produced within the RISCS project on possible impacts of CO2 on onshore and offshore ecosystems and human population. The objective was to experiment a process for facilitating, through dialogue and self-discovery, an understanding of the particular issues that need to be considered when evaluating the potential impacts of CO2 storage. It was also an opportunity to test an innovative and original format for science communication, aimed at involving a large group of participants in interactive activities with experts, based on the Role Playing Game pattern. The structure of the workshop included an exploration of participants' questions on and interest in CCS impacts, small group interaction with researchers and a final feed-back from each group to the plenary. Each group of about 10 participants was provided the

  3. Facebook Role Play Addiction - A Comorbidity with Multiple Compulsive-Impulsive Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Deeepa; Shukla, Lekhansh; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek

    2016-06-01

    Background Problematic Internet use (PIU) is an emerging entity with varied contents. Behavioral addictions have high comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Social networking site (SNS) addiction and role playing game (RPG) addiction are traditionally studied as separate entities. We present a case with excessive Internet use, with a particular focus on phenomenology and psychiatric comorbidities. Case presentation Fifteen-year-old girl with childhood onset attention deficit disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, adolescent onset trichotillomania, and disturbed family environment presented with excessive Facebook use. Main online activity was creating profiles in names of mainstream fictional characters and assuming their identity (background, linguistic attributes, etc.). This was a group activity with significant socialization in the virtual world. Craving, salience, withdrawal, mood modification, and conflict were clearly elucidated and significant social and occupational dysfunction was evident. Discussion This case highlights various vulnerability and sociofamilial factors contributing to behavioral addiction. It also highlights the presence of untreated comorbidities in such cases. The difference from contemporary RPGs and uniqueness of role playing on SNS is discussed. SNS role playing as a separate genre of PIU and its potential to reach epidemic proportions are discussed. Conclusions Individuals with temperamental vulnerability are likely to develop behavioral addictions. Identification and management of comorbid conditions are important. The content of PIU continues to evolve and needs further study.

  4. Use of interactive theater and role play to develop medical students' skills in breaking bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skye, Eric P; Wagenschutz, Heather; Steiger, Jeffrey A; Kumagai, Arno K

    2014-12-01

    Creative arts have been increasingly implemented in medical education. This study investigated the use of interactive theater and role play with professional actors in teaching breaking bad news to medical students. The objectives were to explore the contexts, approaches, experiences, and reactions in giving and receiving bad news. Second-year medical students participated in a required educational session that utilized interactive theater which helps students learn about the issues of breaking bad news to a patient with cancer. Following the interactive theater piece, professional actors provided students role play experiences in small groups with breaking bad news. Anonymous evaluation surveys were given out to all second-year medical students at the conclusion of the breaking bad news session. Surveys contained quantitative and qualitative responses. Three years of evaluations were analyzed. A total of 451 (88 %) students completed the evaluations. Comments were thematically analyzed. Ninety-four percent agreed that the theater piece prompted reflection on patient-provider communications, and 89 % agreed that it stimulated discussion on complex issues with breaking bad news. The two most common themes in student comments concerned the importance of realism in the theater piece, and the value of experiencing multiple perspectives. Use of professional actors during the role play exercises enhances the realism and pushed the students out of their own "comfort zones" in ways that may more closely approximate real life clinical situations. Interactive theater can be a potentially powerful tool to teach breaking bad news during medical school.

  5. Developing Pharmacy Student Communication Skills through Role-Playing and Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeszotarski, Paula; Ma, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact on pharmacy students of a communication course, which used role-playing to develop active-learning skills. Design. Students role-playing pharmacists in patient care scenarios were critiqued by students and pharmacist faculty members. Grading was performed using the rubric inspired by Bruce Berger’s Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Written skills were evaluated using student written critique questionnaires. Students completed precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys. Preceptor evaluations were analyzed for course impact. Assessment. Students demonstrated improvement in oral skills based on role-play scores (45.87/50) after practice sessions. The average score based on the student questionnaire was 9.31/10. Gain was demonstrated in all defined course objectives. Impact on introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) communication objectives was insignificant. Student evaluations for course and teaching strategy reflected a high average. Conclusion. Study results demonstrated improvement in oral and written communication skills that may help improve interprofessional teamwork between pharmacists and other health care providers. PMID:25995519

  6. Teaching psychosomatic medicine using problem-based learning and role-playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heru, Alison M

    2011-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been implemented in medical education world-wide. Despite its popularity, it has not been generally considered useful for residency programs. The author presents a model for the implementation of PBL in residency programs. The author presents a description of a PBL curriculum for teaching psychosomatic medicine to PGY 2 members in a psychiatry training program. The goals of PBL are to encourage self-directed learning; enhance curiosity, using case-based, contextualized learning; promote collaborative practice; and support patient-centered care. The addition of role-playing exercises helps PGY 2 residents to develop their skills from simply developing a differential diagnosis to being able to construct biopsychosocial formulations, and it provides these residents an opportunity to practice presenting case formulations to the patient and family. Residents and faculty enjoyed the PBL role-playing sessions. Residents wanted the learning objectives given to them rather than generating their own learning objectives, to move through the cases faster, and to receive more information and more cases. Teaching psychosomatic medicine, using PBL and role-playing, allows many of the proposed Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine residency core competencies to be met. However, further refinement of the PBL method needs to take place in order to adapt its use to residency programs.

  7. Research and implementation of role-playing teaching mode supported by gamification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xu; Zhang, Zhenglei; Sun, Lei

    2017-08-01

    The paper designs a Role-playing Teaching Mode Supported by Gamification to stimulate the interest of learners. In the process of creating the teaching mode, the factors of incentive factors, teaching mode and course selection are the most important factors gained by investigate and research. Then under the guidance of the three factors, a leaning framework of role-playing teaching mode which is called Gamification Learning Framework (GM1.0) is determined. In the design of GM1.0, First, collect problem cases which students interested in and select three courses which are Algorithm Design, Data Structure and Program Design. Then, extract the knowledge points of the three courses and merge into the problem cases to form game maps. Last, Learners gain a role-playing actor to join games with the support of game maps and finish selected tasks reaching a higher task level by upgrade checkpoints, experience promotions and award medals changing. After that, learners’ enthusiasm for learning can be stimulated and the innovation abilities can also be improved gradually.

  8. Facebook Role Play Addiction – A Comorbidity with Multiple Compulsive–Impulsive Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Deeepa; Shukla, Lekhansh; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background Problematic Internet use (PIU) is an emerging entity with varied contents. Behavioral addictions have high comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorders. Social networking site (SNS) addiction and role playing game (RPG) addiction are traditionally studied as separate entities. We present a case with excessive Internet use, with a particular focus on phenomenology and psychiatric comorbidities. Case presentation Fifteen-year-old girl with childhood onset attention deficit disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, adolescent onset trichotillomania, and disturbed family environment presented with excessive Facebook use. Main online activity was creating profiles in names of mainstream fictional characters and assuming their identity (background, linguistic attributes, etc.). This was a group activity with significant socialization in the virtual world. Craving, salience, withdrawal, mood modification, and conflict were clearly elucidated and significant social and occupational dysfunction was evident. Discussion This case highlights various vulnerability and sociofamilial factors contributing to behavioral addiction. It also highlights the presence of untreated comorbidities in such cases. The difference from contemporary RPGs and uniqueness of role playing on SNS is discussed. SNS role playing as a separate genre of PIU and its potential to reach epidemic proportions are discussed. Conclusions Individuals with temperamental vulnerability are likely to develop behavioral addictions. Identification and management of comorbid conditions are important. The content of PIU continues to evolve and needs further study. PMID:27156380

  9. ROLE PLAYING GAMES IN THE CLASSROOM LOS JUEGOS DE ROL EN EL AULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Grande de Prado

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Research done on the field of role playing games and their influence on young people's minds produces possitive results, that is to say, they (such games are not dangerous. At the same time, the few articles about role playing games and education show some possitive references about their educational effects. However, role playing games, considered as games, seem not to be relevant as some kind of strategy at Secondary Education nowadays. This article sums up the existing contributions and gives some proposals about their possible implementation.Las investigaciones realizadas en el ámbito de los juegos de rol y su influencia sobre las mentes de los jóvenes arrojan resultados positivos, es decir, no son peligrosos. Al mismo tiempo, los escasos artículos sobre juegos de rol y educación muestran referencias positivas sobre sus efectos educativos. Sin embargo los juegos de rol como tales no parecen ser relevantes actualmente como estrategia en Educación Secundaria. El presente artículo hace un repaso de las aportaciones existentes y realiza algunas propuestas sobre su posible aplicación.

