WorldWideScience

Sample records for playground rocking toy

  1. Integrated Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    the theoretical foundations of play and learning. In this presentation, we explore pedagogical potentials of new technologies and traditional toys integrated into a physical and virtual toy (hereinafter called integrated toy) with specific focus on the open-ended toy and non-formal learning. The integrated toy...... and interaction with the integrated toy as a virtual experience without attachment or wearable on the body, which in context would not be appropriate. In the field of rehabilitation integrated toys are still at an embryonic stage and as such an under used resource for rehabilitation. Qualitative method...

  2. The symbiotic playground of lichen thalli--a highly flexible photobiont association in rock-inhabiting lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggia, Lucia; Vancurova, Lucie; Škaloud, Pavel; Peksa, Ondrej; Wedin, Mats; Grube, Martin

    2013-08-01

    The development of characteristic thallus structures in lichen-forming fungi requires the association with suitable photoautotrophic partners. Previous work suggests that fungi have a specific range of compatible photobionts and that selected algal strains are also correlated with the habitat conditions. We selected the rock-inhabiting crust lichen Protoparmeliopsis muralis, which exhibits high flexibility in algal associations. We present a geographically extended and detailed analysis of algal association patterns including thalli which host superficial algal colonies. We sampled 17 localities in Europe, and investigated the photobiont genotypic diversity within and between thalli and compared the diversity of intrathalline photobionts and externally associate algal communities between washed and unwashed thalli by single-strand conformation polymorphism analyses and ITS sequence data. The results show that (1) photobiont population within the lichen thalli is homogeneous; (2) multiple photobiont genotypes occur within single areoles and lobes of individual lichens; and (3) algal communities which superficially colonize the lichen thalli host taxa known as photobionts in unrelated lichens. Photobiont association patterns are extremely flexible in this ecologically versatile crust-forming lichen. We suggest that lichen surfaces represent a potential temporary niche for free-living stages of lichen photobionts, which could facilitate the establishment of further lichens in the proximal area.

  3. Toy Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Anne Jodon; Petersson Brooks, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Toys are considered to be children’s cultural objects, yet when placed in a toy museum context they become a collection for adult viewing. This article uses Kress and van Leeuwens’ concept of ‘semiotic landscape’ wherein the exhibit provides a specific context of communication that becomes...... a mediating device between adults and children. The question then becomes, how does a display of static toys speak to a child’s culture of play? Through interviews with toy museum curators and personal observations it was found that the exhibition was designed to have adults share and reflect stories about...... the toys with children. Such activity reflects a representation of toys as collections for adults (child’s perspective) rather than the playthings of children (children’s perspectives). Material culture of children was implicitly represented through playful, sensory, and affective engagement. Key words...

  4. Toy Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Anne Jodon; Petersson Brooks, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Toys are considered to be children’s cultural objects, yet when placed in a toy museum context they become a collection for adult viewing. This article uses Kress and van Leeuwens’ concept of ‘semiotic landscape’ wherein the exhibit provides a specific context of communication that becomes...... a mediating device between adults and children. The question then becomes, how does a display of static toys speak to a child’s culture of play? Through interviews with toy museum curators and personal observations it was found that the exhibition was designed to have adults share and reflect stories about...

  5. Playground usability: what do playground users say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie; Becker, Pam

    2012-09-01

    Play, specifically outdoor play, is crucial for a child's development. However, not all playgrounds are designed to provide usable space for children with disabilities. The aim of the study was to gain an understanding of the experiences of playground use for children with disabilities and their caregivers. Using a qualitative descriptive design, interviews were conducted with children with disabilities and their caregivers. Interview transcripts were reviewed and coded. The analysis process resulted in three overarching themes. Playground Experiences addressed the sensory experiences that children seek at playgrounds, the importance of creating environments that promote imaginative play and the need to provide an appropriate level of challenge. In the second theme, Playground Usability, participants described barriers that prevent access and features that promote use. The third theme, Inclusivity, focused on equal access and the importance of providing options in design. The Person-Environment-Occupation model was used to frame the findings and to identify practice and research recommendations. Outdoor play is a key occupation of children, and occupational therapists have a role in promoting usable environments for all children.

  6. Playgrounds for City Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, M. Paul

    The work of a contemporary landscape architect is a living realization of the possibilities for increasing children's learning by improving play environment. The designer's philosophy and photographs of six playgrounds are contained in this bulletin, directed wherever there is need to make parks and school playgrounds open, aesthetic, and…

  7. Socially aware interactive playgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, Alejandro; Delden, van Robby; Poppe, Ronald; Reidsma, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Interactive playgrounds are technology-enhanced installations that aim to provide rich game experiences for children by combining the benefits of traditional playgrounds with those of digital games. These game experiences could be attained by addressing three design considerations: context-awareness

  8. Handbook for Public Playground Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    Guidelines for playground equipment safety are presented in this handbook. It first provides an overview of common playground injuries and definitions. The layout and design of playgrounds, such as choosing a site, locating equipment, and separating equipment by age level, is addressed next. The remaining sections describe the installation and…

  9. Scientific Toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Tensegritoy, inspired by the tensegrity concepts of R. Buckminster Fuller, is an erector set like toy designed to give students an understanding of structural stability. It is used by children, architects, engineers, and teachers. The manufacturer, Tensegrity Systems Corporation, also offers a collapsible point of purchase display which incorporates technology developed for space station trusses described in "NASA Tech Briefs." The tech brief described deployable trusses that can be collapsed into small packages for space shuttle transport, then unfolded in space. As a result, the display occupies a minimum amount of floor space, freight cost savings are substantial and assembly can be completed quickly.

  10. Toy Library and International Toy Library Association

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaraj, Işık

    2013-01-01

    Toy libraries are resource centers that provides assistance to young children and theirfamilies, gives consultancy service and information about plays, offers play materials andeducational activities and supplies appropriate materials and toys for child development aswell as contributing the development of children. Toy libraries are in commission all over theworld since 1935. The first toy library is opened in America, then in Sweden, England,Canada and Australia respectively. Today, there a...

  11. TACT glossary: toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffoni, F; Von, Hofsten

    2010-01-01

    Toys denote objects used in playing. From the first examples of toys made of materials available in the environment and manufactured by parents or by children themselves only for recreational purpose, toys have evolved into more sophisticated devices which integrate mechanics, electronics and informatics (mechatronic toys) used in several different application fields. There are two main kinds of mechatronic toys: sensorized toys are passive toys equipped with a set of sensors used to record user/toy interactions; robotic toys are artefacts or computers, usually self-propelled with the help of motors, which collect information from the surrounding environment by sensors, and decode this information into behaviors consistent with them. This entry explores the use of the word "toys" from a technological point of view focussing on mechatronic toys and their applications.

  12. Playground injuries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeini H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Sadeghi Naeini1, Kent Lindqvist2, Hamid Reza Jafari3, Amir Hossein Mirlohi4, Koustuv Dalal2,51Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran; 2Division of Social Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 3Environmental Planning Department, Graduate Environment Faculty, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; 4Apadana Research Center, Isfahan, Iran; 5Division of Public Health Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Skovde, SwedenBackground: Rapid urbanization and unplanned population development can be detrimental to the safety of citizens, with children being a particularly vulnerable social group. In this review, we assess childhood playground injuries and suggest safety mechanisms which could be incorporated into playground planning.Methods: Inclusion criteria were “children” as the focus group, “playground” as the main field of study, and “unintentional injury” and “safety” as the concepts of study. The keywords used for the PubMed search were “playground”, “children”, and “injury”. Initially we accessed 182 articles. After screening according to inclusion criteria, 86 articles were found, and after reading the abstracts and then the full text, 14 articles were finally included for analysis. The papers reviewed included four case-control studies, three case studies, three descriptive studies, two interventional studies, one retrospective study, one cross-sectional study, and one systematic review.Results: Playground-related fractures were the most common accidents among children, underscoring the importance of safety promotion and injury prevention in playgrounds, low-risk equipment and playing hours (week days associated with higher risk, implementation of standards, preventing falls and fall-related fractures, and addressing concerns of parents about unsafe neighborhoods. With the exception of one study, all of the

  13. Brighton's Toy Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Duncan

    1978-01-01

    Describes a successful toy library in a public library in terms of staffing and patrons, toy selection, toy breakage problem, and sources of toys. In addition to children, users include an adult literacy group, a school for the mentally handicapped, the local social services department, and home for the elderly. (JAB)

  14. Playground Innovations and Art Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    An important part of the Progressive Education movement, the playground, influenced John Dewey's educational philosophy of learning. "The playground, particularly during the Progressive reform movement of the early 1900s benefited from the widespread belief that play was child's work. Dewey portrayed children as miniature adults who…

  15. Integrated Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    for solitary play. Graphical user interface technologies provide limited physical forms and, thereby, offer a limited degree of physical actions, e.g. only clicking and typing. Traditional toys, on the other hand, have features that encourage both solitary and social play (Sutton-Smith, 1997; Berg, 1999...... changed our everyday lives. However, its contribution in development of new suitable material for play and learning has not been appropriate. We argue that play is a fruitful base for learning and training and that the design of physical and virtual artifacts advantageously should rest upon...... and analysis were used. The data derived from three different cases. It is suggested that social, material, emotional, and expressive affordances constitute a base for an alterative interface to encourage children’s play and learning....

  16. Toy Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Toy designers at Hasbro, Inc. wanted to create a foam glider that a child could fly with little knowledge of aeronautics. But early in its development, the Areo Nerf gliders had one critical problem: they didn't fly so well. Through NASA's Northeast Regional Technology Transfer Center, Hasbro was linked with aeronautical experts at Langley Research Center. The engineers provided information about how wing design and shape are integral to a glider's performance. The Hasbro designers received from NASA not only technical guidance but a hands-on tutorial on the physics of designing and flying gliders. Several versions of the Nerf glider were realized from the collaboration. For instance, the Super Soaring Glider can make long-range, high performance flights while the Ultra-Stunt Glider is ideal for performing aerial acrobatics.

  17. [Acoustical parameters of toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harazin, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Toys play an important role in the development of the sight and hearing concentration in children. They also support the development of manipulation, gently influence a child and excite its emotional activities. A lot of toys emit various sounds. The aim of the study was to assess sound levels produced by sound-emitting toys used by young children. Acoustical parameters of noise were evaluated for 16 sound-emitting plastic toys in laboratory conditions. The noise level was recorded at four different distances, 10, 20, 25 and 30 cm, from the toy. Measurements of A-weighted sound pressure levels and noise levels in octave band in the frequency range from 31.5 Hz to 16 kHz were performed at each distance. Taking into consideration the highest equivalent A-weighted sound levels produced by tested toys, they can be divided into four groups: below 70 dB (6 toys), from 70 to 74 dB (4 toys), from 75 to 84 dB (3 toys) and from 85 to 94 dB (3 toys). The majority of toys (81%) emitted dominant sound levels in octave band at the frequency range from 2 kHz to 4 kHz. Sound-emitting toys produce the highest acoustic energy at the frequency range of the highest susceptibility of the auditory system. Noise levels produced by some toys can be dangerous to children's hearing.

  18. Toys in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The pictured toys will be carried aboard the Challenger on the STS 51-D mission as part of a study of physics in cooperation with the Houston Museum of Natural Sciences. The toys include a yoyo, paddleball, friction powered toy car, flipping mouse, top, ball and jacks, gyroscopes, Slinky and Wheelo.

  19. Lotus Effect Toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2011-01-01

    This is a short article about Aqua Drop, a toy that employs a superhydrophobic surface. After defining superhydrophobic surface, its occurrence in nature, and its importance in science and technology, I describe the toy, followed by several student activities that can be performed with the toy and easily found natural objects.

  20. NOT TOYING AROUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CORRIE; DOSH

    2007-01-01

    American shoppers wary,but still planning to buy toys made in ChinaThe winter holiday season is typical- ly a gold rash for toy manufacturers, but this year has been different. Concerns over lead levels have prompted Mattel,the world’s largest toy brand,to recall more than 21 million China-made toys this year.Most recently, the toy Aqua Dots have been yanked off shelves because they contain cheap industri- al solvents that metabolize into GHB,better known as the"date rape drug"

  1. Pumping a playground swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Auke A; de Groot, Gert; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Beek, Peter J

    2007-04-01

    In mechanical studies of pumping a playground swing, two methods of energy insertion have been identified: parametric pumping and driven oscillation. While parametric pumping involves the systematic raising and lowering of the swinger's center of mass (CM) along the swing's radial axis (rope), driven oscillation may be conceived as rotation of the CM around a pivot point at a fixed distance to the point of suspension. We examined the relative contributions of those two methods of energy insertion by inviting 18 participants to pump a swing from standstill and by measuring and analyzing the swing-swinger system (defined by eight markers) in the sagittal plane. Overall, driven oscillation was found to play a major role and parametric pumping a subordinate role, although the relative contribution of driven oscillation decreased as swinging amplitude increased, whereas that of parametric pumping increased slightly. Principal component analysis revealed that the coordination pattern of the swing-swinger system was largely determined (up to 95%) by the swing's motion, while correlation analysis revealed that (within the remaining 5% of variance) trunk and leg rotations were strongly coupled.

  2. The Changing World of Toys and Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, David

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the changing world of toys and toy play. Children learn about themselves and their world from their play with toys. Over the past half century there has been a remarkable transformation of the toy world of children. Toys have changed in quantity, quality, and level of technology. Mass production has made…

  3. Talk about toy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Joshua

    2017-02-01

    Scientific models are frequently discussed in philosophy of science. A great deal of the discussion is centred on approximation, idealisation, and on how these models achieve their representational function. Despite the importance, distinct nature, and high presence of toy models, they have received little attention from philosophers. This paper hopes to remedy this situation. It aims to elevate the status of toy models: by distinguishing them from approximations and idealisations, by highlighting and elaborating on several ways the Kac ring, a simple statistical mechanical model, is used as a toy model, and by explaining why toy models can be used to successfully carry out important work without performing a representational function.

  4. Toy Demonstrator's "VISIT" Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The role of the toy demonstrator in a home-based, mother-involved intervention effort (Verbal Interaction Project) is presented in this handbook for staff members. It is believed that the prerequisites for functioning in the toy demonstrator's role are a sense of responsibility, patience with the children and their mothers, and willingness to be…

  5. Toy Library Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Colin

    1977-01-01

    The Survey Place Toy Library in Toronto, serves parents of handicapped children and their normal siblings by supplying toys and equipment; helping parents become more critical in choosing playthings; and providing a meeting place for people with similar problems. Its operations and goals are described. (Author/MBR)

  6. The Gosford Toy Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Heather

    1995-01-01

    Describes the development of a toy library in Gosford (Australia). Discusses community support, state and local funding and expenditures, planning loan procedures, the catalog, presentation and storage, classification, the official opening, and staff support and community reaction. (AEF)

  7. Toying with Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  8. Choosing Safe Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... giving them to your infant. For Grade-Schoolers Bicycles, scooters, skateboards, and inline skates should never be ... given to kids under the age of 16. Electric toys should be labeled UL, meaning they meet ...

  9. Special Education Professionals' Perceptions toward Accessible Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Schmidt, Eric L.

    2016-01-01

    The perceptions and beliefs of 303 special education professionals toward currently available playgrounds in their school or community were examined. Survey respondents (a) indicated that their students with a disability could not fully participate in their school or community's playground offerings, (b) discussed the need for a peer buddy program…

  10. Creative Playgrounds and Recreation Centers. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Alfred; Trachsel, Alfred

    This comprehensive guidebook (written in both English and German), pertains to various aspects of planning and designing playgrounds and community centers. The introductory chapter discusses the educational and formative aspects of playgrounds, city planning prerequisites, and the effects of sociological conditions before initial planning is…

  11. Toys in Space, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Dexter (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    In this educational video from the 'Liftoff to Learning' series, astronauts from the STS-54 Mission (Mario Runco, John Casper, Don McMonagle, Susan Helms, and Greg Harbaugh) explain how microgravity and weightlessness in space affects motion by using both mechanical and nonmechanical toys (gravitrons, slinkys, dart boards, magnetic marbles, and others). The gravitational effects on rotation, force, acceleration, magnetism, magnetic fields, center of axis, and velocity are actively demonstrated using these toys through experiments onboard the STS-54 Mission flight as a part of their spaceborne experiment payload. [Resource Guide referenced in the video is not available.

  12. Toys for Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Many people in our society distinguish between girls and boys toys. A physical science toy collector shares her experience at a fast food restaurant when she was asked "Do you want a girl toy?" Her response was, "What's the difference?" (ZWH)

  13. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  14. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  15. Character Toys as Psychological Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena O.

    2011-01-01

    The main characteristic of children's play is its mental aspect--the fact that it is based on thoughts and feelings and not on objective reality. During imaginary play, children go beyond the limits of reality, and toys are tools that help them to do this. Children need character toys--toys that play the role of companion or partner--in the early…

  16. Gender, Toys and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Becky

    2010-01-01

    In spite of continuing patterning of curriculum subject preference and choice by gender, there has been little recent attention to the argument developed in the 1970s that children play with different toys according to their gender, and that these provide girls and boys with (different) curriculum-related skills. The article describes a…

  17. Digital games and toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes textual, social and design dimensions of artefacts for play and learning by giving examples from studies on relations between children, social activities, games and toys. This paper exhibits design as characteristics of artefacts intended to stage play and learning. Furthermore...

  18. From Toys to Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giones, Ferran; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    results highlight the industry emergence described as concept validation, including product as well as market growth with different phases of technological meaning change. We argue that further steps are needed to develop drones from nice toys to professional tools—from photography and filming...

  19. Turning toys into microgravity machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumners, C.; Reiff, P.

    The Toys in Space program communicates the experience of being in space and ultimately living in space. In space, what would happen to a yo-yo's speed, a top's wobble, or your skill in playing soccer, throwing a boomerang or jumping rope? Discover how these toys and others have performed in microgravity and how these demonstrations can link children to the space program. On April 12, 1985 astronauts carried the first experiment package of miniature mechanical systems called toys into space. Since that time 54 toys have been demonstrated in microgravity. This summer, NASA and the Houston Museum of Natural Science have sponsored the first International Toys in Space project with sixteen toys chosen for their popularity and relevance around the world. This set of toys takes advantage of the larger Space Station by providing toys that take up more room - from two-person games of soccer, lacrosse, marbles, and hockey to a jump rope and several kinds of yoyos. Three earlier Toys in Space missions have shown that toys are ideal machines to demonstrate how gravity affects moving objects on the Earth's surface and how the motions of these objects change in microgravity. In this presentation, participants actually experiment with miniature versions of toys, predict their behavior on orbit, and watch the surprising results. Participants receive toy patterns to share with young people at home, around the world. The Toys in Space program scales for all ages. Young learners can use their observation and comparison skills while older students apply physics concepts to toy behaviors. Concepts demonstrated include all of Newton's Laws of Motion, gyroscopic stability, centripetal force, density, as well as conservation of linear and angular momentum.

  20. School playground facilities as a determinant of children's daily activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca;

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  1. School playground facilities as a determinant of children's daily activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  2. Playgrounds Aren't Always All Fun and Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165629.html Playgrounds Aren't Always All Fun and Games Fortunately, there are ... trash that could potentially cause an injury. Don't battle crowds. If a playground is very busy, ...

  3. Jungle Gym or Brain Gym. Playgrounds Can Improve Academic Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Teresa B.

    2000-01-01

    A well-developed playground in a park or school setting can greatly enhance childen's overall development, making playgrounds more than just fun. Playgrounds offer children opportunities to develop physically, mentally, and socially, improving academic readiness as well as overall health. The paper discusses the importance of movement, how…

  4. Playtesting The Digital Playground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver; Jessen, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Being able to be absorbed in play in the digital playground is motivating for children who are used digital computer games. The children can play and exercise outdoors while using the same literacy as in indoor digital games. This paper presents a new playground product where an outdoor playground...

  5. Playground Hazards in Atlanta Child Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Jeffrey J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines 71 of the 605 licensed child care centers in Atlanta for playground hazards and school accidents. Finds 684 hazards in 66 centers, including climbing equipment over 6 feet high with inadequate impact-absorbing undersurfacing that had over twice the rate of fall injuries as climbing equipment under 6 feet high. (FMW)

  6. Informal Nature Experience on the School Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In Germany, all-day care and all-day schooling are currently increasing on a large-scale. The extended time children spend in educational institutions could potentially result in limited access to nature experience for children. On the other hand, it could equally create opportunities for informal nature experience if school playgrounds have a…

  7. What? A Field Trip on the Playground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbutt, Barb

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: In this day and age of budget problems, school districts are cutting back on many programs, one of which is field trips. Why worry? There must be dozens of trips that can be made on the playground of your school. Let's look into activities that can be accomplished there. SOIL STUDIES: Have you ever…

  8. Informal Nature Experience on the School Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In Germany, all-day care and all-day schooling are currently increasing on a large-scale. The extended time children spend in educational institutions could potentially result in limited access to nature experience for children. On the other hand, it could equally create opportunities for informal nature experience if school playgrounds have a…

  9. Toys library: A phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şener ŞENTÜRK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, it is aimed to determine parents’ thoughts of children using a toys library opened within a public library. The concept of a “Toys Library”, which is growing in popularity, combines the perceptions of toys and library, based on the principle of lending toys out to disadvantaged children. This study is a qualitative phenomenological research in which parents’ thoughts and knowledge gathered from the literature are examined. The study group is composed of 306 children, 134 from pre-schools and 172 from primary schools, and their parents. In this research, which is based on proper sampling method, statistical data were obtained from the software prepared for the toys library and qualitative data obtained from semi-structured interviews over a 12 month period. As a result of content analysis of 48 parents interviews recorded via video, it has been concluded that the project contributed to the functioning of the public libraries, has fully met the children’s toys needs, and has positively affected the children’s character and social development. As a result of this project, it is hoped that the survey will be seen as a reference point for toy libraries planned to be opened elsewhere.

  10. Introducing Interactive Technology--"Toy Story 3"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    "To infinity and beyond!" is the catchphrase of Buzz Lightyear, Universe Protection Unit space ranger, a character in the Disney/Pixar "Toy Story" franchise. The three films in the franchise--"Toy Story," 1993; "Toy Story 2," 1999; and "Toy Story 3," 2010--incorporate an innovative blend of many different genres, having spun off video games and…

  11. A (gravitational) toy story

    CERN Document Server

    Barreto, W; Rodriguez-Mueller, B

    2016-01-01

    Usually in computational physics, conclusions about realistic scenarios can be drawn from {\\it ab initio} idealized models. In some ways, the discovery of critical behavior in the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field leads to the simulation of binary black holes, from its coalescence, to merging and ringdown. We have been lucky enough to have been working on a toy model to explore our way in as these events unfold. We revisited the gravitational instability of a kink problem. During that study, we confirmed a conjecture related to the mass gap, in the context of critical behavior, at the threshold of black hole formation. What is the meaning of this mass gap? Does it have physical relevance? This essay is about these issues.

  12. Tinker Toys Have Their Moments of Inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kenneth Neal

    1983-01-01

    Describes use of Tinker Toys in several moment of inertia laboratory experiments at the advanced high school or introductory college levels. Includes procedures to be followed, arrangements of the Tinker Toy parts during experiments, and typical student data obtained. (JM)

  13. Aldo van Eyck's Playgrounds : Aesthetics, Affordances, and Creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, Rob; Caljouw, Simone R.

    2017-01-01

    After World War II, the Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck developed hundreds of playgrounds in the city of Amsterdam. These public playgrounds were located in parks, squares, and derelict sites, and consisted of minimalistic aesthetic play equipment that was supposed to stimulate the creativity of child

  14. Safety of light emitting diodes in toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higlett, M P; O'Hagan, J B; Khazova, M

    2012-03-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are increasingly being used in toys. An assessment methodology is described for determining the accessible emission limits for the optical radiation from the toys, which takes account of expected use and reasonably foreseeable misuse of toys. Where data are available, it may be possible to assess the toy from the data sheet alone. If this information is not available, a simple measurement protocol is proposed.

  15. An Instructional Playground for the Handicapped Using Tires as Inexpensive Playground Equipment: Activity and Construction Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Special Education Instructional Materials Center.

    The manual explains how special education students in an occupational program used tires to construct an inexpensive instructional playground for handicapped elementary school pupils. Presented in two sections with accompanying pictures or diagrams are activity ideas for using the tires in a variety of configurations (Part 1) and construction and…

  16. Toy Trucks in Video Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    discovered that using scale-models like toy trucks has a strongly encouraging effect on developers/designers to collaboratively make sense of field videos. In our analysis of such scale-model sessions, we found some quite fundamental patterns of how participants utilise objects; the participants build shared...... that when analysing for instance truck drivers’ practices, the use of toy trucks to replicate actions in scale helps participants engage experiential knowledge as they use their body to make sense of the on-going action....

  17. HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION OF SOIL IN THE REGIONAL CITY PLAYGROUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kei; Tsuzuki, Megumi; Asakura, Hiroshi

    It seems important to examine heavy metal concentration in playgrounds, to evaluate potential risk for heavy metal ingestion by children. In this study, heavy metal concentrations of soil samples in 40 playgrounds in K-city were investigated by the voltammetric method. To visualize heavy metal concentration distribution in playgrounds, free GIS software MANDARA was used. According to the comparison between the 1 N HCl dissolved concentration and the PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake), playgrounds in K-city may not have intake risk of lead. Even if the possibility of the risk was very low, there are differences of the intensities. As for the specific playground where concentration is high, investigating continuously may be desirable hereafter.

  18. Sex Stereotyping in Children's Toy Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lori A.; Markham, William T.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a survey of toy catalogs and packages, which focused on stereotypes in depictions of children playing with toys. Reports that toys that were previously rated by students as strongly or moderately sex-typed were generally shown with a child of the "appropriate" sex. (KH)

  19. The Toy Library: Parents and Children Learning with Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimnicht, Glen P.; Brown, Edna

    1972-01-01

    On the assumption that parents can provide significant educational experiences for their preschool children, a Parent/Child course has been initiated in conjunction with the Toy Library at the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development. (Authors/CB)

  20. STS-54 Physics of Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Greg Vogt, NASA Headquarters Education Specialist, and Carolyn Sumners, Houston Museum of Natural Science, give an overview of the spaceborne experiments that will take place on the STS-54 Endeavour mission. Mr. Vogt discusses the objectives and procedures of the experiments, which are structured around using toys to show the effects of microgravity. Mr. Vogt and Ms. Sumners then answer questions from the press.

  1. Physics of a toy geyser

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenbourger, Martin; Texier, Baptiste Darbois

    2016-01-01

    A geyser can be reproduced by a toy experiment composed of a water pool located above a water reservoir, the two being connected by a long and narrow tube. When the bottom reservoir is heated, the system experiences periodic eruptions of hot water and steam at the top similarly to the geyser effect occurring in nature. The eruption frequency of a toy geyser is inspected experimentally as a function of the heating power and the height of the set-up. We propose a thermodynamic model of this system which predicts the time between eruptions. Besides, the geometric and thermodynamic conditions required to observe a geyser effect are discussed. The study of the toy geyser is then extended to the case of two reservoirs connected to the same tube. In such a configuration, an eruption in a reservoir may entrain the eruption of the other. Such a coupled system adopts a complex time-evolution which reflects the dynamics of natural geysers. We analyze the behavior of a toy geyser with two reservoirs by the way of statist...

  2. Phthalates in toys available in Indian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sapna; Saikia, Nirmali; Sahu, Ramakant

    2011-06-01

    Twenty four children's toys and child care articles available in the local market of India were analyzed for eight phthalates as children toys are plasticized with phthalates. All toy samples showed the presence of one or more phthalates including di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (96% of the samples), di-iso-nonyl phthalate and di-iso-decyl phthalate (42% of the samples) at a concentration ranging from 0.1% to 16.2%. Soft toys contain higher levels of phthalates as compared to hard toys as primary function of phthalates is softening of hard plastic materiel.

  3. Manufacturing Toy Makers Forced to Upgrade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ Whether you are in Beijing or Boston, Hangzhou or Helsinki, if you visit a toy retailer, odds are the dolls, model cars, games and just about everything else around you were "Made in China". A business that dates back 3,000years to early kite development, China's 8,000 toy manufacturers today account for 70 to 80 percent of the world's toy supply, producing more than 30,000 toy varieties worth US$I5.I8 billion in exports annually. As impressive as such figures may be, however, the country's toy-makers find themselves at a crossroad.

  4. Art Toys in the contemporary art scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sernissi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Art Toys phenomenon, better known as Art Toy Movement, was born in China in the mid-nineties and quickly spread out to the rest of the world. The toys are an artistic production of serial sculpture, made by handcrafts or on an industrial scale. There are several types of toys, such as custom toys and canvas toys, synonyms of designer toys, although they are often defined according to the constituent material, such as vinyl toys (plastic and plush toys (fabric. Art toys are the heirs of an already pop-surrealist and neo-pop circuit, which since the eighties of the twentieth century has pervaded the Japanese-American art scene, winking to the playful spirit of the avant-garde of the early century. Some psychoanalytic, pedagogical and anthropological studies about “play theories”, may also help us to understand and identify these heterogeneous products as real works of art and not simply as collectible toys.

  5. Guidelines for Beginning and Maintaining a Toy Lending Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettig, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Toy-lending libraries provide parents and professionals with opportunities for shared play and the loan of toys. This article reviews the history of toy-lending libraries and the purpose of Lekoteks, the Swedish toy library. Guidelines and suggestions for developing and maintaining a toy-lending library are discussed. (JPB)

  6. A Pedagogical "Toy" Climate Model

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    2010-01-01

    A "toy" model, simple and elementary enough for an undergraduate class, of the temperature dependence of the greenhouse (mid-IR) absorption by atmospheric water vapor implies a bistable climate system. The stable states are glaciation and warm interglacials, while intermediate states are unstable. This is in qualitative accord with the paleoclimatic data. The present climate may be unstable, with or without anthropogenic interventions such as CO$_2$ emission, unless there is additional stabilizing feedback such as "geoengineering".

  7. 77 FR 37834 - Revocation of Certain Requirements Pertaining to Caps Intended for Use With Toy Guns and Toy Guns...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Guns and Toy Guns Not Intended for Use With Caps AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION... use with toy guns and toy guns not intended for use with caps, which were included in the regulations... revoke our existing banning regulations pertaining to caps intended for use with toy guns and toy...

  8. 78 FR 66840 - Revocation of Certain Requirements Pertaining to Caps Intended for Use With Toy Guns and Toy Guns...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Guns and Toy Guns Not Intended for Use With Caps AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION...-producing toys. Existing CPSC regulations pertaining to caps intended for use with toy guns refer to... intended for use with toy guns and toy guns not intended for use with caps. The final rule is...

  9. Children's gender-based reasoning about toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C L; Eisenbud, L; Rose, H

    1995-10-01

    The goal of these studies was to investigate how preschool children use gender-based reasoning in making judgments about toy preferences for themselves and for others. In Studies 1 and 2, children (n = 22, n = 71) were shown unfamiliar, non-sex-typed toys and asked to rate how much they, other girls, and other boys would like each toy. As expected, children made gender-based inferences: "What I like, children of my sex will also like, and children of the other sex will not like." Study 3 was designed to assess how children use gender-based reasoning to make decisions about attractive and unattractive toys when they are given gender labels. Children (n = 91) were shown unfamiliar toys varying in attractiveness that were given explicit gender labels (e.g., "this is a toy girls really like") or no label. With a different experimenter (to avoid demand characteristics), children rated their own and others' liking of the toys. Children used gender labels to guide their own preferences and their expectations for others. Even with very attractive toys, children liked toys less if they were labeled as being for the other sex, and expected other girls and boys to do the same. The role of gender-based reasoning in cognitive theories of gender and on children's play preferences is discussed.

  10. Play for All Children: The Toy Library Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sara C; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses difficulties parents encounter when they play with their disabled child and the inappropriateness of some commercial toys for disabled children. Also describes the development of adapted toys and of toy lending libraries for young disabled children. (BB)

  11. Toy Trucks in Video Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Video fieldstudies of people who could be potential users is widespread in design projects. How to analyse such video is, however, often challenging, as it is time consuming and requires a trained eye to unlock experiential knowledge in people’s practices. In our work with industrialists, we have...... discovered that using scale-models like toy trucks has a strongly encouraging effect on developers/designers to collaboratively make sense of field videos. In our analysis of such scale-model sessions, we found some quite fundamental patterns of how participants utilise objects; the participants build shared...

  12. Analytical Chemical Control of Phthalates in Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S. C.; Jensen, G. H.; Worsøe, I. M.

    The content of phthalates in toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age is regulated by the Statutory Order of Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy, No. 151 of 15th March 1999. In the present investigation, 35 products (toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age...

  13. Analytical Chemical Control of Phthalates in Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S. C.; Worsøe, I. M.

    The content of phthalates in toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age is regulated by the Statutory Order of Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy, No. 151 of 15th March 1999. In the present investigation, 20 products (toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age...

  14. Entropy calculation for a toy black hole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahlmann, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this note we carry out the counting of states for a black hole in loop quantum gravity, however assuming an equidistant area spectrum. We find that this toy-model is exactly solvable, and we show that its behavior is very similar to that of the correct model. Thus this toy-model can be used as a

  15. Quality of Chinese Export Toys Is Trustworthy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On September 4th, 2007, AQSIQ and the Press Office of the State Council invited 13 media representatives from countries such as America, Britain, France, Japan, Canada, Singapore to visit the Technical Center Toy Laboratory of Guangdong Entry-exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Zhentai (China) Industrial Limited Company and Guangdong Xinboxing Toys Limited Company.

  16. The 2009 Toy Review & Gift Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the 2009 toy review & gift guide and recommends some fun toys and games, plus a few helpful products for families of children with special needs. Some of this year's picks are educational, some are entertaining, and some are designed to protect and safeguard kids of all ages. General guidelines to follow when shopping for…

  17. Stokes Equation in a Toy CD Hovercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Izarra, Charles; de Izarra, Gregoire

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of a toy CD hovercraft used in the fluid mechanics course for undergraduate students to illustrate the lubrication theory described by the Stokes equation. An experimental characterization of the toy hovercraft (measurements of the air flow value, of the pressure in the balloon and of the thickness of the air film…

  18. Investigating Flight with a Toy Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Flight fascinates people of all ages. Recent advances in battery technology have extended the capabilities of model airplanes and toy helicopters. For those who have never outgrown a childhood enthusiasm for the wonders of flight, it is possible to buy inexpensive, remotely controlled planes and helicopters. A toy helicopter offers an opportunity…

  19. Analytical Chemical Control of Phthalates in Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S. C.; Jensen, G. H.; Worsøe, I. M.

    The content of phthalates in toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age is regulated by the Statutory Order of Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy, No. 151 of 15th March 1999. In the present investigation, 35 products (toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age...

  20. The potential of artificial intelligence toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is moving to a next step of development and application areas. From electronic games to human-like robots, AI toy is a good choice for next step during this process. Technology-based design is fit to the development of AI toy. It can exert the advantages and explore more...

  1. Analytical Chemical Control of Phthalates in Toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S. C.; Worsøe, I. M.

    The content of phthalates in toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age is regulated by the Statutory Order of Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy, No. 151 of 15th March 1999. In the present investigation, 20 products (toys and other articles for children up to 3 years of age...

  2. Stokes Equation in a Toy CD Hovercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Izarra, Charles; de Izarra, Gregoire

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of a toy CD hovercraft used in the fluid mechanics course for undergraduate students to illustrate the lubrication theory described by the Stokes equation. An experimental characterization of the toy hovercraft (measurements of the air flow value, of the pressure in the balloon and of the thickness of the air film…

  3. Toy models for wrapping effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedones, João; Vieira, Pedro

    2008-08-01

    The anomalous dimensions of local single trace gauge invariant operators in Script N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory can be computed by diagonalizing a long range integrable Hamiltonian by means of a perturbative asymptotic Bethe ansatz. This formalism breaks down when the number of fields of the composite operator is smaller than the range of the Hamiltonian which coincides with the order in perturbation theory at study. We analyze two spin chain toy models which might shed some light on the physics behind these wrapping effects. One of them, the Hubbard model, is known to be closely related to Script N = 4 SYM. In this example, we find that the knowledge of the effective spin chain description is insufficient to reconstruct the finite size effects of the underlying electron theory. We compute the wrapping corrections for generic states and relate them to a Luscher like approach. The second toy models are long range integrable Hamiltonians built from the standard algebraic Bethe ansatz formalism. This construction is valid for any symmetry group. In particular, for non-compact groups it exhibits an interesting relation between wrapping interactions and transcendentality.

  4. Children as Knowledge Brokers of Playground Games and Rhymes in the New Media Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on data from a project on children's playground games and rhymes in the new media age. One objective of the project was to examine the relationship between traditional playground games and children's media cultures. As part of the project, two ethnographic studies of primary playgrounds took place in two schools, one in the…

  5. A pilot study of children's exposure to CCA-treated wood from playground equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalat, S L; Solo-Gabriele, H M; Fleming, L E; Buckley, B T; Black, K; Jimenez, M; Shibata, T; Durbin, M; Graygo, J; Stephan, W; Van De Bogart, G

    2006-08-15

    Arsenic from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood, widely used in playgrounds and other outdoor equipment, can persist as surface residues on wood. This raises concerns about possible health risks associated with children playing on CCA-treated playgrounds. In a Pilot Study, 11 children (13-71 months) in homes with and without CCA-treated playgrounds were evaluated with post-exposure hand rinses and urine for total arsenic. Samples of wood, soil, and mulch, as well as synthetic wipes, were sampled for total arsenic. In non-CCA-treated playgrounds vs. CCA-treated playgrounds, respectively, wood arsenic was soil arsenic was playground was 0.4 mg/kg vs. two CCA-treated playgrounds of 0.6 and 69 mg/kg. The arsenic removed using a synthetic wipe at non-CCA-treated playgrounds was playgrounds was playgrounds. Mean urinary total arsenic levels were 13.6 pg/ml (range 7.2-23.1 pg/ml) for all children evaluated, but there was no association between access to CCA-playgrounds and urinary arsenic levels. Arsenic speciation was not performed. This preliminary Pilot Study of CCA-treated wood playgrounds observed dislodgeable arsenic on 11 children's hands after brief periods of play exposure. Future efforts should increase the number of children and the play exposure periods, and incorporate speciation in order to discriminate between various sources of arsenic.

  6. Use and activity levels on newly built bicycle playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Hansen, Christine Kier; Rask, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the use of urban green space (UGS) as well as increasing cycling could potentially help address the growing inactivity problem. Three bicycle playgrounds were designed based on a participatory process and afterwards constructed in the UGS along a cycle-route on the historic outer defence...... circle around the City of Copenhagen, the Copenhagen Fortifications. The concept of a bicycle playground is new, and to examine how the three areas were used, and explore how users experience the areas, this study was designed as a combination of systematic observations, using the System for Observing...... Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC), and short on-site interviews with ‘typical users’. Based on the structural observations and 12 short interviews it became clear that 63% of the users were active during their use. The bicycle playgrounds main users were teenagers and children, especially...

  7. Function and organization of children playgrounds in the housing estates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoiljković Branislava

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Playing is extremely important for the physical and mental health of children. As the outdoors playing is especially important, playgrounds, as the most favorable form of open spaces for children's playing, are of immense significance and they are necessary in the housing districts. Children need the playgrounds which challenge their faculties and capabilities and offer the possibility to develop the new ones. Planning and designing of children playgrounds should be performed by the teams of experts, which will honor in the process the numerous standards, recommendations and requirements which determine the location, quality and appearance of the equipment, arrangement of the equipment, kind of material used for the protective surfacing etc.

  8. Playground Facilities and Equipment. ACSA School Management Digest, Series 1, Number 7. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursen, David

    Modern educators and playground designers are increasingly recognizing that play is a part, perhaps the decisive part, of the entire learning process. Theories of playground equipment design, planning the playground, financial considerations, and equipment suggestions are featured in this review. Examples of playgrounds include innovative…

  9. Simple inhomogeneous cosmological (toy) models

    CERN Document Server

    I., Eddy G Chirinos; Zimdahl, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) metric we consider two flat inhomogeneous big-bang models. We aim at clarifying, as far as possible analytically, basic features of the dynamics of the simplest inhomogeneous models and to point out the potential usefulness of exact inhomogeneous solutions as generalizations of the homogeneous configurations of the cosmological standard model. We discuss explicitly partial successes but also potential pitfalls of these simplest models. Although primarily seen as toy models, the relevant free parameters are fixed by best-fit values using the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA)-sample data. On the basis of a likelihood analysis we find that a local hump provides a better description of the observations than a local void. Future redshift-drift measurements are discussed as a promising tool to discriminate between inhomogeneous configurations and the $\\Lambda$CDM model.

