WorldWideScience

Sample records for playing children exposed

  1. Adaptive and Defensive Strategies in Post-Traumatic Play of Young Children Exposed to Violent Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazan, Saralea; Cohen, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-three children, aged four to eight years, who had been exposed to violent attacks, were videotaped in individual 40-minute play sessions. These play narratives were recorded by a student researcher trained in narrative analysis and play therapy. She then sorted these play vignettes into three patterns of post-traumatic play, defined in the…

  2. Children's Empowerment in Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the level of empowerment and autonomy children can create in their play experiences. It examines the play discourses that children build and maintain and considers the importance of play contexts in supporting children's emotional and social development. These aspects of play are often unseen or misunderstood by the adult…

  3. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne;

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  4. Young Children and War Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  5. Imagination, Playfulness, and Creativity in Children's Play with Different Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo????ller, Signe?? Juhl?

    2015-01-01

    Based on a four-month experimental study of preschool children's play with creative-construction and social-fantasy toys, the author examines the in?uence of both types of toys on the play of preschool children. Her comparative analysis considers the impact of transformative play on the development of imagination during play activities and…

  6. Pretend Play in High-Risk and Developmentally Delayed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Marian; Sena, Rhonda

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the use of pretend play as a cognitive assessment tool. Examines the failure of developmental progression of play in preterm, drug-exposed, malnourished, Down's syndrome, mentally retarded, and autistic children. Examines individual differences in play, and the relationship between language and play, in these groups. (AC)

  7. Playing Children Adorn Ancient Porcelain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Porcelain is one of China’s greatest achievernents. It appeared during the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220) and developed into three types of blue porcelain, white porcelain and colored porcelain between the Tang and Song dynasties. From the time of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), porcelain-making evolved, glazes and colors improved and porcelain was sold overseas. The quaint shapes and colorfully deslgned porcelain of the Ming Dynasty showed the appeal of folklife, but it was mainly used in the palace. Shown here are some pieces decorated with children at play. From these artifacts we can get an idea of the hairstyles, dress and architecture of that time.

  8. Pretend Play of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; Pacciulio, Amanda Mota; dos Santos, Camila Abrao; dos Santos, Jair Licio; Stagnitti, Karen Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Evaluate self-initiated pretend play of children with cerebral palsy. Method: Twenty preschool children participated in the study. Pretend play ability was measured by using the child-initiated pretend play assessment culturally adapted to Brazil. Results: There were significant negative correlations between the children's…

  9. Pretend Play of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; Pacciulio, Amanda Mota; dos Santos, Camila Abrao; dos Santos, Jair Licio; Stagnitti, Karen Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Evaluate self-initiated pretend play of children with cerebral palsy. Method: Twenty preschool children participated in the study. Pretend play ability was measured by using the child-initiated pretend play assessment culturally adapted to Brazil. Results: There were significant negative correlations between the children's…

  10. Let's Play: Teaching Play Skills to Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutot, E. Amanda; Guenther, Tracee; Crozier, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    Watch any young child and you will likely see him or her engaged in some form of play. Play is an integral part of early childhood development in which typically developing children learn social and language skills, as well as appropriate behaviors, problem solving, and a variety of other cognitive skills. By its very definition, autism is a…

  11. Creative interactive play for disabled children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti, Patrizia; Pollini, Alessandro; Rullo, Alessia

    2009-01-01

    The workshop addresses the emerging field of research on robotics, assistive technologies and interaction design promoting play for physically, visually, and hearing impaired children and for emotionally and mentally handicapped children. Interactive devices including toys, pets and educational...... tools as well as interactive collaborative environments may represent a unique opportunity for disable children to full engage in play and have fun. The Creative Interactive Play workshop presents a collection of innovative interactive technologies and case studies for inclusive play and discusses...

  12. Curious Play: Children's Exploration of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurholt, Kirsti Pedersen; Sanderud, Jostein Rønning

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the concept of "curious play" as a theoretical framework to understand and communicate children's experiences of free play in nature. The concept emerged interactively from three sources of inspiration: an ethnographically inspired study of children playing in nature; as a critique of the concept of "risky…

  13. Children Need Time to Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa Carducci

    2012-01-01

    In the West,tiger mothers and wolf fathers are considered examples of extreme parenting.However,many Chinese parents put pressure on their children and probably look to such tiger mothers and wolf fathers as role models.

  14. Gender differences in preschool children's play

    OpenAIRE

    Tarman Starc, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the final thesis is to shed some light on gender-based differences which can be observed in the way preschool children (aged 3 to 6) play, focusing on differences in the type of play, the size of play groups of boys and girls as well as differences in their playing behaviour with special focus on prosocial and aggressive behaviour. Moreover, the educators' attitude towards play is examined, i.e. how they intervene in the play of boy and girls. In the theoretical part the key c...

  15. [Play therapy in social work with children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvarionas, Dziugas

    2002-01-01

    This article introduces the results of scientific research performed in 1995-1997 in Kaunas primary school with 1st and 2nd grade children exhibiting behavioral disorders. Play therapy, a quite novel method in the country, seeks better improvement and an achievement of a better relationship for disadvantaged children in educational process. Play group counseling, or play media counseling, is shown as an important method in working with early primary grade children, especially those who present behavioral problems in the classroom. Another important aspect of group play therapy is the concentrated relationship with the counselor. Primary school children, especially those who are disadvantaged respond more to warmth than to praise for being right and doing well. Data analysis allow us to assume that behavioral difficulties of primary school children are connected with a low rate of self-esteem and dissatisfaction with their vital activities. Main conclusions to correspond with hypothesis held for the research are: a) children exhibiting behavioral problems are less active in educational process; b) by means of systematic use of play group counseling method in school, problematic children are able to solve their difficulties and to optimize their academic improvement; c) there is a complementary relationship between child's self-esteem and his/her satisfaction with his/her vital activity.

  16. Children's Thinking Styles, Play, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Liden, Sharon; Shin, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Based on the study of seventy-four middle school children of mostly Filipino and part Hawaiian heritages, this article explores the relationships of children's thinking styles, play preferences, and school performance. Using the Group Embedded Figures Test, the Articulation of the Body Scale, and written responses to three questions, the authors…

  17. Developmental trends in children's pretend play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyytinen, P

    1991-01-01

    The developmental trends in pretend play were investigated in children 2-6 years of age (18 in each of five age groups) by examining changes in pretend action and speech separately. Play behaviour was assessed by using a selected set of Duplo Lego toys. Interest focused on occurrence of decentration, decontextualization and integration at different age levels. The proportions of decentred and decontextualized acts, action integrations and play themes, increased linearly with age. Changes in substitutive and inventive actions were, however, more minor than expected. Single-scheme combinations did not reveal any essential aspect of the development of children's symbolic competence. In this sense, multischeme combinations were more important in revealing the children's way of organizing toy material. Linear age trends were not found for language measures. The use of decentred utterances, language integrations and linguistically expressed themes were individual-specific rather than age-related. Issues for studying pretend play in language-impaired groups are also suggested.

  18. Play behaviours and play object preferences of young children with autistic disorder in a clinical play environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Anna; Ziviani, Jenny; Rodger, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Play is the primary occupation of childhood and provides a potentially powerful means of assessing and treating children with autistic disorder. This study utilized a cross-sectional comparison design to investigate the nature of play engagement in children with AD (n = 24), relative to typically developing children (n = 34) matched for chronological age. Play behaviours were recorded in a clinical play environment. Videotapes comprising 15 minutes of the children's spontaneous play behaviour were analysed using time-interval analysis. The particular play behaviours observed and play objects used were coded. Differences in play behaviours (p motivation.

  19. Teachers and Children Playing with Factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    adventure game and a logic puzzle game. The game design was informed by the results obtained in a 1 year field study exploring and assessing techniques for transposing dynamic and complex domain-specific knowledge into games. Empirical results suggest that children may prefer different forms of play, mainly...... based upon the work conducted by Rogoff (1990) and Säljö (2010). Rogoff (1990) proposes the notion of apprenticeship in thinking, discussing how children learn new skills engaging into goal-directed activities with adults, who support them when reaching their zone of proximal development, defined...... is that we show how a computer game can effectively turn an abstract concept into a virtual artefact, that learners can then probe in a playful way, as well as study empirically, to explore alternative hypothesis circa its workings and verify them through experiments. This allows the learners to move from...

  20. Science Concepts Young Children Learn through Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Water is fascinating, fun, and multifaceted. Children can play with it endlessly. But play, for play's sake, is not water's only value (Crosser, 1994, Tovey, 1993). Indeed, water play is a compelling focus of study for young children (Chalufour & Worth, 2005). The concepts that young children learn from water play are essential for early childhood…

  1. Science Concepts Young Children Learn through Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Water is fascinating, fun, and multifaceted. Children can play with it endlessly. But play, for play's sake, is not water's only value (Crosser, 1994, Tovey, 1993). Indeed, water play is a compelling focus of study for young children (Chalufour & Worth, 2005). The concepts that young children learn from water play are essential for early childhood…

  2. Micronuclei frequency in children exposed to environmental mutagens: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neri, Monica; Fucic, Aleksandra; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2003-01-01

    Cytogenetic monitoring has been traditionally used for the surveillance of populations exposed to genotoxic agents. In recent years sensitivity problems emerged in surveys of populations exposed to low levels of mutagens, and therefore alternative approaches have been explored. Biomonitoring...... studies in children are a promising field, since because of evident differences in the uptake, metabolism, distribution and excretion of mutagens this population seems to be more susceptible than adults. Further, the effect of major confounders such as cigarettes smoking, occupation, life......-style, and dietary factors plays a minor role. Among cytogenetic assays, the micronucleus assay (MN) has several advantages and is increasingly used. A review was then carried out to synthesize the published data on the occurrence of MN in children and adolescents (age range 0-18 years), and to assess the impact...

  3. Categorising Risky Play--How Can We Identify Risk-Taking in Children's Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing debate on the balance between making sure our children are safe versus letting the children play in physically and emotionally stimulating and challenging environments. The focus is now on children's right to do risky play. There are no studies categorising risky play. The present study has aimed to do this. Qualitative…

  4. Pigs, Planes, and Play-Doh: Children's Perspectives on Play as Revealed through Their Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Pauline Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Play, an elusive concept despite the extensive literature on the subject, remains especially problematic for research focused on the perspective of children. The author discusses her study on children's perspectives about play, exploring drawing as a method for learning how young children conceptualize play within a social-semiotic framework. Her…

  5. Cautionary Tales on Interrupting Children's Play: A Study from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldemariam, Kassahun Tigistu

    2014-01-01

    Play is a natural and significant aspect of children's learning and development. Adults can be important to children's play, as they act as "play agents." Their involvement significantly influences the quality of the play activities in which children engage. The author briefly reviews the theoretical assumptions about adults' role in…

  6. [From fantasy to reality: understanding the way of playing of institutionalized children victims of violence through therapeutic play].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomello, Karina Jorgino; Melo, Luciana de Lione

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research is based on the reference framework of Phenomenology--analysis of the structure of the situated phenomenon, and aims to understand institutionalized children victims of violence through therapeutic play sessions. Participants were three sheltered children of preschool age, one boy and two goals. The therapeutic play sessions of the drama type were held in a reserved place and ranged from 30 to 50 minutes, using the following guiding proposal: "Let us play that we are children who live at the shelter?" Two broad theme categories could be captured: playing and pretending and playing and reality. When they are pretending while playing, sometimes calmly, sometimes violently, the children brought contents that evidenced situations in their daily family reality. When they expose their reality, the children addressed questions about the shelter institution and the bond with these professionals and with the relatives. It can be affirmed that therapeutic play allowed for the children's effective communication by expressing their feelings, desires, experiences, criticism against the environment they live in and family relations, besides permitting a moment of pleasure and relaxation.

  7. Playing for health? Revisiting health promotion to examine the emerging public health position on children's play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stephanie A; Frohlich, Katherine L; Fusco, Caroline

    2014-03-01

    Concerns over dwindling play opportunities for children have recently become a preoccupation for health promotion in western industrialized countries. The emerging discussions of play seem to be shaped by the urgency to address the children's obesity epidemic and by societal concerns around risk. Accordingly, the promotion of play from within the field appears to have adopted the following principles: (i) particular forms of play are critical for increasing children's levels of physical activity; and (ii) play should be limited to activities that are not risky. In this article, we argue that these emerging principles may begin to re-shape children's play: play is predominantly instrumentalized as a means to promote children's physical health, which may result in a reduction of possibilities for children to play freely and a restriction of the kinds of play designated as appropriate for physical health. We argue that within this context some of the social and emotional elements of health and well-being that children gain through diverse forms of playing are neglected. This has implications for health promotion because it suggests a narrowing of the conception of health that was originally advocated for within the field. Additionally, this reveals a curious paradox; despite the urgency to promote physical activity through play, this position may limit the range of opportunities for children to freely engage in play, in effect reducing their activity levels. We propose an example that promotes play for children and better aligns with the conception of health as outlined in the Ottawa Charter.

  8. Animal Cruelty by Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. Method: A…

  9. Refugee children's play: Before and after migration to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Kelli K; Ohan, Jeneva; Cherian, Sarah; Mutch, Raewyn C

    2015-08-01

    Play is vital to children's development, health and resilience. Play modulates cognitive, emotional and social well-being. Children constitute approximately half of all humanitarian refugee entrants resettled in Australia. Refugee children are commonly victims and witnesses of war and persecution, living across resource-poor environs during transit. Little is known about the effects of refugee migration on play. This study explores how refugee children engaged in play pre-migration (in their home country) and post-migration (Australia). Refugee children attending the Refugee Health Clinic of a tertiary children's hospital were invited to complete a qualitative descriptive study of play. The children were asked to draw how they played pre- and post-migration. Drawings were analysed for (i) the presence of play; (ii) location of play; and (iii) drawing detail. Nineteen refugee children were recruited (mean age 8.5 years ± standard deviation 6.4 months). Significantly fewer children drew play pre- versus post-migration (11/19, 58% vs. 18/19, 95% P refugee children, especially girls, demonstrated limited play pre-migration, with higher levels of engagement post-resettlement. Facilitating opportunities for variety of play may strengthen positive resettlement outcomes for children and parents. Larger longitudinal studies examining play in refugee children and associations with physical, development and psychological well-being are warranted. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Teaching Play Skills to Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunhwa; Sainato, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Play is critical for the development of young children and is an important part of their daily routine. However, children with autism often exhibit deficits in play skills and engage in stereotypic behaviour. We reviewed studies to identify effective instructional strategies for teaching play skills to young children with autism.…

  11. Including Children with Autism in Social and Imaginary Play with Typical Peers: Integrated Play Groups Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfberg, Pamela; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; DeWitt, Mila

    2012-01-01

    Peer-play experiences are a vital part of children's socialization, development, and culture. Children with autism face distinct challenges in social and imaginary play, which place them at high risk for being excluded by peers. Without explicit support, they are likely to remain isolated from peers and the consistent interactive play that…

  12. Assessing Preschool Children's Pretend Play: Preliminary Validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida Seja; Russ, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A description of the development and preliminary validation of the Affect in Play Scale-Preschool version (APS-P) is presented by demonstrating associations among preschool children's play, creativity, and daily behavior using multiple methodologies. Thirty-three preschool-age children completed a standardized 5-minute play task…

  13. Children's Expressions of Exhilaration and Fear in Risky Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Children naturally seek and conduct exciting forms of play that involve a risk of physical injury (risky play). Even though several prior studies give descriptions of risky play, none of them deeply explore children's expressions of how they experience different kinds of risky play. This study aims to do that. The results from video observations…

  14. Children's active play: self-reported motivators, barriers and facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowan Brockman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has important benefits for children's physical health and mental wellbeing, but many children do not meet recommended levels. Research suggests that active play has the potential to make a valuable contribution to children's overall physical activity, whilst providing additional cognitive, social and emotional benefits. However, relatively little is known about the determinants of UK children's active play. Understanding these factors provides the critical first step in developing interventions to increase children's active play, and therefore overall physical activity. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77, 10-11 year old children from four primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: (i factors which motivate children to take part in active play; (ii factors which limit children's active play and (iii factors which facilitate children's active play. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Children were motivated to engage in active play because they perceived it to be enjoyable, to prevent boredom, to have physical and mental health benefits and to provide freedom from adult control, rules and structure. However, children's active play was constrained by a number of factors, including rainy weather and fear of groups of teenagers in their play spaces. Some features of the physical environment facilitated children's active play, including the presence of green spaces and cul-de-sacs in the neighbourhood. Additionally, children's use of mobile phones when playing away from home was reported to help to alleviate parents' safety fears, and therefore assist children's active play. Children express a range of motivational and environmental factors that constrain and facilitate their active play. Consideration of these factors should improve effectiveness of interventions designed to increase active play.

  15. Children's Imaginative and Social Play in Relation to Family Structure, Maternal Stress, and Attitudes about Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Georgianna

    1988-01-01

    Examines the level of imaginative and social play of children in relation to family structure (single parent household versus dual parent household), maternal level of stress, and mothers' beliefs and attitudes about play. (BB)

  16. The Psychobiology of Children Exposed to Marital Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holden, George W.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the psychological and physiological functioning of a community sample of children exposed to marital violence, comparing them to a clinical comparison group without marital violence exposure. Results replicated past findings of elevated levels of trauma symptomatology in this population. Further, children exposed to marital violence…

  17. [Pretend play ability in pre-school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, M; Ptok, M

    2009-11-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) are confronted with limitations in their language abilities that cannot be attributed to cognition, hearing impairments, or neurological deficits. However, there is evidence that children with SLI also have impairments. These include, for example, an impaired ability to pretend play. The current article aims to present firstly normal development of play behavior in children, followed by the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment (ChIPPA). This test enables an objective and standardized assessment of whether a child's ability to initiate and sustain pretend play is age-appropriate. SLI children with impaired play behavior should receive structured individual therapy.

  18. Children's Active Learning through Unstructured Play in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatai O., Ismail Abdul; Faqih, Asrul; Bustan, Wafa K.

    2014-01-01

    Play is generally identified as a basic tool for effective learning and development in children. This study explores the ways in which amorphous or unstructured play contributes to children's overall development at the pre-primary level, helping to develop cognitive, social, and motor skills. The findings indicate that through unstructured play,…

  19. The Special Value of Children's Age-Mixed Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the normal social play of children involves kids of various ages. Our human and great-ape ancestors most likely lived in small groups with low birth rates, which made play with others of nearly the same age rare. Consequently, the evolutionary functions of children's social play are best understood by examining…

  20. Parents' Play Beliefs and the Relationship to Children's Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Chun; Yawkey, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine parents' play beliefs and see whether their perceptions of play impact children's social competence. A total number of 142 Taiwanese parents with different social class backgrounds participated in the survey. Results revealed that most Taiwanese parents highly agreed that play contributes to children's…

  1. Does Play Promote Self-Regulation in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical paper discusses the role of pretend play and games with rules in fostering children's self-regulation. It proposes several pathways through which play facilitates self-regulation processes. First, in play, children learn to inhibit their impulsive behaviour and follow rules which transform their behaviour from impulsive and…

  2. Museum Superheroes: The Role of Play in Young Children's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the role of play in an art museum. Reflecting upon a kindergarten field trip to the Warhol Museum in which children's play was the centerpiece of the museum experience, the author examines what early childhood theorists have written about the value of play in young children's lives. She shows how the Warhol's program for…

  3. Children's Engagement in Play at Home: A Parent's Role in Supporting Play Opportunities during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForett, Doré R.; Mendez, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined parents' developmentally appropriate beliefs about young children's play and parents' views on their child's play skills. This exploratory secondary data analysis was drawn from data on low-income African-American and Latino parents and their children (n = 109) participating in Head Start programmes in the USA. Compared with…

  4. Social inequalities in young children's sports participation and outdoor play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Pot, Niek; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein

    2014-12-16

    Research on social inequalities in sports participation and unstructured physical activity among young children is scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of family socioeconomic position (SEP) and ethnic background with children's sports participation and outdoor play. We analyzed data from 4726 ethnically diverse 6-year-old children participating in the Generation R Study. Variables were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires when the child was 6 years old. Low level of outdoor play was defined as outdoor play sports participation and outdoor play. Socioeconomic inequalities in children's sports participation were found when using maternal educational level (p sports participation among low SEP children). Socioeconomic inequalities in children's outdoor play were found when using household income only (p sports and play outdoor sports participation. Low SEP children and ethnic minority children are more likely not to participate in sports and more likely to display low levels of outdoor play compared with high SEP children and native Dutch children, respectively. In order to design effective interventions, further research, including qualitative studies, is needed to explore more in detail the pathways relating family SEP and ethnic background to children's sports participation and outdoor play.

  5. Play for All Children: The Toy Library Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sara C; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses difficulties parents encounter when they play with their disabled child and the inappropriateness of some commercial toys for disabled children. Also describes the development of adapted toys and of toy lending libraries for young disabled children. (BB)

  6. Children's Play Behavior During Board Game Play in Korea and America Kindergarten Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kee-Young

    2005-01-01

    This study explored Korean and American children's play behaviors during board games in a kindergarten classroom using an ethnographic approach. The Korean participants were 20 children and one teacher of one classroom at attached kindergarten of public elementary school. The American participants were 11 kindergarten children and one teacher from…

  7. Relationships between symbolic play, functional play, verbal and non-verbal ability in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, V; Boucher, J; Lupton, L; Watson, S

    2000-01-01

    It is well established that certain aspects of play in young children are related to their emerging linguistic skills. The present study examined the relationships between functional play, symbolic play, non-verbal ability, and expressive and receptive language in normally developing children aged between 1 and 6 years using standardized assessment procedures, including a recently developed Test of Pretend Play (ToPP). When effects of chronological age were partialled out, symbolic play remained significantly correlated with both expressive and receptive language, but not with functional play or non-verbal ability; and functional play was only correlated significantly with expressive language. It is concluded that ToPP will provide practitioners with a useful way of assessing symbolic ability in children between the ages of 1 and 6 years, and will contribute to the assessment and diagnosis of a number of communication difficulties, and have implications for intervention.

  8. Games children play: board games in psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinson, Jill

    2013-04-01

    Children of latency age have typically outgrown dramatic play but have not yet developed the ability to talk about their thoughts and feelings in therapy; at this stage they often play structured board games, during their own playtime and during therapy sessions. This article discusses ways to use board-game play therapeutically, by watching the way children stretch and bend the rules to display their psychological self-states, and by interpreting their experiences within the play.

  9. Violence, Young Children, and the Healing Power of Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roberta J.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews research on the use of play as a therapeutic technique. Discusses the purpose and use of play therapy in classrooms, types of play therapy techniques, and the value of collaboration between parents, teachers, and therapists. Recommends monitoring the play of traumatized children, noting that reenacting traumatic events is an essential part…

  10. Helping Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families Guide - Search Spanish Facts for Families Guide Domestic Violence and Children No. 109; Updated April 2013 As many as ... get the help they need. When there is domestic violence between partners, there is often child abuse as well. Sometimes children get hurt accidentally. ...

  11. The play behavior of hearing-impaired kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, G; Hornett, D

    1990-10-01

    This exploratory study examined the cognitive and social play behaviors of hearing-impaired kindergarten children with regard to classroom instructional mode and communication strategies. Two classes were observed--one using sign communication and the other using an oral-based method of communication. Functional, constructive, dramatic, and social play behaviors were observed and documented. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of children with regard to social and dramatic play as well as with regard to levels of aggression. For example, children in the sign-based class demonstrated higher levels of social play behavior and lower levels of aggression than the children in the oral-based class. Guidelines and strategies to help children initiate and sustain play are suggested.

  12. Helping Children Play and Learn Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Meadan, Hedda

    2010-01-01

    During the early childhood years, children learn to interact with one another in ways that are positive and successful. Researchers stress the importance of positive peer relationships in childhood and later life. The absence of positive social interactions in childhood is linked to negative consequences later in life, such as withdrawal,…

  13. Children's strategy use when playing strategic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.J. Raijmakers; D.J. Mandell; S.E. van Es; M. Counihan

    2012-01-01

    Strategic games require reasoning about other people’s and one’s own beliefs or intentions. Although they have clear commonalities with psychological tests of theory of mind, they are not clearly related to theory of mind tests for children between 9 and 10 years of age "Flobbe et al. J Logic Langua

  14. Children's strategy use when playing strategic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raijmakers, M.E.J.; Mandell, D.J.; van Es, S.E.; Counihan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Strategic games require reasoning about other people’s and one’s own beliefs or intentions. Although they have clear commonalities with psychological tests of theory of mind, they are not clearly related to theory of mind tests for children between 9 and 10 years of age "Flobbe et al. J Logic

  15. Children's strategy use when playing strategic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raijmakers, M.E.J.; Mandell, D.J.; van Es, S.E.; Counihan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Strategic games require reasoning about other people’s and one’s own beliefs or intentions. Although they have clear commonalities with psychological tests of theory of mind, they are not clearly related to theory of mind tests for children between 9 and 10 years of age "Flobbe et al. J Logic Langua

  16. Caring for Young Children Exposed to Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Natasha M; Shapiro, Susan E

    This article reviews the research report, Marijuana Exposure Among Children Younger Than Six Years in the United States (), and, using a case study approach, applies the findings to advanced practice registered nurses. B. extracted data from the National Poison Data System showing an increasing trend in marijuana exposure in children, especially in states where marijuana has been legalized for either medicinal use or recreational use. Advanced practice registered nurses need to be comfortable recognizing and managing marijuana intoxication in the pediatric population, as well as educating parents in providing safe environments for their children.

  17. Playfulness in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, Elizabeth E.; Bundy, Anita C.

    2000-01-01

    Scores on the Test of Playfulness for 25 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were significantly lower than those of 25 children without, especially on internal control, intrinsic motivation, and framing. Three items (mischief, teasing/joking, clowning) yielded unexpectedly higher scores for ADHD children. (SK)

  18. Increasing the Athletic Group Play of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Catherine A.; Charlop, Marjorie H.

    2014-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across three children with autism and within child across activity was used to assess the effects of interventions designed to teach children with autism to play two common athletic group games, handball and 4-square. Treatment consisted of two phases. In Phase I, athletic skills training, the children participated in…

  19. The Relationship between Creativity, Social Play, and Children's Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Romeo, Lynn; Ciraola, Stephanie; Grushko, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explore the interconnectedness between children's creativity, social play, and language abilities. The participants were 225 (109 girls, 116 boys) preschool children, from diverse European American, African American, and Hispanic ethnic heritages. We assessed the children in three ways. First, each child completed the Goodenough…

  20. The Relationship between Creativity, Social Play, and Children's Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Romeo, Lynn; Ciraola, Stephanie; Grushko, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explore the interconnectedness between children's creativity, social play, and language abilities. The participants were 225 (109 girls, 116 boys) preschool children, from diverse European American, African American, and Hispanic ethnic heritages. We assessed the children in three ways. First, each child completed the Goodenough…

  1. Heart Rate Profiles of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in Response to Physical Play: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the heart rate response of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to outdoor free play sessions during preschool was examined. Participants (n = 7; four children with ASD and three children who show typical development) wore Actiheart heart rate monitors during 6 school days. Using a single-subject design,…

  2. Heart Rate Profiles of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in Response to Physical Play: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the heart rate response of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to outdoor free play sessions during preschool was examined. Participants (n = 7; four children with ASD and three children who show typical development) wore Actiheart heart rate monitors during 6 school days. Using a single-subject design,…

  3. Playing with Fear: Children's Play and Its Role in Expressing Fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heibeck, Tracy H.

    Preschool children's fears of animals and the dark were investigated in an effort to examine how preschoolers use play as a medium for expressing fearful emotions. A total of 48 children participated in the study. Interviews with parents were used to identify 12 preschoolers who were anxious about the dark and 12 who were anxious about dogs; 24…

  4. The Three Bears and Other Plays: Six Easy Plays Especially Written for Educationally Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie, Dhyan

    This booklet contains six easy plays written for educationally handicapped children. The plays are brief, use few characters and simple language and plots, and are based on fairy tales. Titles are: (1) "The Three Bears'" (2) "The Gingerbread Boy'" (3) "Little Red Riding Hood'" (4) "The Three Billy Goats Gruff'" (5) "Hansel and Gretel'" and (6)…

  5. Out-of-Home Placement of Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Berkowitz, Steven; Marans, Steven; Murphy, Robert A.; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing concern about the increasing number of children in the USA who are exposed to community violence and the need to remove some of them from their families. This study examines risk factors for out-of-home placement among a large pool of children and adolescents who were referred for general clinical assessment following exposure to…

  6. Genomic damage in children accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Brunborg, G; Lasan, R

    2007-01-01

    doses of radiation; (b) effects on children from combined exposure to low doses of radiation and chemical agents from food, water and air; and (c) specific effects from exposure during early childhood (radioisotopes from water, radon in homes). Special consideration should also be given to a possible......, environmental radiation pollution and indoor accidental contamination reveals consistently increased chromosome aberration and micronuclei frequency in exposed than in referent children. Future research in this area should be focused on studies providing information on: (a) effects on children caused by low...... of children to environmental genotoxicants. Environmental research on children predominantly investigates the health effects of air pollution while effects from radiation exposure deserve more attention. The main sources of knowledge on genome damage of children exposed to radiation are studies performed...

  7. Seasonal and locational variations in children's play: implications for wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergler, Christina R; Kearns, Robin A; Witten, Karen

    2013-08-01

    Physical activity, through independent outdoor play, has come to the fore as a way to improve children's health through it fostering healthy mental and social as well as physiological development. However, in many high-income countries children's autonomous play opportunities have diminished due to urban intensification and declining parental license. Regardless of this trend, children's play varies across countries, cities, cultures and seasons. This paper offers new insights into the complexities of play as a vital aspect of children's wellbeing. Within the context of New Zealand - whose citizens generally regard themselves as outdoor people - this paper explores why 'play' might resonate differently across localities and seasons. We contrast the play affordances provided by Auckland's central city (dominated by apartment living) with Beach Haven, a suburban area. We employed a multi-method approach and included 20 children and their parents who were recruited through school and summer holiday programs embracing different gender and ethnicities to reflect the general cultural mix of the respective neighbourhoods. We advance two arguments. First, we suggest that the rarity of children playing outdoors unsupervised normalises supervised indoor play and reduces children's opportunities to see outdoor play as an alternative to interior or supervised pastimes. Second, we follow Bourdieu's theory of practice to argue that the regard parents and children have towards outdoor play reflects locally constituted beliefs about what is seasonally 'appropriate' children's activity. We found that extra-curricular activities and supervised excursions are undertaken in the central city all year around and only vary between social groups by the type of destination. In the suburb, independent outdoor play in summer represents children's main business after school in ways that enhance their environmental literacy and potential future health gain. For others these symbolic values

  8. Children with Developmental Disabilities and their Motivation to Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Askins

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how and when children with developmental disabilities aged nine to 12 years spontaneously demonstrated play behaviors indicative of intrinsic motivation. Data was collected from six child participants and four parent participants through the use of the Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ and semi-structured photo-elicitation interviews. Overall, the children who participated in this study sought out play experiences with which they were familiar in their natural environments. Specifically, they sought out experiences that afforded them the opportunity to exercise control over their environment and create a sense of predictability. Each of the children assumed the role of “orchestrator” and conducted his or her engagement in play occupations. The children demonstrated some spontaneous play within their social environment; however, many developmentally age-appropriate behaviors were not observed.

  9. Play as a care strategy for children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálya Yasmine Nunes de Lima

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand the influence of play in the care process as perceived by children with cancer. METHOD: A descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study conducted in a children's cancer unit in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Data were collected between October 2013 and January 2014 by means of photographic records and semi-structured interviews with eight children, and content analysis with emphasis on two categories: Auxiliary instruments during play; and The influence of play in the process of care. RESULTS: Recreational activities involve watching television, using computers, games and toys, drawing, the playroom and the clown, which provide fun, feelings of joy, distraction and interaction with other people. CONCLUSION: There are several activities at the hospital that are considered play-related and, for the children, they all benefit their care process.

  10. Ethics in Researching Young Children's Play in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne Værum

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses what considerations a researcher must do in the research of young children's play in preschool when she is using video. In using video technology, several researchers have described how their activities are technically, analytically, and interpretively done...

  11. Comparative study of the phonology of preschool children prenatally exposed to cocaine and multiple drugs and non-exposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, C L; Johnson, J M; Seikel, J A; Arnold, M; Schultheis, L

    1998-01-01

    Cocaine and multiple drug abuse among young adults has spawned research interest in fetal exposure and the sequela of that exposure during the formative developmental years. Previous study of the language development of exposed children has not specifically addressed phonological acquisition. In the present study, the speech of 25 children prenatally exposed to cocaine and multiple drugs was analyzed and compared to that of 25 children who were not prenatally exposed to determine if differences were evident in their phonological patterns. The children ranged in age from 22 months to 51 months. The number and type of phonological processes produced, number of utterances needed to produce a 50-word sample, number of unintelligible words produced, and Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores were recorded and analyzed. The use of cocaine and multiple drugs during pregnancy was associated with an increase in the use of phonological processes.

  12. The motivation of children to play an active video game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin A Paw, Marijke J M; Jacobs, Wietske M; Vaessen, Ellen P G; Titze, Sylvia; van Mechelen, Willem

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of a weekly multiplayer class on the motivation of children aged 9-12 years to play an interactive dance simulation video game (IDSVG) at home over a period of 12 weeks. A sample of 27 children was randomly assigned to (1) a home group instructed to play the IDSVG at home; (2) a multiplayer group instructed to play the IDSVG at home and to participate in a weekly IDSVG multiplayer class. Participants were asked to play the IDSVG as often as they liked and report the playing time daily on a calendar for a 12-week period. Motivation to play was assessed by the playing duration of IDSVG in minutes and the dropout during the study. Mean age of the 16 children who completed the study was 10.6+/-0.8 years. During the 12-week intervention period, the multiplayer group played approximately twice as many minutes (901min) as the home group (376min, p=0.13). Dropout was significantly (p=0.02) lower in the multiplayer group (15%) than in the home group (64%). Our findings suggest that multiplayer classes may increase children's motivation to play interactive dance simulation video games.

  13. Children's Bricolage under the Gaze of Teachers in Sociodramatic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Po Chi

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the theory of dialogism and the literature on children's culture and cultural resistance, this article investigates the contextual and textual features of the cultural making of a group of children in sociodramatic play in a Hong Kong kindergarten. Different from other, similar studies, this study reports that under the gaze of the…

  14. Children's Exploration of Physical Phenomena during Object Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, S. Lynneth; Curtis, Kaley N.; Hayes-Messinger, Amani

    2017-01-01

    Researchers propose that experiencing and manipulating physical principles through objects allows young children to formulate scientific intuitions that may serve as precursors to learning in STEM subjects. This may be especially true when children discover these physical principles through object affordances during play. The present study…

  15. Modular playware as a playful diagnosis tool for autistic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    Based upon user-configurable modular robotics and design principles for modular playware, we developed modular robotic tiles to be used as playful, interactive tools for children with autism. The modular playware can make automatic documentation of the construction play activities by the autistic...

  16. Under Deadman's Skin: Discovering the Meaning of Children's Violent Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katch, Jane

    Noting that the perception of increased real violence in the country has created an inhospitable setting for pretend violent play, this book recounts the experiences of children in a kindergarten and first-grade classroom over the course of one year, focusing on the role of violent fantasy play. The book illustrates how the teacher, with 8 years…

  17. Position Effects in Play Equipment Preferences of Nursery School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Peter A.; Gramza, Anthony F.

    With reference to the need for delineation of parameters operative in children's play, the position preferences of four groups of nursery school subjects were studied in a laboratory playroom. A large and small trestle were interchanged between center and corner positions in a series of play sessions. The frequency with which the subjects used…

  18. Under Deadman's Skin: Discovering the Meaning of Children's Violent Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katch, Jane

    Noting that the perception of increased real violence in the country has created an inhospitable setting for pretend violent play, this book recounts the experiences of children in a kindergarten and first-grade classroom over the course of one year, focusing on the role of violent fantasy play. The book illustrates how the teacher, with 8 years…

  19. Teaching Pretend Play to Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Erin E.; Pavilanis, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Play is a "critical" intervention goal for children with autism in inclusive settings because it sets the occasion for social interactions and communication with peers, caregivers, and teachers, and provides an authentic context for embedding instruction. Furthermore, several research studies have found "pretend" play to be a predictor of social…

  20. CHILDREN'S MOVEMENT SKILLS WHEN PLAYING ACTIVE VIDEO GAMES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulteen, Ryan M; Johnson, Tara M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Mellecker, Robin R; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-12-01

    Active video games (AVGs) may be useful for movement skill practice. This study examined children's skill execution while playing Xbox Kinect™ and during movement skill assessment. Nineteen children (10 boys, 9 girls; M age=7.9 yr., SD=1.4) had their skills assessed before AVG play and then were observed once a week for 6 wk. while playing AVGs for 50 min. While AVG play showed evidence of correct skill performance (at least 30-50% of the time when playing table tennis, tennis, and baseball), nearly all skills were more correctly performed during skill assessment (generally more than 50% of the time). This study may help researchers to better understand the role AVGs could play in enhancing real life movement skills.

  1. Miku's mask: Fictional encounters in children's costume play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, Espen

    2015-11-01

    Children's engagement with Japanese toys and fictional characters has taken on new significance in the age of YouTube. Drawing on ethnographic research on technology-mediated play among 8- and 9-year-olds in Norway, this article shows how boundaries between "real" humans and "fake" non-humans are blurred and undermined when children take on the perspective of a fictional pop star known as Miku. I argue that YouTube provides a platform for children's playful experimentation with posthuman subjectivities, where they orient themselves toward the future not in terms of becoming adult but in terms of multiple becomings.

  2. Maternal ability to take care of children exposed to HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyana Gomes Freitas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of mothers to take care of children exposed to HIV, using the Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth and to check the association between the scale dimensions and maternal characteristics. METHOD: this cross-sectional study involved 62 HIV+ mothers whose children of up to one year old had been exposed to the virus at birth. The Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth consists of 52 items and five dimensions, indicating high, moderate or low care ability. RESULTS: 72.7% of the mothers appropriately offered zidovudine syrup; 86.0% were highly skilled to prepare and administer milk formula; 44.4% were moderately able to prepare and administer complementary feeding; 76.5% revealed high ability to administer prophylactic treatment against pneumonia and 95.3% demonstrated high abilities for clinical monitoring and immunization. Significant associations were found between some maternal variables and the scale dimensions. CONCLUSION: the scale permits the assessment of maternal care delivery to these children and the accomplishment of specific child health interventions.

  3. Physical activity and play in kindergarten age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroli, Margherita; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa; Epifani, Susi; Rollo, Rodolfo; Sansolios, Sanne; Matusik, Pawel; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2011-10-01

    PERISCOPE project assesses factors promoting or preventing obesity development in early age. A specific aim is to assess preschool children's physical activity habits in three different European countries. PERISCOPE has been implemented in 1094 children attending kindergartens in Denmark, Italy and Poland. The parents' and children's physical activity habits and attitudes assessed by a questionnaire filled by the parents. Overweight and obesity assessed by Cole's BMI cut-off points. Statistical analysis performed by χ(2) test and the test of proportion. Denmark shows the lowest rate (14.6 %) of overweight, followed by Poland (17.1%), while Italy shows the highest (21.2 %) (p < 0.0001). The Polish families show the highest rate of walking from home to kindergarten and back, followed by the Italians and, lastly, the Danish ones (p < 0.001). Almost all the Danish and Polish children, but only the 50.1 % of the Italians play outside (p < 0.001). During the weekdays, 34.9 % of Polish children, 22.2 % of Italians and 19.8 % of the Danish play outside more than one hour a day (p < 0.0001). During the weekend, 91.1 % of Polish children, 86.7 % of Danish children, but only 54.4 % of Italians play outside more than one hour (p < 0.0001). 53.5 % of Danish children, 31.9 % of Polish children, and 18.2 % of Italian ones practice sport (p < 0.0001). Danish children are the most active, the Polish are in the middle and the Italians are the least active. The difference in infrastructures (safety of walking streets, access to playgrounds/parks, etc.) can play an important role, in addition to cultural and social family characteristics, to the development of overweight.