  10. IRBIT plays an important role in NHE3-mediated pHi regulation in HSG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tien Manh; Park, Moon-Yong; Lee, Jiyeon; Bae, Jun-Seok; Hwang, Sung-Min; Choi, Se-Young; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Park, Kyungpyo

    2013-07-19

    Expression of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor-binding protein (IRBIT) has been reported in epithelial cells. However, its role in pHi regulation is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the role of IRBIT in pHi regulation, mediated by Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs), in salivary glands. We measured pHi recovery from cell acidification in BCECF-loaded salivary HSG cells. Western blot and co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP) assays were also performed, showing that NHE1, 2 and 3 are expressed, and IRBIT binds to NHE3. HOE642, a specific NHE1 blocker, inhibited pHi recovery, but 40% pH(i) recovery was still observed even at the highest concentration of HOE642. Furthermore, pretreatment of the cells with siIRBIT significantly inhibited pHi recovery, indicating that NHE3 potentially plays a role in pHi recovery as well. The amount of membrane-localized NHE3 and its interaction with IRBIT are also significantly increased by cell acidification. In addition, we found that Ste20p-related proline alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) reverses the effect of IRBIT on membrane NHE3 translocation. Taken together, we conclude that IRBIT plays an important role in pHi regulation, mediated by NHE3, and further regulated by SPAK. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial Nanoplexes meet Model Bacterial Membranes: the key role of Cardiolipin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Menéndez, Alejandro; Montis, Costanza; Díaz-Calvo, Teresa; Carta, Davide; Hatzixanthis, Kostas; Morris, Christopher J.; McArthur, Michael; Berti, Debora

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance to traditional antibiotics is a crucial challenge of medical research. Oligonucleotide therapeutics, such as antisense or Transcription Factor Decoys (TFDs), have the potential to circumvent current resistance mechanisms by acting on novel targets. However, their full translation into clinical application requires efficient delivery strategies and fundamental comprehension of their interaction with target bacterial cells. To address these points, we employed a novel cationic bolaamphiphile that binds TFDs with high affinity to form self-assembled complexes (nanoplexes). Confocal microscopy revealed that nanoplexes efficiently transfect bacterial cells, consistently with biological efficacy on animal models. To understand the factors affecting the delivery process, liposomes with varying compositions, taken as model synthetic bilayers, were challenged with nanoplexes and investigated with Scattering and Fluorescence techniques. Thanks to the combination of results on bacteria and synthetic membrane models we demonstrate for the first time that the prokaryotic-enriched anionic lipid Cardiolipin (CL) plays a key-role in the TFDs delivery to bacteria. Moreover, we can hypothesize an overall TFD delivery mechanism, where bacterial membrane reorganization with permeability increase and release of the TFD from the nanoplexes are the main factors. These results will be of great benefit to boost the development of oligonucleotides-based antimicrobials of superior efficacy.

  12. Hidden keys to survival: the type, density, pattern and functional role of emperor penguin body feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cassondra L; Hagelin, Julie C; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2015-10-22

    Antarctic penguins survive some of the harshest conditions on the planet. Emperor penguins breed on the sea ice where temperatures drop below -40°C and forage in -1.8°C waters. Their ability to maintain 38°C body temperature in these conditions is due in large part to their feathered coat. Penguins have been reported to have the highest contour feather density of any bird, and both filoplumes and plumules (downy feathers) are reported absent in penguins. In studies modelling the heat transfer properties and the potential biomimetic applications of penguin plumage design, the insulative properties of penguin plumage have been attributed to the single afterfeather attached to contour feathers. This attribution of the afterfeather as the sole insulation component has been repeated in subsequent studies. Our results demonstrate the presence of both plumules and filoplumes in the penguin body plumage. The downy plumules are four times denser than afterfeathers and play a key, previously overlooked role in penguin survival. Our study also does not support the report that emperor penguins have the highest contour feather density. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. On the key role of droughts in the dynamics of summer fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; von Hardenberg, Jost; AghaKouchak, Amir; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Provenzale, Antonello; Trigo, Ricardo M

    2017-03-06

    Summer fires frequently rage across Mediterranean Europe, often intensified by high temperatures and droughts. According to the state-of-the-art regional fire risk projections, in forthcoming decades climate effects are expected to become stronger and possibly overcome fire prevention efforts. However, significant uncertainties exist and the direct effect of climate change in regulating fuel moisture (e.g. warmer conditions increasing fuel dryness) could be counterbalanced by the indirect effects on fuel structure (e.g. warmer conditions limiting fuel amount), affecting the transition between climate-driven and fuel-limited fire regimes as temperatures increase. Here we analyse and model the impact of coincident drought and antecedent wet conditions (proxy for the climatic factor influencing total fuel and fine fuel structure) on the summer Burned Area (BA) across all eco-regions in Mediterranean Europe. This approach allows BA to be linked to the key drivers of fire in the region. We show a statistically significant relationship between fire and same-summer droughts in most regions, while antecedent climate conditions play a relatively minor role, except in few specific eco-regions. The presented models for individual eco-regions provide insights on the impacts of climate variability on BA, and appear to be promising for developing a seasonal forecast system supporting fire management strategies.

  14. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Fengxia; Zhang, Minjie; Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun; Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang; Xu, Ye; Price, Brendan; Sun, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ATM phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. • The PETPVFRLT box of ATM plays a key role in its dimer dissociation in DNA repair. • The dephosphorylation of ATM is critical for dimer re-formation after DNA repair. - Abstract: The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair

  15. Serious Simulation Role-Playing Games for Transformative Climate Change Education: "World Climate" and "Future Climate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-Varga, J. N.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.; Jones, A.; Merhi, H.; Hunt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change, its mitigation, and adaption to its impacts are among the greatest challenges of our times. Despite the importance of societal decisions in determining climate change outcomes, flawed mental models about climate change remain widespread, are often deeply entrenched, and present significant barriers to understanding and decision-making around climate change. Here, we describe two simulation role-playing games that combine active, affective, and analytical learning to enable shifts of deeply held conceptions about climate change. The games, World Climate and Future Climate, use a state-of-the-art decision support simulation, C-ROADS (Climate Rapid Overview and Decision Support) to provide users with immediate feedback on the outcomes of their mitigation strategies at the national level, including global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and concentrations, mean temperature changes, sea level rise, and ocean acidification. C-ROADS outcomes are consistent with the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMS), such as those used by the IPCC, but runs in less than one second on ordinary laptops, providing immediate feedback to participants on the consequences of their proposed policies. Both World Climate and Future Climate role-playing games provide immersive, situated learning experiences that motivate active engagement with climate science and policy. In World Climate, participants play the role of United Nations climate treaty negotiators. Participant emissions reductions proposals are continually assessed through interactive exploration of the best available science through C-ROADS. Future Climate focuses on time delays in the climate and energy systems. Participants play the roles of three generations: today's policymakers, today's youth, and 'just born.' The game unfolds in three rounds 25 simulated years apart. In the first round, only today's policymakers make decisions; In the next round, the young become the policymakers and inherit the

  16. Doing what comes naturally: a special workforce plays an important role in a new on-site remediation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsters, S.