  10. Air guns: toys or weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sahin; Uzkeser, Mustafa; Katirci, Yavuz; Cakir, Zeynep; Bilir, Ozlem; Bilge, Fatih; Cakir, Murtaza

    2006-09-01

    Air guns and blank guns may appear relatively harmless at first glance, but they are, in fact, potentially destructive, even lethal, weapons. Approximately 2 to 2.5 million nonpowder firearms are sold annually, and again approximately 12.9 per 100,000 population are treated for such injuries in hospital emergency departments each year in the United States. Unfortunately, these guns are considered to be a toy for children. Therefore, incidents of air gun injuries are gradually increasing. Although such injuries may initially be considered trivial, it may signify severe internal tissue pathologies. These apparently trivial injuries may have catastrophic consequences if unnoticed. In this study, we report 4 cases with head injury due to a shot by these guns. The cases indicate that these people had used the guns belonging to their parents for the purpose of suicide. The cases also show that these machines are not innocent.

  11. Profile: toy libraries, school, hospital and home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P

    1975-01-01

    Toy libraries are now a well-established component of the services available to the parents of handicapped children. Difficulties of varying kinds have inevitably arisen in the 5 years' history of the toy library movement, some of which could be resolved by linking developments of new libraries with existing institutions. The advantages of a toy library/institution link accrue to both elements of such a union and it is the purpose of this article to argue the case for an increase in the number of such developments.

  12. Entertainment Capture through Heart Rate Activity in Physical Interactive Playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yannakakis, Georgios; Hallam, John; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2008-01-01

    that predict reported entertainment preferences given HR features. These models are expressed as artificial neural networks and are demonstrated and evaluated on two Playware games and two control tasks requiring physical activity. The best network is able to correctly match expressed preferences in 64......An approach for capturing and modeling individual entertainment (“fun”) preferences is applied to users of the innovative Playware playground, an interactive physical playground inspired by computer games, in this study. The goal is to construct, using representative statistics computed from...

  13. A History of Toy Lending Libraries in the United States Since 1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Julia E.

    This paper traces the history of the toy library, a facility or program created to loan toys to children, parents, child care providers, teachers, and play therapists. Types of toy lending libraries are the community toy library, the supplemental toy library, the cooperative neighborhood toy library, and the mobile toy library. The first toy…

  14. Bioaccessibility of metals in urban playground soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, Karin; Oomen, Agnes; Duits, Menno; Selinus, Olle; Berglund, Marika

    2007-07-15

    Children ingest soil. The amount ingested varies with the child's behaviour, and daily ingestion rates have been calculated to be between 39 and 270 mg day(-1). During play, children ingest soil both involuntarily and deliberately, and it can be assumed that the latter may result in ingestion of a larger soil particle size fraction and a larger soil mass than the former. Measurements of soil metal contents commonly display the total metal content, where soil sieved to soil masses. Moreover, it does not consider the difference between bioaccessible and total metal content, possibly resulting in an incorrect evaluation of the potential health risks from soil intake. Intervention and guideline values are commonly calculated via tolerable daily intake values, in turn derived from toxicological studies where the contaminant is administered to a test animal in feed or water. It is then assumed that the bioavailability of a contaminant in soil equals the bioavailability in the matrix used in the toxicology study. However, the complexity and heterogeneity of soil often results in a lower bioavailability than from food or water. The current study investigated the bioaccessibility of soil As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb from two different particle size fractions representing deliberate (soil masses representing deliberate soil intake; 2 g for a child with pica behaviour and 0.6 g for a non-pica child. The bioaccessibility was investigated using an in vitro digestion model and urban playground soils collected away from any point pollution sources. The bioaccessibility (%) of the different metals increased in the order Ni=Cr=Pbsoil is not always related to particle size or to soil mass in soils with low contaminant levels. Factors such as pH dependence of the metal and the soil's clay content are also significant in determining bioaccessibility.

  15. [Survey of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers in 101 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys on the Japanese market were surveyed. No phthalates were detected in designated toys, though bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and benzyl butyl phthalate were detected in more than half of other toys. 2,2,4-Tributyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate, o-acetyl tributyl citrate, adipates and diacetyl lauroyl glycerol, which are alternative plasticizers to phthalates, were detected. The results of structural analysis confirmed the presence of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, tributyl citrate, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and neopentyl glycol esters; these have not previonsly been reported in Japan. There appears to be a shift in plasticizers used for designated toys from phthalates to new plasticizers, and the number of different plasticizers is increasing.

  16. Computerized Clown Serves as Teaching "Toy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creative Computing, 1978

    1978-01-01

    One example is given of the success and feasibility of specially designed teaching toys that are really mini-computer terminals connected by telephone lines to a minicomputer which transmits individualized, daily programmed instruction to children. (MN)

  17. Entropy calculation for a toy black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlmann, Hanno [Spinoza Institute and ITP, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-03-07

    In this paper, we carry out the counting of states for a black hole in loop quantum gravity, assuming however an equidistant area spectrum. We find that this toy-model is exactly solvable, and we show that its behavior is very similar to that of the correct model. Thus this toy-model can be used as a nice and simplifying 'laboratory' for questions about the full theory.

  18. Entropy calculation for a toy black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlmann, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this note we carry out the counting of states for a black hole in loop quantum gravity, however assuming an equidistant area spectrum. We find that this toy-model is exactly solvable, and we show that its behavior is very similar to that of the correct model. Thus this toy-model can be used as a nice and simplifying `laboratory' for questions about the full theory.

  19. Toy models for macroevolutionary patterns and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea, Bradly; Gordon, Richard

    2014-09-01

    Many models have been used to simplify and operationalize the subtle but complex mechanisms of biological evolution. Toy models are gross simplifications that nevertheless attempt to retain major essential features of evolution, bridging the gap between empirical reality and formal theoretical understanding. In this paper, we examine thirteen models which describe evolution that also qualify as such toy models, including the tree of life, branching processes, adaptive ratchets, fitness landscapes, and the role of nonlinear avalanches in evolutionary dynamics. Such toy models are intended to capture features such as evolutionary trends, coupled evolutionary dynamics of phenotype and genotype, adaptive change, branching, and evolutionary transience. The models discussed herein are applied to specific evolutionary contexts in various ways that simplify the complexity inherent in evolving populations. While toy models are overly simplistic, they also provide sufficient dynamics for capturing the fundamental mechanism(s) of evolution. Toy models might also be used to aid in high-throughput data analysis and the understanding of cultural evolutionary trends. This paper should serve as an introductory guide to the toy modeling of evolutionary complexity.

  20. Assessment and Learning of Qualitative Physics in Newton's Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Valerie J.; Ventura, Matthew; Kim, Yoon Jeon

    2013-01-01

    Digital games are very popular in modern culture. The authors are examining ways to leverage these engaging environments to assess and support student competencies. The authors examine gameplay and learning using a physics game they developed called Newton's Playground. The sample consisted of 167 eighth- and ninth-grade students who played…

  1. Salmonellosis Outbreak Traced to Playground Sand, Australia, 2007–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Staff, Michael; Musto, Jennie; Hogg, Geoff; Janssen, Monika; Rose, Karrie

    2012-01-01

    A community outbreak of gastroenteritis in Australia during 2007–2009 was caused by ingestion of playground sand contaminated with Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B, variant Java. The bacterium was also isolated from local wildlife. Findings support consideration of nonfood sources during salmonellosis outbreak investigations and indicate transmission through the animal–human interface.

  2. Salmonellosis Outbreak Traced to Playground Sand, Australia, 2007–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musto, Jennie; Hogg, Geoff; Janssen, Monika; Rose, Karrie

    2012-01-01

    A community outbreak of gastroenteritis in Australia during 2007–2009 was caused by ingestion of playground sand contaminated with Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B, variant Java. The bacterium was also isolated from local wildlife. Findings support consideration of nonfood sources during salmonellosis outbreak investigations and indicate transmission through the animal–human interface. PMID:22709539

  3. Steering gameplay behavior in the interactive tag playground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van Robby; Moreno, Alejandro; Poppe, Ronald; Reidsma, Dennis; Heylen, Dirk; Aarts, Emile; Ruyter, de Boris; Markopoulos, Panos; Loenen, van Evert; Wichert, Reiner; Schouten, Ben; Terken, Jacques; Kranenburg, van Rob; Ouden, den Elke; O'Hare, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with steering player behavior in the Interactive Tag Playground (ITP). The ITP, an ambient environment instrumented with contact-free sensor technology and ambient display capabilities, enhances the traditional game of tag by determining when a valid tag has been made and visualisin

  4. Augmenting Traditional Playground Games to Enhance Game Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, Alejandro; Van Delden, Robby; Poppe, R.W.; Reidsma, Dennis; Heylen, Dirk K J

    2015-01-01

    Technology can provide engaging game experiences. However, it can also decrease the exhibition of essential play behavior such as social interaction and physical activity. In this paper, we discuss how the Interactive Tag Playground (ITP) can enhance the traditional tag game experience by making it

  5. Steering Gameplay Behavior in the Interactive Tag Playground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Delden, Robby; Moreno, Alejandro; Poppe, Ronald; Reidsma, Dennis; Heylen, Dirk K J

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with steering player behavior in the Interactive Tag Playground (ITP). The ITP, an ambient environment instrumented with contact-free sensor technology and ambient display capabilities, enhances the traditional game of tag by determining when a valid tag has been made and visualisin

  6. An Annotation Scheme for Social Interaction in Digital Playgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, Alejandro M.; Delden, van Robby; Reidsma, Dennis; Poppe, Ronald; Heylen, Dirk; Herrlich, Marc; Malaka, Rainer; Masuch, Maic

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new annotation scheme, designed specifically to study children's social interactions during play in digital playgrounds. The scheme is motivated by analyzing relevant literature, combined with observations from recordings of play sessions. The scheme allows us to analyze how

  7. Automatic detection of social signals in digital playgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Play is a vital activity in which children observe the world, learn new concepts and experiment with them. Even though the social aspect of play is very important, the computer science community has struggled to address it. Digital playgrounds have been built in which children can play in technologi

  8. Augmenting traditional playground games to enhance game experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, Alejandro; Delden, van Robby; Poppe, Ronald; Reidsma, Dennis; Heylen, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Technology can provide engaging game experiences. However, it can also decrease the exhibition of essential play behavior such as social interaction and physical activity. In this paper, we discuss how the Interactive Tag Playground (ITP) can enhance the traditional tag game experience by making it

  9. Social Competence at the Playground: Preschoolers during Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Guida; de Leng, Wendy; Cachucho, Ricardo; Ketelaar, Lizet; Kok, Joost N.; Knobbe, Arno; Neto, Carlos; Rieffe, Carolien

    2017-01-01

    Social interactions at the playground have been represented as a rich learning opportunity to hone and master social skills at preschool years. Specifically, all forms of social play (fantasy, role, exercise or rough-and-tumble) have been related to children's social competence. The main goal of this study was to examine whether it is a certain…

  10. Hang in There: A Novel Body-Centric Interactive Playground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van Robby; Moreno, Alejandro; Ramos, Carlos; Carrasco, Gonçalo; Reidsma, Dennis; Poppe, Ronald; Rybarczyk, Y.; Cardoso, T.; Rosas, J.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce and evaluate a first version of a novel bodycentric playground that aims at increasing bodily exertion and immersion. The concept centers around the player, who is suspended from the ceiling using a rope and climbing harness and stands on a tilted platform. This caused players to assume

  11. Social Competence at the Playground: Preschoolers during Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Guida; de Leng, Wendy; Cachucho, Ricardo; Ketelaar, Lizet; Kok, Joost N.; Knobbe, Arno; Neto, Carlos; Rieffe, Carolien

    2017-01-01

    Social interactions at the playground have been represented as a rich learning opportunity to hone and master social skills at preschool years. Specifically, all forms of social play (fantasy, role, exercise or rough-and-tumble) have been related to children's social competence. The main goal of this study was to examine whether it is a certain…

  12. Development of nature playgrounds from the 1970s onwards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstrate, L.; Karsten, L.; Evans, B.; Horton, J.; Skelton, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will analyze the sudden growth of nature playgrounds at the beginning of the twenty-first century within both big cities and smaller towns in the Netherlands. We try to understand this new interest in nature-like play in the context of three developments. First are the stricter regu

  13. Development of nature playgrounds from the 1970s onwards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstrate, L.; Karsten, L.; Evans, B.; Horton, J.; Skelton, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will analyze the sudden growth of nature playgrounds at the beginning of the twenty-first century within both big cities and smaller towns in the Netherlands. We try to understand this new interest in nature-like play in the context of three developments. First are the stricter regu

  14. Geochemistry of topsoil in kindergarten playgrounds in Zagreb, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šparica Miko, M.; Miko, S.; Hasan, O.; Mesić, S.; Bukovec, D.; Hruškova, M.

    2009-04-01

    Geochemical mapping based on analysis of urban topsoil (0-5 cm) and deeper soil horizons (40-50 cm) in kindergarten playgrounds has been carried out in Zagreb. In two geochemical studies performed by sampling on a regular grids (1x1 km2) it was determined that the soils in the Old Town and industrial area have elevated concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Zn). The high soil heavy metal concentrations are decreasing toward the outer parts of the city, similar to patterns observed in many other cities in Europe. Since the youngest children are exposed to topsoil in playgrounds, an evaluation of heavy metal pollution for 150 kindergarten and 50 public playground topsoil was made. During the study aqua regia (ISO 11464) soil extracts were analyzed for 42 major and trace elements. Urban soil pollution in each city is specific depending on pollution sources and the geochemical signature of the local lithology. Based on the calculated enrichment factors for heavy metals and the regional geochemical baseline values for northwestern Croatia the following elements were found in concentrations that can be attributed to pollution: Pb, Hg, Zn, Cu. Also elevated concentrations Sb, Ag, Zn and Cd at some of the locations indicate anthropogenic influences. Other elements considered as potentially toxic (As, Cr, Ni, Co, Mo, Tl) have concentrations within the established regional soil baselines and can be considered as lithogenic. Guidance values for heavy metals in soils for kindergarten playground soils have not been established in Croatia so the quality criteria for soils in playgrounds of Norwegian Institute of Public Health were used as well as calculated enrichment factors were used to evaluate the degree of soil pollution. It was determined that based on the composite soil data 21 locations should be assessed with follow up studies to determine the need for remediation. In Zagreb, only 5 of the 64 kindergartens sampled had an elevated dust lead level. Paint chips taken from

  15. Embedding Sensory Preference into Toys to Enhance Toy Play in Toddlers with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Schepis, Maureen M.; Flynn, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Playing with toys as a means of environmental engagement has long been considered important in early child development (D. J. Messer, D. Rachford, M. E. McCarthy, & L. J. Yarrow, 1987; M. Wolery, M. G. Werts, & M. Holcombe, 1994). However, children with highly significant disabilities often engage in toy play less frequently than their peers…

  16. STS-54 DSO 802, Educational activities 'Physics of Toys', equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Toys for STS-54 Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) 802, Educational activities 'Physics of Toys', are displayed on a table top. Part of the educational activities onboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, will include several experiments with these toys. DSO 802 will allow the crewmembers to experiment with the various types of toys in a microgravity environment while talking to pupils who will be able to monitor (via classroom television (TV) sets) the onboard activities at their schools. Among the toys seen here are a friction car and loop track, paper eagle, and a balloon helicopter. NOTE: also labeled the Application Specific Preprogrammed Experiment Culture System Physics of Toys (ASPEC).

  17. Quantum protocols within Spekkens' toy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disilvestro, Leonardo; Markham, Damian

    2017-05-01

    Quantum mechanics is known to provide significant improvements in information processing tasks when compared to classical models. These advantages range from computational speedups to security improvements. A key question is where these advantages come from. The toy model developed by Spekkens [R. W. Spekkens, Phys. Rev. A 75, 032110 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.032110] mimics many of the features of quantum mechanics, such as entanglement and no cloning, regarded as being important in this regard, despite being a local hidden variable theory. In this work, we study several protocols within Spekkens' toy model where we see it can also mimic the advantages and limitations shown in the quantum case. We first provide explicit proofs for the impossibility of toy bit commitment and the existence of a toy error correction protocol and consequent k -threshold secret sharing. Then, defining a toy computational model based on the quantum one-way computer, we prove the existence of blind and verified protocols. Importantly, these two last quantum protocols are known to achieve a better-than-classical security. Our results suggest that such quantum improvements need not arise from any Bell-type nonlocality or contextuality, but rather as a consequence of steering correlations.

  18. Effects of Ordinary and Adaptive Toys on Pre-School Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsieh-Chun

    2008-01-01

    Toys help children in mastering developmental tasks. This study investigated toy effect on children with developmental disabilities as they engage in using ordinary and adaptive toys. A single-subject design was used to identify the effects on their toy play abilities. Differences in toy effects between playing ordinary and adaptive toys were…

  19. Tips for Teachers Selecting Toys to Facilitate Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Cynthia O.; Elmore, Shannon Renee

    2011-01-01

    Toy selection is an important role for early childhood teachers. This research-to-practice article describes what research tells us about how toys can affect the social interactions and communication of young children including those with developmental delays.

  20. INFLUENCE OF MARKETING ENVIRONMENT ON THE TOY MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta A. ANDREIANA (Mihaescu); Calelia G. STOICA (Stanciu); Cornelia D. IVAN (Trandafiroiu)

    2014-01-01

    Along with the passage of time, parents have manifested a different attitude towards their children, trying to offer them everything they wanted in what concerns the toys. Therefore, the toy market is constantly expending, and the tough competition leads to the quality improvement of the toys and enforces certain standards on the market. The originality and topicality of the theme consist in the change in the toy consumers’ and users’ preferences which required greater attention to be pa...

  1. Influence of paint chips on lead concentration in the soil of public playgrounds in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Michie; Yoshinaga, Jun; Tanaka, Atsushi

    2006-03-01

    Lead concentration in the surface soils from 31 playgrounds in a ward in Tokyo was measured to examine if paint chips, peeled off from playing equipment installed in the playgrounds, contribute to elevated Pb concentration in the soil of public playgrounds. Lead concentration in the paint chips sampled from playgrounds ranged from 0.003 to 8.9%. Lead concentration in the surface soil ranged from 15.2 to 237 mg kg(-1) (average, 55.5 mg kg(-1)) and higher Pb concentration was found in the soil near painted playing equipment indicating that paint chips from playing equipment contributed to increase soil Pb level of playgrounds in Tokyo. The degree of peeling-off of paint on the surface of playing equipment in the public playground (peeling-off index: POI) positively correlated with Pb concentration in the soil (Spearman rank-correlation coefficient, r = 0.366, p = 0.043). The stronger correlation between Pb concentration and isotope ratios (207Pb/206Pb and Pb conc., r = 0.536, p = 0.002, 208Pb/206Pb and Pb conc. r = 0.600, p playground-to-playground variation in soil Pb concentration. It was concluded that both gasoline Pb of the past and paint chips contributed to increased Pb concentration in the surface soil of playgrounds in Tokyo, though the contribution of paint chips is smaller than gasoline Pb.

  2. Virtual playgrounds : managing virtual resources in the Grid.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keahey, K.; Chase, J.; Foster, I.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago; Duke Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Large grid deployments increasingly require abstractions and methods decoupling the work of resource providers and resource consumers to implement scalable management methods. We proposed the abstraction of a virtual workspace (VW) describing a virtual execution environment that can be made dynamically available to authorized grid clients by using well-defined protocols. Virtual workspaces provide resources in controllable ways that are independent of how a resource is consumed. A virtual playground may combine many such workspaces, as well as other aspects of virtual environments, such as networking and storage, to form virtual grids. In this paper, we report on the goals and progress of the virtual playground project and put in context the research to date.

  3. IMPROVEMENT EFFECT OF PLAYGROUND SURFACE BY WASTE CRUSHED SHELL MIXING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Oda, Kenichi; Higuchi, Emiko; Takano, Morihiro; Tasaki, Hiroshi

    If sandy soil with appropriate gradation is compacted, hard and dense ground will be generated. Even if the soil material is hard enough against shock load, the permeability of the soil decreases significantly. This paper examines the improvement effect of playground surface by waste crushed shell mixing technique. The following conclusions are obtained from the present study: 1. The maximum dry density of the sandy soil increases gradually by mixing the crushed shell. However, if the crushed shell is put into the soil too much, the density decreases conversely. 2. Although the density of the soil sample becomes high by mixing the crushed shell, the coefficient of permeability increases. 3. The soil particles once attached to the shell is not washed away easily. 4. The crushed shell doesn't change the quality of groundwater so much. 5. This repair method is applicable to improvement of playground surface.

  4. The potential of artificial intelligence toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is moving to a next step of development and application areas. From electronic games to human-like robots, AI toy is a good choice for next step during this process. Technology-based design is fit to the development of AI toy. It can exert the advantages and explore more...... value for existing resources. It combines AI programs and common sensors to realize the function of intelligence input and output. Designers can use technology-based criteria to design and need to consider the possible issues in this new field. All of these aspects can be referenced from electronic game...

  5. Gifting with Purpose: Choose Learning Toys This Holiday Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Kids aged five and under learn best through play. Instead of buying just any toy, look for toys or activities with things to teach: like the alphabet or names of different animals, and more. Children will play with their new toy and not even realize they are learning while they play. This article focuses on gift ideas for the holiday season, with…

  6. Toys, Teens and Teachers: A Cooperative Urban Workshop Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Marie

    1980-01-01

    Cites ways in which antique toys can contribute to a positive feeling among students toward urban high schools. Evidence is based on a program in which students were directed to bring a favorite childhood toy of theirs or their parents or grandparents to class. Students then researched toy use, manufacture, country of origin, and technology used…

  7. Toy Libraries/Lekoteks in an International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, Jane; Bjorck-Akesson, Eva

    1992-01-01

    This article reports a survey of members of the International Toy Library Association and others in order to describe the international toy library/lekotek movement today. Information from 37 countries was evaluated and the similarities and differences among the toy libraries/lekoteks identified, as well as the various philosophies, aims, and…

  8. Familiarizing with Toy Food: Preliminary Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A qualitative content analysis of children and parents interacting with toy food in their homes in view of recommendations for developing healthful food preferences. Methods: YouTube videos (n = 101) of children and parents interacting in toy kitchen settings were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Toy food was categorized…

  9. Aldo van Eyck’s Playgrounds: Aesthetics, Affordances, and Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Withagen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available After World War II, the Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck developed hundreds of playgrounds in the city of Amsterdam. These public playgrounds were located in parks, squares, and derelict sites, and consisted of minimalistic aesthetic play equipment that was supposed to stimulate the creativity of children. Over the last decades, these playgrounds have been studied by sociologists, theorists of art and architecture, and psychologists. Adopting an ecological approach to the human environment, it is argued that the abstract forms of van Eyck’s play sculptures indeed stimulate the creativity of the child. Whereas a slide or a swing almost dictates what a child is supposed to do, van Eyck’s play equipment invites the child to actively explore the numerous affordances (action possibilities it provided. However, it is argued that the standardization (e.g., equal distances between blocks or bars that tends to characterize van Eyck’ play equipment has negative effects on the playability. This standardization, which was arguably the result of the aesthetic motives of the designer, might be appealing to children when simply looking at the equipment, but it is not of overriding importance to them when playing in it. Indeed, a recent study indicates that the affordances provided by messy structures appear to have a greater appeal to playing children.

  10. Play and Learn with Toys; A Bibliography of Toys that "Teach Institutionalized Children".

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Library Notes, 1976

    1976-01-01

    An annotated bibliography describes toys and games appropriate for a library serving the mentally retarded. Materials cited are entered under communication skills, concepts, life skills, motor skills, and sensory skills. A listing of publishers' and manufacturers' addresses is included. (NR)

  11. Smart Toys Designed for Detecting Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; García, Antonio; Alarcos, Bernardo; Velasco, Juan R.; Ortega, José Eugenio; Martínez-Yelmo, Isaías

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design considerations and implementation of a smart toy system, a technology for supporting the automatic recording and analysis for detecting developmental delays recognition when children play using the smart toy. To achieve this goal, we take advantage of the current commercial sensor features (reliability, low consumption, easy integration, etc.) to develop a series of sensor-based low-cost devices. Specifically, our prototype system consists of a tower of cubes augmented with wireless sensing capabilities and a mobile computing platform that collect the information sent from the cubes allowing the later analysis by childhood development professionals in order to verify a normal behaviour or to detect a potential disorder. This paper presents the requirements of the toy and discusses our choices in toy design, technology used, selected sensors, process to gather data from the sensors and generate information that will help in the decision-making and communication of the information to the collector system. In addition, we also describe the play activities the system supports. PMID:27879626

  12. [Small bowel perforation caused by magnetic toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroepfer, E; Siauw, C; Hoecht, B; Meyer, T

    2010-06-01

    Accidental ingestion of foreign bodies is a common problem in infants and childhood, but ingestion of magnetic construction toys is very rare. In the case of ingestion of multiple parts of these magnetic construction toys, they may attract each other through the intestinal walls, causing pressure necrosis, perforation, fistula formation or intestinal obstruction. A 20-month-old boy presented with a three-day history of abdominal pain and bilious vomiting. Physical examination revealed a slighted distended abdomen. The -white blood cell count was increased, but the C-reactive protein was normal. Ultrasound and X-ray of the abdomen showed a distended bowel loop in the right upper quadrant, a moderate amount of free intraperitoneal liquid and 4 foreign bodies. Emergency laparotomy was performed and 2 perforations in the ileum were detected. The perforations were caused by a magnetic construction toy and 2 iron globes. The fourth foreign body was a glass marble. The foreign bodies were removed, both perforations were primarily sutured. The child was discharged on postoperative day 10 after an uneventful recovery. Parents should be warned against the potential dangers of children's constructions toys that contain these kinds of magnets.

  13. Smart Toys Designed for Detecting Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; García, Antonio; Alarcos, Bernardo; Velasco, Juan R; Ortega, José Eugenio; Martínez-Yelmo, Isaías

    2016-11-20

    In this paper, we describe the design considerations and implementation of a smart toy system, a technology for supporting the automatic recording and analysis for detecting developmental delays recognition when children play using the smart toy. To achieve this goal, we take advantage of the current commercial sensor features (reliability, low consumption, easy integration, etc.) to develop a series of sensor-based low-cost devices. Specifically, our prototype system consists of a tower of cubes augmented with wireless sensing capabilities and a mobile computing platform that collect the information sent from the cubes allowing the later analysis by childhood development professionals in order to verify a normal behaviour or to detect a potential disorder. This paper presents the requirements of the toy and discusses our choices in toy design, technology used, selected sensors, process to gather data from the sensors and generate information that will help in the decision-making and communication of the information to the collector system. In addition, we also describe the play activities the system supports.

  14. Smart Toys Designed for Detecting Developmental Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rivera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the design considerations and implementation of a smart toy system, a technology for supporting the automatic recording and analysis for detecting developmental delays recognition when children play using the smart toy. To achieve this goal, we take advantage of the current commercial sensor features (reliability, low consumption, easy integration, etc. to develop a series of sensor-based low-cost devices. Specifically, our prototype system consists of a tower of cubes augmented with wireless sensing capabilities and a mobile computing platform that collect the information sent from the cubes allowing the later analysis by childhood development professionals in order to verify a normal behaviour or to detect a potential disorder. This paper presents the requirements of the toy and discusses our choices in toy design, technology used, selected sensors, process to gather data from the sensors and generate information that will help in the decision-making and communication of the information to the collector system. In addition, we also describe the play activities the system supports.

  15. Polynesian Folklore: An Alternative to Plastic Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sharon; Wright, Thomas; Erickson, Lynnette

    2001-01-01

    Argues that folklore goes beyond plastic toys and popular media symbols to share the humanness of a people. Suggest ways to use Polynesian folklore (nature fables, tales, and legends) to deepen children's understanding of Polynesian culture. Reviews specific stories, references juvenile collections, and offers classroom activities. (SR)

  16. STS-54 DSO 802, Educational activities 'Physics of Toys', equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Toys for STS-54 Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) 802, Educational activities 'Physics of Toys', are displayed on a table top. Part of the educational activities onboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, will include several experiments with these toys. DSO 802 will allow the crewmembers to experiment with the various types of toys in a microgravity environment while talking to pupils who will be able to monitor (via classroom television (TV) sets) the onboard activities at their schools. NOTE: Also labeled the Application Specific Preprogrammed Experiment Culture System Physic of Toys (ASPEC).

  17. [Audit "Toys and incubators in neonatology"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raginel, T; Bigoin-Dupont, M; Aguelon, V; Fines-Guyon, M; Guillemin, M G

    2009-08-01

    Owing to an increase in nosocomial septicaemias in the Neonatalogy department, we've judged it necessary to consider the role of items not linked to the nursing procedures, and nevertheless present in the incubators, as well as the hygiene techniques applied to them. In November 2007, we've made a longitudinal prospective study consisting in an observation audit during 3 successive days, observing every single incubator with a newborn baby. In each incubator, we've checked whether there were or not items that weren't required by the nursing activities, along with their characteristics and the hygiene procedures applied to them. We've inquired as well whether the parents and the nursing staff knew and applied the required hygiene procedures. In 13 among the 17 incubators under survey, at least one item not strictly required by the nursing procedures could be found. The number of toys in each incubator varied from seven to one. Among the 33 toys surveyed, 24 (73%) of them showed a score of maximum fluffiness (4 out of 4), and only 10 wore labels giving cleansing advice from the manufacturers. Without any record about the cleaning/disinfecting of the toys brought in hospital, we have observed that the parents were given varied advice about how to clean the toys at home before putting them in the incubators (only four parents had washed the toys in their washing machines at more than 30 degrees C). From the six samples under scrutiny, all the culture results were tested positive. In particular two of the soft toys sampled were found infected by a Pseudomonas oryzihabitans. These particular toys belonged to a baby who had been diagnosed with a septicaemia characterized by hemocultures positive to a P. oryzihabitans of a different strain. Our audit has been an efficient reminder that any item put in an incubator is a potential vector and reservoir of pathogen organisms. After a general feedback towards the department staff, the medical staff then prescribed to

  18. Playground Facilities and Equipment. NAESP School Leadership Digest Series, Number Nine. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number Eleven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursen, David

    A good playground stimulates a child by offering a variety of interesting, challenging, and rewarding activities. Children learn from play and what they learn can be controlled by careful design of playgrounds. Topics discussed include theories of equipment; design; playground planning and concern for the needs of children, parents, and community;…

  19. "Why Can't Girls Play Football?" Gender Dynamics and the Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sheryl; Paechter, Carrie

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the involvement of boys and girls in playground football. It is based on research conducted with 10- to 11-year-old pupils at two state primary schools in London. Boys and girls were found to draw on gender constructs that impacted variously on their involvement in playground football. The performance of masculinity through…

  20. Playground Physics: Determining the Moment of Inertia of a Merry-Go-Round

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Stephen; Lark, Adam; Hodges, Jeff; Celebrezze, Eric; Channels, Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    A playground can provide a valuable physics education laboratory. For example, Taylor et al. describe bringing teachers in a workshop to a playground to examine the physics of a seesaw and slide, and briefly suggest experiments involving a merry-go-round. In this paper, we describe an experiment performed by students from a Society of Physics…

  1. Evaluation of an Intervention to Reduce Playground Hazards in Atlanta Child-Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Jeffrey J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Revisits 58 child care centers in Atlanta (Georgia) that had received interventions alerting directors to playground safety hazards. Comparison with 71 control centers randomly selected found averages of 9.4 hazards at intervention center playgrounds and 8.0 hazards at control centers. These results indicate the ineffectiveness of the…

  2. Do children create standardized playgrounds? A study on the gap-crossing affordances of jumping stones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, Douwe; Withagen, Rob; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    One point of critique on playgrounds is their omnipresent standardization the distances between, for example, jumping stones or the ropes in a climbing net tend to be equal. Although current psychological literature suggests that nonstandardized playgrounds are beneficial for the children's motor

  3. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children's physical activity level: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, K.; Scholten, A.M.; Vries, S.I. de

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in

  4. An Evaluation of Photographic Activity Schedules to Increase Independent Playground Skills in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Jessica S.; Higbee, Thomas S.; Pollard, Joy S.; Pellegrino, Azure J.; Gerencser, Kristina R.

    2016-01-01

    We used photographic activity schedules to increase the number of play activities completed by children with autism during unstructured time on the playground. All 3 participants engaged in more playground activities during and after training, and they continued to complete activities when novel photographs were introduced.

  5. [Determining guidelines for metals in children's playgrounds in North Rhine-Westphalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, L; Kramer, M; Eikmann, T; König, W; Bertges, W D; Gableske, R; Krieger, T; Michels, S; Exner, M; Weber, H

    1990-01-01

    In 1990, the State of North-Rhine-Westphalia established an ordinance on the quality of playground soil and sand. This ordinance includes guideline values for toxic metals (arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium) in playground soil not covered by vegetation and quality standards for sand to be applied on playgrounds. Additionally guideline values were set for mercury, nickel and thallium. The guideline values include two categories: guideline value I represents the upper limits (95-percentiles) of the background levels of toxic metals generally found in upper soil layers in the State of North-Rhine-Westphalia. Guideline values II ("action levels") were selected on the basis of toxicological considerations. In cases where concentrations of metals above these guideline values are detected, immediate actions (urgent redevelopment measures) are required. Quality standards for playground sand were established to ensure that only noncontaminated sand is applied for playgrounds.

  6. Young Boys Playing Digital Games. From Console to the Playground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Aarsand

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article studies how digital games are part of the everyday lives of Swedish 6 to 7-year-old boys. The data consist of video recordings from two schools, two after-school centres and four homes. The focus is on how children engage in, organize and use digital games in face-to-face interaction. It is argued that digital game competence matters not only in front of the screen, but also in the playground. In addition, it is argued that what counts as game competence is negotiated in the peer group.

  7. Skilled Toy Train Discussions about Business Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Beuthel, Marie Rosa

    2013-01-01

    innovation session, we investigate how participants get to new concepts through analysing their skilled behaviours, movements, actions and negotiations. We observe that the final result of the workshop is indeed innovative and is co-constructed by all group members. We show why the toy train works: While......In this paper we show how industrialists in an innovation workshop employ tangible material – a toy train set – to innovate their business model. In multidisciplinary teams the process of co-creating new understandings is crucial for work to progress. Based on video data form this participatory...... encouraging group discussion of the ‘customer journey’, it keeps both hands and mind busy, it allows silent participation, and it expands the vocabulary of the discussion....

  8. A Toy Penrose Inequality and its Proof

    CERN Document Server

    Bengtsson, Ingemar

    2016-01-01

    We formulate and prove a toy version of the Penrose inequality. The formulation mimics the original Penrose inequality in which the scenario is the following: A shell of null dust collapses in Minkowski space and a marginally trapped surface forms on it. Through a series of arguments relying on established assumptions, an inequality relating the area of this surface to the total energy of the shell is formulated. Then a further reformulation turns the inequality into a statement relating the area and the outer null expansion of a class of surfaces in Minkowski space itself. The inequality has been proven to hold true in many special cases, but there is no proof in general. In the toy version here presented, an analogous inequality in (2+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space turns out to hold true.

  9. A toy Penrose inequality and its proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Ingemar; Jakobsson, Emma

    2016-12-01

    We formulate and prove a toy version of the Penrose inequality. The formulation mimics the original Penrose inequality in which the scenario is the following: a shell of null dust collapses in Minkowski space and a marginally trapped surface forms on it. Through a series of arguments relying on established assumptions, an inequality relating the area of this surface to the total energy of the shell is formulated. Then a further reformulation turns the inequality into a statement relating the area and the outer null expansion of a class of surfaces in Minkowski space itself. The inequality has been proven to hold true in many special cases, but there is no proof in general. In the toy version here presented, an analogous inequality in (2 + 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space turns out to hold true.

  10. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin Kulahci; Fatih Zor; Mehmet Bozkurt; Serdar Ozturk; Mustafa Sengezer

    2007-01-01

    Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloon...

  11. Toy Age-Labeling: An Overview for Pediatricians of How Toys Receive Their Age Safety and Developmental Designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, Shuli; Stein, Ruth E K

    2016-07-01

    Injuries related to toys continue to cause significant childhood morbidity and mortality, despite considerable government regulation of the toy industry. Recent controversy related to toys that contain strong magnets demonstrate the dangers they pose to children. The pediatric community is often unaware of how toys receive their developmental and safety labeling and the degree to which age-labeling on toys can be discretionary. Toy labeling has 2 basic manifestations. The first, safety labeling for hazards like small parts, balloons, or small balls that may present a choking risk, is mandatory. The second, "developmental" age-labeling, describes the age of the children for which the toy is intended, and sometimes has discretionary components. This article provides a review of the regulations governing toy age-safety standards and how they are reflected on toy packaging to help pediatric practitioners apply safety advice across settings and patient characteristics. We review the existing age-labeling regulations and processes and discuss the major areas where children remain vulnerable despite labeling. Finally, we list some recommendations for counseling parents about toy safety.

  12. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 291-296

  13. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  14. Supply Chain Management Practices in Toy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft; Johansen, John

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - Innovative products usually experience highly unpredictable and variable demand. This is especially valid for the volatile and seasonal toy industry, which produces high obsolete inventory, lost sales and markdown. In such a volatile industry, what supply chain management (SCM) practices...... are applicable and effective? This study seeks to explore SCM practices, and identify practical and theoretical gaps in toy supply chains. Design/methodology/approach - This article includes a longitudinal and in-depth case study during the past year in an international toy manufacturer, which includes...... qualitative semi-structured interviews and questionnaire with 11 main European toy retailers. Findings - The study concludes that there are three main SCM practices for toy retailers in terms of ordering behaviours (one-off, JIT, and mixed model), and one dominated SCM practice for toy manufacturers...

  15. Adolescents’ Sense of Community and Involvement in Playground Activities: Panacea to Ameliorate Social Vices and Delinquencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwagbemiga Paul Agboola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have identified defects in the physical environments in which they interact and play, which has resulted in a decline the expected values initiated in both the social, physical and psychological developments. The role of playground in the development of adolescent’s health, moral and social standard has attracted lower interest in the recent time. The adolescent sense of community relates to a positive experience in the community open space setting such as playground and social well-being with their peers in general. Over time, little efforts have been initiated by the researchers towards these phenomena. This current study fills the gap by examining the adolescents’ sense of community through a quantitative survey via appraisal of the quality of community playground, emotional connection and effects of their participation in playground activities on ameliorating the delinquents’ behavior and social vices. Completed survey questionnaires retrieved from a total number of 69 purposive respondents who are adolescents from three towns and analyzed through relative importance index (RII via Likert scale. Results from the analysis indicated that adolescents’ positive attitudinal changes and reduction in social vices and delinquent’s behavior could be achieved through their involvements in quality and well-equipped playgrounds. Similarly, the significant role of sense of community in enhancing adolescent social participation in playground activities contributes to a major role in increasing their social well-being and togetherness. Thus, the study recommends appropriate future planning, design, and management of neighborhood playgrounds in Nigeria.

  16. Il Playground come laboratorio di creatività e inclusione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lauria

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In general, play areas are highly standardised place that include a set of standardised equipments alien to the reference context, poor in stimuli and incapable of triggering fruitful social relationships. Playing activities are often repetitive, boring and mechanical, contributing in a somewhat limited extent (and ever counterproductive to the development of the child and nurturing a passive and poor approach to play. Adequate play facilities for disabled children are not common. This article highlights the strategic role of the play for the well-being of children and analyses playground in ethical, social and architectural terms. It claims that playgrounds should be genuine ‘work of architecture’ well-grounded within the reference socio-cultural, environmental and architectural context and in ‘dialogue’ with nature. They should be able to encourage encounters and mutual enrichment between children that come from different walks of life through solutions able to fun, ease tensions and stimulate creativity, expression and self-knowledge.