  4. Children's Pastimes and Play in Sixteen Nations: Is Free-Play Declining?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Singer, Jerome L.; D'Agnostino, Heidi; DeLong, Raeka

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on a study of the role of play and experiential-learning activities beyond formal schooling in sixteen nations. The study, supported by Unilever PLC, gathered information from the mothers of twenty-four hundred children in countries in North America, South America, Africa, Europe, and Asia who described and rated their…

  5. Playing with Popular Culture -- An Ethnography of Children's Sociodramatic Play in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Catharine Ann

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how ethnography allows for an understanding of the way children are empowered through the use of popular culture during sociodramatic play. The study discussed was conducted in an inner-city Primary school in regional New South Wales, Australia. The participants were a composite fifth-to-sixth grade class, and the research…

  6. Children Learning to Use Technologies through Play: A Digital Play Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Jo; Edwards, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies are increasingly acknowledged as an important aspect of early childhood education. A significant problem for early childhood education has been how to understand the pedagogical use of technologies in a sector that values play-based learning. This paper presents a new framework to understand how children learn to use…

  7. Children Learning to Use Technologies through Play: A Digital Play Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Jo; Edwards, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies are increasingly acknowledged as an important aspect of early childhood education. A significant problem for early childhood education has been how to understand the pedagogical use of technologies in a sector that values play-based learning. This paper presents a new framework to understand how children learn to use…

  8. Multidimensional Resilience in Urban Children Exposed to Community Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Deborah A.; Schwab-Stone, Mary E.; Muyeed, Adaline Z.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined how parent, school, and peer support differentially affected resilience among urban sixth-, eighth-, and tenth-graders. Findings indicated that both parent and school support factors positively related to resilience in children who had been exposed to community violence; however, peer support negatively related to resilience in…

  9. Children Exposed to Violence: Criminal Justice Resources. OVC Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Helen

    Children exposed to violence are at higher risk of behavior problems and academic failure, as well as chronic delinquency and adult criminal behavior. This bulletin provides information about resources that are available to help improve the system's response to child victims and witnesses of violence. Information is provided about 14 private…

  10. Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed as children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hitomi; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Miyao, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiromi; Sato, Yuzo; Oshida, Yoshiharu

    2012-05-01

    To compare cancer mortality among A-bomb survivors exposed as children with cancer mortality among an unexposed control group (the entire population of Japan, JPCG). The subjects were the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivor groups (0-14 years of age in 1945) reported in life span study report 12 (follow-up years were from 1950 to 1990), and a control group consisting of the JPCG. We estimated the expected number of deaths due to all causes and cancers of various causes among the exposed survivors who died in the follow-up interval, if they had died with the same mortality as the JPCG (0-14 years of age in 1945). We calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of A-bomb survivors in comparison with the JPCG. SMRs were significantly higher in exposed boys overall for all deaths, all cancers, leukemia, and liver cancer, and for exposed girls overall for all cancers, solid cancers, liver cancer, and breast cancer. In boys, SMRs were significantly higher for all deaths and liver cancer even in those exposed to very low doses, and for all cancers, solid cancers, and liver cancer in those exposed to low doses. In girls, SMRs were significantly higher for liver cancer and uterine cancer in those exposed to low doses, and for leukemia, solid cancers, stomach cancer, and breast cancer in those exposed to high doses. We calculated the SMRs for the A-bomb survivors versus JPCG in childhood and compared them with a true non-exposed group. A notable result was that SMRs in boys exposed to low doses were significantly higher for solid cancer.

  11. Middle school children's game playing preferences: Case studies of children's experiences playing and critiquing science-related educational games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dolly Rebecca Doran

    The playing of computer games is one of the most popular non-school activities of children, particularly boys, and is often the entry point to greater facility with and use of other computer applications. Children are learning skills as they play, but what they learn often does not generalize beyond application to that and other similar games. Nevertheless, games have the potential to develop in students the knowledge and skills described by national and state educational standards. This study focuses upon middle-school aged children, and how they react to and respond to computer games designed for entertainment and educational purposes, within the context of science learning. Through qualitative, case study methodology, the game play, evaluation, and modification experiences of four diverse middle-school-aged students in summer camps are analyzed. The inquiry focused on determining the attributes of computer games that appeal to middle school students, the aspects of science that appeal to middle school children, and ultimately, how science games might be designed to appeal to middle school children. Qualitative data analysis led to the development of a method for describing players' activity modes during game play, rather than the conventional methods that describe game characteristics. These activity modes are used to describe the game design preferences of the participants. Recommendations are also made in the areas of functional, aesthetic, and character design and for the design of educational games. Middle school students may find the topical areas of forensics, medicine, and the environment to be of most interest; designing games in and across these topic areas has the potential for encouraging voluntary science-related play. Finally, when including children in game evaluation and game design activities, results suggest the value of providing multiple types of activities in order to encourage the full participation of all children.

  12. Normativity and Context in Young Children's Pretend Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Emily; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In two studies 3-year-olds' understanding of the context-specificity of normative rules was investigated through games of pretend play. In the first study, children protested against a character who joined a pretend game but treated the target object according to its real function. However, they did not protest when she performed the same action…

  13. Stretching Capabilities: Children with Disabilities Playing TV and Computer Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterfors, David

    2011-01-01

    Intervention studies show that if children with disabilities play motion-controlled TV and computer games for training purposes their motivation increases and their training becomes more intensive, but why this happens has not been explained. This article addresses this question with the help of ethnographic material from a public project in…

  14. Engineering Play: Children's Software and the Cultural Politics of Edutainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mizuko

    2006-01-01

    The late 1980s saw the emergence of a new genre of instructional media, "edutainment", which utilized the capabilities of multimedia personal computers to animate software designed to both educate and entertain young children. This paper describes the production of, marketing of and play with edutainment software as a contemporary example of…

  15. What Do Caregivers Notice and Value about How Children Learn through Play in a Children's Museum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Susan M.; Meisner, Robin; Neuwirth, Jessica L.; Sobel, David M.

    2017-01-01

    In two studies, Providence Children's Museum investigated caregivers' observations and perceptions of their children's play and learning at the museum. In the first, caregivers (N = 40) were interviewed about what they observed children doing, what they believed children were thinking about, and their own thoughts and actions while watching…

  16. What Do Caregivers Notice and Value about How Children Learn through Play in a Children's Museum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Susan M.; Meisner, Robin; Neuwirth, Jessica L.; Sobel, David M.

    2017-01-01

    In two studies, Providence Children's Museum investigated caregivers' observations and perceptions of their children's play and learning at the museum. In the first, caregivers (N = 40) were interviewed about what they observed children doing, what they believed children were thinking about, and their own thoughts and actions while watching…

  17. Mother-Child Play: Children with Down Syndrome and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, P.; de Falco, S.; Esposito, G.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2009-01-01

    Child solitary and collaborative mother-child play with 21 children with Down syndrome and 33 mental-age-matched typically developing children were compared. In solitary play, children with Down syndrome showed less exploratory but similar symbolic play compared to typically developing children. From solitary to collaborative play, children with…

  18. Safety in public spaces for children's play and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Senda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With societal changes in recent years, issues related to child safety in public places have become more diverse and more complex. Every age has its hardships, and an environment in which children develop into people who overcome such hardships is necessarily one that is not completely free of danger. Nevertheless, there is tendency toward an excessive emphasis on safety. The children of today have been driven indoors, deprived of spaces for group play and of natural environments that encourage a diversity of experience. The development of IT media has further reinforced this tendency. These conditions can be said to produce bullying, abuse, isolation, and a lack of ambition. It is critical that children's living environments, especially public spaces for playing and learning, have a porous structure with numerous routes of escape.

  19. A Play and Language Intervention for Two-Year-Old Children: Implications for Improving Play Skills and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Julie; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Ryalls, Brigette; Friehe, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an intervention for 2-year-old children to enhance play and language skills. The intervention was implemented over a 4-week period and included components of reading, modeling, and positive reinforcement of language and play. Specifically, children were read a story and played with a matching toy set.…

  20. Mental health interventions for children exposed to disasters and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe interventions used with children who are exposed to disasters and terrorism and to present information about the potential benefits of these interventions. A literature search conducted in January 2013 using relevant databases and literature known to the authors that was not generated by the search yielded a total of 85 studies appropriate for review. Intervention approaches used with children exposed to disasters and terrorism included preparedness interventions, psychological first aid, psychological debriefing, psychoeducation, cognitive behavioral techniques, exposure and narrative techniques, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and traumatic grief interventions. The investigation of these interventions is complex, and studies varied in methodological rigor (e.g., sample size, the use of control groups, outcomes measured). Given the limitations in the currently available empirical information, this review integrates the literature, draws tentative conclusions about the current state of knowledge, and suggests future directions for study.

  1. The Role of Play in Children's Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Sue; Downing, Julia; Shemilt, Rise

    2014-10-01

    Play is the universal language of childhood and the time and opportunity to play is every child's right. The role of play as a vehicle for communication, a tool for distraction and its value in the holistic development of a normal child is without dispute. The role and value of play increase proportionately when a child is made more vulnerable through illness or disability. Despite this, providing time and opportunities to play can be overlooked or considered to be of little importance or relevance when the focus of the adult carers is the amelioration of clinical symptoms of the illness and on lessening the psychological impact the illness may have on the child. This paper outlines the role and the value of play as an integral component in the provision of palliative care for children with chronic, life-threatening and life-limiting conditions. It will show how providing appropriate equipment, sufficient time and relevant play opportunities not only improves the very sick child's psychological wellbeing, but also allows the child to cast aside the confines and restrictions imposed upon them by their illness and for a few golden moments to be nothing more than a child at play.

  2. MULTIMODAL CONSTRUCTION OF CHILDREN'S ARGUMENTS IN DISPUTES DURING PLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemberg, Celia Renata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a sociocultural theory of human development and learning (Vigotsky, 2009; Bruner, 1986; Nelson, 1996; Tomasello, 1998, 2003, this paper aims to investigate the multimodal construction of arguments produced by 5 year-old children during disputes in a kindergarten play situation. We considered the juxtaposition of information provided by resources from different semiotic fields (Goodwin, 2000, 2007. The corpus consists of the interactions in a group of children while they play with building blocks. This play situation was videotaped in a kindergarten classroom that is attended by an urban marginalized population of outer Buenos Aires, Argentina. The analysis makes use of the qualitative logic derived from the methodological tools of Conversation Analysis developed in previous research (Goodwin, 2000, 2007; Goodwin and Goodwin, 1990, 2000; Goodwin, Goodwin and Yaeger-Dror, 2002. The results show the different semiotic fields that overlap with the linguistic expression of the arguments or points of view that children maintain while quarrelling during play situations. This demonstrates the importance of attending to intonation, the use of space, the direction of gaze, gestures, and body positioning as they are components that contribute to the argumentative force of the utterances in disputes. These elements emerge as indicators of the emotions that parties experience in disputes which can not be disregarded when attempting to account for how argumentation occurs in real situations of interaction. This paper is written in Spanish.

  3. Theory of Mind Deficit Is Associated with Pretend Play Performance, but Not Playfulness, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chen Chan

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The findings support the idea that children with ASD who have better ToM might be able to develop better pretend play, but not better playfulness, which might be more strongly related to their autistic severity.

  4. 77 FR 12881 - Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... of Justice Programs Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to... announcement of the third hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence... Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of children exposed to violence for the purpose of...

  5. 77 FR 22000 - Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... of Justice Programs Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to... announcement of the fourth hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to... Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of children exposed to violence for the purpose of...

  6. 76 FR 67761 - Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... of Justice Programs Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to... Children Exposed to Violence (hereafter refered to as the Task Force). The Task Force is chartered to... and National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence Designated Federal Officer, Office of...

  7. 77 FR 39264 - Meeting of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to... announcement of a meeting of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence (the..., with valuable advice in the areas of children exposed to violence for the purpose of addressing...

  8. Children's risky play from an evolutionary perspective: the anti-phobic effects of thrilling experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen

    2011-06-21

    This theoretical article views children's risky play from an evolutionary perspective, addressing specific evolutionary functions and especially the anti-phobic effects of risky play. According to the non-associative theory, a contemporary approach to the etiology of anxiety, children develop fears of certain stimuli (e.g., heights and strangers) that protect them from situations they are not mature enough to cope with, naturally through infancy. Risky play is a set of motivated behaviors that both provide the child with an exhilarating positive emotion and expose the child to the stimuli they previously have feared. As the child's coping skills improve, these situations and stimuli may be mastered and no longer be feared. Thus fear caused by maturational and age relevant natural inhibition is reduced as the child experiences a motivating thrilling activation, while learning to master age adequate challenges. It is concluded that risky play may have evolved due to this anti-phobic effect in normal child development, and it is suggested that we may observe an increased neuroticism or psychopathology in society if children are hindered from partaking in age adequate risky play.

  9. Children's Risky Play from an Evolutionary Perspective: The Anti-Phobic Effects of Thrilling Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical article views children's risky play from an evolutionary perspective, addressing specific evolutionary functions and especially the anti-phobic effects of risky play. According to the non-associative theory, a contemporary approach to the etiology of anxiety, children develop fears of certain stimuli (e.g., heights and strangers that protect them from situations they are not mature enough to cope with, naturally through infancy. Risky play is a set of motivated behaviors that both provide the child with an exhilarating positive emotion and expose the child to the stimuli they previously have feared. As the child's coping skills improve, these situations and stimuli may be mastered and no longer be feared. Thus fear caused by maturational and age relevant natural inhibition is reduced as the child experiences a motivating thrilling activation, while learning to master age adequate challenges. It is concluded that risky play may have evolved due to this anti-phobic effect in normal child development, and it is suggested that we may observe an increased neuroticism or psychopathology in society if children are hindered from partaking in age adequate risky play.

  10. Resilience among Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: The Role of Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Bogat, G. Anne; von Eye, Alexander; Levendosky, Alytia A.

    2009-01-01

    Individual and family characteristics that predict resilience among children exposed to domestic violence (DV) were examined. Mother-child dyads (n = 190) were assessed when the children were 2, 3, and 4 years of age. DV-exposed children were 3.7 times more likely than nonexposed children to develop internalizing or externalizing problems.…

  11. Self-regulation during pretend play in children with intellectual disability and in normally developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieillevoye, Sandrine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the symbolic behavior and the self-regulation in dyads of children with intellectual disability and of normally developing children. Specifically, these processes were studied in link with the children's characteristics (mental age, linguistic level, individual pretend play level). The sample included 80 participants, 40 children with intellectual disability and 40 normally developing children, matched according to their mental age, ranged from 3 to 6 years old. First, a developmental assessment was performed (about cognitive, language and pretend play dimensions); then, in peers dyads, the children were elicited to pretend play by means of four kinds of material referring to four types of scripts (tea party, doctor, transportation, substitute objects eliciting creativity). The average symbolic behavior in individual and dyadic play contexts did not differ in both groups, but the average self-regulation in the group with intellectual disability was lower than in the normally developing group. Some positive partial correlations were obtained between mental age, language abilities, individual pretend play, dyadic pretend play and several self-regulatory strategies in both groups although they varied in importance between groups. Clusters analyses showed that individual and dyadic pretend play explained self-regulation in children of both groups. Specifically, in both groups, the higher was symbolic behavior in creativity context, the higher was self-regulation.

  12. The Influence of Play Context and Adult Attitudes on Young Children's Physical Risk-Taking during Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley; Gibson, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Many children naturally seek challenging physically active play which may involve injury-risk. Prior studies have attempted to describe the characteristics of risky play but to date none have considered factors that impact on opportunities for risky play or the likely resultant outcomes. Using semi-structured interviews and naturalistic…

  13. A Case Study of Gendered Play in Preschools: How Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Gender Influence Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to explore children's play in relation to gender stereotypes and beliefs and practices of educators in preschool settings. A feminist poststructuralist approach framed the design of the research and data were collected in two settings through predetermined categories of play during periods of spontaneous free play. The question…

  14. The Influence of Play Context and Adult Attitudes on Young Children's Physical Risk-Taking during Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley; Gibson, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Many children naturally seek challenging physically active play which may involve injury-risk. Prior studies have attempted to describe the characteristics of risky play but to date none have considered factors that impact on opportunities for risky play or the likely resultant outcomes. Using semi-structured interviews and naturalistic…

  15. Spatial ability in children's play with Lego blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, M J

    1998-08-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability have been argued to originate from sex differences in children's play preferences. Child (30 boys and 20 girls) were asked to construct a specific three-dimensional model using Lego blocks and were also given the Shepard and Metzler test of mental rotation. Those who completed the Lego model scored significantly higher in spatial ability than those who did not. Constructional ability was also related to errors made during the construction of the model, but spatial ability was the best predictor of completion of the model.

  16. Encouraging the development of children's oral communicative competences through play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castrillón Olga Lucía

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available When children start to learn a foreign language they already have some communicative competence in their mother tongue. Thus a classroom research project was carried out in order to study the development of children¿s competence in communicating in other languages. The main theme explored was if it was possible to help kids acquire and develop their competence in the new code through the use of play activities. The concepts related to competences, play and some children's characteristics when learning a second language will be presented in this article. Also, the results of the implementation of play activities in the classroom as well as some pedagogical implications will be analyzed as a means to promote improvement in the foreign language teaching-learning process. Key words: English-Primary School, Children Second Language Acquisition, Learning Ability in Children-Research, Educational Games-Teaching-Research Inglés-Escuela Primaria, Adquisición de Segundo Lenguaje en Niños, Aptitud de Aprendizaje en niños-Investigación, Cuando los niños empiezan el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera ya poseen alguna competencia comunicativa en su lengua materna. De lo que se trata, por tanto en este proyecto de investigación en el aula es de promover esta competencia para comunicarse en otras lenguas. El propósito fundamental de esta investigación fue explorar si era posible ayudar a los estudiantes a adquirir y desarrollar su competencia en este nuevo código, mediante la implementación de actividades lúdicas. En este artículo se presentaran los conceptos de competencias, lúdica y algunas de las características de los niños en el aprendizaje de una segunda lengua. También se presentaran los resultados que surgieron a partir de la implementación de las actividades lúdicas y se mencionaran algunas implicaciones pedagógicas que promueven el mejoramiento del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera.

  17. Beyond Banning War and Superhero Play: Meeting Children's Needs in Violent Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Diane E.

    2003-01-01

    Details reasons for children's fascination with war play, and teachers' concerns about such play. Asserts that although the best strategy is to reduce the amount of violence children see, children need to find ways to work out the violence they do see. Offers suggestions for addressing children's violent play, including promoting imaginative and…

  18. Models of Disability in Children's Pretend Play: Measurement of Cognitive Representations and Affective Expression Using the Affect in Play Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Stefano; Meloni, Fabio; Catarinella, Antonio; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Play is a natural mode of children's expression and constitutes a fundamental aspect of their life. Cognitive, affective, and social aspects can be assessed through play, considered as a "window" to observe a child's functioning. According to Russ's model, cognitive and affective components and their reciprocal connections can be assessed through the Affect in Play Scale (APS). The aim of the present study was to investigate children's representations of the three main models of disability (medical, social, and biopsychosocial) and how these models affected cognitive and affective components of children's play. Sixty-three children, aged 6-10 years, were assessed by means of the APS. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two APS task orders: the standard APS task followed by the modified APS task (including a wheelchair toy), or vice versa. The standard and modified APS sessions were coded according to the APS system. The modified APS sessions were also coded for the model of disability expressed by children. A one-way ANOVA conducted on the APS affective and cognitive indexes revealed an effect of condition on the affective components of play and no effect on cognitive components and variety of affect as assessed by the APS. In addition, when children are involved in pretend play from which concepts of disability emerge, these concepts are almost exclusively related to the medical model of disability. Results suggested implications for intervention with children in educational contexts that aim to teach children about disability.

  19. Behavioral and musical characteristics of the children who are exposed to child maltreatment and poverty in South Korea: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinah; Kim, Kwanghyuk

    2014-06-01

    A preliminary survey was conducted on primary school aged children (N=302) between seven to twelve years of age, who attend the local Community Child Centers (CCC) in the economically deprived areas of Jeollabukdo in South Korea for the purpose of identifying the children who have been exposed to on-going child maltreatment and poverty, and their needs. Both standardized and non-standardized self-report types of surveys were carried out and completed by both the children and the teachers of the CCC. As would be expected, emotional and behavioral problems are more pronounced by the children who are exposed to child maltreatment and poverty compared to the children who were not exposed to these adversities, or who were not poor. The more severely abused children in terms of frequency and co-occurrence of different abuses appear to display more behavioral problems than less severely abused children. Teachers reported that the children who were able to play a musical instrument and had arts therapy experiences appear to have less behavioral problems, particularly delinquent and aggressive behavior in comparison to the children who did not have such ability and experiences. Through the survey, it was possible to identify the children in need of therapeutic intervention and discover clinically relevant information. Clinical implications will be discussed further.

  20. 76 FR 67761 - Establishment of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... of Justice Programs Establishment of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed... Exposed to Violence (the Task Force) is established in accordance with the provisions of the Federal... mitigating the negative effects experienced by children who are exposed to violence. The Task Force...

  1. Developmental dental defects in children exposed to PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, J. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Fac. of Medicine; Sovcikova, E.; Kovrizhnykh, I.; Wimmerova, S.; Trnovec, T. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine; Kocan, A. [Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Toxic Organic Pollutants

    2004-09-15

    Developing enamel is sensitive to a wide range of local and systemic disturbances. Because of the absolute metabolic stability of its structure, changes in enamel during its development are permanent in nature. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been shown to disturb tooth development in experimental animals, but only limited amounts of data exist on their adverse effects in humans. Dental changes such as mottled, chipped, carious, and neonatal teeth have been reported in accidentally exposed humans. Nevertheless, co-contamination with polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) was largely responsible for the overall toxicity4. Alaluusua et al. found that developmental dental defects were correlated with the total exposure to polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons via mother's milk. The correlation was strong with exposure to prevailing levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) but weak with exposure to PCBs alone. In our previous study we have shown developmental dental defects in children exposed to PCBs alone6, suggesting that the developing human teeth are vulnerable to PCBs. In the Michalovce region of eastern Slovakia, PCBs from a chemical plant manufacturing Delors contaminated the surrounding district7. The total serum PCB levels in samples from the general population there exceeded by several times the background levels in subjects living in a comparable unexposed Svidnik district. PCB levels in breast milk samples in the Michalovce region were the highest in Slovakia. Levels of toxic polychlorinated aromatics (PCDFs, PCNs, and planar PCBs) in technical Delors were high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to PCBs, measured at the individual level, on developmental dental defects in children in eastern Slovakia.

  2. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas.It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method.The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01 lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49% in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%. Stunting (p < 0.01, wasting (p < 0.05 and underweight (p < 0.05 were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children.In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  3. Acute Effects of Exercise, Physically Active Video Game Play, and Inactive Video Game Play on Executive Functioning Skills in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Rachel Marie

    2013-01-01

    Interactive media plays a central role in children's lives, however limited research has examined the impact of interactive media on children's cognitive development. Past research has suggested that exercise and video game play can improve executive functioning (EF) skills in both the short and long term. EF is a cluster of higher order cognitive skills, including selective attention and inhibition, which work together to coordinate higher order functioning. Interventions that improve EF ...

  4. The influence of integrative play therapy on children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Lamçja (Zeqaj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The integration of theory, technique and common factors in psychotherapy has gained prominence since the 1990s. Previously, it was called eclecticism, but integration has become the preferred term to describe the blending of theory, technique and common factors (Norcross 2005. In the past, eclecticism meant to choose from various theories and techniques a therapeutic strategy that appears best for a particular client (Schaefer 2003 p.308. However, Norcross (1987 explains eclecticism as a further integration through which various theories are applied on interactive and coordinated explanations of the therapy. Because of psychological disorders, especially for children and adolescents are multilayered, complex and multi determined a multifaceted treatment approach is needed (Schaefer 2003. Indeed, many clients do not come with a clearly defined diagnosis, but rather several overlapping problems due to the co morbidity of issues (such as in the cases of complex trauma resulting in overlapping attention problems, along with phobias and sexualized behaviors. The clinicians trained in one theoretical and treatment approach is finding the “one size” cannot fit in all the presenting problems that are being faced today. Due to this multidimensional aspect the play child/play therapy calls for the unique demand that the therapist should wear a lot of different hats and should be skillful in changing from one therapeutic stance to another, in order to meet the needs of the child and of the various members in the child’s life (Coonerty, 1993. In one moment, the play therapist is intensively involved in deeply evocative and conflicted play therapy the child client. At that moment, the therapist needs to deal with the child’s internal struggles, setting limits and being an educator or mediator with the child, while in the next moment the therapist should engaged with the role of a parent, or school psychologist, or classroom teacher to assess the

  5. Empowered to Play: A Case Study Describing the Impact of Powered Mobility on the Exploratory Play of Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonday, Amshuda; Gretschel, Pam

    2016-03-01

    Exploratory play is one of the most vital ways in which children learn about their environment and develop. It is well documented that limited mobility restricts a child's ability to engage in their environment through exploratory play. In this study, a qualitative, collective case study design explored the impact of powered mobility on the exploratory play of two children with physical disabilities. Data were collected from the children, their parents and their siblings through participant observation and in-depth, informal interviews. This paper focuses on two themes: Opportunity to Play revealed how powered mobility increased opportunities for the children to become more actively engaged in exploratory play with others across a wider array of contexts, and My Child was Transformed highlighted significant changes in the affect and motivation of each child, which seemed to be linked to their increased internal control over their play choices. The findings suggest that the provision of powered mobility is a key contributor promoting the participation of physically disabled children in exploratory play. Because of undergraduate curricular constraints, a limitation of this study was that data were only confined to 2 months; affecting the depth of data gained that prolonged engagement would have offered. The study recommends for occupational therapy practice that occupational therapists advocate for easier access to powered mobility through governmental and policy means. The study also recommends further research be conducted on the experiences of the caregivers on how these powered mobility devices have influenced their day-to-day occupations.

  6. Where Do the Children Play?: An Investigation of the Intersection of Nature, Early Childhood Education and Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeanne M.; Kaye, Candace

    2017-01-01

    What is the role of early education and care in advocating and providing for nature play in an era when children's exposure to nature play and risk is threatened? This review deconstructs the word "nature," as well as discusses nature's role in centuries of theorists and early childhood care pioneers. The article concludes with some…

  7. Effectiveness of Adaptive Pretend Play on Affective Expression and Imagination of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsieh-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have difficulty participating in role-pretending activities. The concept of adaptive play makes play accessible by modifying play materials for different needs or treatment goals for children with CP. This study examines the affective expressions and imagination in children with CP as a function of…

  8. Using Video Modeling with Substitutable Loops to Teach Varied Play to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupere, Sally; MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Ahearn, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism often engage in repetitive play with little variation in the actions performed or items used. This study examined the use of video modeling with scripted substitutable loops on children's pretend play with trained and untrained characters. Three young children with autism were shown a video model of scripted toy play that…

  9. Cotinine and interferon-gamma levels in pre-school children exposed to household tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Kalalo

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion Cotinine is not related to the interferon-γ level in children exposed to tobacco smoke, however, the interferon-γ level in children with tobacco smoke exposure is lower than in the non-tobacco smoke exposure group.

  10. Exploring types of play in an adapted robotics program for children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Lam, Ashley

    2017-03-28

    Play is an important occupation in a child's development. Children with disabilities often have fewer opportunities to engage in meaningful play than typically developing children. The purpose of this study was to explore the types of play (i.e., solitary, parallel and co-operative) within an adapted robotics program for children with disabilities aged 6-8 years. This study draws on detailed observations of each of the six robotics workshops and interviews with 53 participants (21 children, 21 parents and 11 programme staff). Our findings showed that four children engaged in solitary play, where all but one showed signs of moving towards parallel play. Six children demonstrated parallel play during all workshops. The remainder of the children had mixed play types play (solitary, parallel and/or co-operative) throughout the robotics workshops. We observed more parallel and co-operative, and less solitary play as the programme progressed. Ten different children displayed co-operative behaviours throughout the workshops. The interviews highlighted how staff supported children's engagement in the programme. Meanwhile, parents reported on their child's development of play skills. An adapted LEGO(®) robotics program has potential to develop the play skills of children with disabilities in moving from solitary towards more parallel and co-operative play. Implications for rehabilitation Educators and clinicians working with children who have disabilities should consider the potential of LEGO(®) robotics programs for developing their play skills. Clinicians should consider how the extent of their involvement in prompting and facilitating children?s engagement and play within a robotics program may influence their ability to interact with their peers. Educators and clinicians should incorporate both structured and unstructured free-play elements within a robotics program to facilitate children?s social development.

  11. Development of a Taxonomy of Pretend Play for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe a taxonomy of pretend play for children with disabilities based on a systematic review of the literature to characterize pretend play. Thirty-seven studies were identified as measuring pretend play in children with disabilities. Several inconsistencies were found in the measurement of pretend play across…

  12. Using Video Modeling to Teach Young Children with Autism Developmentally Appropriate Play and Connected Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheflen, Sarah Clifford; Freeman, Stephanny F. N.; Paparella, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    Four children with autism were taught play skills through the use of video modeling. Video instruction was used to model play and appropriate language through a developmental sequence of play levels integrated with language techniques. Results showed that children with autism could successfully use video modeling to learn how to play appropriately…

  13. Using Video Modeling to Teach Young Children with Autism Developmentally Appropriate Play and Connected Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheflen, Sarah Clifford; Freeman, Stephanny F. N.; Paparella, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    Four children with autism were taught play skills through the use of video modeling. Video instruction was used to model play and appropriate language through a developmental sequence of play levels integrated with language techniques. Results showed that children with autism could successfully use video modeling to learn how to play appropriately…

  14. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-12-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  15. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children exposed to violence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aged 10 - 16 years; 30 from the Children's Home which serves Khayelitsha ... community violence, the use of the term in this context remains ... defend themselves against painful memories.l~.2:!.2~ Social and .... (Children's Home 8, SChool 4 children). Of the 47 ... 10 - 16-year-old children at the Children's Home, as well as.

  16. Attachment Status in Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine and Other Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifer, Ronald; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Wright, Linda L.; Smeriglio, Vincent L.; Liu, Jing

    2004-01-01

    Attachment status of children exposed in utero to cocaine, opiates, and other substances was examined at 18 months (n=860) and 36 months (n=732) corrected age. Children exposed to cocaine and opiates had slightly lower rates of attachment security (but not disorganization), and their insecurity was skewed toward ambivalent, rather than avoidant,…

  17. Hospital admission among HIV-exposed uninfected children compared with HIV-unexposed children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseholm, Ellen; Helleberg, Marie; Nordly, Sannie B;

    2016-01-01

    : A nationwide register-based cohort study. METHODS: All HEU children born in Denmark from 2000 to 2012 were individually matched to five HIV-unexposed controls. Outcomes were risk of hospital admission (any, because of an infectious disease, observation/nonspecific diagnosis) and use of antibiotics during......OBJECTIVE:: The main objective of this study was, on a national level, to investigate the risk of in-hospital admissions and use of antibiotics during the first 4 years of life among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children compared with a matched control group of HIV-unexposed children. DESIGN...... because of observation/nonspecific diagnosis [excess incidence rate 22.6 (95% CI 18.2-27.0), IRR 6.06 (95% CI 4.84-7.61)]. CONCLUSION: HEU children had an increased risk of overall hospital admission mainly due to an increased risk of admission because of observation/nonspecific diagnosis...

  18. Play Therapy: Client-Centered Counseling for Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaagd, Joan

    The value and importance of creative activities and play opportunities in play therapy is reviewed and discussed. Play therapy is considered to be part of the non-directive client-centered approach to counseling developed by Carl Rogers. The importance of giving the child the opportunity to play out his feelings and explore his thoughts and…

  19. The Non-linear Trajectory of Change in Play Profiles of Three Children in Psychodynamic Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Sibel; Çavdar, Alev; Orsucci, Franco; Schiepek, Gunter K.; Andreassi, Silvia; Giuliani, Alessandro; de Felice, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Even though there is substantial evidence that play based therapies produce significant change, the specific play processes in treatment remain unexamined. For that purpose, processes of change in long-term psychodynamic play therapy are assessed through a repeated systematic assessment of three children’s “play profiles,” which reflect patterns of organization among play variables that contribute to play activity in therapy, indicative of the children’s coping strategies, and an expression of their internal world. The main aims of the study are to investigate the kinds of play profiles expressed in treatment, and to test whether there is emergence of new and more adaptive play profiles using dynamic systems theory as a methodological framework. Methods and Procedures: Each session from the long-term psychodynamic treatment (mean number of sessions = 55) of three 6-year-old good outcome cases presenting with Separation Anxiety were recorded, transcribed and coded using items from the Children’s Play Therapy Instrument (CPTI), created to assess the play activity of children in psychotherapy, generating discrete and measurable units of play activity arranged along a continuum of four play profiles: “Adaptive,” “Inhibited,” “Impulsive,” and “Disorganized.” The play profiles were clustered through K-means Algorithm, generating seven discrete states characterizing the course of treatment and the transitions between these states were analyzed by Markov Transition Matrix, Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) and odds ratios comparing the first and second halves of psychotherapy. Results: The Markov Transitions between the states scaled almost perfectly and also showed the ergodicity of the system, meaning that the child can reach any state or shift to another one in play. The RQA and odds ratios showed two trends of change, first concerning the decrease in the use of “less adaptive” strategies, second regarding the reduction of play

  20. Enhancing Children's Development through Play: a Task that Must ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    tongue or the language of the immediate community and to this end will: Vol. ... and cognitive development of children and in essence it is a learning experience. ... degree of social acceptance children enjoy will determine the length of time.

  1. The Lowe and Costello Symbolic Play Test in Socially Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Judith

    1986-01-01

    The Symbolic Play Test was given to 31 socially impaired and 29 sociable elementary grade children retarded in language comprehension, of similar intelligence (profoundly retarded to normal). Play test age and spontaneous pretend play were similar in sociable Ss but, in the socially impaired, spontaneous pretend play was lower than play test age…

  2. Ten Ways to Restrict Children's Freedom to Play: The Problem of Surplus Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley; Tranter, Paul; Naughton, Geraldine; Little, Helen; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bundy, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Play and playgrounds provide essential experiences for young children's growth, development and enjoyment of life. However, such play experiences are now limited for many children due to excessive fear of risk, or "surplus safety". In this article, the authors examine the pervasiveness of surplus safety in the lives of young children. They argue…

  3. Gender Neutrality in Play of Young Migrant Children: An Emerging Trend or an Outlier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Smita; Parameswaran, Gowri

    2015-01-01

    The authors explore gender differences in the play of children of migrant farm workers from Mexico. They review the literature that indicates children exhibit gender differences in their play as early as three years old, but the authors claim their findings do not corroborate the existing research on gender differences in play. The twenty-one…

  4. Promoting Oral Language Skills in Preschool Children through Sociodramatic Play in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksha, P. L. N. Randima

    2016-01-01

    Children best learn language through playful learning experiences in the preschool classroom. The present study focused on developing oral language skills in preschool children through a sociodramatic play intervention. The study employed a case study design under qualitative approach. The researcher conducted a sociodramatic play intervention…

  5. Relations between Parenting Style and Children's Play Behavior. Issues in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Mellisa A.; Robila, Mihaela

    2001-01-01

    Studied Baumrind's approach to parenting style to examine the relations between parenting style and preschool children's social competence manifested through peer play. Found that mothers' and fathers' parenting style is related to children's play with peers, with an authoritative parenting style correlating to more complex levels of play. (SD)

  6. Relations between Parenting Style and Children's Play Behavior. Issues in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Mellisa A.; Robila, Mihaela

    2001-01-01

    Studied Baumrind's approach to parenting style to examine the relations between parenting style and preschool children's social competence manifested through peer play. Found that mothers' and fathers' parenting style is related to children's play with peers, with an authoritative parenting style correlating to more complex levels of play. (SD)

  7. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  8. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  9. The Effect of Literacy Intervention in Preschool Children's Dramatic Play on Literacy Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emily A.

    This study on the effect of participation in field trips as a literacy intervention in play investigated how preschool children incorporated the literacy behaviors emphasized during the field trips into their play activities. Authentic literacy materials were included in two dramatic play centers before and after 15 children participated in…

  10. Using Video Modeling to Teach Reciprocal Pretend Play to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Rebecca; Sacramone, Shelly; Mansfield, Renee; Wiltz, Kristine; Ahearn, William H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to use video modeling to teach children with autism to engage in reciprocal pretend play with typically developing peers. Scripted play scenarios involving various verbalizations and play actions with adults as models were videotaped. Two children with autism were each paired with a typically developing child,…

  11. Images of Play Experiences through a Child's Lens: An Exploration of Play and Digital Media with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhoff, Angela

    2017-01-01

    This research documents the use of digital media by young children in outdoor play spaces. The research was conducted at a child care center on an urban university campus in the southeastern USA. The research employed a participatory design and used a qualitative, reflexive approach to include the child's voice, ideas, and understandings of their…

  12. Assessment cognitive functions in children with visual impairment by playing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Statiev S. I.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive functions of children are considered with paropsiss by a playing method. In research 10 children with a paropsis (experimental group and 10 children (control group took part without a paropsis. Age of children - 5-6 years. Directions are rotined adaptation of children to the environment. It is well-proven that a playing method gives the clear estimation of development of cognitive functions for children with paropsiss. In future a method allows to conduct rehabilitation measures on the improvement of the state of visual analyzer of children.

  13. Children's Play in the Visual Arts and Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout history, society has expressed little interest in early childhood play. Still early literature authors and classical paintings portray childhood play experiences. The way play has been conceived in the past in child development, psychology and other disciplines relates to contemporary early childhood programmes. This article provides an…

  14. Neighborhood and developmental differences in children's perceptions of opportunities for play and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, N L; Spence, J C; Sehn, Z L; Cutumisu, N

    2008-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine perceptions of places to play and be physically active among children from two different urban neighborhoods, and evaluate these perceptions for age-related developmental differences. One hundred and sixty-eight children from grades K-6 (aged 6-12 years old) completed mental maps depicting places where they could play and be physically active. The children were recruited from schools in two neighborhoods-one a high-walkability (H-W) grid-style neighborhood, the other a low-walkability (L-W) lollipop-style (i.e., cul-de-sacs) neighborhood. Analysis revealed that children in the H-W neighborhood depicted more active transportation and less non-active transportation than children in the L-W neighborhood. Children in the lowest grades (K-2) in the L-W neighborhood depicted more play in the home/yard environment than the oldest children, more good weather image events than children in Grades 3-6, and less play outside the home/yard environment than children in Grades 3 and 4. In the H-W neighborhood, the youngest children (K-2) depicted significantly less play in the home/yard environment and less play outside the home/yard environment than older children (Grades 3-6). Thus, both the type of urban neighborhood and children's age moderated perceptions of places to play and be physically active.

  15. Do Children Who Bully Their Peers Also Play Violent Video Games? A Canadian National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrick, Crystal J.; Beran, Tanya N.; Mishna, Faye; Hetherington, Ross; Shariff, Shaheen

    2013-01-01

    The study examined whether children who bully others are likely to prefer playing video games that are rated high in maturity and violence. A stratified random sample of Canadian children ages 10 to 17 years from the provinces of Canada was obtained. Parents (n = 397) and their children (n = 492) completed an online survey of children's bullying…

  16. Identifying play characteristics of pre-school children with developmental coordination disorder via parental questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara; Waissman, Pola; Diamond, Gary W

    2016-11-18

    Motor coordination deficits that characterize children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affect their quality of participation. The aim of the current study was to identify play characteristics of young children with DCD, compared to those of children with typical development in three dimensions: activity and participation, environmental factors and children's impairments.