    1999-01-01

    A bioremediation system developed by Calgary-based Unique Oilfield Technology Services (UNOTEC) that uses naturally occurring bacteria and fungi to decompose oilfield waste is described. In essence, UNOTEC creates a suitable work environment for microorganisms by mixing drilling residue with organic oil absorbent and bulking agent, and the micro-organisms do the rest. The key ingredient in the mix is canola meal which has been shown to have the ability to immobilize oil and prevent leaching in the containment mixtures following land treatment, due to its oleophilic qualities, which are a function of its origin as an oil seed. Canola meal contains large amounts of protein, hence it is an important source of nitrogen. Since nitrogen is considered essential for stimulating growth in microorganisms, the meal plays a critical role as a catalyst for microbial activity in the containment mix. Details of applying the technology, and on-going experiments demonstrating its efficiency are described. 10 photos

  17. Resolving Key Uncertainties in Subsurface Energy Recovery: One Role of In Situ Experimentation and URLs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, D.

    2013-12-01

    Significant uncertainties remain and influence the recovery of energy from the subsurface. These uncertainties include the fate and transport of long-lived radioactive wastes that result from the generation of nuclear power and have been the focus of an active network of international underground research laboratories dating back at least 35 years. However, other nascent carbon-free energy technologies including conventional and EGS geothermal methods, carbon-neutral methods such as carbon capture and sequestration and the utilization of reduced-carbon resources such as unconventional gas reservoirs offer significant challenges in their effective deployment. We illustrate the important role that in situ experiments may play in resolving behaviors at extended length- and time-scales for issues related to chemical-mechanical interactions. Significantly, these include the evolution of transport and mechanical characteristics of stress-sensitive fractured media and their influence of the long-term behavior of the system. Importantly, these interests typically relate to either creating reservoirs (hydroshearing in EGS reservoirs, artificial fractures in shales and coals) or maintaining seals at depth where the permeating fluids may include mixed brines, CO2, methane and other hydrocarbons. Critical questions relate to the interaction of these various fluid mixtures and compositions with the fractured substrate. Important needs are in understanding the roles of key processes (transmission, dissolution, precipitation, sorption and dynamic stressing) on the modification of effective stresses and their influence on the evolution of permeability, strength and induced seismicity on the resulting development of either wanted or unwanted fluid pathways. In situ experimentation has already contributed to addressing some crucial issues of these complex interactions at field scale. Important contributions are noted in understanding the fate and transport of long-lived wastes

  18. Exploring the Impact of Role-Playing on Peer Feedback in an Online Case-Based Learning Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hui Ching

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the impact of role-playing on the quality of peer feedback and learners’ perception of this strategy in a case-based learning activity with VoiceThread in an online course. The findings revealed potential positive impact of role-playing on learners’ generation of constructive feedback as role-playing was associated with higher frequency of problem identification in the peer comments. Sixty percent of learners perceived the role-play strategy useful in assisting them to compose and provide meaningful feedback. Multiple motivations drove learners in making decisions on role choice when responding to their peers, mostly for peer benefits. Finally, 90% of learners reported the peer feedback useful or somewhat useful. Based on the findings of this study, we discussed educational and instructional design implications and future directions to further the line of research using role-play strategy to enhance peer feedback activity.

  19. Transforming Water Supply Regimes in India: Do Public-Private Partnerships Have a Role to Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Gopakumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnerships (PPP are an important governance strategy that has recently emerged as a solution to enhance the access of marginalised residents to urban infrastructures. With the inception of neo-liberal economic reforms in India, in Indian cities too PPP has emerged as an innovative approach to expand coverage of water supply and sanitation infrastructures. However, there has been little study of the dynamics of partnership efforts in different urban contexts: What role do they play in transforming existing infrastructure regimes? Do reform strategies such as partnerships result in increased privatisation or do they make the governance of infrastructures more participative? Reviewing some of the recent literature on urban political analysis, this article develops the concept of water supply regime to describe the context of water provision in three metropolitan cities in India. To further our understanding of the role of PPP within regimes, this article sketches five cases of water supply and sanitation partnerships located within these three metropolitan cities. From these empirical studies, the article arrives at the conclusion that while PPP are always products of the regime-context they are inserted within, quite often strategic actors in the partnership use the PPP to further their interests by initiating a shift in the regime pathway. This leads us to conclude that PPPs do play a role in making water supply regimes more participative but that depends on the nature of the regime as well as the actions of partners.

  20. Early-life soy exposure and gender-role play behavior in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adgent, Margaret A; Daniels, Julie L; Edwards, Lloyd J; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Rogan, Walter J

    2011-12-01

    Soy-based infant formula contains high levels of isoflavones. These estrogen-like compounds have been shown to induce changes in sexually dimorphic behaviors in animals exposed in early development. We examined gender-role play behavior in relation to soy-based and non-soy-based infant feeding methods among children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We studied 3,664 boys and 3,412 girls. Four exposure categories were created using data from questionnaires administered at 6 and 15 months postpartum: primarily breast, early formula (referent), early soy, and late soy. Gender-role play behavior was assessed using the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI). Associations between infant feeding and PSAI scores at 42 months of age were assessed using linear regression. Post hoc analyses of PSAI scores at 30 and 57 months were also conducted. Early-infancy soy use was reported for approximately 2% of participants. Mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] PSAI scores at 42 months were 62.3 (62.0, 62.6) and 36.9 (36.6, 37.2) for boys and girls, respectively. After adjustment, early soy (vs. early formula) feeding was associated with higher (less feminine) PSAI scores in girls (β = 2.66; 95% CI: 0.19, 5.12) but was not significantly associated with PSAI scores in boys. The association between soy exposure and PSAI scores in girls was substantially attenuated at 30 and 57 months. Although not consistent throughout childhood, early-life soy exposure was associated with less female-typical play behavior in girls at 42 months of age. Soy exposure was not significantly associated with play behavior in boys.

  1. What role did the Hikurangi subduction zone play in the M7.8 Kaikoura earthquake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, L. M.; Hamling, I. J.; Kaneko, Y.; Fry, B.; Clark, K.; Bannister, S. C.; Ellis, S. M.; Francois-Holden, C.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Mueller, C.

    2017-12-01

    The 2016 M7.8 Kaikoura earthquake ruptured at least a dozen faults in the northern South Island of New Zealand, within the transition from the Hikurangi subduction zone (in the North Island) to the transpressive Alpine Fault (in the central South Island). The role that the southern end of the Hikurangi subduction zone played (or did not play) in the Kaikoura earthquake remains one of the most controversial aspects of this spectacularly complex earthquake. Investigations using near-field seismological and geodetic data suggest a dominantly crustal faulting source for the event, while studies relying on teleseismic data propose that a large portion of the moment release is due to rupture of the Hikurangi subduction interface beneath the northern South Island. InSAR and GPS data also show that a large amount of afterslip (up to 0.5 m) occurred on the subduction interface beneath the crustal faults that ruptured in the M7.8 earthquake, during the months following the earthquake. Modeling of GPS velocities for the 20 year period prior to the earthquake indicate that interseismic coupling was occurring on the Hikurangi subduction interface beneath the northern South Island, in a similar location to the suggested coseismic and postseismic slip on the subduction interface. We will integrate geodetic, seismological, tsunami, and geological observations in an attempt to balance the seemingly conflicting views from local and teleseismic data regarding the role that the southern Hikurangi subduction zone played in the earthquake. We will also discuss the broader implications of the observed coseismic and postseismic deformation for understanding the kinematics of the southern termination of the Hikurangi subduction zone, and its role in the transition from subduction to strike-slip in the central New Zealand region.