  17. Science Outreach for the Thousands: Coe College's Playground of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D. E.; Franke, M.; Affatigato, M.; Feller, S.

    2011-12-01

    Coe College is a private liberal arts college nestled in the northeast quadrant of Cedar Rapids, IA. Coe takes pride in the outreach it does in the local community. The sciences at Coe find enjoyment in educating the children and families of this community through a diverse set of venues; from performing science demonstrations for children at Cedar Rapids' Fourth of July Freedom Festival to hosting summer forums and talks to invigorate the minds of its more mature audiences. Among these events, the signature event of the year is the Coe Playground of Science. On the last Thursday of October, before Halloween, the science departments at Coe invite nearly two thousand children from pre elementary to high school ages, along with their parents to participate in a night filled with science demos, haunted halls, and trick-or-treating for more than just candy. The demonstrations are performed by professors and students alike from a raft of cooperative departments including physics, chemistry, biology, math, computer science, nursing, ROTC, and psychology. This event greatly strengthens the relationships between institution members and community members. The sciences at Coe understand the importance of imparting the thrill and hunger for exploration and discovery into the future generations. More importantly they recognize that this cannot start and end at the collegiate level, but the American public must be reached at younger ages and continue to be encouraged beyond the college experience. The Playground of Science unites these two groups under the common goal of elevating scientific interest in the American people.

  18. Simulating a toy model of electrodynamics in (1 + 1) dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Boozer, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    We show how to simulate a toy model of electrodynamics in (1+1) dimensions and describe several numerical experiments. The toy model is much simpler than ordinary electrodynamics, but shares many of the same physical features. For example, there are analogs to the electric and magnetic fields, and these fields generate forces between charged particles and support freely propagating radiation. Unlike electrodynamics, however, the toy model is not Lorentz invariant, gives an attractive force be...

  19. Noise Measurement and Frequency Analysis of Commercially Available Noisy Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Jalaie

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Noise measurement and frequency analysis of commercially available noisy toys were the main purposes of the study. Materials and Methods: 181 noisy toys commonly found in toy stores in different zones of Tehran were selected and categorized into 10 groups. Noise measurement were done at 2, 25, and 50 cm from toys in dBA. The noisiest toy of each group was frequency analyzed in octave bands. Results: The highest and the lowest intensity levels belonged to the gun (mean=112 dBA and range of 100-127 dBA and to the rattle-box (mean=84 dBA and range of 74-95 dBA, respectively. Noise intensity levels significantly decreased with increasing distance except for two toys. Noise frequency analysis indicated energy in effective hearing frequencies. Most of the toys energies were in the middle and high frequency region. Conclusion: As intensity level of the toys is considerable, mostly more than 90 dBA, and also their energy exist in the middle and high frequency region, toys should be considered as a cause of the hearing impairment.

  20. Advertising Violent Toys in Weekly Circulars of Popular Retailers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey H. Basch

    2015-10-01

    with fists out and aggressive faces (26%. Conclusion: Parents should be mindful of toy retailer’s marketing of violent toys, especially toward boys, and the potential for those toys to desensitize their children to violence.

  1. Joint attention at 10 months of age in infant-mother dyads: contrasting free toy-play with semi-structured toy-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Vera; Martins, Carla; Osório, Ana; Martins, Eva Costa; Soares, Isabel

    2013-02-01

    Fifty-two 10-month-olds and their mothers were observed in free toy-play and semi-structured toy-play for assessing joint attention capabilities. Mothers exhibited more bids for joint attention during semi-structured toy-play. Infants' response to maternal behaviors and their bids for initiating joint attention were higher during free toy-play.

  2. Consumer mechatronics: a challenging playground for transducing materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjolstrup, Carl E.; Vonsild, Asbjorn L.

    2003-03-01

    The authors of this article are characterised by having a background within robotics technology, and have within the last 2-3 years moved into a material & process dominated environment. The authors are among other things responsible within LEGO Company; an internationally known toy developer and producer, for identification, prioritisation and procurement of new technological opportunities within materials, processes and devices providing new functionalities for the LEGO product.

  3. O brincar e os brinquedos nos conflitos entre crianças Play, toys and children's conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Sager

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou 77 episódios de conflito, envolvendo 18 crianças de 3 a 4 anos de uma pré-escola pública de Porto Alegre. Considerou-se o gênero das crianças, o contexto onde aconteciam os conflitos (pátio ou sala, os tipos de brinquedos e brincadeiras presentes nos episódios de conflito. Os dados foram registrados com câmeras VHS e notas de campo e tratados através da Análise de Correspondência e de Resíduos. Os resultados indicaram que os conflitos envolvendo brincadeiras simbólicas ocorreram mais na sala de aula e entre meninos, enquanto meninas conflituaram mais quando brincavam com jogos de acoplagem. Grupos formados por meninos e meninas conflitaram mais quando a brincadeira envolvia regras. Brinquedos orientados para adultos relacionaram-se mais com conflitos quando os grupos eram mistos, enquanto brinquedos orientados para crianças, quando os grupos eram formados somente por meninos. No caso das meninas nenhuma associação foi evidenciada ao tipo de brinquedo.This study investigated 77 conflict episodes, involving 3 to 4 year-olds enrolled in a public preschool in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Children's gender, the context in which conflicts occurred (playground or classroom, types of toys and of play activities involved in conflict episodes were considered. Data were registered through video recording and field notes and were analyzed using Analysis of Correspondence and of Residues. Results indicated that while conflicts involving symbolic play occurred more often in the classroom and among boys, girls showed a greater number of conflicts when playing with blocks. Rule-based play showed conflicts more often when groups were mixed. While adult oriented toys related with conflicts in mixed groups, child oriented toys occurred more frequently in groups of boys only. No association was found between girls and type of toys used during conflict episodes.

  4. PLAY ACTIVITY WITH MILITARY TOYS AT PRESCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Nikolaevna Aleshina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes various attitudes to military toys, both positive and negative, existing in Russia and abroad. Toy weapons are viewed as a separate type of military toy. The study looks at the impact of military toys on children’s emotions and personality. The study looks at how children play games on their own and the way they organize them. We have conducted an experiment where three types of toys were used – military toys, soft toys and objects that act as toy substitutes. The study of games and the roles children took showed their poor playing skills. The research has detected existing connection between imagination and thinking ability and the children’s play activity. None of the children took the role of ‘the defender of the weak’ or ‘Patria’s defender’, which contradicts the results of an opinion survey of children’s parents who think that military toys help to develop ‘patriotism’, ‘courage’, and ‘teach to protect the weak’.Repeated observation of the way the same children play with military toys has shown that they take the role of defenders of the motherland or the weak only after watching TV-programmes or fiction films which show male characters defending their motherland or the weak using weapons, which shows that children’s games have social character.The experiment’s results detected what activity adults, who are concerned with the young generation’s attitude to weapons and violence, should perform. It is vital to strengthen children’s moral, ethical and cognitive spheres first, and only in second place fight against sales of military toys both in Russia and abroad.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-53

  5. A toy model for a diatomic molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker Denschlag, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a toy model for a diatomic molecule which is based on coupling electronic and nuclear spins to a rigid rotor. Despite its simplicity, the model can be used scientifically to analyze and understand complex molecular hyperfine spectra. In addition, the model has educational value as a number of fundamental symmetries and conservation laws of the molecule can be studied. Because of its simple structure, the model can be readily implemented as a computer program with comparatively short computing times on the order of a few seconds.

  6. Artist's book toy : a invented library

    OpenAIRE

    Helio Aparecido Lima Silva

    2007-01-01

    Resumo: A pesquisa intitulada Livro brinquedo de artista: uma biblioteca inventada teve por objetivo criar e pensar o livro de artista como objeto lúdico. Nesta trajetória a pesquisa fundamenta-se nos conceitos de livro de artista e brinquedo, estabelecendo um diálogo entre eles. Na conclusão desta proposta os livros brinquedos de artista desdobram-se em uma Biblioteca inventada, espaço criativo para os processos de novas criações em Arte Abstract: The research named toy artist's book - in...

  7. Testing impact attenuation on California playground surfaces made of recycled tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidair, Charles; Haas, Robert; Schlag, Robert

    2007-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether rubberized playground surfaces made of recycled tires comply with state-mandated standards for impact attenuation (measured with an accelerometer), and whether their properties change in response to temperature or time. The Head Impact Criterion (HIC) standard of 1000 was found to be a more sensitive indicator of compliance than the G(max) standard of 200(g). Of 32 playgrounds tested, 22 (69 percent) failed the HIC standard. As the heights of playground structures increased, so did the likelihood that the rubberized surface below would fail the HIC standard. Rubberized surfaces gave stable readings for the first three months following installation, and higher values in response to increasing surface temperature. An excessively high percentage of playground surfaces made of recycled tires failed the state-mandated standards designed to prevent serious head injury from falls. Future failures might be prevented by requiring installers to perform post-installation testing to verify compliance.

  8. Using Toys to Support Infant-Toddler Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Choosing toys and activities that are suitable for infants and toddlers can challenge even the most experienced teacher. By being mindful of the basic principles of child development and the role of play, teachers can intentionally select toys to meet young children's unique needs and interests, supporting learning. It is also important to be…

  9. Pediatric Audiometry: The Relative Success of Toy and Video Reinforcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Sheryl; Gans, Donald P.; Stein, Ramona

    2000-01-01

    An operate conditional technique was used to determine the relative success of toys and video shows as reinforcers for testing the hearing of 28 younger (30-month-old) and 28 older (45-month old) children. Animated toys and video shows for children were equally effective as reinforcers for both age groups. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  10. Toys in Physics Lectures and Demonstrations--A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guemez, J.; Fiolhais, C.; Fiolhais, M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of toys in physics teaching is common. This brief review of the physics of toys intends to show that they are not only very useful in lectures and demonstrations in order to motivate students but also very interesting from a scientific point of view. However, since their physics is sometimes too cumbersome, the effect can be the opposite.…

  11. Serious Fun: Using Toys to Demonstrate Fluid Mechanics Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviz, Camilla M.; Shakerin, Said

    2014-01-01

    Many students have owned or seen fluids toys in which two immiscible fluids within a closed container can be tilted to generate waves. These types of inexpensive and readily available toys are fun to play with, but they are also useful for provoking student learning about fluid properties or complex fluid behavior, including drop formation and…

  12. A Toy Model of Quantum Electrodynamics in (1 + 1) Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    We present a toy model of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in (1 + 1) dimensions. The QED model is much simpler than QED in (3 + 1) dimensions but exhibits many of the same physical phenomena, and serves as a pedagogical introduction to both QED and quantum field theory in general. We show how the QED model can be derived by quantizing a toy model of…

  13. Investigating the Activities of Children toward a Smart Storytelling Toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nuri; Aydin, Cansu Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces StoryTech, a smart storytelling toy that features a virtual space, which includes computer-based graphics and characters, and a real space, which includes plush toys, background cards, and a communication interface. When children put real objects on the receiver panel, the computer program shows related backgrounds and…

  14. Toy Libraries for the Handicapped: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Kristen D.

    A brief history of the toy library movement is offered. Programs for both handicapped and nonhandicapped children in 15 countries are described and the effectiveness of such programs is considered. Two types of toy library programs are defined--the Scandinavian model, or lekotek (designed exclusively for handicapped children and their families and…

  15. Robotic Toys as a Catalyst for Mathematical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highfield, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Robotic toys present unique opportunities for teachers of young children to integrate mathematics learning with engaging problem-solving tasks. This article describes a series of tasks using Bee-bots and Pro-bots, developed as part a larger project examining young children's use of robotic toys as tools in developing mathematical and metacognitive…

  16. Using Toys to Support Infant-Toddler Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Choosing toys and activities that are suitable for infants and toddlers can challenge even the most experienced teacher. By being mindful of the basic principles of child development and the role of play, teachers can intentionally select toys to meet young children's unique needs and interests, supporting learning. It is also important to be…

  17. Imagination, Playfulness, and Creativity in Children's Play with Different Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo????ller, Signe?? Juhl?

    2015-01-01

    Based on a four-month experimental study of preschool children's play with creative-construction and social-fantasy toys, the author examines the in?uence of both types of toys on the play of preschool children. Her comparative analysis considers the impact of transformative play on the development of imagination during play activities and…

  18. Serious Fun: Using Toys to Demonstrate Fluid Mechanics Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviz, Camilla M.; Shakerin, Said

    2014-01-01

    Many students have owned or seen fluids toys in which two immiscible fluids within a closed container can be tilted to generate waves. These types of inexpensive and readily available toys are fun to play with, but they are also useful for provoking student learning about fluid properties or complex fluid behavior, including drop formation and…

  19. The inner-city Skater Facility - playground or control mechanism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore

    2015-01-01

    The inner-city Skater Facility - playground or control mechanism? In 2013, the municipality in Horsens, a medium-sized provincial town in Denmark, bestowed the city's children and young people a skater facility at the city's central squares. Officially, the municipality donated the facility to give...... local children and young people an opportunity to use their leisure time stimulating their bodies, having a great time with friends and other urban dwellers. The gift is accompanied by a number of (more or less camouflaged) crime prevention- and social education agendas, carried out by the SSP (a...... special Social services, School and Police unit), that observe, mingle and socialize at the facility. The social workers affiliated with the SSP understand and define their role in contradiction to the official agenda. The social workers seek to pull the young people off the street and get them to enroll...

  20. Smokefree signage at children's playgrounds: Field observations and comparison with Google Street View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Although there is global growth in outdoor smokefree areas, little is known about the associated smokefree signage. We aimed to study smokefree signage at playgrounds and to compare field observations with images from Google Street View (GSV). We randomly selected playgrounds in 21 contiguous local government areas in the lower North Island of New Zealand, all of which had smokefree playground policies. Field data were collected on smokefree signage along with dog control signage to allow for comparisons. The sensitivity and specificity of using GSV for data collection were calculated. Out of the 63 playgrounds studied, only 44% (95% CI: 33%-57%) had any smokefree signage within 10 m of the playground equipment. The mean number of such signs was 0.8 per playground (range: 0 to 6). Sign size varied greatly from 42 cm(2) up to 2880 cm(2); but was typically fairly small (median = 600 cm(2); ie, as per a 20 × 30 cm rectangle). Qualitatively the dog signs appeared to use clearer images and were less wordy than the smokefree signs. Most playground equipment (82%), could be seen on GSV, but for these settings the sensitivity for identifying smokefree signs was poor at 16%. Yet specificity was reasonable at 96%. The presence and quality of smokefree signage was poor in this sample of children's playgrounds in this developed country setting. There appears to be value in comparing smokefree signage with other types of signage (eg, dog control signage). Google Street View was not a sensitive tool for studying such signage.

  1. Neighborhood Playgrounds, Fast Food Restaurants, and Crime: Relationships to Overweight in Low-Income Preschool Children.

    OpenAIRE

    Hillary L. Burdette; Whitaker, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined over 7,000 low-income children between the ages of 3 and 5 living in Cincinnati. The authors hypothesized that children who lived farther from playgrounds, closer to fast food restaurants, and in unsafe neighborhoods might be more likely to be overweight. They conclude that overweight was not associated with proximity to playgrounds and fast food restaurants or with level of neighborhood crime.

  2. Neighborhood Playgrounds Fast Food Restaurants and Crime Relationships to Overweight in LowIncome Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hillary L Burdette Robert C Whitaker

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined over 7,000 low-income children between the ages of 3 and 5 living in Cincinnati. The authors hypothesized that children who lived farther from playgrounds, closer to fast food restaurants, and in unsafe neighborhoods might be more likely to be overweight. They conclude that overweight was not associated with proximity to playgrounds and fast food restaurants or with level of neighborhood crime.

  3. Indonesian Traditional Toys and the Development of Batik Motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Indrayana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide array of traditional toys in Indonesia. In the past, traditional toys played an important role for skill and creativity development of children. Today, the position of traditional toys in the society is displaced by toys from large-scale manufacturers. Given the critical role of traditional toys for children’s motoric and social development, there is a need to develop media that can be used to promote these traditional products and strengthen their position in the public. We propose to use Batik as a way to effectively disseminate and promote traditional toys to the general public. Apart from this, using traditional toys to create new Batik motifs can have an economic value for the producers of Batik, promote Indonesian products and enrich the Indonesian Batik. This study aims to explore the variety of traditional toys, mainly from Klaten and Magelang, in the Central Java province of Indonesia, and use them as the basis for the development of Batik motif creation. This study used Trilogi Keseimbangan (or Harmony Trilogy aesthetic theory analytical approach that explains the creation of craft consists of the following phases: exploration, design, and materialization. The creation method in this study adopts Tiga Tahap Enam Langkah (Three Phases, Six Steps method offered in the theory. The finding in the field found that the traditional toys material used in Klaten and Magelang, mostly made from waste wood, plywood, and zinc. The manufacturing process is done manually by two or three craftsmen using a simple technology. The traditional toys are designed by the artisans mostly, although there may be designs from the clients. In addition, we also found that the traditional toys have never been used as a Batik motif. The traditional toys Batik motif presented in this work is researcher’s design. For the purposes of this study, we first research the variety of traditional toys available in the market today in Indonesia. We look

  4. Tongue entrapment by chew toys in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, A; Van Goethem, B; Verhaert, L

    2010-10-01

    Compression of a chew toy during regular play activity can create a vacuum effect eventually causing entrapment of oral tissues. Two cases of tongue entrapment are described, which resulted in severe tissue swelling, oedema and vascular obstruction. In the first dog, the toy was removed by the veterinary surgeon under general anaesthesia. Damage to the tongue proved to be reversible and the dog recovered uneventfully. In the second patient, the toy was forcefully removed by the owner. The resulting tongue necrosis required partial amputation. Treatment of this emergency condition consists of elimination of the negative pressure inside the toy by piercing it or even by insufflation of positive pressure inside the toy, and of an atraumatic manipulation to prevent further damage to the compromised tissues.

  5. INFLUENCE OF MARKETING ENVIRONMENT ON THE TOY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta A. ANDREIANA (Mihaescu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Along with the passage of time, parents have manifested a different attitude towards their children, trying to offer them everything they wanted in what concerns the toys. Therefore, the toy market is constantly expending, and the tough competition leads to the quality improvement of the toys and enforces certain standards on the market. The originality and topicality of the theme consist in the change in the toy consumers’ and users’ preferences which required greater attention to be paid to the influence manifested by the marketing environment on this market. The case study identifies the occurred problems and the toy influence factors by an analysis over the marketing environment components, i.e.: marketing internal environment, micro-environment and macro-environment. The study ends with the recommendation of several solutions for the improvement of the current situation.

  6. INFLUENCE OF MARKETING ENVIRONMENT ON THE TOY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta A. ANDREIANA (Mihaescu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Along with the passage of time, parents have manifested a different attitude towards their children, trying to offer them everything they wanted in what concerns the toys. Therefore, the toy market is constantly expending, and the tough competition leads to the quality improvement of the toys and enforces certain standards on the market. The originality and topicality of the theme consist in the change in the toy consumers’ and users’ preferences which required greater attention to be paid to the influence manifested by the marketing environment on this market. The case study identifies the occurred problems and the toy influence factors by an analysis over the marketing environment components, i.e.: marketing internal environment, micro-environment and macro-environment. The study ends with the recommendation of several solutions for the improvement of the current situation.

  7. Dutch Primary Schoolchildren's Perspectives of Activity-Friendly School Playgrounds: A Participatory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Helena Elisabeth Elsje; Altenburg, Teatske Maria; Dedding, Christine; Chinapaw, Mai Jeanette Maidy

    2016-01-01

    School playgrounds are important physical activity (PA) environments for children, yet only a small number of children reaches the target of 40% of moderate-to-vigorous PA time during recess. The aim of this study was to explore children's perspectives (i.e., child-identified determinants) of activity-friendly school playgrounds. We conducted participatory research with children as co-researchers, framed as a project to give children the opportunity to discuss their views and ideas about their school playgrounds. At three schools, six children (9-12 years old) met over five to seven group meetings. Data analysis included children's conclusions obtained during the project and the researcher's analysis of written reports of all meetings. Children indicated a strong desire for fun and active play, with physical playground characteristics and safety, rules and supervision, peer-interactions, and variation in equipment/games as important determinants. Our results indicate that improving activity-friendliness of playgrounds requires an integrated and multi-faceted approach. It also indicates that children, as primary users, are able to identify barriers for active play that are easily overlooked, unknown or differently perceived by adults. Hence, we believe that structural involvement of children in designing, developing and improving playgrounds may increase children's' active play and consequently PA levels during recess.

  8. Herbicide and pesticide occurrence in the soils of children's playgrounds in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapcanin, Aida; Cakal, Mirsada; Imamovic, Belma; Salihovic, Mirsada; Pehlic, Ekrem; Jacimovic, Zeljko; Jancan, Gordan

    2016-08-01

    Pesticide pollution in Sarajevo public playgrounds is an important health and environmental issue, and the lack of information about it is causing concerns amongst the general population as well as researchers. Since children are in direct contact with surface soils on children's playgrounds, such soils should be much more carefully examined. Furthermore, herbicides and pesticides get transmitted from soil surfaces brought from outside the urban areas, or they get dispersed following their direct applications in urban areas. Infants' and children's health can be directly affected by polluted soils because of the inherent toxicity and widespread use of the different pesticides in urban environments such as playgrounds. In addition to that, the presence of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative pesticide found as soil pollutant in playing equipment was also documented. Soil samples from playgrounds were collected and analyzed for triazines, carbamates, dithiocarbamates, phenolic herbicides and organochlorine pesticides. Samples for the determination of heavy metals Cu, Cr and As were prepared by microwave-assisted acid digestion, and the findings were determined by using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Triazines, carbamates, dithiocarbamates, chlorphenoxy compounds, phenolic herbicides, organochlorine pesticides and organotin compounds were detected in playground soils and their determined concentrations (mg/kg) were respectively found as follows: playground soils.

  9. Toy Models for Galaxy Formation versus Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dekel, A; Tweed, D; Cacciato, M; Ceverino, D; Primack, J R

    2013-01-01

    We describe simple useful toy models for key processes of galaxy formation in its most active phase, at z > 1, and test the approximate expressions against the typical behaviour in a suite of high-resolution hydro-cosmological simulations of massive galaxies at z = 4-1. We address in particular the evolution of (a) the total mass inflow rate from the cosmic web into galactic haloes based on the EPS approximation, (b) the penetration of baryonic streams into the inner galaxy, (c) the disc size, (d) the implied steady-state gas content and star-formation rate (SFR) in the galaxy subject to mass conservation and a universal star-formation law, (e) the inflow rate within the disc to a central bulge and black hole as derived using energy conservation and self-regulated Q ~ 1 violent disc instability (VDI), and (f) the implied steady state in the disc and bulge. The toy models provide useful approximations for the behaviour of the simulated galaxies. We find that (a) the inflow rate is proportional to mass and to (...

  10. A toy story: Association between young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums and their fast food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2016-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids' meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013-March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids' meals (McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N = 583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald's. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald's released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald's if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children's toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children's knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald's, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys.

  11. Sex differences in infants' visual interest in toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Wilcox, Teresa; Woods, Rebecca

    2009-06-01

    Evidence indicating that sex-linked toy preferences exist in two nonhuman primate species support the hypothesis that developmental sex differences such as those observed in children's object preferences are shaped in part by inborn factors. If so, then preferences for sex-linked toys may emerge in children before any self-awareness of gender identity and gender-congruent behavior. In order to test this hypothesis, interest in a doll and a toy truck was measured in 30 infants ranging in age from 3 to 8 months using eye-tracking technology that provides precise indicators of visual attention. Consistent with primary hypothesis, sex differences in visual interest in sex-linked toys were found, such that girls showed a visual preference (d > 1.0) for the doll over the toy truck and boys compared to girls showed a greater number of visual fixations on the truck (d = .78). Our findings suggest that the conceptual categories of "masculine" and "feminine" toys are preceded by sex differences in the preferences for perceptual features associated with such objects. The existence of these innate preferences for object features coupled with well-documented social influences may explain why toy preferences are one of the earliest known manifestations of sex-linked social behavior.

  12. 16 CFR 1507.9 - Toy smoke devices and flitter devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Toy smoke devices and flitter devices. 1507... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.9 Toy smoke devices and flitter devices. (a) Toy smoke... fuse and firstfire upon ignition) during normal operation. (b) Toy smoke devices and flitter...

  13. Effects of Varied Levels of Treatment Integrity on Appropriate Toy Manipulation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groskreutz, Nicole C.; Groskreutz, Mark P.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effects of varying the treatment integrity of a prompting procedure on appropriate toy manipulation in two preschool-aged children with autism. Following an assessment to identify toys with high levels of inappropriate toy manipulation, each of three toys was associated with implementation of the prompting procedure at a different…

  14. Toy Action Guide [and] Media Violence and Children: A Call to Action! 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRUCE: Teachers Resisting Unhealthy Children's Entertainment, West Somerville, MA.

    Play is essential to children's healthy development and learning, and toys are the tools of children's play. Noting that parents are constantly faced with decisions about what toys to buy and what toys to avoid, this guide is intended to help parents promote their children's creative and constructive play by making informed choices about toys, and…

  15. KNOWLEDGE AND APPLICATIONS OF THE MOTHERS ABOUT THE TOY SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Arıkan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out descriptively with the aim of determining the knowledge and applications of the mothers about toy selection.5700mothers living Yeniehir Health Center and nearby it and having 1-6 year old children constitued the study contend.The sampling was determined as 360 with a formule used in case of the investigation of frequency of being seen in the study content.The datawere collected by means of questionnaria form with questions including the criteria which the mothers took into consideration when buying thetoys,and formed by taking over interested literature and socio-demographic features. In the evaluation, percentage, variance analysis and chisquarewere used.It was found out that 81.9 % of the mother, while buying the toys ,took into consideration the children’s abilities , and that 86..7 % ofthem considered mental development, and that 65.6 % of them considered the improvement of imagination-world.It was detected that 63.6 %of the mothers wanted to choose the toys which don’t support the violence, and 93.1 % desired that they become safe,and that 68.9 % of themothers wanted the toys to become easily cleanable, and that 82.2 % the mothers desired that the toys become suitable for their sex, and that83.1 % of them considered that the toys became suitable for their age,and that 43.3 % of the mothers for its price, and 67.2 % of them forthe beauty, and that 85.6 % of them considered that their children should select their own toys.In conclusion, it was determined that themothers gave less importance some criteria about toy selection.We can suggest that true knowledge of the nurses about toy selection should beemphasized, and education role of the nurses should be used in order to corrected mis-knowledge and application

  16. Is Witsenhausen's counterexample a relevant toy?

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Pulkit

    2010-01-01

    This paper answers a question raised by Doyle on the relevance of the Witsenhausen counterexample as a toy decentralized control problem. The question has two sides, the first of which focuses on the lack of an external channel in the counterexample. Using existing results, we argue that the core difficulty in the counterexample is retained even in the presence of such a channel. The second side questions the LQG formulation of the counterexample. We consider alternative formulations and show that the understanding developed for the LQG case guides the investigation for these other cases as well. Specifically, we consider 1) a variation on the original counterexample with general, but bounded, noise distributions, and 2) an adversarial extension with bounded disturbance and quadratic costs. For each of these formulations, we show that quantization-based nonlinear strategies outperform linear strategies by an arbitrarily large factor. Further, these nonlinear strategies also perform within a constant factor of...

  17. The physics of articulated toys - a jumping and rotating kangaroo

    CERN Document Server

    Güémez, J

    2014-01-01

    We describe the physics of an articulated toy with an internal source of energy provided by a spiral spring. The toy is a funny low cost kangaroo which jumps and rotates. The study consists of a mechanical and a thermodynamical analysis which makes use of the Newton and center of mass equations, the rotational equations and the first law of thermodynamics. This amazing toy provides a nice demonstrative example how new physics insights can be brought about when links with thermodynamics are established in the study of mechanical systems.

  18. Migration limits for children's toys are nothing to play with.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms Scientific Committee Scher; Krätke, Renate; Beausoleil, Claire; Carroquino, Maria José; Duarte-Davidson, Raquel; Fernandes, Teresa; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-10-01

    The European Commission and its independent Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks (SCHER) published their final Opinion on estimates of the amount of toy materials ingested by children. The SCHER was asked to review available data on the ingestion of the following three types of toy material by children, and evaluate whether the ingestion amounts which formed the basis for the migration limits of 19 elements in the Toy Safety Directive are still appropriate or whether they should be changed. In the final Opinion the SCHER considers the ingestion amounts mentioned above to be appropriate, and that these ingestion amounts should remain classified as daily amounts rather than weekly.

  19. Asbestos in toys: an exemplary case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Stefano; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Raffaell, Corrado; Veraldi, Angela

    2016-01-01

    DAS was an artificial clay which, once molded, hardened at room temperature. It was largely used as a toy between 1963 and 1975 in Italy, Netherlands, Germany, UK and Norway. This case report describes and reports the presence of asbestos in DAS. We investigated the presence of asbestos in DAS using light and electron microscopy on samples of the original material. We searched administrative documents at the State Archive of Turin and conducted interviews with past employees on annual production, suppliers, and purchasers. The analytical tests confirmed the presence of asbestos fibers in DAS: about 30% of its composition. The documents found at the State Archive confirmed the annual purchase of hundreds tons of raw asbestos from the Amiantifera di Balangero, the Italian asbestos mine. DAS was found to be used also within craftsmanship. Asbestos fibers in DAS may have caused exposure to production workers and a variety of users, including artists, teachers, and children. Over 13 years, about 55 million packs of DAS were produced and sold. The number of users is difficult to estimate but may have been in the order of millions. In Italy, a specific question on the use of DAS has been included in a routinely used mesothelioma questionnaire. As DAS was exported to other countries, our findings suggest that mesothelioma patients should be asked about their past use of DAS, in particular individuals not reporting a clear past asbestos exposure. Additionally, this discovery shows the incompleteness of records on asbestos uses and suggests to test items, including toys, imported from countries where asbestos is not forbidden.

  20. Should Educators Be "Wrapping School Playgrounds in Cotton Wool" to Encourage Physical Activity? Exploring Primary and Secondary Students' Voices from the School Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Brendon P.; Telford, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity in school playgrounds has changed considerably over recent decades to reflect a climate of "surplus safety". A growing culture of surplus safety can be attributed to a desire of parents and teachers responsible for children to protect school students from danger. The aim of this research was to examine students'…

  1. Modern Toys: Risks and Dangers (Materials from the Workshop at the MSUPE Center for Play and Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova E.O.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the seminar which is based on the “harmful” toys. This seminar was organized in the Centre of games and toys in MSUPE. The theme of the seminar is linked with the requirements of the public and parental controls to restrict the production and sale of these toys which can harm the mental health and the development of children. The discussion was attended by the leading child psychiatrists, psychotherapists and psychologists. They discussed the issues that were associated with the risks and hazards from the toys, and the possibility of studying the potential harmful effects of toys. All participants of this discussion were agree with this fact, that a toy itself cannot harm a mental health, while at the same time, a toy (along with cartoons, multimedia, games and so on. takes part in the formation of certain needs and views of children. This workshop demonstrated the complexity of the problem and the necessity for its further development.

  2. Stepping Forward-Guangzhou New Year Rock Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    FOR some 20,000 rock fans, the transition from 2003 to 2004 encompassed music. Evening of Time, China’s first rock festival of the new year, catered to the country’s new youth.Held in Guangzhou from December 31st, 2003 to January 1st, 2004, this 10-hour music festival featured Cui Jian, the father of Chinese rock, Wang Lei, the guru of south China’s rock scene, and 10 or more other bands including Zuoxiao Zuzhou, Muma, the Painful Faith, the Second Hand Roses and the Sound Toy.

  3. [Use of toys in hospitals: what are Brazilian nurses studying?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Tânia Maria Coelho; Shimo, Antonieta Keiko Kakuda

    2008-06-01

    Care for the emotional needs of hospitalized children has had the attention of nursing professionals in Brazil, although not as a general rule. The chance to play is known as a relief from suffering, especially in childhood, which justifies the importance of this theme. This study had the objective of analyzing Brazilian nurses' academic production on the use of toys during the attention to children in hospitals in strictu sensu Graduate programs. Data were taken from Portal CAPES, CEPEn, IBICT and papers' references. Of the 15 theses/dissertations found in the literature only 14 are available; they were analyzed and comprise the corpus of this study. It was found that toys have been used mostly in pre and postsurgery, by Nursing professors, with preschool and school age children, parents and nurses. All of the works reinforce the positive results of toys' use. We recommend to pediatric nurses the use of toys in all institutions where children need care.

  4. Supply Chain Management Practices in Toy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft; Johansen, John

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - Innovative products usually experience highly unpredictable and variable demand. This is especially valid for the volatile and seasonal toy industry, which produces high obsolete inventory, lost sales and markdown. In such a volatile industry, what supply chain management (SCM) practices...... (traditional mass-production or push-models). These low-responsive practices in the toy supply chain are not caused only by slow knowledge diffusion. SCM know-how is not yet capable of managing such levels of volatility and seasonality. Therefore, explanations of these theoretical gaps and what new theories...... are applicable and effective? This study seeks to explore SCM practices, and identify practical and theoretical gaps in toy supply chains. Design/methodology/approach - This article includes a longitudinal and in-depth case study during the past year in an international toy manufacturer, which includes...

  5. Exploring "Extreme" Physics with an Inexpensive Plastic Toy Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, David R.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity that can be performed with an inexpensive plastic toy popper. The activity builds skill at analysing motion and results in the calculation of a surprisingly extreme acceleration. (Contains 1 figure.)

  6. Hazardous organic chemicals in rubber recycled tire playgrounds and pavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llompart, Maria; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Pablo Lamas, J; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Roca, Enrique; Dagnac, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the presence of hazardous organic chemicals in surfaces containing recycled rubber tires is investigated. Direct material analyses using solvent extraction, as well as SPME analysis of the vapour phase above the sample, were carried out. Twenty-one rubber mulch samples were collected from nine different playgrounds. In addition, seven commercial samples of recycled rubber pavers were acquired in a local store of a multinational company. All samples were extracted by ultrasound energy, followed by analysis of the extract by GC-MS. The analysis confirmed the presence of a large number of hazardous substances including PAHs, phthalates, antioxidants (e.g. BHT, phenols), benzothiazole and derivatives, among other chemicals. The study evidences the high content of toxic chemicals in these recycled materials. The concentration of PAHs in the commercial pavers was extremely high, reaching values up to 1%. In addition, SPME studies of the vapour phase above the samples confirm the volatilisation of many of those organic compounds. Uses of recycled rubber tires, especially those targeting play areas and other facilities for children, should be a matter of regulatory concern.

  7. Measurement of the effect of playground surface materials on hand impact forces during upper limb fall arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woochol J; Kaur, Harjinder; Robinovitch, Stephen N

    2014-04-01

    Distal radius fractures are common on playgrounds. Yet current guidelines for the selection of playground surface materials are based only on protection against fall-related head injuries. We conducted "torso release" experiments to determine how common playground surface materials affect impact force applied to the hand during upper limb fall arrests. Trials were acquired for falls onto a rigid surface, and onto five common playground surface materials: engineered wood fiber, gravel, mulch, rubber tile, and sand. Measures were acquired for arm angles of 20 and 40 degrees from the vertical. Playground surface materials influenced the peak resultant and vertical force (Pforce (P=.159). When compared with the rigid condition, peak resultant force was reduced 17% by sand (from 1039 to 864 N), 16% by gravel, 7% by mulch, 5% by engineered wood fiber, and 2% by rubber tile. The best performing surface provided only a 17% reduction in peak resultant force. These results help to explain the lack of convincing evidence from clinical studies on the effectiveness of playground surface materials in preventing distal radius fractures during playground falls, and highlight the need to develop playground surface materials that provide improved protection against these injuries.

  8. How Can We Provide Safe Playgrounds? = Como podemos proveer lugares con juegos infantiles que no sean peligrosos para los ninos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACCESS ERIC, Rockville, MD.

    Outdoor playgrounds can be exciting places where children explore their environment and develop motor and social skills; however, they can also pose serious safety hazards. With the exception of California, no mandatory state or federal standards currently exist regarding manufacture or installation of playground equipment or surfaces. The…

  9. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children’s physical activity level : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; Scholten, Anne-Marie; Vries, S.I. (Sanne) de

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children’s health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children’s health in

  10. Physics of Toys: The Joy of Asking Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Beverley

    2014-03-01

    Children are natural scientists. They ask questions, they observe, they try things to see what happens. Often school-based science does little to nurture the young scientist and, in fact, may do just the opposite with thick textbooks, fact heavy lessons, and too many equations. The exploration of common toys produces deep learning by emphasizing concepts and connections before formal definitions and mathematics. It also connects the classroom to the familiar world outside of school and gets students writing and talking about physics ideas. At the university level, investigating what toys do and how they do it can be a challenging application of undergraduate physics from the introductory course up through senior mechanics. Toys provide an ideal system for the kind of open-ended inquiry that introduces students to what scientists really do. They can pose their own questions, explore the behavior of the system sufficiently to create a hypothesis, use their theoretical knowledge to make a simplified model of the system and predict an outcome, design an experiment, discover that the real world is messy, think about what they haven't taken into account with their simple model and try to improve it. I have spent close to 30 years thinking about how to use toys to enhance physics education from 4th grade through college. In the process I have collected hundreds of toys the majority of which relate to mechanics, but also to sound, light, electricity and magnetism. I will discuss the pedagogical reasons for using toys in physics education and the many different ways to use them from demonstrations to laboratory experiments to discussion starters as well as how it is possible to use the same toy with many different age levels by approaching the analysis differently. I will share a number of my favorite toys, but focus particularly on those related to energy concepts.

  11. Children's exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through mouthing toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionas, Alin C; Ulevicus, Jocelyn; Gómez, Ana Ballesteros; Brandsma, Sicco H; Leonards, Pim E G; van de Bor, Margot; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have previously been detected in children toys, yet the risk of child exposure to these chemicals through the mouthing of toys or other items is still unknown. We aimed to expand on the current knowledge by investigating the impact of infants' mouthing activities on exposure to PBDEs present in toys. This was established by a leaching model for determining the amount PBDEs that can leach from toys into saliva in simulated conditions. The PBDE migration rate was at its highest for the 15 min low-exposure scenario incubations (198 pg/cm(2) × min) with the ERM EC-591 certified reference material (CRM) (0.17% w/w PBDEs). The leaching process was congener-dependent, since the percentage of lower brominated PBDE congeners that leached out was up to 4.5 times higher than for the heavier PBDEs. To study the scenario in which a child would mouth on a toy flame retarded with BDE 209 alone, a plastic item containing 7% BDE 209 (w/w) was also tested. The BDE 209 amounts leached out in only 15 min were higher than the amounts leached from the CRM after the 16 h incubation. For the Belgian population, the exposure scenario from mouthing on toys containing PBDEs in amounts similar to the REACH threshold was found to be lower than the exposure from mother's milk, but higher than the exposure through diet or even dust.

  12. Playful interaction: occupational therapy for all children on the school playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Anita C; Luckett, Tim; Naughton, Geraldine A; Tranter, Paul J; Wyver, Shirley R; Ragen, Jo; Singleton, Emma; Spies, Greta

    2008-01-01

    We examined the impact of an intervention on the playfulness of 5- to 7-year-old children who are developing typically. Materials that had no defined purpose were placed on a school playground for 11 weeks. The Test of Playfulness (ToP) was used to compare videotaped play segments pre- and postintervention. Teachers who did playground duty were interviewed regarding changes in play. ToP data were analyzed using a Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Interview data were analyzed for themes. ToP scores were significantly higher after intervention (Z= -1.94; p = .025, one-tailed; Cohen's d = 0.55). Teachers reported that children were more social, creative, and resilient when the materials were on the playground. Children who were creative, rather than very physically capable, became leaders in activity. Our results revealed a potential role for occupational therapists with typically developing children in schools. This finding has clear implications for children with disability.