  17. Do Children Who Bully Their Peers Also Play Violent Video Games? A Canadian National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrick, Crystal J.; Beran, Tanya N.; Mishna, Faye; Hetherington, Ross; Shariff, Shaheen

    2013-01-01

    The study examined whether children who bully others are likely to prefer playing video games that are rated high in maturity and violence. A stratified random sample of Canadian children ages 10 to 17 years from the provinces of Canada was obtained. Parents (n = 397) and their children (n = 492) completed an online survey of children's…

  18. Young Children's Mathematics References during Free Play in Family Childcare Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Shawnee M.; Berghout Austin, Ann M.; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; Ota, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Very little is known about children's discussion of mathematics topics during unstructured play. Ginsburg, Lin, Ness, and Seo [2003. Young American and Chinese children's everyday mathematical activity. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 5(4), 235-258. Retrieved from…

  19. Recognition of Facial Expressions of Mixed Emotions in School-Age Children Exposed to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aims at investigating the effects of terrorism on children's ability to recognize emotions. A sample of 101 exposed and 102 nonexposed children (mean age = 11 years), balanced for age and gender, were assessed 20 months after a terrorist attack in Beslan, Russia. Two trials controlled for children's ability to match a facial…

  20. Fostering Resilience in Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: Practical Strategies EC Staff Can Put into Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Children enmeshed in violence don't experience a relaxed, predictable, or trusting home life. In fact, children exposed to home violence often experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) just as adults do after enduring violence. Domestic violence robs children of their childhood. And while early childhood staff can't erase the…

  1. Traumatic Responding in Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Peter; Elliston, Ellen J.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined posttraumatic stress disorder in Mexican, Mexican American, and non-Mexican American children exposed to domestic violence. Surveys of 68 mothers with children in shelters in Mexico and Texas revealed no ethnic differences in children's overall trauma symptoms. Mothers' experience of physical and sexual abuse predicted greater…

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Infants and Young Children Exposed to War-Related Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Vengrober, Adva

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although millions of the world's children are growing up amidst armed conflict, little research has described the specific symptom manifestations and relational behavior in young children exposed to wartime trauma or assessed factors that chart pathways of risk and resilience. Method: Participants included 232 Israeli children 1.5 to 5…

  3. A comparison of the play skills of preschool children with and without developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Behr, Ann; Rodger, Sylvia; Mickan, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Play is commonly acknowledged as being important to children's development. School-aged children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are known to be less involved in play and more socially isolated than their typically developing peers, but little is known about play of preschool children with DCD. Using a quasi-experimental design, developmental play skills and frequency in engagement in play of two independent groups of preschool children aged 4 to 6 years with (n = 32) and without (n = 31) probable DCD were compared. Play skills were assessed using the Revised Knox Preschool Play Scales and the Play Observation Scale based on 30 minutes of videotape of free play at preschool. Preschool children with probable DCD had a lower developmental play age and engaged less frequently in play than their typically developing peers. Given the importance of play, children with DCD need to be identified and supported to enable them to play at preschool similarly to their peers. [OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health 2013;33(4):198-208.].

  4. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  5. Nature and Its Influence on Children's Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdell, Kellie; Gray, Tonia; Malone, Karen

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that humans need contact with nature for their wellbeing, however at the same time young children are becoming increasingly separated from the natural world as their access to the outdoors diminishes. The importance of school and prior-to-school settings in connecting children with nature has been…

  6. Playscapes : A design perspective on young children's physical play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Boudewijn; Van Der Net, Janjaap; Rozendaal, Marco; Stappers, Pieter Jan; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2016-01-01

    In early childhood, children develop motor skills that form the basis of their future physical activities. This development can stagnate when children face long-term hospitalization due to injury or disease. Most interventions to facilitate their physical development are built on exercise and struct

  7. Links between Preschool Children's Social Skills and Observed Pretend Play in Outdoor Childcare Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayao; Hestenes, Linda L.; Wang, Yudan C.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most advanced play forms in childhood, pretend play often demonstrates positive associations with children's development. However, results from research that examines the association between social skills and pretend play are mixed, especially when the complexity of pretend play is taken into account. Moreover, few studies on pretend…

  8. Children's Right to Play: An Examination of the Importance of Play in the Lives of Children Worldwide. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Stuart; Russell, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    In this working paper, Wendy Russell and Stuart Lester of the UK's University of Gloucestershire discuss why play is fundamental to the health and well-being of children. They argue that both state signatories to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (Article 31 of which enshrines the right to play) and adults generally should…

  9. Physical activity and play in kindergarten age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroli, Margherita; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa; Epifani, Susi

    2011-01-01

    PERISCOPE project assesses factors promoting or preventing obesity development in early age. A specifi c aim is to assess preschool children ’ s physical activity habits in three different European countries. PERISCOPE has been implemented in 1094 children attending kindergartens in Denmark, Italy...... and Poland. The parents ’ and children ’ s physical activity habits and attitudes assessed by a questionnaire fi lled by the parents. Overweight and obesity assessed by Cole ’ s BMI cut-off points. Statistical analysis performed by χ^2 test and the test of proportion. Denmark shows the lowest rate (14...

  10. Playing with "The Three Pigs": Not Just for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonnie L.

    2002-01-01

    This simulation explores instruction that combines role-play with the word play of "The Three Pigs". Describes efforts to increase fluency and communicative competence in English among graduate English as Second Language students of various disciplines and nationalities and discusses debriefing, students' attitudes, and acceptance of…

  11. Vygotskian and Post-Vygotskian Views on Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodrova, Elena; Leong, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    The authors argue that childhood played a special role in the cultural-historical theory of human culture and biosocial development made famous by Soviet psychologist Lev S. Vygotsky and his circle. Th?ey discuss how this school of thought has, in turn, influenced contemporary play studies. Vygotsky used early childhood to test and refi?ne his…

  12. Physical activity and play in kindergarten age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroli, Margherita; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa; Epifani, Susi

    2011-01-01

    and Poland. The parents ’ and children ’ s physical activity habits and attitudes assessed by a questionnaire fi lled by the parents. Overweight and obesity assessed by Cole ’ s BMI cut-off points. Statistical analysis performed by χ^2 test and the test of proportion. Denmark shows the lowest rate (14......PERISCOPE project assesses factors promoting or preventing obesity development in early age. A specifi c aim is to assess preschool children ’ s physical activity habits in three different European countries. PERISCOPE has been implemented in 1094 children attending kindergartens in Denmark, Italy.......6 %) of overweight, followed by Poland (17.1%), while Italy shows the highest (21.2 %) (p children, but only the 50...

  13. Playful intervention with chronically-ill children: promoting coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Moura de Moura

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases can adversely affect the development process of children. This qualitative, action-research study had the aim to analyze the effects of activities in the manual "Como Hóspede no Hospital" (As a patient in the hospital on the coping process of children with chronic diseases. Study participants included six children and adolescents aged seven to 13 years, who suffered from a chronic disease. Data were collected in the pediatric clinic of a public hospital in the Brazilian state of Paraíba, through participant observation and individual sessions with activities from the manual. Data interpretation followed the principles of thematic analysis. The activities from the manual encouraged participants' search for information about their disease and treatment, and increased their interest and participation in their health care process, thereby contributing to better coping. The study points to the need for comprehensive care for children with chronic diseases.

  14. Life satisfaction and school performance of children exposed to classic and cyber peer bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić, Vesna; Flander, Gordana Buljan; Rafajac, Branko

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the exposure of school children to various forms of peer bullying (classic/cyber) and their life satisfaction in the domain of school, family, friends and school performance. The sample included 562 children from rural and urban areas of Croatia who were attending the seventh and the eighth grade of primary school. Results show that children were more often exposed to classic forms of peer bullying, especially verbal, and then physical bullying. On the other hand, cyber bullying most often comprises harassment in forums, blogs, chats or social networks, then on the web, by e-mail and mobile phone. Almost half of the examinees knew the identity of the bully, while a minority believes that bullies are the same ones who also physically abuse them at school. We found that children exposed to all forms of both classic and cyber bullying, unlike their peers who do not have such experience, show less satisfaction with friends, while those exposed to physical and cyber bullying show dissatisfaction with their family, too. However no statistically significant difference was found in their satisfaction with school. Children exposed to physical bullying showed poorer school performance, poorer achievement in Croatian and math, while children exposed to verbal and cyber bullying and children who were not exposed to such forms of bullying showed no differences in their school achievement.

  15. Resurrecting free play in young children: looking beyond fitness and fatness to attention, affiliation, and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Hillary L; Whitaker, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    We have observed that the nature and amount of free play in young children has changed. Our purpose in this article is to demonstrate why play, and particularly active, unstructured, outdoor play, needs to be restored in children's lives. We propose that efforts to increase physical activity in young children might be more successful if physical activity is promoted using different language-encouraging play-and if a different set of outcomes are emphasized-aspects of child well-being other than physical health. Because most physical activity in preschoolers is equivalent to gross motor play, we suggest that the term "play" be used to encourage movement in preschoolers. The benefits of play on children's social, emotional, and cognitive development are explored.

  16. Theory of Mind Dynamics in Children's Play: A Qualitative Inquiry in a Preschool Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soyeon

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore children's understanding of mind shown in children's play in a preschool classroom. Previous research on children's theory of mind has relied on empirical studies utilizing several tasks, such as false belief tasks. Since children's emerging understanding of self and others is a complex process of entering a community of theories of mind (Nelson, Henseler, & Plesa, 2000), it is important to expand our understanding of children's theories of mind through...

  17. Preliminary Evidence for a Classroom Based Psychosocial Intervention for Disaster Exposed Children with Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Rønholt, Stine; Karsberg, Sidsel

    2013-01-01

    a substantial number of symptoms 3 years after the incident. Thus, a treatment program designed to target PTSD symptoms in trauma-exposed children was established. Objectives The first aim of this study was to provide preliminary evidence that a classroom-based psychosocial intervention program for children....... Furthermore, the results indicated that the Darryl instrument is a useful screening tool for assessing PTSD symptoms in this sample of children. Keywords Trauma Disaster Treatment Children Assessment...

  18. Effects of Playing versus Observing Violent versus Nonviolent Video Games on Children's Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybill, Daniel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined short-term effects of playing versus observing violent versus nonviolent video games on the aggression of elementary school children. Children (N=146) played or observed games for 14 minutes, then completed three measures of aggression. Found no differences between violent and nonviolent conditions on measures of aggression. (Author/NB)

  19. Examining the Language Skills of Children with ADHD Following a Play-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docking, Kimberley; Munro, Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Ellis, Prudence

    2013-01-01

    Communication and play skills are important aspects of development yet are largely uncharted in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This exploratory study examined whether changes in pragmatic skills and problem-solving skills were observed in children with ADHD pre- and post-participation in a play-based intervention…

  20. The Impact of Recreational Video Game Play on Children's and Adolescents' Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Fran C.; Altschuler, Elizabeth A.; Almonte, Debby E.; Mileaf, Maxwell I.

    2013-01-01

    Current empirical findings show linkages between recreational video game play and enhanced cognitive skills, primarily among young adults. However, consideration of this linkage among children and adolescents is sparse. Thus, discussions about facilitating transfer of cognitive skills from video game play to academic tasks among children and…

  1. The Impact of Dramatic Play Centre on Promoting the Development of Children's Early Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of dramatic play centre (DPC) on promoting the development of children's early writing skills in the Jordanian context. It also intends to investigate the forms of children's writing skills that emerge through the use of dramatic play. Observations and interviews were conducted to obtain…

  2. The Impact of Recreational Video Game Play on Children's and Adolescents' Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Fran C.; Altschuler, Elizabeth A.; Almonte, Debby E.; Mileaf, Maxwell I.

    2013-01-01

    Current empirical findings show linkages between recreational video game play and enhanced cognitive skills, primarily among young adults. However, consideration of this linkage among children and adolescents is sparse. Thus, discussions about facilitating transfer of cognitive skills from video game play to academic tasks among children and…

  3. Teaching Social Play Skills to Adults and Children with Autism as an Approach to Building Rapport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shireman, Molly L.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Hillman, Conrad B.

    2016-01-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and no intellectual disabilities were taught to increase the social play skills of children with ASD as part of a vocational training program. Participants included 3 adults, aged 21 to 27 years, and 6 children with ASD. Probes conducted throughout the study evaluated whether play skills training affected…

  4. Teaching Social Play Skills to Adults and Children with Autism as an Approach to Building Rapport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shireman, Molly L.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Hillman, Conrad B.

    2016-01-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and no intellectual disabilities were taught to increase the social play skills of children with ASD as part of a vocational training program. Participants included 3 adults, aged 21 to 27 years, and 6 children with ASD. Probes conducted throughout the study evaluated whether play skills training affected…

  5. Board Games Play Matters: A Rethinking on Children's Aesthetic Experience and Interpersonal Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mei-Ju

    2017-01-01

    There has been a growing awareness of the contribution of play to the young children's learning and development. This study aims to investigate the implement of board games play on children's aesthetic experience and interpersonal understanding in Montessori and Constructivist classrooms. With the underlying framework follows a developmentally…

  6. What Can Chinese and German Children Tell Us about Their Learning and Play in Kindergarten?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Hong Kong and German children's perceptions of play and learning and their relationships. Forty-eight children (24 German and 24 Chinese) playing and learning in the classroom were observed and videotaped for five consecutive days. They were interviewed 3 times about their kindergarten experiences by using free- and…

  7. A longitudinal study of children's outside play using family environment and perceived physical environment as predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Remmers (Teun); S.M.L. Broeren (Suzanne); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); A. van Grieken (Amy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: A natural and cheap way of increasing children's physical activity is stimulating unstructured outside play.Purpose: This study examined whether characteristics of the family and perceived physical environment were associated with the duration of children's outside play.Metho

  8. The Relationship Between the Organization of Play Space and Children's Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carolyn Odom

    The purpose of this study is to examine the organization of play space and the effect which this organization has on children's productive and disruptive behavior in an indoor nursery setting. A second purpose was to develop a category system for recording the productive and disruptive behavior of young children in a free play situation. The…

  9. The Impact of Dramatic Play Centre on Promoting the Development of Children's Early Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of dramatic play centre (DPC) on promoting the development of children's early writing skills in the Jordanian context. It also intends to investigate the forms of children's writing skills that emerge through the use of dramatic play. Observations and interviews were conducted to obtain…

  10. Migration limits for children's toys are nothing to play with.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms Scientific Committee Scher; Krätke, Renate; Beausoleil, Claire; Carroquino, Maria José; Duarte-Davidson, Raquel; Fernandes, Teresa; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-10-01

    The European Commission and its independent Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks (SCHER) published their final Opinion on estimates of the amount of toy materials ingested by children. The SCHER was asked to review available data on the ingestion of the following three types of toy material by children, and evaluate whether the ingestion amounts which formed the basis for the migration limits of 19 elements in the Toy Safety Directive are still appropriate or whether they should be changed. In the final Opinion the SCHER considers the ingestion amounts mentioned above to be appropriate, and that these ingestion amounts should remain classified as daily amounts rather than weekly.

  11. Nonverbal communication, play, and language in Greek young children with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaeliou, Christina F; Fryssira, Helen; Kodakos, Anastassios; Kaila, Maria; Benaveli, Evangelia; Michaelides, Konstantinos; Stroggilos, Vassilis; Vrettopoulou, Maria; Polemikos, Nikitas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated nonverbal communicative abilities, functional play, and symbolic play in 11 toddlers with Williams syndrome (WS) during spontaneous communication. The WS group was compared with a group of typically developing (TD) children matched for linguistic abilities. Results demonstrated that children with WS exhibited significantly less spontaneous functional play and imaginary play compared to TD children. On the other hand, children with WS showed significantly more showing and giving guided by their parents than TD children. In addition, it was shown that in both groups aspects of symbolic play are correlated with expressive as well as receptive language. These findings are interpreted through the Theory of Intersubjectivity, which contrasts with the Theory of Mind and suggests that shared arbitrary purposes regarding actions on objects constitute presuppositions for the development of language.

  12. Play therapy in the special education of the children with ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kats L.I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Access to the method of play therapy allows to actively use it in the framework of comprehensive intervention with children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Problems with play skills that are typical for children with autism require greater flexibility from teachers, whose work should be based on the knowledge of sensory perception and special interest of an individual child. The article describes techniques and methods that are used by play therapists from the parent association Svet in order to promote emotional development, motor skills, social interaction and functional skills through the play activities with children with autism.

  13. Using video modeling with substitutable loops to teach varied play to children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupere, Sally; MacDonald, Rebecca P F; Ahearn, William H

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism often engage in repetitive play with little variation in the actions performed or items used. This study examined the use of video modeling with scripted substitutable loops on children's pretend play with trained and untrained characters. Three young children with autism were shown a video model of scripted toy play that included a substitutable loop that allowed various characters to perform the same actions and vocalizations. Three characters were modeled with the substitutable loop during training sessions, and 3 additional characters were present in the video but never modeled. Following video modeling, all the participants incorporated untrained characters into their play, but the extent to which they did so varied.

  14. Functional MRI and Response Inhibition in Children Exposed to Cocaine in utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Lester, Barry M.; Sanes, Jerome N.; Eliassen, James C.; Hutchison, Emmette R.; Seifer, Ronald; LaGasse, Linda L.; Durston, Sarah; Casey, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the potential long-term effects of cocaine exposure on brain functioning using fMRI in school-aged children. The sample included 12 children with prenatal cocaine exposure and 12 non-exposed children (8–9 years old). Groups did not differ on IQ, socioeconomic status, or perinatal risk factors. A response inhibition task was administered during an fMRI scan using a 1.5-T MRI system. Task performance did not differentiate groups, but groups were differentiated by patterns of task-related brain activity. Cocaine-exposed children showed greater activation in the right inferior frontal cortex and caudate during response inhibition, whereas non-exposed children showed greater activations in temporal and occipital regions. These preliminary findings suggest that prenatal cocaine may affect the development of brain systems involved in the regulation of attention and response inhibition. PMID:19372696

  15. Language Play, a Collaborative Resource in Children's L2 learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekaite, Asta; Aronsson, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Within '"communicative language teaching," "natural" language has had a privileged position, and a focus on form has been seen as something inauthentic or as something that is inconsequential for learning (for a critique, see Kramsch and Sullivan 1996; Cook 1997). Yet in the present study of an immersion classroom, it was found that children with…

  16. Playing with Porn: Greek Children's Explorations in Pornography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaliki, Liza

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on the research findings of the Greek Kids Go Online project and the EU Kids Online I network research on children and online technologies in Europe, funded by the European Commission Safer Internet Programme, 2006-2009. It explores the experiences of young people aged between 9 and 17 with pornographic texts online, and…

  17. Teaching Mathematics through Play to Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes some boisterous physical games which might be useful in promoting learning, especially in elementary mathematics classes with the socially disadvantaged. Provides a discussion of Jerome Bruner's theory which undergirds such activities. Presents results of an experiment using these methods with 160 children. Finds the case for using play…

  18. Playing with Porn: Greek Children's Explorations in Pornography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaliki, Liza

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on the research findings of the Greek Kids Go Online project and the EU Kids Online I network research on children and online technologies in Europe, funded by the European Commission Safer Internet Programme, 2006-2009. It explores the experiences of young people aged between 9 and 17 with pornographic texts online, and…

  19. Teaching Mathematics through Play to Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes some boisterous physical games which might be useful in promoting learning, especially in elementary mathematics classes with the socially disadvantaged. Provides a discussion of Jerome Bruner's theory which undergirds such activities. Presents results of an experiment using these methods with 160 children. Finds the case for using play…

  20. Stress in children exposed to violence. Reenactment and rage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, B; Allen, J R

    1998-01-01

    Violence is a major public health problem that increasingly involves children and adolescents as both victims and witnesses. Exposure to violence is now implicated in the development of stress conditions. This article uses Terr's typology to describe responses to various kinds of violence and suggests that the posttraumatic stress model adds a unique dimension to our understanding of the effects of violence on children and adolescents.

  1. The Decline of Play and the Rise of Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Over the past half century, in the United States and other developed nations, children's free play with other children has declined sharply. Over the same period, anxiety, depression, suicide, feelings of helplessness, and narcissism have increased sharply in children, adolescents, and young adults. This article documents these historical changes…

  2. Developing Children's Views of the Nature of Science through Role Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakici, Yilmaz; Bayir, Eylem

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using role play (portraying a scientist's life story) on the children's views of the nature of science (NOS). The study was carried out at the Children's University of Trakya in Turkey during the summer of 2010. The participants consisted of 18 children, aged 10-11. They met for 10 days for…

  3. Technological Funds of Knowledge in Children's Play: Implications for Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Brent

    2011-01-01

    The technological knowledge the children bring with them into early childhood settings is not well documented or understood. This article discusses the technological knowledge and understanding of the nature of technology present within children's collaborative play in two New Zealand early childhood settings. The children incorporated a wide…

  4. Intentionality and Expertise: Learning from Observations of Children at Play in Multilingual, Multicultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Susi; Volk, Dinah; Gregory, Eve

    2007-01-01

    This article draws from three ethnographic studies of children playing sociodramatically in multilingual, multicultural contexts. Countering a deficit perspective that focuses on what children from nondominant cultures do not know, we use the concept of syncretism to illuminate children's expertise and intentionality as they blend knowledge from…

  5. "It's All About Ben10[TM]": Children's Play, Health and Sustainability Decisions in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S.; Skouteris, H.; Rutherford, L.; Cutter-Mackenzie, A.

    2013-01-01

    In today's fast food, fast-paced consumer society, too few questions are asked about the influence of digital media on young children's health and sustainability choices, and indeed how such choices are expressed in children's play (and early childhood classrooms). By interviewing children and parents, and using such data to prompt teacher…

  6. Anemia Among Children Exposed to Polyparasitism in Coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Cojulun, Alicia; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Sutherland, Laura J; Mungai, Peter L; Mutuku, Francis; Muchiri, Eric; Kitron, Uriel; King, Charles H

    2015-11-01

    Anemia represents a substantial problem for children living in areas with limited resources and significant parasite burden. We performed a cross-sectional study of 254 Kenyan preschool- and early school-age children in a setting endemic for multiple chronic parasitic infections to explore mechanisms of their anemia. Complete venous blood cell counts revealed a high prevalence of local childhood anemia (79%). Evaluating the potential links between low hemoglobin and socioeconomic factors, nutritional status, hemoglobinopathy, and/or parasite infection, we identified age anemia. A total of 130/155 (84%) of anemic children with iron studies had evidence of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), 16% had non-IDA; 50/52 of additionally tested anemic children met soluble transferrin-receptor (sTfR) criteria for combined anemia of inflammation (AI) with IDA. Children in the youngest age group had the greatest odds of iron deficiency (OR: 10.0, 95% CI: 3.9, 26). Although older children aged 9-11 years had less anemia, they had more detectable malaria, Schistosoma infection, hookworm, and proportionately more non-IDA. Anemia in this setting appears multifactorial such that chronic inflammation and iron deficiency need to be addressed together as part of integrated management of childhood anemia.

  7. Children's Risky Play from an Evolutionary Perspective: The Anti-Phobic Effects of Thrilling Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter; Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

    2011-01-01

    This theoretical article views children's risky play from an evolutionary perspective, addressing specific evolutionary functions and especially the anti-phobic effects of risky play. According to the non-associative theory, a contemporary approach to the etiology of anxiety, children develop fears of certain stimuli (e.g., heights and strangers) that protect them from situations they are not mature enough to cope with, naturally through infancy. Risky play is a set of motivated behaviors tha...

  8. Children's Play and Culture Learning in an Egalitarian Foraging Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyette, Adam H.

    2016-01-01

    Few systematic studies of play in foragers exist despite their significance for understanding the breadth of contexts for human development and the ontogeny of cultural learning. Forager societies lack complex social hierarchies, avenues for prestige or wealth accumulation, and formal educational institutions, and thereby represent a contrast to…

  9. Children's physical play in the group 1−2 years

    OpenAIRE

    Bevc, Mateja

    2012-01-01

    In my thesis I wanted to present a variety of physical games or activities and their importance for the child's physical-motor development. The theoretical part is divided into five parts. In the first part, a few words about what is a game, its creation, its definition and nature. The second section describes motor development, factors of movement, children's physical activity, classification of motion ... The following part is abour dance, dance education, development of dance abilitie...

  10. Children and Robots Learning to Play Hide and Seek

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    authors’ children (following Piaget [23, 24]) and in a familiar environment. However, it is possible to perform an in-depth analysis of one...modeled this task in ACT-R [3]. The ACT family of theories has a long history of integrating and organizing psychological data. The current version...thought. Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 1998. 4. Anzai, Y., Simon, H.A. The theory of learning by doing. Psychological Review, 86 (2). 124-140. 5. Baillargeon, R

  11. Play: Essential for All Children. A Position Paper of the Association for Childhood Education International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Joan Packer; Quisenberry, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Presents position of the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) regarding children and play. Discusses ACEI's fundamental beliefs about the importance of play, citing supporting research and theory. Presents guiding principles and practices for play experiences, focusing on adults' crucial role in structuring and planning the…

  12. Playful interaction: occupational therapy for all children on the school playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Anita C; Luckett, Tim; Naughton, Geraldine A; Tranter, Paul J; Wyver, Shirley R; Ragen, Jo; Singleton, Emma; Spies, Greta

    2008-01-01

    We examined the impact of an intervention on the playfulness of 5- to 7-year-old children who are developing typically. Materials that had no defined purpose were placed on a school playground for 11 weeks. The Test of Playfulness (ToP) was used to compare videotaped play segments pre- and postintervention. Teachers who did playground duty were interviewed regarding changes in play. ToP data were analyzed using a Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Interview data were analyzed for themes. ToP scores were significantly higher after intervention (Z= -1.94; p = .025, one-tailed; Cohen's d = 0.55). Teachers reported that children were more social, creative, and resilient when the materials were on the playground. Children who were creative, rather than very physically capable, became leaders in activity. Our results revealed a potential role for occupational therapists with typically developing children in schools. This finding has clear implications for children with disability.

  13. The Legal System's Response to Children Exposed to Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Nancy K. D.

    1999-01-01

    Highlights four key areas of case law in which courts have begun to examine the effects of domestic violence on children: child custody and visitation; restraining orders; failure to protect a child from harm; and termination of parental rights. A survey of appellate court decisions since 1990 shows the ongoing need for mandatory judicial training…

  14. Mental health status in children exposed to tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, L; Kannan, G K; Daniel, S J

    2006-12-01

    As a vulnerable group, children are more prone to experiencing trauma and its sequelae. After the Asian tsunami we set out to evaluate the effect of exposure to the tsunami nearly one year after the event and to explore the family history of psychopathology on the mental health of children. This community-based study of 230 children was conducted in Srinivasapuram, a coastal village in Tamil Nadu. A youth self-report form (YSR) of the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), exposure to the tsunami, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and family history of psychopathology were assessed. The severity of exposure to the tsunami correlated with anxiety and somatic domains of the DSM IV and PTSD symptoms. Family history of psychopathology correlated with affective and somatic symptoms. Multiple regression analysis revealed that family psychopathology influenced affective problems (R2 = 0.071 (n = 199), F = 15.13, p = 0.00) while exposure to the tsunami influenced anxiety problems (R2 = 0.046 (n = 208), F = 9.91, p = 0.002). The findings from this study reveal that targeted specialized mental health services are needed for children with severe exposure to the tsunami and positive family history of psychopathology.

  15. School Personnel Responses to Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenemore, Thomas; Lynch, John; Mann, Kimberly; Steinhaus, Patricia; Thompson, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Authors explored the experiences of school personnel in their responses to children's exposure to violence. Thirty-one school personnel, including administrators, teachers, counselors, school social workers, and psychologists, were interviewed to obtain data on their experiences related to violence exposure in their schools and the surrounding…

  16. Visual contrast sensitivity in children exposed to tetrachloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Jan E; Mazor, Kimberly A; Aldous, Kenneth M; Blount, Benjamin C; Brodie, Scott E; Serle, Janet B

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships between indoor air, breath, and blood tetrachloroethylene (perc) levels and visual contrast sensitivity (VCS) among adult and child residents of buildings with or without a colocated dry cleaner using perc. Decreasing trends in proportions of adults or children with maximum VCS scores indicated decreased VCS at a single spatial frequency (12 cycles per degree [cpd]) among children residing in buildings with colocated dry cleaners when indoor air perc level averaged 336 μg/m³; breath perc level averaged 159.5 μg/m³; and blood perc level averaged 0.51 μg/L. Adjusted logistic regression indicated that increases in indoor air, breath, and blood perc levels among all child participants significantly increased the odds for decreased VCS at 12 cpd. Adult VCS was not significantly decreased by increasing indoor air, breath, or blood perc level. These results suggest that elevated residential perc exposures may alter children's VCS, a possible subclinical central nervous system effect.

  17. Lower life satisfaction related to materialism in children frequently exposed to advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opree, Suzanna J; Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2012-09-01

    Research among adults suggests that materialism and life satisfaction negatively influence each other, causing a downward spiral. So far, cross-sectional research among children has indicated that materialistic children are less happy, but causality remains uncertain. This study adds to the literature by investigating the longitudinal relation between materialism and life satisfaction. We also investigated whether their relation depended on children's level of exposure to advertising. A sample of 466 children (aged 8-11; 55% girls) participated in a 2-wave online survey with a 1-year interval. We asked children questions about material possessions, life satisfaction, and advertising. We used structural equation modeling to study the relationship between these variables. For the children in our sample, no effect of materialism on life satisfaction was observed. However, life satisfaction did have a negative effect on materialism. Exposure to advertising facilitated this effect: We only found an effect of life satisfaction on materialism for children who were frequently exposed to advertising. Among 8- to 11-year-old children, life satisfaction leads to decreased materialism and not the other way around. However, this effect only holds for children who are frequently exposed to television advertising. It is plausible that the material values portrayed in advertising teach children that material possessions are a way to cope with decreased life satisfaction. It is important to reduce this effect, because findings among adults suggest that materialistic children may become less happy later in life. Various intervention strategies are discussed.

  18. 77 FR 6822 - Second Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... of Justice Programs Second Hearing of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed... Exposed to Violence (the ``Task Force''). The Task Force is chartered to provide OJP, a component of the Department of Justice, with valuable advice in the areas of children exposed to violence for the purpose...

  19. Godly play: an intervention for improving physical, emotional, and spiritual responses of chronically ill hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Joan; Cope, Scott Brooks; Cooper, James H; Mathias, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    An experimental two-group comparison pilot study of forty chronically ill hospitalized children was carried out at Wolfson Children's Hospital in Jacksonville, Florida. Three Godly Play interventions were given to participants in the experimental group. Children in the control group did not participate but received a fairy tale book as a control. The sample was evenly distributed with twenty (20) males and twenty (20) females. Ages ranged from six (6) to fifteen (15) years and all participants were chronically ill. Five (5) variables were studied. Of the five (5), three (3) showed significant differences before and after Godly Play: the Staic-Trait Anxiety Scale (p = .049), the Children's Depression Inventory (p = .011), and the McBride Spirituality Assessment (p = .033). A marginal difference in parent satisfaction with hospital care of children in the experimental and control groups was also determined (p = .058). Findings suggest that Godly Play had a significant effect on anxiety, depression, and spirituality of children and support the idea that the parents of children who participated in Godly Play were more satisfied with hospital care than those parents whose children did not engage in Godly Play.

  20. Outdoor play among children in relation to neighborhood characteristics: a cross-sectional neighborhood observation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarts Marie-Jeanne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although environmental characteristics as perceived by parents are known to be related to children’s outdoor play behavior, less is known about the relation between independently measured neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among children. The purpose of this study was to identify quantitative as well as qualitative neighborhood characteristics related to outdoor play by means of neighborhood observations. Methods Questionnaires including questions on outdoor play behavior of the child were distributed among 3,651 parents of primary school children (aged 4–12 years. Furthermore, neighborhood observations were conducted in 33 Dutch neighborhoods to map neighborhood characteristics such as buildings, formal outdoor play facilities, public space, street pattern, traffic safety, social neighborhood characteristics, and general impression. Data of the questionnaires and the neighborhood observations were coupled via postal code of the respondents. Multilevel GEE analyses were performed to quantify the correlation between outdoor play and independently measured neighborhood characteristics. Results Parental education was negatively associated with outdoor play among children. Neither the presence nor the overall quality of formal outdoor play facilities were (positively related to outdoor play among children in this study. Rather, informal play areas such as the presence of sidewalks were related to children’s outdoor play. Also, traffic safety was an important characteristic associated with outdoor play. Conclusions This study showed that, apart from individual factors such as parental education level, certain modifiable characteristics in the neighborhood environment (as measured by neighborhood observations were associated with outdoor play among boys and girls of different age groups in The Netherlands. Local policy makers from different sectors can use these research findings in creating more activity

  1. Playfulness in the life of social educators: reflections on the work with children in shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Perosa Saigh Jurdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social educators/caregivers are professionals who care physically and emotionally for institutionalized children, being responsible for fulfilling daily needs such as hygiene and feeding, as well as for the affection and playfulness inherent to this phase of development. This study aimed to investigate how playfulness is present in the work and everyday routines of eight social educators who care for children sheltered in a host institution in the municipality of Santos, Sao Paulo state. The methodological design was structured from weekly meetings in which the educators constructed oral narratives about play in their childhood, how it is today, their conception of play, and how play is related to their function of caregivers. We verified that play was almost nonexistent in the childhood of some of the educators investigated, but they have managed to recover its function through their children and family ties. In this institution, we observed educators with excessive responsibilities in their everyday practice and a reduced number of professionals, which hinders the adult-child relationship. We observed that, as a result, play is many times associated with professional practice. For these educators, caring for play is one of the faces of hosting and caring for the children. The role of the adult is crucial to enable the creativity of children and adults based on the experience of being with other humans.

  2. A Perceptual Motor Intervention Improves Play Behavior in Children with Moderate to Severe Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryalls, Brigette O; Harbourne, Regina; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Wickstrom, Jordan; Stergiou, Nick; Kyvelidou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    For children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy (CP), a foundational early goal is independent sitting. Sitting offers additional opportunities for object exploration, play and social engagement. The achievement of sitting coincides with important milestones in other developmental areas, such as social engagement with others, understanding of spatial relationships, and the use of both hands to explore objects. These milestones are essential skills necessary for play behavior. However, little is known about how sitting and play behavior might be affected by a physical therapy intervention in children with moderate or severe CP. Therefore, our overall purpose in this study was to determine if sitting skill could be advanced in children with moderate to severe CP using a perceptual motor intervention, and if play skills would change significantly as sitting advanced. Thirty children between the ages of 18 months and 6 years who were able to hold prop sitting for at least 10 s were recruited for this study. Outcome measures were the sitting subsection of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), and the Play Assessment of Children with Motor Impairment play assessment scale, which is a modified version of the Play in Early Childhood Evaluation System. Significant improvements in GMFM sitting scores (p skill may be a factor in supporting improvements in functional play, along with age and severity of physical impairment.

  3. Visual evoked potentials in children prenatally exposed to methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Bjerve, Kristian S

    2013-01-01

    the effect of prenatal methylmercury exposure on visual evoked potential (VEP) latencies in Faroese children with elevated prenatal methylmercury exposure. A cohort of 182 singleton term births was assembled in the Faroe Islands during 1994-1995. At age 7 years, VEP tracings were obtained from 139 cohort...... subjects after exclusion of subjects with abnormal vision conditions. We used multiple regression analysis to evaluate the association of mercury concentrations in cord blood and maternal hair at parturition with VEP latencies after adjustment for potential confounders that included the cord...

  4. Behavioral outcomes in children exposed prenatally to lamotrigine, valproate, or carbamazepine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Uma; Adams, Jane; Macklin, Eric A.; Dhillon, Ruby; McCarthy, Katherine D.; Dworetzky, Barbara; Klein, Autumn; Holmes, Lewis B.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate adaptive behavior outcomes of children prenatally exposed to lamotrigine, valproate, or carbamazepine, and to determine if these outcomes were dose-dependent. Methods Data were collected from women enrolled in the North American Anti-epileptic Drug (AED) Pregnancy Registry who had taken lamotrigine, valproate, or carbamazepine monotherapies throughout pregnancy to suppress seizures. The adaptive behavior of 252 exposed children (including 104 lamotrigine-exposed, 97 carbamazepine-exposed, and 51 valproate-exposed), ages 3- to 6-years-old, was measured using the Vineland-II Adaptive Behavior Scales, administered to each mother by telephone. Mean Adaptive Behavior Composite (ABC), domain standard scores for communication, daily living, socialization and motor skills, and adaptive levels were analyzed and correlated with first trimester drug dose. Results After adjusting for maternal age, education, folate use, cigarette and alcohol exposure, gestational age, and birth weight by propensity score analysis, the mean ABC score for valproate-exposed children was 95.6 (95% CI [91, 101]), versus 100.8 (95% CI [98, 103]) and 103.5 (95% CI [101, 106]) for carbamazepine- and lamotrigine-exposed children, respectively (ANOVA; p=0.017). Significant differences were observed among the three drug groups in the ABC (p=0.017), socialization (p=0.026), and motor (p=0.018) domains, with a trend toward significance in the communication domain (p=0.053). Valproate-exposed children scored lowest and lamotrigine-exposed children scored highest in every category. Valproate-exposed children were most likely to perform at a low or moderately low adaptive level in each category. Higher valproate dose was associated with significantly lower ABC (p=0.020), socialization (p=0.009), and motor (p=0.041) scores before adjusting for confounders. After adjusting for the above variables, increasing VPA dose was associated with decreasing Vineland scores in all domains, but the

  5. Estimating the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders through a national health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padoin Cintia V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Children whose parents have psychiatric disorders experience an increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders, and have higher rates of developmental problems and mortality. Assessing the size of this population is important for planning of preventive strategies which target these children. Methods National survey data (CCHS 1.2 was used to estimate the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders. Disorders were diagnosed using the World Psychiatric Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI (12 month prevalence. Data on the number of children below 12 years of age in the home, and the relationship of the respondents with the children, was used to estimate exposure. Parent-child relations were identified, as was single parenthood. Using a design-based analysis, the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders was calculated. Results Almost 570,000 children under 12 live in households where the survey respondent met criteria for one or more mood, anxiety or substance use disorders in the previous 12 months, corresponding to 12.1% of Canadian children under the age of 12. Almost 3/4 of these children have parents that report receiving no mental health care in the 12 months preceding the survey. For 17% of all Canadian children under age 12, the individual experiencing a psychiatric disorder is the only parent in the household. Conclusion The high number of children exposed causes major concern and has important implications. Although these children will not necessarily experience adversities, they possess an elevated risk of accidents, mortality, and of developing psychiatric disorders. We expect these estimates will promote further research and stimulate discussion at both health policy and planning tables.

  6. Use of video modeling to increase generalization of social play by children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Nikopoulos, C K

    2007-01-01

    The use of video modeling to increase generalization of social play skills in children with autism is discussed. The possible reasons that have made this procedure so favorable among researchers and practitioners are explored. Two studies are described in which video modeling increased the generalization of social play in 6 children, and critical features of procedure are emphasized. Suggestions regarding the potential mechanisms responsible for the effectiveness of this procedure are discuss...

  7. THERAPEUTIC PLAY AS TECHNIQUE SUPPORTING TO PHYSIOTHERAPEUTIC TREATMENT IN CHILDREN WITH RESPIRATORY DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Schenkel,Isabel de Castro; Garcia, Júlia Macruz; Berretta, Marina da Silva Kleinubing; da Silva, Maria Eduarda Merlin; Schivinski, Camila Isabel Santos

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This integrative review aims to provide publications concerning about the use of therapeutic play during sessions of physical therapy in children with respiratory disorders. This kind of intervention such funds placed in care as a strategy to motivate and teach children. The revision was carried out in the databases PubMed, Medline, SciELO, Lilacs, Science Direct, using the descriptors: respiratory therapy, pediatrics and play and playthings. From a total of 73 publications, 36 work...

  8. Roles of temperamental arousal and gender-segregated play in young children's social adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabes, R A; Shepard, S A; Guthrie, I K; Martin, C L

    1997-07-01

    The hypothesis that gender differences in children's adjustment is partially influenced by differences in temperament and interactions with same-sex peers was examined. Fifty-seven predominantly White, middle-class preschoolers (29 boys and 28 girls, M age = 54.5 months) participated. Measures were taken of children's arousability, problem behaviors, and tendencies to play with same-sex peers. A semester later, children's peer status was assessed. Analyses revealed that arousability and same-sex peer play interacted to predict problem behaviors. For boys high in arousability, play with same-sex peers increased problem behaviors. In contrast, arousable girls who played with other girls were relatively unlikely to show problem behaviors. Moreover, the interaction of arousability and same-sex peer play predicted boys' (but not girls') peer status, and this relation was partially mediated by problem behaviors. The role of gender-related processes is discussed.

  9. Development Enamel Defects in Children Prenatally Exposed to Anti-Epileptic Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Endrup; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Haubek, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    Objective Some anti-epileptic drugs (AED) have well-known teratogenic effects. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of prenatal exposure to AED and the risk of enamel defects in the primary and permanent dentition. Methods A total of 38 exposed and 129 non-exposed children, 6......–10 years of age, were recruited from the Aarhus Birth Cohort and the Department of Neurology, Viborg Regional Hospital, Denmark. Medication during pregnancy was confirmed by the Danish Prescription Database. All children had their teeth examined and outcomes in terms of enamel opacities and enamel...... hypoplasia were recorded. Results Children prenatally exposed to AED have an increased prevalence of enamel hypoplasia (11% vs. 4%, odds ratio (OR) = 3.6 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9 to 15.4]), diffuse opacities (18% vs. 7%, OR = 3.0; [95% CI: 1.0 to 8.7, p3) white opacities (18...