  2. DICER-LIKE2 plays a primary role in transitive silencing of transgenes in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizolwenkosi Mlotshwa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Dicer-like (DCL enzymes play a pivotal role in RNA silencing in plants, processing the long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA that triggers silencing into the primary short interfering RNAs (siRNAs that mediate it. The siRNA population can be augmented and silencing amplified via transitivity, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR-dependent pathway that uses the target RNA as substrate to generate secondary siRNAs. Here we report that Arabidopsis DCL2-but not DCL4-is required for transitivity in cell-autonomous, post-transcriptional silencing of transgenes. An insertion mutation in DCL2 blocked sense transgene-induced silencing and eliminated accumulation of the associated RDR-dependent siRNAs. In hairpin transgene-induced silencing, the dcl2 mutation likewise eliminated accumulation of secondary siRNAs and blocked transitive silencing, but did not block silencing mediated by primary siRNAs. Strikingly, in all cases, the dcl2 mutation eliminated accumulation of all secondary siRNAs, including those generated by other DCL enzymes. In contrast, mutations in DCL4 promoted a dramatic shift to transitive silencing in the case of the hairpin transgene and enhanced silencing induced by the sense transgene. Suppression of hairpin and sense transgene silencing by the P1/HC-Pro and P38 viral suppressors was associated with elimination of secondary siRNA accumulation, but the suppressors did not block processing of the stem of the hairpin transcript into primary siRNAs. Thus, these viral suppressors resemble the dcl2 mutation in their effects on siRNA biogenesis. We conclude that DCL2 plays an essential, as opposed to redundant, role in transitive silencing of transgenes and may play a more important role in silencing of viruses than currently thought.

  3. The relationships into the video games massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Alfonso Acevedo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the relationships dynamics in the virtuality of the gamers into the massively multiplayer online role-playing game “Perfect World” in the not ocifial latinamerican server “Comunidad Zero”. The main objective of this study is to describe the dynamics of the relationships, analyzing them from the context of the game using the virtual ethnography, understanding the emotional interactions between couples, through a case study. During the development of research, were found several categories related to affective interactions of pre-attachment, manifested in virtual environments of the game and that ultimately manage to simulate the engagement dynamics of the physical contexts.

  4. The Role Of Playing Online Games In Teen’s Developing English Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Ambarita, Ridho Vandi H

    2016-01-01

    This Thesis entitled "The Role of playing Online Games in Teens' Developing Vocabulary" This is a study of the influence of online gaming in the development of English vocabulary teenagers. This study using qualitative methods. Miles and Huberman (1994) defined the way of qualitative research was to find the meaning of data based on the goals stated by the researcher. This study is held in the SMP Neg. 45 Medan and some of his students became participant. Data from this study are the words co...

  5. EFEKTIVITAS METODE ROLE PLAYING PADA MENDESKRIPSIKAN PELAYANAN PRIMA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Tri Lestari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efektivitas metode pembelajaran role playing pada pokok bahasan mendeskripsikan pelayanan prima untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa kelas X Administrasi Perkantoran SMK Hidayah Semarang. Subjek penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas X AP SMK Hidayah Semarang Tahun Ajaran 2011/2012. Prosedur penelitian ini merupakan siklus kegiatan pembelajaran yang terdiri dari dua siklus, dimana setiap siklus meliputi perencanaan, pelaksanaan tindakan, pengamatan dan refleksi. Instrumen pengumpulan data dalam penelitian ini adalah tes evaluasi yang berupa tes objektif pada tiap akhir siklus dan lembar observasi untuk aktivitas siswa dan kinerja guru. Hasil belajar kognitif siswa pada siklus I sebesar 74,5 dengan ketuntasan klasikal 66,7%. Rata-rata hasil belajar siklus II sebesar 82,5 dengan ketuntasan klasikal 96,7%. Adapun sikap siswa terhadap pembelajaran pada siklus I sebesar 55% dan pada siklus II mencapai peningkatan sebesar 87,5%. Sedangkan kinerja guru pada siklus I mencapai 58,3% dan pada siklus II meningkat menjadi 93,1%. Penerapan metode pembelajaran role playing pada pokok bahasan mendeskripsikan pelayanan prima efektif untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa kelas X Administrasi Perkantoran SMK Hidayah Semarang. Abstract ___________________________________________________________________ The purpose from this research was to determine effectiveness of role playing in describing excellent service to improve students� result class X AP Hidayah Vocational School of Semarang year 2011/2012. The subject of this research is the class X AP of Hidayah Vocational School of Semarang year 2011/2012. The procedure of this research is a cycle of learning activities that consists of two cycles, in which each cycle includes planning, implementation of the action, observation and reflection. Instrument of data collection is the evaluation tests in the form of objective tests at each end of the cycle and observation

  6. A history of the concept of the stimulus and the role it played in the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassedy, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The term stimulus, as it was used in science from its earliest appearance in the sixteenth century up to the beginning of the nineteenth century, shows a gradual progress in denotation from the physical object designed to produce nervous and muscular excitation to the generically conceived event or object that initiates sensory or motor activity. To this shift corresponds a shift in the understanding of sensory experience. Johannes Muller's law of specific energy of sensory nerves played a major role in the shift, and Hermann von Helmholtz gave the shift its most thorough philosophical explanation.

  7. My avatar, my self identity in video role-playing games

    CERN Document Server

    Waggoner, Zach

    2009-01-01

    With videogames now one of the world's most popular diversions, the virtual world has increasing psychological influence on real-world players. This book examines the relationships between virtual and non-virtual identity in visual role-playing games. Utilizing James Gee's theoretical constructs of real-world identity, virtual-world identity, and projective identity, this research shows dynamic, varying and complex relationships between the virtual avatar and the player's sense of self and makes recommendations of terminology for future identity researchers.

  8. Staff Training for Business Process Improvement: The Benefit of Role-Plays in the Case of KreditSim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borner, Rene; Moormann, Jurgen; Wang, Minhong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to explore staff's experience with role-plays using the example of training bank employees in Six Sigma as a major methodology for business process improvement. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a case study. A role-play, KreditSim, is used to simulate a loan approval process that has to be improved by…

  9. Effects of communication training on real practice performance: a role-play module versus a standardized patient module.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, C.; Woermann, U.; Shaha, M.; Rethans, J.J.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of modules involving standardized patients and role-plays on training communication skills. The first module involved standardized patients and an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE); the second module consisted of peer role-plays and a written

  10. Teaching Social Communication Skills Using a Cool versus Not Cool Procedure plus Role-Playing and a Social Skills Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Taubman, Mitchell; Milne, Christine; Dale, Stephanie; Leaf, Jeremy; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Tsuji, Kathleen; Kassardjian, Alyne; Alcalay, Aditt; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John

    2016-01-01

    We utilized a cool versus not cool procedure plus role-playing to teach social communication skills to three individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The cool versus not cool procedure plus role-playing consisted of the researcher randomly demonstrating the behavior correctly (cool) two times and the behavior incorrectly (not cool) two…

  11. 41 CFR 102-194.30 - What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program? Your agency head... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program? 102-194.30 Section 102-194.30 Public...

  12. 25 CFR 900.131 - What role does the Secretary play during the performance of a self-determination construction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What role does the Secretary play during the performance... CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Construction § 900.131 What role does the Secretary play during the performance of a self-determination construction contract? (a) If...

  13. World of Wordcraft: Foreign Language Grammar and Composition Taught as a Term-Long Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellar-Goad, T. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines an innovative approach to the instruction of foreign languages: a term-long role-playing game in the style of tabletop role-playing games such as "Dungeons & Dragons." Students adopt personas, avatars, or "player characters" and take them through adventures, exploration, puzzles, and fights with…

  14. 42 CFR 137.401 - What role does Tribal consultation play in the IHS annual budget request process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What role does Tribal consultation play in the IHS annual budget request process? 137.401 Section 137.401 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Secretarial Responsibilities Budget Request § 137.401 What role does Tribal consultation play in...