  13. Tautochrone and Brachistochrone Shape Solutions for Rocking Rigid Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Glaschke, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Rocking rigid bodies appear in several shapes in everyday life: As furniture like rocking chairs and rocking cradles or as toys like rocking horses or tilting dolls. The familiar rocking motion of these objects, a non-linear combination of a rigid rotation and a translation of the center of mass, gives rise to a number of interesting dynamical properties. However, their study has received little attention in the literature. This work presents a comprehensive introduction to the dynamics of rocking rigid bodies, including a concise derivation of the equations of motion as well as a general inversion procedure to construct rocking rigid body shapes with specified dynamical properties. Moreover, two novel rigid body shapes are derived - the tautochrone shape and the brachistochrone shape - which represent an intriguing generalization of the well-know tautochrone and brachistochrone curves. In particular, tautochrone shapes offer an alternative construction of a tautochrone pendulum, in addition to Huygens' cyclo...

  14. Pedobacter humi sp. nov., isolated from a playground soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huan; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2016-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain THG S15-2T, was isolated from playground soil in Sindorim-dong, Guro-gu, Seoul, South Korea. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain THG S15-2T was found to be related most closely to Pedobacter ginsengisoli Gsoil 104T (97.5 % similarity), Pedobacter panaciterrae Gsoil 042T (97.4 %), Pedobacter seoulensis THG-G12T (97.1 %) and Pedobacter caeni LMG 22862T (97.1 %). The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG S15-2T and its phylogenetically closest neighbours was below 30.0 %. The only isoprenoid quinone detected in strain THG S15-2T was menaquinone-7. The DNA G+C content was 45.9 mol%. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The major component in the polyamine pattern was sym-homospermidine. The major fatty acids were identified as summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c), iso-C15:0 and C16:0. These data supported the affiliation of strain THG S15-2T to the genus Pedobacter. Strain THG S15-2T was distinguished from related Pedobacter species by physiological and biochemical tests. Therefore, strain THG S15-2T represents a novel species, for which the name Pedobacter humi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG S15-2T (= KCTC 42735T = CCTCC AB 2015293T).

  15. Using video modeling for generalizing toy play in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Claire R; Arco, Lucius

    2007-09-01

    The present study examined effects of video modeling on generalized independent toy play of two boys with autism. Appropriate and repetitive verbal and motor play were measured, and intermeasure relationships were examined. Two single-participant experiments with multiple baselines and withdrawals across toy play were used. One boy was presented with three physically unrelated toys, whereas the other was presented with three related toys. Video modeling produced increases in appropriate play and decreases in repetitive play, but generalized play was observed only with the related toys. Generalization may have resulted from variables including the toys' common physical characteristics and natural reinforcing properties and the increased correspondence between verbal and motor play.

  16. Collecting Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙铮

    2007-01-01

    My hobby is collecting rocks.It is very special,isn’t it?I began to collect rocks about four years ago.I usually go hiking in the mountains,or near the river to look for rocks.When I find a rock,I pick it up and clean it with the brush and water.Then I put it into my bag.Most of the rocks I have collected are quartzite~*.They are really

  17. A Toy Story: Association between Young Children’s Knowledge of Fast Food Toy Premiums and their Fast Food Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R.; Drake, Keith M.; Titus, Linda J.; Cleveland, Lauren P.; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2015-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids’ meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children’s knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013–March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids’ meals (McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N=583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald’s. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald’s released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI=1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald’s if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children’s toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children’s knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald’s, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys. PMID:26471803

  18. PLAYgrounds: Effect of a PE playground program in primary schools on PA levels during recess in 6 to 12 year old children. Design of a prospective controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhagen Evert ALM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relative number of children meeting the minimal required dose of daily physical activity remains execrably low. It has been estimated that in 2015 one out of five children will be overweight. Therefore, low levels of physical activity during early childhood may compromise the current and future health and well-being of the population, and promoting physical activity in younger children is a major public health priority. This study is to gain insight into effects of a Physical Education based playground program on the PA levels during recess in primary school children aged 6-12. Methods/design The effectiveness of the intervention program will be evaluated using a prospective controlled trial design in which schools will be matched, with a follow-up of one school year. The research population will consist of 6-12 year old primary school children. The intervention program will be aimed at improving physical activity levels and will consist of a multi-component alteration of the schools' playground. In addition, playground usage will be increased through altered time management of recess times, as well as a modification of the Physical Education content. Discussion The effects of the intervention on physical activity levels during recess (primary outcome measure, overall daily physical activity and changes in physical fitness (secondary outcome measures will be assessed. Results of this study could possibly lead to changes in the current playground system of primary schools and provide structured health promotion for future public health. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR2386

  19. PLAYgrounds: Effect of a PE playground program in primary schools on PA levels during recess in 6 to 12 year old children. Design of a prospective controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The relative number of children meeting the minimal required dose of daily physical activity remains execrably low. It has been estimated that in 2015 one out of five children will be overweight. Therefore, low levels of physical activity during early childhood may compromise the current and future health and well-being of the population, and promoting physical activity in younger children is a major public health priority. This study is to gain insight into effects of a Physical Education based playground program on the PA levels during recess in primary school children aged 6-12. Methods/design The effectiveness of the intervention program will be evaluated using a prospective controlled trial design in which schools will be matched, with a follow-up of one school year. The research population will consist of 6-12 year old primary school children. The intervention program will be aimed at improving physical activity levels and will consist of a multi-component alteration of the schools' playground. In addition, playground usage will be increased through altered time management of recess times, as well as a modification of the Physical Education content. Discussion The effects of the intervention on physical activity levels during recess (primary outcome measure), overall daily physical activity and changes in physical fitness (secondary outcome measures) will be assessed. Results of this study could possibly lead to changes in the current playground system of primary schools and provide structured health promotion for future public health. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2386 PMID:21548998

  20. Sex differences in rhesus monkey toy preferences parallel those of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Janice M; Siebert, Erin R; Wallen, Kim

    2008-08-01

    Sex differences in toy preferences in children are marked, with boys expressing stronger and more rigid toy preferences than girls, whose preferences are more flexible. Socialization processes, parents, or peers encouraging play with gender-specific toys are thought to be the primary force shaping sex differences in toy preference. A contrast in view is that toy preferences reflect biologically-determined preferences for specific activities facilitated by specific toys. Sex differences in juvenile activities, such as rough-and-tumble play, peer preferences, and infant interest, share similarities in humans and monkeys. Thus if activity preferences shape toy preferences, male and female monkeys may show toy preferences similar to those seen in boys and girls. We compared the interactions of 34 rhesus monkeys, living within a 135 monkey troop, with human wheeled toys and plush toys. Male monkeys, like boys, showed consistent and strong preferences for wheeled toys, while female monkeys, like girls, showed greater variability in preferences. Thus, the magnitude of preference for wheeled over plush toys differed significantly between males and females. The similarities to human findings demonstrate that such preferences can develop without explicit gendered socialization. We offer the hypothesis that toy preferences reflect hormonally influenced behavioral and cognitive biases which are sculpted by social processes into the sex differences seen in monkeys and humans.

  1. Quantification of toy sword kinematics with male pediatric volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    While extensive research in toy safety has been performed, data is unavailable with regard to the kinematics of toy swords. To improve upon design criteria, knowledge of a child’s physical capacity is essential. The purpose of this study was to quantify the linear and angular velocities generated by children swinging toy swords. A total of 36 male subjects, ages 4-14 years old, each participated in one trial. Subjects were instructed to swing a toy sword as fast and hard as possible for ~10 seconds. A Vicon motion analysis system was used to capture subject and sword kinematics. Peak linear and angular sword velocities were calculated. A strong correlation was identified between age and velocity. The 8-14 year old males were not significantly different. The 4 year old males generated significantly lower velocities than the 8-14 year old males. The 6 year old males produced significantly lower velocities than the 10- 14 year old males. It was concluded that age had a significant effect on the linear and angular velocities generated by children. The trends observed within this study likely result from typical pediatric and adolescent development. By accounting for the physical capabilities of a specific population, toys can be designed with decreased inherent risks of injury.

  2. Is Recess an Achievement Context? An Application of Expectancy-Value Theory to Playground Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Dunn, Janice Causgrove; Watkinson, E. Jane

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the application of an expectancy-value model to children's activity choices on the playground at recess. The purpose was to test the prediction that expectancies for success and subjective task values are related to decisions to engage in specific recess activities such as climbing, playing soccer, or skipping rope.…

  3. Automatic behavior analysis in tag games: From traditional spaces to interactive playgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, Alejandro; Poppe, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    Tag is a popular children’s playground game. It revolves around taggers that chase and then tag runners, upon which their roles switch. There are many variations of the game that aim to keep children engaged by presenting them with challenges and different types of gameplay. We argue that the introd

  4. Automatic behavior analysis in tag games: from traditional spaces to interactive playgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, Alejandro; Poppe, Ronald; Martin, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Tag is a popular children’s playground game. It revolves around taggers that chase and then tag runners, upon which their roles switch. There are many variations of the game that aim to keep children engaged by presenting them with challenges and different types of gameplay. We argue that the introd

  5. The Playground in the Classroom - Fractions and Robot Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver

    2009-01-01

    What happens when the digital playground is brought into the class room and is it possible to transform it into a valuable educational tool? The paper describes the changing process from climbing rack to indoor educational tool. The climbing rack became a math tool and in the area of fraction cal...

  6. Assessment and Learning of Qualitative Physics in Newton's Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Valerie J.; Ventura, Matthew; Kim, Yoon Jeon

    2013-01-01

    Digital games are very popular in modern culture. The authors are examining ways to leverage these engaging environments to assess and support student competencies. The authors examine gameplay and learning using a physics game they developed called Newton's Playground. The sample consisted of 167 eighth- and ninth-grade students who played…

  7. Aggressive Forms and Functions on School Playgrounds: Profile Variations in Interaction Styles, Bystander Actions, and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Karin S.; Newman, Jodi Burrus; Onyewuenyi, Adaurennaya C.

    2014-01-01

    Coders used real-time focal-child sampling methods to observe the playground behavior and victimization experiences of 600 third to sixth grade youth. Person-centered analyses yielded three profiles that specified aggressive function (reactive, proactive) and form (direct, indirect), and conformed to social-information-processing functional…

  8. The Playground Game: Inquiry‐Based Learning About Research Methods and Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim; Slootmaker, Aad; Kurvers, Hub

    2014-01-01

    The Playground Game is a web-based game that was developed for teaching research methods and statistics to nursing and social sciences students in higher education and vocational training. The complexity and abstract nature of research methods and statistics poses many challenges for students. The P

  9. Aggressive Forms and Functions on School Playgrounds: Profile Variations in Interaction Styles, Bystander Actions, and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Karin S.; Newman, Jodi Burrus; Onyewuenyi, Adaurennaya C.

    2014-01-01

    Coders used real-time focal-child sampling methods to observe the playground behavior and victimization experiences of 600 third to sixth grade youth. Person-centered analyses yielded three profiles that specified aggressive function (reactive, proactive) and form (direct, indirect), and conformed to social-information-processing functional…

  10. School playgrounds and physical activity policies as predictors of school and home time activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Sheila M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work has suggested that the number of permanent play facilities in school playgrounds and school-based policies on physical activity can influence physical activity in children. However, few comparable studies have used objective measures of physical activity or have had little adjustment for multiple confounders. Methods Physical activity was measured by accelerometry over 5 recess periods and 3 full school days in 441 children from 16 primary schools in Dunedin, New Zealand. The number of permanent play facilities (swing, fort, slide, obstacle course, climbing wall etc in each school playground was counted on three occasions by three researchers following a standardized protocol. Information on school policies pertaining to physical activity and participation in organized sport was collected by questionnaire. Results Measurement of school playgrounds proved to be reliable (ICC 0.89 and consistent over time. Boys were significantly more active than girls (P Conclusion The number of permanent play facilities in school playgrounds is associated with higher physical activity in children, whereas no relationship was observed for school policies relating to physical activity. Increasing the number of permanent play facilities may offer a cost-effective long-term approach to increasing activity levels in children.

  11. The Playground in the Classroom - Fractions and Robot Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver

    2009-01-01

    What happens when the digital playground is brought into the class room and is it possible to transform it into a valuable educational tool? The paper describes the changing process from climbing rack to indoor educational tool. The climbing rack became a math tool and in the area of fraction...

  12. Creative and Playful Learning on Technology-Enriched Playgrounds: An International Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Justus J.; Kangas, Marjaana; Ruokamo, Heli; Hyvönen, Pirkko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the degree that creative and playful learning (CPL) in a technology-enriched playground influences academic achievement of students and what factors are responsible for successes. The participants were 276 students from 12 elementary classrooms in the Netherlands and Finland. The…

  13. Segurança com brinquedos de parques infantis: uma introdução ao problema Seguridad con juegos de parques infantiles: una introducción al problema Playground safety: an introduction to the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesus C. S. Harada

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A finalidade deste estudo é abordar temática pouco explorada na literatura nacional relativa à prevenção de acidentes relacionados ao uso de brinquedos de parques infantis. Nos Estados Unidos da América, estima-se que, anualmente, ocorrem mais de 200.000 acidentes com crianças, em parques infantis. Além de discutir esse problema, apresentamos algumas recomendações gerais sobre segurança nesses locais e a reflexão da necessidade de alertar e educar a sociedade sobre a importância da prevenção.El objetivo de este estudio es abordar un tema poco explotado en la literatura nacional acerca de la prevención de accidentes relacionados con el uso de juegos en parques infantiles. En los Estados Unidos de Norte América se estima que anualmente ocurren más de 200.000 accidentes con niños en parques infantiles. Además de discutir este problema, presentamos algunas recomendaciones generales sobre la seguridad en estos locales y la necesidad de alertar y educar a la sociedad sobre la importancia de la prevención.This study aims to approach the theme of accident prevention in relation to the use of playground toys, which is little explored in national literature. It is estimated that, annually, more than 200,000 accidents with children happen in playgrounds in the United States of America. Besides discussing this problem, we present some general recommendations about safety in these places and a reflection on the need to alert and educate society about the importance of prevention.

  14. Market Analysis, Opportunity Recognition and Strategy Diagnosis in Toy Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2017-01-01

    According to many market researches and industrial reports Iran is one of the biggest toy markets in the Middle East and North Africa region. The Iranian toy market has been identified as a niche market with lots of unexploited opportunities. Nonetheless, the Iranian toy industry has shown...... inefficiency in exploiting those opportunities and to meet market demands. This exploratory research aims at understanding the reasons of such poor performance. The research made use of two phases of survey with samples from customers, influencers and in-depth interview with industry practitioners. The survey...... identified and prioritized existing opportunities that satisfy the purchasers’ demands. The interview analysis revealed the key point that the firms are highly focused on manufacturing, whereas the industry has a substantial competitive advantage in design and marketing. The major reasons...

  15. The Depinning Transition in Presence of Disorder: A Toy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, Bernard; Retaux, Martin

    2014-07-01

    We introduce a toy model, which represents a simplified version of the problem of the depinning transition in the limit of strong disorder. This toy model can be formulated as a simple renormalization transformation for the probability distribution of a single real variable. For this toy model, the critical line is known exactly in one particular case and it can be calculated perturbatively in the general case. One can also show that, at the transition, there is no fixed distribution accessible by renormalization which corresponds to a disordered fixed point. Instead, both our numerical and analytic approaches indicate a transition of infinite order (of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless type). We give numerical evidence that this infinite order transition persists for the problem of the depinning transition with disorder on the hierarchical lattice.

  16. Magic, science and masculinity: marketing toy chemistry sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gailani, Salim

    2009-12-01

    At least since the late nineteenth century, toy chemistry sets have featured in standard scripts of the achievement of eminence in science, and they remain important in constructions of scientific identity. Using a selection of these toys manufactured in Britain and the United States, and with particular reference to the two dominant American brands, Gilbert and Chemcraft, this paper suggests that early twentieth-century chemistry sets were rooted in overlapping Victorian traditions of entertainment magic and scientific recreations. As chemistry set marketing copy gradually reoriented towards emphasising scientific modernity, citizenship, discipline and educational value, pre-twentieth-century traditions were subsumed within domestic-and specifically masculine-tropes. These developments in branding strategies point to transformations in both users' engagement with their chemistry sets and the role of scientific toys in domestic play. The chemistry set serves here as a useful tool for measuring cultural change and lay engagement with chemistry.

  17. Inhalation exposure of children to fragrances present in scented toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuck, I; Hutzler, C; Jann, O; Luch, A

    2011-12-01

    When utilized in the perfuming of children's toys, fragrances capable of inducing contact allergy in human skin may also become bioavailable to children via the inhalation route. The aim of this study was to determine the area-specific emission rates of 24 fragrances from a plasticized PVC reference material that was meant to mimic a real plastic toy. This material was introduced into an emission chamber for 28 days at handling conditions or at worst-case conditions. As a result, fragrances can be separated into three categories according to their emission rates ranging from 0.0041 to 16.2 mg/m² × h, i.e., highly volatile, semivolatile, and low-volatile compounds. Compounds of the first and second categories were monitored with decreasing emission rates. Substances of the third category were detected with increasing emission rates over time. Further, higher temperatures led to higher emission rates. The emission concentration of fragrances from four real scented toys varied between 1.10 and 107 μg/m³ at day 1 in the test chamber. Therefore, short-term inhalation exposure to fragrances originating from toys was in the range of 0.53-2700 ng/kg BW/d for the children of age 1 and older. Long-term exposure to these fragrances was calculated in the range of 2.2-220 ng/kg BW/d. Besides household products and cosmetics, fragrances can be found in toys for children. Some fragrances are known contact allergens in the skin, but there is a lack of information on their effects in the human respiratory tract. Here, we analyzed and categorized fragrances present in a plasticized PVC reference material according to their emission profiles and volatility. We also demonstrate that volatile fragrances are being emitted from real toys and thus may get inhaled under consumer conditions to different extents. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Eye injury risk associated with remote control toy helicopter blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonse, Vanessa D; Kemper, Andrew R; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2012-01-01

    Eye injuries can be caused by a variety of consumer products and toys. Recently, indoor remote controlled (RC) toy helicopters have become very popular. The purpose of this study is to quantify eye injury risk associated with five commercially available RC toy helicopter blades. An experimental matrix of 25 tests was developed to test five different RC toy helicopter blades at full battery power on six postmortem human eyes. A pressure sensor inserted through the optic nerve measured intraocular pressure. Corneal abrasion was assessed post-impact using fluorescein dye. Intraocular pressure was correlated to injury risk for hyphema, lens damage, retinal damage, and globe rupture using published risk functions. All tests resulted in corneal abrasions; however, no other injuries were observed. The 25 tests produced an increase intraocular pressure between 15.2 kPa and 99.3 kPa (114.3 mmHg and 744.7 mmHg). Calculated blade velocities ranged between 16.0 m/s and 25.4 m/s. Injury risk for hyphema was a maximum of 0.2%. Injury risk for lens damage, retinal damage, and globe rupture was 0.0% for all tests. Blade design parameters such as length and mass did not affect the risk of eye injury. This is the first study to quantify the risk of eye injury from RC toy helicopter blades. While corneal abrasions were observed, more serious eye injuries were neither observed nor predicted to have occurred. Results from this study are critical for establishing safe design thresholds for RC toy helicopter blades so that more serious injuries can be prevented.

  19. Rock Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国平

    2000-01-01

    Around the world young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. Forbes Magazine reports that at least fifty rock stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year.

  20. KREEP Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹永廖; 徐琳; 欧阳自远

    2004-01-01

    KREEP rocks with high contents of K, REE and P were first recognized in Apollo-12 samples, and it was confirmed later that there were KREEP rock fragments in all of the Apollo samples, particularly in Apollo-12 and-14 samples. The KREEP rocks distributed on the lunar surface are the very important objects of study on the evolution of the moon, as well as to evaluate the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks. Based on previous studies and lunar exploration data, the authors analyzed the chemical and mineral characteristics of KREEP rocks, the abundance of Th on the lunar surface materials, the correlation between Th and REE of KREEP rocks in abundance, studied the distribution regions of KREEP rocks on the lunar surface, and further evaluated the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks.

  1. A Toy Model for Advection Dominated Accretion Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪定雄; 雷卫华; 肖看

    2003-01-01

    A toy disc model with advection dominated accretion on to a black hole is presented. The advection dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) are assumed to exist in the inner thick disc with rin < r < rout, and the disc is assumed to be geometrically thin for r > rout. Compared with Paczynski's toy model the thick disc is not limited to be 100% advective. It turns out that the inner radius rin depends not only on the outer radius rout but also on the ADAF parameters f and ε. The effects of the inner thick disc on the radiation efficiency and the temperature profile of the outer thin disc are discussed in details.

  2. Play Therapy Utilizing the Sony EyeToy®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony; Petersson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    An international collaborative explorative pilot study is detailed between hospitals in Denmark and Sweden involving rehabilitation medical staff and children where the affordable, popular and commercially available Sony Playstation 2 EyeToy® is used to investigate our goal in enquiring to the po......An international collaborative explorative pilot study is detailed between hospitals in Denmark and Sweden involving rehabilitation medical staff and children where the affordable, popular and commercially available Sony Playstation 2 EyeToy® is used to investigate our goal in enquiring...

  3. 25 CFR 309.21 - What are examples of dolls and toys that are Indian products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are examples of dolls and toys that are Indian... OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.21 What are examples of dolls and toys that are Indian products? Dolls, toys, and related items made by an Indian, including, but not limited to, no face...

  4. A study on the visual effect of toy in children life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Azarbouyeh Dinaky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at studying features and visual qualities of images in toys and toys packaging. This research is trying to find answers for toys and toys packaging processes from design to production, what should be considered by an illustrator and also collecting information for interested people and students in arrival to the labor market and recognizing the existing challenges. This research method was fundamental and theoretical and the most important research question was that, what is the first impression of images on the toys and packaging surfaces containing toys? And what are the most important features of images on the toys and toys packaging surfaces? The most important obtained results were that although the quick attraction of the purchaser is the most effective factor in images, it cannot be the first effect on toys and toys packaging surfaces. Features such as color, attractive design and revealing the inside containing of the packaging are the most important features of images in this packaging. Now we can say that images as visual part of the toys and toys packaging have the most important role in introducing the capabilities, function and the attractiveness of a production. Images especially for children who have a closer relationship with fiction world is more attractive than other visual elements and also despite of the visual attraction such as color coordination, adaptation of plan with packaging and etc.

  5. Toys--Medium for the Development of Decision Making and Creativity in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Judy; And Others

    Most of this early childhood unit on toys provides suggestions for toy-making activities in the areas of art, games, music, science, math, creative dramatics, language arts, social studies, cooking and bulletin boards. It also suggests resources (such as field trips and persons with special knowledge of toys). Special emphasis is placed on…

  6. Essential concepts in Toy Design Education: Aimlessness, Empathy and Play Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper aims at contributing to the professional development of toy design education programs. It draws from the practice of a children’s toy design course at Delft University of Technology. It identifies three major concepts that greatly influence toy quality and that students find difficult to u

  7. 78 FR 2281 - Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of... entitled Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof, DN 2930; the Commission is soliciting comments on any... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain robotic toys and...

  8. Development and suitability of in vitro digestion models in assessing bioaccessibility of lead from toy matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen AG; Twillert K van; Hofhuis MFA; Rompelberg CJM; Versantvoort CHM; SIR; ARO

    2003-01-01

    Children can be orally exposed to compounds by chewing, sucking and ingestion of toy (parts). Only the fraction of contaminant that is released from the toy can reach the blood stream (internal exposure) and can contribute to toxicity. In present risk assessment the release of contaminants from toy

  9. Early androgens, activity levels and toy choices of children in the second year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Saenz, Janet

    2012-09-01

    The hypothesis that stronger preferences for active play styles contribute to stronger preferences for male-typical toys was examined in 47 boys and 37 girls at 19-months of age using ambulatory monitoring technology (i.e., actigraphy) to measure activity levels during contact with male-typical, female-typical, and gender-neutral toys. Digit ratios and salivary testosterone levels were measured earlier in children at 3-4 months of age. There were no significant sex differences in digit ratios, salivary testosterone levels, or overall activity levels during toy play. In contrast, contact times showed large sex differences in infants' toy preferences. The within-sex comparisons showed that infant girls had significant preferences for female-typical toys over male-typical toys, whereas infant boys showed only a small preference for male-typical toys over female-typical toys. More male-typical digit ratios in early infancy predicted higher activity counts during toy play and less female-typical toy preferences in girls. However, in both sexes, activity levels were unrelated to toy preferences suggesting that factors other than activity level preferences contribute to the early emergence of gender-linked toy preferences.

  10. 77 FR 76005 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Requirements for Electrically Operated Toys and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Requirements for Electrically Operated Toys and... electrically operated toys and children's articles. DATES: Written comments on this request for extension of... approval of the collection of information required in the Requirements for Electrically Operated Toys...

  11. Librarian Manual for the Parent/Child Toy-Lending Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimnicht, Glen P.; And Others

    Intended for librarians, this manual provides a framework for operating a toy library and a training course which will teach parents how to use toys and games that help preschool children learn important skills and ideas, and which in turn will assist parents in understanding some basic things about how a child learns to think. Toys used in the…

  12. Essential concepts in Toy Design Education: Aimlessness, Empathy and Play Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper aims at contributing to the professional development of toy design education programs. It draws from the practice of a children’s toy design course at Delft University of Technology. It identifies three major concepts that greatly influence toy quality and that students find difficult to

  13. Digital Music Toys for Young Children: Parents' Review of the "Munchkin Mozart Magic™ Cube"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Hunt, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gather information about caregivers' views of the value of a digital music toy, its musical features, as well as their comments about children's responses to the toy. Instead of asking parents to provide their opinions about a broad category of interactive music toys, the authors selected one of the many toys…

  14. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  15. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  16. Rock Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  17. Brinquedos e materiais pedagógicos nas escolas infantis Toys and pedagogical materials at schools for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tizuko Morchida Kishimoto

    2001-07-01

    influence its users’ representations, determining in part the manner in which adults and children feel, think, and interact in this space, defining forms of socialization and appropriation of culture. The present work intended to diagnose, through data collection, interviews and observations, the conceptions underlying the choice and use of toys and pedagogical materials. The results indicate that child education in the school network investigated demonstrates conceptions of children with no autonomy and the acquisition of contents as the objective of child education. The classroom emerges as the workplace, and the playground as the ludic space. It is the model of basic education that prevails in the physical space, routine, selection of materials, and in the adult-child interaction. In accordance with the perspective of schooling, the most significant toys and pedagogical materials are the so-called educational materials, graphical, and communication materials for the classroom, and the physical education materials for the external space. Toys that stimulate symbolism and socialization, such as games of pretending, building, and socialization appear in insignificant percentage, pointing to the little value given to symbolic representation and to playing.

  18. Multi-technique quantitative analysis and socioeconomic considerations of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in children's toys and toy jewelry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Margot M; Finch, Lauren E; Cerel, Alisha S; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D; Leopold, Michael C

    2014-08-01

    A wide spectrum and large number of children's toys and toy jewelry items were purchased from both bargain and retail vendors and analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, and lead metal content using multiple analytical techniques, including flame and furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy as well as X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Particularly dangerous for young children, metal concentrations in toys/toy jewelry were assessed for compliance with current Consumer Safety Product Commission (CPSC) regulations (F963-11). A conservative metric involving multiple analytical techniques was used to categorize compliance: one technique confirmation of metal in excess of CPSC limits indicated a "suspect" item while confirmation on two different techniques warranted a non-compliant designation. Sample matrix-based standard addition provided additional confirmation of non-compliant and suspect products. Results suggest that origin of purchase, rather than cost, is a significant factor in the risk assessment of these materials with 57% of toys/toy jewelry items from bargain stores non-compliant or suspect compared to only 15% from retail outlets and 13% if only low cost items from the retail stores are compared. While jewelry was found to be the most problematic product (73% of non-compliant/suspect samples), lead (45%) and arsenic (76%) were the most dominant toxins found in non-compliant/suspect samples. Using the greater Richmond area as a model, the discrepancy between bargain and retail children's products, along with growing numbers of bargain stores in low-income and urban areas, exemplifies an emerging socioeconomic public health issue.

  19. Features and amenities of school playgrounds: A direct observation study of utilization and physical activity levels outside of school time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swayampakala Kamala

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant amount of research has examined whether park or playground availability is associated with physical activity. However, little research has examined whether specific features or amenities of parks or playgrounds, such as the number of unique types of playground equipment or the safety of the equipment is associated with utilization of the facility or physical activity levels while at the facility. There are no studies that use direct observation and a detailed park assessment to examine these associations. Methods Twenty urban schoolyards in the Midwest, ten of which were renovated, were included in this study. Using a detailed environmental assessment tool (i.e., Environmental Assessment of Public Recreation Spaces, information on a variety of playground attributes was collected. Using direct observation (i.e., System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth, the number of adults, girls and boys attending each schoolyard and their physical activity levels were recorded. Each schoolyard was observed ten times for 90 minutes each time outside of school hours. Clustered multivariable negative binomial regressions and linear regressions were completed to examine the association between playground attributes and utilization of the schoolyard and the proportion active on the playground, respectively. Effect modification by renovation status was also examined. Results At renovated schoolyards, the total number of play features was significantly associated with greater utilization in adults and girls; overall cleanliness was significantly associated with less utilization in girls and boys; and coverage/shade for resting features was significantly associated with greater utilization in adults and boys. At unrenovated schoolyards, overall safety was significantly associated with greater utilization in boys. No playground attribute was associated with the proportion active on the playground after adjusting for all

  20. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Tortella; Monika Haga; Håvard Loras; Hermundur Sigmundsson; Guido Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before a...

  1. Sex difference in choice of concealed or exposed refuge sites by preschool children viewing a model leopard in a playground simulation of antipredator behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Coss

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study of preschool children characterizes a semi-natural extension of experimental questions on how human ancestors evaded predation when encountering dangerous felids. In a pretend game on a playground, we presented full-size leopard and deer models to children (N = 39 in a repeatedmeasures experimental design. Prior to viewing the model presented 15-m away, each child was instructed by the experimenter to go where she or he would feel safe. The rationale for this study was based on the anthropological construct of “sexual dinichism,” positing that, during the Pliocene, smaller-bodied hominin females engaged in more arboreal behavior than larger-bodied males. Consistent with this construct, our previous simulation research using images of an African rock outcrop showed that, after viewing a lion, girls preferred a tree as refuge rather than a crevice or large boulder whereas boys did not differentiate these refuge sites. In this follow-up study, we predicted that, after viewing the model leopard, the preschool girls would differ from the boys by not choosing enclosed refuge sites analogous to the crevice. Analyses of a contingency table for the leopard model supported this hypothesis by yielding a significant interaction of sex and refuge location (p = .031, d = .76, the source of which was a reliably larger percentage of girls not choosing concealed refuge (p = .005, d = 2.3. The interaction of sex and refuge location for the model deer was not significant (p > .5. Our findings suggest that, in contrast to the deer, the girls selected exposed playground refuge sites rather than concealing ones to maintain visual contact with the leopard as a contingency for future action

  2. Monte Carlo Based Toy Model for Fission Process

    CERN Document Server

    Kurniadi, R; Viridi, S

    2014-01-01

    Fission yield has been calculated notoriously by two calculations approach, macroscopic approach and microscopic approach. This work will proposes another calculation approach which the nucleus is treated as a toy model. The toy model of fission yield is a preliminary method that use random number as a backbone of the calculation. Because of nucleus as a toy model hence the fission process does not represent real fission process in nature completely. Fission event is modeled by one random number. The number is assumed as width of distribution probability of nucleon position in compound nuclei when fission process is started. The toy model is formed by Gaussian distribution of random number that randomizes distance like between particle and central point. The scission process is started by smashing compound nucleus central point into two parts that are left central and right central points. These three points have different Gaussian distribution parameters such as mean ({\\mu}CN, {\\mu}L, {\\mu}R), and standard d...

  3. Sensorized toys for measuring manipulation capabilities of infants at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passetti, Giovanni; Cecchi, Francesca; Baldoli, Ilaria; Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Beani, Elena; Cioni, Giovanni; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Preterm infants, i.e. babies born after a gestation period shorter than 37 weeks, spend less time exploring objects. The quantitative measurement of grasping actions and forces in infants can give insights on their typical or atypical motor development. The aim of this work was to test a new tool, a kit of sensorized toys, to longitudinally measure, monitor and promote preterm infants manipulation capabilities with a purposive training in an ecological environment. This study presents preliminary analysis of grasping activity. Three preterm infants performed 4 weeks of daily training at home. Sensorized toys with embedded pressure sensors were used as part of the training to allow quantitative analysis of grasping (pressure and acceleration applied to toys while playing). Each toy was placed on the midline, while the infant was in supine position. Preliminary data show differences in the grasping parameters in relation to infants age and the performed daily training. Ongoing clinical trial will allow a full validation of this new tool for promoting object exploration in preterm infants.

  4. Teaching Physical Geography with Toys, Household Items, and Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, Laura; Pankratz, Mary Jo; Alberts, Heike

    2014-01-01

    While many college physical geography instructors already use a wide variety of creative teaching approaches in their classes, others have not yet been exposed to teaching with toys, household items, or food. The goal in this article is to present some ideas for teaching college-level physical geography (weather/climate and geomorphology) for…

  5. Exploring Theoretical Computer Science Using Paper Toys (for kids)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose the structure of an exploratory course in theoretical computer science intended for a broad range of students (and especially kids). The course is built on computational cards, a simple paper toy, in which playing cards are computational elements; computing machines can...

  6. Toy Talk: Simple Strategies to Create Richer Grammatical Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Walsh, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this initial feasibility study was to determine whether brief instruction in toy talk would change grammatical properties of adult language, specifically 3rd person lexical noun phrase (NP) subjects. Method: Eighteen college students participated in the study. The use of 3rd person subjects was examined before and after…

  7. Design and Development of a Smart Storytelling Toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nuri; Aydin, Cansu Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    Because computers generally make children passive listeners, new technological devices need to support children's storytelling activities. This article introduces the StoryTech, a smart toy that includes a virtual space comprised of computer-based graphics and characters as well as a real space that involves stuffed animals, background cards…

  8. A Toy Model of Colour Screening in the Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Dischler, J; Dischler, Johann; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2001-01-01

    In hadronic collisions, the mini-jet cross section is formally divergent in the limit pT -> 0. We argue that this divergence is tamed by some effective colour correlation length scale of the hadron. A toy model of the hadronic structure is introduced, that allows an estimate of the screening effects, and especially their energy dependence.

  9. Exploring Theoretical Computer Science Using Paper Toys (for kids)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose the structure of an exploratory course in theoretical computer science intended for a broad range of students (and especially kids). The course is built on computational cards, a simple paper toy, in which playing cards are computational elements; computing machines can...

  10. Tinker Toys, Crystallography, and the Introductory Mineralogy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseck, Peter R.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the use of Tinker Toys to construct three dimensional models of crystals useful in illustrating many concepts of crystallography. Space lattices representing all of the Bravais types can be constructed. Also discusses the use of appropriate models to demonstrate the various symmetry operations. Bibliography. (LC)

  11. The DigitalSeed: An Interactive Toy for Investigating Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Mauro; Gash, Hugh; McCloughlin, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Plant growth, development and reproduction are fundamental concepts in biology; yet there is a recorded lack of motivation for young people to grapple with these concepts. Here we present the "DigitalSeed" toy for making investigations around these concepts more accessible to children through hands-on digital interaction. This is part of an…

  12. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  13. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  14. Investigating Solids, Liquids, and Gases with TOYS: States of Matter and Changes of State. Activities for Middle School Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarquis, Jerry; Hogue, Lynn; Sarquis, Mickey; Woodward, Linda

    The project Teaching Science with TOYS promotes toys as an ideal mechanism for science instruction, because they are an everyday part of the students' world and carry a user-friendly message. TOYS Teacher Resource Modules are collections of "TOYS" activities grouped around a topic or theme with supporting science content and pedagogical…

  15. Play and Learn With Toys and Games; a Bibliography of Toys and Games that Teach Institutionalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedschlaw, Betty

    This bibliography lists toys and games designed to aid children and young adults to master skills in the following areas: (1) communication; (2) concepts; (3) life; (4) math readiness; (5) motor; (6) reading; (7) music therapy; (8) sensory; and (9) social studies. Ten to thirty entries are described in each category, and a list of publishers is…

  16. 'Earhart' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock informally named 'Earhart' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the pilot Amelia Earhart. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe fractures in Earhart could have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Rover team members do not have plans to investigate Earhart in detail because it is located across potentially hazardous sandy terrain. This image was taken on sol 219 (Sept. 4) by the rover's panoramic camera, using its 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  17. Effects of Gender Color-Coding on Toddlers' Gender-Typical Toy Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wang I; Hines, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    Gender color-coding of children's toys may make certain toys more appealing or less appealing to a given gender. We observed toddlers playing with two gender-typical toys (a train, a doll), once in gender-typical colors and once in gender-atypical colors. Assessments occurred twice, at 20-40 months of age and at 26-47 months of age. A Sex × Time × Toy × Color ANOVA showed expected interactions between Sex and Toy and Sex and Color. Boys played more with the train than girls did and girls played more with the doll and with pink toys than boys did. The Sex × Toy × Color interaction was not significant, but, at both time points, boys and girls combined played more with the gender-atypical toy when its color was typical for their sex than when it was not. This effect appeared to be caused largely by boys' preference for, or avoidance of, the doll and by the use of pink. Also, at both time points, gender differences in toy preferences were larger in the gender-typical than in the gender-atypical color condition. At Time 2, these gender differences were present only in the gender-typical color condition. Overall, the results suggest that, once acquired, gender-typical color preferences begin to influence toy preferences, especially those for gender-atypical toys and particularly in boys. They thus could enlarge differences between boys' and girls' toy preferences. Because boys' and girls' toys elicit different activities, removing the gender color-coding of toys could encourage more equal learning opportunities.

  18. Folk toys in Central Thailand: Product development for a creative economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Pichetpruth

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Folk toys in Central Thailand are a part of local Thai local wisdom. Creative folk toys are a part of cultural heritage and Thai creative and sustainable economic development. So, this research aimed to study 1 the indigenous folk toys in central Thailand, 2 the toy production problems and solution guidelines, and 3 the toy product development for the creative economy. The study employed a qualitative research method. The target group consisted of the selected communities in Nonthaburi Province, Ayutthaya Province and Suphanburi Province and folk toy sources. The informants were: 15 folk toy enterprise presidents, government officers and local experts as the key informants, 45 folk toy enterprise members as the causal informants and 45 customers as the general informants. Data were collected by means of interview, observation, focus group discussion and workshop from field study. Qualitative data were analyzed by inductive analysis method with triangular verification and the research results were presented by a descriptive analysis method. The research results revealed that folk toys in Central Thailand were derived from local indigenous knowledge that was created and transmitted through the generations for at least 700 years. Most of the folk toys in Central Thailand were produced by natural, local and easily found materials, using natural colors. The beauty, styles and quality of natural and man-made children’s toys were based on parental competency. Moreover, creation of folk toys is a form of Thai handicraft. Thai people truly believe that toys are symbols of parental love and attention and the tools to build up children’s growth in terms of lifestyle and creative mind. The findings show that folk toys in Central Thailand are made of special soil, wood, bamboo, lan leaf, tan leaf and coconut shell. Folk toys are categorized in four groups: 1 fun toys, such as krataewien, explosive bamboo, king drum, nangkop drum, rhythm coconut shell

  19. Rock Art

    OpenAIRE

    Huyge, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Rock art, basically being non-utilitarian, non-textual anthropic markings on natural rock surfaces, was an extremely widespread graphical practice in ancient Egypt. While the apogee of the tradition was definitely the Predynastic Period (mainly fourth millennium BCE), examples date from the late Palaeolithic (c. 15,000 BCE) until the Islamic era. Geographically speaking, “Egyptian” rock art is known from many hundreds of sites along the margins of the Upper Egyptian and Nubian Nile Valley and...

  20. Rock blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, W.

    2007-01-01

    Consider representation theory associated to symmetric groups, or to Hecke algebras in type A, or to q-Schur algebras, or to finite general linear groups in non-describing characteristic. Rock blocks are certain combinatorially defined blocks appearing in such a representation theory, first observed by R. Rouquier. Rock blocks are much more symmetric than general blocks, and every block is derived equivalent to a Rock block. Motivated by a theorem of J. Chuang and R. Kessar in the case of sym...