  10. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. Methods In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203 and at 6 to11 years of age (n = 177 the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23, -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7 and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6, -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0. Exposed (medium and highly together children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0 from birth to school age and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6 larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount, the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5 and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4 higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022 and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22, boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79, but not IGFBP3. Conclusions Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to

  11. Enjoyment of tactile play is associated with lower food neophobia in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, Helen; Thakker, Dipti

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has shown that parental reports of food neophobia and tactile sensitivity are associated with lower fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake in children. This study aimed to pilot a behavioral observation measure of tactile play in young children. The primary aim of the study was to see whether children's enjoyment of tactile play was associated with higher F/V consumption, as well as lower food neophobia. Seventy 2- to 5-year-old children (37 males and 33 females) and their parents were recruited through children's centers in the Leicester region of the United Kingdom during July to October 2012. Children's engagement in two tactile play tasks using sticky foods (mashed potatoes and vegetarian gelatin) was observed and rated by both the researcher and parent. Parents were asked to complete a series of questionnaires measuring F/V consumption, food neophobia, and sensory processing. It was found that lower child food neophobia was significantly related to enjoyment of tactile play, whereas child F/V consumption was associated with parental F/V consumption, but not enjoyment of tactile play. The findings strengthen the idea that tactile processing may be associated with the acceptance of food variety, but not the total amount of F/V consumed. Additional research is indicated to determine whether tactile play tasks can be used to lower child food neophobia.

  12. Serum Vaccine Antibody Concentrations in Children Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P.; Andersen, E. W.; Budtz-Jorgensen, E.

    2012-01-01

    in follow-up through 2008. Main Outcome Measures Serum antibody concentrations against tetanus and diphtheria toxoids at ages 5 and 7 years. Results Similar to results of prior studies in the United States, the PFCs with the highest serum concentrations were perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS...... concentration. PFCs in the child's serum at age 5 years showed uniformly negative associations with antibody levels, especially at age 7 years, except that the tetanus antibody level following PFOS exposure was not statistically significant. In a structural equation model, a 2-fold greater concentration.......44) for falling below a clinically protective level of 0.1 IU/mL for tetanus and diphtheria antibodies at age 7 years. Conclusion Elevated exposures to PFCs were associated with reduced humoral immune response to routine childhood immunizations in children aged 5 and 7 years. JAMA. 2012;307(4):391-397...

  13. A Perceptual Motor Intervention Improves Play Behavior In Children With Moderate To Severe Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigette Oliver Ryalls

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy (CP, a foundational early goal is independent sitting. Sitting offers additional opportunities for object exploration, play and social engagement. The achievement of sitting coincides with important milestones in other developmental areas, such as social engagement with others, understanding of spatial relationships, and the use of both hands to explore objects. These milestones are essential skills necessary for play behavior. However, little is known about how sitting and play behavior might be affected by a physical therapy intervention in children with moderate or severe CP. Therefore, our overall purpose in this study was to determine if sitting skill could be advanced in children with moderate to severe CP using a perceptual motor intervention, and if play skills would change significantly as sitting advanced. Thirty children between the ages of 18 months and 6 years who were able to hold prop sitting for at least 10 seconds were recruited for this study. Outcome measures were the sitting subsection of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM, and the Play Assessment of Children with Motor Impairment (PACMI play assessment scale, which is a modified version of the Play in Early Childhood Evaluation System (PIECES. Significant improvements in GMFM sitting scores (p<0.001 and marginally significant improvement in play assessment scores (p=0.067 were found from pre- to post-intervention. Sitting change explained a significant portion of the variance in play change for children over the age of 3 years, who were more severely affected by CP. The results of this study indicate that advances in sitting skill may be a factor in supporting improvements in functional play, along with age and severity of physical impairment.

  14. A Perceptual Motor Intervention Improves Play Behavior in Children with Moderate to Severe Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryalls, Brigette O.; Harbourne, Regina; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Wickstrom, Jordan; Stergiou, Nick; Kyvelidou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    For children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy (CP), a foundational early goal is independent sitting. Sitting offers additional opportunities for object exploration, play and social engagement. The achievement of sitting coincides with important milestones in other developmental areas, such as social engagement with others, understanding of spatial relationships, and the use of both hands to explore objects. These milestones are essential skills necessary for play behavior. However, little is known about how sitting and play behavior might be affected by a physical therapy intervention in children with moderate or severe CP. Therefore, our overall purpose in this study was to determine if sitting skill could be advanced in children with moderate to severe CP using a perceptual motor intervention, and if play skills would change significantly as sitting advanced. Thirty children between the ages of 18 months and 6 years who were able to hold prop sitting for at least 10 s were recruited for this study. Outcome measures were the sitting subsection of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), and the Play Assessment of Children with Motor Impairment play assessment scale, which is a modified version of the Play in Early Childhood Evaluation System. Significant improvements in GMFM sitting scores (p < 0.001) and marginally significant improvement in play assessment scores (p = 0.067) were found from pre- to post-intervention. Sitting change explained a significant portion of the variance in play change for children over the age of 3 years, who were more severely affected by CP. The results of this study indicate that advances in sitting skill may be a factor in supporting improvements in functional play, along with age and severity of physical impairment. PMID:27199868

  15. Young Children's Learning of Novel Digital Interfaces: How Technology Experience, Age, and Design Come into Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilutz, Shuli

    2009-01-01

    This study looks at the relationship between age, technology experience, and design factors in determining young children's comprehension of novel digital interfaces. In Experiment 1, 35 preschoolers played three games that varied in complexity and familiarity. Parental questionnaires were used to assess children's previous technology experience.…

  16. Children and Media outside the Home: Playing and Learning in After-School Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vered, Karen Orr

    2008-01-01

    Karen Orr Vered demonstrates how children's media play contributes to their acquisition of media literacy. Theorizing after-school care as intermediary space, a large-scale ethnographic study informs this theory-rich and practical discussion of children's media use beyond home and classroom.

  17. Examining Young Children's Perception toward Augmented Reality-Infused Dramatic Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeonghye; Jo, Miheon; Hyun, Eunja; So, Hyo-jeong

    2015-01-01

    Amid the increasing interest in applying augmented reality (AR) in educational settings, this study explores the design and enactment of an AR-infused robot system to enhance children's satisfaction and sensory engagement with dramatic play activities. In particular, we conducted an exploratory study to empirically examine children's perceptions…

  18. Children and Media outside the Home: Playing and Learning in After-School Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vered, Karen Orr

    2008-01-01

    Karen Orr Vered demonstrates how children's media play contributes to their acquisition of media literacy. Theorizing after-school care as intermediary space, a large-scale ethnographic study informs this theory-rich and practical discussion of children's media use beyond home and classroom.

  19. [The impact of digital media on relations, play and learning in young children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayoty-Vanhoutte, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Screens are occupying an increasingly bigger place in families, which can have harmful consequences on the development of young children. To ensure their harmonious construction, children must not be deprived of games which involve interaction with the outside world and adults. They need exchanges with their parents and with professionals aware of the role which they have to play in a child's discoveries.

  20. What Are the Roles that Children's Drawings Play in Inquiry of Science Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the roles that drawing played in the process of children's acquisition of science concepts. Seventy pre-service teachers through four semesters from a Midwest University in the USA developed lesson plans on science concepts and then taught them to 70 young children ages 4-7, respectively. This experience was…

  1. Nature and Young Children: Encouraging Creative Play and Learning in Natural Environments. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Now in its second edition, "Nature and Young Children" promotes the holistic development of children by connecting them with nature. It offers advice and guidance on how to set up indoor and outdoor nature play spaces as well as encouraging environmentally responsible attitudes, values and behaviour in your early childhood setting. Covering topics…

  2. Young Children's Classification, Stereotyping and Play Behaviour for Gender Neutral and Ambiguous Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Dempsey, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory would predict that children develop fewer or weaker stereotypes about toys that have less distinguishable gender attributes than those that are clearly associated with a gender. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutral and ambiguous toys in 31 three- to five-year-old children's play behaviour…

  3. One Screen, Many Fingers: Young Children's Collaborative Literacy Play with Digital Puppetry Apps and Touchscreen Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlwend, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the digital literacy practices that emerge when young children play together with digital apps on touchscreen devices. Children's collaborative composing with a digital puppetry app on a touchscreen--with many hands all busy dragging, resizing, and animating puppet characters, and many voices making sound effects, narrating,…

  4. Play Therapy Applied by Parents for Children with Darkness Phobia: Comparison of Two Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, Isabel; Mendez, Francisco J.; Sanchez-Meca, Julio

    2006-01-01

    Two play therapies applied by parents for darkness phobia in young children are compared. Seventy-eight children between the ages of 4 and 8 were recruited from twenty-seven schools. The participants were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: bibliotherapy and games, emotive performances, and no treatment. The treatments were applied…

  5. Parent-Implemented Script Fading to Promote Play-Based Verbal Initiations in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagon, Kara A.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2009-01-01

    We trained 3 mothers of children with autism to create, implement, and systematically fade scripts to promote vocal initiations during play. All 3 children's scripted and unscripted initiations increased after the introduction and fading of scripts, and unscripted initiations were maintained at the 2-week follow-up. The results indicate that…

  6. Nature and Young Children: Encouraging Creative Play and Learning in Natural Environments. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Now in its second edition, "Nature and Young Children" promotes the holistic development of children by connecting them with nature. It offers advice and guidance on how to set up indoor and outdoor nature play spaces as well as encouraging environmentally responsible attitudes, values and behaviour in your early childhood setting. Covering topics…

  7. Young Children's Role-Playing for Enhancing Personal Intelligences in Multiple Intelligences Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Su-Jeong; Shin, Hwa-Sik; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This article examines young children's role-play in an effort to develop methods with which teachers can enhance children's interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. Examining how MI practice is applied in different cultural and social contexts is important because it can provide new insights on enriching and enhancing curricula and…

  8. Individual Differences in Children's Risk Perception and Appraisals in Outdoor Play Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    Child characteristics including age, gender, risk-taking behaviour and sensation seeking are thought to influence children's ability to appraise risks. The present study investigated children's risk perceptions and appraisals in the context of common outdoor physical play activities. Risk perceptions and appraisal of four- and five-year olds were…

  9. Attention orientation in parents exposed to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Kara M; Mandell, Donald J; Musa, George J; Britton, Jennifer C; Sankin, Lindsey S; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Ernst, Monique; Doan, Thao; Bar-Haim, Yair; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S; Hoven, Christina W

    2011-05-15

    While trauma affects both parents and their children, minimal research examines the role of information-processing perturbations in shaping reactions to trauma experienced by parents and, in turn, the effect this trauma has on their children. This study examines familial associations among trauma, psychopathology, and attention bias. Specifically, group differences in psychopathology and attention bias were examined in both adults and their children based on trauma exposure. In addition, the association between attention bias in parents and attention bias in their children was examined. Parents exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attacks and their children were recruited from the New York City Metropolitan area. Levels of trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, and attention bias to threat, as measured with the dot-probe task, were each assessed in 90 subjects, comprising of 45 parents and one of their children. These measures were examined in parents and their children separately; each parent and child was categorized on the presence of high or low levels of trauma exposure. Although trauma exposure did not relate to psychopathology, parents who were highly exposed to trauma showed greater attention bias towards threat than parents with low trauma exposure. However, the children of high trauma-exposed parents did not show enhanced attention bias towards threat, though threat bias in the high trauma-exposed parents did negatively correlate with threat bias in their children. This association between trauma and attention bias in parents was found four-to-five years after 9/11, suggesting that trauma has enduring influences on threat processing. Larger, prospective studies might examine relationships within families among traumatic exposures, psychopathology, and information-processing functions.

  10. Attention Orientation in Parents Exposed to the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Kara M.; Mandell, Donald J.; Musa, George J.; Britton, Jennifer C.; Sankin, Lindsey S.; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P.; Ernst, Monique; Doan, Thao; Bar-Haim, Yair; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S.; Hoven, Christina W.

    2010-01-01

    While trauma affects both parents and their children, minimal research examines the role of information-processing perturbations in shaping reactions to trauma experienced by parents and, in turn, the effect this trauma has on their children. This study examines familial associations among trauma, psychopathology, and attention bias. Specifically, group differences in psychopathology and attention bias were examined in both adults and their children based on trauma exposure. In addition, the association between attention bias in parents and attention bias in their children was examined. Parents exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attacks and their children were recruited from the New York City Metropolitan area. Levels of trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, and attention bias to threat, as measured with the dot-probe task, were each assessed in 90 subjects, comprising of 45 parents and one of their children. These measures were examined in parents and their children separately; each parent and child was categorized on the presence of high or low levels of trauma exposure. Although trauma exposure did not relate to psychopathology, parents who were highly exposed to trauma showed greater attention bias towards threat than parents with low trauma exposure. However, the children of high trauma-exposed parents did not show enhanced attention bias towards threat, though threat bias in the high trauma-exposed parents did negatively correlate with threat bias in their children. This association between trauma and attention bias in parents was found four-to-five years after 9/11, suggesting that trauma has enduring influences on threat processing. Larger, prospective studies might examine relationships within families among traumatic exposures, psychopathology, and information-processing functions. PMID:20970198

  11. Comparative analysis of performance in reading and writing of children exposed and not exposed to high sound pressure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juliana Feitosa dos; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de; Seligman, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the possible relationships between high sound pressure levels in the classroom and performance in the use of lexical and phonological routes in reading and writing. This consisted on a quantitative and exploratory study. The following measures were carried out: acoustic measurement, using the dosimeter, visual inspection of the external auditory canal, tonal audiometry thresholds, speech recognition tests and acoustic immittance; instrument for evaluation of reading and writing of isolated words. The non-parametric χ² test and Fisher's exact test were used for data analysis. The results of acoustic measurements in 4 schools in Santa Maria divided the sample of 87 children of third and fourth years of primary school, aged 8 to 10 years, in 2 groups. The 1st group was exposed to sound levels higher than 80 dB(A) (Study group) and the 2nd group at levels lower than 80 dB(A) (Control group). Higher prevalence of correct answers in reading and writing of nonwords, reading irregular words and frequency effect were observed. Predominance of correct answers in the writing of irregular words was observed in the Control group. For the Study group, a higher number of type errors neologism in reading and writing were observed, especially regarding the writing of nonwords and the extension effect; fewer errors of lexicalization type and verbal paragraphy in writing were observed. In assessing the reading and writing skills, children in the Study group exposed to high noise levels had poorer performance in the use of lexical and phonological routes, both in reading and in writing.

  12. Visual selective attention is impaired in children prenatally exposed to opioid agonist medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnenberg, Carolien; Melinder, Annika

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether prenatal exposure to opioid agonist medication is associated with visual selective attention and general attention problems in early childhood. Twenty-two children (mean age = 52.17 months, SD = 1.81) prenatally exposed to methadone, 9 children (mean age = 52.41 months, SD = 1.42) prenatally exposed to buprenorphine and 25 nonexposed comparison children (mean age = 51.44 months, SD = 1.31) were tested. Visual selective attention was measured with a Tobii 1750 Eye Tracker using a spatial negative priming paradigm. Attention problems were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist. The comparison group demonstrated a larger spatial negative priming effect (mean = 23.50, SD = 45.50) than the exposed group [mean = -6.84, SD = 86.39, F(1,50) = 5.91, p = 0.019, η(2) = 0.11]. No difference in reported attention problems was found [F(1,51) = 1.63, p = 0.21, η(2) = 0.03]. Neonatal abstinence syndrome and prenatal exposure to marijuana were found to predict slower saccade latencies in the exposed group (b = 54.55, SE = 23.56, p = 0.03 and b = 88.86, SE = 32.07, p = 0.01, respectively). Although exposed children did not appear to have attention deficits in daily life, lower performance on the SNP task indicates subtle alteration in the attention system. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. MRI pallidal signal in children exposed to manganese in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Laurie-Anne; Bouchard, Maryse F; Sauvé, Sébastien; Barbeau, Benoit; Tucholka, Alan; Major, Philipe; Gilbert, Guillaume; Mergler, Donna; Saint-Amour, Dave

    2016-03-01

    Manganese (Mn) can have neurotoxic effects upon overexposure. We previously reported poorer cognitive and motor development in children exposed to Mn through drinking water, suggesting possible neurotoxic effects from Mn in water. Hyperintensity in the globus pallidus (GP) on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicates excessive brain Mn accumulation. Previous studies have reported GP hyperintensity related to Mn exposure in occupationally exposed individuals. However, no study has used MRI in children exposed to Mn in drinking water and who show no sign of overt intoxication. To examine MRI signal intensity in the GP in children exposed to contrasted levels of Mn in drinking water. We enrolled 13 children exposed to low Mn concentration in water and 10 children (ages 9-15 years) with high concentration (median of 1 and 145μg/L, respectively). We calculated three MRI T1 indexes: (i) standard pallidal index (PI) using frontal white matter as reference; (ii) PI using pericranial muscles as reference; and (iii) T1 relaxation time. Each MRI index was compared between exposure groups, and with respect to the estimated Mn intake from water consumption. The standard PI did not differ between Mn-exposure groups. However, children in the group with high water-Mn concentration had significantly lower pericranial muscles PI than those with lower exposure and, accordingly, higher T1 relaxation time. Mn intake from water consumption was not correlated with the standard PI, but was significantly related to the pericranial muscles PI and T1 relaxation time. Motor performance was significantly lower in the high-exposure group. We observed lower signal intensity in the GP of children with higher exposure to Mn from drinking water. This result stands in contrast to previous MRI reports showing GP hyperintensity with greater Mn exposure. Differences in exposure pathways are discussed as a potential explanation for this discrepancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  14. The Effect of Thematically Related Play on Engagement in Storybook Reading in Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, Kristen W.; Metz, Alexia E.; Pakulski, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether theme-related play increased subsequent engagement in storybook reading in preschool children with typical hearing and with hearing loss. Method: This study employed a counterbalanced experimental design. In all sessions, participants engaged in free play first and then were read a storybook. In the…

  15. The Effect of Thematically Related Play on Engagement in Storybook Reading in Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, Kristen W.; Metz, Alexia E.; Pakulski, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether theme-related play increased subsequent engagement in storybook reading in preschool children with typical hearing and with hearing loss. Method: This study employed a counterbalanced experimental design. In all sessions, participants engaged in free play first and then were read a storybook. In the…

  16. Do Behavioural Approaches Teach Children with Autism to Play or Are They Pretending?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Tim; Bundy, Anita; Roberts, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Play is, by definition, internally motivated, flexible, spontaneous and voluntary. Yet some researchers claim to have taught children with autism to play using behavioural interventions that are heavily structured, repetitive and make use of external reinforcements. In the current systematic review, we examine the extent to which these claims are…

  17. Block Play: Spatial Language with Preschool and School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lynn E.; Emmons, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Implementing a play-based curriculum presents challenges for pre-service and in-service teachers given the current climate of standards and didactic pedagogies. This study highlights the value of playful learning and its rightful place in early childhood classrooms for children of all ages. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the…

  18. Effects of a Classroom Intervention with Spatial Play Materials on Children's Object and Viewer Transformation Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Heyden, Karin M.; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2017-01-01

    Children practice their spatial skills when playing with spatial toys, such as construction materials, board games, and puzzles. Sex and SES differences are observed in the engagement in such spatial play activities at home, which relate to individual differences in spatial performance. The current study investigated the effects of explicitly…

  19. Play and Concept Development in Infants and Young Children with Severe Visual Impairments: A Constructivist View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the impact of severe visual impairment on the development of play skills that facilitate concept development and discusses interventions that can enhance play experiences for infants and young children with severe visual impairments. Strategies encourage intrinsic motivation, spontaneity, active engagement, positive effect,…

  20. The Effects of Background Television on the Toy Play Behavior of Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marie Evans; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Kirkorian, Heather L.; Lund, Anne Frankenfield; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment tests the hypothesis that background, adult television is a disruptive influence on very young children's behavior. Fifty 12-, 24-, and 36-month-olds played with a variety of toys for 1 hr. For half of the hour, a game show played in the background on a monaural TV set. During the other half hour, the TV was off. The children…

  1. Correlates and Effects of Training in Make-Believe Play in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anita K. F.

    1985-01-01

    Pretend play training was given to an experimental group of 15 children aged three to five years. A matched control group was given mastery tasks. Results showed the experimental group gained significantly on observed make-believe play, non-standard alternative uses, Say-and-Tell total, Self-Concept Empathy Preschool Embedded Figures, and Matching…

  2. Exploring Kindergarten Teachers' Views and Roles Regarding Children's Outdoor Play Environments in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Qaryouti, Ibrahim A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore kindergarten teachers' views and roles regarding outdoor play environments in Omani kindergartens. Thirty kindergarten teachers from 15 private kindergartens were observed and interviewed. The results indicated that teachers recognize the importance of outdoor play in children's development and learning.…

  3. Play and Theory of Mind: Associations with Social Competence in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Emma; Jenvey, Vickii

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether: (1) the development of "theory of mind" (ToM) is associated with social competence; and (2) social peer play is also associated with social competence in young children. Associations between ToM task performance, frequencies of observed social and solitary free-play and parent-rated social…

  4. Two Variations of Video Modeling Interventions for Teaching Play Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Kimberly; Sidener, Tina M.; Reeve, Sharon A.; Sidener, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The current study employed an adapted alternating treatments design with reversal and multiple probe across participants components to compare the effects of traditional video priming and simultaneous video modeling on the acquisition of play skills in two children diagnosed with autism. Generalization was programmed across play sets, instructors,…

  5. Adjusting Limit Setting in Play Therapy with First-Generation Mexican-American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Roxanna; Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Kranz, Peter L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on limit setting in play therapy with first-generation Mexican-American children in two important therapeutic environments that include the traditional indoor playroom and a proposed outdoor play area. The paper is based on a review of the literature and the authors' clinical experiences with this population. They concluded…

  6. Measurement and Facilitation of Affectionate Behaviour in the Play of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, John P.; Acker, Loren E.

    This study attempted to determine whether simple, naturalistic procedures could be used to increase the rate of physically affectionate behaviors directed at stuffed toy animals and at peers in the play of 4- and 5-year-old children. Procedures were developed for scoring affection and aggression during group play. The context of reading a story…

  7. A Comparison of the Interactive Play Behaviours between Children with Albinism and Their Siblings and Children without Albinism and Their Non-Albino Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javangwe, Gwatirera; Mukondyo, Rachel Z.

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the nature of the interactive play behaviours of children with albinism and children without albinism and compared the interactive behaviours of both children with albinism and children without albinism. Naturalistic observations were conducted during periods of free play, using the interactive play behaviour checklist aided by…

  8. [Requirements and risk profile of soccer-playing children. Orthopedic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, M; Klimt, F

    1992-12-01

    Although the rate of injuries in soccer is high, this sport puts children only at moderate risk of getting injured. In younger children this risk is very low but the number and severity of injuries increases with puberty. The most common cause for injuries is a collision with another player, the most common injury is distortion of the talocrural joint. Playing soccer indoors is more dangerous than playing outdoors. The danger of accidents and injuries can be reduced by preventive measures, such as weight categories in children leagues.

  9. An Ecological Exploration of Young Children's Digital Play: Framing Children's Social Experiences with Technologies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines an ecological framework for describing children's social experiences during digital play. It presents evidence from a study that explored how 3- to 5-year-old children negotiated their social experiences as they used technologies in preschool. Utilising a systematic and iterative cycle of data collection and analysis,…

  10. The effectiveness of video prompting on teaching aquatic play skills for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardag, Mehmet; Akmanoglu, Nurgul; Yilmaz, Ilker

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of the video prompting procedure on teaching aquatic play skills and to determine the effects of aquatic exercise training on the motor performance of children with autism. A multiple probe design across behaviours was used and replicated across subjects for the instructional part of this study. Pretest-posttest design was applied for the exercise training part of this study. Three children with autism were taught three aquatic play skills in a one-to-one training format. Aquatic play skills intervention and aquatic exercise training were performed separately throughout 12 weeks at three sessions per week, each lasting 1 h. The video prompting procedure was utilized for the instruction part of this study. Video prompting was effective in teaching aquatic play skills to children with autism. In addition, aquatic exercise training increased the total motor performance scores of all the participants after 12 weeks. According to the social validity results, the families gave positive feedback about the learned skills and movement capabilities of their children. Aquatic play skills and swimming pools are favoured for children with autism. This attractive intervention is recommended as a means to extend knowledge of leisure skills and motor development of children with autism.

  11. The effect of group play therapy on social-emotional skills in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinekesh, Ahdieh; Kamalian, Mehrnoush; Eltemasi, Masoumeh; Chinekesh, Shirin; Alavi, Manijeh

    2013-12-24

    Childhood is important and critical period in human life. The foundation of ego is shaped in childhood. Play therapy is one of the successful strategies to help children with inner conflicts problems. This method of psychotherapy is base on the normal learning processes of children, provides solutions to relieve feelings of stress, and expands self-expression. Group play therapy can enhance the self-awareness, self- regulation, social communication, empathy and adoptability in children. Present study investigated the effects of play therapy on relational and emotional skills of pre-school children. For this purpose, the total numbers of 372 pre-school children were randomly selected, and divided into two equal groups (case and control). In next step, the BUSSE-SR methodology was used for evaluation and comparison of self-awareness, self-regulation, social interaction, empathy, adoptability, and control groups. Pre-test were performed for both groups and case group was involved in-group play therapy. According to the results of post-test, correlation of variables between case-control groups was examined by multivariate analysis of covariance. Frequency of boys and girls in our sample were 51.3 and 48.7 percent, respectively. The mean age of children was 5.1±0.6 year. According to the results of present study, play therapy significantly enhanced the social-emotional skills (Pskills and communicate with others.

  12. IMPACT OF THE ABSENCE OR LIMITEDNESS OF CHILDREN’S PLAYGROUND ON CHILDREN PLAY ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmonangan Manurung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Statistics shows that more than 25% of Indonesia's population in 2015 is comprised of children. For children, play is a very important activity in the process of their physical growth and social development. Play is also a right of children that is reinforced and protected by the constitution. But the rapid urban growth has resulted to the reduction of open spaces for children’s playground and this has limited their movement. Therefore, this paper assessed the impact of playground limitations on the playing activity of children in various places in the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Qualitative research method was primarily used by which the data were collected through questionnaires, personal interviews, field observation, and literature review. The results showed how limited the spaces for children’s playground in the city of Yogyakarta which made children to utilize the road, the space around riverbank, the space around railroad tracks, and vacant land for playing and bicycling. These are spaces which are intended for other purposes but are perceived by children as available for them to play. They may be not aware that this is a very risky condition which they may have not fully realized particularly when no adults had intervened.

  13. Outdoor play in children: associations with objectively-measured physical activity, sedentary behavior and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michelle R; Faulkner, Guy E J

    2014-08-01

    To determine the amount of time children play outdoors and examine associations with weekday, weekend and after-school physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and weight-status (normal-weight, overweight/obese). Data were extracted from Project BEAT (Toronto, 2010-2011; www.beat.utoronto.ca). Children's (n=856; mean age=11±0.6years) PA and SB were measured using accelerometry. Outdoor play (OP) was assessed via parental report and collapsed into three categories (2h/day) and differences in anthropometric and PA characteristics were assessed. 55.1%, 37.2%, and 7.7% of children played outdoors for 2h/day, respectively, on weekdays. OP was higher on weekends and in boys. OP was associated with SB, light PA and MVPA at all time-points, whereby children attaining activity profiles. Boys playing outdoors for overweight/obese and had lower PA levels than normal weight boys. However, overweight/obese boys who spent >2h/day playing outdoors had PA profiles similar to normal weight counterparts. Encouraging children to spend more time outdoors may be an effective strategy for increasing PA, reducing SB, and preventing excess weight gain (particularly boys' play). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. What is the Relationship between Risky Outdoor Play and Health in Children? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussoni, Mariana; Gibbons, Rebecca; Gray, Casey; Ishikawa, Takuro; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Chabot, Guylaine; Fuselli, Pamela; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-06-08

    Risky outdoor play has been associated with promoting children's health and development, but also with injury and death. Risky outdoor play has diminished over time, concurrent with increasing concerns regarding child safety and emphasis on injury prevention. We sought to conduct a systematic review to examine the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children, in order to inform the debate regarding its benefits and harms. We identified and evaluated 21 relevant papers for quality using the GRADE framework. Included articles addressed the effect on health indicators and behaviours from three types of risky play, as well as risky play supportive environments. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of risky outdoor play on a variety of health indicators and behaviours, most commonly physical activity, but also social health and behaviours, injuries, and aggression. The review indicated the need for additional "good quality" studies; however, we note that even in the face of the generally exclusionary systematic review process, our findings support the promotion of risky outdoor play for healthy child development. These positive results with the marked reduction in risky outdoor play opportunities in recent generations indicate the need to encourage action to support children's risky outdoor play opportunities. Policy and practice precedents and recommendations for action are discussed.

  15. Effects of Playing Violent versus Nonviolent Video Games on the Aggressive Ideation of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybill, Daniel; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examines effects of playing violent and nonviolent video games on children's aggressive ideation. Children played a violent or nonviolent video game for eight minutes. Provides initial support, at least on a short-term basis, for notion that the playing of video games affects children's aggression fantasies. (Author/DST)

  16. Mothers and Fathers at Play with Their Children with Down Syndrome: Influence on Child Exploratory and Symbolic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Simona; Esposito, Gianluca; Venuti, Paola; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Through play children exercise their emerging mental abilities, and for their part, when in collaborative play, caregivers often adjust their behaviours to assist their children's progress. In this study, we focused on comparisons between play of Down Syndrome (DS) children with their two parents as well as on comparisons between the…

  17. 77 FR 42334 - Meeting of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence (Correction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Violence (Correction) AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The... meeting of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence (the ``task...

  18. Playing in childhood: importance and singularities for children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Mara Zancanaro Pieczkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated what kind of playing and how visually impaired children play in the family and educational contexts, aiming at understanding playing and the role of toys in these children‟s development. The study was based on the historical-cultural perspective, mainly considering Vygotsky‟s studies. Empirical material was collected from five families with blind or short-sighted children and from the specialized institution these children attend. We adopted semi-structured interviews with parents and educators and observation of the relevant contexts. The data collected was categorized and theorized through content analysis. We concluded that the mediation of another person during playing enables the visually impaired child to develop confidence to explore the physical space, objects and to elaborate concepts.

  19. Environmental determinants of outdoor play in children: a large-scale cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Marie-Jeanne; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; van Oers, Hans A M; van de Goor, Ien A M; Schuit, Albertine J

    2010-09-01

    Outdoor play is a cheap and natural way for children to be physically active. This study aims to identify physical as well as social correlates of outdoor play in the home and neighborhood environment among children of different age groups. Cross-sectional data were derived from 6470 parents of children from 42 primary schools in four Dutch cities by means of questionnaires (2007-2008). Multivariate sequential Poisson GEE analyses were conducted (2010) to quantify the correlation between physical and social home and neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among boys and girls aged 4-6 years, 7-9 years, and 10-12 years. This study showed that next to proximal (home) environmental characteristics such as parental education (RR=0.93-0.97); the importance parents pay to outdoor play (RR=1.32-1.75); and the presence of electronic devices in the child's own room (RR=1.04-1.15), several neighborhood characteristics were significantly associated with children's outdoor play. Neighborhood social cohesion was related to outdoor play in five of six subgroups (RR=1.01-1.02), whereas physical neighborhood characteristics (e.g., green neighborhood type, presence of water, diversity of routes) were associated with outdoor play in specific subgroups only. Neighborhood social cohesion was related to outdoor play among children of different age and gender, which makes it a promising point of action for policy development. Policies aimed at improving physical neighborhood characteristics in relation to outdoor play should take into account age and gender of the target population. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-Worth and Social Support of Children Exposed to Marital Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesen, Yuriko; Porath, Marion

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among global self-worth (GSW), competencies in various domains, discrepancy between these perceptions of competence and their ratings of importance, and perceived social support of children who were exposed to marital violence using Harter's (1985a, 1985b) theoretical model. Participants…

  1. FYI:Model Programs Serving Drug Exposed Children...HHS REPORT:"Crack Babies" Released.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Today, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Announces Health and Human Services (HHS) report on effects that babies who have been exposed to cocaine are having on child welfare system. Many babies are not identified at birth and may suffer future neurological, developmental, and emotional damage. Child welfare system is trying new approaches to handling children but is hampered by lack of…

  2. Children Exposed to Drugs in Utero: Their Scores on the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Mary-Ann L.; Harris, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    The Miller Assessment for Preschoolers was administered to 54 children who had been prenatally exposed to drugs. Results indicated a tendency toward the lower end of the spectrum with poorer performance identified on test items measuring tactile, proprioceptive, and vestibular processing and language. (JOW)

  3. Children Exposed to Drugs in Utero: Their Scores on the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Mary-Ann L.; Harris, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    The Miller Assessment for Preschoolers was administered to 54 children who had been prenatally exposed to drugs. Results indicated a tendency toward the lower end of the spectrum with poorer performance identified on test items measuring tactile, proprioceptive, and vestibular processing and language. (JOW)

  4. An Exploratory Case Study of Young Children's Interactive Play Behaviours with a Non-English Speaking Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah; Son, Won In; Meadows, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study is an examination of preschool-age English speaking children's interactive play behaviours with a non-English speaking child (NEC). The play types of a NEC were reported using the Parten's categories of solitary, parallel and interactive play. In addition, English-speaking children's interactive play with a NEC were reported in this…

  5. The use of playing by the nursing staff on palliative care for children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Albuquerque Soares

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe ways of using play by the nursing staff on palliative care of children with cancer and analyze the facilitators and barriers of the use of playing on this type of care. Qualitative, descriptive research developed on November 2012 with 11 health professionals, in a public hospital of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis of the information were conducted. The use of playing before procedures was highlighted as a facilitator on palliative care. The child's physical condition, one's restriction, resistance of some professionals and the lack of time for developing this activity, made the use of play harder. We concluded that playing enables the child with cancer, in palliative care, a humanized assistance, being fundamental to integrate it on the care for these children.

  6. ICT based technology to support play for children with severe physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Renée; Lexis, Monique; de Witte, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Play is important for a child's development. Children with severe physical disabilities experience difficulties engaging in play. With the progress of technology the possibilities to support play are increasing. The purpose of this review was to gain insight into the possibilities and availability of ICT based technology to support play in children with severe physical disabilities. A systematic literature search within the databases PubMed, CINAHL, IEEE and ERIC was carried out. Three reviewers assessed titles and abstracts independently. Additionally, Google Scholar, conference proceedings and reference lists were used. The included publications reported on 27 different technologies, which can be classified into three main groups; robots, virtual reality systems and computer systems. There are several options that may have great potential in supporting play for this target group.

  7. Illness Symptoms Experienced by Children Exposed to Benzene After a Flaring Incident at the BP Refinery Facility in Texas City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Mark A; Reddy, G Kesava

    2016-10-01

    Objective To evaluate the illness symptoms experienced by children who were exposed to benzene following a flaring incident at the BP refinery in Texas City, Texas. Methods A total of 641 children, aged 5 year (P = .04). Conversely, urinary phenol levels were significantly lower in children 5 years (P = .00). Conclusion Together, these findings reveal that children exposed to benzene experience a range of illness symptoms and an altered profile of urinary phenol indicating their vulnerability to potentially increased health complications.

  8. Developing Children's Views of the Nature of Science Through Role Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakici, Yilmaz; Bayir, Eylem

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using role play (portraying a scientist's life story) on the children's views of the nature of science (NOS). The study was carried out at the Children's University of Trakya in Turkey during the summer of 2010. The participants consisted of 18 children, aged 10-11. They met for 10 days for approximately 3 h per day. All children completed the pre- and post-tests including 16 open-ended questions in order to reveal changes in their views of the NOS prior to and at the completion of the role-play activities. The results revealed that the children had more informed views of the target NOS aspects in comparison with their views prior to the role-play activities. A large majority of the children (around 80-85%) started out with naive conceptions of the target NOS aspects. Following the role-play activities portraying scientists' lives, there was a 40-45% positive change in children's views of the tentative, empirical and creative/imaginative aspect of the NOS, and a 50-60% positive change in their views regarding the subjective/theory-laden and social-cultural embeddedness of science. The most substantial change occurred in their views concerning scientific method, with a shift of 72%. The percentage of informed views on images of scientists showed diversity. Overall results indicate that role-play/drama-oriented activities portraying scientist's life stories could be used as one of the exciting, informative and constructive ways of developing understanding of the NOS among children.

  9. Predictors and Moderators of Spontaneous Pretend Play in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Kang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although pretend play has long been linked to children’s normative cognitive development, inconsistent findings call for greater rigor in examining this relation (Lillard et al., 2013. Spontaneous pretend play is often impacted in atypical development, notably in autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Since ASD traits exist along a continuum in the general population, investigating how pretend play varies across the range of ASD symptoms by indexing variations in ASD traits in both typically-developing and ASD populations may provide insight into how ASD symptoms may influence the relation between pretend play and associated processes in cognitive development. This study used rigorous observational methods to assess spontaneous pretend play. Specifically, 5-minute free-play sessions with two discrete toy sets were double-coded by blinded coders (coder assignment counterbalanced. Key facets of pretense development (attribution of pretend properties, object substitution, imaginary objects were examined. These facets of pretend play production were then analyzed in relation to ASD symptoms, as well as plausible, long-theorized correlates (Theory of Mind [ToM], verbal ability, familiarity, and interest in specific toys. Forty children (Mage = 6;5, SDage = 1.45; 29 male, six of whom met the threshold for ASD diagnosis via parent-reported ASD symptoms, participated in play sessions and completed measures of verbal IQ and ToM. Besides the measure of child ASD symptoms, parents completed a survey of their child’s interest in and familiarity with the play session toys. Overall, greater ToM predicted more attribution of pretend properties, and more interest in the toys presented predicted more object substitution. In terms of overall pretend play production, two results were counterintuitive. First, among children with more ASD symptoms, verbal ability marginally negatively predicted pretend play production. Second, among children with fewer ASD symptoms, To

  10. Predictors and Moderators of Spontaneous Pretend Play in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Erin; Klein, Eliana F.; Lillard, Angeline S.; Lerner, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Although pretend play has long been linked to children’s normative cognitive development, inconsistent findings call for greater rigor in examining this relation (Lillard et al., 2013). Spontaneous pretend play is often impacted in atypical development, notably in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Since ASD traits exist along a continuum in the general population, investigating how pretend play varies across the range of ASD symptoms by indexing variations in ASD traits in both typically developing and ASD populations may provide insight into how ASD symptoms may influence the relation between pretend play and associated processes in cognitive development. This study used rigorous observational methods to assess spontaneous pretend play. Specifically, 5-min free-play sessions with two discrete toy sets were double-coded by blinded coders (coder assignment counterbalanced). Key facets of pretense development [attribution of pretend properties (APP), object substitution (OS), imaginary objects] were examined. These facets of pretend play production were then analyzed in relation to ASD symptoms, as well as plausible, long-theorized correlates [theory of mind (ToM), verbal ability, familiarity, and interest in specific toys]. Forty children (Mage = 6;5, SDage = 1.45; 29 males), six of whom met the threshold for ASD diagnosis via parent-reported ASD symptoms, participated in play sessions and completed measures of verbal IQ and ToM. Besides the measure of child ASD symptoms, parents completed a survey of their child’s interest in and familiarity with the play session toys. Overall, greater ToM predicted more APP, and more interest in the toys presented predicted more OS. In terms of overall pretend play production, two results were counterintuitive. First, among children with more ASD symptoms, verbal ability marginally negatively predicted pretend play production. Second, among children with fewer ASD symptoms, ToM negatively predicted pretend play production

  11. Toy Library: space research on the play of children in school of infantile education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sommerhalder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the toy library as an area of research on child's play and on the child. In dialogue with psychoanalysis, the article aims to address aspects that characterize the children play in an environment of toy library. The study presents a reflection from the results of six sessions of observation of the ‘house play’ among children of the school of infantile education. The observation of the play activity was accompanied by the daily record in the field of actions and words of the thirteen children participating in the study. The study shows that the child is playing in a subjective space and is a preferred vehicle for achieving symbolic of desires and fantasies, the reality of transformation and creation of new knowledge. Therefore, it emphasizes the importance of valuing the toy library at school as a way of redemption and make of play in school of infantile education and highlights the value of play for learning and development of children in school of infantile education.