  15. What role can simulation model predictions play in environmental decisions: carbon dioxide as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emanuel, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    Frequently, when an environmental issue requiring quantitative analysis surfaces, the development of a model synthesizing all aspects of the problem and applicable at each stage of the decision process is proposed. A more desirable alternative is to generate models specifically designed to meet the requirements of each level in decision making and which can be adapted in response to the changing status of the environmental issue. Various models of the global carbon cycle constructed to predict levels of CO 2 in the atmosphere as a result of man's activities are described to illustrate this point. In summary, the progression of models developed to analyze the global carbon cycle in resolving the CO 2 /climate issue indicates the changing character of models depending on the immediate role they play in environmental decision making. The dominant and successful role served by models in the carbon cycle problem points to the desirability of this flexible approach

  16. Behcet’s Disease; do natural killer cells play a significant role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry ePetrushkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Behçet's Disease is a complex inflammatory disease, of unknown aetiology. While disease pathogenesis remains unclear, a strong relationship between Behçet’s Disease and HLA-B*51 has been established over the last 30 years. A number of theories exist regarding the cause of Behçet's Disease, however few are able to account for the increased rates of HLA-B*51 positive individuals, particularly around the Mediterranean basin and Middle East where the prevalence is highest. This review outlines current immunogenetic data on Behçet’s disease and the immunoregulatory role natural killer cells may play. It also describes the interaction of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptor - KIR3DL1 with its ligand Bw4, which is found on HLA-B51. Finally, CD94/NKG2D, MICA and ERAP are outlined with regard to their potential roles in Behçet’s disease.

  17. The role played by the Coulombic traction for an interface crack in dissimilar piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qun; Chen Yiheng

    2008-01-01

    The role played by the Coulombic traction for an interface crack in dissimilar piezoelectric materials is clarified. Based on the extended Stroh theory, the Coulombic traction, usually neglected in piezoelectric fracture, is imposed on the interface crack surfaces. It is found that the low-capacitance medium (air or vacuum) inside the crack gap yields some large Coulombic traction as compared to the applied mechanical loading whether the remanent polarization of piezoelectric material is considered or not. Thus, previous investigations based on the traction-free condition underestimate the role of the Coulombic traction and in turn may yield unexpected errors for the effective stress intensity factor (SIF) and energy release rate (ERR) at the crack tip. (technical note)

  18. LKR/SDH plays important roles throughout the tick life cycle including a long starvation period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banzragch Battur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH is a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the first two steps of lysine catabolism in plants and mammals. However, to date, the properties of the lysine degradation pathway and biological functions of LKR/SDH have been very little described in arthropods such as ticks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated and characterized the gene encoding lysine-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR, EC 1.5.1.8 and saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH, EC 1.5.1.9 from a tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, cDNA library that encodes a bifunctional polypeptide bearing domains similar to the plant and mammalian LKR/SDH enzymes. Expression of LKR/SDH was detected in all developmental stages, indicating an important role throughout the tick life cycle, including a long period of starvation after detachment from the host. The LKR/SDH mRNA transcripts were more abundant in unfed and starved ticks than in fed and engorged ticks, suggesting that tick LKR/SDH are important for the starved tick. Gene silencing of LKR/SDH by RNAi indicated that the tick LKR/SDH plays an integral role in the osmotic regulation of water balance and development of eggs in ovary of engorged females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transcription analysis and gene silencing of LKR/SDH indicated that tick LKR/SDH enzyme plays not only important roles in egg production, reproduction and development of the tick, but also in carbon, nitrogen and water balance, crucial physiological processes for the survival of ticks. This is the first report on the role of LKR/SDH in osmotic regulation in animals including vertebrate and arthropods.

  19. Insights from Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games to Enhance Gamification in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tavakkoli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the study of a cohort of college graduate and undergraduate students who participated in playing a Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG as a gameplay rich with social interaction as well as intellectual and aesthetic features. Statistically significant differences among our participants' perception, sensation seeking, and satisfaction in relation to gameplay features are investigated. Our primary objective in this investigation was to look for certain aspects of game playing and sensation seeking that attracts a group of students to engage in long term gameplay online. Results support the majority of pre-planned hypotheses and show potential important considerations to take into account when developing gamified content for educational applications. Furthermore, the limitation of the data used in this study is presented and future directions to remove the current limitation and proliferate results through qualitative research into players' in-game social interactions. We suggest that finding similarities and underlying patterns of attraction among a diverse group of students could be beneficial in designing gameplay features to enhance student participation in the learning experience and improve learning performance.

  20. Human gut microbiota plays a role in the metabolism of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourova, Lenka; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Anzenbacherova, Eva

    2016-09-01

    The gut microbiome, an aggregate genome of trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gastrointestinal tract, is now known to play a critical role in human health and predisposition to disease. It is also involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics and several recent studies have shown that the gut microbiota can affect the pharmacokinetics of orally taken drugs with implications for their oral bioavailability. Review of Pubmed, Web of Science and Science Direct databases for the years 1957-2016. Recent studies make it clear that the human gut microbiota can play a major role in the metabolism of xenobiotics and, the stability and oral bioavailability of drugs. Over the past 50 years, more than 30 drugs have been identified as a substrate for intestinal bacteria. Questions concerning the impact of the gut microbiota on drug metabolism, remain unanswered or only partially answered, namely (i) what are the molecular mechanisms and which bacterial species are involved? (ii) What is the impact of host genotype and environmental factors on the composition and function of the gut microbiota, (iii) To what extent is the composition of the intestinal microbiome stable, transmissible, and resilient to perturbation? (iv) Has past exposure to a given drug any impact on future microbial response, and, if so, for how long? Answering such questions should be an integral part of pharmaceutical research and personalised health care.

  1. Effects of a single-session assertiveness music therapy role playing protocol for psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement and measure the effectiveness of a single-session assertiveness music therapy role playing protocol for psychiatric inpatients. Participants (N=133) were randomly assigned by group to one of three conditions: (a) Assertiveness Music Therapy, (b) No Music Assertiveness, or (c) Music No Assertiveness. Participants in both assertiveness conditions role played a number of different commonly occurring scenarios at an inpatient psychiatric facility and in the community. There were no significant between-group differences in posttest quality of life, locus of control, or other subscales. However, participants in both assertiveness conditions tended to have slightly higher internal locus of control and overall quality of life scores than participants in the music no assertiveness condition. Additionally, the assertiveness music therapy condition had higher attendance rates than the other conditions. A higher percentage of participants from both the assertiveness music therapy and music no assertiveness conditions indicated they thought their session was the most helpful/therapeutic group therapy session in which they had participated; this was not the case for the assertiveness no music condition. Future research is warranted to measure the effects of protocols that can help psychiatric patients generalize skills learned in treatment.

  2. Do As I Say: Using Communication Role-Plays to Assess Sexual Assertiveness Following an Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer Kollar, Laura M; Davis, Teaniese L; Monahan, Jennifer L; Samp, Jennifer A; Coles, Valerie B; Bradley, Erin L P; Sales, Jessica McDermott; Comer, Sarah K; Worley, Timothy; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2016-12-01

    Sexual risk reduction interventions are often ineffective for women who drink alcohol. The present study examines whether an alcohol-related sexual risk reduction intervention successfully trains women to increase assertive communication behaviors and decrease aggressive communication behaviors. Women demonstrated their communication skills during interactive role-plays with male role-play partners. Young, unmarried, and nonpregnant African American women (N = 228, ages 18-24) reporting unprotected vaginal or anal sex and greater than three alcoholic drinks in the past 90 days were randomly assigned to a control, a sexual risk reduction, or a sexual and alcohol risk reduction (NLITEN) condition. Women in the NLITEN condition significantly increased assertive communication behavior compared to women in the control condition, yet use of aggressive communicative behaviors was unchanged. These data suggest assertive communication training is an efficacious component of a sexual and alcohol risk reduction intervention. Public health practitioners and health educators may benefit from group motivational enhancement therapy (GMET) training and adding a GMET module to existing sexual health risk reduction interventions. Future research should examine GMET's efficacy in combination with other evidence-based interventions within other populations and examine talking over and interrupting one's sexual partner as an assertive communication behavior within sexual health contexts. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  3. Interactive genetic counseling role-play: a novel educational strategy for family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Sean M; Carroll, June C; Rideout, Andrea L; Glendon, Gord; Meschino, Wendy; Shuman, Cheryl; Telner, Deanna; Van Iderstine, Natasha; Permaul, Joanne