  1. Childhood obesity and parks and playgrounds: A review of issues of equality, gender and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Hammad Ali

    2011-04-01

    The childhood obesity has been a growing concern over the last decade all over the world. Built environmental characteristics such as parks and playgrounds serves as a reference point for physical activity in children. The equality issues related to ethnicity, Social Economic Status (SES), gender and social support have been related with both physical activity and presence and quality of parks and playgrounds. However, only limited studies have addressed these issues in children. The current paper is a general enumerative review that would discusses the above issues with respect to obesity in all age groups, giving particular emphasis to childhood obesity. The importance of this review is to further explore the importance and highlight the findings related to these issues, so that future original studies could be planned keeping these associations in mind.

  2. Childhood obesity and parks and playgrounds: A review of issues of equality, gender and social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Ali Qazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The childhood obesity has been a growing concern over the last decade all over the world. Built environmental characteristics such as parks and playgrounds serves as a reference point for physical activity in children. The equality issues related to ethnicity, Social Economic Status (SES, gender and social support have been related with both physical activity and presence and quality of parks and playgrounds. However, only limited studies have addressed these issues in children. The current paper is a general enumerative review that would discusses the above issues with respect to obesity in all age groups, giving particular emphasis to childhood obesity. The importance of this review is to further explore the importance and highlight the findings related to these issues, so that future original studies could be planned keeping these associations in mind.

  3. [Limit values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil of children's playgrounds--basic criteria and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscher, E; Liebl, B; Schwegler, U; Schmied, R; Kerscher, G

    1996-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAK) are often found in the soil of former waste disposal sites, industrial areas, etc. It is desirable and useful to determine orientation values to facilitate and unify the evaluation of contaminations under the aspects of present or planned uses of an area, health protection and decision-making on remedial measures. In the present paper we wish to draw attention to, and discuss problems resulting from, particular characteristics of PAK, e.g. the toxicological property "complete carcinogens" or the necessity of taking into account oral, inhalative and dermal exposure of children on a playground. Based on the discussion, orientation values for benzo[a]pyrene and PAK ("normal" pattern) of 0.5 mg/kg soil and 5 mg/kg soil, respectively, are recommended for top soil of vegetation-free playgrounds. In comparison, deductions carried out by other working groups are presented.

  4. Road traffic and sandy playground influence on ambient pollutants in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Rivas, I.; Moreno, T.; Alastuey, A.; Font, O.; Córdoba, P.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Sunyer, J.; Querol, X.

    2015-06-01

    Urban air pollution has a greater impact on children's health compared to adults. In the framework of the BREATHE (BRain dEvelopment and Air polluTion ultrafine particles in scHool childrEn) project, the present work studies the impact of road traffic and the presence of sandy playgrounds on the outdoor air quality around schools. Four schools were selected for intensive campaigns of one month. PM2.5 samples were collected daily from 8:00 to 20:00 and chemically analysed. Real time measurements of NOx, black carbon (BC), PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were carried out. Sand samples from five school playgrounds were characterized. The results confirm the representativeness of the general BREATHE project campaigns (eight weekdays measurements at each of the 39 schools). NOx, BC and PMx concentrations were higher in the school located nearest to traffic in the city centre with the daily pattern reflecting the traffic rush hours. The NOx concentrations were found to decrease with distance to the main road. The road traffic influence on ambient pollutants was higher on weekdays than weekends. The PM10 concentrations at one of the schools were mainly driven by the influence of the sandy playground, with peaks up to 25, 57 and 12 times higher than night background concentrations during mid-morning break, lunch break and end of school day, respectively. The airborne mineral matter concentrations registered at this school further confirm this origin. Nevertheless the influence of the re-suspension from the sandy playground was very local and decreased drastically within a short distance. The possible impact of the use of the private car for children's commuting on the outdoor air quality of the schools cannot be quantitatively assessed due to the overlapping with the rush hour of the city.

  5. An assessment of swinger techniques for the playground swing oscillatory motion

    OpenAIRE

    Linge, Svein

    2012-01-01

    Much attention has been devoted to how playground swing amplitudes are built up by swinger techniques, i.e. body actions. However, very little attention has been given to the requirements that such swinger techniques place on the swinger himself. The purpose of this study was to find out whether different swinger techniques yield significantly different maximum torques, endurance and coordinative skills, and also to identify preferable techniques. We modeled the seated swinger as ...

  6. Heavy Metals Content in Playground Topsoil of Some Public Primary Schools in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    O.E. Popoola; O. Bamgbose; O.J. Okonkwo; T.A. Arowolo; Odukoya; A. O. Popoola

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the concentration of potentially harmful heavy metals in playground topsoil from public primary schools in metropolitan Lagos, is imperative in order to evaluate the potential risks to the children in the schools. The study was conducted in order to determine if the concentrations of heavy metals in the soil is high enough to constitute a risk to children. Samples were collected from 20 schools in the Lagos metropolis and were subjected to microwave aqua regia digestion. Subsequentl...

  7. The relationship between soil geochemistry and the bioaccessibility of trace elements in playground soil

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel García, Eduardo de; Mingot Marcilla, Juan; Chacón Oreja, Enrique; Charlesworth, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    A total of 32 samples of surficial soil were collected from 16 playground areas in Madrid (Spain), in order to investigate the importance of the geochemistry of the soil on subsequent bioaccessibility of trace elements. The in vitro bioaccessibility of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was evaluated by means of two extraction processes that simulate the gastric environment and one that reproduces a gastric + intestinal digestion sequence. The results of the in vitro bioaccessibility were compared...

  8. IMPACT OF THE ABSENCE OR LIMITEDNESS OF CHILDREN’S PLAYGROUND ON CHILDREN PLAY ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmonangan Manurung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Statistics shows that more than 25% of Indonesia's population in 2015 is comprised of children. For children, play is a very important activity in the process of their physical growth and social development. Play is also a right of children that is reinforced and protected by the constitution. But the rapid urban growth has resulted to the reduction of open spaces for children’s playground and this has limited their movement. Therefore, this paper assessed the impact of playground limitations on the playing activity of children in various places in the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Qualitative research method was primarily used by which the data were collected through questionnaires, personal interviews, field observation, and literature review. The results showed how limited the spaces for children’s playground in the city of Yogyakarta which made children to utilize the road, the space around riverbank, the space around railroad tracks, and vacant land for playing and bicycling. These are spaces which are intended for other purposes but are perceived by children as available for them to play. They may be not aware that this is a very risky condition which they may have not fully realized particularly when no adults had intervened.

  9. Epidemiology of playground equipment-related injuries to children in the United States, 1996-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, David; Witsaman, Rachel; Comstock, R Dawn; Smith, Gary A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of playground equipment-related injuries. This is a retrospective analysis of data for children 18 years old and younger from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission for 1996 through 2005. There were an estimated 2,136,800 playground equipment-related injuries to children 18 years and younger treated in hospital emergency departments in the United States during the 10-year period. The leading mechanism of injury was falls (75.1%), followed by impact/striking (10.5%), cutting/ pinching/crushing (7.7%), entrapment/ entanglement (1.4%), trip/slip (1.1%), and other/ unknown (4.1%). The leading type of injury sustained by patients was a fracture (35.4%), followed by contusion/ abrasion (19.6%) and laceration (19.6%). The consistency of the large annual number of playground equipment-related injuries to children is evidence that more needs to be done to prevent these injuries. More research should be conducted to develop and implement arm fracture-specific criteria for surface performance.

  10. Physical activity in child-care centers: do teachers hold the key to the playground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Kristen A; Kendeigh, Cassandra A; Saelens, Brian E; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Sherman, Susan N

    2012-02-01

    Many (56%) US children aged 3-5 years are in center-based childcare and are not obtaining recommended levels of physical activity. In order to determine what child-care teachers/providers perceived as benefits and barriers to children's physical activity in child-care centers, we conducted nine focus groups and 13 one-on-one interviews with 49 child-care teachers/providers in Cincinnati, OH. Participants noted physical and socio-emotional benefits of physical activity particular to preschoolers (e.g. gross motor skill development, self-confidence after mastery of new skills and improved mood, attention and napping after exercise) but also noted several barriers including their own personal attitudes (e.g. low self-efficacy) and preferences to avoid the outdoors (e.g. don't like hot/cold weather, getting dirty, chaos of playground). Because individual teachers determine daily schedules and ultimately make the decision whether to take the children outdoors, they serve as gatekeepers to the playground. Participants discussed a spectrum of roles on the playground, from facilitator to chaperone to physical activity inhibitor. These findings suggest that children could have very different gross motor experiences even within the same facility (with presumably the same environment and policies), based on the beliefs, creativity and level of engagement of their teacher.

  11. School playground surfacing and arm fractures in children: a cluster randomized trial comparing sand to wood chip surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Howard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The risk of playground injuries, especially fractures, is prevalent in children, and can result in emergency room treatment and hospital admissions. Fall height and surface area are major determinants of playground fall injury risk. The primary objective was to determine if there was a difference in playground upper extremity fracture rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing versus granite sand surfacing. Secondary objectives were to determine if there were differences in overall playground injury rates or in head injury rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing compared to school playgrounds with granite sand surfacing. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The cluster randomized trial comprised 37 elementary schools in the Toronto District School Board in Toronto, Canada with a total of 15,074 students. Each school received qualified funding for installation of new playground equipment and surfacing. The risk of arm fracture from playground falls onto granitic sand versus onto engineered wood fibre surfaces was compared, with an outcome measure of estimated arm fracture rate per 100,000 student-months. Schools were randomly assigned by computer generated list to receive either a granitic sand or an engineered wood fibre playground surface (Fibar, and were not blinded. Schools were visited to ascertain details of the playground and surface actually installed and to observe the exposure to play and to periodically monitor the depth of the surfacing material. Injury data, including details of circumstance and diagnosis, were collected at each school by a prospective surveillance system with confirmation of injury details through a validated telephone interview with parents and also through collection (with consent of medical reports regarding treated injuries. All schools were recruited together at the beginning of the trial, which is now closed after 2.5 years of injury data collection. Compliant schools included 12 schools

  12. Percentage of toxic trace elements; Pb, Cr and Cd in certain plastic toys, Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kavehzadeh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent investigations have detected the presence of significant levels of heavy metals (chromium, lead and cadmium in toys and other PVC products manufactured for children. In some countries, addition of compounds containing toxic metals to toys are limited or prohibited. Methods: To evaluate the safety of some of the plastic toys in the city of Isfahan with respect to toxic trace metals, pb, cr and cd, 75 samples of three types of toys were collected from the toy shop’s and were digested with acid with the two methods ISIRI and ASTM. The heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Variance analysis and T-test were used for data analysis. Results: The result of the study showed that the products tested contained lead, chromium and cadmium and the highest and lowest concentration were related to Pb and Cd, respectively. The statistical analysis of the samples showed that there are no significant differences between ASTM and ISIRI digestion methods. The study revealed that none of the heavy metals in the toy samples exceeded the recommended standard levels. Highest average concentration of Pb and Cd were related to toys with green color and the highest Cr concentration was related to yellow toys in this study. Conclusion: Extensive studies are required to evaluate the quality of the toys being used by children and the toxic trace elements should be eliminated from the plastic materials used for making toys.

  13. Rigid Rotor as a Toy Model for Hodge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Saurabh

    2009-01-01

    We apply the superfield approach to the toy model of a rigid rotor and show the existence of the nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetry transformations, under which, the kinetic term and Lagrangian remain invariant. Furthermore, we also derive the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting (anti-) co-BRST symmetry transformations, under which, the gauge-fixing term and Lagrangian remain invariant. The anticommutator of the above nilpotent symmetry transformations leads to the derivation of a bosonic symmetry transformation, under which, the ghost terms and Lagrangian remain invariant. Together, the above transformations (and their corresponding generators) respect an algebra that turns out to be the realization of the algebra obeyed by the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry. Thus, our present model is a toy model for the Hodge theory.

  14. Rigid rotor as a toy model for Hodge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Malik, R. P.

    2010-07-01

    We apply the superfield approach to the toy model of a rigid rotor and show the existence of the nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetry transformations, under which, the kinetic term and the action remain invariant. Furthermore, we also derive the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting (anti-) co-BRST symmetry transformations, under which, the gauge-fixing term and the Lagrangian remain invariant. The anticommutator of the above nilpotent symmetry transformations leads to the derivation of a bosonic symmetry transformation, under which, the ghost terms and the action remain invariant. Together, the above transformations (and their corresponding generators) respect an algebra that turns out to be a physical realization of the algebra obeyed by the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry. Thus, our present model is a toy model for the Hodge theory.

  15. Toy Model for Eternal Expanding Universe Driven by Quintessence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高长军; 沈有根

    2003-01-01

    Recent observations of microwave background and type Ⅰa supernovae (SNe Ia) suggest a space-flat and accelerated expansion Universe. On the other hand, observations of supernovae 1997ff reveal that the Universe has undergone a decelerating-accelerating process. Combining these two classes of observations, we present an eternal expanding Universe toy model driven by quintessence. In this picture, the Universe undergoes an endless sequence of accelerating-decelerating cycles.

  16. Hot scalar electrodynamics as a toy model for hot QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Krämmer, U; Schulz, H; Kraemmer, Ulrike; Rebhan, Anton K; Schulz, Hermann

    1995-01-01

    Hot scalar electrodynamics is adopted as a toy model for a hot gluon plasma to display some aspects of the compulsory resummation of hard thermal loops when next-to-leading order quantities at soft momentum scales are to be calculated. [Talk given by A.K.R. at a one-day meeting dedicated to the memory of Tanguy ALTHERR, held on November 4, 1994 at CERN, Geneva. To appear in a Gedenkschrift published by World Scientific.

  17. Toy Model for Large Non-Symmetric Random Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Snarska, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Non-symmetric rectangular correlation matrices occur in many problems in economics. We test the method of extracting statistically meaningful correlations between input and output variables of large dimensionality and build a toy model for artificially included correlations in large random time series.The results are then applied to analysis of polish macroeconomic data and can be used as an alternative to classical cointegration approach.

  18. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  19. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  20. Using Therapeutic Toys to Facilitate Venipuncture Procedure in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, José Ronaldo Soares; Pizzoli, Lourdes Margareth Leite; Amorim, Amanda Regina do Prado; Pinheiros, Fernanda Tais; Romanini, Giovanna Chippari; da Silva, Jack Gomes; Joanete, Shirley; Alves, Silvana S M

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous access procedures in children are considered to be one of the most stressful because it is invasive, and the use of needles generates anxiety, insecurity, and fear. Playful strategies using dolls and even the materials used for venipuncture can assist children in understanding, accepting, and coping with the procedure. Field research was developed on the applicability of the therapeutic toy in the preparation of preschool children for venipuncture procedure based on the protocol developed by Martins, Ribeiro, Borba, and Silva (2001) and Kiche and Almeida (2009). The study was done in a private hospital in Greater São Paulo, Brazil, with 10 children ages 3 to 6 years. Data were gathered through observation and questionnaires completed by the children's adult guardians. Before the activity, the children showed fearful facial expressions, used monosyllabic responses, and avoided looking at the health care professional. After the strategy of using therapeutic toy dolls and puppets, 40% of the children calmly accepted the venipuncture procedure, and 100% showed a change to their initial negative reaction, became more communicative and cooperative, and participated and interacted with researchers, even after the end of the activity and procedure. The strategy of therapeutic toys helps make an unfamiliar environment, strangers, and a procedure characterized as painful and difficult less stressful. Pediatric nurses are in a good position to use this resource to offer more humanized care to children.

  1. Test or toy? Materiality and the measurement of infant intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jacy L

    2015-05-01

    Adopting a material culture perspective, this article interrogates the composition of the copy of the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale housed at the University of Toronto Scientific Instruments Collection. As a deliberately assembled collection of toys, the Cattell Scale makes clear the indefinite boundary between test and toy in 20th-century American psychology. Consideration of the current condition of some of the material constituents of this particular Cattell Scale provides valuable insight into some of the elusive practices of intelligence testers in situ and highlights the dynamic nature of the testing process. At the same time, attending to the materiality of this intelligence test reveals some of the more general assumptions about the nature of intelligence inherent in tests for young children. The scale and others like it, I argue, exposes psychologists' often-uncritical equation of childhood intelligence with appropriate play undertaken with an appropriate toy, an approach complicit in, and fostered by, midcentury efforts to cultivate particular forms of selfhood. This analysis serves as an example of the kind of work that may be done on the history of intelligence testing when the material objects that were (and are) inherently a part of the testing process are included in historical scholarship.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation based toy model for fission process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Waris, Abdul; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear fission has been modeled notoriously using two approaches method, macroscopic and microscopic. This work will propose another approach, where the nucleus is treated as a toy model. The aim is to see the usefulness of particle distribution in fission yield calculation. Inasmuch nucleus is a toy, then the Fission Toy Model (FTM) does not represent real process in nature completely. The fission event in FTM is represented by one random number. The number is assumed as width of distribution probability of nucleon position in compound nuclei when fission process is started. By adopting the nucleon density approximation, the Gaussian distribution is chosen as particle distribution. This distribution function generates random number that randomizes distance between particles and a central point. The scission process is started by smashing compound nucleus central point into two parts that are left central and right central points. The yield is determined from portion of nuclei distribution which is proportional with portion of mass numbers. By using modified FTM, characteristic of particle distribution in each fission event could be formed before fission process. These characteristics could be used to make prediction about real nucleons interaction in fission process. The results of FTM calculation give information that the γ value seems as energy.

  3. [Benefits from the use of toys during nursing care delivered to hospitalized children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Michele Ferraz; dos Santos, Rosane Maria; Favero, Luciane

    2010-06-01

    It is a qualitative research study, descriptive-exploratory in nature, which aims to verify the benefits from the use of toys during nursing care to hospitalized children. Ten subjects participated in the study: three children and seven mothers of hospitalized children. Data were collected between May and July, 2008 by means of specific instruments for each age group and further organized in thematic categories: the use of toys to lessen hospitalization stress; toys facilitating understanding and acceptance of procedures; and the experience of using toys and hospitalization process. The results show that the use of toys is an excellent nursing resource to render care to admitted children. The features of the toys facilitated communication, participation, acceptance of procedure and child motivation, what enabled them to keep their individuality, lessen the stress and the possibility to implement children's and families' non-traumatic care.

  4. Nickel and Cobalt Release From Children's Toys Purchased in Denmark and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P.; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten R.

    2014-01-01

    to identify new sources of nickel exposure in this age group is important. Recent case reports have described allergic nickel contact dermatitis in children following exposure to toys, but the magnitude of this problem is unknown. Objective : The aim of this study was to evaluate nickel and cobalt release...... from children's toys. Methods : We purchased 212 toys in 18 different retail and online stores in the United States and Denmark. Nickel and cobalt release was tested using the dimethylglyoxime and cobalt screening spot tests. Results : A total of 73 toys (34.4%) released nickel, and none released...... cobalt. Conclusions : Toys are a commonly overlooked source of nickel exposure and sensitization. Therefore, dermatologists, allergists, and pediatricians should consider the role of toys in their evaluation of children with dermatitis, and the parents of children with positive nickel patch test...

  5. An evaluation of toy quality for increasing self-control in typically developing preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanico, Jessica F; Dozier, Claudia L; Payne, Steven W; Ackerlund Brandt, Julie A; Jowett Hirst, Erica S

    2016-09-01

    Children often make impulsive choices, and previous research has shown that access to activities during the delay may enhance self-control (e.g., Newquist, Dozier, & Neidert, 2012). The purpose of the current study was to extend the results of Newquist et al. (2012) by comparing the effects of access to low-preference, moderate-preference, and high-preference toys during delays. Results showed that (a) all toys increased self-control for 2 participants when toys were available for all choice options and (b) high-preference toys (and sometimes moderate-preference toys) increased self-control for 3 participants when the toys were available only for large delayed choices.

  6. A Parent's Guide to Playground Safety, [and] The Multiage Classroom: A Guide for Parents, [and] Multiple Intelligences: Different Ways of Learning. ACEI Speaks Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Joe L.; And Others

    Three brochures for parents are presented. The first lists potential playground hazards and suggestions for improving playgrounds. The second describes benefits of the multiage classroom, comparing such a classroom with a traditional, single-grade class. The third brochure describes verbal, logical, visual, musical, and physical learning styles…

  7. A Report on the Evaluation of the Parent/Child Toy-Lending Library Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimnicht, Glen P.; And Others

    The Parent/Child Toy-Library Program is described and a report is given of its evaluation. The program is a 10-week course for parents of three- and four year-old children, an educational Toy Library for the parents, and a training program for the teacher-librarians who will teach the course and operate the library. Two toys were rejected on the…

  8. ROCK ON

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas Grose

    2014-01-01

    ..., however, was music - especially the high-pitched sounds of pop and rock, which boosted energy output by up to 40 percent. By contrast, classical music's lower pitches barely raised effectiveness. O...

  9. 76 FR 46598 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Toys: Requirements for Accreditation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... a dedicated toy safety standard webpage: http://www.cpsc.gov/toysafety . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... defines ``children's product,'' to mean, inter alia, ``a consumer product designed or intended...

  10. Fission yield calculation using toy model based on Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubaidah, E-mail: jubaidah@student.itb.ac.id [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Division, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology. Jl. Ganesa No. 10 Bandung – West Java, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia); Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science – State University of Medan. Jl. Willem Iskandar Pasar V Medan Estate – North Sumatera, Indonesia 20221 (Indonesia); Kurniadi, Rizal, E-mail: rijalk@fi.itb.ac.id [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Division, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology. Jl. Ganesa No. 10 Bandung – West Java, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Toy model is a new approximation in predicting fission yield distribution. Toy model assumes nucleus as an elastic toy consist of marbles. The number of marbles represents the number of nucleons, A. This toy nucleus is able to imitate the real nucleus properties. In this research, the toy nucleons are only influenced by central force. A heavy toy nucleus induced by a toy nucleon will be split into two fragments. These two fission fragments are called fission yield. In this research, energy entanglement is neglected. Fission process in toy model is illustrated by two Gaussian curves intersecting each other. There are five Gaussian parameters used in this research. They are scission point of the two curves (R{sub c}), mean of left curve (μ{sub L}) and mean of right curve (μ{sub R}), deviation of left curve (σ{sub L}) and deviation of right curve (σ{sub R}). The fission yields distribution is analyses based on Monte Carlo simulation. The result shows that variation in σ or µ can significanly move the average frequency of asymmetry fission yields. This also varies the range of fission yields distribution probability. In addition, variation in iteration coefficient only change the frequency of fission yields. Monte Carlo simulation for fission yield calculation using toy model successfully indicates the same tendency with experiment results, where average of light fission yield is in the range of 90

  11. Brominated flame retardants in children's toys: concentration, composition, and children's exposure and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, She-Jun; Ma, Yun-Juan; Wang, Jing; Chen, Da; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2009-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were found in children's toys purchased from South China. The median BFR concentrations in the hard plastic toys were 53,000, 5540 ng/g, 101.1 ng/g, and 27.9 ng/g, fortotal PBDEs, DBDPE, BTBPE, and PBBs, respectively,which were notably higher than values in other toys. The PBDE concentrations were below the threshold limit (1000 ppm) required bythe European Commission's Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) directives in all of the toys, except for one hard plastic toy with a total PBDE concentration of 5,344,000 ng/g. The BFR profiles in the toys were consistent with the patterns of their current production and consumption in China, where PBDEs, specifically decaBDE product, were the dominant BFR, followed by the emerging DBDPE. The relatively high concentrations of octa- and nonaBDEs in the foam toys and the results of principal component analysis (PCA) may suggest the decomposition of highly brominated BDEs during the manufacturing processes of the toys. Daily total PBDE exposures associated with toys via inhalation, mouthing, dermal contact, and oral ingestion ranged from 82.6 to 8992 pg/kg bw-day for children of 3 months to 14 years of age. Higher exposures, predominantly contributed through the mouthing pathway, were observed for infants and toddlers than for the other subgroups. In most cases, children's BFR exposure via the toys likely accounts for a small proportion of their daily BFR exposure, and the hazard quotients for noncancer risk evaluation were far below 1. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study to examine the concentrations of BFRs in toys, and the potential exposures to children.

  12. 'Wopmay' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows an unusual, lumpy rock informally named 'Wopmay' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the Canadian bush pilot Wilfrid Reid 'Wop' May. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe the lumps in Wopmay may be related to cracking and alteration processes, possibly caused by exposure to water. The area between intersecting sets of cracks eroded in a way that created the lumpy appearance. Rover team members plan to drive Opportunity over to Wopmay for a closer look in coming sols. This image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 248 (Oct. 4, 2004), using its 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  13. Source rock

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakr F. Makky; Mohamed I. El Sayed; Ahmed S. Abu El-Ata; Ibrahim M. Abd El-Gaied; Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah; Zakaria M. Abd-Allah

    2014-01-01

    West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro), and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members), Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history ...

  14. Stop Toying Around With Sino-U.S. Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TOM; PLATE

    2007-01-01

    Since early March this year,the outcry concerning the quality of Chinese export commodities, from cosmetics to foodstuffs to toys, has been deafening,particularly from certain congressmen, presidential candidates and themedia in the United States. Tom Plate,a professor at UCLA, and Mei Xinyu,a research fellow with the Research Academy under the Chinese Ministry of Commerce,however,point out that an ineffective U.S.quality inspection system must shoulder some of the responsibility for the current safety scare.

  15. Quantum toy model for black-hole back-reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Maia, Clovis

    2007-01-01

    We propose a simple quantum field theoretical toy model for black hole evaporation and study the back-reaction of Hawking radiation onto the classical background. It turns out that the horizon is also ``pushed back'' in this situation (i.e., the interior region shrinks) but this back-reaction is not caused by energy conservation but by momentum balance. The effective heat capacity and the induced entropy variation can have both signs -- depending on the parameters of the model. PACS: 04.62.+v, 04.70.Dy.

  16. The DigitalSeed: an interactive toy for investigating plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cherubini, Mauro; Gash, Hugh; McCloughlin, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Plant growth, development and reproduction are fundamental concepts in biology; yet there is a recorded lack of motivation for young people to grapple with these concepts. Here we present the ‘DigitalSeed’ toy for making investigations around these concepts more accessible to children through hands-on digital interaction. This is part of an on-going project investigating improved ways of learning involving digital media.To date, this project has addressed the learning of 4-5 year olds, but it...

  17. Noise producing toys and the efficacy of product standard criteria to protect health and education outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Stuart J; Page, Wyatt H; Parker, Lou; Rushton, Martin

    2013-12-19

    An evaluation of 28 commercially available toys imported into New Zealand revealed that 21% of these toys do not meet the acoustic criteria in the ISO standard, ISO 8124-1:2009 Safety of Toys, adopted by Australia and New Zealand as AS/NZS ISO 8124.1:2010. While overall the 2010 standard provided a greater level of protection than the earlier 2002 standard, there was one high risk toy category where the 2002 standard provided greater protection. A secondary set of toys from the personal collections of children known to display atypical methods of play with toys, such as those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), was part of the evaluation. Only one of these toys cleanly passed the 2010 standard, with the remainder failing or showing a marginal-pass. As there is no tolerance level stated in the standards to account for interpretation of data and experimental error, a value of +2 dB was used. The findings of the study indicate that the current standard is inadequate in providing protection against excessive noise exposure. Amendments to the criteria have been recommended that apply to the recently adopted 2013 standard. These include the integration of the new approaches published in the recently amended European standard (EN 71) on safety of toys.

  18. Bacterial contamination on household toys and association with water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Christine E; Walters, Adam; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2013-04-18

    There is growing evidence that household water treatment interventions improve microbiological water quality and reduce diarrheal disease risk. Few studies have examined, however, the impact of water treatment interventions on household-level hygiene and sanitation. This study examined the association of four water and sanitation conditions (access to latrines, improved sanitation, improved water and the plastic biosand filter) on the levels of total coliforms and E. coli on existing and introduced toys during an on-going randomized controlled trial of the plastic biosand filter (plastic BSF). The following conditions were associated with decreased bacterial contamination on children's toys: access to a latrine, access to improved sanitation and access to the plastic BSF. Overall, compared to existing toys, introduced toys had significantly lower levels of both E. coli and total coliforms. Results suggest that levels of fecal indicator bacteria contamination on children's toys may be associated with access to improved water and sanitation conditions in the home. In addition, the fecal indicator bacteria levels on toys probably vary with duration in the household. Additional information on how these toys become contaminated is needed to determine the usefulness of toys as indicators or sentinels of water, sanitation and hygiene conditions, behaviors and risks.

  19. Contamination by ten harmful elements in toys and children's jewelry bought on the North American market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J

    2013-06-04

    Toys and children's jewelry may contain metals to which children can be orally exposed. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine total concentrations (TC's) of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Se in toys and jewelry (n = 72) bought on the North American market and compare TC's to regulatory limits, and (2) to estimate oral metal bioavailability in selected items (n = 4) via bioaccessibility testing. For metallic toys and children's jewelry (n = 24) 20 items had TC's exceeding migratable concentration limits (European Union). Seven of seventeen jewelry items did not comply with TC limits in U.S. and Canadian regulations. Samples included articles with very high Cd (37% [w/w]), Pb (65%), and Cu (71%) concentrations. For plastic toys (n = 18), toys with paint or coating (n = 12), and brittle or pliable toys (n = 18), TC's were below the EU migration limits (except in one toy for each category). Bioaccessibility tests showed that a tested jewelry item strongly leached Pb (gastric: 698 μg, intestinal: 705 μg) and some Cd (1.38 and 1.42 μg). Especially in metallic toys and jewelry, contamination by Pb and Cd, and to a lesser extent by Cu, Ni, As, and Sb, still poses an acute problem in North America.

  20. Hazardous metals in vintage plastic toys measured by a handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gillian Zaharias; Harris, Zoe E

    2015-01-01

    Over 100 plastic toys from the 1970s and 1980s, both polyvinyl chloride ("vinyl") and nonvinyl, were analyzed in the study described here using a handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to quantify hazardous metal content. A sampling of recent vinyl toys was also tested. The majority of nonvinyl samples were Fisher Price brand toys. The vinyl toys consisted largely of Barbie dolls and other dolls. Overall, lead or cadmium was found in 67% of vintage plastic toys, frequently at concentrations exceeding current U.S. and European limits. Arsenic was detected at levels of concern in 16% of the samples. In the nonvinyl toys, heavy metal content was found to correlate with certain colors of plastic. The likely sources of the detected metals are discussed. None of the contemporary vinyl toys contained detectable cadmium, lead, or arsenic. Given that vintage toys remain in widespread use by children in homes and other locations, the results illuminate a potential source of heavy metal exposure for children.

  1. 16 CFR 1500.20 - Labeling requirement for advertising toys and games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling requirement for advertising toys... REGULATIONS § 1500.20 Labeling requirement for advertising toys and games. (a) Scope. This section applies to catalogue and other printed material advertisements which provide a direct means of purchase or order...

  2. COME PLAY WITH ME! Handmade Toys for Infants. First Years Together. Project Enlightenment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Shirley

    This book describes 21 toys that were designed to stimulate development in low birthweight babies, ages 0-3, and can be made from basic materials found in the home. Step-by-step instructions are given for each toy along with a list of necessary supplies. Illustrations and/or patterns are provided as needed. Each entry includes suggestions for…

  3. Selecting Toys and Gifts for Severely Mentally and Physically Handicapped People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Learning Resources System/Child Serve, Scottdale.

    Suggestions are given regarding selection of gifts and toys for severely handicapped persons. General principles (such as safety and durability) are followed by specific suggestions about clothes, food, toys (including musical instruments and balls), books and records, and various types of equipment (such as blenders for food preparation, tape…

  4. Background Television and Infants' Allocation of Their Attention during Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setliff, Alissa E.; Courage, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of background television on 6- and 12-month-olds' attention during 20 min of toy play was examined. During the first or second half of the session, a clip from a variety of commonly available television programs was presented. The duration and frequency of infants' looks to the toys and to the television indicated that regardless of age…

  5. Toys to Go: A Guide to the Use of Realia in Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hektoen, Faith H., Ed.; Rinehart, Jeanne R., Ed.

    Realia are toys, articles and other three-dimensional objects that a child handles, manipulates or plays with to gain direct experience and information about his/her environment. Realia may include: models, toys, games, tools, puppets, costumes, and musical instruments. Children of all socioeconomic levels have the same developmental needs for…

  6. Toying with the World: Children, Virtual Pets and the Value of Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckenstein, Minna

    2010-01-01

    This article approaches childhood as an emergent condition in which children, their caregivers and toys all take an active part and argues that the focus on toys opens important insights for studying processes of social reproduction and change. This is demonstrated by describing children's interactions with virtual pets that encourage children to…

  7. Noise Producing Toys and the Efficacy of Product Standard Criteria to Protect Health and Education Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J. McLaren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of 28 commercially available toys imported into New Zealand revealed that 21% of these toys do not meet the acoustic criteria in the ISO standard, ISO 8124-1:2009 Safety of Toys, adopted by Australia and New Zealand as AS/NZS ISO 8124.1:2010. While overall the 2010 standard provided a greater level of protection than the earlier 2002 standard, there was one high risk toy category where the 2002 standard provided greater protection. A secondary set of toys from the personal collections of children known to display atypical methods of play with toys, such as those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, was part of the evaluation. Only one of these toys cleanly passed the 2010 standard, with the remainder failing or showing a marginal-pass. As there is no tolerance level stated in the standards to account for interpretation of data and experimental error, a value of +2 dB was used. The findings of the study indicate that the current standard is inadequate in providing protection against excessive noise exposure. Amendments to the criteria have been recommended that apply to the recently adopted 2013 standard. These include the integration of the new approaches published in the recently amended European standard (EN 71 on safety of toys.

  8. Young Children's Classification, Stereotyping and Play Behaviour for Gender Neutral and Ambiguous Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Dempsey, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory would predict that children develop fewer or weaker stereotypes about toys that have less distinguishable gender attributes than those that are clearly associated with a gender. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutral and ambiguous toys in 31 three- to five-year-old children's play behaviour…

  9. 16 CFR 1500.47 - Method for determining the sound pressure level produced by toy caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method for determining the sound pressure level produced by toy caps. 1500.47 Section 1500.47 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.47 Method for determining the sound pressure level produced by toy caps....

  10. 78 FR 44971 - Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial... Zuru Toys Inc. of Cambridge, New Zealand. On June 3, 2013, the complainants and respondents filed...

  11. Consumer Product in vitro digestion model: bioaccessibility of contaminants from toys and application in risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen AG; Rompelberg CJM; Brandon EFA; Kamp E van de; Duits MR; Versantvoort CHM; Engelen JGM van; Sips AJAM; SIR; ARO

    2005-01-01

    There are only a limit number of regulatory standard for contaminants present in toys. These regulatory standards mainly concern metals. These regulatory standards are based on several assumptions, for example the amount of toy swallowed by a child. In addition, for other contaminants other than ce

  12. Playing with Technology: Mother-Toddler Interaction Scores Lower during Play with Electronic Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Michaela B.; Shapka, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    To investigate play with electronic toys (battery-operated or digital), 25 mother-toddler (16-24 months old) dyads were videotaped in their homes playing with sets of age-appropriate electronic and non-electronic toys for approximately 10 min each. Parent-child interactions were coded from recorded segments of both of the play conditions using the…

  13. Implication of information sharing on Bullwhip effects in a toy supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; El-Beheiry, Mohamed; Johansen, John

    2004-01-01

    Coordination of toy supply chains is challenged by volatile and seasonal demand with high forecast errors and bullwhip effects. This paper compares Bullwhip effects in a three-level divergent a toy supply chain between retailers who shared downstream demand information (consumer sales...

  14. Cultural Enrichment by Means of a Toy Library. Parent-Child Program Series, Report No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Anne H.

    Part of a series on early childhood demonstration programs designed to improve early parent-child relationships, stimulate positive child development, and prevent later behavior difficulties, the pamphlet describes a Toy Library project for low-income families in Washington, D.C., which, in addition to loaning books and toys, offers a wide range…

  15. Implementation of the Toy Lending Library in the State of Utah. Summary Report, 1971-72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    The Toy Library program trains parents to use a limited number of educational toys to teach specific skills, fundamental concepts, and problem solving behaviors to their own three- and four-year-old children. The program is designed to fill the educational needs of the many three- and four-year-old children who are not participants in some other…

  16. Noise levels of toys for children between the ages of birth and 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effects on the auditory system of exposure to loud noise.2 NIHL may negatively affect ... effectively, but also their social, emotional, cognitive and behavioural development and academic achievement.3. The mechanism of .... sounds & music. Toy 5. Musical toy. Music. Keyboard with vari- ous buttons. Music. Play gym with.

  17. Rock Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julienne Edwards

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the integration of art and academics in a fifth-grade instructional unit on Native American culture. Describes how students studied Native American pictographs, designed their own pictographs, made their own tools, and created rock paintings of their pictographs using these tools. Provides a list of references on Native American…

  18. Ayers Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧茹

    2002-01-01

    Ayers Rock is right in the centre of Australia.It's nearly two thousand kilometres______Sydney.So we flew most of the way.h was rather cloudy______But after we left the mountains behind us, there was hardly a cloud in thesky.

  19. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  20. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  1. Developing a playground as catchment area in effort to maintaining groundwater in Jaten village of Karanganyar district of Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowo, Budi; Darsono; Wahyuningsih, Daru

    2016-11-01

    Changes in land use for housing indirectly disturb the hydrology balance of the area. Groundwater conservation efforts can be done by keeping the function the catchment area. One of the housing developer's obligations is providing open spaces (the playground) to play or activity of the residents. Playground in Bumi Graha Indah Housing, Jaten village, Karanganyar district, Central Java, Indonesia has a fundamental issue, that is, in the rainy season the water is difficult to seep due landfill process are not well planned. It causes the playground become in muddy conditions with tall grass, so that reduces the function as a playground and or activity the residents. In the dry season, the soil dry of landfill caused dust scattering and disrupt the activities of people around the playground. Lack of water resources lead watering process for solving the problem of dust during the dry season was considered ineffective. Structuring drainage combined with modified recharge wells can be used to catch water runoff housing. This modification of water catchment areas can make playground dry quickly after rain so the activities of people are not bothered when utilizing the open space provided. Surface runoff water absorbed in open aquifer so that the hydrological balance always be maintained. Adequacy groundwater in the area playground can be used to sprinkler dust and backup needs clean water residents by creating wells and reservoir stocks.

  2. The Particle Physics Playground website: tutorials and activities using real experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Matthew; CMS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The CERN Open Data Portal provides access to data from the LHC experiments to anyone with the time and inclination to learn the analysis procedures. The CMS experiment has made a significant amount of data availible in basically the same format the collaboration itself uses, along with software tools and a virtual enviroment in which to run those tools. These same data have also been mined for educational exercises that range from very simple .csv files that can be analyzed in a spreadsheet to more sophisticated formats that use ROOT, a dominant software package in experimental particle physics but not used as much in the general computing community. This talk will present the Particle Physics Playground website (http://particle-physics-playground.github.io/), a project that uses data from the CMS experiment, as well as the older CLEO experiment, in tutorials and exercises aimed at high school and undergraduate students and other science enthusiasts. The data are stored as text files and the users are provided with starter Python/Jupyter notebook programs and accessor functions which can be modified to perform fairly high-level analyses. The status of the project, success stories, and future plans for the website will be presented. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-1307562.

  3. Children's exposure to arsenic from CCA-treated wooden decks and playground structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemond, Harold F; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2004-02-01

    CCA-treated wood is widely used in the fabrication of outdoor decks and playground equipment. Because arsenic can be removed from the surface of CCA-treated wood both by physical contact and by leaching, it is important to determine whether children who play on such structures may ingest arsenic in quantities sufficient to be of public health concern. Based on a review of existing studies, it is estimated that arsenic doses in amounts of tens of micrograms per day may be incurred by children having realistic levels of exposure to CCA-treated decks and playground structures. The most important exposure pathway appears to be oral ingestion of arsenic that is first dislodged from the wood by direct hand contact, then transferred to the mouth by children's hand-to-mouth activity. The next most important pathway appears to be dermal absorption of arsenic, while ingestion of soil that has become contaminated by leaching from CCA-treated structures appears to be of lesser importance, except possibly in the case of children with pica. Considerable uncertainty, however, is associated with quantitative estimates of children's arsenic exposure from CCA-treated wood. Priorities for refining estimates of arsenic dose include detailed studies of the hand-to-mouth transfer of arsenic, studies of the dermal and gastrointestinal absorption of dislodgeable arsenic, and studies in which doses of arsenic to children playing in contact with CCA-treated wood are directly determined by measurement of arsenic in their urine, hair, and nails.