  12. Communicative Development in Bilingually Exposed Chinese Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetzke, Rachel; Zou, Xiaobing; Sheng, Li; Katsos, Napoleon

    2015-06-01

    We examined the association of bilingual exposure with structural and pragmatic language development in Chinese children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The parents of 54 children with ASD exposed to 1 (n = 31) or 2 (n = 23) Chinese languages completed (a) a questionnaire to evaluate their child's competence in structural language and pragmatic ability in their dominant language (Children's Communication Checklist-Second Edition; Bishop, 2006), and (b) a questionnaire to assess their child's social functioning (Social Responsiveness Scale; Constantino & Gruber, 2005; Wang, Lee, Chen, & Hsu, 2012). In addition, parents completed thorough interviews regarding the linguistic environment of their children (Language Environment Interview; Hambly & Fombonne, 2011). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that bilingually exposed children with ASD did not demonstrate significantly different performance on any standard measure relative to their monolingual peers. The findings suggest that bilingual language exposure is not associated with additional challenges for the development of the dominant language in children with ASD. The lack of negative associations in our sample is not likely to be due to the comparatively early diagnosis and/or intervention that are available in other countries. We discuss implications for decisions regarding the linguistic environment of children with ASD.

  13. Effectiveness of Client-centered Play Therapy on Fear and Anxiety in Preschool Children

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    Hoda Sadat Mosavi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Preschool period is playing main role in development and adjustment of children. Fear and anxiety are of externalizing disorders, providing untreated it leads to negative effects on individual and social relationship specially in adulthood therefore, this research investigates the influence of client-centered play therapy on fear and anxiety among preschool children (5-6 aged.Materials and Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study with pre and post- tests. 14 male and female preschool children (5-6 aged who were obtaining scores higher than cut-off in Spence anxiety scale (SAS and fear survey schedule for children-revised (FSSC-R parents’ form questionnaires were selected, and then they were assigned randomly to the control and experimental groups. The experimental group received techniques of client-centered play therapy for six treatment sessions (45minutes for each session. The fear and anxiety were measured at the beginning and at end of therapeutic session, utilizing the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and fear survey schedule for children-revised (FSSC-R parents’ form. Statistical analysis conducted by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA.Results: There is significantly difference in Mean (SD scores of pretest 130.4 (3.3 and posttest 127.1 (4.6 fear (P<0.001, F= 24.6 and in scores of pretest 58.6 (2.6 and post-test 48.28 (3.6 anxiety (P<0.001, F=19.5 between preschool children in pre and post-test.Conclusion: Findings indicated that client-centered play therapy has effective in reducing behavioral problem such as fear and anxiety disorders in preschool children. Therefore, it can be useful and applicable as the psychological therapeutic interventions for decreasing behavioral distress in children.

  14. B cells play key roles in th2-type airway immune responses in mice exposed to natural airborne allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Li Yin; Iijima, Koji; Hara, Kenichiro; Kobayashi, Takao; Kephart, Gail M; Kita, Hirohito

    2015-01-01

    Humans are frequently exposed to various airborne allergens. In addition to producing antibodies, B cells participate in immune responses via various mechanisms. The roles of B cells in allergic airway inflammation and asthma have been controversial. We examined the functional importance of B cells in a mouse model of asthma, in which mice were exposed repeatedly to common airborne allergens. Naïve wild-type BALB/c mice or B cell-deficient JH-/- mice were exposed intranasally to a cocktail of allergen extracts, including Alternaria, Aspergillus, and house dust mite, every other day for two weeks. Ovalbumin was included in the cocktail to monitor the T cell immune response. Airway inflammation, lung pathology, and airway reactivity were analyzed. The airway exposure of naïve wild type mice to airborne allergens induced robust eosinophilic airway inflammation, increased the levels of Th2 cytokines and chemokines in the lung, and increased the reactivity to inhaled methacholine. These pathological changes and immune responses were attenuated in B cell-deficient JH-/- mice. The allergen-induced expansion of CD4+ T cells was impaired in the lungs and draining lymph nodes of JH-/- mice. Furthermore, lymphocytes from JH-/- mice failed to produce Th2 cytokines in response to ovalbumin re-stimulation in vitro. Our results suggest that B cells are required for the optimal development of Th2-type immune responses and airway inflammation when exposed to common airborne allergens. The therapeutic targeting of B cells may be beneficial to treat asthma in certain patients.

  15. B cells play key roles in th2-type airway immune responses in mice exposed to natural airborne allergens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yin Drake

    Full Text Available Humans are frequently exposed to various airborne allergens. In addition to producing antibodies, B cells participate in immune responses via various mechanisms. The roles of B cells in allergic airway inflammation and asthma have been controversial. We examined the functional importance of B cells in a mouse model of asthma, in which mice were exposed repeatedly to common airborne allergens. Naïve wild-type BALB/c mice or B cell-deficient JH-/- mice were exposed intranasally to a cocktail of allergen extracts, including Alternaria, Aspergillus, and house dust mite, every other day for two weeks. Ovalbumin was included in the cocktail to monitor the T cell immune response. Airway inflammation, lung pathology, and airway reactivity were analyzed. The airway exposure of naïve wild type mice to airborne allergens induced robust eosinophilic airway inflammation, increased the levels of Th2 cytokines and chemokines in the lung, and increased the reactivity to inhaled methacholine. These pathological changes and immune responses were attenuated in B cell-deficient JH-/- mice. The allergen-induced expansion of CD4+ T cells was impaired in the lungs and draining lymph nodes of JH-/- mice. Furthermore, lymphocytes from JH-/- mice failed to produce Th2 cytokines in response to ovalbumin re-stimulation in vitro. Our results suggest that B cells are required for the optimal development of Th2-type immune responses and airway inflammation when exposed to common airborne allergens. The therapeutic targeting of B cells may be beneficial to treat asthma in certain patients.

  16. Young children's experiences of participating in group treatment for children exposed to intimate partner violence: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernebo, Karin; Almqvist, Kjerstin

    2016-01-01

    The risk of exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) between caregivers is increased during early childhood. The adverse effects on the health and development of the youngest children may be severe. Effective and promising interventions for children who have experienced IPV have been developed and evaluated. However, there is a lack in knowledge about how the children themselves experience the interventions. The aim of this study was to contribute to the evaluation of group treatment designed to improve the psychological health of young children in the aftermath of family violence by elucidating the children's experiences of participating. Nine children, aged 4 to 6 years, were interviewed after participating in group programmes specifically designed for children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence. A semi-structured interview guide with open-ended questions was used. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, to ensure a focus on the children's own views and experiences. Five master themes embracing the children's experiences were identified: joy - positive emotional experience of participation; security - feeling safe; relatedness - relationships within the group; to talk - externalised focus on the violence; and competence - new knowledge and skills. Theoretical and clinical implications and the benefit of including very young children's views and experiences in research are discussed.

  17. The positive effects of early powered mobility on children's psychosocial and play skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerette, Paula; Furumasu, Jan; Tefft, Donita

    2013-01-01

    Powered mobility can have an important cognitive and psychosocial impact on young children who are unable to move independently. Twenty-three children with physical disabilities between the ages of 18 months and 6 years participated in this study. Data evaluating social skills, frequency of mobility play activities, frequency of interaction with toys/objects, and play/verbal developmental levels were collected at wheelchair evaluation, wheelchair delivery, and approximately 6 months later. Significant increases were found in parental perceptions of positive social skills for younger children after receiving a wheelchair; slightly older children showed improvements in social skills before the wheelchair was received; no changes were found in negative social skills. Parental ratings also indicated a significantly greater difficulty remaining engaged in tasks after receiving a wheelchair. A significant increase was noted in the number of mobility activities during indoor free play but no difference was seen in interaction with toys or objects. Improvement in the qualitative level of outdoor interactive free play was reported but there was no change in verbal interactions. This article discusses the potential positive impact of early powered mobility. These findings may be helpful in justifying the recommendation of powered mobility to young children and in justifying medical necessity of powered mobility for reimbursement by third party payers.

  18. Exercise intensity levels in children with cerebral palsy while playing with an active video game console.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Maxime; Ballaz, Laurent; Hart, Raphael; Lemay, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are prone to secondary complications related to physical inactivity and poor cardiorespiratory capacity. This problem could be greatly attenuated through the use of video games that incorporate physical activity for 2 reasons: Video games already represent an important component of leisure time in younger people, and such games can lead to a high level of exercise intensity in people who are healthy. The study objective was to evaluate exercise intensity in children with spastic diplegic CP and children who were typically developing while playing with an active video game console. This was a cross-sectional study. Ten children (7-12 years old) with spastic diplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II) and 10 children who were age matched and typically developing were evaluated in a movement analysis laboratory. Four games were played with the active video game console (jogging, bicycling, snowboarding, and skiing) for 40 minutes. Heart rate was recorded during the entire playing period with a heart rate belt monitor. Exercise intensity was defined as the percentage of heart rate reserve (HRR). In addition, lower extremity motion analysis was carried out during the final minute of the playing period for the jogging and bicycling games. No difference between groups was observed for any variables. A main effect of games was observed for the amount of time spent at an intensity greater than 40% of HRR. Specifically, more than 50% of the playing time for the jogging game and more than 30% of the playing time for the bicycling game were spent at an intensity greater than 40% of HRR. In addition, the jogging game produced a larger range of motion than the bicycling game. A limitation of this study was the relatively small and heterogeneous sample. For all 4 games, similar exercise intensity levels were observed for children who were typically developing and children with CP, suggesting that children with CP could

  19. "If I Am Not Doing My Own Playing Then I Am Not Able to Truly Share the Gift of Play with Children": Using Poststructuralism and Care Ethics to Examine Future Early Childhood Educators' Relationships with Play in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Julie; Shimpi, Priya Mariana; Rabin, Colette

    2014-01-01

    The current sociopolitical context of schooling is positioning play as incongruous with children's academic learning. As a result, teacher educators must increasingly guide future early childhood professionals to develop the skills and knowledge necessary to become effective play advocates. This includes articulating the value of play across…

  20. Systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and activation in clinically healthy children exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Villarreal-Calderon, R; Valencia-Salazar, G; Henríquez-Roldán, C; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, P; Torres-Jardón, R; Osnaya-Brizuela, N; Romero, L; Torres-Jardón, R; Solt, A; Reed, W

    2008-03-01

    Mexico City children are chronically exposed to significant concentrations of air pollutants and exhibit chronic respiratory-tract inflammation. Epidemiological, controlled human exposures, laboratory-based animal models, and in vitro/in vivo studies have shown that inflammatory, endothelial dysfunction, and endothelial damage mediators are upregulated upon exposure to particulate matter (PM). Endothelial dysfunction is a critical event in cardiovascular disease. The focus of this work was to investigate whether exposure to ambient air pollution including PM(2.5) produces systemic inflammation and endothelial injury in healthy children. We measured markers of endothelial activation, and inflammatory mediators in 52 children age 8.6+/-0.1 yr, residents of Mexico City (n: 28) or of Polotitlán (n: 24), a city with low levels of pollutants. Mexico City children had significant increases in inflammatory mediators and vasoconstrictors, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, prostaglandin (PG) E2, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1beta, and endothelin-1. There was a significant anti-inflammatory response, and a downregulation of vascular adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and -2, and selectins sE and sL. Results from linear regression found TNF a positively associated with 24- and 48-h cumulative levels of PM(2.5), while the 7-d PM(2.5) value was negatively associated with the numbers of white blood cells in peripheral blood in highly exposed children. Systemic subclinical inflammation, increased endothelin- 1, and significant downregulation of soluble adhesion molecules are seen in Mexico City children. Children chronically exposed to fine PM above the standard could be at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, stroke, and other systemic effects later in life.

  1. Designing for Nomadic Play: A case study of participatory design with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg; Ludvigsen, Martin

    This poster presents the results from an empirical probe study trying to engage children creatively in the design process of systems and artifacts that support nomadic life-style. Based on observational studies and interviews with children of different ages (5-15 years), we conducted...... a participatory design workshop cycle where children were encouraged to envision and virtually play with not-yet-invented future technology. Findings include qualitative characterizations of children’s activities (e.g. ‘play’ culture, use of digital media, age and gender differences, relation to space...

  2. Neural and cortisol responses during play with human and computer partners in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Elliot Kale; Merkle, Kristen; Corbett, Blythe A

    2015-08-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit impairment in reciprocal social interactions, including play, which can manifest as failure to show social preference or discrimination between social and nonsocial stimuli. To explore mechanisms underlying these deficits, we collected salivary cortisol from 42 children 8-12 years with ASD or typical development during a playground interaction with a confederate child. Participants underwent functional MRI during a prisoner's dilemma game requiring cooperation or defection with a human (confederate) or computer partner. Search region of interest analyses were based on previous research (e.g. insula, amygdala, temporal parietal junction-TPJ). There were significant group differences in neural activation based on partner and response pattern. When playing with a human partner, children with ASD showed limited engagement of a social salience brain circuit during defection. Reduced insula activation during defection in the ASD children relative to TD children, regardless of partner type, was also a prominent finding. Insula and TPJ BOLD during defection was also associated with stress responsivity and behavior in the ASD group under playground conditions. Children with ASD engage social salience networks less than TD children during conditions of social salience, supporting a fundamental disturbance of social engagement. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Brief Report: Linking Early Joint Attention and Play Abilities to Later Reports of Friendships for Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stephanny F.; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of early joint attention and play in children with autism on child- and parent-reported friendship quality 5 years later. Initially, children participated in developmental, joint attention, and play measures. At follow-up (age 8-9), parents and children completed the Friendship Qualities Scale (Bukowski et al. in…

  4. Brief Report: Linking Early Joint Attention and Play Abilities to Later Reports of Friendships for Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stephanny F.; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of early joint attention and play in children with autism on child- and parent-reported friendship quality 5 years later. Initially, children participated in developmental, joint attention, and play measures. At follow-up (age 8-9), parents and children completed the Friendship Qualities Scale (Bukowski et al. in…

  5. Lung radiology and pulmonary function of children chronically exposed to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Fordham, Lynn A; Chung, Charles J; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Flores-Gómez, Silvia; Solt, Anna C; Gomez-del Campo, Alberto; Jardón-Torres, Ricardo; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Hazucha, Milan J; Reed, William

    2006-09-01

    We analyzed the chest radiographs (CXRs) of 249 clinically healthy children, 230 from southwest Mexico City and 19 from Tlaxcala. In contrast to children from Tlaxcala, children from southwest Mexico City were chronically exposed to ozone levels exceeding the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for an average of 4.7 hr/day and to concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters children demonstrated bilateral hyperinflation (151 of 230) and increased linear markings (121 of 230) . Hyperinflation and interstitial markings were significantly more common in Mexico City children (p < 0.0002 and 0.00006 respectively) . Mexico City boys had a higher probability of developing interstitial markings with age (p = 0.004) . Computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained in 25 selected Mexico City children with abnormal CXRs. Mild bronchial wall thickening was seen in 10 of 25, prominent central airways in 4 of 25, air trapping in 8 of 21, and pulmonary nodules in 2 of 21. Only 7.8% of Mexico City children had abnormal lung function tests based on predicted values. These findings are consistent with bronchiolar, peribronchiolar, and/or alveolar duct inflammation, possibly caused by ozone, PM, and lipopolysaccharide exposure. The epidemiologic implications of these findings are important for children residing in polluted environments, because bronchiolar disease could lead to chronic pulmonary disease later in life.

  6. Neurobehavioral deficits and increased blood pressure in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. OBJECTIVES: In northern Ecuador, where floriculture...... is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children's neurobehavioral functions at 6-8 years of age. METHODS: We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information...... on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children's current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. RESULTS: Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed...

  7. Qualitative assessment of visuospatial errors in mercury-exposed Amazonian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevrier, Cécile; Sullivan, Kimberly; White, Roberta F.;

    2009-01-01

    In order to better define the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure on neurodevelopment, qualitative error types observed in the responses of exposed children to the Stanford-Binet Copying Test were categorized and quantified using raw data from two studies of 395 Amazonian children aged 7...... with adjustment for confounders. In the combined data set, mercury exposure was negatively associated with scores on the drawing task: a score reduction of 1.2 (s.e., 0.3) points was observed in the children with a hair-mercury concentration above 10 μg/g compared to those with a hair level below 1 μg....../g; this effect appeared to be stronger in the younger children. Risk of committing one or more errors of rotation, simplification or perseveration in the drawings increased with hair-mercury concentration in both cultural settings, providing convergent evidence of specific types of MeHg-related neurocognitive...

  8. Strategies for Monitoring Outcomes in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Claire; Tookey, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance of pregnancies in women living with HIV is carried out on a national basis in the United Kingdom (UK) through the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood. There are currently around 1100-1200 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants born every year in the UK, where vertical transmission of HIV now occurs in fewer than 5 in every 1000 pregnancies. By the end of 2014, there was a cumulative total of more than 15,000 HEU children with any combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) exposure and more than 5000 with cART exposure from conception in the UK. HEU infants are increasingly being exposed to newer antiretroviral drugs for which less is known regarding both short- and long-term safety. In this commentary, we describe the approaches that have been taken to explore health outcomes in HEU children born in the UK. This includes the Children exposed to AntiRetroviral Therapy (CHART) Study, which was a consented follow-up study carried out in 2002-2005 of HEU children born in 1996-2004. The CHART Study showed that 4% of HEU children enrolled had a major health or development problem in early childhood; this was within expected UK norms, but the study was limited by small numbers and short-term follow-up. However, the problems with recruitment and retention that were encountered within the CHART Study demonstrated that comprehensive, clinic-based follow-up was not a feasible approach for long-term assessment of HEU children in the UK. We describe an alternative approach developed to monitor some aspects of their long-term health, involving the "flagging" of HEU infants for death and cancer registration with the UK Office for National Statistics. Some of the ethical concerns regarding investigation of long-term outcomes of in utero and perinatal exposure to antiretrovirals, including those relating to consent and confidentiality, are also discussed.

  9. Strategies for monitoring outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected children in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eThorne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of pregnancies in women living with HIV is carried out on a national basis in the United Kingdom (UK through the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC. There are currently around 1100-1200 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants born every year in the UK, where vertical transmission of HIV now occurs in fewer than five in every 1000 pregnancies. By the end of 2014, there was a cumulative total of more than 15,000 HEU children with any combination antiretroviral therapy (cART exposure and more than 5,000 with cART exposure from conception in the UK. HEU infants are increasingly being exposed to newer antiretroviral drugs for which less is known regarding both short and longer-term safety. In this commentary, we describe the approaches that have been taken to explore health outcomes in HEU children born in the UK. This includes the Children exposed to AntiRetroviral Therapy (CHART Study, which was a consented follow-up study carried out in 2002-2005 of HEU children born in 1996-2004. The CHART Study showed that 4% of HEU children enrolled had a major health or development problem in early childhood; this was within expected UK norms but the study was limited by small numbers and short-term follow-up. However, the problems with recruitment and retention that were encountered within the CHART Study demonstrated that comprehensive, clinic-based follow-up was not a feasible approach for long-term assessment of HEU children in the UK. We describe an alternative approach developed to monitor some aspects of their long-term health, involving the flagging of HEU infants for death and cancer registration with the UK Office for National Statistics. Some of the ethical concerns regarding investigation of long-term outcomes of in utero and perinatal exposure to antiretrovirals including those relating to consent and confidentiality are also discussed.

  10. Too Much and Too Many: How Commercialism and Screen Technology Combine to Rob Children of Creative Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Hands-on creative play is essential to children's health and well being, yet in the 21st century United States, nurturing such play has actually become countercultural. The dominant, marketing-driven, media-saturated culture dictates against it. In addition to depriving children of time spent in creative play, unlimited access to screens means…

  11. Teaching Play Skills to Visually Impaired Preschool Children: Its Effect on Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaydin, Latife

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effects that teaching visually impaired (VI) preschool children play skills has on their abilities to initialize and respond to social interactions with their typically developing (TD) peers in a reverse mainstreaming preschool class. The subjects of the study were three female VI students regularly attending…

  12. No Place to Play: Implications for the Interaction of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Sheridan

    1997-01-01

    Uses J Bowbly's (1969) theory of attachment as a framework for considering the implications of a lack of outdoor access for parental strategies and for the interaction of parents and children in low-income families. It argues that having access to outdoor play opportunities is supportive of healthy child development and responsive parenting and…

  13. The Effectiveness of Contextually Supported Play Date Interactions between Children with Autism and Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Robert L.; Werner, Grace A.; Vismara, Laurie A.; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2005-01-01

    Difficulties with social interaction are characteristic of autism. This study presents data illustrating the use of motivational strategies in play dates to improve the quality of social interactions between children with autism and their typically developing peers. Specifically, a multiple baseline design across participants shows how a…

  14. Supporting Children and Families: Communities, Schools, Employers Play Key Roles. Growing Up Well. Focus on Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthauer, Linda; Halfon, Neal

    This report, eighth and last in a series, discusses the important role community groups and leaders, schools, and employers play in providing children and parents support and encouragement. It reports the opinions of California adults, expressed in a survey conducted by the California Center for Health Improvement (CCHI), about a variety of issues…

  15. Trends in Children's Video Game Play: Practical but Not Creative Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlen, Karla R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has found common trends among children's video game play as related to gender, age, interests, creativity, and other descriptors. This study re-examined the previously reported trends by utilizing principal components analysis with variables such as creativity, general characteristics, and problem-solving methods to determine…

  16. No Place to Play: Implications for the Interaction of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Sheridan

    1997-01-01

    Uses J Bowbly's (1969) theory of attachment as a framework for considering the implications of a lack of outdoor access for parental strategies and for the interaction of parents and children in low-income families. It argues that having access to outdoor play opportunities is supportive of healthy child development and responsive parenting and…

  17. Playing with/through Non-Fiction Texts: Young Children Authoring Their Relationships with History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiso, Maria Paula

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between literacy and play in six- and seven-year-olds' engagement with non-fiction writing. I draw from a year-long ethnographic study (Erickson, 1986) of a US classroom's "writing time", intentionally structured on children's own interests and enquiries. Rather than strict adherence to monolithic…

  18. Narrative increases step counts during active video game play among children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity (PA) level offer a novel alternative to child obesity. Unfortunately, children's motivation to play AVG decreases quickly, underscoring the need to find new methods to maintain their engagement. According to narrative transportation th...

  19. Using Time-Delay to Improve Social Play Skills with Peers for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Daniella B.; Frea, William D.; Symon, Jennifer B. G.

    2008-01-01

    Interventions that teach social communication and play skills are crucial for the development of children with autism. The time delay procedure is effective in teaching language acquisition, social use of language, discrete behaviors, and chained activities to individuals with autism and developmental delays. In this study, three boys with autism,…

  20. Early Childhood Teachers' Beliefs about Children's Risky Play in Australia and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Wyver, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    Positive risk-taking in the context of outdoor physical play is important for fostering children's optimal health and development. Despite this, there is mounting concern that many developmentally beneficial activities are now seen as dangerous and something to be avoided. However, perceptions of risk are very much subject to cultural…

  1. Television, sleep, outdoor play and BMI in young children : the GECKO Drenthe cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Koller, Marjory; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the interplay between screen time, sleep duration, outdoor play, having a television in the bedroom and the number of televisions at home and their association with body mass index (BMI) in preschool children. All participants, 3-4 years of age (n = 759), were part of

  2. Children's Beliefs toward Cooperative Playing with Peers with Disabilities in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrusnikova, Iva; Block, Martin E.; Dillon, Suzanna

    2010-01-01

    Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) was used to elicit salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs of children without disabilities toward playing with a hypothetical peer with a disability in general physical education. Participants were 350 elementary and middle school students who completed two questionnaires. Questionnaires were…

  3. Using a Constant Time Delay Procedure to Teach Aquatic Play Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ilker; Birkan, Bunyamin; Konukman, Ferman; Erkan, Mert

    2005-01-01

    Effects of a constant time delay procedure on aquatic play skills of children with autism was investigated. A single subject multiple probe model across behaviors with probe conditions was used. Participants were four boys, 7-9 years old. Data were collected over a 10-week period using the single opportunity method as an intervention. Results…

  4. "Then What Happened?" Studying Emergent Literacy in the Narrative Play of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Denise H.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this research was on examining a play-based, child-centered instructional technique known as story telling/story acting (ST/SA) within a Canadian preschool setting. The goal was to examine the changes that occurred in the narrative features of preschool children's stories, and to investigate whether ST/SA fostered emerging literacy…

  5. Child's Play 3: Games for Life for Children and Teenagers. Lifeways Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, Wil; Kischnick, Rudolph

    This book contains descriptions of 128 games for children and adolescents and is designed as a guide for parents, teachers, and play leaders. Following an introduction summarizing the educational background for each type of game, the book is organized into seven areas: (1) races; (2) duels; (3) small wrestling matches; (4) games of ability and…

  6. Music Therapy Engages Children with Autism in Outdoor Play. FPG Snapshot. Number 39, February 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The unstructured space, running, climbing, sliding, and loud nature of playground time can be overwhelming for children with autism who thrive on predictable and structured routines. As a result, these preschoolers often do not experience the learning and social development benefits from outdoor play seen in their typically developing classmates.…

  7. Food neophobia and enjoyment of tactile play: Associations between preschool children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, Helen; Sahota, Simran

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine whether the relationship between enjoyment of tactile play and food neophobia observed in children (Coulthard & Thakker, 2015) would be related to levels seen in their parents. One hundred and twenty six participants were recruited from playgroup centres in the Walsall area of the West Midlands, UK; 63 children (2-5 years; 30 girls and 33 boys) and 63 attendant parents (53 mothers and 10 fathers). Children and their parents' enjoyment of a tactile play task was rated by both the parent and a researcher, and questionnaire measures of food neophobia and tactile sensitivity were completed by the parent for both themselves and their children. Strong associations were found between parent and child scores across all the measures; food neophobia, tactile sensitivity and tactile play enjoyment. The variables most strongly related to child food neophobia were parental neophobia and enjoyment of tactile play (parent and child). These findings indicate that family resemblance exists not only for food neophobia, but for tactile sensory processing as well, and may represent a possible inherited route to neophobia. The findings strengthen the suggestion that tactile processing is associated with food neophobia although the causal nature of this relationship is still not known.

  8. Language Learning Through Pretend Play in Young Bilingual-Bicultural Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawkey, Thomas Daniels; Villarreal, Beatrice

    Child care programs are ideal places to begin the mastery of both English and a native language. Language growth can be promoted through the use of pretend play. Pretend situations include storytelling, oral drills and poems, riddles and songs. In storytelling activities, it is essential that the adult model language for the children. The children…

  9. Early Childhood Teachers' Beliefs about Children's Risky Play in Australia and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Wyver, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    Positive risk-taking in the context of outdoor physical play is important for fostering children's optimal health and development. Despite this, there is mounting concern that many developmentally beneficial activities are now seen as dangerous and something to be avoided. However, perceptions of risk are very much subject to cultural…

  10. Factors That Influence Fast Mapping in Children Exposed to Spanish and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Figueroa, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if children exposed to two languages would benefit from the phonotactic probability cues of a single language in the same way as monolingual peers and to determine if cross-linguistic influence would be present in a fast mapping task. Method Two groups of typically-developing children (monolingual English and bilingual Spanish-English) took part in a computer-based fast mapping task which manipulated phonotactic probability. Children were preschool-aged (N = 50) or school-aged (N = 34). Fast mapping was assessed through name identification and naming tasks. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVAs with post-hoc testing and simple regression. Results Bilingual and monolingual preschoolers showed sensitivity to English phonotactic cues in both tasks, but bilingual preschoolers were less accurate than monolingual peers in the naming task. School-aged bilingual children had nearly identical performance to monolingual peers. Conclusions Knowing that children exposed to two languages can benefit from the statistical cues of a single language can help inform ideas about instruction and assessment for bilingual learners. PMID:23816663

  11. The intervention of robot caregivers and the cultivation of children's capability to play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Yvette; Borenstein, Jason

    2013-03-01

    In this article, the authors examine whether and how robot caregivers can contribute to the welfare of children with various cognitive and physical impairments by expanding recreational opportunities for these children. The capabilities approach is used as a basis for informing the relevant discussion. Though important in its own right, having the opportunity to play is essential to the development of other capabilities central to human flourishing. Drawing from empirical studies, the authors show that the use of various types of robots has already helped some children with impairments. Recognizing the potential ethical pitfalls of robot caregiver intervention, however, the authors examine these concerns and conclude that an appropriately designed robot caregiver has the potential to contribute positively to the development of the capability to play while also enhancing the ability of human caregivers to understand and interact with care recipients.

  12. Effects of a classroom intervention with spatial play materials on children's object and viewer transformation abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2017-02-01

    Children practice their spatial skills when playing with spatial toys, such as construction materials, board games, and puzzles. Sex and SES differences are observed in the engagement in such spatial play activities at home, which relate to individual differences in spatial performance. The current study investigated the effects of explicitly providing spatial play activities in the school setting on different types of spatial ability. We presented 8- to 10-year-old children with a short and easy-to-adopt classroom intervention comprising a set of different spatial play materials. The design involved a pretest-posttest comparison between the intervention group (n = 70) and a control group without intervention (n = 70). Effects were examined on object transformation ability (i.e., a paper-and-pencil mental rotation and paper folding task) and viewer transformation ability (i.e., a hands-on 3D spatial perspective-taking task). Results showed specific effects: there were no differences between the intervention and control group in progress on the two object transformation tasks. Substantial improvements were found for the intervention group compared to the control group on the viewer transformation task. Training progress was not related to sex and socioeconomic background of the child. These findings support the value of spatial play in the classroom for the spatial development of children between 8 and 10 years of age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Investigation of habitual pitch during free play activities for preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Kimelman, Mikael D Z; Micco, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This study is designed to compare the habitual pitch measured in two different speech activities (free play activity and traditionally used structured speech activity) for normally developing preschool-aged children to explore to what extent preschoolers vary their vocal pitch among different speech environments. Habitual pitch measurements were conducted for 10 normally developing children (2 boys, 8 girls) between the ages of 31 months and 71 months during two different activities: (1) free play; and (2) structured speech. Speech samples were recorded using a throat microphone connected with a wireless transmitter in both activities. The habitual pitch (in Hz) was measured for all collected speech samples by using voice analysis software (Real-Time Pitch). Significantly higher habitual pitch is found during free play in contrast to structured speech activities. In addition, there is no showing of significant difference of habitual pitch elicited across a variety of structured speech activities. Findings suggest that the vocal usage of preschoolers appears to be more effortful during free play than during structured activities. It is recommended that a comprehensive evaluation for young children's voice needs to be based on the speech/voice samples collected from both free play and structured activities.

  14. Elevated cortisol during play is associated with age and social engagement in children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbett Blythe A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hallmark characteristic of autism is impaired reciprocal social interaction. While children find social interaction stress-reducing, many children with autism may find social interaction stress-inducing. The current study was designed to examine stress responsivity as measured by cortisol by comparing children with autism to neurotypical peers during an ecologically valid 20-minute playground paradigm. Methods The experiment involved sets of three children: a child with autism, a neurotypical child, and a confederate. Participants included 45 prepubescent males between 8 and 12 years of age (21 with autism and 24 neurotypical children. Results Children with autism showed fewer initiations (χ²(1 = 4.03, P = 0.044, rejected initiations from others more (χ²(1 = 7.10, P = 0.008 and spent less time interacting during motor (F(1,43 = 16.7, P = 0.0002 and cooperative (F(1,43 = 14.78, P = 0.0004 play. Repeated measures analysis of the cortisol values revealed a significant model (χ²(4 = 22.76, P P = 0.006 and cooperative (χ²(3 = 8.24, P = 0.04 play as well as reduced nonverbal social skills during motor (χ²(1 = 5.52, P = 0.018 and cooperative play (χ²(1 = 4.53, P = 0.033. Conclusions Overall, children with autism engaged in fewer social overtures and spent less time interacting than typically developing peers during play. The peer interaction paradigm resulted in significantly higher levels of cortisol in many children with autism. Distinct patterns emerged within the autism group based on developmental (older, biological (cortisol responder and behavioral patterns (peripheral group interaction. The enhanced cortisol response was observed in children who voluntarily engaged in interaction; thus, it does not support the notion of a response to social threat. Rather, it appears to reflect attendant metabolic preparedness and enhanced arousal from engaging socially. The data suggest that many children with autism

  15. What is the Relationship between Risky Outdoor Play and Health in Children? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Risky outdoor play has been associated with promoting children’s health and development, but also with injury and death. Risky outdoor play has diminished over time, concurrent with increasing concerns regarding child safety and emphasis on injury prevention. We sought to conduct a systematic review to examine the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children, in order to inform the debate regarding its benefits and harms. We identified and evaluated 21 relevant papers for quality using the GRADE framework. Included articles addressed the effect on health indicators and behaviours from three types of risky play, as well as risky play supportive environments. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of risky outdoor play on a variety of health indicators and behaviours, most commonly physical activity, but also social health and behaviours, injuries, and aggression. The review indicated the need for additional “good quality” studies; however, we note that even in the face of the generally exclusionary systematic review process, our findings support the promotion of risky outdoor play for healthy child development. These positive results with the marked reduction in risky outdoor play opportunities in recent generations indicate the need to encourage action to support children’s risky outdoor play opportunities. Policy and practice precedents and recommendations for action are discussed.

  16. Games Children Play: The Effects of Media Violence on Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, Mimi

    2000-01-01

    Noting that most children living in Australia have access to a television, video games, and computers and are influenced by the content of their viewing and interactive games, this report examines the impact of media violence on young children. Topics discussed include the recognition of violence on television and video/computer games, reasons for…

  17. Games Children Play: The Effects of Media Violence on Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, Mimi

    2000-01-01

    Noting that most children living in Australia have access to a television, video games, and computers and are influenced by the content of their viewing and interactive games, this report examines the impact of media violence on young children. Topics discussed include the recognition of violence on television and video/computer games, reasons for…

  18. Play and video effects on mood and procedure behaviors in school-aged children visiting the pediatrician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns-Nader, Sherwood; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Thoma, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    This study examines how different types of activities, including medical play, typical play, and videos, affect the mood and behaviors of children visiting a pediatric office. Seventy-two school-aged children visiting a pediatrician's office were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: medical play, medical information video, typical play, and nonmedical information video control. Children completed a mood self-report measure and their behaviors were recorded during triage by nurses. The medical information video improved the school-aged children's mood. Children in the medical information video displayed less difficult behaviors during procedures than the medical play group. The findings suggest that providing information about medical equipment through a video of a child engaging in medical play may benefit children visiting the pediatrician.

  19. Externalities in the Classroom: How Children Exposed to Domestic Violence Affect Everyone's Kids. NBER Working Paper No. 14246

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, Scott E.; Hoekstra, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that between ten and twenty percent of children in the United States are exposed to domestic violence annually. While much is known about the impact of domestic violence and other family problems on children within the home, little is known regarding the extent to which these problems spill over to children outside the family. The…

  20. Strategies for inclusion in play among children with physical disabilities in childcare centers: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sara K; Stafford, Karen N; Phillips, Sarah M; Scott, Kathleen J; Tucker, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this integrative review was to examine strategies that facilitate inclusion in play among children with physical disabilities in childcare centers. Nine databases were systematically searched for peer reviewed empirical studies investigating inclusion strategies for play in childcare settings among preschoolers with physical disabilities. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were appraised using the McMaster Critical Review Forms. The inclusion approaches identified were grouped into relevant strategies during analysis. Two main strategies were identified: role of the adult facilitator and environmental factors. substrategies within the role of the adult facilitator included: customize approach for specific child's needs; adult facilitator self-awareness of presence; prompting and praise; and promote fairness, equity, and play interaction. Substrategies within the environmental factors included: physical setting; type of toys; and type of play activity. The findings suggest play inclusion strategies in the childcare environment. Therapists are encouraged to apply inclusion strategies to improve play opportunities for children with disabilities, but future research is necessary to confirm the effectiveness of these strategies using higher quality study designs.

  1. PLAY AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN CORECTIVE GYMNASTICS FOR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujo Bjeković

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In present life conditions, especially in urban environment, children have very poor conditions for physical activities, or for movement in general. According to the new researches, working conditions and quality of work in nurseries and schools, especially if they are related to physical exercises, have certain influences on overall development of pre-school and school children. Childhood is ideal time for correction of numerous postural disturbances and deformities, whether they are congenital or acquired by injury, wrong body posture, or by poor nutrition. Playing is a power fultool for directing correct development of children, so very of ten it has to be adapted to age, capabilities, interests and needs of children.

  2. Cytogenetic study in lymphocytes from children exposed to ionizing radiation after Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padovani, L.; Mauro, F. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute; Caporossi, D.; Tedeschi, B.; Vernole, P.; Nicoletti, B. [Rome-2 Univ. (Italy)

    1993-12-31

    This study concerns the monitoring of children from the Byelorussian, Ukrainian and Russian republics exposed to the fall-out of the Chernobyl accident. Cytogenetic analyses were performed on 41 children coming from different areas and exhibiting varying amounts of {sup 137}Cs internal contamination, as evaluated by whole body counter (WBC) analysis. It was found that on a total of 28,670 metaphases scored, radiation-induced chromosome damage is still present, although at a very low frequency. Due to the very low fraction of dicentrics, because of the time elapsed from the accident and the relatively low doses of exposure, radiobiological dosimetry is not possible for these children. However, considering that the WBC data indicate that the children are still exposed to {sup 137}Cs contamination, the observed occurrence of stable chromosome rearrangements and breaks may represent the persisting effect of continuous low doses of radiation. The study also indicates that the parallel use of internal contamination dosimetry and cytogenetics could be usefully employed to monitor individual exposure to radiation and to define further management measures.

  3. Health status and PCBs in blood of workers exposed to PCBs and of their children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, I.

    1985-02-01

    A follow-up study of capacitor manufacturing workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their children was conducted since 1973. PCB levels in whole blood of workers as well as in breast milk of the exposed lactating mothers were approximately 10 to 100 times those of nonexposed Japanese. Blood PCB levels had a statistically significant correlation with the duration of PCB handling and breast milk PCB levels. The rate of decline of blood PCB levels, as well as the changes of the gas chromatograph of blood PCB over 7 years was found to vary with the kind of PCB handled. The levels of blood PCB tended to be higher in the children fed PCB-contaminated breast milk for a long period. The great majority of workers handling PCBs had dermatologic complaints. Discontinuance of contact with PCB led to gradual improvement of these lesions. Abnormal results in the blood chemistry of the workers were rare, while serum triglyceride concentration was significantly correlated with blood PCB levels in 1974. In the questionnaire study, the number of complaints in children born from mothers who had handled PCBs, especially those fed breast milk for a long period, was conspicuously higher than that in control groups. Several children were found to have the same medical findings as in Yusho; however, they have not been diagnosed as PCB-poisoning, because these findings were neither so serious nor related to the blood PCB levels.

  4. Analyzing children games played in Konya during republic era from different variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdükadir Kabadayı

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Play is what young children are involved in most of their waking hours. Through play, they integrate all their knowledge and skills. Play serves a number of functions for the young child: It aids in developing problem-solving skills; promotes social and cognitive competence; aids in the development of the distinction between reality and fantasy; promotes curiosity; helps communication, attention span, self control, social language and literacy skills; provides a vehicle for the adult to learn how children view the world; and can be therapeutic.In this research, individual and team games the children have played in the centre of Konya and its centre towns since the declaration of Turkish Republic were introduced and examined via interview with 24 people who were born and have lived in Konya. Nearly 32 individual and team games were found by the application of living sources and by introducing one by one, their contributions were evaluated on the basis of statistics in respect of child education and development.