    2008-04-01

    Family physicians (FPs) are increasingly involved in delivering genetic services. Familiarization with aspects of genetic counseling may enable FPs to help patients make informed choices. Exploration of interactive role-play as a means to raise FPs' awareness of the process and content of genetic counseling. FPs attending two large Canadian family medicine conferences in 2005 were eligible -- 93 participated. FPs discussed a case during a one-on-one session with a genetic counselor. Evaluation involved pre and post intervention questionnaires FPs' baseline genetic knowledge was self-rated as uniformly poor. Baseline confidence was highest in eliciting family history and providing psychosocial support and lowest in discussing risks/benefits of genetic testing and counseling process. Post-intervention, 80% of FPs had better appreciation of family history and 97% indicated this was an effective learning experience. Role-play with FPs is effective in raising awareness of the process and content of genetic counseling and may be applied to other health disciplines.

  4. Playable stories: Making programming and 3D role-playing game design personally and socially relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram-Goble, Adam

    This is an exploratory design study of a novel system for learning programming and 3D role-playing game design as tools for social change. This study was conducted at two sites. Participants in the study were ages 9-14 and worked for up to 15 hours with the platform to learn how to program and design video games with personally or socially relevant narratives. This first study was successful in that students learned to program a narrative game, and they viewed the social problem framing for the practices as an interesting aspect of the experience. The second study provided illustrative examples of how providing less general structure up-front, afforded players the opportunity to produce the necessary structures as needed for their particular design, and therefore had a richer understanding of what those structures represented. This study demonstrates that not only were participants able to use computational thinking skills such as Boolean and conditional logic, planning, modeling, abstraction, and encapsulation, they were able to bridge these skills to social domains they cared about. In particular, participants created stories about socially relevant topics without to explicit pushes by the instructors. The findings also suggest that the rapid uptake, and successful creation of personally and socially relevant narratives may have been facilitated by close alignment between the conceptual tools represented in the platform, and the domain of 3D role-playing games.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of peer role play and standardized patients in undergraduate communication training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Hans Martin; Nickel, Martin; Huwendiek, Sören; Schultz, Jobst Hendrik; Nikendei, Christoph

    2015-10-24

    The few studies directly comparing the methodological approach of peer role play (RP) and standardized patients (SP) for the delivery of communication skills all suggest that both methods are effective. In this study we calculated the costs of both methods (given comparable outcomes) and are the first to generate a differential cost-effectiveness analysis of both methods. Medical students in their prefinal year were randomly assigned to one of two groups receiving communication training in Pediatrics either with RP (N = 34) or 19 individually trained SP (N = 35). In an OSCE with standardized patients using the Calgary-Cambridge Referenced Observation Guide both groups achieved comparable high scores (results published). In this study, corresponding costs were assessed as man-hours resulting from hours of work of SP and tutors. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. Cost-effectiveness analysis revealed a major advantage for RP as compared to SP (112 vs. 172 man hours; cost effectiveness ratio .74 vs. .45) at comparable performance levels after training with both methods. While both peer role play and training with standardized patients have their value in medical curricula, RP has a major advantage in terms of cost-effectiveness. This could be taken into account in future decisions.

  6. SIRT1 may play a crucial role in overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Erika; Bori, Zoltán; Chabert, Clovis; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Naito, Hisashi; Machida, Shuichi; Davies, Kelvin Ja; Murlasits, Zsolt; Fry, Andrew C; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2017-06-01

    Silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) activity and content increased significantly in overload-induced hypertrophy. SIRT1-mediated signalling through Akt, the endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediated pathway, regulates anabolic process in the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. The regulation of catabolic signalling via forkhead box O 1 and protein ubiquitination is SIRT1 dependent. Overload-induced changes in microRNA levels regulate SIRT1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 signalling. Significant skeletal muscle mass guarantees functional wellbeing and is important for high level performance in many sports. Although the molecular mechanism for skeletal muscle hypertrophy has been well studied, it still is not completely understood. In the present study, we used a functional overload model to induce plantaris muscle hypertrophy by surgically removing the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in rats. Two weeks of muscle ablation resulted in a 40% increase in muscle mass, which was associated with a significant increase in silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) content and activity (P overload-induced hypertrophy. These findings, along with the well-known regulatory roles that SIRT1 plays in modulating both anabolic and catabolic pathways, allow us to propose the hypothesis that SIRT1 may actually play a crucial causal role in overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. This hypothesis will now require rigorous direct and functional testing. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  7. Involving consumers in product design through collaboration: the case of online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shu-Yu

    2010-12-01

    The release of software attributes to users by software designers for the creation of user-designed forms is regarded as a producer-consumer collaboration, leading consumers to expend significant effort on a specific product. This article identifies such software/product attributes within online role-playing games and then explores how consumers' prior experience affects the evaluation of such attributes. In this article, product attributes comprise customized, content, and interactive externality-sensitive and complementary externality-sensitive attributes, with the value of each attribute being greater for experts than for novices. In Study 1, data were collected and analyzed for the purpose of identifying such features in online role-playing games. The results can also be generalized to convergent products, such as TV games that have been redesigned as online games or mobile games found in Study 2. For the introduction of a convergent product to be successful, our research suggests that the potential market-segment focus should be on knowledgeable consumers who accept such products more readily.

  8. Role played by acid-sensitive ion channels in evoking the exercise pressor reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Shawn G; McCord, Jennifer L; Rainier, Jon; Liu, Zhuqing; Kaufman, Marc P

    2008-10-01

    The exercise pressor reflex arises from contracting skeletal muscle and is believed to play a role in evoking the cardiovascular responses to static exercise, effects that include increases in arterial pressure and heart rate. This reflex is believed to be evoked by the metabolic and mechanical stimulation of thin fiber muscle afferents. Lactic acid is known to be an important metabolic stimulus evoking the reflex. Until recently, the only antagonist for acid-sensitive ion channels (ASICs), the receptors to lactic acid, was amiloride, a substance that is also a potent antagonist for both epithelial sodium channels as well as voltage-gated sodium channels. Recently, a second compound, A-317567, has been shown to be an effective and selective antagonist to ASICs in vitro. Consequently, we measured the pressor responses to the static contraction of the triceps surae muscles in decerebrate cats before and after a popliteal arterial injection of A-317567 (10 mM solution; 0.5 ml). We found that this ASIC antagonist significantly attenuated by half (Pacid injection into the popliteal artery. In contrast, A-317567 had no effect on the pressor responses to tendon stretch, a pure mechanical stimulus, and to a popliteal arterial injection of capsaicin, which stimulated transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channels. We conclude that ASICs on thin fiber muscle afferents play a substantial role in evoking the metabolic component of the exercise pressor reflex.

  9. Use of Simulated Psychosocial Role-Playing to Enhance Nursing Students' Development of Soft Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrecht, Christina; Montenery, Susan

    2016-08-01

    Effective communication and interaction enable nurses to develop caring, empathetic, and respectful relationships with patients and families. However, most nurses feel a lack of preparation in the "soft" skills of communication, professionalism, and leadership. Nurse managers are seeking graduates with strong emotional quotient characteristics such as self-awareness, motivation, self-regulation, empathy, and social skills. Assisting nursing students to develop these intangible, high-level skills presents an ongoing challenge to nurse educators. This creative teaching learning strategy examines the use of psychosocial role-playing skits to enhance nursing student development of the soft skills of nursing. In this strategy, senior level nursing students work in small groups to develop and present realistic 3- to 5-minute skits based on common nurse-patient, nurse-family, or nurse-health care team interactions that incorporate the concepts of therapeutic communication, interpersonal interaction, empathy, active listening, teamwork, delegation, and/or professionalism, followed by a debriefing session. Student feedback suggests that confidence and competence related to the skills of therapeutic communication, interpersonal interaction, empathy, active listening, teamwork, delegation, and professionalism may improve by incorporating soft skill psychosocial role-playing into a nursing education course of study.