  4. 16 CFR 1145.2 - Paint (and other similar surface-coating materials) containing lead; toys, children's articles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... materials) containing lead; toys, children's articles, and articles of furniture bearing such paint (or... materials) containing lead; toys, children's articles, and articles of furniture bearing such paint (or...) Paint and other similar surface-coating materials containing lead and toys, children's articles,...

  5. 16 CFR 1500.48 - Technical requirements for determining a sharp point in toys and other articles intended for use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sharp point in toys and other articles intended for use by children under 8 years of age. 1500.48... requirements for determining a sharp point in toys and other articles intended for use by children under 8... used by the Commission in making a preliminary determination that points on toys and other...

  6. 78 FR 48172 - Minimizing Risk for Children's Toy Laser Products; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... children's toy laser products within IEC Class 1 emission limits in order to minimize the risk they pose to... No. FDA-2012-D-1092] Minimizing Risk for Children's Toy Laser Products; Draft Guidance for Industry... guidance entitled ``Minimizing Risk for Children's Toy Laser Products.'' This draft guidance is to...

  7. Effects of Toys on the Play Quality of Preschool Children: Influence of Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawick-Smith, Jeffrey; Wolff, Jennifer; Koschel, Marley; Vallarelli, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of nine toys on the play of 60 3- and 4-year-old children in culturally diverse preschool classrooms. The toys, which varied in their features and intended uses, were selected from a list of those that were nominated by teachers and parents as being developmentally beneficial. Each toy was video recorded for 240 h…

  8. Gender Stereotypes of Children's Toys: Investigating the Perspectives of Adults Who Have and Do Not Have Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekee, Kristy; Brown, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Often certain types of toys are considered more appropriate either for boys or for girls to play with. Therapists often use toys to engage children in intervention activities to promote skill development. This study investigated the gender stereotype perspectives of children's toys held by adults who were and were not parents. Fifty-two…

  9. Effects of Isolate and Social Toys on the Social Interactions of Preschoolers in an Inclusive Head Start Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Shannon Renee; Vail, Cynthia O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of manipulating toy sets on the social verbal interaction that occurs between preschool-age children with disabilities and their typically developing peers. A single-subject alternating-treatments design was used to evaluate the effects of manipulating social toy sets and isolate toy sets on…

  10. Effects of Infant-Parent Play with a Technology-Enhanced Toy: Affordance-Related Actions and Communicative Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Doris; Hutchinson, Kathleen; Nolan, Joan T.; Weber, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Infant-parent play with toys is an early form of social communication, and the toy features (i.e., affordances), as well as the child's language competence, contribute to the developmental level of the play and the types of play actions that occur. This research, conducted in cooperation with a toy manufacturer, investigated how the affordances of…

  11. Effects of Toys on the Play Quality of Preschool Children: Influence of Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawick-Smith, Jeffrey; Wolff, Jennifer; Koschel, Marley; Vallarelli, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of nine toys on the play of 60 3- and 4-year-old children in culturally diverse preschool classrooms. The toys, which varied in their features and intended uses, were selected from a list of those that were nominated by teachers and parents as being developmentally beneficial. Each toy was video recorded for 240 h…

  12. 78 FR 9740 - Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... COMMISSION Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C... of certain robotic toys and components thereof by reason of misappropriation of trade secrets, the... after importation of certain robotic toys and components thereof by reason of misappropriation of...

  13. A microenvironment approach to reducing sedentary time and increasing physical activity of children and adults at a playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. Test whether a micro-environment park intervention in Grand Forks, ND, movement of seating away from a playground, would increase the physical activity and length of stay of park users. Method. STUDY 1, summer 2012: physical activity of children and adults was assessed during baseline (...

  14. Solving Real World Problems with Alternate Reality Gaming: Student Experiences in the Global Village Playground Capstone Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondlinger, Mary Jo; McLeod, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Village Playground (GVP) was a capstone learning experience designed to address institutional assessment needs while providing an integrated and authentic learning experience for students aimed at fostering complex problem solving, as well as critical and creative thinking. In the GVP, students work on simulated and real-world problems…

  15. The Effects of Playground Markings on the Physical Self-Perceptions of 10-11-Year-Old School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crust, Lee; McKenna, Jim; Spence, Jon; Thomas, Catherine; Evans, Donna; Bishop, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Significant proportions of school children in the UK do not meet the minimum recommended daily requirements of 60-min moderate-intensity physical activity. Beyond taught classes, playtimes offer the opportunity for children to play and be physically active. Painted markings are one recent addition to school playgrounds that are…

  16. Internet-Based Training to Improve Preschool Playground Safety: Evaluation of the Stamp-in-Safety Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C.; Pennefather, Jordan; Marquez, Brion; Marquez, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Playground injuries result in over 200,000 US pediatric emergency department visits annually. One strategy to reduce injuries is improved adult supervision. The Stamp-in-Safety programme, which involves supervisors stamping rewards for children playing safely, has been demonstrated in preliminary classroom-based work to reduce child…

  17. A Service-Learning Project for Geography: Designing a Painted Playground Map of the United States for Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Donald; Heppen, John

    2005-01-01

    Many student geography organizations or clubs associated with colleges and universities undertake community service projects each year to meet local needs and to gain recognition within the community. A uniquely geographical project of playground map painting provides a great community service and goes one step further by incorporating elements of…

  18. Does Playground Improvement Increase Physical Activity among Children? A Quasi-Experimental Study of a Natural Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika E. Bohn-Goldbaum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor recreational spaces have the potential to increase physical activity. This study used a quasi-experimental evaluation design to determine how a playground renovation impacts usage and physical activity of children and whether the visitations correlate with children’s physical activity levels and parental impressions of the playground. Observational data and intercept interviews were collected simultaneously on park use and park-based activity among playground visitors at pre- and postrenovation at an intervention and a comparison park during three 2-hour periods each day over two weeks. No detectable difference in use between parks was observed at followup. In the intervention park, attendance increased among boys, but decreased among girls although this (nonsignificant decline was less marked than in the comparison park. Following renovation, there was no detectable difference between parks in the number of children engaged in MVPA (interaction between park and time: P=0.73. At the intervention park, there was a significant decline in girls engaging in MVPA at followup (P=0.04. Usage was correlated with parental/carer perceptions of playground features but not with physical activity levels. Renovations have limited the potential to increase physical activity until factors influencing usage and physical activity behavior are better understood.

  19. The Internet Playground: Children's Access, Entertainment, and Mis-Education. Second Printing. Popular Culture and Everyday Life Volume 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Based on four years of experience teaching computers to 8-12 year olds, media scholar Ellen Seiter offers parents and educators practical advice on what children need to know about the Internet and when they need to know it. "The Internet Playground" argues that, contrary to the promises of technology boosters, teaching with computers is very…

  20. Mothers' Reports of Play Dates and Observation of School Playground Behavior of Children Having High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Frederick D.; Gorospe, Clarissa M.; Chang, Ya-Chih; Sugar, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are generally included with typically developing peers at school. They have difficulties interacting with peers on the school playground. Previous literature suggests that having play dates in the home may be related to better peer acceptance at school. Methods: This study…

  1. Stray animal and human defecation as sources of soil-transmitted helminth eggs in playgrounds of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zain, S N; Rahman, R; Lewis, J W

    2015-11-01

    Soil contaminated with helminth eggs and protozoan cysts is a potential source of infection and poses a threat to the public, especially to young children frequenting playgrounds. The present study determines the levels of infection of helminth eggs in soil samples from urban and suburban playgrounds in five states in Peninsular Malaysia and identifies one source of contamination via faecal screening from stray animals. Three hundred soil samples from 60 playgrounds in five states in Peninsular Malaysia were screened using the centrifugal flotation technique to identify and determine egg/cyst counts per gram (EPG) for each parasite. All playgrounds, especially those in Penang, were found to be contaminated with eggs from four nematode genera, with Toxocara eggs (95.7%) the highest, followed by Ascaris (93.3%), Ancylostoma (88.3%) and Trichuris (77.0%). In addition, faeces from animal shelters were found to contain both helminth eggs and protozoan cysts, with overall infection rates being 54% and 57% for feline and canine samples, respectively. The most frequently occurring parasite in feline samples was Toxocara cati (37%; EPG, 42.47 ± 156.08), while in dog faeces it was Ancylostoma sp. (54%; EPG, 197.16 ± 383.28). Infection levels also tended to be influenced by season, type of park/playground and the texture of soil/faeces. The occurrence of Toxocara, Ancylostoma and Trichuris eggs in soil samples highlights the risk of transmission to the human population, especially children, while the presence of Ascaris eggs suggests a human source of contamination and raises the issue of hygiene standards and public health risks at sites under investigation.

  2. Estimating children's exposure to toxic elements in contaminated toys and children's jewelry via saliva mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Nguyen, Alain; Zagury, Gerald J

    2014-09-19

    Children's potential for exposure to potentially toxic elements in contaminated jewelry and toys via mouth contact has not yet been fully evaluated. Various toys and jewelry (metallic toys and jewelry [MJ], plastic toys, toys with paint or coating, and brittle/pliable toys; n = 32) were tested using the saliva extraction (mouthing) compartment of the DIN and RIVM bioaccessibility protocols to assess As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Se mobilization via saliva. Total concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb were found elevated in analyzed samples. Four metals were mobilized to saliva from 16 MJ in significant quantities (>1 μg for highly toxic Cd and Pb, >10 μg for Cu and Ni). Bioaccessible concentrations and hazard index values for Cd exceeded limit values, for young children between 6 mo- and 3 yr-old and according to both protocols. Total and bioaccessible metal concentrations were different and not always correlated, encouraging the use of bioaccessibility for more accurate hazard assessments. Bioaccessibility increased with increasing extraction time. Overall, the risk from exposure to toxic elements via mouthing was high only for Cd and for MJ. Further research on children's exposure to toxic elements following ingestion of toy or jewelry material is recommended.

  3. [Determination of 21 fragrance allergens in toys by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Qing; Zang, Qing; Bai, Hua; Li, Haiyu; Kang, Suyuan; Wang, Chao

    2012-05-01

    A method of gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) was developed for the determination of 21 fragrance allergens in sticker toys, plush toys and plastic toys. The experimental conditions, such as sample pretreatment conditions, and the analytical conditions of GC-IT-MS, were optimized. The sticker toy samples and plush toy samples were extracted with acetone by ultrasonic wave, and the extracts were separated on an Agilent HP-1 MS column (50 m x 0.2 mm x 0.5 microm), then determined by IT-MS and quantified by external standard method. The plastic toy samples were extracted by the dissolution-precipitation approach, cleaned up with an Envi-carb solid phase extraction column and concentrated by rotary evaporation and nitrogen blowing, then determined by GC-IT-MS and quantified by external standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.002-50 mg/L with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.996 8. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N > 10) were 0.02-40 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the target compounds spiked in the sample at three concentration levels were in the range of 82.2%-110.8% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.6%-10.5%. These results show that this method is accurate and sensitive for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the 21 fragrance allergens in the 3 types of toys.

  4. Toll-like receptor 4 decoy, TOY, attenuates gram-negative bacterial sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Keehoon; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kim, Hak-Zoo; Kim, Ho Min; Park, Beom Seok; Hwang, Seong-Ik; Lee, Jie-Oh; Kim, Sun Chang; Koh, Gou Young

    2009-10-09

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane glycolipid, induces sepsis through its interaction with myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). To block interaction between LPS/MD-2 complex and TLR4, we designed and generated soluble fusion proteins capable of binding MD-2, dubbed TLR4 decoy receptor (TOY) using 'the Hybrid leucine-rich repeats (LRR) technique'. TOY contains the MD-2 binding ectodomain of TLR4, the LRR motif of hagfish variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR), and the Fc domain of IgG1 to make it soluble, productive, and functional. TOY exhibited strong binding to MD-2, but not to the extracellular matrix (ECM), resulting in a favorable pharmacokinetic profile in vivo. TOY significantly extended the lifespan, when administered in either preventive or therapeutic manners, in both the LPS- and cecal ligation/puncture-induced sepsis models in mice. TOY markedly attenuated LPS-triggered NF-kappaB activation, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and thrombus formation in multiple organs. Taken together, the targeting strategy for sequestration of LPS/MD-2 complex using the decoy receptor TOY is effective in treating LPS- and bacteria-induced sepsis; furthermore, the strategy used in TOY development can be applied to the generation of other novel decoy receptor proteins.

  5. Can a Toy Encourage Lower Calorie Meal Bundle Selection in Children? A Field Experiment on the Reinforcing Effects of Toys on Food Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Martin; Lane, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research was to test whether including an inexpensive nonfood item (toy) with a smaller-sized meal bundle (420 calories), but not with the regular-sized meal bundle version (580 calories), would incentivize children to choose the smaller-sized meal bundle, even among children with overweight and obesity. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect in a between-subjects field experiment of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice (here, a binary choice between a smaller-sized or regular-sized meal bundles). A random sample of 109 elementary school children from two schools in the Tucson, Arizona metropolitan area (55 females; Mage = 8.53 years, SDage = 2.14; MBMI = 18.30, SDBMI = 4.42) participated. Children's height and weight were measured and body-mass-index (BMI) was calculated, adjusting for age and sex. In our sample, 21 children were considered to be either overweight or obese. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice. Results revealed that the inclusion of a toy with a smaller-sized meal, but not with the regular-sized version, predicted smaller-sized meal choice (P food when such is paired with a toy. BMI neither moderated nor nullified the effect of toy on smaller-sized meal choice (P = .125), suggesting that children with overweight and obesity can also be incentivized to choose less. This article is the first to suggest that fast-food restaurant chains may well utilize toys to motivate children to choose smaller-sized meal bundles. Our findings may be relevant for consumers, health advocates, policy makers, and marketers who would benefit from a strategy that presents healthier, but still desirable, meal bundle options.

  6. Determination of the Composition and Quantity of Phthalate Ester Additives in PVC Children's Toys. Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Note 06/97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Ruth; Labounskaia, Irina; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Siddorn, John; Stephenson, Angela

    Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is widely used in toys and other children's products. This study, conducted by Greenpeace, examined the composition and quantity of phthalate ester additives in children's PVC toys, used to give the toys added flexibility. Drawn from 17 countries, a total of 71 toys designed to be chewed by babies and young…

  7. Estimation of Lead (Pb in Toys Using X-Ray Fluorescence Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipayan Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead exists extensively in the environment and it is a heavy metal, which is neurotoxic in nature which is harmful to children. In contrast to trace elements such as iron (Fe and zinc (Zn, lead has no recognized benecial effects in human body. With the economic development in India in recent years, the concentration of lead has increased in the environment and henceforth, lead pollution has become a severe problem in the country. Lead poisoning can create an immense damage and irreversible harm to foetal growth, the growth of teenagers and psychological, behavioural and cognitive development. Aim and Objectives: To estimate the lead content in the sample of toys. Material and Methods: 97 different toys were collected and coded as TS, these toys were kept in plastic lock cover which were lead proof. At rst the toys were arranged in order according to the serial number of the code (TS1 – TS97. The FP X-ray uorescence (Innov-X ray analyzer instrument was placed with the window of the analyzer on the surface of the toy vertically in such a way that there was no gap between the toy surface and the sampling window. The parts per million (ppm values of all toys were recorded. Results: Out of 97 samples tested, 22 samples were above permissible limits. The different materials demonstrate signicant correlation with the lead content in ppm. Lead is used as a stabilizer in some toys as well as children's items made from PVC plastic. Baby toys made up of plastic have higher concentration of lead. Lead can leach out of products when children handle and swallow them involuntarily.

  8. Modeling protein synthesis from a physicist's perspective: a toy model

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, A; Basu, Aakash; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2007-01-01

    Proteins are polymers of amino acids. These macromolecules are synthesized by intracellular machines called {\\it ribosome}. Although, traditionally, the experimental investigation of protein synthesis has been an active area of research in molecular cell biology, important quantitative models of this phenomenon have been reported mostly in the research journals devoted to statistical physics and related interdisciplinary topics. From the perspective of a physicist, protein synthesis is a phenomenon of {\\it classical transport of interacting ribosomes on a messenger RNA (mRNA) template} that dictates the sequence of the amino acids on the protein. Here we bring this frontier area of contemporary research into the classroom by appropriate simplification of the models and methods. In particular, we develope a simple toy model and analyze it by some elementary techniques of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to predict the average rate of protein synthesis and their spatial organization in the steady-state.

  9. From a toy model to a complete weighted voting system

    CERN Document Server

    Slomczynski, W; Slomczynski, Wojciech; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2007-01-01

    We investigate systems of indirect voting based on the law of Penrose, in which each representative in the voting body receives the number of votes (voting weight) proportional to the square root of the population he or she represents. For a generic population distribution the quota required for the qualified majority can be set in such a way that the voting power of any state is proportional to its weight. For a specific distribution of population the optimal quota has to be computed numerically. We analyse a toy voting model for which the optimal quota can be estimated analytically as a function of the number of members of the voting body. This result, combined with the normal approximation technique, allows us to design a simple, efficient, and flexible voting system which can be easily adopted for varying weights and number of players.

  10. Instrumented toys for assessing spatial cognition in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolo, Domenico; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Formica, Domenico; Keller, Flavio; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes an interdisciplinary approach to the assessment on infants' behavior, with a focus on the technology. The goal is an objective, quantitative analysis of concurrent maturation of sensory, motor and cognitive abilities in young children, in relation to the achievement of developmental milestones. An instrumented block-box toy specifically developed to assess the ability to insert objects into holes is presented. The functional specifications are derived from experimental protocols devised by neuroscientists to assess spatial cognition skills. Technological choices are emphasized with respect to ecological requirements. An ad hoc calibration procedure is also presented which is suitable to unstructured environments. Finally, preliminary tests carried out at a local day-care with 12-24 months old infants are presented which prove the in-field usability of the proposed technology.

  11. Aerodynamics of a single-degree-of-freedom toy ornithopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez Alarcon, Ramiro; Balakumar, B. J.; Allen, James J.

    2009-11-01

    The flow field around a flight-worthy toy ornithopter is investigated using PIV diagnostics in combination with load cells to understand the aerodynamics during nominally steady flight and turning. Phase-locked measurements of the wake and inflow are performed using an automated PIV system around the flapping wings of the ornithopter with the ornithopter fixed to a load-cell inside a 1.3m x 1.2m wind tunnel test section. The mildly oscillating free flight of the ornithopter is compared to the wake measurements to understand the causes of the unsteadiness. Further, the modulation of the wake that causes the turning motion of the ornithopter is explained using the wake structure measurements.

  12. A one-dimensional toy model of globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Fanelli, D; Ruffo, S; Fanelli, Duccio; Merafina, Marco; Ruffo, Stefano

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a one-dimensional toy model of globular clusters. The model is a version of the well-known gravitational sheets system, where we take additionally into account mass and energy loss by evaporation of stars at the boundaries. Numerical integration by the "exact" event-driven dynamics is performed, for initial uniform density and Gaussian random velocities. Two distinct quasi-stationary asymptotic regimes are attained, depending on the initial energy of the system. We guess the forms of the density and velocity profiles which fit numerical data extremely well and allow to perform an independent calculation of the self-consistent gravitational potential. Some power-laws for the asymptotic number of stars and for the collision times are suggested.

  13. Toys contaminated by toxic substances; Estudo de metais e de substancias toxicas em brinquedos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zini, Josiane; Ferreira, Joao C.; Carvalho, Fatima M. S. de; Bustillos, Jose O.W.V.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Salvador, Vera L.R.; Abrao, Alcidio [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente], e-mail: jcferrei@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    The main goal of the present study is the analysis of toxic elements in plastic toys commercialized in Brazil. Metals like cadmium, lead, chromium, zinc, and aluminum, along with organic substances, such as phthalates, were identified in different toys by quantitative analytical techniques. Traces of thorium were detected in one of the studied samples. Although the measured radioactive dose was rather low, the presence of such a radioactive contaminant is against to the International Agency of Atomic Energy regulations. Similar toys manufactured in Brazil were analyzed and found to observe the standards defined by the National Institute of Metrology (INMETRO). (author)

  14. Contents of fragrance allergens in children's cosmetics and cosmetic-toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T

    1999-01-01

    Fragrances are one of the major causes of allergic contact dermatitis from use of cosmetics. The aim of the current study was to assess the possible exposure of infants and children to fragrance allergens from cosmetic products and "toy-cosmetics". 25 children's cosmetics or toy-cosmetic products...... was present in a maximum concentration of 0.07%. In one cosmetic-toy, cinnamic alcohol was present at 3.7% which exceeds the current industry guideline for safe products by a factor of 5. In all types of products other fragrance allergens were frequently found. In conclusion, children are already exposed...

  15. [Toxicity effects of phthalate substitute plasticizers used in toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata-Koizumi, Mutsuko; Takahashi, Mika; Matsumoto, Mariko; Kawamura, Tomoko; Ono, Atsushi; Hirose, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    Phthalate esters are widely used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride products. Because of human health concerns, regulatory authorities in Japan, US, Europe and other countries control the use of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and di-n-octyl phthalate for the toys that can be put directly in infants' mouths. While these regulatory actions will likely reduce the usage of phthalate esters, there is concern that other plasticizers that have not been sufficiently evaluated for safety will be used more frequently. We therefore collected and evaluated the toxicological information on di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT), 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH), diisononyl adipate (DINA), 2,2,4-trimetyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB), tri-n-butyl citrate (TBC) and acetyl tri-n-butyl citrate (ATBC) which were detected at a relatively high frequency in toys. The collected data have shown that chronic exposure to DEHT affects the eye and nasal turbinate, and DINCH exerts effects on the thyroid and kidney in rats. DINA and TXIB have been reported to have hepatic and renal effects in dogs or rats, and ATBC slightly affected the liver in rats. The NOAELs for repeated dose toxicity are relatively low for DINCH (40 mg/kg bw/day) and TXIB (30 mg/kg bw/day) compared with DEHT, DINA and ATBC. DEHT, TXIB and ATBC have been reported to have reproductive/developmental effects at relatively high doses in rats. For DINA and TBC, available data are insufficient for assessing the hazards, and therefore, adequate toxicity studies should be conducted. In the present review, the toxicity information on 6 alternatives to phthalate plasticizers is summarized, focusing on the effects after oral exposure, which is the route of most concern.

  16. Brinquedo, gênero e educação na brinquedoteca Toys, gender and education in a toy library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tizuko Morchida Kishimoto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa realizada com crianças de 2 a 10 anos de idade, freqüentadoras da Brinquedoteca da Faculdade de Educação da USP, de março de 2005 a março de 2006, tendo como objetivo o estabelecimento de relações entre brinquedo, gênero e educação. A pesquisa qualitativa, etnográfica, utiliza: diário de bordo, filmagens, transcrições de episódios de brincadeira e relatos. A partir da teoria pós-estruturalista feminista, que usa uma concepção de subjetividade precária, contraditória e constantemente se reconstituindo no discurso, propomos uma concepção de gênero performativa, instaurada pela performance repetida de atores sociais, para desenvolver a eqüidade no brincar de meninos e meninas. Os resultados indicam a difícil tarefa de eliminar os preconceitos de gênero, que dependem de fatores externos à Brinquedoteca, mas há indícios de mudança, reforçando a crença de que é possível adotar uma política de valorização de eqüidade no brincar infantil, estimulando meninos e meninas a brincarem juntos.This text is about a research project carried out with children ranging from age 2 to 10, at the Education College Toy Library at the University of São Paulo from March 2005 to March 2006, with the objective of establishing relations between toys, gender and education. The qualitative and ethnographic research includes a logbook, video recordings, transcriptions of episodes in which children are playing and personal stories. Drawing on the post-structural feminist theory, based on a conception of subjectivity as precarious, contradictory and constantly reconstructed in discourse, the author suggests a concept of gender based on the performance of social actors as a means to develop equity in playing for both boys and girls. The results show the difficult task of eliminating gender preconceptions, which depends on factors that are external to the Toy Library environment. They also reveal the evidence of

  17. Diary entries from the "teachers' professional development playground": multiculturalism meets multisexualities in Australian education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta-Chiarolli, M

    1999-01-01

    Educational institutions are major cultural and social systems that police and regulate the living out of multicultural and multisexual queer identities, yet which also provide sites for anti-discriminatory responses to the marginalization of these multiple, hybrid identities. Censorship and disapproval (both real and imagined) together with informal codes and regulations for inclusion and representation within school and college communities reflect and reproduce formal debates within the wider society, and within ethnic, feminist, and gay/lesbian communities. Through a series of "Diary Entries," I document my work and experiences with educational groups in both secondary and tertiary education in Australia in recent years-in what a bicultural, bisexual teacher-friend calls "teachers' professional development playgrounds." I explore dilemmas, concerns and strategies for placing "multiculturalism" on the "multisexual" agenda and, conversely, for placing "multisexuality" on the "multicultural" agenda.

  18. NORD STREAM 2 and its Soft Power – an Unfolding Playground for the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Ioana Banciu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Nord Stream 2 pipeline in a double reflection (Russia - the candle, Germany - the mirror handling one particular aspect that influences Russia-EU relations since the Ukrainian factor emerged as a playground for both East and West tectonic plates - namely the energy sector. It is vital for any global power to understand this approach in order to reach people’s minds, in order to emerge as leaders on the world map and to build a strong perception over a political scene. A recently debated subject is Nord Stream 2. The reason why I have chosen to explore this subject is because I am very interested in how Kremlin seeks to have an exclusive control over Eastern Europe, given the full debate in the last three years. In this thesis I will also discuss some important elements of the Russian Soft Power over Europe introducing the plot of South Stream project.

  19. Instituting a smoke-free policy for city recreation centers and playgrounds, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Raymond; Mallya, Giridhar; Dean, Lorraine T; Rizvi, Amna; Dignam, Leo; Schwarz, Donald F

    2013-07-11

    In the United States, more than 600 municipalities have smoke-free parks, and more than 100 have smoke-free beaches. Nevertheless, adoption of outdoor smoke-free policies has been slow in certain regions. Critical to widespread adoption is the sharing of knowledge about the policy development and implementation process. In this article, we describe our experience in making City of Philadelphia recreation centers and playgrounds smoke-free. Of the 10 largest US cities, Philadelphia has among the highest rates of adult and youth smoking. Our objectives for an outdoor smoke-free policy included protecting against secondhand smoke, supporting a normative message that smoking is harmful, motivating smokers to quit, and mitigating tobacco-related sanitation costs. The Philadelphia Department of Public Health and the Department of Parks and Recreation engaged civic leaders, agency staff, and community stakeholders in the following steps: 1) making the policy case, 2) vetting policy options and engaging stakeholders, and 3) implementing policy. Near-term policy impacts were assessed through available data sources. More than 220 recreation centers, playgrounds, and outdoor pools became smoke-free through a combined mayoral executive order and agency regulation. Support for the policy was high. Estimates suggest a policy reach of 3.6 million annual visitors and almost 850 acres of new smoke-free municipal property. Localities can successfully implement outdoor smoke-free policies with careful planning and execution. Such policies hold great potential for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke, promoting nonsmoking norms, and providing additional motivation for residents to quit smoking.

  20. Lead and other toxic metals in playground paints from South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Kearl, Emily R; Solman, Kevin R

    2016-02-15

    Paints on surfaces of public playground structures in South West England have been analysed for Pb, Cr, Cd and Sb by field-portable, energy-dispersive XRF. Lead was detected (>8 μg g(-1)) in 102 out of 242 cases, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 152,000 μg g(-1) (median=451 μg g(-1)). Chromium was detected (>25 μg g(-1)) in 48 cases, and concentrations ranged from 26 to 24,800 μg g(-1) (median=1040 μg g(-1)) and exhibited a significant positive correlation with Pb concentrations. Antimony concentrations ranged from 273 to 16,000 μg g(-1) (median=2180 μg g(-1)) in 56 detectable cases, and Cd was detected in eight paints and up to a concentration of 771 μg g(-1) (median=252 μg g(-1)). The highest concentrations of Pb, Cr and Sb generally occurred in yellow or red paints but were encountered on a variety of structures and equipment (e.g. gates, flooring lines, railings and handles of climbing frames and seesaws, and the interior of a model train) and were observed in both flaking, extant paint and in formulations that appeared to have been recently applied. Maximum bioaccessible concentrations of Pb, Cr and Sb in a range of paints, evaluated in selected samples by ICP analysis following pepsin-dilute HCl extraction, were 2710, 205 and 23.6 μg g(-1), respectively, or 16.6, 0.82 and 0.56% of the respective total concentrations. Total and bioaccessible concentrations of toxic metals in playground paints that exceed various contemporary and historical standards (and in many cases for Pb, by orders of magnitude) are likely to be a more widespread and pervasive issue that needs addressing by the relevant authorities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Heavy Metals Content in Playground Topsoil of Some Public Primary Schools in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.E. Popoola

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the concentration of potentially harmful heavy metals in playground topsoil from public primary schools in metropolitan Lagos, is imperative in order to evaluate the potential risks to the children in the schools. The study was conducted in order to determine if the concentrations of heavy metals in the soil is high enough to constitute a risk to children. Samples were collected from 20 schools in the Lagos metropolis and were subjected to microwave aqua regia digestion. Subsequently, the concentrations of the metals in the samples were measured using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS. The investigation revealed that Pb has the highest concentrations of all the metals. Mean metal concentration in playground soils were PbHD 23.08±11.11, PbLD 23.54±14.55; CrHD 5.99±5.79, CrLD 3.80±3.83; CdHD 0.33±0.33, CdLD 0.39±0.31; MnHD 1.60±0.14, MnLD 1.61±0.05 μg/g. Univariate analysis of variance showed that the metal concentrations in the high or low population density areas were not significantly different (p>0.05. The results generally indicated that pollution by metals in the dusts and soils is minimal for Pb and Cr and negligible for Mn and Cd while geographical location of the schools in high and low population density areas of Lagos state, Nigeria was not a determinant in the evaluation of children’s exposure to heavy metals.

  2. Energy Expenditure in Playground Games in Primary School Children Measured by Accelerometer and Heart Rate Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fonseca, Juan Fernando Ortega; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-04-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the energy expenditure (EE) measured using indirect calorimetry (IC) during playground games and to assess the validity of heart rate (HR) and accelerometry counts as indirect indicators of EE in children´s physical activity games. 32 primary school children (9.9 ± 0.6 years old, 19.8 ± 4.9 kg · m(-2) BMI and 37.6 ± 7.2 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) VO2max). Indirect calorimetry (IC), accelerometry and HR data were simultaneously collected for each child during a 90 min session of 30 playground games. Thirty-eight sessions were recorded in 32 different children. Each game was recorded at least in three occasions in other three children. The inter-subject coefficient of variation within a game was 27% for IC, 37% for accelerometry and 13% for HR. The overall mean EE in the games was 4.2 ± 1.4 kcals · min(-1) per game, totaling to 375 ± 122 kcals/per 90 min/session. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and accelerometer counts was 0.48 (p=0.026) for endurance games and 0.21 (p=0.574) for strength games. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and HR was 0.71 (p=0.032) for endurance games and 0.48 (p=0.026) for strength games. Our data indicate that both accelerometer and HR monitors are useful devices for estimating EE during endurance games, but only HR monitors estimates are accurate for endurance games.

  3. Instituting a Smoke-Free Policy for City Recreation Centers and Playgrounds, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Leung, JD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In the United States, more than 600 municipalities have smoke-free parks, and more than 100 have smoke-free beaches. Nevertheless, adoption of outdoor smoke-free policies has been slow in certain regions. Critical to widespread adoption is the sharing of knowledge about the policy development and implementation process. In this article, we describe our experience in making City of Philadelphia recreation centers and playgrounds smoke-free. Community Context Of the 10 largest US cities, Philadelphia has among the highest rates of adult and youth smoking. Our objectives for an outdoor smoke-free policy included protecting against secondhand smoke, supporting a normative message that smoking is harmful, motivating smokers to quit, and mitigating tobacco-related sanitation costs. Methods The Philadelphia Department of Public Health and the Department of Parks and Recreation engaged civic leaders, agency staff, and community stakeholders in the following steps: 1 making the policy case, 2 vetting policy options and engaging stakeholders, and 3 implementing policy. Near-term policy impacts were assessed through available data sources. Outcome More than 220 recreation centers, playgrounds, and outdoor pools became smoke-free through a combined mayoral executive order and agency regulation. Support for the policy was high. Estimates suggest a policy reach of 3.6 million annual visitors and almost 850 acres of new smoke-free municipal property. Interpretation Localities can successfully implement outdoor smoke-free policies with careful planning and execution. Such policies hold great potential for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke, promoting nonsmoking norms, and providing additional motivation for residents to quit smoking.

  4. Soil lead levels in parks and playgrounds: an environmental risk assessment in Newcastle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devey, P; Jingda, L

    1995-04-01

    In June 1993 the National Health and Medical Research Council set a national goal for blood lead of below 10 micrograms/dl. There is a need to know if the lead contamination of the urban environment is so high as to put community health at risk. Decisions, including whether soil should be removed and replaced, will have to be made. During the second half of 1993, an environmental assessment of lead contamination of soil within the City of Newcastle was conducted. Samples, 108 from surface soil and 10 from subsurface soil, were taken from public parks and playgrounds in the city area and analysed for lead content. The proportion within and the proportion above the guidelines for soil contamination were reported. Lead concentrations ranged from 25 to 2400 parts per million (ppm); 21 per cent of samples had concentrations higher than the 300 ppm action level, and the geometric mean was 134 ppm. Both the range and the average lead levels were typically no more than, or were even less than, soil lead levels documented for other cities in Australia, the United States and United Kingdom. Although each sampling site was noted, it was not our intention to focus in on individual sites. Indeed, to draw health-risk implications from any one result may be misleading and inaccurate. The results indicated moderate lead contamination of soil that could be controlled by regular top-dressing of soils, the use of bark chip on playground surfaces and by government initiatives aimed at lowering lead levels in petrol.

  5. Intelligent playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines play, gaming and learning in regard to intelligent playware developed for outdoor use. The key questions are how does these novel artefacts influence the concept of play, gaming and learning. Up until now play and game have been understood as different activities. This paper...... examines if the sharp differentiation between the two can be uphold in regard to intelligent playware for outdoor use. Play and game activities will be analysed and viewed in conjunction with learning contexts. This paper will stipulate that intelligent playware facilitates rapid shifts in contexts...

  6. 76 FR 54218 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Toys: Requirements for Accreditation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... materials for stakeholders will be available at a dedicated toy safety standard webpage: http://www.cpsc.gov... consumer product designed or intended primarily for children 12 years of age or younger.'' To the...

  7. Implication of information sharing on Bullwhip effects in a toy supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; El-Beheiry, Mohamed; Johansen, John

    2004-01-01

    Coordination of toy supply chains is challenged by volatile and seasonal demand with high forecast errors and bullwhip effects. This paper compares Bullwhip effects in a three-level divergent a toy supply chain between retailers who shared downstream demand information (consumer sales) and retail......Coordination of toy supply chains is challenged by volatile and seasonal demand with high forecast errors and bullwhip effects. This paper compares Bullwhip effects in a three-level divergent a toy supply chain between retailers who shared downstream demand information (consumer sales......) and retailers who did not share. Bullwhip effect is reduced when the shared volume of retailers who shared downstream demand information increased; however, fill rate performance is not improved. Key causes of Bullwhip effect are identified - forecast updating, timeliness of demand signal, limited use of shared...

  8. A toy model for weak interaction based on condensed gauge bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Kohyama, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We construct a toy model for weak interaction based on the assumption that gauge bosons form condensates. We then discuss the model predictions calculated from the effective Feynman rules which are derived through computing the effective action.

  9. Lead migration from toys by anodic stripping voltammetry using a bismuth film electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, M Fernanda C; Catarino, Rita I L; Pimenta, Adriana M; Souto, M Renata S; Afonso, Christelle S; Fernandes, Ana F Q

    2016-09-02

    Metals may be released from toys via saliva during mouthing, via sweat during dermal contact, or via gastric and intestinal fluids after partial or whole ingestion. In this study, we determined the lead migration from toys bought on the Portuguese market for children below 3 years of age. The lead migration was performed according to the European Committee for Standardization EN 71-3, which proposes a 2-hour migration test that simulates human gastric conditions. The voltammetric determination of migrated lead was performed by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) at a bismuth film electrode (BiFE). For all the analyzed toys, the values of migrated lead did not exceed the limits imposed by the European Committee for Standardization EN 71-3 (90 mg kg(-1)) and by the EU Directive 2009/48/EC (13.5 mg kg(-1)) on the safety of toys.

  10. Examinations of knowledge and applications about toy selections of mothers who have child 1-3 age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Sülü Uğurlu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was descriptive research whıch conducted to determine of knowledge and applications about toy selections of mothers who have chıld 1-3 age groupMethods: This study was taken 250 mothers who agreed to participate in research and who have chıld 1-3 age group, admitted to state hospital in chıld polyclinc in Odemis between 20th November-20thJanuary.Results: It was found that %34.0 of mothers in research found itself sometimes sufficient about toy selection, %82.8 of them didn’t receive any information abaout toy selection, %78.4 of them read the warnings on the purchase of toys, %83.6 of them was attention when bought toys that the chıld’s age, %86.4 of them was attention when bought toys that the chıld’s gender, %94.8 of them was attention when bought toys that the toy was safe, %88.8 of them cleaned up toys.Conclusion: Mothers who participated in research determined to need for information about toy selections for chıldren according to age group.

  11. Parents as a Team: Mother, Father, a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder, and a Spinning Toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Douglas W.; McDonald, T. A.; Stickle, Trini

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a single case study involving a visit to a diagnostic clinic for autism spectrum disorder. A young boy finds a toy that he can hold with one hand and spin with another. In order to retrieve the toy and leave it in the clinic, the parents engage in a team effort. We describe this achievement in terms of two styles of practice or…

  12. Mean transverse momenta correlations in hadron-hadron collisions in MC toy model with repulsing strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altsybeev, Igor [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-22

    In the present work, Monte-Carlo toy model with repulsing quark-gluon strings in hadron-hadron collisions is described. String repulsion creates transverse boosts for the string decay products, giving modifications of observables. As an example, long-range correlations between mean transverse momenta of particles in two observation windows are studied in MC toy simulation of the heavy-ion collisions.

  13. Parents as a Team: Mother, Father, a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder, and a Spinning Toy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Douglas W.; McDonald, T. A.; Stickle, Trini

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a single case study involving a visit to a diagnostic clinic for autism spectrum disorder. A young boy finds a toy that he can hold with one hand and spin with another. In order to retrieve the toy and leave it in the clinic, the parents engage in a team effort. We describe this achievement in terms of two styles of practice or…

  14. The toy library service at Honeylands Family Support Unit: an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rub, S

    1987-01-01

    Toy libraries have become a favoured way of providing a service to families in which there is a mentally handicapped child. The purpose of this study was to gain information about how parents valued the service provided by the toy library at Honeylands Family Support Unit. Parents expressed a great deal of satisfaction with the service. Suggestions are made as to how it could be further improved and about the desirability of it being extended to school-aged children.

  15. THE INTERVENTION BY THE OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST IN OUTPATIENT TOY LIBRARY: REPORT OF AN EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Soares Bernardes; Maria Paula Panúncio Pinto; Luzia Iara Pfeifer; Amanda Mota Pacciulio Sposito; Mariana Oliveira Leite Silva

    2014-01-01

    Playing children develop essential skills to guarantee the performance of roles and activities, making it essential to maintain the play in different contexts. The objective is to describe and discuss the possible role of the occupational therapist in outpatient toy library. This is an experience report of Occupational Therapy undergraduate students on their activities in field (internship on Care for Children and Adolescents), in outpatients toy libraries based on the analysis of the reports...