  5. Does playing a sports active video game improve young children's ball skill competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tara M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Hulteen, Ryan M; Mellecker, Robin R; Barnett, Lisa M

    2016-05-01

    Actual and perceived object control (commonly ball) skill proficiency is associated with higher physical activity in children and adolescents. Active video games (AVGs) encourage whole body movement to control/play the electronic gaming system and therefore provide an opportunity for screen time to become more active. The purpose of this study was to determine whether playing sports AVGs has a positive influence on young children's actual and perceived object control skills. Two group pre/post experimental design study. Thirty-six children aged 6-10 years old from one school were randomly allocated to a control or intervention condition. The Test of Gross Motor Development-3 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence for Young Children assessed perceived object control skill. The intervention consisted of 6×50min lunchtime AVG sessions on the Xbox Kinect. Two to three sport games were chosen for participants to play each session. General linear models with either perceived object control or actual object control skill as the outcome variables were conducted. Each base model adjusted for intervention status and pre-score of the respective outcome variable. Additional models adjusted for potential confounding variables (sex of child and game at home). No significant differences between the control and intervention groups were observed for both outcomes. This study found that playing the Xbox Kinect does not significantly influence children's perceived or actual object control skills, suggesting that the utility of the Xbox Kinect for developing perceived and actual object control skill competence is questionable. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Can the IROMEC robot support play in children with severe physical disabilities? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Renée J F; Lexis, Monique A S; de Witte, Luc P

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the application of the IROMEC (Interactive social RObotic Mediators as Companions) robot to support play for children with severe physical disabilities in rehabilitation and special education. Within a 2-month pilot study, physically disabled children with a developmental age between 2 and 8 years participated in sessions with the robot. A combination of qualitative and quantitative outcome measures was used to collect data on aspects of feasibility, usability, barriers for the child as well as the therapist and an indication of the effects on playfulness and the achievement of therapeutic and educational goals. A total of 11 children participated in this study (four boys, seven girls). Individually Prioritized Problem Assessment scores indicated a positive effect of the IROMEC robot on the achievement of goals for the children. Professionals did observe meaningful application possibilities, but the lacking adaptability, expandability and technical stability of the robot platform make application in daily care practice impossible. The application of a robot like IROMEC for children with severe physical disabilities seems to be positive and worthwhile, but usability and feasibility aspects are crucial for success.

  7. Group play therapy for improving mental coping ability in children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian WANG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the role of group play therapy in the improvement of mental coping ability in children with asthma. Methods Forty-four asthmatic children with behavior problems were randomly divided into experimental group (n=25 and control group (n=19. All children received two tests. The tools in this research were Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Coping with a Disease Questionnaire (CODI. Before intervention, both groups received pretest. Members from the experimental group were provided with counseling for 3 months, once every two weeks for a total of 6 times, while during this period the members of the control group had not any experimental intervention.After intervention, the two groups received posttest. Five patients dropped out, and 39 went through this research (20 in experimental group and 19 in control group. The effects of group play therapy on behavior problems and coping strategy of children with asthma were evaluated. Results There was no statistically significant differences in the general information (age, sex, education, parents' marriage status and family structure and basic score of CBCL and CODI between the two groups (P > 0.05. After intervention, the scores of social problems, social withdrawal, depression, compulsive behavior, aggressive behavior and immature and total behavior problem score dropped significantly in experimental group (P < 0.05 while there were no significant changes in control group. And the scores of acceptance, avoidance and emotional reaction increased significantly in experimental group (P < 0.05 while there were no significant changes in control group. Conclusions Group play therapy can improve the children's confidence and interpersonal adaptability and emotion management capacity, thus correcting deviant behavior, ameliorate coping strategy, improving mental coping capability, and promote the development of mental health in children with asthma.

  8. Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Conduct Problems, Interventions, and Partner Contact With the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Vu, Nicole L; Rancher, Caitlin; Mueller, Victoria

    2016-06-30

    Children's contact with their mother's violent partner is a potentially important variable for understanding conduct problems among children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). Within the context of a treatment study evaluating a parenting intervention (Project Support) for families exiting a domestic violence shelter, this study tested four hypotheses regarding children's postshelter contact with their mother's violent partner: (1) participation in Project Support decreases the frequency of children's contact with their mother's violent partner; (2) postshelter contact is positively associated with children's conduct problems and is associated more strongly for girls than boys; (3) frequency of contact mediates Project Support's effects on children's conduct problems; and (4) frequency of contact is positively associated with IPV and partner-child aggression, and these latter associations help explain effects of contact on children's conduct problems. Participants were 66 women (26 White) with a child (32 girls) between 4 and 9 years. Families were assessed every 4 months for 20 months after departure from a domestic violence shelter. Project Support reduced the extent of partner-child contact. In addition, within-subject changes in contact over time were associated with girls', but not boys', conduct problems, and it partially mediated effects of Project Support on girls' conduct problems. Higher average levels of contact over time were also positively associated with further incidents of IPV and partner-child aggression, and partner-child aggression helped explain effects of contact on children's conduct problems. Children's postshelter contact with the mother's violent partner relates positively to several negative family outcomes.

  9. The impact of pretend play on children's development: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Lerner, Matthew D; Hopkins, Emily J; Dore, Rebecca A; Smith, Eric D; Palmquist, Carolyn M

    2013-01-01

    Pretend play has been claimed to be crucial to children's healthy development. Here we examine evidence for this position versus 2 alternatives: Pretend play is 1 of many routes to positive developments (equifinality), and pretend play is an epiphenomenon of other factors that drive development. Evidence from several domains is considered. For language, narrative, and emotion regulation, the research conducted to date is consistent with all 3 positions but insufficient to draw conclusions. For executive function and social skills, existing research leans against the crucial causal position but is insufficient to differentiate the other 2. For reasoning, equifinality is definitely supported, ruling out a crucially causal position but still leaving open the possibility that pretend play is epiphenomenal. For problem solving, there is no compelling evidence that pretend play helps or is even a correlate. For creativity, intelligence, conservation, and theory of mind, inconsistent correlational results from sound studies and nonreplication with masked experimenters are problematic for a causal position, and some good studies favor an epiphenomenon position in which child, adult, and environment characteristics that go along with play are the true causal agents. We end by considering epiphenomenalism more deeply and discussing implications for preschool settings and further research in this domain. Our take-away message is that existing evidence does not support strong causal claims about the unique importance of pretend play for development and that much more and better research is essential for clarifying its possible role. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

  11. A Qualitative Study of the Status of Children's Play From the Viewpoints of Experts and Suggestions for Promotion Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, Maryam; Hajnaghizadeh, Fatemeh; Damari, Behzad

    2015-08-01

    The latest national census reports the population of Iranian children (1 - 8 years old) about 11 millions. On the other hand, the latest population policies approved by supreme cultural revolution council (SCRC) will make this population increase faster. Childhood development is one of the social determinants of health, of which "child's play" is a part. This study is an effort to identify difficulties and challenges of the plays influential on Iranian children's health nationwide, in order to present enhancive strategies by utilizing the views of stakeholders and national studies. Analyzing children's play stakeholders, main organizations were identified and views of 13 informed people involved in the field were investigated through deep semi-structured interview. A denaturalized approach was employed in analyzing the data. In addition to descriptions of the state, interventions development, and designing the conceptual model, national reports and studies, and other countries' experiences were also reviewed. Society's little knowledge of "children's plays", absence of administrators for children's play, shortage of public facilities for children's play and improper geographical and demographic availability, absence of policies for Iranian "toy", and little attention of media to the issue are the five major problems as stated by interviewees. The proposed interventions are presented as "promoting the educational levels of parents and selected administrators for children's play", "approving the play and toy policy for Iran 2025", and "increasing public facilities for children's play with defined distribution and availability".

  12. Assessment of potential cancer risk in children exposed to urban air pollution in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Settachan, Daam; Navasumrit, Panida; Tuntawiroon, Jantamas; Autrup, Herman

    2007-02-05

    Urban air pollution resulting from traffic is a major problem in many cities in Asia, including Bangkok, Thailand. This pollution originates mainly from incomplete fossil fuel combustion, e.g. transportation, and the composition of which is very complex. Some of the compounds are carcinogenic in experimental animals and in man. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene are among the major carcinogenic compounds found in urban air pollution from motor vehicle emissions. In major cities in Asia, the levels of PAHs and benzene are relatively high compared with those in Europe or in the United States and thus people are exposed to higher levels. Biomarkers of exposure and early biological effects have been used to study the potential health effects of exposure to PAHs and benzene in air pollution in school children attending schools in inner-city Bangkok compared to those attending schools in rural areas. Bangkok school children are exposed to total PAHs at levels 3.5-fold higher than those in the rural area. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a metabolite of PAH, was also significantly higher, while PAH-DNA adducts in lymphocytes were five-fold higher in Bangkok school children than rural school children. Benzene exposure in Bangkok school children was approximately two-fold higher than in rural school children. This is in agreement with the levels of biomarkers of internal benzene dose, i.e. blood benzene and urinary t,t-muconic acid. The potential health risks from exposure to genotoxic substances were assessed through DNA-damage levels and DNA repair capacity. DNA strand breaks were significantly higher, whereas DNA repair capacity was significantly reduced in Bangkok children. Genetic polymorphisms have been detected in glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes involved in the metabolism of benzene and PAHs, but these polymorphisms had no significant effects on the biomarkers of PAH exposure. Our results indicate that children living

  13. Effects of a play program on creative thinking of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Berrueco, Laura

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a play program in the creative thinking of preschool children. The study used a repeated measures experimental pretest-posttest design with control groups. The sample included 86 participants aged 5 to 6 years (53 experimental and 33 control participants). Before and after administering the program, two evaluation instruments were applied: The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (Torrance, 1990) and Behaviors and Traits of Creative Personality Scale (Garaigordobil & Berrueco, 2007). The program consisted of a weekly 75-minute play session throughout the school year. ANOVA results showed that the program significantly increased the verbal creativity (fluency, flexibility, originality), graphic creativity (elaboration, fluency, originality), and behaviors and traits of creative personality. In the pretest phase, there were no differences in the creativity of boys and girls, and the program stimulated a similar level of change in both sexes. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing creative programs with preschool children.

  14. How to Support Children with Mathematical Learning Disabilities Learning to Play an Instrument?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemie Desoete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, children with a mathematical learning disability (=14 and age-matched peers without learning disabilities (=14 as well as their parents and teachers were interviewed on how they experienced playing an instrument (guitar, drum, flute, violin, trombone, horn, and piano and on what helped them using a qualitative interactive interview with a flexible agenda to discover the interviewee’s own framework of meanings. Thematic analyses mentioned intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy as important. Some children with MLD were found to have a real musical talent and a very good musical ear and memory for sounds. However, all children with MLD seemed more dependent on the aid of parents, sibling, peers, and teachers. They had to study harder and needed more time to study, more practice, and a more structured approach.

  15. Designing for Nomadic Play: A case study of participatory design with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg; Ludvigsen, Martin

    This poster presents the results from an empirical probe study trying to engage children creatively in the design process of systems and artifacts that support nomadic life-style. Based on observational studies and interviews with children of different ages (5-15 years), we conducted...... a participatory design workshop cycle where children were encouraged to envision and virtually play with not-yet-invented future technology. Findings include qualitative characterizations of children’s activities (e.g. ‘play’ culture, use of digital media, age and gender differences, relation to space......) and methodological considerations (e.g. the role of context and structure for different age groups, workshop formats, expenditure of time)....

  16. Therapeutic play in preparing for surgery: behavior of preschool children during the perioperative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Moreira Paladino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:to describe the behavior of children during the instructional session of therapeutic play (ITP in the preoperative period and to verify the behavior presented by them during the perioperative period. Methods: Exploratory descriptive study with a quantitative approach, developed in a large private hospital in Sao Paulo, in which the behaviors presented by 30 children between three and five years old, undergoing minor surgery were seen at the hospital during the session of TP and in the surgical center, from admission to awaken from anesthesia. Results: Most children participated in the ITP session (21; 70%, entered the surgical room spontaneously (22; 73.3% without resisting mother separation (24; 80%, collaborating with the anesthetic procedure (16; 53.3% and quietly awakening from anesthesia (26; 87%. Conclusion: The use of ITP led the child to understand the surgical procedure, making it less traumatic.

  17. Campylobacter infections in children exposed to infected backyard poultry in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tras, W F; Holt, H R; Tayel, A A; El-Kady, N N

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease which has a worldwide public health impact. The disease is endemic in Egypt; however, the epidemiology in animals and humans has not been fully characterized. The objective of this study was to compare the risk of Campylobacter faecal carriage in children exposed to Campylobacter-infected vs. non-infected backyard poultry and to identify risk factors for a backyard being classified as infected. A total of 103 households which owned backyard poultry were sampled from a rural community in Egypt. Within these households 379 poultry and 106 children were tested for C. jejuni and C. coli; 23·5% and 5·5% of poultry were positive for C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. In the studied households; 12·3% of children were positive for C. jejuni, and 2·8% were positive for C. coli. Using logistic regression, households with poultry positive for C. jejuni had 3·86 (95% confidence interval 1·0-15·0) times the odds of having children positive for C. jejuni compared to those housed with poultry which all tested negative. Backyard poultry may present a transmission route of C. jejuni to children. Backyards with poor cleaning and disinfection, wet litter and manure disposed of within the backyard had increased odds of being positive for C. jejuni. Enhancing biosecurity and management in poultry backyards may reduce the risk of the disease.

  18. Lung inflammation biomarkers and lung function in children chronically exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivas-Calderón, Edgar, E-mail: edgar_olivascalderon@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico); Recio-Vega, Rogelio, E-mail: rrecio@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gandolfi, A. Jay, E-mail: gandolfi@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Lantz, R. Clark, E-mail: lantz@email.arizona.edu [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); González-Cortes, Tania, E-mail: taniagc2201@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Gonzalez-De Alba, Cesar, E-mail: cesargonzalezalba@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, Biomedical Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Coahuila, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Froines, John R., E-mail: jfroines@ucla.edu [Center for Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Espinosa-Fematt, Jorge A., E-mail: dr.jorge.espinosa@gmail.com [School of Medicine, University Juarez of Durango, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico)

    2015-09-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood or in utero has been associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms or diseases in the adulthood, however only a few studies have been carried out during those sensitive windows of exposure. Recently our group demonstrated that the exposure to arsenic during early childhood or in utero in children was associated with impairment in the lung function and suggested that this adverse effect could be due to a chronic inflammation response to the metalloid. Therefore, we designed this cross-sectional study in a cohort of children associating lung inflammatory biomarkers and lung function with urinary As levels. A total of 275 healthy children were partitioned into four study groups according with their arsenic urinary levels. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in sputum by ELISA and the lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Fifty eight percent of the studied children were found to have a restrictive spirometric pattern. In the two highest exposed groups, the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products' (sRAGE) sputum level was significantly lower and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentration was higher. When the biomarkers were correlated to the urinary arsenic species, negative associations were found between dimethylarsinic (DMA), monomethylarsonic percentage (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic percentage (%DMA) with sRAGE and positive associations between %DMA with MMP-9 and with the MMP-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) ratio. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure of children negatively correlates with sRAGE, and positively correlated with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels, and increases the frequency of an abnormal spirometric pattern. Arsenic-induced alterations in inflammatory biomarkers may contribute to the development of restrictive lung diseases. - Highlights: • First study in children evaluating lung inflammatory biomarkers and As levels

  19. Using Free Operant Preference Assessments to Select Toys for Free Play between Children with Autism and Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, Rachael A.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Gillett, Jill N.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulus properties of toys may impact the type and amount of play observed between children with autism and their playmates. Six children with autism and their siblings participated in an evaluation of toy characteristics on type of play, problem behavior, social initiations, and responses to social initiations. Separate free operant preference…

  20. An Investigation of the Intentional Communication and Symbolic Play Skills of Children with Down Syndrome and Cerebral Palsy in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joginder Singh, Susheel; Iacono, Teresa; Gray, Kylie M.

    2014-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) and cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk of remaining pre-symbolic in their communication and play for prolonged periods. The aim of this study was to explore the early communication and play of children with DS and with CP who communicated at the pre-symbolic stage, and to determine the association between these…

  1. Does playing a sports active video game improve object control skills of children with autism spectrum disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Edwards

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The use of AVGs as a play-based intervention may not provide enough opportunity for children to perform the correct movement patterns to influence skill. However, play of such games may influence perceptions of skill ability in children with ASD, which could improve motivation to participate in physical activities.

  2. Comparing Video Modeling and Graduated Guidance Together and Video Modeling Alone for Teaching Role Playing Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmanoglu, Nurgul; Yanardag, Mehmet; Batu, E. Sema

    2014-01-01

    Teaching play skills is important for children with autism. The purpose of the present study was to compare effectiveness and efficiency of providing video modeling and graduated guidance together and video modeling alone for teaching role playing skills to children with autism. The study was conducted with four students. The study was conducted…

  3. Visual evoked potential latencies of three-year-old children prenatally exposed to buprenorphine or methadone compared with non-opioid exposed children: The results of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, Justine N; Spurrier, Nicola J; Baghurst, Peter A; Weston, Paul; Sawyer, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the latency of pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (VEP) of 36-month old children exposed to opioid pharmacotherapy in utero to that of a group of non-exposed children. Pregnant women were enrolled as part of an open-label non-randomised flexible dosing longitudinal study. Participants were 21 children whose mothers were treated with buprenorphine- (n=11) or methadone-pharmacotherapy (n=10) during pregnancy, and 15 children not exposed to opioids in pregnancy. One-way between groups analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to test the statistical significance of differences between the mean latencies of the peak response to two different sized checkerboard patterns (48' and 69' of retinal arc). Standard multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine whether there was a significant relationship between group status and VEP latencies after adjusting for the effect of covariates. VEP latencies ranged from 98 to 112 milliseconds (ms) for checks of 48' arc, and from 95 to 113ms for checks of 69' arc. Latencies were comparable across groups. After adjusting for covariates children prenatally exposed to methadone or buprenorphine did not differ significantly from non-opioid exposed children in their responses to either check size. Nor were there any significant differences in VEP latencies between children prenatally exposed to methadone and children prenatally exposed to buprenorphine. Head circumference (HC) was significantly associated with P100 latencies for both check sizes. Data from this controlled, non-randomised study suggest that neither buprenorphine nor methadone appear to have any long-term effects on visual maturity assessed at 36months of age.

  4. Development Enamel Defects in Children Prenatally Exposed to Anti-Epileptic Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Endrup; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Haubek, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    hypoplasia were recorded. Results Children prenatally exposed to AED have an increased prevalence of enamel hypoplasia (11% vs. 4%, odds ratio (OR) = 3.6 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9 to 15.4]), diffuse opacities (18% vs. 7%, OR = 3.0; [95% CI: 1.0 to 8.7, p3) white opacities (18...... of developing numerous teeth with white opacities in their primary and permanent dentition. In addition, they also have an increased risk of developing diffuse opacities and enamel hypoplasia in their primary teeth....

  5. The Role of Motive Objects in Early Childhood Teacher Development Concerning Children's Digital Play and Play-Based Learning in Early Childhood Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Joce; Edwards, Susan; Mantilla, Ana; Grieshaber, Sue; Wood, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies are increasingly accepted as a viable aspect of early childhood curriculum. However, teacher uptake of digital technologies in early childhood education and their use with young children in play-based approaches to learning have not been strong. Traditional approaches to the problem of teacher uptake of digital technologies in…

  6. Pretend play, deferred imitation and parent-child interaction in speaking and non-speaking children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Tjus, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    This study investigates spontaneous pretend play during a parent-child free play observation, and deferred imitation observed in an experimental setting in speaking and non-speaking children with autism in comparison to children with typical development. Both groups of children with autism showed a reduced level of deferred imitation compared to the typically developing group, but only the non-speaking children with autism spent significantly less time in pretend play compared to children with typical development. Deferred imitation was related to parents' verbal interaction in both groups. An analysis of the parent-child interaction revealed that parents of children with autism used less synchronized comments compared to parents of typically developing children. Parents of the speaking group with autism used more synchronized than unsynchronized comments, while parents of the non-speaking group used the same amount of synchronized and unsynchronized comments. These findings are discussed in terms of how the developmental level affects behavior and interaction in autism.

  7. The Next Level of Research on Electronic Play: Potential Benefits and Contextual Influences for Children and Adolescents

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    Dorothy E. Salonius-Pasternak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research on electronic play has focused on its possible negative effects for children and adolescents, and contextual factors such as socioeconomic status (SES and culture are rarely considered. This article considers the potential benefits of electronic play from a psychological perspective, as well as individual and contextual factors that may shape the influence of electronic play for children and adolescents. Demographics of players and the games themselves are presented, and recommendations for research and policy are discussed.

  8. "Play Skills" for Shy Children: Development of a "Social Skills Facilitated Play" Early Intervention Program for Extremely Inhibited Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Robert J.; Schneider, Barry H.; Matheson, Adrienne; Graham, Allison

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and provide a preliminary evaluation of a social-skills-based early intervention program specifically designed to assist extremely inhibited preschoolers. Participants were a sample of n = 522 extremely inhibited preschool-aged children, who were randomly assigned to either the "Social Skills…

  9. Design, delivery, and evaluation of early interventions for children exposed to acute trauma

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    Nancy Kassam-Adams

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to acute, potentially traumatic events is an unfortunately common experience for children and adolescents. Posttraumatic stress (PTS responses following acute trauma can have an ongoing impact on child development and well-being. Early intervention to prevent or reduce PTS responses holds promise but requires careful development and empirical evaluation. Objectives: The aims of this review paper are to present a framework for thinking about the design, delivery, and evaluation of early interventions for children who have been exposed to acute trauma; highlight targets for early intervention; and describe next steps for research and practice. Results and conclusions: Proposed early intervention methods must (1 have a firm theoretical grounding that guides the design of intervention components; (2 be practical for delivery in peri-trauma or early post-trauma contexts, which may require creative models that go outside of traditional means of providing services to children; and (3 be ready for evaluation of both outcomes and mechanisms of action. This paper describes three potential targets for early intervention—maladaptive trauma-related appraisals, excessive early avoidance, and social/interpersonal processes—for which there is theory and evidence suggesting an etiological role in the development or persistence of PTS symptoms in children.

  10. Growth in Inuit children exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and lead during fetal development and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Renée; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2014-10-01

    Because of their geographical location and traditional lifestyle, Canadian Inuit children are highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead (Pb), environmental contaminants that are thought to affect fetal and child growth. We examined the associations of these exposures with the fetal and postnatal growth of Inuit children. We conducted a prospective cohort study among Inuit from Nunavik (Arctic Québec). Mothers were recruited at their first prenatal visit; children (n=290) were evaluated at birth and at 8-14 years of age. Concentrations of PCB 153 and Pb were determined in umbilical cord and child blood. Weight, height and head circumference were measured at birth and during childhood. Cord blood PCB 153 concentrations were not associated with anthropometric measurements at birth or school age, but child blood PCB 153 concentrations were associated with reduced weight, height and head circumference during childhood. There was no association between cord Pb levels and anthropometric outcomes at birth, but cord blood Pb was related to smaller height and shows a tendency of a smaller head circumference during childhood. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to PCBs during childhood is negatively associated with skeletal growth and weight, while prenatal Pb exposure is related to reduced growth during childhood. This study is the first to link prenatal Pb exposure to poorer growth in school-age children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cotinine and interferon-gamma levels in pre-school children exposed to household tobacco smoke

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    Lina Kalalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Environmental tobacco smoke has been consistently linked to negative health outcomes, especially in children, including an increased susceptibility to infections. Cigarette smoking has a depressive effect on interferon-γ (IFN-γ. Serum cotinine is a marker of exposure to smoke. Objective To determine the association between serum cotinine and interferon-γ (IFN-γ levels in children with household tobacco smoke exposure. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Tumumpa and Singkil Districts of Manado, Indonesia, from February to May 2012. Subjects were collected by consecutively sampling of healthy children aged 1-3 years who came to the integrated health posts. Seventy-four children were recruited and consisted of two groups of 37 subjects each, the tobacco smoke exposure group and the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. Blood specimens were collected from all subjects for laboratory blood tests of cotinine and IFN-γ levels. Results were analyzed by T-test and Pearson’s correlation analysis with a P<0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results There was no significant correlation between serum cotinine and interferon-γ levels in the tobacco smoke exposure group. However, the interferon-γ level in the tobacco smoke exposure group was significantly lower than that of the non-tobacco smoke exposure group (P<0.0001. Conclusion Cotinine is not related to the interferon-γ level in children exposed to tobacco smoke, however, the interferon-γ level in children with tobacco smoke exposure is lower than in the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:287-90.].

  12. Mapping the basal ganglia alterations in children chronically exposed to manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Yi; Dion, Laurie-Anne; Gilbert, Guillaume; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Rocha, Gabriel; Wang, Yalin; Leporé, Natasha; Saint-Amour, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure is associated with neuromotor and neurocognitive deficits, but the exact mechanism of Mn neurotoxicity is still unclear. With the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in-vivo analysis of brain structures has become possible. Among different sub-cortical structures, the basal ganglia (BG) has been investigated as a putative anatomical biomarker in MR-based studies of Mn toxicity. However, previous investigations have yielded inconsistent results in terms of regional MR signal intensity changes. These discrepancies may be due to the subtlety of brain alterations caused by Mn toxicity, coupled to analysis techniques that lack the requisite detection power. Here, based on brain MRI, we apply a 3D surface-based morphometry method on 3 bilateral basal ganglia structures in school-age children chronically exposed to Mn through drinking water to investigate the effect of Mn exposure on brain anatomy. Our method successfully pinpointed significant enlargement of many areas of the basal ganglia structures, preferentially affecting the putamen. Moreover, these areas showed significant correlations with fine motor performance, indicating a possible link between altered basal ganglia neurodevelopment and declined motor performance in high Mn exposed children. PMID:28155922

  13. How getting noticed helps getting on: successful attention capture doubles children's cooperative play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Nicola; Hinske, Steve; Williams, Sophie E; Leith, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative social interaction is a complex skill that involves maintaining shared attention and continually negotiating a common frame of reference. Privileged in human evolution, cooperation provides support for the development of social-cognitive skills. We hypothesize that providing audio support for capturing playmates' attention will increase cooperative play in groups of young children. Attention capture was manipulated via an audio-augmented toy to boost children's attention bids. Study 1 (48 6- to 11-year-olds) showed that the augmented toy yielded significantly more cooperative play in triads compared to the same toy without augmentation. In Study 2 (33 7- to 9-year-olds) the augmented toy supported greater success of attention bids, which were associated with longer cooperative play, associated in turn with better group narratives. The results show how cooperation requires moment-by-moment coordination of attention and how we can manipulate environments to reveal and support mechanisms of social interaction. Our findings have implications for understanding the role of joint attention in the development of cooperative action and shared understanding.

  14. DNA methylation of extracellular matrix remodeling genes in children exposed to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Cortes, Tania; Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Lantz, Robert Clark; Chau, Binh T

    2017-08-15

    Several novel mechanistic findings regarding to arsenic's pathogenesis has been reported and some of them suggest that the etiology of some arsenic induced diseases are due in part to heritable changes to the genome via epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, histone maintenance, and mRNA expression. Recently, we reported that arsenic exposure during in utero and early life was associated with impairment in the lung function and abnormal receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) sputum levels. Based on our results and the reported arsenic impacts on DNA methylation, we designed this study in our cohort of children exposed in utero and early childhood to arsenic with the aim to associate DNA methylation of MMP9, TIMP1 and RAGE genes with its protein sputum levels and with urinary and toenail arsenic levels. The results disclosed hypermethylation in MMP9 promotor region in the most exposed children; and an increase in the RAGE sputum levels among children with the mid methylation level; there were also positive associations between MMP9 DNA methylation with arsenic toenail concentrations; RAGE DNA methylation with iAs, and %DMA; and finally between TIMP1 DNA methylation with the first arsenic methylation. A negative correlation between MMP9 sputum levels with its DNA methylation was registered. In conclusion, arsenic levels were positive associated with the DNA methylation of extracellular matrix remodeling genes;, which in turn could modifies the biological process in which they are involved causing or predisposing to lung diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The periodontal health of lead-exposed children living in a shipyard industrial area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youravong, Nattaporn; Teanpaisan, Rawee

    2015-05-01

    In a cross-sectional design, 292 schoolchildren living around a shipyard area, known to be contaminated with lead from shipyard industry, were examined to verify the association between lead exposure and periodontal health. The probing pocket depth (PD), bleeding on probing, plaque and calculus, and the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) in subgingival crevices were recorded. Gingival inflammation was the most common (98%) among children in the area. No significant difference in gingival inflammation was observed between high blood lead (PbB) and low PbB children. The prevalence rate of probing PD of ≥5 mm was 14%. The high PbB group showed more deep pockets at tooth 16 (upper right first permanent molar) and tooth 46 (lower right first permanent molar) than the low PbB group. The odds ratios (ORs) for having probing PD ≥5 mm after adjusting for other factors were 3.63 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-10.61; p = 0.02) for tooth 16 and 3.93 (95% CI, 1.18-13.00; p = 0.02) for tooth 46. The presence of Aa was observed in 17% of the children and it significantly increased in high PbB compared with low PbB children at tooth 46 (OR = 5.53, 95% CI: 1.68-18.15; p = 0.005). This study may suggest no association between lead exposure and gingival inflammation, yet there was the involvement of deeper periodontal tissue in lead-exposed children.

  16. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Increased Blood Pressure in School-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Barr, Dana; Bellinger, David C.; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. Objectives In northern Ecuador, where floriculture is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children’s neurobehavioral functions at 6–8 years of age. Methods We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children’s current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. Results Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed to pesticides during pregnancy via maternal occupational exposure, and 23 had indirect exposure from paternal work. Twenty-two children had detectable current exposure irrespective of their prenatal exposure status. Only children with prenatal exposure from maternal greenhouse work showed consistent deficits after covariate adjustment, which included stunting and socioeconomic variables. Exposure-related deficits were the strongest for motor speed (Finger Tapping Task), motor coordination (Santa Ana Form Board), visuospatial performance (Stanford-Binet Copying Test), and visual memory (Stanford-Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5–2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data strengthened these results. Conclusions These findings support the notion that prenatal exposure to pesticides—at levels not producing adverse health outcomes in the mother

  17. Lung inflammation biomarkers and lung function in children chronically exposed to arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivas-Calderón, Edgar; Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Lantz, R. Clark; González-Cortes, Tania; Alba, Cesar Gonzalez-De; Froines, John R.; Espinosa-Fematt, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to arsenic in drinking water during early childhood or in utero is associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms and diseases in adulthood, however only a few studies have been carried out during those sensitive windows of exposure. Recently our group demonstrated that exposure to arsenic during early childhood or in utero was associated with impairment in the lung function in children and suggested that this adverse effect could be due to a chronic inflammatory response to the metalloid. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was designed in a cohort of children associating lung inflammatory biomarkers and lung function with urinary As levels. A total of 275 healthy children were partitioned into four study groups according with their As levels. Inflammation biomarkers were measured in sputum by ELISA and the lung function was evaluated by spirometry. Fifty eight percent of the studied children were found to have a restrictive spirometric pattern. In the two highest exposed groups, the Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (sRAGE) sputum level was significantly lower and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentration was higher. When the biomarkers were correlated to the urinary arsenic species, negative associations were found between dimethylarsinic (DMA), monomethylarsenic percentage (%MMA) and dimethylarsinic percentage (%DMA) with sRAGE and positive associations between %DMA with MMP-9 and with the MMP-9/Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) ratio. In conclusion, chronic arsenic exposure of children negatively correlates with sRAGE, and positively correlated with MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels, and increases the frequency of an abnormal spirometric pattern. PMID:26048584

  18. Neurocognitive screening of mercury-exposed children of Andean gold miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Performance on Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test of visual-spatial reasoning was used to evaluate the effects of mercury (Hg) exposure on 73 Andean children aged 5 to 11 years (mean: 8.4) living in the Nambija and Portovelo gold mining areas of Ecuador, where Hg is widely used in amalgamation. Mean levels of Hg found in blood (Hg(B)), urine (Hg(U)), and hair (Hg(H)) samples were 5.1 microg/L (SD: 2.4; range: 1-10 microg/L), 13.3 microg/L (SD: 25.9; range: 1-166 microg/L), and 8.5 microg/g (SD: 22.8; range: 1-135 microg/g), respectively. Of the children in the Nambija area 67-84.9% had abnormal RCPM standard scores (i.e., < or = 25%tile), depending on the test norm used in the data analysis. Higher standard scores for Peruvian (t = 4.77; p = < 0.0001) and Puerto Rican (t = 4.51; p = < 0.0001) norms than for U.S. norms suggested a linguistic influence. No difference was found between Peruvian and Puerto Rican norms (t = 0.832; p = < 0.408), which showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.915, p = < 0.0001). Children with abnormal Hg(B) and Hg(H) levels had significantly lower scores on the RCPM subtest B than did children with nontoxic Hg levels (t = -2.16; p = < 0.034). These results suggest that a substantial number of Hg-exposed children in the Nambija study area have neurocognitive deficits in visual-spatial reasoning.

  19. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of school children exposed to ambient air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Shin; Ko, Ung Ring [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the health effect of air pollution on pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms of Korean school children between 7 and 10 years of age during November 1995-January 1996. A standard respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered and spirometry was performed to examine pulmonary function of 121 children in an urban polluted area, Seoul, and of 119 children in non-polluted area, Sokcho, respectively. There was significant difference in the level of pulmonary function [forced expiratory volume in second (FEV{sub 1.0}) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] between exposed groups to polluted area and non-polluted area. Parental smoking was significantly related to respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm, and the level of pulmonary function. The observed changes in FEV{sub 1.0} and FVC seemed to relate to home cooking fuel, not to respiratory symptoms. The additional longitudinal work that carefully monitors ambient and indoor air pollution and health effects data should be conducted to confirm these results.

  20. Birth outcome in HIV vertically-exposed children in two Romanian centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Ana Maria; Mărdărescu, Mariana; Petre, Cristina; Neagu Drăghicenoiu, Ruxandra; Ungurianu, Rodica; Tilişcan, Cătălin; Oţelea, Dan; Cambrea, Simona Claudia; Tănase, Doina Eugenia; Schweitzer, Ana Maria; Ruţă, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Background The Romanian HIV epidemic is characterized by a high prevalence among children born in the late ’80s, perinatally infected. The impact of long-term treatment on their offspring is unknown. We evaluated the influence of prenatal care on the rate of premature birth among the HIV-exposed children of heavily treated HIV-infected mothers in two Romanian centers. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data on all patients born by HIV-infected mothers between 2006 and 2012 followed up in two main regional centers. We compared the rate of premature birth and the differences between the sites regarding children and maternal demographic characteristics and antiretroviral exposure in pregnant women. Results A total of 358 children born to 315 women were enrolled between 2006-2012, 262 children from the National Institute for Infectious Diseases “Prof. Dr. Matei Balş” Bucharest (NIID) and 96 children from the Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital Constanţa (IDHC). Gender rate in newborns and mean age in mothers were similar. We recorded statistically significant differences between centers in the rate of HIV vertical transmission (16.8% vs. 6.2%, p=0.002) and prematurity (25.2 vs. 14.6%, p=0.023). The most used antiretroviral combination during pregnancy in IDHC was boosted lopinavir and fixed dose zidovudine-lamivudine (66% of cases), while in NIID a greater diversity of antiretrovirals were used. Women from IDHC were more frequently treated during pregnancy (83.3% vs. 68.6%, p=0.004). HCV coinfection and illegal drug use were associated with prematurity in the NIID cohort (p=0.037, p=0.024). Conclusion We found a higher rate of premature birth and HIV infection in NIID. In IDHC we found a higher rate of low birth weight in children and a higher rate of heavily treated women. Prematurity was associated with hepatitis C infection and illegal drug use in the NIID cohort. PMID:26716100

  1. Effect of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Amotz, A. [Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa (Israel); Yatziv, S. [Pediatric Department, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Sela, M. [Maxillary-Facial Rehabilitation, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Greenberg, S.; Rachmilevich, B.; Shwarzman, M.; Weshler, Z. [Sharett Institute of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1998-10-01

    Attempts were made to evaluate 709 children (324 boys and 385 girls) who had been exposed long-term to different doses of radiation during and after the Chernobyl accident and had moved to Israel between 1990 and 1994. Upon arrival, all of them underwent a check-up for most common clinical disorders and were then divided into three groups according to their residences (distance from the reactor) and the level of irradiation exposure: no radiation, <5 Ci/m{sup 2}, and >5 Ci/m{sup 2}, respectively. Blood serum analyses for total carotenoids, retinol, {alpha}-tocopherol and oxidized conjugated dienes in 262 of the children showed increased HPLC levels of conjugated dienes, indicating increased levels of oxidation of in vivo blood lipids in children from the contaminated areas. The levels were higher in girls than in boys. Some 57 boys and 42 girls were given a basal diet with a diurnal supplementation of 40 mg natural 9-cis and all-trans equal isomer mixture {beta}-carotene in a capsulated powder form of the alga Dunaliella bardawil, for a period of 3 months. Blood serum analyses were regularly conducted before supplementation to determine the baseline effect of radiation exposure to the children, after 1 and 3 months of natural {beta}-carotene supplementation. After supplementation, the levels of the oxidized conjugated dienes decreased in the children`s sera without any significant changes in the level of total carotenoids, retinol or {alpha}-tocopherol. Other common blood biochemicals were within the normal range for all tests and no statistical differences before or after supplementation of {beta}-carotene were noted. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses for carotenoids in the blood detected mainly oxycarotenoids, and to a lesser extent, all-trans {beta}-carotene, {alpha}-carotene, but not 9-cis {beta}-carotene. The results suggest that irradiation increases the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation in the Chernobyl children and that natural {beta

  2. The Play Experiences of Preschool Children from a Low-socio-economic Rural Community in Worcester, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartie, Michelle; Dunnell, Alex; Kaplan, Jesse; Oosthuizen, Dianka; Smit, Danielle; van Dyk, Anchen; Cloete, Lizahn; Duvenage, Mia

    2016-06-01

    Occupational therapists believe that play is a child's main occupation and is considered essential for healthy motor, cognitive and emotional development. However, play spaces and activities in low socio-economic areas are often different to those provided in structured occupational therapy treatment environments. The main objective was to determine play opportunities, activities, equipment, toys and the play environment for 5- to 6-year-olds living in a low-socio-economic community outside a small town in South Africa, in order to understand the nature of play in this environment better. Participant observation together with an adapted photovoice method to capture the play experience was used. Data was analysed using inductive content analysis. Two global themes emerged from the results: "neighbourhood children find ways to play" and "context influences play". Children were given ample opportunity to play and participated in extensive outdoor play. Their games were highly social and involved the imaginative use of found items as toys. Play was also used to make sense of social hazards. An understanding of play in a low-income context has implications for the development of future play assessments and the provision of play therapy in these communities. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Change during Psychotherapy through Sand Play Tray in Children That Have Been Sexually Abused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, María D L Angeles; Capella, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a qualitative study on the use of sandplay, or sand tray therapy, in the psychotherapeutic process of children who have been sexually abused. A longitudinal study was carried out with seven participants between the ages of 7 and 10 years old. Data was produced during observation of the therapeutic activity over the course of three different phases of treatment, using a rubric created especially for this observation. Three sandplay sessions were recorded: one at the start of therapy, one at the 3-month mark, and the third and final session after 6 months of treatment. Sessions were then transcribed for later analysis. A rubric was developed in order to help researchers identify central themes, behaviors and content of creative play, as well as the therapeutic relationship. Transcribed sessions and observation rubrics were evaluated using qualitative content analysis, and information was categorized according to verbal and behavioral characteristics of the game. Results of the present study reveal common and transversal forms of playful expression among this group of children shown by their engagement with sandplay. During this activity, participants elaborate personal stories that feature violence as a central theme, often involving aggression between two or more individuals. They also express their need for care and protection and work to resolve conflicts using fantasy. The shifting dynamics of sandplay at each stage of therapeutic treatment is an important finding that reveals the progress made during psychotherapy. In the third phase of treatment, sandplay encouraged movement among children, allowing them to act out meaningful scenarios and create structured situations with positive outcomes. Finally, the value of sandplay as an important therapeutic tool is discussed, primarily its role in supporting processes of change and allowing participants to assign new meanings to traumatic experiences. Its application to the field of

  4. Change during Psychotherapy through Sand Play Tray in Children That Have Been Sexually Abused

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    María D. L. Angeles Tornero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative study on the use of sandplay, or sand tray therapy, in the psychotherapeutic process of children who have been sexually abused. A longitudinal study was carried out with seven participants between the ages of 7 and 10 years old. Data was produced during observation of the therapeutic activity over the course of three different phases of treatment, using a rubric created especially for this observation. Three sandplay sessions were recorded: one at the start of therapy, one at the 3-month mark, and the third and final session after 6 months of treatment. Sessions were then transcribed for later analysis. A rubric was developed in order to help researchers identify central themes, behaviors and content of creative play, as well as the therapeutic relationship. Transcribed sessions and observation rubrics were evaluated using qualitative content analysis, and information was categorized according to verbal and behavioral characteristics of the game. Results of the present study reveal common and transversal forms of playful expression among this group of children shown by their engagement with sandplay. During this activity, participants elaborate personal stories that feature violence as a central theme, often involving aggression between two or more individuals. They also express their need for care and protection and work to resolve conflicts using fantasy. The shifting dynamics of sandplay at each stage of therapeutic treatment is an important finding that reveals the progress made during psychotherapy. In the third phase of treatment, sandplay encouraged movement among children, allowing them to act out meaningful scenarios and create structured situations with positive outcomes. Finally, the value of sandplay as an important therapeutic tool is discussed, primarily its role in supporting processes of change and allowing participants to assign new meanings to traumatic experiences. Its

  5. Identifying Learning Trajectories While Playing a Learning-to-Learn Computer Game in Different Children and Instruction Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning-Veenstra, Baukje; Timmerman, Marieke; van Geert, Paul; van der Meulen, Bieuwe

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on identifying learning trajectories expressed among children playing a learning-to-learn computer game and examining the relationships between the learning trajectories and individual characteristics such as developmental age, prior knowledge, and instruction type (adult- and/

  6. Identifying Learning Trajectories While Playing a Learning-to-Learn Computer Game in Different Children and Instruction Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning-Veenstra, Baukje; Timmerman, Marieke; van Geert, Paul; van der Meulen, Bieuwe

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on identifying learning trajectories expressed among children playing a learning-to-learn computer game and examining the relationships between the learning trajectories and individual characteristics such as developmental age, prior knowledge, and instruction type (adult- and/

  7. Assessing the Play Provisions for Children in Urban Neighborhoods of India: Case Study Nagpur, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti D. Bhonsle

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The creation of satisfying urban environments calls for the planners, designers and policy makers to understand the structures that cause residents to feel satisfied with their environments. The paper focuses on qualitative aspects of the childrens play spaces in the urban neighborhoods of Nagpur which were analysed with the background of their daily activity schedule survey, their assement of the existing play provisions and their aspirations from their neighborhood environment quality. Apart from these studies, the childrens and their parents perceptions of the quality of urban residential environments was also studied. The literature review gave an extract of relevant attributes of environmental quality (EQ which became the theoritical basis for the work. The research generates an approach to assessing the child friendliness of our urban neighborhoods, which in certain ways is not even catering to the most fundamental right of the child to play; it also generates a matrix of children’s needs and parameters relevant to Indian context. A theoretical model of the residents satisfaction is also generated which forms the base for the qualitative questionnaire analysis in SPSS 20 with a set of dependent and independent variables which shows the correlation of the resident’s satisfaction with child friendliness of neighborhoods in the Indian context. The regression model and mathematical equation as an outcome of the qualitative analysis was also validated upon two other urban neighborhoods of the city of Nagpur. The research with all its tools used and the approach adopted can help in undertaking such child-centered researches in other cities of India which have their own unique issues and characteristics of urban growth.