  10. Thromboxane plays a role in postprandial jejunal oxygen uptake and capillary exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, A; Chou, C C

    1990-09-01

    The effects of a thromboxane A2 (TxA2)-endoperoxide receptor antagonist, SQ 29548, on jejunal blood flow, oxygen uptake, and capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) were determined in anesthetized dogs under resting conditions and during the presence of predigested food in the jejunal lumen in three series of experiments. In series 1, 2.0 micrograms intra-arterial administration of SQ 29548 was found to abolish completely the vasoconstrictor action of graded doses (0.05-2.0 micrograms) of intra-arterial injection of a TxA2-endoperoxide analogue, U44069. SQ 29548 (2.0 micrograms ia) per se did not significantly alter resting jejunal blood flow, oxygen uptake, capillary pressure, or Kfc. Before SQ 29548, placement of food plus bile into the jejunal lumen increased blood flow +42 +/- 9%, oxygen uptake +28 +/- 7%, and Kfc +24 +/- 6%. After SQ 29548, the food placement increased blood flow +37 +/- 8%, oxygen uptake +52 +/- 11%, and Kfc +63 +/- 20%. The food-induced increases in oxygen uptake and Kfc after SQ 29548 were significantly greater than those induced before the blocking of TxA2-endoperoxide receptors by SQ 29548. Our study indicates that endogenous thromboxane does not play a role in regulating jejunal blood flow, capillary filtration, and oxygen uptake under resting conditions. However, it plays a role in limiting the food-induced increases in jejunal oxygen uptake and capillary exchange capacity without influencing the food-induced hyperemia.

  11. Using Role-plays as an Empathy Education Tool for Ophthalmology Postgraduate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kirti; Bhattacharyya, Mainak; Veerwal, Vikas; Singh, Arshi

    2017-12-01

    To assess the role of an "empathy sensitizing module" (ESM) in ophthalmology postgraduates in promoting effective empathetic communication. Thirty-nine ophthalmology postgraduates were taught effective empathetic communication using specially designed module, comprising of five illustrative role-plays. We evaluated the impact of the training by (a) self-assessment of empathy quotient by residents using Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE scale) before and 6 weeks after ESM training and (b) nonparticipant observation (NPO) by trained faculty in real-life settings over the next 4 months. A peer-validated, self-designed checklist was used for NPO. The change in score was analyzed using Student's paired t -test. The faculty observed the use of empathy in real-life patient encounters of the trainees over the next 6 months. In addition, secondary qualitative data were collected and analyzed to assess the impact of the module on other stakeholders such as the role-playing undergraduate students and core faculty. Pretraining assessment revealed that concept of empathy during patient communication was understood by only 10% students. PostESM training, the self-rated mean empathy score, on JSE, significantly increased from 95.9 to 106.7 (of a maximum of 140). This was also confirmed by a significant improvement in externally rated empathy and soft skills scores (from 29.3 to 39.1; of a maximum of 55) using the NPO tool. Focus group discussion was done on the continued display of empathy by the trainees in real-life situation over 6 months of observation by the faculty. The group agreed that there was a gradual attrition of initial gain in empathy behavior over the observation period of 6 months. The spillover benefits of the training process were observed among the role-playing undergraduates as well. A thematic analysis of their reflections on the process revealed a substantial change with an improved understanding of effective communication. There is a definite scope for

  12. The mother centriole plays an instructive role in defining cell geometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Feldman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centriole positioning is a key step in establishment and propagation of cell geometry, but the mechanism of this positioning is unknown. The ability of pre-existing centrioles to induce formation of new centrioles at a defined angle relative to themselves suggests they may have the capacity to transmit spatial information to their daughters. Using three-dimensional computer-aided analysis of cell morphology in Chlamydomonas, we identify six genes required for centriole positioning relative to overall cell polarity, four of which have known sequences. We show that the distal portion of the centriole is critical for positioning, and that the centriole positions the nucleus rather than vice versa. We obtain evidence that the daughter centriole is unable to respond to normal positioning cues and relies on the mother for positional information. Our results represent a clear example of "cytotaxis" as defined by Sonneborn, and suggest that centrioles can play a key function in propagation of cellular geometry from one generation to the next. The genes documented here that are required for proper centriole positioning may represent a new class of ciliary disease genes, defects in which would be expected to cause disorganized ciliary position and impaired function.

  13. Bim and Mcl-1 exert key roles in regulating JAK2V617F cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubert, Joëlle; Qian, Zhiyan; Andraos, Rita; Guthy, Daniel A; Radimerski, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The JAK2 V617F mutation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms and is found in the vast majority of patients suffering from polycythemia vera and in roughly every second patient suffering from essential thrombocythemia or from primary myelofibrosis. The V617F mutation is thought to provide hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitors with a survival and proliferation advantage. It has previously been shown that activated JAK2 promotes cell survival by upregulating the anti-apoptotic STAT5 target gene Bcl-xL. In this study, we have investigated the role of additional apoptotic players, the pro-apoptotic protein Bim as well as the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Pharmacological inhibition of JAK2/STAT5 signaling in JAK2 V617F mutant SET-2 and MB-02 cells was used to study effects on signaling, cell proliferation and apoptosis by Western blot analysis, WST-1 proliferation assays and flow cytometry. Cells were transfected with siRNA oligos to deplete candidate pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation assays were performed to assess the impact of JAK2 inhibition on complexes of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. Treatment of JAK2 V617F mutant cell lines with a JAK2 inhibitor was found to trigger Bim activation. Furthermore, Bim depletion by RNAi suppressed JAK2 inhibitor-induced cell death. Bim activation following JAK2 inhibition led to enhanced sequestration of Mcl-1, besides Bcl-xL. Importantly, Mcl-1 depletion by RNAi was sufficient to compromise JAK2 V617F mutant cell viability and sensitized the cells to JAK2 inhibition. We conclude that Bim and Mcl-1 have key opposing roles in regulating JAK2 V617F cell survival and propose that inactivation of aberrant JAK2 signaling leads to changes in Bim complexes that trigger cell death. Thus, further preclinical evaluation of combinations of JAK2 inhibitors with Bcl-2 family antagonists that also tackle Mcl-1, besides Bcl-xL, is warranted to assess the therapeutic potential

  14. Three members of the 6-cys protein family of Plasmodium play a role in gamete fertility.

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    Melissa R van Dijk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of fertilization is critically dependent on the mutual recognition of gametes and in Plasmodium, the male gamete surface protein P48/45 is vital to this process. This protein belongs to a family of 10 structurally related proteins, the so called 6-cys family. To identify the role of additional members of this family in Plasmodium fertilisation, we performed genetic and functional analysis on the five members of the 6-cys family that are transcribed during the gametocyte stage of P. berghei. This analysis revealed that in addition to P48/45, two members (P230 and P47 also play an essential role in the process of parasite fertilization. Mating studies between parasites lacking P230, P48/45 or P47 demonstrate that P230, like P48/45, is a male fertility factor, consistent with the previous demonstration of a protein complex containing both P48/45 and P230. In contrast, disruption of P47 results in a strong reduction of female fertility, while males remain unaffected. Further analysis revealed that gametes of mutants lacking expression of p48/45 or p230 or p47 are unable to either recognise or attach to each other. Disruption of the paralog of p230, p230p, also specifically expressed in gametocytes, had no observable effect on fertilization. These results indicate that the P. berghei 6-cys family contains a number of proteins that are either male or female specific ligands that play an important role in gamete recognition and/or attachment. The implications of low levels of fertilisation that exist even in the absence of these proteins, indicating alternative pathways of fertilisation, as well as positive selection acting on these proteins, are discussed in the context of targeting these proteins as transmission blocking vaccine candidates.