  16. Determination of 48 fragrance allergens in toys using GC with ion trap MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Li, Wentao; Li, Haiyu; Li, Pi; Ma, Qiang; Meng, Xianshuang; Qi, Meiling; Bai, Hua

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a method for the simultaneous determination of 48 fragrance allergens in four types of toys (plastic toys, play clays, plush toys, and paper toys) based on GC with ion trap MS/MS. Compared with single-stage MS, MS/MS is superior in terms of the qualification and quantification of a large range of compounds in complicated matrices. Procedures for extraction and purification were optimized for each toy type. The method proved to be linear over a wide range of concentrations for all analytes with correlation coefficients between 0.9768 and 0.9999. Validation parameters, namely, LODs and LOQs, ranged from 0.005-5.0 and from 0.02-20 mg/kg, respectively. Average recoveries of target compounds (spiked at three concentration levels) were in the range of 79.5-109.1%. Intraday and interday repeatabilities of the proposed method varied from 0.7-10.5% and from 3.1-13.4%, respectively. The proposed method was used to monitor fragrance allergens in commercial toy products. Our findings indicate that this method is an accurate and effective technique for analyzing fragrance allergens in materials composed of complex components.

  17. Survey of Primary Aromatic Amines and Colorants in Polyurethane, Nylon and Textile Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    The residual and migration levels of 28 primary aromatic amines (PAAs) in polyurethane and nylon toys were determined using LC-MS/MS, and the migration and residual amounts of PAAs and 15 colorants in textile toys were determined using LC-MS/MS and LC-TOF-MS according to the European Standard EN71. Among 34 polyurethane toy samples, 2,6-diaminotoluene and 2,4-diaminotoluene were detected in the same 12 samples at residual levels ranging from 2.1 to 19.7 and from 7.6 to 39.6 μg/g, respectively. Furthermore, 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (4,4'-MDA) and aniline were detected in 9 samples (from 0.2 to 8.7 μg/g), and one sample (0.4 μg/g), respectively. PAAs were not detected in the 8 samples of nylon toys. As for the migration test into water, only 4,4'-MDA migrated from 3 polyurethane toys at levels ranging from 0.4 to 2.5 μg/g. PAAs did not migrate from the 43 textile toys, but colorants such as Solvent Yellow 1 and Basic Red 9 were detected at the residual level of 0.02 μg/g. The residual levels of PAAs and colorants detected in this study were significantly lower than the limit values established by the European Union regulation.

  18. Toy-related injuries among children treated in US Emergency Departments, 1990-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Vihas M; Gaw, Christopher E; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the epidemiology of injuries associated with toys among US children by analyzing data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. During 1990-2011, an estimated 3278073 (95% confidence interval = 2762281-3793865) children toy-related injuries, averaging 149003 cases annually. The annual injury rate per 10000 children increased significantly by 39.9% from 18.88 in 1990 to 26.42 in 2011. The number and rate of injuries peaked at age 2 years; 63.4% of patients were male; and 80.3% of injuries occurred at home. Ride-on toys accounted for 34.9% of injuries and 42.5% of hospital admissions. This study is the first to comprehensively investigate toy-related injuries among children using a nationally representative data set. The increasing number and rate of toy-related injuries to children, especially those associated with ride-on toys, underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent these injuries.

  19. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Tortella

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  20. Zoo Playgrounds: A Source of Enrichment or Stress for a Group of Nearby Cockatoos? A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Courtney K; Marples, Nicola M

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that in some circumstances, zoo visitors may be aversive stimuli to nonhuman animals housed in zoos. Yet, most previous research has focused on primates with little attention given to numerous other species who are housed in zoos. The focus animal of this project was the cockatoo, a species who has received minimal attention in zoo-based research. Furthermore, although the influence of the zoo setting has become increasingly important in visitor effect studies, this is the 1st study to quantify the effect of activity at a children's playground on zoo animals. There was an investigation on the effect of a zoo playground on the behavior of citron-crested and Moluccan cockatoos (Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata and Cacatua moluccensis), as well as the effect of children standing in front of the birds' aviaries. The results showed that in some circumstances, the Moluccan cockatoos retreated from visitors, while the citron-crested cockatoos did not retreat from visitors and became more social in the presence of visitors. These findings highlight the importance of careful selection of species and individual animals to be housed near zoo playgrounds.

  1. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  2. Assessment of toxic metals and phthalates in children's toys and clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfali, Samira I; Sabra, Rayan; Jurdi, Mey; Taleb, Robin I

    2013-10-01

    Toxic metals and phthalates are introduced in the manufacturing of plastic toys and modeling clays. In Lebanon, inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays (sold in dollar stores) are affordable and popular, and there is no legislation to monitor or regulate such toys. This study aimed to assess the quality of inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays imported in Lebanon. Metal concentrations in toys, namely, zinc [not detectable (ND) to 3,708 μg/g], copper (ND to 140), chromium (ND to 75 μg/g), tin (ND to 39 μg/g), and cadmium (Cd) (ND to 20 μg/g), were lower than the European Union (EU) Directive limits, whereas lead (ND to 258 μg/g) in 10% of samples and antimony (Sb) (ND to 195 μg/g) in 5% of samples were greater than the EU limits. In modeling clays, most of the metals were lower than the EU Directive limits except for Cd and arsenic (As). Cd was detected in 83% of samples, with a mean level of 9.1 μg/g, which is far greater than the EU Directive limit (1.9 μg/g). The As mean level of 4.5 μg/g was greater than the EU limit (4.0 μg/g) and was detected in 9% of samples. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were found in 60% of children's toys and 77% of modeling clays. Phthalic acid butyl ester had the highest-level PAE encountered and was ≤59.1 % in one type of clay. However, among children's toys, di(4-octyl) ester terephthalic acid was the highest encountered phthalate at a concentration of 25.7%. The community survey indicated that 82% of households purchase their toys from inexpensive shops and that only 17% of parents were aware of the health hazard of such toys. Consequently, an intervention plan was proposed for the provision of safe toys to children.

  3. CERN Rocks

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  4. A toy model for the AdS/CFT correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Berenstein, D E

    2004-01-01

    We study the large N gauged quantum mechanics for a single Hermitian matrix in the Harmonic oscillator potential well as a toy model for the AdS/CFT correspondence. We argue that the dual geometry should be a string in two dimensions with a curvature of stringy size. Even though the dual geometry is not weakly curved, one can still gain knowledge of the system from a detailed study of the open-closed string duality. We give a mapping between the basis of states made of traces (closed strings) and the eigenvalues of the matrix (D-brane picture) in terms of Schur polynomials. We connect this model with the study of giant gravitons in AdS_5 x S^5$. We show that the two giant gravitons that expand along AdS_5 and S^5 can be interpreted in the matrix model as taking an eigenvalue from the Fermi sea and exciting it very much, or as making a hole in the Fermi sea respectively. This is similar to recent studies of the c=1 string. This connection gives new insight on how to perform calculations for giant gravitons.

  5. A Toy Cosmology Using a Hubble-Scale Casimir Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. McCulloch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The visible mass of the observable universe agrees with that needed for a flat cosmos, and the reason for this is not known. It is shown that this can be explained by modelling the Hubble volume as a black hole that emits Hawking radiation inwards, disallowing wavelengths that do not fit exactly into the Hubble diameter, since partial waves would allow an inference of what lies outside the horizon. This model of “horizon wave censorship” is equivalent to a Hubble-scale Casimir effect. This incomplete toy model is presented to stimulate discussion. It predicts a minimum mass and acceleration for the observable universe which are in agreement with the observed mass and acceleration, and predicts that the observable universe gains mass as it expands and was hotter in the past. It also predicts a suppression of variation on the largest cosmic scales that agrees with the low-l cosmic microwave background anomaly seen by the Planck satellite.

  6. Optomechanical Analogy for Toy Cosmology with Quantized Scale Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Smiga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The simplest cosmology—the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker–Lemaître (FRW model— describes a spatially homogeneous and isotropic universe where the scale factor is the only dynamical parameter. Here we consider how quantized electromagnetic fields become entangled with the scale factor in a toy version of the FRW model. A system consisting of a photon, source, and detector is described in such a universe, and we find that the detection of a redshifted photon by the detector system constrains possible scale factor superpositions. Thus, measuring the redshift of the photon is equivalent to a weak measurement of the underlying cosmology. We also consider a potential optomechanical analogy system that would enable experimental exploration of these concepts. The analogy focuses on the effects of photon redshift measurement as a quantum back-action on metric variables, where the position of a movable mirror plays the role of the scale factor. By working in the rotating frame, an effective Hubble equation can be simulated with a simple free moving mirror.

  7. Phenomenologically varying \\Lambda and a toy model for the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Khurshudyan, M; Chubaryan, E; Farahani, H

    2014-01-01

    We consider a model of the Universe with variable G and {\\Lambda}. Subject of our interest is a phenomenological model for {\\Lambda} proposed and considered in this article first time (up to our knowledge). Modification based on an assumption that ghost dark energy exists and Universe will feel it through {\\Lambda}. In that case we would like to consider possibility that there exist some unusual connections between different components of the fluids existing in Universe. We would like to stress, that this is just an assumption and could be very far from the reality. We are interested by this model as a phenomenological and mathematical and unfortunately, we will not discuss about physical conditions and possibilities of having such modifications. To test our assumption and to observe behavior of the Universe, we will consider toy models filled by a barotropic fluid and modified Chaplyagin gas. To complete the logic of the research we will consider interaction between barotropic fluid or Chaplygin gas with gho...

  8. Building toy models of proteins using coevolutionary information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ryan; Raghunathan, Mohit; Onuchic, Jose

    2015-03-01

    Recent developments in global statistical methodologies have advanced the analysis of large collections of protein sequences for coevolutionary information. Coevolution between amino acids in a protein arises from compensatory mutations that are needed to maintain the stability or function of a protein over the course of evolution. This gives rise to quantifiable correlations between amino acid positions within the multiple sequence alignment of a protein family. Here, we use Direct Coupling Analysis (DCA) to infer a Potts model Hamiltonian governing the correlated mutations in a protein family to obtain the sequence-dependent interaction energies of a toy protein model. We demonstrate that this methodology predicts residue-residue interaction energies that are consistent with experimental mutational changes in protein stabilities as well as other computational methodologies. Furthermore, we demonstrate with several examples that DCA could be used to construct a structure-based model that quantitatively agrees with experimental data on folding mechanisms. This work serves as a potential framework for generating models of proteins that are enriched by evolutionary data that can potentially be used to engineer key functional motions and interactions in protein systems. This research has been supported by the NSF INSPIRE award MCB-1241332 and by the CTBP sponsored by the NSF (Grant PHY-1427654).

  9. Soil pollution fingerprints of children playgrounds in Sarajevo city, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapcanin, Aida; Cakal, Mirsada; Jacimovic, Zeljko; Pehlic, Ekrem; Jancan, Gordan

    2017-04-01

    This is the first study, 10 years after the war activities, to report about the content of heavy metals and metalloids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) found in samples of soils from selected playgrounds in Sarajevo. Due to the fact that children are in direct contact with surface soils, it has been recommended that children's playgrounds should be given special consideration in this respect. Basic properties (pH in H2O, pH in 1 mol dm(-3) KCl, humus, and CaCO3) of the examined soils were determined. Samples for the determination of heavy metals and metalloids were prepared by microwave-assisted acid digestion and determined by using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Fluorine was determined potentiometrically. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used for determination of PAHs and PCBs. Determined contents (mg kg(-1)) for Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Co, Mo, Fe, Se, As, B, and F were in the ranges from: 0.031 ± 0.03 to 0.52 ± 0.05; 26.1 ± 2.5 to 47.7 ± 4.5; 0.07 ± 0.01 to 0.50 ± 0.08; 26.2 to 50; 19.5 ± 1.6 to 33.3 ± 2.7; 12.8 ± 1.8 to 31.9 ± 4.5; 56.0 ± 4.0 to 89.0 ± 6.5; 6.7 ± 0.6 to10.6 ± 1.0; soils, and may be included in projects planning children's health risk assessments and adopting environmental legislation which has not been sufficiently regulated in Bosnia and Herzegovina so far.

  10. The relationship between soil geochemistry and the bioaccessibility of trace elements in playground soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, Eduardo; Mingot, Juan; Chacón, Enrique; Charlesworth, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    A total of 32 samples of surficial soil were collected from 16 playground areas in Madrid (Spain), in order to investigate the importance of the geochemistry of the soil on subsequent bioaccessibility of trace elements. The in vitro bioaccessibility of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was evaluated by means of two extraction processes that simulate the gastric environment and one that reproduces a gastric + intestinal digestion sequence. The results of the in vitro bioaccessibility were compared against aqua regia extractions ("total" concentration), and it was found that total concentrations of As, Cu, Pb and Zn were double those of bioaccessible values, whilst that of Cr was ten times higher. Whereas the results of the gastric + intestinal extraction were affected by a high uncertainty, both gastric methods offered very similar and consistent results, with bioaccessibilities following the order: As = Cu = Pb = Zn > Co > Ni > Cr, and ranging from 63 to 7 %. Selected soil properties including pH, organic matter, Fe and CaCO(3) content were determined to assess their influence on trace element bioaccessibility, and it was found that Cu, Pb and Zn were predominantly bound to organic matter and, to a lesser extent, Fe oxides. The former fraction was readily accessible in the gastric solution, whereas Fe oxides seemed to recapture negatively charged chloride complexes of these elements in the gastric solution, lowering their bioaccessibility. The homogeneous pH of the playground soils included in the study does not influence trace element bioaccessibility to any significant extent except for Cr, where the very low gastric accessibility seems to be related to the strongly pH-dependent formation of complexes with organic matter. The results for As, which have been previously described and discussed in detail in Mingot et al. (Chemosphere 84: 1386-1391, 2011), indicate a high gastric bioaccessibility for this element as a consequence of its strong association with calcium

  11. Can a Toy Encourage Lower Calorie Meal Bundle Selection in Children? A Field Experiment on the Reinforcing Effects of Toys on Food Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research was to test whether including an inexpensive nonfood item (toy) with a smaller-sized meal bundle (420 calories), but not with the regular-sized meal bundle version (580 calories), would incentivize children to choose the smaller-sized meal bundle, even among children with overweight and obesity. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect in a between-subjects field experiment of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice (here, a binary choice between a smaller-sized or regular-sized meal bundles). A random sample of 109 elementary school children from two schools in the Tucson, Arizona metropolitan area (55 females; Mage = 8.53 years, SDage = 2.14; MBMI = 18.30, SDBMI = 4.42) participated. Children’s height and weight were measured and body-mass-index (BMI) was calculated, adjusting for age and sex. In our sample, 21 children were considered to be either overweight or obese. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of a toy on smaller-sized meal choice. Results revealed that the inclusion of a toy with a smaller-sized meal, but not with the regular-sized version, predicted smaller-sized meal choice (P motivate children to choose smaller-sized meal bundles. Our findings may be relevant for consumers, health advocates, policy makers, and marketers who would benefit from a strategy that presents healthier, but still desirable, meal bundle options. PMID:28085904

  12. The emissions of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from small polymeric toys placed in chocolate food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marć, Mariusz; Formela, Krzysztof; Klein, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2015-10-15

    The article presents findings on the emissions of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons from children's toys placed in chocolate food products. The emission test system involved the application of a new type of microscale stationary emission chamber, μ-CTE™ 250. In order to determine the type of the applied polymer in the manufacture of the tested toys, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis coupled with differential scanning calorimetry were used. It was found that the tested toy components or the whole toys (figurines) are made of two main types of polymers: polyamide and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer. Total number of studied small polymeric toys was 52. The average emissions of selected monoaromatic hydrocarbons from studied toys made of polyamide were as follows: benzene: 0.45 ± 0.33 ng/g; toluene: 3.3 ± 2.6 ng/g; ethylbenzene: 1.4 ± 1.4 ng/g; p,m-xylene: 2.5 ± 4.5 ng/g; and styrene: 8.2 ± 9.9 ng/g. In the case of studied toys made of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer the average emissions of benzene, toluene, ethylbeznene, p,m-xylene and styrene were: 0.31 ± 0.29 ng/g; 2.5 ± 1.4 ng/g; 4.6 ± 8.9 ng/g; 1.4 ± 1.1 ng/g; and 36 ± 44 ng/g, respectively.

  13. Load Absorption Characteristics of Tyre Production Waste Rubber for Playground Floor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghani A.N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The floor surfaces where slides and swings are placed in parks and playrooms should be soft and thick to ensure that whenever a child falls, the surface can withstand the impact and minimize injuries to the child. Shredded tyres from waste tyres or waste rubber from tyre manufacturing could become beneficial as shock absorber material which can be used as a playground floor. In this study, rubber cubes and rubber pads with 5%, 8% and 10% SBR mixes were prepared for mechanical testing. Two types of floor design surfaces with and without plywood on the surface were assembled for the shock test. Gmax and HIC of this waste rubber flooring system were investigated using the compression test for the rubber cube and the drop test for the rubber pad. The criteria of general protection standards are 200g for optimum acceleration and 1000 for HIC. The Gmax and HIC results indicated that the material and system could ensure a safe fall from up to 1.0m height.

  14. An assessment of swinger techniques for the playground swing oscillatory motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linge, Svein O

    2012-01-01

    Much attention has been devoted to how playground swing amplitudes are built up by swinger techniques, i.e. body actions. However, very little attention has been given to the requirements that such swinger techniques place on the swinger himself. The purpose of this study was to find out whether different swinger techniques yield significantly different maximum torques, endurance and coordinative skills, and also to identify preferable techniques. We modelled the seated swinger as a rigid dumbbell and compared three different techniques. A series of computer simulations were run with each technique, testing the performance with different body rotational speeds, delayed onset of body rotation and different body mass distributions, as swing amplitudes were brought up towards 90°. One technique was found to be extremely sensitive to the timing of body actions, limiting swing amplitudes to 50° and 8° when body action was delayed by 0.03 and 0.3 s, respectively. Two other more robust techniques reached 90° even with the largest of these delays, although more time (and endurance) was needed. However, these two methods also differed with respect to maximum torque and endurance, and none was preferable in both these aspects, being dependent on the swinger goals and abilities.

  15. Bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb in toys and low-cost jewelry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J

    2014-01-21

    Children can be exposed to toxic elements in toys and jewelry following ingestion. As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb bioavailability was assessed (n = 24) via the in vitro gastrointestinal protocol (IVG), the physiologically based extraction test (PBET), and the European Toy Safety Standard protocol (EN 71-3), and health risks were characterized. Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were mobilized from 19 metallic toys and jewelry (MJ) and one crayon set. Bioaccessible Cd, Ni, or Pb exceeded EU migratable concentration limits in four to six MJ, depending on the protocol. Using two-phase (gastric + intestinal) IVG or PBET might be preferable over EN 71-3 since they better represent gastrointestinal physiology. Bioaccessible and total metal concentrations were different and not always correlated, indicating that bioaccessibility measurement may provide more accurate risk characterization. More information on impacts of multiple factors affecting metals mobilization from toys and jewelry is needed before recommending specific tests. Hazard index (HI) for Cd, Ni, or Pb were >1 for all six MJ exceeding the EU limits. For infants (6-12 mo old), 10 MJ had HI > 1 for Cd, Cu, Ni, or Pb (up to 75 for Cd and 43 for Pb). Research on prolonged exposure to MJ and comprehensive risk characterization for toys and jewelry exposure is recommended.

  16. Impact of DIY Home Manufacturing with 3D Printing on the Toy and Game Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E. Petersen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The 2020 toy and game market is projected to be US$135 billion. To determine if 3D printing could affect these markets if consumers offset purchases by 3D printing free designs, this study investigates the 100 most popular downloaded designs at MyMiniFactory in a month. Savings are quantified for using a Lulzbot Mini 3D printer and three filament types: commercial filament, pellet-extruded filament, and post-consumer waste converted to filament with a recyclebot. Case studies probed the quality of: (1 six common complex toys; (2 Lego blocks; and (3 the customizability of open source board games. All filaments analyzed saved the user over 75% of the cost of commercially available true alternative toys and over 90% for recyclebot filament. Overall, these results indicate a single 3D printing repository among dozens is saving consumers well over $60 million/year in offset purchases. The most common savings fell by 40%–90% in total savings, which came with the ability to make novel toys and games. The results of this study show consumers can generate higher value items for less money using the open source distributed manufacturing paradigm. It appears clear that consumer do-it-yourself (DIY manufacturing is set to have a significant impact on the toy and game markets in the future.

  17. Measurement of nickel, cobalt and chromium in toy make-up by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Monica; Baldo, Federica; Pagnoni, Antonella; Miscioscia, Roberta; Virgili, Annarosa

    2009-01-01

    Cosmetics should not contain more than 5 ppm of nickel, chromium or cobalt and, in order to minimize the risk of sensitization in very sensitive subjects, the target amount should be as low as 1 ppm. However, there are no published reports on the presence of these metals in toy make-up. This study analysed 52 toy make-ups using atomic absorption spectroscopy. More than 5 ppm of nickel was present in 14/52 (26.9%) samples. Chromium exceeded 5 ppm in 28/52 (53.8%) samples, with values over 1000 ppm in 3 eye shadows. Cobalt was present in amounts over 5 ppm in 5/52 (9.6%) samples. Powdery toy make-up (eye shadows) had the highest levels of metals, and "creamy" toy make-up (lip gloss and lipsticks) the lowest. Toy make-ups are potentially sensitizing items, especially for atopic children, who have a damaged skin barrier that may favour penetration of allergens.

  18. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  19. Consumer behaviour and environmental education in the field of waste electrical and electronic toys: A Spanish case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Belis, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering & Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Bovea, M.D., E-mail: bovea@uji.es [Department of Mechanical Engineering & Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Simó, A. [Department of Mathematics, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat s/n, E12071 Castellón (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Consumption/disposal habits of waste electrical and electronic toys. • Environmental education as a key factor to improve WEEE management. • Three environmental education actions to increase the collection of waste toys. - Abstract: This paper reports on a project focused on obtaining the current consumption and disposal habits of electrical and electronic toys from a survey aimed at parents of children of nine pre- and primary schools. In addition, it is also focused on identifying the most effective way of transmitting environmental information to parents and children to promote the collection of electrical and electronic toys at their end-of-life. The study was implemented in a Spanish municipality. With regard to the consumption habits, aspects related to the amount of toys that children receive annually and percentage of those which are electrical and electronic toys have been obtained and classified according to the family size. Results from Chi-squared analysis and Ordinal Logistic Regression show that there is a statistically significance relationship among these variables. Regarding disposal habits, aspects related to the reasons and way for discarding electrical and electronic toys, time that toys are kept at home or the willingness to rent or buy second hand e-toys have been obtained. What really attracts attention is that, apart from consumers who donate the toy to family or social associations, 67.1% of consumers discard them along with other waste fractions in domestic bins, whereas only 32.9% do so at recycling points, as Directive 2012/19/EU requires. To increase this percentage, three environmental education actions (distinguishing from each other by the way used to transmit the environmental information: paper, audiovisual or personal communication) have been designed, applied and evaluated their efficiency according to the amount of waste toys collected.

  20. The Impact of Crisis Sales Promotions on Branded and Unbranded Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Bratina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research findings of a toys brands sales promotionsstudy conducted in Q4 (4th quarter of years 2007 and 2009 (preandmid- crisis. The primary research objectives were to determinethe impact of economic crisis determinants (such as lowered purchasingpower, increased unemployment rates, changed purchasing behaviorof consumers on new years’ toy sales, in particular the impact onknown brands’ sales vs. sales of unbranded products. Eight known toysbrands promotions sales have been compared to eight unbranded competitiveproducts in different toys subcategories for the two q4 of year2007 and 2009. Findings show that although the mean purchase amounthad considerably diminished in year 2009, major brands sales werenot affected at all.

  1. Child toy safety: An interdisciplinary approach to unravel the microbiological hazard posed by soap bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoruso, Irene; Bertoncello, Chiara; Caravello, Gianumberto; Giaccone, Valerio; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    In 2012 some children developed sepsis after playing together with a soap bubble toy. Microbiological testing revealed heavy contamination of the soap solution, which reasonably represented the vehicle of infection. We investigated the issue with a multidisciplinary approach: review of toy safety legislation; microbiological testing of additional samples; query of the RAPEX database for non-compliant soap bubbles; identification of major manufacturing districts. Microbiological contamination of industrial soap bubbles was widespread. Sixty-three notifications of batches contaminated by environmental microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens had been reported. The Chinese had a virtual monopoly of the soap bubble market. We identified two main manufacturing districts in Guangdong Province, both notable for degradation of their water resources. The use of untreated water for the industrial production of soap bubbles may explain the bacterial contamination. Existing legislation provides an unsatisfactory approach for managing microbiological hazards in sensitive toy categories and for identifying responsible parties in import and export of the products.

  2. Collectible toys and decisions to share: I will gift you one to expand my set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Anna R; Cornwell, T Bettina; Cornain, Emilita Krisanti

    2011-03-01

    Two studies were used to examine the collecting behaviour of preschool children. Prior studies of collecting have defined the behaviour as exhibited by older children and adults. To understand childhood collecting, existing theoretical perspectives were discussed in terms of how they might apply to children's behaviour as collectors. Results showed that some preschool children are motivated to engage in collecting and possess the developmental capacities required for successful collecting. Individual differences in executive functioning (Study 1, N= 57) and theory of mind (Study 2, N= 46) explained why some preschoolers were more oriented towards collecting than others. Study 2 showed that the motivational pull of collectible toys can be very strong, with some children agreeing to pay the 'cost' of sharing with a confederate child in order to obtain a collectible toy. This research highlights similarities and differences between adult and child collecting. Suggestions are provided for parents and for policy considerations regarding the appropriateness of marketing collectible toys to preschoolers.

  3. A Toy-World That Satisfies Some Principles of ``El Naschie's E-Infinity Theory''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Hanns

    2006-06-01

    The classical view of our external world is revised and its tacit a priori assumptions are confronted with consequences from Mohammed S. El Naschie's E-infinity theory. The far-reaching investigations of El Naschie have demonstrated the necessity of a new unconventional thinking in physics. First we motivate the a priori assumptions of classical mechanics with the requirements of the mathematical formalisms. We explain the difficulties to construct models for a reality which shows the phenomenon of contextualism, like for example quantum mechanics. In a second step we use the principles of Husserl's phenomenology to deduce a toy world from a contextual understanding of empirical data. In such a toy world one can illustrate the fundamental phenomena from quantum mechanics and ideas from E-infinity theory. We will use this toy world to demonstrate that the classical a priori assumptions are not necessary and that alternative ways of thinking are possible in physics.

  4. Contents of fragrance allergens in children's cosmetics and cosmetic-toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T

    1999-01-01

    Fragrances are one of the major causes of allergic contact dermatitis from use of cosmetics. The aim of the current study was to assess the possible exposure of infants and children to fragrance allergens from cosmetic products and "toy-cosmetics". 25 children's cosmetics or toy-cosmetic products...... was present in a maximum concentration of 0.07%. In one cosmetic-toy, cinnamic alcohol was present at 3.7% which exceeds the current industry guideline for safe products by a factor of 5. In all types of products other fragrance allergens were frequently found. In conclusion, children are already exposed...... at an early age to well-known allergens, sometimes at concentrations which are considered to be unsafe. As contact allergy usually persists for life, manufacturers of children's cosmetics should be aware of their special responsibility and apply the highest possible safety standards....

  5. Modified Ride-on Toy Cars for Early Power Mobility: A Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiang-han; Galloway, James C

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Children with significantly decreased mobility have limited opportunities to explore their physical and social environment. A variety of assistive technologies are available to increase mobility, however no single device provides the level of functional mobility that typically developing children enjoy. The purpose of this technical report is to formally introduce a new power mobility option - the modified ride-on toy car. Key Points This report will provide a) an overview of toy car features, b) examples of basic electrical and mechanical modifications and c) a brief clinical case. Clinical Implications With creative use and customized modifications, toy cars function as a “general learning environment” for use in the clinic, home and school. As such, we anticipate that these cars will become a multi-use clinical tool to address not only mobility goals but also goals involving body function and structure such as posture and movement impairments. PMID:22466382

  6. The implications of information sharing on bullwhip effects in a toy supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; El-Beheiry, Mohamed Mostafa; Johansen, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares actual bullwhip effects provided by retailers who shared downstream demand information and retailers who did not share in a three-level (divergent) toy supply chain. The toy supply chain faces high forecast errors and bullwhip effects due to unpredictable and seasonal demand...... demand information. To reduce the bullwhip effect, two solutions using the shared information are tested. They are a proposed premature replenishment rule and a simple forecast updating mechanism. Both solutions are proven capable in reducing bullwhip effects of the toy supply chain even without...... patterns. The results indicate a reduction of the bullwhip effect and an improvement of the fill rate due to the increase of retailers who shared downstream demand information. This paper also addresses two main causes of the bullwhip effect, which are the supply variability and limited use of the shared...

  7. Barriers and drivers in creating greener plastic toys: A technology management methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk Jensen, Maibritt; Liltorp, Helle; Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Given materials scarcity and drive for greener consumer products, marketers strive for redesigning products and realigning supply chains to accomplish these challenges. Plastic toys impose a complicated challenge as entertainment value, product safety, durability, globalization, cost, and environ......Given materials scarcity and drive for greener consumer products, marketers strive for redesigning products and realigning supply chains to accomplish these challenges. Plastic toys impose a complicated challenge as entertainment value, product safety, durability, globalization, cost...... of greening of the product portfolio based on management of the individual technologies of creative design, mold design, polymers, and supply chain. The study is conducted within plastic toys, but results are applicable to a wide range of durable consumer products....

  8. Contents of fragrance allergens in children's cosmetics and cosmetic-toys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1999-01-01

    Fragrances are one of the major causes of allergic contact dermatitis from use of cosmetics. The aim of the current study was to assess the possible exposure of infants and children to fragrance allergens from cosmetic products and "toy-cosmetics". 25 children's cosmetics or toy-cosmetic products...... was present in a maximum concentration of 0.07%. In one cosmetic-toy, cinnamic alcohol was present at 3.7% which exceeds the current industry guideline for safe products by a factor of 5. In all types of products other fragrance allergens were frequently found. In conclusion, children are already exposed...... at an early age to well-known allergens, sometimes at concentrations which are considered to be unsafe. As contact allergy usually persists for life, manufacturers of children's cosmetics should be aware of their special responsibility and apply the highest possible safety standards....

  9. 儿童意外伤害家居环境与游戏场所相关因素研究%Research on Unintentional Children Injuries and Factors of Family Environment and Playground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠; 张斌; 覃凌智; 邱琳; 张雅琪

    2012-01-01

    method. The questionnaire adopted the basic template widely used by Alliance for Safe Children ( TASC ) in Asian countries after necessary amendments based on the actual situation of the city. Results The incidence of child injury in Wuhan was 78. 7%. Higher proportion of injury group had lakes, rivers or reservoirs within 500 meters around the children's house compared with the non - injury group. The ground of the injury group was mainly concrete floor, while the ground of the non - injury group was mainly wood floor. The proportions of no guard rails in children's bed, using coal stove and fire stove as the main type of heat source and having obstacle, water and dangerous stuff ( power source, heat source ) around children's activity place were all significantly higher in the injury group than the non - injury group ( P <0. 01 ) . The playground type of the injury group was mainly concrete floor and soil, while the playground type of the non - injury group was mainly concrete floor and wood floor. There were significant differences in the safety of commonly played toy and the types of playground equipment between the two groups ( P <0. 01 ) . Living in the township and no guard rails in children's bed were risk factors of unintentional children injuries, while mother never participated in the entertainment and no lakes around the house within 500 meters were protective factors. Conclusion The high -frequency of unintentional children injuries cannot be paid close attention to. Factors of children's family and environment are related to the occurrence of unintentional children injuries, and might also play a guiding role in the control and intervention of unintentional children injuries.

  10. Using Free Operant Preference Assessments to Select Toys for Free Play between Children with Autism and Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, Rachael A.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Gillett, Jill N.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulus properties of toys may impact the type and amount of play observed between children with autism and their playmates. Six children with autism and their siblings participated in an evaluation of toy characteristics on type of play, problem behavior, social initiations, and responses to social initiations. Separate free operant preference…

  11. Games and Toys in the Teaching of Science and Technology. Science and Technology Education Document Series No. 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Norman K., Ed.

    Toys and games play a large part in the early development of children. This book is a resource document on low-cost, educational activities for children in the primary and early secondary levels of education. Section 1 sets the scene with regard to toys and games as well as to curriculum development trends and activities at the primary level of…

  12. A pilot study on early home-based intervention through an intelligent baby gym (CareToy) in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Bartalena, Laura; Cecchi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CareToy is an intelligent system, inspired by baby gyms, aimed to provide an intensive, individualized, home-based and family-centred early intervention (EI) program. AIMS: A pilot study was carried out to explore the feasibility of CareToy intervention in preterm infants, aged 3-9 mo...

  13. Measuring the Effects of Toys on the Problem-Solving, Creative and Social Behaviours of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawick-Smith, Jeffrey; Russell, Heather; Swaminathan, Sudha

    2011-01-01

    Although previous research has explored the effects of various environmental influences on young children's play, the influence of toys has rarely been examined. This paucity of toy studies is due to a lack of a scientifically constructed observation system to evaluate the impact of play materials across developmental domains. The purpose of this…

  14. Infants' preferences for toys, colors, and shapes: sex differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, Vasanti; Hines, Melissa; Golombok, Susan

    2010-12-01

    Girls and boys differ in their preferences for toys such as dolls and trucks. These sex differences are present in infants, are seen in non-human primates, and relate, in part, to prenatal androgen exposure. This evidence of inborn influences on sex-typed toy preferences has led to suggestions that object features, such as the color or the shape of toys, may be of intrinsically different interest to males and females. We used a preferential looking task to examine preferences for different toys, colors, and shapes in 120 infants, ages 12, 18, or 24 months. Girls looked at dolls significantly more than boys did and boys looked at cars significantly more than girls did, irrespective of color, particularly when brightness was controlled. These outcomes did not vary with age. There were no significant sex differences in infants' preferences for different colors or shapes. Instead, both girls and boys preferred reddish colors over blue and rounded over angular shapes. These findings augment prior evidence of sex-typed toy preferences in infants, but suggest that color and shape do not determine these sex differences. In fact, the direction of influence could be the opposite. Girls may learn to prefer pink, for instance, because the toys that they enjoy playing with are often colored pink. Regarding within sex differences, as opposed to differences between boys and girls, both boys and girls preferred dolls to cars at age 12-months. The preference of young boys for dolls over cars suggests that older boys' avoidance of dolls may be acquired. Similarly, the sex similarities in infants' preferences for colors and shapes suggest that any subsequent sex differences in these preferences may arise from socialization or cognitive gender development rather than inborn factors.

  15. Risk-based evaluation of the exposure of children to trace elements in playgrounds in Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, E; Iribarren, I; Chacón, E; Ordoñez, A; Charlesworth, S

    2007-01-01

    Eighty samples of sandy substrate were collected in November 2002 and 2003, from 20 municipal playgrounds in Madrid (Spain) to assess the potential adverse health effects of the exposure of children to trace elements in this material during their games. In each playground, two 500 g samples were collected, dried at 45 degrees C for 48 h, sieved below 100 microm, acid digested and analyzed by ICP-MS. Doses contacted through ingestion and inhalation and the dose absorbed through the skin were calculated using USEPAs hourly exposure parameters for children and the results of an in situ survey. The toxicity values considered in this study were mostly taken from the US DoEs RAIS compilation. The results of the risk assessment indicate that the highest risk is associated with ingestion of soil particles and that the trace element of most concern is arsenic, the exposure to which results in a cancer risk value of 4.19 x 10(-6), close to the 1 x 10(-5) probability level deemed unacceptable by most regulatory agencies. Regarding non-cancer effects, exposure to playground substrate yields an aggregate Hazard Index of 0.28, below the threshold value of 1 (with As, again, as the largest single contributor, followed by Pb, Cr, Al and Mn). Although the uncertainties associated with the estimates of toxicity values and exposure factors should be reduced before any definite conclusions regarding potential health effects are drawn, risk assessment has proven to be a very useful tool to identify the contaminants and exposure pathways of most concern in urban environments.

  16. French children's exposure to metals via ingestion of indoor dust, outdoor playground dust and soil: contamination data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorennec, Philippe; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Mandin, Corinne; Le Bot, Barbara

    2012-09-15

    In addition to dietary exposure, children are exposed to metals via ingestion of soils and indoor dust, contaminated by natural or anthropogenic outdoor and indoor sources. The objective of this nationwide study was to assess metal contamination of soils and dust which young French children are exposed to. A sample of 484 children (6 months to 6 years) was constituted in order to obtain representative results for young French children. In each home indoor settled dust was sampled by a wipe in up to five rooms. Outdoor playgrounds were sampled with a soil sample ring (n=315) or with a wipe in case of hard surfaces (n=53). As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, and V were measured because of their potential health concern due to soil and dust ingestion. The samples were digested with hydrochloric acid, and afterwards aqua regia in order to determine both leachable and total metal concentrations and loadings by mass spectrometry with a quadrupole ICP-MS. In indoor settled dust most (total) loadings were below the Limit of Quantification (LOQ), except for Pb and Sr, whose median loadings were respectively 9 and 10 μg/m². The 95th percentile of loadings were 2 μg/m² for As, playgrounds were 2/16, playground soil median/95th percentile of concentrations (μg/g) were 8/26, soil and dust and the associated risks in urban and rural environments. Ratios of leachable/total concentrations and loadings, calculated on >LOQ measurements, differed among metals. To a lesser extent, they were also affected by type of matrix, with (except for Cd) a greater leachability of dust (especially indoor) compared to soils.

  17. Linear and nonlinear optics of surface plasmon toy-models of black holes and wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyaninov, I I

    2003-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of linear and nonlinear optics of surface plasmon toy wormholes and black holes have been performed. These models are based on dielectric microdroplets on the metal surfaces and on nanoholes drilled in thin metal films. Toy surface plasmon black holes and wormholes are shown to exhibit strongly enhanced nonlinear optical behavior in the frequency range near the surface plasmon resonance of a metal-liquid interface. Various possibilities to emulate such nontrivial gravitation theory effects as Hawking radiation and Cauchy horizons are discussed.

  18. Linux toys II 9 Cool New Projects for Home, Office, and Entertainment

    CERN Document Server

    Negus, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Builds on the success of the original Linux Toys (0-7645-2508-5) and adds projects using different Linux distributionsAll-new toys in this edition include a car computer system with built-in entertainment and navigation features, bootable movies, a home surveillance monitor, a LEGO Mindstorms robot, and a weather mapping stationIntroduces small business opportunities with an Internet radio station and Internet caf ̌projectsCompanion Web site features specialized hardware drivers, software interfaces, music and game software, project descriptions, and discussion forumsIncludes a CD-ROM with scr

  19. A toy model of quantum electrodynamics in (1 + 1) dimensionsB

    OpenAIRE

    Boozer, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    We present a toy model of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in (1 + 1) dimensions. The QED model is much simpler than QED in (3 + 1) dimensions but exhibits many of the same physical phenomena, and serves as a pedagogical introduction to both QED and quantum field theory in general. We show how the QED model can be derived by quantizing a toy model of classical electrodynamics, and we discuss the connections between the classical and quantum models. In addition, we use the QED model to discuss th...

  20. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Decoy, TOY, Attenuates Gram-Negative Bacterial Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Keehoon Jung; Jung-Eun Lee; Hak-Zoo Kim; Ho Min Kim; Beom Seok Park; Seong-Ik Hwang; Jie-Oh Lee; Sun Chang Kim; Gou Young Koh

    2009-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane glycolipid, induces sepsis through its interaction with myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). To block interaction between LPS/MD-2 complex and TLR4, we designed and generated soluble fusion proteins capable of binding MD-2, dubbed TLR4 decoy receptor (TOY) using 'the Hybrid leucine-rich repeats (LRR) technique'. TOY contains the MD-2 binding ectodomain of TLR4, the LRR motif of hagfish va...