  8. Experience of taking care of children exposed to HIV: a trajectory of expectations

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    Willyane de Andrade Alvarenga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to learn about the experience of caregivers/mothers providing care to infants exposed to HIV through vertical transmission.METHODS: this qualitative study used Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical framework. A total of 39 caregivers of children exposed to HIV in follow-up at a specialized service were interviewed. Data were analyzed through inductive content analysis.RESULTS: four categories were identified that report on the lonely experience of handling the child's antiretroviral therapy, mainly due to a lack of information or incomplete information; being attentive to required care, such as the use of prophylaxis for pneumonia, vaccines, and other practices restricted to the mother-child interaction; the desire to omit the HIV out of fear of prejudice and fear of the disease, considering future prospects.CONCLUSION: the HIV and the threat this infection may affect the child cause apprehension and feelings such as fear, guilt and anxiety in the caregivers. Healthcare workers need to work together with mothers so they are able to cope with demands and distress. Only then will the treatment to avoid vertical transmission be efficient and will mother and child be supported during the process, despite apprehension with the outcome.

  9. Theory of mind predominantly associated with the quality, not quantity, of pretend play in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Kai; Tsai, Ching-Hong; Li, Hsing-Jung; Huang, Chien-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2017-03-16

    This study aimed to clarify the relationships between theory of mind and pretend play in children with autism spectrum disorder, using refined assessments of theory of mind and pretend play while controlling for autistic behaviors and verbal comprehension. A total of 92 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 4-10 years were enrolled. In two visits, the children were assessed with the Theory of Mind Task Battery, the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and the Verbal Comprehension Index of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, respectively, for their theory of mind, pretend play performance, autistic behaviors, and verbal comprehension. The hierarchical regression models showed that in addition to the contributions of the autistic behaviors and verbal comprehension scores, the theory of mind scores positively predicted (p theory of mind has a predominant role in the quality, not the quantity, of pretend play of children with autism spectrum disorder, when the children's autistic behaviors and verbal comprehension are considered. This study fills a gap in the previous literature and provides information useful for clinicians and researchers on the relationships between theory of mind and pretend play in children with autism spectrum disorder.

  10. Teaching Children with Autism to Play a Video Game Using Activity Schedules and Game-Embedded Simultaneous Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum-Dimaya, Alyssa; Reeve, Sharon A.; Reeve, Kenneth F.; Hoch, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism have severe and pervasive impairments in social interactions and communication that impact most areas of daily living and often limit independent engagement in leisure activities. We taught four children with autism to engage in an age-appropriate leisure skill, playing the video game Guitar Hero II[TM], through the use of (a)…

  11. Splashing Our Way to Playfulness! An Aquatic Playgroup for Young Children with Autism, A Repeated Measures Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an aquatic playgroup on the playfulness of children, ages 2 to 3 with autism spectrum disorder. Using a repeated measures design, we followed 10 children and their caregivers who participated in a 6-week aquatic playgroup in southwest Florida. Four dyads completed the entire 12-week study period. The…

  12. Children's Lived Experience and Their Sense of Coherence: Bodily Play in a Norwegian After-School Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londal, Knut

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on materials gathered from qualitative research interviews among eight-year-old and nine-year-old children participating in an after-school programme (ASP) in Oslo, and investigates how bodily play affects their sense of coherence (SOC). In line with Maurice Merleau-Ponty, children's lived experiences are regarded as layered…

  13. A Play and Joint Attention Intervention for Teachers of Young Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Connie S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to pilot test a classroom-based intervention focused on facilitating play and joint attention for young children with autism in self-contained special education classrooms. Thirty-three children with autism between the ages of 3 and 6 years participated in the study with their classroom teachers (n = 14). The 14 preschool…

  14. Food choices of 4 to 6-year-old overweight and nonoverweight children while role-playing as adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, H.M.; Sessink, N.Y.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The following study compared the food choices made by overweight and non-overweight preschoolers while role-playing a mother who bought food for a family, and examined the influence of maternal restriction on food choice. After screening 619 children for height and weight, 56 overweight children (eq

  15. Food Choices of 4 to 6-Year-Old Overweight and Nonoverweight Children While Role-Playing as Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, H.M.; Sessink, N.Y.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The following study compared the food choices made by overweight and non-overweight preschoolers while role-playing a mother who bought food for a family, and examined the influence of maternal restriction on food choice. After screening 619 children for height and weight, 56 overweight children (eq

  16. Effect of play-based occupational therapy on symptoms of hospitalized children with cancer: A single-subject study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cancer is one of the four leading causes of death in children. Its courses of diagnosis and treatment can cause physiologic symptoms and psychological distress that secondarily affect children's quality of life and participation in daily activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of play-based occupational therapy on pain, anxiety, and fatigue in hospitalized children with cancer who were receiving chemotherapy. Methods: Two hospitalized children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at least 4 months after diagnoses who received two courses of chemotherapy participated in this pilot study. Takata Play History and Iranian Children Participation Assessment Scale were used to develop intervention protocol. Nine, 30–45 min play-based occupational therapy sessions took place for each child. Children filled out the Faces Pain Scale, Visual Fatigue Scale, and Faces Anxiety Scale before and after each intervention session. Results: Pain, anxiety, and fatigue levels decreased in both participants. Furthermore, the results showed a relationship between pain, anxiety, and fatigue variables in these children. Conclusions: Play-based occupational therapy can be effective in improving pain, anxiety, and fatigue levels in hospitalized children with cancer receiving chemotherapy.

  17. Effect of Play-based Occupational Therapy on Symptoms of Hospitalized Children with Cancer: A Single-subject Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ahmad; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; Damavandi, Shahla A

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is one of the four leading causes of death in children. Its courses of diagnosis and treatment can cause physiologic symptoms and psychological distress that secondarily affect children's quality of life and participation in daily activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of play-based occupational therapy on pain, anxiety, and fatigue in hospitalized children with cancer who were receiving chemotherapy. Two hospitalized children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at least 4 months after diagnoses who received two courses of chemotherapy participated in this pilot study. Takata Play History and Iranian Children Participation Assessment Scale were used to develop intervention protocol. Nine, 30-45 min play-based occupational therapy sessions took place for each child. Children filled out the Faces Pain Scale, Visual Fatigue Scale, and Faces Anxiety Scale before and after each intervention session. Pain, anxiety, and fatigue levels decreased in both participants. Furthermore, the results showed a relationship between pain, anxiety, and fatigue variables in these children. Play-based occupational therapy can be effective in improving pain, anxiety, and fatigue levels in hospitalized children with cancer receiving chemotherapy.

  18. Food Choices of 4 to 6-Year-Old Overweight and Nonoverweight Children While Role-Playing as Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, H.M.; Sessink, N.Y.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The following study compared the food choices made by overweight and non-overweight preschoolers while role-playing a mother who bought food for a family, and examined the influence of maternal restriction on food choice. After screening 619 children for height and weight, 56 overweight children

  19. Food choices of 4 to 6-year-old overweight and nonoverweight children while role-playing as adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, H.M.; Sessink, N.Y.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The following study compared the food choices made by overweight and non-overweight preschoolers while role-playing a mother who bought food for a family, and examined the influence of maternal restriction on food choice. After screening 619 children for height and weight, 56 overweight children

  20. Does Linguistic Input Play the Same Role in Language Learning for Children with and without Early Brain Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Levine, Susan C.; Fisher, Joan A.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Children with unilateral pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI) show remarkable plasticity for language learning. Previous work highlights the important role that lesion characteristics play in explaining individual variation in plasticity in the language development of children with BI. The current study examines whether the linguistic input that…

  1. Splashing Our Way to Playfulness! An Aquatic Playgroup for Young Children with Autism, A Repeated Measures Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an aquatic playgroup on the playfulness of children, ages 2 to 3 with autism spectrum disorder. Using a repeated measures design, we followed 10 children and their caregivers who participated in a 6-week aquatic playgroup in southwest Florida. Four dyads completed the entire 12-week study period. The…

  2. Is time spent playing video games associated with mental health, cognitive and social skills in young children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess-Masfety, V.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Hanson, G.; Bitfoi, A.; Golitz, D.; Koç , C.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Fermanian, C.; Pez, O.

    2016-01-01

    Video games are one of the favourite leisure activities of children; the influence on child health is usually perceived to be negative. The present study assessed the association between the amount of time spent playing video games and children mental health as well as cognitive and social skills.

  3. Extending the global reach of a play-based intervention for children dealing with separation and divorce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedro-Carroll, J.; Klein Velderman, M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the process of translating, adapting, and disseminating the Children of Divorce Intervention Program (CODIP), a play-based preventive intervention developed in the United States, to fit the needs of young children in the Netherlands who are dealing with parental separation and

  4. Increased health risk in Bangkok children exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from traffic-related sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntawiroon, Jantamas; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Navasumrit, Panida; Autrup, Herman; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study is to assess potential health risk of exposure to particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in children living in a megacity with traffic congestion such as Bangkok. The study population comprised 184 Thai schoolboys (aged 8-13 years) attending schools adjacent to high-density traffic areas in Bangkok and schools located in the provincial area of Chonburi. The ambient concentration of total PAHs at roadsides in proximity to the Bangkok schools was 30-fold greater than at roadsides in proximity to the provincial schools (30.39 +/- 5.80 versus 1.50 +/- 0.28 ng/m(3); P Bangkok schoolchildren were 3.5-fold higher than in provincial schoolchildren (4.13 +/- 0.21 versus 1.18 +/- 0.09 ng/m(3); P Bangkok schoolchildren. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct levels in peripheral lymphocytes were also significantly higher (0.45 +/- 0.03 versus 0.09 +/- 0.00 adducts/10(8) nt; P Bangkok schoolchildren (P Bangkok schoolchildren exposed to a high level of genotoxic PAHs in ambient air may be more vulnerable to the health impacts associated with the exposure to genotoxic pollutants than children in provincial areas and may have increased health risks for the development of certain diseases such as cancer.

  5. The behavior modification through the play of children aged 3-7 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Lamcja (Zeqaj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of theory, technique and common factors in psychotherapy has gained prominence since the 1990s. Previously, it was called eclecticism, but integration has become the preferred term to describe the blending of theory, technique and common factors (Norcross, 2005. In the past, eclecticism meant to choose from various theories and techniques a therapeutic strategy that appears best for a particular client (Schaefer, 2003, .308. However, Norcross (1987 explains eclecticism as a further integration through which various theories are applied on interactive and coordinated explanations of the therapy. Psychological disorders, especially in complex children and adolescents a multifaceted treatment approach is needed (Schaefer 2003. Indeed, many clients do not come with a clearly defined diagnosis, but rather several overlapping problems due to the co morbidity of issues (such as in the cases of complex trauma resulting in overlapping attention problems, along with phobias and sexualized behaviors. The clinicians trained in one theoretical and treatment approach are finding the “one size” cannot fit in all the presenting problems that are being faced today. Due to this multidimensional aspect the play child/play therapy calls for the unique demand that the therapist should wear a lot of different hats and should be skillful in changing from one therapeutic stance to another, in order to meet the needs of the child and of the various members in the child’s life (Coonerty, 1993. In one moment, the play therapist is intensively involved in deeply evocative and conflicted play therapy the child client. At that moment, the therapist needs to deal with the child’s internal struggles, setting limits and being an educator or mediator with the child, while in the next moment the therapist should be engaged with the role of a parent, or school psychologist, or classroom teacher to assess the child’s functioning

  6. Environmental Health Assessment of Deltamethrin in a Malarious Area of Mexico: Environmental Persistence, Toxicokinetics, and Genotoxicity in Exposed Children

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    We reported previously that children are exposed to deltamethrin in malarious areas. In the present work we explored the levels of this insecticide in soil samples and also obtained relevant toxico-kinetic data of deltamethrin in exposed children. Results show that, after spraying, indoor levels of deltamethrin in soil samples were higher than outdoor levels. The mean half-life estimated with these data was 15.5 days for outdoor samples and 15.4 days for indoor samples. Children’s exposure to...

  7. Does linguistic input play the same role in language learning for children with and without early brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L; Levine, Susan C; Fisher, Joan A; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Children with unilateral pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI) show remarkable plasticity for language learning. Previous work highlights the important role that lesion characteristics play in explaining individual variation in plasticity in the language development of children with BI. The current study examines whether the linguistic input that children with BI receive from their caregivers also contributes to this early plasticity, and whether linguistic input plays a similar role in children with BI as it does in typically developing (TD) children. Growth in vocabulary and syntactic production is modeled for 80 children (53 TD, 27 BI) between 14 and 46 months. Findings indicate that caregiver input is an equally potent predictor of vocabulary growth in children with BI and in TD children. In contrast, input is a more potent predictor of syntactic growth for children with BI than for TD children. Controlling for input, lesion characteristics (lesion size, type, seizure history) also affect the language trajectories of children with BI. Thus, findings illustrate how both variability in the environment (linguistic input) and variability in the organism (lesion characteristics) work together to contribute to plasticity in language learning.

  8. Neurobehavioral Function in School-Age Children Exposed to Manganese in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Mergler, Donna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bellinger, David C.; Bouffard, Thérèse; Brodeur, Marie-Ève; Saint-Amour, Dave; Legrand, Melissa; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Background: Manganese neurotoxicity is well documented in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne particulates, but few data are available on risks from drinking-water exposure. Objective: We examined associations of exposure from concentrations of manganese in water and hair with memory, attention, motor function, and parent- and teacher-reported hyperactive behaviors. Methods: We recruited 375 children and measured manganese in home tap water (MnW) and hair (MnH). We estimated manganese intake from water ingestion. Using structural equation modeling, we estimated associations between neurobehavioral functions and MnH, MnW, and manganese intake from water. We evaluated exposure–response relationships using generalized additive models. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in log10 MnH was associated with a significant difference of –24% (95% CI: –36, –12%) SD in memory and –25% (95% CI: –41, –9%) SD in attention. The relations between log10 MnH and poorer memory and attention were linear. A 1-SD increase in log10 MnW was associated with a significant difference of –14% (95% CI: –24, –4%) SD in memory, and this relation was nonlinear, with a steeper decline in performance at MnW > 100 μg/L. A 1-SD increase in log10 manganese intake from water was associated with a significant difference of –11% (95% CI: –21, –0.4%) SD in motor function. The relation between log10 manganese intake and poorer motor function was linear. There was no significant association between manganese exposure and hyperactivity. Conclusion: Exposure to manganese in water was associated with poorer neurobehavioral performances in children, even at low levels commonly encountered in North America. Citation: Oulhote Y, Mergler D, Barbeau B, Bellinger DC, Bouffard T, Brodeur ME, Saint-Amour D, Legrand M, Sauvé S, Bouchard MF. 2014. Neurobehavioral function in school-age children exposed to manganese in drinking water. Environ Health

  9. Differences in Theory of Mind and Pretend Play Associations in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Melanie; Johnson, Carla J.

    2016-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty engaging in social pretend play, which cannot be explained exclusively by their deficient language skills. Alternatively, the ability to represent mental states (Theory of Mind [ToM]) might be important in appreciating peers' perspectives during pretend play. This study investigated…

  10. Promoting Broad and Stable Improvements in Low-Income Children's Numerical Knowledge through Playing Number Board Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical analyses of the development of numerical representations suggest that playing linear number board games should enhance young children's numerical knowledge. Consistent with this prediction, playing such a game for roughly 1 hr increased low-income preschoolers' (mean age = 5.4 years) proficiency on 4 diverse numerical tasks: numerical…

  11. Moderators of the longitudinal relationship between the perceived physical environment and outside play in children: The KOALA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmers, T.; Kann, D. van; Gubbels, J.; Schmidt, S.; Vries, S. de; Ettema, D.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Thijs, C.

    2014-01-01

    Promoting unstructured outside play is a promising vehicle to increase children's physical activity (PA). This study investigates if factors of the social environment moderate the relationship between the perceived physical environment and outside play. Study design: 1875 parents from the KOALA Birt

  12. Early Childhood Curriculum Development: The Role of Play in Building Self-Regulatory Capacity in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Linda R.

    2017-01-01

    This case study examines the development of self-regulation, socially, cognitively and emotionally, through the use of play in the curriculum in five preschool classrooms for children ages 2-5 years old at a university laboratory school. Five teachers were interviewed about their deliberate use of play to support the development of self-regulation…

  13. El juego de aparentar y el desarrollo de los ninos pequenos (Pretend Play and Young Children's Development). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Doris

    Although pretend play has long been part of the early childhood curriculum, recent emphasis on accountability in education seems to have led to a decline in the general understanding of the contribution that high-quality play can make to children's cognitive development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest defines the cluster of…

  14. Biological monitoring involving children exposed to mercury from a barometer in a private residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Paul T J; van Ballegooij-Gevers, Marieke; Jans, Henk

    2014-12-15

    A small spill of approximately 3 mL of mercury from a broken barometer in a residential setting resulted in blood values of 32 μg/L in a boy of 9 months and 26 μg/L in a girl of 2.5 years in samples collected within 6h after the start of the incident. A nanny who attempted to remove the spill had a blood mercury value of 20 μg/L at the same time point. These elevated blood values were attributed to inhalation rather than dermal uptake or ingestion. Exposure was aggravated by the use of a vacuum cleaner in an early attempt to remove the spill and incomplete decontamination of involved persons, leading to a continuation of exposure. Over a period of three months general cleaning was followed by targeted cleaning of hot spots until the indoor air mercury levels reached a median value of 0.090 μg/m(3) with a range of 0.032-0.140 μg/m(3). Meanwhile the family was staying in a shelter home. Human biological monitoring (HBM) was motivated by the complex exposure situation and the involvement of young children. Initially high blood values triggered alertness for clinical signs of intoxication, that (as it turned out) were not observed in any of the exposed individuals. Despite continued exposure from hair and clothes, within six weeks after the incident, blood levels returned to a background level normally seen in children. HBM contributed to reassurance of the parents of the young children that quick elimination of the mercury did not require medical treatment.

  15. Behavioral inhibition and risk for posttraumatic stress symptoms in Latino children exposed to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiño, Omar G

    2013-08-01

    Latino children in urban contexts marked by poverty are at high risk of being exposed to violence and developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nonetheless, there is great variability in individual responses to violence exposure. This study examines risk for developing re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptoms of PTSD as a function of individual differences in behavioral inhibition and exposure to community violence. Participants were 148 Latino students (M age =11.43 years, SD = 0.69; 55 % girls) living in an area marked by poverty and crime. Children completed self-report measures of behavioral inhibition and posttraumatic stress symptoms during a baseline assessment. During a follow-up interview 6 months later, children completed self-report measures of exposure to community violence since the baseline assessment and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Structural equation models revealed that behavioral inhibition at baseline was positively associated with PTSD avoidance and arousal symptoms at follow-up, after controlling for symptoms at baseline. Furthermore, behavioral inhibition moderated the association between violence exposure and symptoms such that violence was more strongly associated with the development of PTSD avoidance symptoms as behavioral inhibition increased. Results suggest that individual differences in behavioral inhibition contribute to risk for specific PTSD symptoms and are important for understanding variation in responses to trauma exposure. By examining diathesis--stress models within a disorder, we may be better able to elucidate the etiology of a disorder and translate this improved understanding into personalized intervention approaches that maximize effectiveness.

  16. The influence of information and role-playing experiences on children's attitudes toward peers who use AAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ann R; Fritz-Verticchio, Heidi

    2003-02-01

    A school-based intervention designed to increase the positive nature of children's attitudes toward peers who use AAC is described. Small groups of children were given only information about AAC or they were given information about AAC and the opportunity to role-play being nonspeaking. Results indicated a greater positive effect of the information plus role-play experience compared to the effects of being given information alone for older children and boys. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  17. The effect of playing videogames on social, psychological and physiological variables in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncada Jiménez, José

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this manuscript will be to present scientific evidence regarding the effects of videogame playing on different aspects of the social life of children and adolescents, as well as the general potential psychological and physiological effects. A literature review from relevant databases has been performed, and experimental and meta-analytical studies have been scrutinized for positive and negative effects of videogames in children and adolescents. In general, it has been found that there is a billionaire videogame industry and yet, despite the worldwide popularity of videogames, research is still scarce and sometimes contradictory. Some research suggests a correlation between excess time video gaming on negative social and psychological aspects such as isolation and aggressive behavior; while other research suggests a positive association with motor learning, motor re-training and resilience. As far as physiological effects it has been reported that active videogames might promote higher energy expenditure than passive videogames; therefore, given an adequate parental instruction might provide videogames beneficial properties to combat the global epidemic of sedentary behavior and obesity. Videogames and everything related «to be» in front of a screen will be common to future generations, and therefore more systematic studies are required to determine the long-term exposure effects to these devices.

  18. Early communicative gestures and play as predictors of language development in children born with and without family risk for dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unhjem, Astrid; Eklund, Kenneth; Nergård-Nilssen, Trude

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated early communicative gestures, play, and language skills in children born with family risk for dyslexia (FR) and a control group of children without this inheritable risk at ages 12, 15, 18, and 24 months. Participants were drawn from the Tromsø Longitudinal study of Dyslexia (TLD) which follows children's cognitive and language development from age 12 months through Grade 2 in order to identify early markers of developmental dyslexia. Results showed that symbolic play and parent reported play at age 12 months and communicative gestures at age 15 months explained 61% of the variance in productive language at 24 months in the FR group. These early nonlinguistic measures seem to be potentially interesting markers of later language development in children born at risk for dyslexia.

  19. WWC Quick Review of the Article "Promoting Broad and Stable Improvements in Low-Income Children's Numerical Knowledge Through Playing Number Board Games"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This review examined a study designed to evaluate whether playing number board games improved numeracy skills of low-income preschoolers. The study included 136 pre-school children from 10 urban Head Start centers: 72 children were randomly selected to play a number board game with a trained experimenter; the remaining 64 children played a…

  20. Differential Therapeutic Outcomes of Community-Based Group Interventions for Women and Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Paula T.

    2011-01-01

    Two community-based group therapies, emotion focused versus goal oriented, are compared among women exposed to intimate partner violence (n = 46) and their children (n = 48) aged between 6 and 12 years. A series of repeated measures analyses are employed to evaluate the effects of time from baseline to postintervention following random assignment.…

  1. Relationships between Maternal Emotion Regulation, Parenting, and Children's Executive Functioning in Families Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Kristin W.; Krueger, Casey E.; Wilson, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Recently researchers have begun to explore the extent to which children's cognitive development is influenced by experiences in the family environment. Assessing mother-child dyads exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV), a population at risk for emotional and neurocognitive problems, we examined relationships between maternal emotional…

  2. Decreased vaccine antibody titers following exposure to multiple metals and metalloids in e-waste-exposed preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Xinjiang; Xu, Xijin; Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Long; Zeng, Zhijun; Huo, Xia

    We explored acquired immunity resulting from vaccination in 3 to 7-year-old children, chronically exposed to multiple heavy metals and metalloids, in an e-waste recycling area (Guiyu, China). Child blood levels of ten heavy metals and metalloids, including lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg),

  3. Effects of Exergame Play on EF in Children and Adolescents at a Summer Camp for Low Income Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Rachel M; Richert, Rebekah A; Staiano, Amanda E; Wartella, Ellen; Calvert, Sandra L

    2014-01-01

    Past research has suggested exergame play improves adolescents' executive function (EF) skills. EF change in 70 African American and Hispanic/Latino 10- to 16-year-olds participating in an inner-city summer camp was assessed following five 30-minute exergame play sessions. Children's EF scores improved from pre- to posttest, and factors related to this change were examined. The number of exergame sessions the participants attended predicted posttest scores. In addition, level of achievement during game play was related to EF scores. Finally, the children's level of enjoyment was not related to EF; however, frustration and boredom during game play were negatively related to EF. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the relationship between exergame play and cognitive benefits for adolescent players.

  4. Sustainably connecting children with nature: an exploratory study of nature play area visitor impacts and their management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Matthew H.E.M.; Marion, Jeffrey L.; Gregoire, Timothy G.

    2013-01-01

    Parks are developing nature play areas to improve children's health and “connect” them with nature. However, these play areas are often located in protected natural areas where managers must balance recreation with associated environmental impacts. In this exploratory study, we sought to describe these impacts. We also investigated which ages, gender, and play group sizes most frequently caused impact and where impacts most frequently occur. We measured the lineal and aerial extent and severity of impacts at three play areas in the eastern United States. Methods included soil and vegetation loss calculations, qualitative searches and tree and shrub damage classifications. Additionally, we observed 12 h of play at five play areas. Results showed that measurable negative impacts were caused during 33% of the time children play. On average, 76% of groundcover vegetation was lost at recreation sites and 100% was lost at informal trails. In addition, approximately half of all trees and shrubs at sites were damaged. Meanwhile, soil exposure was 25% greater on sites and trails than at controls. Boys and small group sizes more frequently caused impact, and informal recreation sites were most commonly used for play. No statistically significant correlations were found between age or location and impact frequency. Managers interested in developing nature play areas should be aware of, but not deterred by these impacts. The societal benefits of unstructured play in nature may outweigh the environmental costs. Recommended management strategies include selecting impact-resistant sites, improving site resistance, promoting low impact practices, and managing adaptively.

  5. Neurobehavioral function in school-age children exposed to manganese in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Mergler, Donna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bellinger, David C; Bouffard, Thérèse; Brodeur, Marie-Ève; Saint-Amour, Dave; Legrand, Melissa; Sauvé, Sébastien; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2014-12-01

    Manganese neurotoxicity is well documented in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne particulates, but few data are available on risks from drinking-water exposure. We examined associations of exposure from concentrations of manganese in water and hair with memory, attention, motor function, and parent- and teacher-reported hyperactive behaviors. We recruited 375 children and measured manganese in home tap water (MnW) and hair (MnH). We estimated manganese intake from water ingestion. Using structural equation modeling, we estimated associations between neurobehavioral functions and MnH, MnW, and manganese intake from water. We evaluated exposure-response relationships using generalized additive models. After adjusting for potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in log10 MnH was associated with a significant difference of -24% (95% CI: -36, -12%) SD in memory and -25% (95% CI: -41, -9%) SD in attention. The relations between log10 MnH and poorer memory and attention were linear. A 1-SD increase in log10 MnW was associated with a significant difference of -14% (95% CI: -24, -4%) SD in memory, and this relation was nonlinear, with a steeper decline in performance at MnW > 100 μg/L. A 1-SD increase in log10 manganese intake from water was associated with a significant difference of -11% (95% CI: -21, -0.4%) SD in motor function. The relation between log10 manganese intake and poorer motor function was linear. There was no significant association between manganese exposure and hyperactivity. Exposure to manganese in water was associated with poorer neurobehavioral performances in children, even at low levels commonly encountered in North America.

  6. Food choices of 4 to 6-year-old overweight and nonoverweight children while role-playing as adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoek, Harriëtte M; Sessink, Nienke Y; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-12-01

    The following study compared the food choices made by overweight and non-overweight preschoolers while role-playing a mother who bought food for a family, and examined the influence of maternal restriction on food choice. After screening 619 children for height and weight, 56 overweight children (equal sex distribution, ages 4-6) and 56 non-overweight children (matched on age, sex, demographics) were selected to participate. Children's purchases of low and high caloric snacks, drinks, and dinner products in a miniature supermarket were recorded. Mother and child-reported maternal restriction were assessed using the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) and the Kid's CFQ. Compared to non-overweight children, overweight children choose more high-calorie foods when role-playing a mother. Maternal restriction did not differ between overweight and non-overweight children. Both children's and mothers' reported maternal restriction were unrelated to food choices and there were no significant interactions between restriction and weight status on food choices. In conclusion, while parental restriction seems to be unrelated to children's food choices, family food patterns might have great impact already at young ages.

  7. Experimental study of the differential effects of playing versus watching violent video games on children's aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, Hanneke; de Castro, Bram Orobio; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2008-01-01

    There is great concern about the effects of playing violent video games on aggressive behavior. The present experimental study was aimed at investigating the differential effects of actively playing vs. passively watching the same violent video game on subsequent aggressive behavior. Fifty-seven children aged 10-13 either played a violent video game (active violent condition), watched the same violent video game (passive violent condition), or played a non-violent video game (active non-violent condition). Aggression was measured through peer nominations of real-life aggressive incidents during a free play session at school. After the active participation of actually playing the violent video game, boys behaved more aggressively than did the boys in the passive game condition. For girls, game condition was not related to aggression. These findings indicate that, specifically for boys, playing a violent video game should lead to more aggression than watching television violence.

  8. Pretend play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Deena Skolnick

    2015-01-01

    Pretend play is a form of playful behavior that involves nonliteral action. Although on the surface this activity appears to be merely for fun, recent research has discovered that children's pretend play has connections to important cognitive and social skills, such as symbolic thinking, theory of mind, and counterfactual reasoning. The current article first defines pretend play and then reviews the arguments and evidence for these three connections. Pretend play has a nonliteral correspondence to reality, hence pretending may provide children with practice with navigating symbolic relationships, which may strengthen their language skills. Pretend play and theory of mind reasoning share a focus on others' mental states in order to correctly interpret their behavior, hence pretending and theory of mind may be mutually supportive in development. Pretend play and counterfactual reasoning both involve representing nonreal states of affairs, hence pretending may facilitate children's counterfactual abilities. These connections make pretend play an important phenomenon in cognitive science: Studying children's pretend play can provide insight into these other abilities and their developmental trajectories, and thereby into human cognitive architecture and its development.

  9. Growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine administered for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Cai, Haodong; Wang, Ying; Shen, Ying

    2015-04-01

    We studied the growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine used to treat chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in their mothers. Maternal abnormalities during pregnancy and delivery and infant congenital anomalies, physical development status, developmental quotient (DQ), HBV vertical transmission status, and HBV vaccination outcomes of 54 infants were evaluated (2010-2013). No fetal abnormalities were observed during pregnancy or delivery. Postpartum, three infants (5.56%) had abnormalities: ankyloglossia, cutaneous hemangioma, and vaginal canal leak. Height and weight were within the normal range at birth and at 6 weeks, but were higher than the reference at 12 months (pchildren (68.52%), abnormal or suspicious for a developmental delay (15.19%, 41/270) in 17 children (31.48%), and indicated a developmental delay (4.07%, 11/270) in seven children (12.96%). There were no significant differences in developmental delay between children prenatally exposed to telbivudine and controls (p>0.05). HBV vertical transmission was successfully blocked in all infants. The effective HBV vaccination rate was 98.15% (53/54). The growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine was normal, indicating that telbivudine treatment during pregnancy is safe and effective. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The pragmatic language abilities of children with ADHD following a play-based intervention involving peer-to-peer interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Munro, Natalie; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Docking, Kimberley

    2013-08-01

    Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly experience significant pragmatic language deficits which put them at risk of developing emotional and social difficulties. This study aimed to examine the pragmatic language exhibited in a peer-to-peer interaction between the children with ADHD and their playmates following a pilot play-based intervention. Participants were children (aged 5-11 years) diagnosed as having ADHD (n = 14) and their self-selected typically-developing playmate. Pragmatic language was measured using the Pragmatic Protocol (PP) and the Structured Multidimensional Assessment Profiles (S-MAPs). Children's structural language was also screened and compared against their pragmatic language skills pre-post play-based intervention. The pragmatic language of children with ADHD improved significantly from pre-post intervention as measured by both the PP and S-MAPs. Both children with and without structural language difficulties improved significantly from pre- to post-intervention using S-MAPs; only children with structural language difficulties improved significantly using PP. The findings support the notion that pragmatic skills may improve following a play-based intervention that is characterized by didactic social interaction. As pragmatic language is a complex construct, it is proposed that clinicians and researchers reconsider the working definition of pragmatic language and the operationalization thereof in assessments.

  11. Mortality and health outcomes of HIV-exposed and unexposed children in a PMTCT cohort in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Landes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mortality and morbidity among HIV-exposed children are thought to be high in Malawi. We sought to determine mortality and health outcomes of HIV-exposed and unexposed infants within a PMTCT program. METHOD: Data were collected as part of a retrospective cohort study in Zomba District, Malawi. HIV-infected mothers were identified via antenatal, delivery and postpartum records with a delivery date 18-20 months prior; the next registered HIV-uninfected mother was identified as a control. By interview and health record review, data on socio-demographic characteristics, service uptake, and health outcomes were collected. HIV-testing was offered to all exposed children. RESULTS: 173 HIV-infected and 214 uninfected mothers were included. 4 stillbirths (1.0% occurred; among the 383 livebirths, 41 (10.7% children died by 20 months (32 (18.7% HIV-exposed and 9 unexposed children (4.3%; p<0.0001. Risk factors for child death included: HIV-exposure [adjOR2.9(95%CI 1.1-7.2], low birthweight [adjOR2.5(1.0-6.3], previous child death (adjOR25.1(6.5-97.5] and maternal death [adjOR5.3(11.4-20.5]. At 20 months, HIV-infected children had significantly poorer health outcomes than HIV-unexposed children and HIV-exposed but uninfected children (HIV-EU, including: hospital admissions, delayed development, undernutrition and restrictions in function (Lansky scale; no significant differences were seen between HIV-EU and HIV-unexposed children. Overall, no difference was seen at 20 months among HIV-infected, HIV-EU and HIV-unexposed groups in Z-scores (%<-2.0 for weight, height and BMI. Risk factors for poor functional health status at 20 months included: HIV-infection [adjOR8.9(2.4-32.6], maternal illness [adjOR2.8(1.5-5.0] and low birthweight [adjOR2.0(1.0-4.1]. CONCLUSION: Child mortality remains high within this context and could be reduced through more effective PMTCT including prioritizing the treatment of maternal HIV infection to address the effect of

  12. Patterns of Play Behaviors and Learning Center Choices between High Ability and Typical Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hope E.

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of research regarding young children with high intellectual abilities, particularly research involving the direct observation of children in naturalistic settings. The current study examines 2 years of observations of young children (aged 37-71 months; n = 34) at an early childhood facility. The children were observed during the…

  13. There Is Space to Play! Mexican American Children of Immigrants Learning With(in) Cherry Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, María Isabel

    2016-01-01

    While some children spend their summers in camps or other recreational activities, many children of immigrants in Washington state spend them picking cherries and learning with(in) orchards. Children's experiences consist of multiple narratives demonstrating that children's lives are complicated, yet full of possibilities for teaching and…

  14. Play with online virtual pets as a method to improve mirror neuron and real world functioning in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Eric Lewin

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a severe disease with no known cause and no cure or treatment. Recently, ourselves and subsequently others found that so-called "mirror neurons" - neurons that respond not only when a person moves, but upon observation of movement in another - are dysfunctional in autistic children. Here I suggest an easy, simple, inexpensive and fun method to improve mirror neuron functioning in autistic children, increase appreciation in autistic children for the theory of mind and thinking of others, and most importantly hopefully to improve real world functioning: play with virtual online pets that are the "embodiment" of a stuffed animal the child has. Adoption and then care and play with online pets forces, in a fun way, one to think about the world through the eyes and needs of the pet. A simple method to test this play with online virtual pet therapy is described.

  15. Do boys that play with dolls become girls? Gender differences in the play of 4-5 year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Junges

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This text is derived from a study conducted for a final course project in pedagogy that focused on gender in early-childhood education. It sought to understand how children interact with toys brought from home or offered at school and examine if boys and girls choose different toys. Moreover, it investigates whether there is a relationship between toy colors and gender differences. We have adopted a qualitative approach, since  we are interested in the singularity of children’s expressions, movements and speech. We have used a cartographic methodology, which allows a sensitive listening and an attentive look at the territories to be investigated. Children’s attitudes and reactions have been observed and recorded during school playtime, whether it was free or defined by the study. The research revealed that children do not propose marks of gender differences; but they emerge from the environment, particularly from parents and society in general. We also perceived that when this topic is discussed, children seem to understand and question the gender stereotypes seen in the context through toys. They also understand that playing is a free expression that does not have to be marked by gender stereotypes. Finally, we highlight that child education researchers should give more attention to gender studies, and everyone involved should discuss this theme more often.