  15. The dlt genes play a role in antimicrobial tolerance of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Martin; Rybtke, Morten; Givskov, Michael; Høiby, Niels; Twetman, Svante; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2016-09-01

    Microbial biofilms are tolerant to antibiotic treatment and therefore cause problematic infections. Knowledge about the molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance will aid the development of antibiofilm drugs. Screening of a Streptococcus mutans transposon mutant library for genes that are important for biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance provided evidence that the dlt genes play a role in the tolerance of S. mutans biofilms towards gentamicin. The minimum bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBC-B) for a dltA transposon mutant was eight-fold lower than that of the wild-type. The minimum bactericidal concentration for planktonic cells (MBC-P) was only slightly reduced, indicating that the mechanism involved in the observed antimicrobial tolerance has a predominant role specifically in biofilms. Experiments with a knockout dltA mutant and complemented strain confirmed that the dlt genes in S. mutans play a role in biofilm-associated tolerance to gentamicin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analyses of biofilms grown on glass slides showed that the dltA mutant produced roughly the same amount of biofilm as the wild-type, indicating that the reduced antimicrobial tolerance of the dltA mutant is not due to a defect in biofilm formation. The products of the dlt genes have been shown to mediate alanylation of teichoic acids, and in accordance the dltA mutant showed a more negatively charged surface than the wild-type, which likely is an important factor in the reduced tolerance of the dltA mutant biofilms towards the positively charged gentamicin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma E-selectin levels can play a role in the development of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Márta; Meleg, J; Vardai, J; Nagy, B; Szalai, E; Damjanovich, J; Csutak, A; Ujhelyi, B; Nagy, V

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness. There are several risk factors, such as the duration of diabetes or glycemic control of the patient; however, several biochemical factors also alter the process. Our aim was to investigate the role of soluble E-selectin in the formation of diabetic retinopathy. Fifty-seven patients (37 female and 20 male, aged 61.71 ± 12.31 years) and 14 healthy control subjects (ten female and four male, aged 63.06 ± 10.46 years) were enrolled in the study. We measured the soluble E-selectin level in the plasma of patients by ELISA. All patients underwent careful ophthalmological examination, including ophthalmoscopy and color fundus photography, while diabetic retinopathy grading was performed in line with the 2012 classification of the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO). The soluble E-selectin level was significantly higher in patients with diabetes compared to controls (32.95 ng/ml vs. 26.55 ng/ml, p = 0.03). Dividing patients into groups by the presence of retinopathy, the E-selectin level was also significantly higher in the retinopathy group (p diabetic patients by the severity of retinopathy (groups A, B, and C, by the guidelines of the AAO), however, we did not find any significant difference in soluble E-selectin levels, although it tended to be higher in group B. An elevated E-selectin level can play a role in the development of diabetic retinopathy, but it does not seem to alter disease severity. However, glycemic control and the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors may also alter the level of E-selectin that might play a role in the prevention of diabetic retinopathy.

  17. Cyclic Tensile Strain Can Play a Role in Directing both Intramembranous and Endochondral Ossification of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon F. Carroll

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Successfully regenerating damaged or diseased bone and other joint tissues will require a detailed understanding of how joint specific environmental cues regulate the fate of progenitor cells that are recruited or delivered to the site of injury. The goal of this study was to explore the role of cyclic tensile strain (CTS in regulating the initiation of mesenchymal stem cell/multipotent stromal cell (MSC differentiation, and specifically their progression along the endochondral pathway. To this end, we first explored the influence of CTS on the differentiation of MSCs in the absence of any specific growth factor, and secondly, we examined the influence of the long-term application of this mechanical stimulus on markers of endochondral ossification in MSCs maintained in chondrogenic culture conditions. A custom bioreactor was developed to apply uniaxial tensile deformation to bone marrow-derived MSCs encapsulated within physiological relevant 3D fibrin hydrogels. Mechanical loading, applied in the absence of soluble differentiation factors, was found to enhance the expression of both tenogenic (COL1A1 and osteogenic markers (BMP2, RUNX2, and ALPL, while suppressing markers of adipogenesis. No evidence of chondrogenesis was observed, suggesting that CTS can play a role in initiating direct intramembranous ossification. During long-term culture in the presence of a chondrogenic growth factor, CTS was shown to induce MSC re-organization and alignment, increase proteoglycan and collagen production, and to enhance the expression of markers associated with endochondral ossification (BMP2, RUNX2, ALPL, OPN, and COL10A1 in a strain magnitude-dependent manner. Taken together, these findings indicate that tensile loading may play a key role in promoting both intramembranous and endochondral ossification of MSCs in a context-dependent manner. In both cases, this loading-induced promotion of osteogenesis was correlated with an increase in the expression of

  18. Key role of lipid management in nitrogen and aroma metabolism in an evolved wine yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollero, Stéphanie; Mouret, Jean-Roch; Sanchez, Isabelle; Camarasa, Carole; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie; Dequin, Sylvie

    2016-02-09

    Fermentative aromas play a key role in the organoleptic profile of young wines. Their production depends both on yeast strain and fermentation conditions. A present-day trend in the wine industry consists in developing new strains with aromatic properties using adaptive evolution approaches. An evolved strain, Affinity™ ECA5, overproducing esters, was recently obtained. In this study, dynamics of nitrogen consumption and of the fermentative aroma synthesis of the evolved and its ancestral strains were compared and coupled with a transcriptomic analysis approach to better understand the metabolic reshaping of Affinity™ ECA5. Nitrogen assimilation was different between the two strains, particularly amino acids transported by carriers regulated by nitrogen catabolite repression. We also observed differences in the kinetics of fermentative aroma production, especially in the bioconversion of higher alcohols into acetate esters. Finally, transcriptomic data showed that the enhanced bioconversion into acetate esters by the evolved strain was associated with the repression of genes involved in sterol biosynthesis rather than an enhanced expression of ATF1 and ATF2 (genes coding for the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of acetate esters from higher alcohols). An integrated approach to yeast metabolism-combining transcriptomic analyses and online monitoring data-showed differences between the two strains at different levels. Differences in nitrogen source consumption were observed suggesting modifications of NCR in the evolved strain. Moreover, the evolved strain showed a different way of managing the lipid source, which notably affected the production of acetate esters, likely because of a greater availability of acetyl-CoA for the evolved strain.

  19. GPR55, a G-protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol, plays a role in motor coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Shan Wu

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55 is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.

  20. Learned Helplessness and Learning Goals: Role played in School Refusal. A Study on Italian Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Sorrenti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature on school refusal has shown a link between school refusal and poor school performance. However, there has been little investigation into the individual underlying factors, and specifically factors directly related to the learning process, such as the learning goals of students and their expectations of success and/or failure. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of Learned Helplessness (LH and learning goals on school refusal. We hypothesized that LH and learning goals exert a unique role in predicting school refusal above and beyond the roles of academic achievement, age, and gender. The sample consisted of 201 Italian students with an average age of 11.93, with both low (57.2 % of students and high (42.8 % academic achievement. School refusal, LH, and learning goals were measured by means of questionnaires. The results confirm the hypothesis of this study; in fact, we found that learning goals and, above all, LH play a more predictive role of school refusal than academic achievement. These results extend previous studies on school refusal and, for the first time, they provide additional knowledge about this problem, analyzing the relationship between school refusal, learning goals, and LH, still neglected in the literature. Implications on the psychological well-being of students are discussed.