  1. Giving toys to children reduces their anxiety about receiving premedication for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Leonard; Pagala, Murali; Sukhavasi, Sujatha; Nagpal, Dheeraj; Ahmad, Ayeesha; Mahanta, Aruna

    2006-04-01

    Children have increased anxiety during the preoperative period. The administration of oral premedication to children is often met with apprehension, reluctance, or refusal. We sought to determine whether giving a small toy to the children would decrease the anxiety associated with taking oral premedication. This was a prospective study involving 100 children 3-6 yr of age randomized into two equal groups. The anxiety of each child was assessed using the Modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale. The results showed significantly less anxiety in children who received a toy before oral administration of midazolam.

  2. “Mood-modules”: Interconnected Wireless Toy Units for Studies of Social Play through Musical and Sonic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    This paper outlines the research background, focus and methods that will be used in the study of musical and sonic games that are embedded in interconnected wireless toy modules. Seen in the light of the idea: “The ensemble as a musical and social experience”, an approach for designing electronic...... toys for children will be discussed. Five electronic toy units function as test objects. These sensor devices will contain musical and sonic games. Children manipulate sound parameters, when they interact with each sensor, or rather, combinations of sensors. When two or more children interact...... with the toy units, they receive sonic feedback that may lead them to improvise and to perform together within the limits of a specific musical/sonic game. Based on a brief evaluation of the various design methods used in interactive toy design processes, this paper introduces a game/play design development...

  3. Home-based, early intervention with mechatronic toys for preterm infants at risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (CARETOY)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Bartalena, Laura; Cioni, Giovanni;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, including motor, cognitive or behavioural problems, which may potentially be modified by early intervention. The EU CareToy Project Consortium (http://www.caretoy.eu) has developed a new modular system for intensive......, individualized, home-based and family-centred early intervention, managed remotely by rehabilitation staff. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) has been designed to evaluate the efficacy of CareToy training in a first sample of low-risk preterm infants. METHODS/DESIGN: The trial, randomised, multi...... parents will sign a written informed consent for participation, will be randomized in CareToy training and control groups at baseline (T0). CareToy group will perform four weeks of personalized activities with the CareToy system, customized by the rehabilitation staff. The control group will continue...

  4. “Mood-modules”: Interconnected Wireless Toy Units for Studies of Social Play through Musical and Sonic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    This paper outlines the research background, focus and methods that will be used in the study of musical and sonic games that are embedded in interconnected wireless toy modules. Seen in the light of the idea: “The ensemble as a musical and social experience”, an approach for designing electronic...... toys for children will be discussed. Five electronic toy units function as test objects. These sensor devices will contain musical and sonic games. Children manipulate sound parameters, when they interact with each sensor, or rather, combinations of sensors. When two or more children interact...... with the toy units, they receive sonic feedback that may lead them to improvise and to perform together within the limits of a specific musical/sonic game. Based on a brief evaluation of the various design methods used in interactive toy design processes, this paper introduces a game/play design development...

  5. Prenatal Hormones and Postnatal Socialization by Parents as Determinants of Male-Typical Toy Play in Girls With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, Vickie L.; Geffner, Mitchell E.; Brain, Caroline; Hindmarsh, Peter; Brook, Charles; Hines, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Toy choices of 3- to 10-year-old children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and of their unaffected siblings were assessed. Also assessed was parental encouragement of sex-typed toy play. Girls with CAH displayed more male-typical toy choices than did their unaffected sisters, whereas boys with and without CAH did not differ. Mothers and…

  6. Heavy metal exposure and risk charaterization of topsoils in urban playgrounds and parks (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskás, Irén; Farsang, Andrea; Csépe, Zoltán; Bartus, Máté

    2014-05-01

    Contamination in urban soils can directly pose significant human risks through oral ingestion, particle inhalation and dermal contact, especially in public spaces. Parks and playgrounds are green areas in cities where dwellers (mainly children and seniors) can spend their outside freetime, thus the highest possibility of the human and soil interaction can be presumed here. Therefore, in 2013, composite surface samples (0-5 cm, from 10-15 subsoil samples) were collected from 96 public parks and 89 playgrounds (around playing equipment) of main functional zones (downtown, housing estates, industrial, prestigious, commuting areas) of three Hungarian cities (Budapest, Szeged, Gyula) representing capital, regional city and local town. Pseudo total metal content (Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ba, Co) and physical, chemical soil properties influencing metal mobility (artefact, mechanical soil type, carbonate, humus, pH(H2O), salt) were determined to evaluate impacts of various anthropogenic activities in functional zones on the studied soils; to give the environmental buffering capacity and to model human health risk of exposure pathways (by RISC 4.0 ) in the case of contaminated soils. Insignificant amount of artefact, neutral pH, high humus and carbonate content, mainly loamy and loamy-clay texture, low salt content can provide suitable buffering capacity for the studied soils. The type and spatial location of functional zones have not exerted considerable impact on variability of soil properties. Out of 189 analyzed areas, 36 have exceeded the threshold values regulated by Hungarian government (6/2009. (IV. 14) KvVM-EüM-FVM collective decree). Based on quantitative and qualitative evaluation of results, the identification of spatial patterns and the possible source of metal pollution have been carried out. In accordance with statistical analysis (correlation, cluster, factor analysis), we can explore relationship between metal concentrations and features of sample

  7. Geotechnical Descriptions of Rock and Rock Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    weathering is presented by Dornbusch (1982). 39. Mechanical, or physical, weathering of rock occurs primarily by (a) freeze expansion (or frost wedging...34Engineering Classifica- tion of In-Situ Rock," Technical Report No. AFWL-TR-67-144, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N. Mex. Dornbusch , W

  8. The Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  9. Play Complexity and Toy Engagement in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Do Girls and Boys Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Green, Jonathan; Hudry, Kristelle

    2017-01-01

    While sex differences in play have been extensively observed in typical development, only a handful of studies have explored this phenomenon in depth with children with autism spectrum disorders. This study explored sex differences in play complexity and toy engagement within caregiver-child interaction samples for preschool-aged children (2-5…

  10. 76 FR 55056 - Toy Safety Standard: Strategic Outreach and Education Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... to test and certify to the toy safety standard. We plan to use traditional and social media to... ensure that the communications message is disseminated widely and to solicit additional outreach ideas... provisions before the requirements go into effect. We believe that issuing FAQs in a timely fashion...

  11. Sex toy use by gay and bisexual men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Joshua G; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Novak, David S; Reece, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have documented that vibrators are an important part of the sexual repertoires of both men and women and have demonstrated positive sexual health outcomes among individuals who use such products. However, little is known about the use of other sexual enhancement products, particularly among gay and bisexually identified men. This study sought to document the extent to which gay and bisexually identified men report using sex toys and the sexual and relational situations within which they used them. Data were collected via an internet-based survey from 25,294 gay and bisexually identified men throughout the U.S. recruited from an Internet site popular among men seeking social or sexual interactions with other men. A majority (78.5%) of gay and bisexually identified men reported having used at least one type of sex toy, including dildos (62.1%), non-vibrating cock rings (51.9%), vibrators (49.6%), butt plugs (34.0%), masturbation sleeves (27.9%), and anal beads or balls (19.3%). Among users, toys such as dildos or butt plugs were commonly inserted into one's own anus during masturbation (95.7%, n = 11,781) and insertion into their partners anus (72.0% n = 4,197) during partnered sexual activities. These data suggest that sex toy use is common among gay and bisexual men during both solo and partnered sexual activities and considered by these men as enhancing the quality of their sexual experiences.

  12. Measuring a Pig's Preference for Suspended Toys by Using an Automated Recording Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Vermeer, H.M.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Not all suspended materials for finishing pigs are equally suited to meet the natural behavior of the animal, but the required physical properties of the toys have yet to be identified. The present study aimed to develop a labor saving electronic recording device for animal-material interactions. Fu

  13. Stochastic homogenization for an energy conserving multi-scale toy model of the atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, J.E.; Gottwald, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    We study a Hamiltonian toy model for a Lagrangian fluid parcel in the semi-geostrophic limit which exhibits slow and fast dynamics. We first reinject unresolved fast dynamics into the deterministic equation through a stochastic parametrization that respects the conservation of the energy of the dete

  14. The Advertising of Toys. Considerations on the lack of values and contribution to gender inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pereira Domínguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The toy has always existed. To state that it is ageless presupposes a sentimental regret typical of the adult who denies the inevitable gradual disappearance of the child within us. However it is expedient to take note of how, year after year, our society is losing the fundamental essence of what an object gives us. The essence which we refer to is imagination. It is through imagination that fantasy, enjoyment and perhaps ephemeral happiness are born. The toy has undergone a long journey on its way to the present: from stone figures, rough homemade wooden forms, scraps or lines traced on a surface which have become the attractive and simple pastime that we nowadays call board games. In this document we set out to analyse the major advertising catalogues from 2006 and 2007 paying particular attention to those pertaining to Christmas advertising campaigns. We consider the different types of toys and their potential market, along with the images, messages, slogans, colours and prices. The paper concludes by identifying stereotypes, roles and division of household tasks, drawing out the clearly consumer driven intentions of companies operating in the toy sector.

  15. THE UTILIZATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC TOY IN THE NURSING OPERA TORY VISIT TO THE INFANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Silveira Viera

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The systematization of the peroperative nursing occurs in the moments pre, trans and postoperativeand also they happen in children, adolescents, adults and elders. Being like this, ours objective went verify thebenefits of the utilization of the therapeutic toy in the visit preoperative by the nurse of surgical center.

  16. Designing Science Games and Science Toys from the Perspective of Scientific Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir Kaçan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with the participation of 21 pre-service science teachers attending the faculty of education of a university in Turkey. The study aims to evaluate pre-service science teachers' science games and science toy designs in terms of scientific creativity. Participants were given a four-week period to design science games or…

  17. The Effects of Background Television on the Toy Play Behavior of Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marie Evans; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Kirkorian, Heather L.; Lund, Anne Frankenfield; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment tests the hypothesis that background, adult television is a disruptive influence on very young children's behavior. Fifty 12-, 24-, and 36-month-olds played with a variety of toys for 1 hr. For half of the hour, a game show played in the background on a monaural TV set. During the other half hour, the TV was off. The children…

  18. Using Interlocking Toy Building Blocks to Assess Conceptual Understanding in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    A current emphasis on teaching conceptual chemistry via the particulate nature of matter has led to the need for new, effective ways to assess students' conceptual understanding of this view of chemistry. This article provides a simple, inexpensive way to use interlocking toy building blocks (e.g., LEGOs) in both formative and summative…

  19. Analysis of GB 6675-2003 National Safety Technical Code for Toys in Detail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ Introduction GB 6675-2003 National Safety Technical Code for Toys, which is a compulsory national standard and developed in accordance with the Standardization Law of P. R. China and the Product Quality Law ofP. R. China,has been officially issued on Oct. 9th, 2003.

  20. Social behaviors increase in children with autism in the presence of animals compared to toys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite E O'Haire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated the capacity of animal presence to stimulate social interaction among humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD with an adult and their typically-developing peers in the presence of animals (two guinea pigs compared to toys. METHODS: Ninety-nine children from 15 classrooms in 4 schools met the inclusion criteria and participated in groups of three (1 child with ASD and 2 typically-developing peers. Each group was video-recorded during three 10-minute, free-play sessions with toys and three 10-minute, free-play sessions with two guinea pigs. Two blinded observers coded the behavior of children with ASD and their peers. To account for the nested study design, data were analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear modeling. RESULTS: Participants with ASD demonstrated more social approach behaviors (including talking, looking at faces, and making tactile contact and received more social approaches from their peers in the presence of animals compared to toys. They also displayed more prosocial behaviors and positive affect (i.e., smiling and laughing as well as less self-focused behaviors and negative affect (i.e., frowning, crying, and whining in the presence of animals compared to toys. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the presence of an animal can significantly increase positive social behaviors among children with ASD.

  1. Anime's media mix: Franchising toys and characters in Japan, by Marc Steinberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandeise Monk-Payton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of Marc Steinberg. Anime's Media Mix: Franchising Toys and Characters in Japan. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012, $25.00 paper (304p ISBN 978-0-8166-7550-0, $75.00 cloth (304p ISBN 978-0-8166-7549-4.

  2. Effects of Toy Crane Design-Based Learning on Simple Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korur, Fikret; Efe, Gülfem; Erdogan, Fisun; Tunç, Berna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this 2-group study was to investigate the following question: Are there significant differences between scaffolded design-based learning controlled using 7 forms and teacher-directed instruction methods for the toy crane project on grade 7 students' posttest scores on the simple machines achievement test, attitude toward simple…

  3. Phthalates and alternative plasticizers and potential for contact exposure from children's backpacks and toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingjie; Wu, Yaoxing; Little, John C; Marr, Linsey C

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on the mass content of plasticizers in children's backpacks and toys, and their mass transfer from product surfaces to cotton wipes. The mass content of plasticizers in six backpacks and seven toys was measured by extracting them in tetrahydrofuran. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT) was the most common plasticizer, dominating the composition of plasticizers in four backpacks (average mass content in product polyvinyl chloride, 5.38 ± 1.98%-25.5 ± 3.54%) and six plastic toys (8.17 ± 1.85%-21.2 ± 1.11%). The surface of each product was wiped with three dry and three wet (by isopropanol) cotton wipes, so as to evaluate the mass transfer of plasticizers to clothing and human skin, respectively. DEHT was the most common plasticizer detected on wipe samples. There were strong correlations (backpacks r=0.90; plastic toys r=0.96) between average mass transfer of DEHT to wet wipes and its average mass content in the product. The mass transfers of the five dominant plasticizers in one backpack to both dry and wet wipes were also correlated (both r=1.00) with their mass contents. These results suggest that the mass transfer of plasticizers from products to clothing or human skin is strongly associated with their mass content.

  4. Relating Toy Models of Quantum Computation: Comprehension, Complementarity and Dagger Mix Autonomous Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko

    2011-01-01

    Toy models have been used to separate important features of quantum computation from the rich background of the standard Hilbert space model. Category theory, on the other hand, is a general tool to separate components of mathematical structures, and analyze one layer at a time. It seems natural to

  5. User Study of a New Smart Toy for Children's Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nuri; Aydin, Cansu Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces StoryTech, a smart storytelling toy that offers children a mixed reality environment in which to tell imaginative stories. During usability testing, an empirical study was carried out with 90 child participants. The findings indicated that StoryTech creates a rich storytelling experience, especially for ages five and six.

  6. Is AIBO Real? Understanding Children's Beliefs about and Behavioral Interactions with Anthropomorphic Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Andrea; Mishra, Punya

    2009-01-01

    Interactive toys for children are becoming more popular for both play and educational purposes, yet an understanding of the dependent measures used to study such interactions has not yet been explored. This study takes advantage of the idea that robotic animals exhibit both living and pretend qualities, and are therefore ideal for studying…

  7. Get up and move: an interactive cuddly toy that stimulates physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal Penados, A.; Gielen, M.A.; Stappers, P.-J.; Jongert, T.

    2009-01-01

    Health experts are worried about the increase in the number of overweight children and the decrease in activity levels among this age group. This project explores the possibilities of using interactive toys and social interaction in encouraging children to become more physically active. To arrive at

  8. Low-Income Fathers' Speech to Toddlers during Book Reading versus Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Virginia C.; Rowe, Meredith L.; Leech, Kathryn A.; Cabrera, Natasha J.

    2016-01-01

    Fathers' child-directed speech across two contexts was examined. Father-child dyads from sixty-nine low-income families were videotaped interacting during book reading and toy play when children were 2;0. Fathers used more diverse vocabulary and asked more questions during book reading while their mean length of utterance was longer during toy…

  9. Get up and move: An interactive cuddly toy that stimulates physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal Penados, A.; Gielen, M.; Stappers, P.-J.; Jongert, T.

    2010-01-01

    Health experts are worried about the increase in the number of overweight children and the decrease in activity levels among this age group. This project explores the possibilities of using interactive toys and social interaction in encouraging children to become more physically active. To arrive at

  10. Plastic toy shark drifts through airlock in front of EMU suited MS Lenoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Plastic toy shark drifts through airlock and around fully extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) suited Mission Specialist (MS) Lenoir. Lenoir watches as shark drifts pass his left hand. Lenoir donned the EMU in preparation for a scheduled extravehicular activity (EVA) which was cancelled due to EMU problems.

  11. A Progress Report on the Parent/Child Course and Toy Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimnicht, Glen P.

    This report gives an overall evaluation of the Parent/Child Program of preschool education for 3- to 4-year-olds. The program objectives are: (1) to aid parents to help their children develop a healthy self-concept, (2) to help parents to promote their children's intellectual development through educational toys, (3) to help parents stimulate…

  12. THE UTILIZATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC TOY IN THE NURSING OPERA TORY VISIT TO THE INFANT

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Silveira Viera; Marister Piccoli; Silvana Machiavelli Schmitz

    2003-01-01

    The systematization of the peroperative nursing occurs in the moments pre, trans and postoperativeand also they happen in children, adolescents, adults and elders. Being like this, ours objective went verify thebenefits of the utilization of the therapeutic toy in the visit preoperative by the nurse of surgical center.

  13. Diversity in Cyborg Images: A Case Study of Barry Levinson's "Toys."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucek, Linda E.

    Associated with the cultural paradigm of postmodernism, the cyborg, in its numerous aspects, has become a predominant metaphor used to describe the relationship between humanity and technology in post-industrial information societies. This case study of Barry Levinson's 1992 comedy film, "Toys," demonstrates some of the many facets of…

  14. THE INTERVENTION BY THE OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST IN OUTPATIENT TOY LIBRARY: REPORT OF AN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Soares Bernardes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Playing children develop essential skills to guarantee the performance of roles and activities, making it essential to maintain the play in different contexts. The objective is to describe and discuss the possible role of the occupational therapist in outpatient toy library. This is an experience report of Occupational Therapy undergraduate students on their activities in field (internship on Care for Children and Adolescents, in outpatients toy libraries based on the analysis of the reports, in which are registered gender and age of the participants, objectives of the intervention, description of activities, strategies employed and results observed. The proposal to establish toy libraries in outpatient constitutes an alternative to humanize the care for children through a safe and welcoming environment. The role of the occupational therapist in this context seems to be proper and efficient, as the health professional who can mediate human actions, using their knowledge to enable important experiences in the development of physical, cognitive, social and social skills among children who attend health services. This study allowed to reaffirm the toy libraries as recreational spaces, capable of generating learning and improve human issues, thus making the child active and subject on their actions.

  15. Play Complexity and Toy Engagement in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Do Girls and Boys Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Green, Jonathan; Hudry, Kristelle

    2017-01-01

    While sex differences in play have been extensively observed in typical development, only a handful of studies have explored this phenomenon in depth with children with autism spectrum disorders. This study explored sex differences in play complexity and toy engagement within caregiver-child interaction samples for preschool-aged children (2-5…

  16. Finding the Average Speed of a Light-Emitting Toy Car with a Smartphone Light Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate how the average speed of a light-emitting toy car may be determined using a smartphone's light sensor. The freely available Android smartphone application, "AndroSensor," was used for the experiment. The classroom experiment combines complementary physics knowledge of optics and kinematics to find the…

  17. Psychological Masculinity and Femininity in Children and Its Relationship to Trait Stereotypes and Toy Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Janet T.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship of psychological masculinity and feminity in children to trait stereotyping and toy preferences. Subjects (157 boys and 157 girls in Grades K-4) were tested on a Child Test Battery, including the Child's Personal Attributes Questionnaire based on the adult PAQ (Spence, Helmreich & Stapp, 1974, 1975), the…

  18. Effects of Toy Crane Design-Based Learning on Simple Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korur, Fikret; Efe, Gülfem; Erdogan, Fisun; Tunç, Berna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this 2-group study was to investigate the following question: Are there significant differences between scaffolded design-based learning controlled using 7 forms and teacher-directed instruction methods for the toy crane project on grade 7 students' posttest scores on the simple machines achievement test, attitude toward simple…

  19. Sex differences in the structure and stability of children's playground social networks and their overlap with friendship relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Gender segregated peer networks during middle childhood have been highlighted as important for explaining later sex differences in behaviour, yet few studies have examined the structural composition of these networks and their implications. This short-term longitudinal study of 119 children (7-8 years) examined the size and internal structure of boys' and girls' social networks, their overlap with friendship relations, and their stability over time. Data collection at the start and end of the year involved systematic playground observations of pupils' play networks during team and non-team activities and measures of friendship from peer nomination interviews. Social networks were identified by aggregating play network data at each time point. Findings showed that the size of boy's play networks on the playground, but not their social networks, varied according to activity type. Social network cores consisted mainly of friends. Girl's social networks were more likely to be composed of friends and boys' networks contained friends and non-friends. Girls had more friends outside of the social network than boys. Stability of social network membership and internal network relations were higher for boys than girls. These patterns have implications for the nature of social experiences within these network contexts.

  20. My Pet Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  1. My Pet Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  2. Toy-oriented changes during early arm movements IV: shoulder-elbow coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H M; Bhat, A; Scholz, J P; Galloway, J C

    2008-09-01

    Our recent work on the initial emergence of reaching identified a mosaic of developmental changes and consistencies within the hand and joint kinematics of arm movements across the pre-reaching period. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the coordination of hand and joint kinematics over this same pre-reaching period. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on hand, shoulder, and elbow kinematic data from 15 full-term infants observed biweekly from 8 weeks of age through the week of reach onset. Separate PCAs were calculated for spatial variables and for velocity variables in trials with a toy and without a toy. From the PCA results, we constructed 'variance profiles' to reflect the coordinative structure of the hand, shoulder, and elbow. By coordinative structure is meant here the relative contribution of each joint to the factors revealed by the PCA. Shifts in these profiles, which reflected coordination changes, were compared across the hand and joints within each pre-reaching phase (Early, Mid, Late) as well as across phases and trial conditions (no-toy and toy). Results identified both surprising consistencies and important developmental changes in coordination. First, over development, spatial coordination changed in different ways for the shoulder and elbow. Between the Early and Late phases, spatial coordination at the shoulder showed more adult-like coordination during both spontaneous movements and movements with a toy present. In contrast, elbow spatial coordination became more adult-like only during movements with a toy and less adult-like during spontaneous movements. Second, over development, velocity coordination became more adult-like at both joints in movements with and without a toy present. We propose that the features of coordination that changed over development suggest explanations for the differential roles and developmental trajectories of the control of arm movements between the shoulder and elbow. We propose

  3. BRITICE-CHRONO: Constraining rates and style of marine-influenced ice sheet decay to provide a data-rich playground for ice sheet modellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the fate of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets and how they will respond to forcings from sea level and atmospheric and ocean temperatures. If we want to know more about the mechanisms and rate of change of shrinking ice sheets, then why not examine an ice sheet that has fully disappeared and track its retreat through time? If achieved in enough detail such information could become a data-rich playground for improving the next breed of numerical ice sheet models to be used in ice and sea level forecasting. We regard that the last British-Irish Ice Sheet is a good target for this work, on account of its small size, density of information and with its numerous researchers already investigating it. BRITICE-CHRONO is a large (>45 researchers) NERC-funded consortium project comprising Quaternary scientists and glaciologists who will search the seafloor around Britain and Ireland and parts of the landmass in order to find and extract samples of sand, rock and organic matter that can be dated (OSL; Cosmogenic; 14C) to reveal the timing and rate of change of the collapsing British-Irish Ice Sheet. The purpose is to produce a high resolution dataset on the demise on an ice sheet - from the continental shelf edge and across the marine to terrestrial transition. Some 800 new date assessments will be added to those that already exist. This poster reports on the hypotheses that underpin the work. Data on retreat will be collected by focusing on 8 transects running from the continental shelf edge to a short distance (10s km) onshore and acquiring marine and terrestrial samples for geochronometric dating. The project includes funding for 587 radiocarbon, 140 OSL and 158 TCN samples for surface exposure dating; with sampling accomplished by two research cruises and 16 fieldwork campaigns. Results will reveal the timing and rate of change of ice margin recession for each transect, and combined with existing landform and dating databases, will be

  4. An evaluation of lead contamination in plastic toys collected from day care centers in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Joseph A; Gerstenberger, Shawn

    2010-10-01

    Childhood exposure to environmental lead continues to be a major health concern. This study examined lead content within the plastic of children's toys collected from licensed day care centers in the Las Vegas valley, Nevada. It was hypothesized that the use of lead as a plastics stabilizer would result in elevated lead (≥600 ppm) in polyvinyl chloride plastics (PVC) compared to non-PVC plastics. It was also hypothesized that, due to the use of lead chromate as a coloring agent, yellow toys would contain higher concentrations of lead (≥600 ppm) than toys of other colors. Toy samples were limited to those found in day care centers in Las Vegas, Nevada. 10 day care centers were visited and approximately 50 toy samples were taken from each center. Of the 535 toys tested, 29 contained lead in excess of 600 parts per million (ppm). Of those 29 toys, 20 were PVC and 17 were yellow. Both of the two hypotheses were strongly supported by the data.

  5. Consumer behaviour and environmental education in the field of waste electrical and electronic toys: a Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Belis, V; Bovea, M D; Simó, A

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports on a project focused on obtaining the current consumption and disposal habits of electrical and electronic toys from a survey aimed at parents of children of nine pre- and primary schools. In addition, it is also focused on identifying the most effective way of transmitting environmental information to parents and children to promote the collection of electrical and electronic toys at their end-of-life. The study was implemented in a Spanish municipality. With regard to the consumption habits, aspects related to the amount of toys that children receive annually and percentage of those which are electrical and electronic toys have been obtained and classified according to the family size. Results from Chi-squared analysis and Ordinal Logistic Regression show that there is a statistically significance relationship among these variables. Regarding disposal habits, aspects related to the reasons and way for discarding electrical and electronic toys, time that toys are kept at home or the willingness to rent or buy second hand e-toys have been obtained. What really attracts attention is that, apart from consumers who donate the toy to family or social associations, 67.1% of consumers discard them along with other waste fractions in domestic bins, whereas only 32.9% do so at recycling points, as Directive 2012/19/EU requires. To increase this percentage, three environmental education actions (distinguishing from each other by the way used to transmit the environmental information: paper, audiovisual or personal communication) have been designed, applied and evaluated their efficiency according to the amount of waste toys collected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  7. Estudo de metais e de substâncias tóxicas em brinquedos Toys contamined by toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Zini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present study is the analysis of toxic elements in plastic toys commercialized in Brazil. Metals like cadmium, lead, chromium, zinc, and aluminum, along with organic substances, such as phthalates, were identified in different toys by quantitative analytical techniques. Traces of thorium were detected in one of the studied samples. Although the measured radioactive dose was rather low, the presence of such a radioactive contaminant is against to the International Agency of Atomic Energy regulations. Similar toys manufactured in Brazil were analyzed and found to observe the standards defined by the National Institute of Metrology (Inmetro.

  8. The dimensionality reduction at surfaces as a playground for many-body and correlation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, A.; Michel, E. G.; Mascaraque, A.

    2013-03-01

    Low-dimensional systems have always deserved attention due to the peculiarity of their physics, which is different from or even at odds with three-dimensional expectations. This is precisely the case for many-body effects, as electron-electron correlation or electron-phonon coupling are behind many intriguing problems in condensed matter physics. These interesting phenomena at low dimensions can be studied in one of the paradigms of two dimensionality—the surface of crystals. The maturity of today's surface science techniques allows us to perform thorough experimental studies that can be complemented by the current strength of state-of-the-art calculations. Surfaces are thus a natural two-dimensional playground for studying correlation and many-body effects, which is precisely the object of this special section. This special section presents a collection of eight invited articles, giving an overview of the current status of selected systems, promising techniques and theoretical approaches for studying many-body effects at surfaces and low-dimensional systems. The first article by Hofmann investigates electron-phonon coupling in quasi-free-standing graphene by decoupling graphene from two different substrates with different intercalating materials. The following article by Kirschner deals with the study of NiO films by electron pair emission, a technique particularly well-adapted for studying high electron correlation. Bovensiepen investigates electron-phonon coupling via the femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy technique. The next article by Malterre analyses the phase diagram of alkalis on Si(111):B and studies the role of many-body physics. Biermann proposes an extended Hubbard model for the series of C, Si, Sn and Pb adatoms on Si(111) and obtains the inter-electronic interaction parameters by first principles. Continuing with the theoretical studies, Bechstedt analyses the influence of on-site electron correlation in insulating

  9. Principles of rock mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchaninov, I.A.; Iofis, M.A.; Kasparyan, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    This book presents the principles of rock mechanics in a systematic way, reflecting both the historic development and the contemporary status of theoretical and experimental techniques used for the determination of the properties and stress state of rock masses, calculation of elements of systems for exploitation of useful mineral deposits and the design of mine openings. The subject of rock mechanics is discussed and methods and basic approaches are analyzed. The most widely used methods for determining the properties of rock in specimens and in situ are described. Problems of determining the stress strain state of the rock around mine openings by both experimental and analytic methods are discussed. The primary results of the study of the stress state of rock around main, development and production openings are presented. Problems of the movement of rock due to extraction of minerals are analyzed in detail, as are the conditions and causes of the development of rock bursts and sudden release of rock and gas in both surface and underground mines. Procedures for preventing or localizing rock bursts or sudden outbursts are described. (313 refs.)

  10. The sydney playground project: popping the bubblewrap - unleashing the power of play: a cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary school playground-based intervention aiming to increase children's physical activity and social skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luckett Tim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Westernised world, numerous children are overweight and have problems with bullying and mental health. One of the underlying causes for all three is postulated to be a decrease in outdoor free play. The aim of the Sydney Playground Project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of two simple interventions aimed to increase children's physical activity and social skills. Methods/Design This study protocol describes the design of a 3-year cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT, in which schools are the clusters. The study consists of a 13-week intervention and 1 week each of pre-and post-testing. We are recruiting 12 schools (6 control; 6 intervention, with 18 randomly chosen participants aged 5 to 7 years in each school. The two intervention strategies are: (1 Child-based intervention: Unstructured materials with no obvious play value introduced to the playground; and (2 Adult-based intervention: Risk reframing sessions held with parents and teachers with the aim of exploring the benefits of allowing children to engage in activities with uncertain outcomes. The primary outcome of the study, physical activity as measured by accelerometer counts, is assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Additional assessments include social skills and interactions, self-concept, after school time use and anthropometric data. Qualitative data (i.e., transcriptions of audio recordings from the risk reframing sessions and of interviews with selected teacher and parent volunteers are analysed to understand their perceptions of risk in play. The control schools have recess as usual. In addition to outcome evaluation, regular process evaluation sessions are held to monitor fidelity to the treatment. Discussion These simple interventions, which could be adopted in every primary school, have the potential of initiating a self-sustaining cycle of prevention for childhood obesity, bullying and mental ill health. Trial registration Australian

  11. STS-54 MS1 Runco uses DSO 802 and Physics of Toys racetrack on OV-105's middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-54 Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) Mario Runco, Jr watches as a toy friction car navigates a loop track on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. The demonstration was part of Application Specific Preprogrammed Experiment Culture System Physics of Toys (ASPEC) and Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) 802, Educational activities. Through telephone and television (TV) downlinks, students at Sacred Heart School (notice banner in the background) in Bronx, New York -- Runco's birthplace -- asked him questions about the several toys he demonstrated. The entire collection of toys will be videotaped for an educational program to be distributed to schools in the autumn. This scene was downlinked at 17:37:03:12 GMT.

  12. Internet-of-things as a Playground for Participatory Innovation and Business Potentials in Complex Modern Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlertz, Karoline; Bloch Rasmussen, Leif; Nielsen, Janni

    -up approach, self-organizing and co-creation. In this paper we will unfold how it is possible to use the IoT as a playground in a digital and social development, where the traditional simple dichotomy between state and market description of economies is challenged by the complexity of new institutional......The Internet and the Web are evolving embracing semantics and pragmatics of data, information and knowledge. Part of this evolution is Internet-of-Things (IoT) in various forms. This includes design principles based on the original idea of the Internet and the Web: free of charge, bottom...... economies, transaction cost theories, commons based peer-production and governance of common pool resources. By using these new economies we envision that Participatory Innovation and Business Opportunity should take place in polycentric units of relations, where production, exchange and consumption of IoT...

  13. Toxic metals in children's toys and jewelry: coupling bioaccessibility with risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin-Yi; Li, Shi-Wei; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Fan, Ying-Ying; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-05-01

    A total of 45 children's toys and jewelry were tested for total and bioaccessible metal concentrations. Total As, Cd, Sb, Cr, Ni, and Pb concentrations were 0.22-19, 0.01-139, 0.1-189, 0.06-846, 0.14-2894 and 0.08-860,000 mg kg(-1). Metallic products had the highest concentrations, with 3-7 out of 13 samples exceeding the European Union safety limit for Cd, Pb, Cr, or Ni. However, assessment based on hazard index >1 and bioaccessible metal showed different trends. Under saliva mobilization or gastric ingestion, 11 out of 45 samples showed HI >1 for As, Cd, Sb, Cr, or Ni. Pb with the highest total concentration showed HI toys and jewelry, and besides Pb and Cd, As, Ni, Cr, and Sb in children's products also deserve attention.

  14. [Laser pointers are not toys; eye injury with permanent loss of visual acuity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keunen, Jan E E; Delbecq, Ann-Laure M H; Cruysberg, J R M Hans; van Meurs, Jan C; Gan, Ivan M; Berendschot, Tos T J M

    2014-01-01

    In the nineteen-nineties, there was much hype in the European media about presumed laser pointer maculopathy. However, the recent introduction of more powerful and therefore more dangerous laser pointers and their easy availability on the internet necessitates vigilance on the issue. This is an urgent matter, as here we report three cases of proven maculopathy due to an unsafe laser pointer. Three boys aged 13, 9 and 12 years used an unsafe laser pointer as a toy and looked repeatedly into the pointer, resulting in a permanent reduction in visual acuity due to macular damage. Laser pointers are not designed to be children's toys or instruments to annoy people in a crowd. Health authorities and the ophthalmic community should be aware of the potential danger of improper use of high-output laser pointers and warn the general public before the widespread availability of unsafe laser pointers and consequently laser pointer-induced macular damage becomes a true social problem.

  15. Low-income fathers' speech to toddlers during book reading versus toy play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Virginia C; Rowe, Meredith L; Leech, Kathryn A; Cabrera, Natasha J

    2016-11-01

    Fathers' child-directed speech across two contexts was examined. Father-child dyads from sixty-nine low-income families were videotaped interacting during book reading and toy play when children were 2;0. Fathers used more diverse vocabulary and asked more questions during book reading while their mean length of utterance was longer during toy play. Variation in these specific characteristics of fathers' speech that differed across contexts was also positively associated with child vocabulary skill measured on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory. Results are discussed in terms of how different contexts elicit specific qualities of child-directed speech that may promote language use and development.

  16. Childhood cancer: feelings expressed by children in chemotherapy during therapeutic toy sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Paulo Souza e Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at understanding the feelings experienced by the child with cancer manifested during Therapeutic Toy sessions. This qualitative research was performed with five children aged between three and twelve years, of both sexes. Data collection was carried out through a participatory and systematic observation, coupled with interviews intermediated by Therapeutic Toy Sessions. The data was worked using discourse analysis. The child with cancer was shown as a being full of feelings. The fear of death, pain, sadness on the limitations imposed by the disease, the withdrawal and rebellion with the procedures, the anguish in the face of uncertainties were negative feelings expressed by the children in the dramatizations. However, the development of treatment, the manifestation of a good prognosis and outcome of cure were emerging feelings of hope and happiness before the treatment, optimism in return to usual activities and overcoming amidst the difficulties experienced.

  17. Maharishi X Medicom Toy Life X Porter联名企划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    英国品牌Maharishi近日与日本居家生活休闲品牌Medicom ToyLife、日本制包老牌Porter共同合作一项三方联名企划。这项企划单品包括机能性背包、皮夹、手机袋、手提袋、室内拖鞋以及抱枕等单品.全部的单品皆以Maharishi代表性的黑/灰/白三色迷彩为配色。包类单品交由Porter所制作,而居家生活用品则由Medicom Toy Life所出品。

  18. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: The New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, Howard W., E-mail: howard.mielke@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities, 1430 Tulane Avenue SL-3, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Covington, Tina P. [Charity School of Nursing, Delgado Community College, New Orleans, LA 70112-1397 (United States); College of Nursing, University of South Alabama, Doctor of Nursing Practice Program (student), Mobile AL 36688-0002 (United States); Mielke, Paul W. [Department of Statistics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1877 (United States); Wolman, Fredericka J. [Director of Pediatrics, Department of Children and Families, State of Connecticut, Hartford, CT 06473 (United States); Powell, Eric T.; Gonzales, Chris R. [Lead Lab, Inc., New Orleans, LA 70179-1125 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (454 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 603-56650 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (56-5263 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) to a median of 398 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (37 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 86-980 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (8-91 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At {approx}$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention. - Highlights: > Upstream thinking refers to attending to causative agents that affect outcomes. > New Orleans has a high density soil Pb map of all residential communities. > Many childcare centers are located in Pb polluted residential communities. > Evaluation of childcare center playground soils substantiated severe Pb pollution. > Pursuing upstream thinking, low Pb soil was put on playgrounds to protect children. - Within hours, at a cost of about U.S. $100 (2010) per child, it is feasible to transform exterior play areas at childcare centers from Pb contaminated to Pb-safe with a large margin of safety.

  19. Children’s Caregivers and Public Playgrounds: Potential Reservoirs of Infection of Hand-foot-and-mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengyuan; Li, Tao; Gu, Qiuyun; Chen, Xiaomin; Li, Jiahui; Chen, Xiashi; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Danwei; Gao, Rong; He, Zhenjian; Zhu, Xun; Zhang, Wangjian; Hao, Yuantao; Zhang, Dingmei

    2016-11-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease, which has led to millions of clinical cases and hundreds of deaths every year in China. This study aimed to exploring the effects on HFMD transmission of children’s caregivers and public area, as well as trying to locate the potential reservoirs of infections in primary cases. Total children’s 257 samples (98 children’s caregivers and 159 environmental samples) were tested for the presence of universal enterovirus, enterovirus 71, coxsackie virus A6 and A16 by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). 5.84% (15/257, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.98%, 8.70%) of total samples had positive results of enterovirus. The enterovirus positive rates of children’s caregiver samples and environmental samples were respectively 7.14% (7/98, 95% CI: 2.04%, 12.24%), and 5.03% (8/159, 95% CI: 1.63%, 8.43%); 7.61% (7/92, 95% CI: 2.21%, 13.01%) of wiping samples from playgrounds and 1.49% (1/67, 95% CI: 0, 7.00%) of air samples in indoor market places had positive result of enterovirus. High positive rates of enterovirus in children’s caregivers and from playgrounds indicated that they would be potential reservoirs of HFMD infection, as children might be infected via contacting with asymptomatic-infected individuals or exposure of contaminated surface of public facilities.

  20. Downsides of the recycling process: harmful organic chemicals in children's toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionas, Alin C; Dirtu, Alin C; Anthonissen, Tim; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-04-01

    Most of the materials used in consumer goods contain a number of additives which are meant to improve key properties like plasticity or flame resistance. At the end-of-life of the product, many polymeric materials are recycled and the additives they contain, such as flame retardants (FRs) and plasticizers, are transferred to the newly manufactured goods. We have investigated the occurrence and profiles of FRs, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and phosphate FR (PFRs) and of plasticisers, such as phthalate esters, in 106 toys samples. Low levels and detection frequencies of components of the technical Penta-BDE and Deca-BDE mixtures were found, with BDE 209 being the dominant PBDE in all samples (maximum value was 0.14mg/g or 0.014%). The levels of PFRs and phthalates were up to 10,000 times higher than those of the PBDEs, with triphenyl phosphate and diethylhexyl phthalate being the major representatives of these classes. Maximum values were 1.3 and 6.9%, respectively. The detection frequencies were up to 50% for PFRs and 98% for phthalates. All but one of the toys produced after the REACH regulation went into force complied with its provisions. The samples were grouped according to relevant selection criteria to assess the risk for children of different age groups. Using models in the literature, exposure to these chemicals was tentatively assessed. It is clear that at the levels found in the investigated toys, these additives do not contribute to the intended characteristics of the materials, but in some cases may pose a health hazard to the children. Most likely, recycled materials are an important source of these additives in toys and therefore, their (re)use in products for children should be subject to stricter restrictions.