  16. Hearing Loss in Perinatally Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Human Immunodeficiency Virus -Exposed but Uninfected Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Peter; Zeldow, Bret; Hoffman, Howard J.; Buchanan, Ashley; Siberry, George K.; Rice, Mabel; Sirois, Patricia A.; Williams, Paige L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about hearing loss in children with HIV infection (HIV+). We examined the prevalence of hearing loss in perinatally HIV+ and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children, compared these to the percentage with hearing loss in the general population, and evaluated possible risk factors for hearing loss in HIV+ and HEU children. Methods Audiometric examinations were completed in children who met any pre-specified criteria for possible hearing loss. The hearing examination consisted of a tympanogram in each ear and pure-tone air-conduction threshold testing from 500 through 4000 Hz. Hearing loss was defined as the pure-tone average over these frequencies ≥20 dB hearing level (HL). The associations of demographic, parent/caregiver, HIV disease, and HIV treatment with hearing loss were evaluated with univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. Results Hearing testing was completed in 231 children (145 HIV+ and 86 HEU). Hearing loss occurred in 20.0% of HIV+ children and 10.5% of HEU children. After adjusting for caregiver education level, HIV infection was associated with increased odds of hearing loss [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95–4.76, p=0.07]. Among HIV+ children, those with a CDC Class C diagnosis had over twice the odds of hearing loss (aOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.04–5.87, p=0.04). The prevalence of hearing loss was higher in both HIV+ and HEU children compared with NHANES III children. Conclusions Hearing loss was more common in both HIV+ and HEU children than in healthy children. More advanced HIV illness increased the risk of hearing loss in HIV+ children. PMID:22549437

  17. Deviant smooth pursuit in preschool children exposed prenatally to methadone or buprenorphine and tobacco affects integrative visuomotor capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinder, Annika; Konijnenberg, Carolien; Sarfi, Monica

    2013-12-01

    Although an increasing number of children are born to mothers in opioid maintenance therapy (OMT), little is known about the long-term effects of these opioids. Previous studies suggest an association between prenatal OMT exposure and difficulties in eye movement control. Also, the effects of tobacco smoking on eye movements have been reported. The present study examined the influence of eye movements, i.e. smooth pursuit, on visuomotor capabilities in children of smoking mothers in OMT. The study comprised a 2 (OMT versus contrast group) × 2 (slow versus fast smooth pursuit) between-subject factorial design. The cognitive developmental research unit at the University of Oslo, Norway. Participants were 26 4-year-old children of tobacco-smoking women in OMT and 23 non-exposed 4-year-old children, with non-smoking mothers, matched by gender and age. Eye movements and smooth pursuit were recorded using a Tobii 1750 eyetracker. Visuomotor functions were examined by Bender test. The OMT group tracked slowly moving objects with smooth pursuit in a similar manner to their non-exposed peers. When fast smooth pursuit was measured, the OMT group of children tracked the object more slowly than the contrast group, P = 0.02, ηp(2) = 0.11. A regression analysis showed that fast smooth pursuit predicted children's performance on a visuomotor task, R(2) = 0.37. Impaired eye-tracking skills in 4-year-old children exposed to methadone or buprenorphine and tobacco prenatally could inhibit the development of some cognitive functions in later life. ©2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Effectiveness of Play Therapy with CPR (Child-Parent-Relationship approach on reducing Depression and Anxiety in children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Sadat Ojagh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety are known as most common Psychiatric disorders among psychological problems posed by childhood cancer. Depression and anxiety with cancer are risk factors for reduced survival in cancer patients and they are major factors in the rejection therapy. The aim of play therapy is to reduce the depression and anxiety in these children and it improves their mental health status. The study population was children 6 to 11 years that referred to Mahak and Mofid hospitals with cancer diagnosis in 2015. Sampling method was on the available sampling. To select the participants, Child's Behavioral Check List (CBCL was completed by parents and 40 children with cancer that gained more than 69 score in isolation-depression and anxiety-depression scales were randomly assigned to two groups of 20 persons experimental and control groups. The experimental group received 10 sessions of play therapy with CPR approach. CBCL test was conducted to follow up a week before and after the play therapy, and two months after the treatment. Play therapy with child-parent-relationship (CPR approach caused significant reduction in depression in experimental group compare with control group but anxiety reduction between 2 groups was not significant. Results showed that play therapy training to parents of children with cancer caused better compliance with painful treatments and stressful hospital environment.

  19. The Same Fish: Creating Space for Therapeutic Relationships, Play, and Development in a School for Children with Special Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Richard; Sosland, Rachel; Tuohy, Anne; Weiler, Nori Anna; Zeitlin, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This paper represents and attempts to describe psychoanalytically informed work applied in a school setting with children with special needs. While many therapists at the Parkside School are trained in analytic techniques and principles, these ideas have not traditionally been applied to children with language-based learning difficulties. Over the years, we have found that analytic ideas such as transference, countertransference, projective identification, containment, and attachment are especially salient to our understanding of these very complex children. Despite being in a school--a nontraditional setting for psychoanalysis--children are seen in individual and group therapy, often more than once a week. We believe that therapeutic relationships and play (sometimes bringing a child to a place of being able to play) are especially mutative with children with language-based learning challenges. Play and relationship provide a holding environment that, over time, allows for the reorganization of a child's often immature developmental capacities into a sense of agency that captures more clearly a child's innate potential. This article includes case studies of children with complex language-based learning difficulties, including autism spectrum disorders.

  20. [Association between intracellular zinc levels and nutritional status in HIV-infected and uninfected children exposed to the virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez G, Erika María; Maldonado C, María Elena; Rojas L, Mauricio; Posada J, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition, growth retardation and opportunistic infections outlast the metabolic, immune and gastrointestinal disorders produced by HIV. Zinc deficiency has been associated with deteriorating nutritional status, growth failure, and risk of infection. The aim of this study is to determine the association between zinc levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the nutritional status of HIV-infected and uninfected children exposed to the virus. An analytical, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 17 infected and 17 exposed children, aged 2-10 years. Anthropometric measurements, clinical and nutritional history, 24h recall, measurement of physical activity, and zinc in PBMC by flow cytometry analysis were recorded. Height according to age, energy consumption and adequacy of energy, protein and dietary zinc were significantly higher in children exposed to the virus compared to those infected with HIV (P .05). However, the median levels of zinc in monocytes of infected patients was higher (218.6) compared to the control group (217.0). No association was found between zinc intake and levels of intracellular zinc. The deterioration of nutritional status and growth retardation in children were associated with HIV, but not with the levels of intracellular zinc. The dietary intake of this nutrient was not associated with levels of zinc in monocytes or CD4 + and CD4- lymphocytes. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  1. Participation and Enjoyment in Play with a Robot between Children with Cerebral Palsy who use AAC and their Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferm, Ulrika M; Claesson, Britt K; Ottesjö, Cajsa; Ericsson, Stina

    2015-06-01

    This study explores children with complex communication needs, their peers and adult support persons in play with the talking and moving robot LekBot. Two triads were filmed playing with LekBot at pre-school. LekBot was developed to facilitate independent and enjoyable play on equal terms for children with significant communication disabilities and their peers. Using Conversation Analysis, participatory symmetry and enjoyment were investigated in relation to spoken and gestural communication, embodied stance, gaze, and affective display. Data originated from three video-recorded sessions that were approximately 2 hours long. Four different interaction situations were identified and explored: Participatory Asymmetry, Adult Facilitation, Greater Participatory Symmetry and Creativity, and Turn-taking and Enjoyable Play with LekBot. Neither participatory symmetry nor enjoyment were easily achieved in the play sessions and may require considerable effort, including adult involvement, but creative, spontaneous and highly enjoyable play, correlating with participatory symmetry to various degrees, was observed in a few instances. The findings are discussed with regard to play, AAC and the future development of robots to facilitate play.

  2. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer C; Welday, Jennifer N; Buckley, Brian; Ferguson, Alesia; Gurian, Patrick L; Mena, Kristina D; Yang, Ill; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2016-08-27

    Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V) and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene) were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10(-6) range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children's beach play habits, which are necessary to more

  3. Children's Play: An Introduction for Care Providers. Addison-Wesley Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Vicki

    Intended as an aid for students on their way to becoming professional teachers and caregivers, This book encourages the student to contemplate his or her own ideas regarding play, including the concept of play and specific memories of play in their own past, and then use these thoughts to reshape the student's ideas about play. This book deals…

  4. Maternal Reports of Play Dates of Clinic Referred and Community Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Fred; Mintz, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Recent interventions have focused upon play dates as a means to improve friendships. However, no measures have been published which quantify play date quality. An important characteristic of play dates in this regard may be the amount of conflict. We present the development of such a measure. We compare maternal reports of play dates for 112…

  5. Using video modeling for generalizing toy play in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Claire R; Arco, Lucius

    2007-09-01

    The present study examined effects of video modeling on generalized independent toy play of two boys with autism. Appropriate and repetitive verbal and motor play were measured, and intermeasure relationships were examined. Two single-participant experiments with multiple baselines and withdrawals across toy play were used. One boy was presented with three physically unrelated toys, whereas the other was presented with three related toys. Video modeling produced increases in appropriate play and decreases in repetitive play, but generalized play was observed only with the related toys. Generalization may have resulted from variables including the toys' common physical characteristics and natural reinforcing properties and the increased correspondence between verbal and motor play.

  6. Motor and Cognitive Outcomes Through Three Years Of Age In Children Exposed To Prenatal Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Haning, William; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Lin, Hai; Lester, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    heavy exposure, on the Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI) or Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) at any or across age. Conclusions There were no differences in cognition as assessed by the BSID-II between the groups. There was a subtle MA exposure effect on fine motor performance at 1 year with the poorest performance observed in the most heavily exposed children. By 3 years, no differences in fine motor performance were observed. These findings suggest MA exposure has modest motor effects at 1 year that are mostly resolved by 3 years. PMID:21256431

  7. Center-Based Early Head Start and Children Exposed to Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert; McKelvey, Lorraine; Lopez, Maya

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: Family conflict is known to be associated with poor development for young children, but many children appear resilient. This study examined the extent to which high-quality center care during early childhood protects children from these negative consequences. Children participating in center-based sites of the Early Head Start…

  8. Trace elements in scalp hair of children chronically exposed to volcanic activity (Mt. Etna, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrica, D; Tamburo, E; Dongarrà, G; Sposito, F

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this survey was to use scalp hair as a biomonitor to evaluate the environmental exposure to metals and metalloids of schoolchildren living around the Mt. Etna area, and to verify whether the degree of human exposure to trace elements is subject to changes in local environmental factors. Twenty trace elements were determined in 376 samples of scalp hair from schoolboys (11-13 years old) of both genders, living in ten towns located around the volcanic area of Mt. Etna (Sicily). The results were compared with those (215 samples) from children living in areas of Sicily characterized by a different geological setting (reference site). As, U and V showed much higher concentrations at the volcanic site whereas Sr was particularly more abundant at the reference site. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) indicated an Etna factor, made up of V, U and Mn, and a second factor, concerning the reference site, characterized by Ni and Sr, and to a lesser extent by Mo and Cd. Significant differences in element concentrations were also observed among three different sectors of Mt. Etna area. Young people living in the Mt. Etna area are naturally exposed to enhanced intakes of some metals (V, U, Mn) and non-metals (e.g., As) than individuals of the same age residing in other areas of Sicily, characterized by different lithologies and not influenced by volcanic activity. The petrographic nature of local rocks and the dispersion of the volcanic plume explain the differences, with ingestion of water and local food as the most probable exposure pathways.

  9. 'Sometimes I want to play by myself': Understanding what friendship means to children with autism in mainstream primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Lynsey; Hill, Vivian; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2013-05-01

    Research has shown that friendship impacts the overall experience of mainstream school for autistic children. Using a unique combination of quantitative, qualitative and social network methods, we investigated the extent and nature of autistic children's friendships from their perspective and from those of their mothers, teachers and classroom peers. Consistent with previous research, children with autism (n = 12), aged between 9 and 11 years, rated their friendships to be of poorer quality than their non-autistic classroom peers (n = 11). There was, however, much variability in autistic children's ratings, which, unexpectedly, was related to neither children's cognitive ability nor their theory of mind ability. Encouragingly, the children generally reported satisfaction with their friendships, and although no child was socially isolated, the degree of inclusion in friendship networks varied widely. Furthermore, autistic children's social motivation emerged as a key factor in parents' and teachers' reports in determining both the nature and extent of their friendships. Adults played an active role in supporting children's friendships, but this sometimes conflicted with what the children wanted. These findings highlight the need to ascertain the perspectives of young people with autism on their friendships and to consider the social and ethical implications of when and how to intervene.

  10. Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Kadzo, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen...... investigated in a study area where children were chronically exposed to malaria throughout while S. mansoni transmission was geographically restricted. Hepatosplenomegaly was associated with increased portal vein diameters, with enlargement of the spleen rather than the liver being more closely associated...... with hepatosplenomegaly. Children who presented with hepatosplenomegaly had the lowest height-for-age Z-scores. This study shows that hepatosplenomegaly associated with chronic exposure to malaria and schistosomiasis is not a benign symptom amongst school-aged children but has potential long-term health consequences....

  11. Increased Eye Contact during Conversation Compared to Play in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca M.; Southerland, Audrey; Hamo, Amarelle; Carberry, Caroline; Bridges, Chanel; Nay, Sarah; Stubbs, Elizabeth; Komarow, Emily; Washington, Clay; Rehg, James M.; Lord, Catherine; Rozga, Agata

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism have atypical gaze behavior but it is unknown whether gaze differs during distinct types of reciprocal interactions. Typically developing children (N = 20) and children with autism (N = 20) (4-13 years) made similar amounts of eye contact with an examiner during a conversation. Surprisingly, there was minimal eye contact…

  12. Leukocyte telomere length in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children: shorter telomeres with uncontrolled HIV viremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène C F Côté

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs used in HIV antiretroviral therapy can inhibit human telomerase reverse transcriptase. We therefore investigated whether in utero or childhood exposure to NRTIs affects leukocyte telomere length (LTL, a marker of cellular aging. METHODS: In this cross-sectional CARMA cohort study, we investigated factors associated with LTL in HIV-1-infected (HIV(+ children (n = 94, HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU children who were exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART perinatally (n = 177, and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HIV(- control children (n = 104 aged 0-19 years. Univariate followed by multivariate linear regression models were used to examine relationships of explanatory variables with LTL for: a all subjects, b HIV(+/HEU children only, and c HIV(+ children only. RESULTS: After adjusting for age and gender, there was no difference in LTL between the 3 groups, when considering children of all ages together. In multivariate models, older age and male gender were associated with shorter LTL. For the HIV(+ group alone, having a detectable HIV viral load was also strongly associated with shorter LTL (p = 0.007. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study, group rates of LTL attrition were similar for HIV(+, HEU and HIV(- children. No associations between children's LTL and their perinatal ART exposure or HIV status were seen in linear regression models. However, the association between having a detectable HIV viral load and shorter LTL suggests that uncontrolled HIV viremia rather than duration of ART exposure may be associated with acceleration of blood telomere attrition.

  13. Is aggression in children with behavioural and emotional difficulties associated with television viewing and video game playing? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofan, O; Paul, M; Spencer, N

    2009-01-01

    Possible associations between television viewing and video game playing and children's aggression have become public health concerns. We did a systematic review of studies that examined such associations, focussing on children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties, who are thought to be more susceptible. We did computer-assisted searches of health and social science databases, gateways, publications from relevant organizations and for grey literature; scanned bibliographies; hand-searched key journals; and corresponded with authors. We critically appraised all studies. A total of 12 studies: three experiments with children with behavioural and emotional difficulties found increased aggression after watching aggressive as opposed to low-aggressive content television programmes, one found the opposite and two no clear effect, one found such children no more likely than controls to imitate aggressive television characters. One case-control study and one survey found that children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties watched more television than controls; another did not. Two studies found that children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties viewed more hours of aggressive television programmes than controls. One study on video game use found that young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties viewed more minutes of violence and played longer than controls. In a qualitative study children with behavioural and emotional difficulties, but not their parents, did not associate watching television with aggression. All studies had significant methodological flaws. None was based on power calculations. This systematic review found insufficient, contradictory and methodologically flawed evidence on the association between television viewing and video game playing and aggression in children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties. If public health advice is to be evidence

  14. Phenotypically resembling myeloid derived suppressor cells are increased in children with HIV and exposed/infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, Nelita; Jacobs, Ruschca; Gutschmidt, Andrea; Fang, Zhuo; van Helden, Paul D; Lutz, Manfred B; Hesseling, Anneke C; Walzl, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Increased disease susceptibility during early life has been linked to immune immaturity, regulatory T-cell/TH2 immune biasing and hyporesponsiveness. The contribution of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) remains uninvestigated. Here, we assessed peripheral MDSC in HIV-infected and -uninfected children with tuberculosis (TB) disease before, during and after TB treatment, along with matched household contacts (HHCs), HIV-exposed, -infected and -uninfected children without recent TB exposure. Serum analytes and enzymes associated with MDSC accumulation/activation/function were measured by colorimetric- and fluorescence arrays. Peripheral frequencies of cells phenotypically resembling MDSCs were significantly increased in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and M.tb-infected children, but peaked in children with TB disease and remained high following treatment. MDSC in HIV-infected (HI) children were similar to unexposed uninfected controls; however, HAART-mediated MDSC restoration to control levels could not be disregarded. Increased MDSC frequencies in HHC coincided with enhanced indoleamine-pyrrole-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), whereas increased MDSC in TB cases were linked to heightened IDO and arginase-1. Increased MDSC were paralleled by reduced plasma IP-10 and thrombospondin-2 levels in HEU and significantly increased plasma IL-6 in HI HHC. Current investigations into MDSC-targeted treatment strategies, together with functional analyses of MDSCs, could endorse these cells as novel innate immune regulatory mechanism of infant HIV/TB susceptibility. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Use of a Creative Dance Intervention Package to Increase Social Engagement and Play Complexity of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Catherine; Paul, Kristen; Johnston, Susan S.; Kidder, Jaimee E.

    2017-01-01

    Play skills are central to development of children's language and cognitive skills. However, social, symbolic, and object play skills of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are frequently impaired. This study examined the effects of a strategy that utilized preferred play materials, antecedent creative dance activities, and priming of…

  16. Design and evaluation of a personal robot playing a self-management education game with children with diabetes type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Bierman, B.P.B.; Janssen, J.; Looije, R.; Neerincx, M.A.; Dooren, M.M.M. van; Vries, J.L.E. de; Burg, G.J. van der; Huisman, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of a personal robot, providing diabetes self-management education in a clinical setting on the pleasure, engagement and motivation to play a diabetes quiz of children (7–12) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and on their acquisition of knowledge about their

  17. Fostering Imaginative Play in Pre-School Children: Effects of Television-Viewing and Direct Adult Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jerome L.; Singer, Dorothy G.

    This study represents part of an extended research program designed to explore the various parameters of imaginative play in children and their relationship to the later development of daydreaming and various cognitive skills or personality characteristics. The specific focus of this investigation was on role of adult intervention represented…

  18. "I Look Cool; He's Dead Now": Reconsidering Children's Violent Play Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquemani, Shana

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses some of the photographs and videos that her students produced, and shares how their artwork serves as one way that, when given freedom and choice, children will incorporate violent play into their artmaking activities. The author argues that these images are not evidence of inherently violent, dangerous, or…

  19. The reliability and validity of a modified revised class play examined in Dutch elementary-school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleva, A.E.; Goossens, F.A.; Dekker, P.H.; Laceulle, O.M.

    2017-01-01

    Social withdrawal in children is a risk factor for maladjustment. The Revised Class Play (RCP; Masten, Morison, & Pelligrini, 1985) has often been used to identify children’s behavioral difficulties with peers. However, in previous studies the sensitive-isolated scale of the RCP appeared to measure

  20. Mastery and Exercise Play Interventions: Motor Skill Development and Verbal Recall of Children with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Nadia Cristina; Pierosan, Licia; Rudisill, Mary E.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fundamental motor skill proficiency is essential for engagement in sports and physical play and in the development of a healthy lifestyle. Children with motor delays (with and without disabilities) lack the motor skills necessary to participate in games and physical activity, and tend to spend more time as onlookers than do their…

  1. Effects of Toys on the Play Quality of Preschool Children: Influence of Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawick-Smith, Jeffrey; Wolff, Jennifer; Koschel, Marley; Vallarelli, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of nine toys on the play of 60 3- and 4-year-old children in culturally diverse preschool classrooms. The toys, which varied in their features and intended uses, were selected from a list of those that were nominated by teachers and parents as being developmentally beneficial. Each toy was video recorded for 240 h…

  2. The Musical Dimension of Daily Routines with Under-Four Children during Diaper Change, Bedtime and Free-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Anna Rita

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with an action-research project currently being undertaken at the University of Bologna concerning the observation of music making during daily routines with under-four children during diaper change, bedtime and free-play. Several observational protocols were carried out in natural and spontaneous contexts. The data analysis was…

  3. Effects of Toys on the Play Quality of Preschool Children: Influence of Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawick-Smith, Jeffrey; Wolff, Jennifer; Koschel, Marley; Vallarelli, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of nine toys on the play of 60 3- and 4-year-old children in culturally diverse preschool classrooms. The toys, which varied in their features and intended uses, were selected from a list of those that were nominated by teachers and parents as being developmentally beneficial. Each toy was video recorded for 240 h…

  4. Using Portable Video Modeling Technology to Increase the Compliment Behaviors of Children with Autism during Athletic Group Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Kevin; Charlop, Marjorie H.; Miltenberger, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across participants was used to examine the effects of a portable video modeling intervention delivered in the natural environment on the verbal compliments and compliment gestures demonstrated by five children with autism. Participants were observed playing kickball with peers and adults. In baseline, participants…

  5. Mothers' Reports of Play Dates and Observation of School Playground Behavior of Children Having High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Frederick D.; Gorospe, Clarissa M.; Chang, Ya-Chih; Sugar, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are generally included with typically developing peers at school. They have difficulties interacting with peers on the school playground. Previous literature suggests that having play dates in the home may be related to better peer acceptance at school. Methods: This study…

  6. The Spatial-Temporal Reasoning States of Children Who Play a Musical Instrument, Regarding the Mathematics Lesson: Teachers' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezer, Murat; Cumhur, Meryem; Hürsen, Emine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to try to investigate the spatial-temporal reasoning states of primary school children between the ages 8 and 11 who play an instrument, regarding mathematics lessons from the teachers' views. This current study is both qualitative and quantitative in nature. In other words, the mixed research method was used in the study.…

  7. Environmental Health Assessment of Deltamethrin in a Malarious Area of Mexico: Environmental Persistence, Toxicokinetics, and Genotoxicity in Exposed Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Pérez, María D.; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Batres, Lilia E.; López-Guzmán, Olga D.; Grimaldo, M.; Carranza, C.; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N.; Martínez, Flavio; Pérez-Urizar, José; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    We reported previously that children are exposed to deltamethrin in malarious areas. In the present work we explored the levels of this insecticide in soil samples and also obtained relevant toxico-kinetic data of deltamethrin in exposed children. Results show that, after spraying, indoor levels of deltamethrin in soil samples were higher than outdoor levels. The mean half-life estimated with these data was 15.5 days for outdoor samples and 15.4 days for indoor samples. Children’s exposure to deltamethrin was assessed using as biomarkers the urinary concentrations of the metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (Br2CA). The mean level of both biomarkers reached a peak within the first 24 hr postexposure; 6 months after the initial exposure, urinary levels of 3-PBA and Br2CA were found at levels observed before exposure. Approximately 91% of the total 3-PBA or Br2CA was excreted during the first 3 days after exposure. Therefore, we estimated a half-life for this period, the values for 3-PBA and Br2CA being almost identical (13.5 vs. 14.5 hr). Finally, considering reports about the genotoxicity of deltamethrin, we assessed DNA damage in children before and 24 hr after indoor spraying of deltamethrin; we found no differences in the comet assay end points. In conclusion, we observed exposure to deltamethrin in children, but we did not find any relationship between soil concentrations of deltamethrin and urinary levels of the metabolites. At least for genotoxicity, the exposed children appeared not to be at risk. PMID:15929904

  8. Moving Young Children's Play Away from TV Violence. A How-to Guide for Early Childhood Educators: Child Care Providers, Head Start Instructors, Preschool and Kindergarten Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diane

    Research concerning the effects of television violence on children--particularly young children under the age of six--has found that it tends to desensitize them to aggressive behavior and, in some children, promotes aggressive behavior in their play and other interactions with children and adults. This guide is designed to assist early childhood…

  9. Play practices and play moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  10. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Black

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10−6 range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children’s beach play habits, which are

  11. Counting children at risk: exploring a method to estimate the number of children exposed to parental mental illness using adult health survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Diego Garcia; Padoin, Cintia Vontobel; Veldhuizen, Scott

    2008-11-01

    Children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders have an increased risk of several psychiatric disorders, impaired development, behavioural problems, injuries, physical illness and mortality. Even though this high-risk group has been shown to benefit from health promotion and preventive interventions, estimates of the size of the population at risk are not available. Estimating the number of exposed children using adult survey data will likely generate valuable information for health policy, planning, and advocacy. In this paper, the authors present a method to indirectly estimate the size of this population using secondary data. A Canadian adult health survey and the Census were combined to estimate the prevalence of exposure of children less than 12 years to parental and non-parental psychiatric disorders. A method to combine census and survey data is presented and tested under varying degrees of data availability. Results are compared to the actual number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders and discussed. The most accurate estimates were obtained when the most complete survey was combined with relatively detailed census information. Incomplete survey simulations produced substantial underestimates of the prevalence of exposure even when combined with detailed census information.

  12. Genotoxic and hematological effects in children exposed to a chemical mixture in a petrochemical area in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelallo-Martínez, Nadia Azenet; Batres-Esquivel, Lilia; Carrizales-Yáñez, Leticia; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando Martínez

    2014-07-01

    Children living in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, and in nearby surrounding areas are exposed to a mixture of pollutants from different sources. Previous studies in the area have reported genotoxic and haematotoxic compounds, such as lead (Pb), benzene, toluene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in environmental and biological samples. The final toxic effects of these compounds are unknown because the toxic behaviour of each compound is modified when in a complex mixture. This is the first study on the exposure and effect of chemical mixtures on children who live near a petrochemical area. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicity and haematological effects in children environmentally exposed to such mixtures and to determine whether the final effect was modified by the composition of the mixture composition. Biomarkers of exposure to Pb, benzene, toluene, and PAHs were quantified in urine and blood samples of 102 children. DNA damage was evaluated using comet assay, and haematological parameters were determined. Our results show that Pb and toluene did not surpass the exposure guidelines; the exposure was similar in all three localities (Allenede, Mundo Nuevo, and López Mateos). In contrast, exposure to PAHs was observed at three levels of exposure: low, medium, and high. The most severe effects of these mixtures were strictly related to coexposure to high levels of PAHs.

  13. Decline of FoxP3+ Regulatory CD4 T Cells in Peripheral Blood of Children Heavily Exposed to Malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J Boyle

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available FoxP3+ regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs help to maintain the delicate balance between pathogen-specific immunity and immune-mediated pathology. Prior studies suggest that Tregs are induced by P. falciparum both in vivo and in vitro; however, the factors influencing Treg homeostasis during acute and chronic infections, and their role in malaria immunopathogenesis, remain unclear. We assessed the frequency and phenotype of Tregs in well-characterized cohorts of children residing in a region of high malaria endemicity in Uganda. We found that both the frequency and absolute numbers of FoxP3+ Tregs in peripheral blood declined markedly with increasing prior malaria incidence. Longitudinal measurements confirmed that this decline occurred only among highly malaria-exposed children. The decline of Tregs from peripheral blood was accompanied by reduced in vitro induction of Tregs by parasite antigen and decreased expression of TNFR2 on Tregs among children who had intense prior exposure to malaria. While Treg frequencies were not associated with protection from malaria, there was a trend toward reduced risk of symptomatic malaria once infected with P. falciparum among children with lower Treg frequencies. These data demonstrate that chronic malaria exposure results in altered Treg homeostasis, which may impact the development of antimalarial immunity in naturally exposed populations.

  14. Increasing physical activity in young primary school children--it's child's play: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Lina; Bundy, Anita C; Naughton, Geraldine; Simpson, Judy M; Bauman, Adrian; Ragen, Jo; Baur, Louise; Wyver, Shirley; Tranter, Paul; Niehues, Anita; Schiller, Wendy; Perry, Gabrielle; Jessup, Glenda; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2013-05-01

    To explore the effects of an innovative school-based intervention for increasing physical activity. 226 children (5-7 years old) randomly selected from 12 Australian primary schools were recruited to a cluster randomised trial with schools randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions. The 13-week intervention comprised: (1) altering the school playground by introducing loose materials and (2) a teacher-parent intervention exploring perceptions of risk associated with children's free play. The primary outcomes were total accelerometer counts and moderate-vigorous physical activity during break times. Testing took place in Sydney, 2009-2010. 221 participants were tested at baseline. Mixed-effect multilevel regression revealed a small but significant increase from the intervention on total counts (9400 counts, 95% CI 3.5-15.2, p=0.002) and minutes of MVPA (1.8 min, 95% CI 0.5-3.1, p=0.006); and a decrease in sedentary activity (2.1 min, 95% CI 0.5-3.8, p=0.01) during break times. We retested children in one intervention school after 2 years; they maintained the gains. Capturing children's intrinsic motivations to play while simultaneously helping adults reconsider views of free play as risky provided increases in physical activity during break times. Using accelerometry as the sole measure of physical activity may underestimate the effect. ACTRN12611000089932. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Peer Exclusion in Preschool Children's Play: Naturalistic Observations in a Playground Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanger, Suzanne Marie; Frankel, Leslie Ann; Hazen, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    To better understand peer exclusion in young children, 42 four- to six-year-olds were observed in an outdoor setting, and their verbalizations were recorded using wireless microphones. The frequency of peer exclusion and social aggression, the various techniques children used to exclude their peers (unmitigated, mitigated, ignoring, and planning…

  16. The Potential Impact of Environmental Play and Education on Empathy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzek, Kimberly E.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching children to be empathetic is important because empathy is linked with positive social behaviors, future academic success, and the development of work-related skills. Children's relationships with nature can help to establish their values and relationships with other people. The purpose of the study, based on empathy theory, was to…

  17. Parental Support Exceeds Parenting Style for Promoting Active Play in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that parenting style may directly or indirectly influence school-aged children's activity behaviour. Given that relatively fewer studies have been conducted among preschool-aged children, this study's primary purpose was to examine the direct relationships between parental support and parenting style on preschool…

  18. Parental Support Exceeds Parenting Style for Promoting Active Play in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that parenting style may directly or indirectly influence school-aged children's activity behaviour. Given that relatively fewer studies have been conducted among preschool-aged children, this study's primary purpose was to examine the direct relationships between parental support and parenting style on preschool…

  19. Cortisol Responsivity Differences in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Free and Cooperative Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Clayton W.; Simon, David; Corbett, Blythe A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate significant heterogeneity in their profiles of social interaction and stress responsivity. We evaluated behavior and stress response in 52 male children ages 8-12 in a naturalistic playground interaction paradigm involving a child with ASD, a typically developing peer, and a same-age…

  20. Literacy, Play and Globalization: Converging Imaginaries in Children's Critical and Cultural Performances. Routledge Research in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Carmen L.; Wohlwend, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    This book takes on current perspectives on children's relationships to literacy, media, childhood, markets and transtionalism in converging global worlds. It introduces the idea of multi-sited imaginaries to explain how children's media and literacy performances shape and are shaped by shared visions of communities that we collectively imagine,…

  1. The Potential Impact of Environmental Play and Education on Empathy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzek, Kimberly E.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching children to be empathetic is important because empathy is linked with positive social behaviors, future academic success, and the development of work-related skills. Children's relationships with nature can help to establish their values and relationships with other people. The purpose of the study, based on empathy theory, was to…

  2. Spirituality Expressed in Creative Learning: Young Children's Imagining Play as Space for Mediating Their Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodliff, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Historically underpinning principles of the English curriculum framework for children from birth to five years explicitly acknowledged a spiritual dimension to children's uniqueness and well-being. Yet spirituality receives scant reference in the discourse of creative learning and teaching. This paper considers the relationship of spirituality to…

  3. Young Children's Spontaneous Manifestation of Self-Regulation and Metacognition during Constructional Play Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spektor-Levy, Ornit; Basilio, Marisol; Zachariou, Antonia; Whitebread, David

    2017-01-01

    The value of self-regulation for academic achievement is well established. Thus it is paramount to understand how these abilities are developed throughout childhood and to develop research methodologies appropriate to the abilities of young children. In light of this need, we analyzed performances of primary school children in two constructional…

  4. Playing Linear Numerical Board Games Promotes Low-Income Children's Numerical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Ramani, Geetha B.

    2008-01-01

    The numerical knowledge of children from low-income backgrounds trails behind that of peers from middle-income backgrounds even before the children enter school. This gap may reflect differing prior experience with informal numerical activities, such as numerical board games. Experiment 1 indicated that the numerical magnitude knowledge of…

  5. All Work and No Play? Understanding the Needs of Children with Caring Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This article draws on research with children who provide care for parents with serious mental health problems and signals ongoing research that uses photographic participation methods with these groups of vulnerable children. The intention of this article is to highlight the need to move away from popular and simplistic representations of children…

  6. Cortisol Responsivity Differences in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Free and Cooperative Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Clayton W.; Simon, David; Corbett, Blythe A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate significant heterogeneity in their profiles of social interaction and stress responsivity. We evaluated behavior and stress response in 52 male children ages 8-12 in a naturalistic playground interaction paradigm involving a child with ASD, a typically developing peer, and a same-age…

  7. Development of Gender Constancy and Children's Sex-Typed Free Play Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Letourneau, Karen J.

    1984-01-01

    Examines relationships among gender constancy, preferences for same- or opposite-sex playmates, and sex-typed activities in preschool children. Findings suggest that, at least for females, gender concepts may have an organizing role in sex-role development by motivating children to seek social contexts in which to acquire and practice…

  8. Spirituality Expressed in Creative Learning: Young Children's Imagining Play as Space for Mediating Their Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodliff, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Historically underpinning principles of the English curriculum framework for children from birth to five years explicitly acknowledged a spiritual dimension to children's uniqueness and well-being. Yet spirituality receives scant reference in the discourse of creative learning and teaching. This paper considers the relationship of spirituality to…

  9. Comparison of the Effects of Play Dough and Bubble Making Distraction Techniques on Venepuncture Pain Intensity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Maghsoudi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Venepuncture is a minimally invasive procedure, which is commonly performed in hospitals; if the pain is inadequately managed, it can cause negative feelings in children. Distraction can reduce pain through affecting the central nervous system and releasing neurotransmitters that inhibit pain. Aim: In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of play-dough and bubble making as distraction techniques on the intensity of venepuncture pain in children. Method: In this randomized, controlled, clinical trial, 90 children aged three to six years old, were randomly allocated to the three groups of  play dough, bubble making, and control (n=30 for each group. This study was performed in Qaem, Imam Reza, and Dr. Sheikh hospitals of Mashhad, Iran, in 2015. The interventions consisted of using play dough and bubble making, which were started five minutes before venepuncture. Following the intervention, pain assessment was performed using Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale. Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and One-way ANOVA tests were performed to analyze the data, using SPSS version 16. Results: The mean of pain intensity in the play dough, bubble making, and control groups was 5.1±1.8 6.2±1.4, and 8.2±1.5, respectively (out of ten. One-way ANOVA reflected a significant difference between the three groups (P

  10. Decline of General Intelligence in Children Exposed to Manganese from Mining Contamination in Puyango River Basin, Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Óscar; Tapia, Marlene; Méndez, Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    Based on ecosystem approaches to health (Ecohealth), this study sought to identify neurobehavioral disorders in children exposed to several levels of toxic metal pollution from gold mining in the Puyango River Basin, Southern Ecuador. Ninety-three children born or living in the study area participated in the study. A neurobehavioral test battery consisting of 12 tests assessing various functions of the nervous system was applied as well as a questionnaire regarding events of exposure of children's mothers to contaminants during perinatal period. Hair samples were taken from children to determine manganese concentrations. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied in order to examine possible relationships between exposure events, hair manganese, and neurobehavioral disorders. Having controlled co-variables such as age and educational level, it was found that children with elevated levels of hair manganese (over 2 μg/g) had poor performance in the test of general intelligence (Raven's Progressive Color Matrices Scale PCM). The Ecohealth approach helped to identify that children in the lower Puyango Basin with very elevated levels of manganese in the river water (970 µg/L) are the ones who have the highest levels of hair manganese and the worst performance in the intelligence test.

  11. “Boys Play War”: Game as a Way of Mastering the Space of War by Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryblova Marina Aleksandrovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates various ways to help children adjust to war conditions through games and playful situations. During Soviet times this approach was established to aid children in war conditions. Then these techniques were applied to other areas of the populace. However, they did not take into account the differences in perception of military events between children and adults. It is obvious that there are some differences in the way children would adapt to war using these techniques, mostly because children’s adaptation process would always happen in a playful way. Based on the analysis of the personal sources, the article describes the games of the children of Stalingrad and the way they helped them to adapt to the hardest conditions of one of the bloodiest battles in history, and a way to create a proper child space in chaos and violence of the adult world. The authors also identified gender and age specifics of children’s war games, showing their abilities to deal with the war situation itself and its psychological consequences.

  12. Being alone, playing alone, and acting alone: distinguishing among reticence and passive and active solitude in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, R J; Rubin, K H; Fox, N A; Calkins, S D; Stewart, S L

    1994-02-01

    3 forms of solitude were studied in young children--reticence (onlooker and unoccupied behavior), solitary-passive behavior (solitary-constructive and -exploratory play), and solitary-active behavior (solitary-functional and -dramatic play). 48 4-year-old children grouped in quartets of same-sex unfamiliar peers were observed in several situations. Mothers completed the Colorado Temperament Inventory. Results indicated that (1) solitary-passive, solitary-active, and reticent behaviors were nonsignificantly intercorrelated; (2) reticence was stable and associated with the demonstration of anxiety and hovering near others, whereas solitary-passive and solitary-active play were stable yet unrelated to anxiety and hovering; (3) reticence during free play was generally associated with poor performance and displays of wariness in several other social situations, while solitary-passive and -active play were not; (4) reticence was associated with maternal ratings of child shyness, while solitary-active behavior was associated with maternal ratings of impulsivity. Results are discussed in terms of the underlying mechanisms associated with reticence and passive and active withdrawal.

  13. Specific Play Behaviors and the Development of Communication in Children with Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Lynn S.; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    1999-01-01

    This study, with 180 deaf or hard of hearing infants and toddlers grouped into four age ranges, found highly significant interrelationships among the four categories of play and the four aspects of communicative development studied. The development of autosymbolic play, age of hearing loss identification, and symbolic object distribution accounted…

  14. The Relationship of Language and Symbolic Play in Children with Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Snyder, Lynn S.; Day, Diane

    1999-01-01

    The internal reliability and concurrent validity of the Play Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ) was compared to that of the Minnesota Child Development Inventory with 170 deaf or hard of hearing infants and toddlers. The PAQ was found to be a useful nonverbal tool that assesses symbolic play behaviors and demonstrates a parallel development with…

  15. Pretend Play, Coping, and Subjective Well-Being in Children: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, Julie A.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers, the authors state, link play to cognitive and affective processes important for a child's development and overall well-being. In this article, the authors examine the relationships involving pretend play, coping, and subjective well-being (the last of which they conceptualize as positive affect--positive mood--and life satisfaction)…

  16. THE CONTRIBUTION OF PLAY FIGHTING TO THE EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan TRIFA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Play fighting is a form of behavior in which partners compete with each other to gain an advantage. Behavior during play fighting largely resembles the behavior in a real fight, where partners encounter, push and pull down onto the ground, trying to get into a position whereby to control or to dominate the opponent. In the play, unlike the fight, movements are exaggerated and performed at a lower intensity, muscles being somewhat less tensed, and certain actions that can cause injury to the partner are inhibited or modified, while offensive-defensive roles will be reversed quite frequently. Play fighting can be considered a type of evolutionary adaptation designed to facilitate those experiences that will shape the cognitive and emotional development necessary for living in social communities. Research undertaken on different mammal species shows that play fighting offers many opportunities for expression and decoding emotions, improves emotional regulation and contributes to the development of coping mechanisms.

  17. Giocampus school: a "learning through playing" approach to deliver nutritional education to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Alice; Brighenti, Furio; Finistrella, Viviana; Ingrosso, Lisa; Monti, Giorgia; Vanelli, Maurizio; Vitale, Marco; Volta, Elio; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    To improve nutritional knowledge of children, single-group educational interventions with pre/post knowledge assessment were performed in primary schools in Parma, Italy, participating to the Giocampus Program. A total of 8165 children (8-11 years old) of 3rd, 4th and 5th grades of primary school were involved in 3 hours per class nutritional lessons, with specifically designed games and activities for each school grade. To evaluate children learning, a questionnaire was administered before and after three months of educational intervention. A total of 16330 questionnaires were analysed. Children nutritional knowledge significantly increased (pnutritional knowledge. A stable integration of this method in primary school settings could prepare a new generation of citizens, better educated on health-promotion lifestyles.

  18. Self-Identity of Biracial Children: What Role Do Parents Play?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patreese D. Ingram; Anil Kumar Chaudhary

    2014-01-01

    .... This study is part of a larger exploratory descriptive study on biracial college students with a focus on the extent to which parents socialized their biracial children in the cultures of both...

  19. IQ and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children Exposed to Interpersonal Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Weems, Carl F.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The literature is mixed as to the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in adult populations. Even less is known about the relationship in children who have been traumatized. Methods: Fifty-nine children and adolescents (mean age = 10.6) with a history of interpersonal…

  20. Potential Mediators of Adjustment for Preschool Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Living in a home where violence is present places young children at great risk for developing emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and health problems. While many studies have examined direct relationships between violence exposure and adjustment, fewer have considered how children's mental health problems may interact over time. The…