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Sample records for players performed significantly

  1. Return to Sport and Performance After Microfracture in the Knees of National Basketball Association Players

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Joshua D.; David M. Walton; Erickson, Brandon J.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cole, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of microfracture in the knees of National Basketball Association (NBA) players is controversial. Hypotheses: (1) There would be a high rate of return to sport (RTS) in NBA players following microfracture, (2) players would RTS the season following surgery, (3) preoperative player performance would not be significantly different on RTS, and (4) there would be no significant difference in RTS rate or postoperative performance in players undergoing microfracture in comparison wit...

  2. Performance Outcomes After Metacarpal Fractures in National Basketball Association Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Michael S; Begly, John P; Ramme, Austin J; Hinds, Richard M; Karia, Raj J; Capo, John T

    2016-12-01

    Background: The aim was to determine whether players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who sustain metacarpal fractures demonstrate decreased performance upon return to competition when compared with their performance before injury and that of their control-matched peers. Methods: Data for 32 NBA players with metacarpal fractures incurred over 11 seasons (2002-2003 to 2012-2013) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, and player profiles (www.nba.com and www.basketballreference.com). Player age, body mass index (BMI), position, shooting hand, number of years in the league, and treatment (surgical vs nonsurgical) were recorded. Individual season statistics for the 2 seasons immediately prior to injury and the 2 seasons after injury, including player efficiency rating (PER), were obtained. Thirty-two controls matched by player position, age, and performance statistics were identified. A performance comparison of the cohorts was performed. Results: Mean age at the time of injury was 27 years with an average player BMI of 24. Players had a mean 5.6 seasons of NBA experience prior to injury. There was no significant change in PER when preinjury and postinjury performances were compared. Neither injury to their shooting hand nor operative management of the fracture led to a decrease in performance during the 2 seasons after injury. When compared with matched controls, no significant decline in performance in PER the first season and second season after injury was found. Conclusion: NBA players sustaining metacarpal fractures can reasonably expect to return to their preinjury performance levels following appropriate treatment.

  3. Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molik Bartosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg, body height (cm, the arm span (cm and length of the body in the defensive position (cm. The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03 and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04. The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04, the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01, and fouls (p = 0.01. The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level.

  4. Athletic performance outcomes following lumbar discectomy in professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anakwenze, Okechukwu A; Namdari, Surena; Auerbach, Joshua D; Baldwin, Keith; Weidner, Zachary D; Lonner, Baron S; Huffman, G R; Sennett, Brian J

    2010-04-01

    Retrospective case-control study. To quantify the athletic performance profiles after lumbar discectomy (LD) in a cohort of National Basketball Association (NBA) players in comparison with a control group of matched NBA players who did not undergo LD during the same study period. LD provides symptomatic relief and improved functional outcomes in the majority of patients as assessed by validated measures such as Oswestry Disability Index, Visual Analog Scale, and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Among professional athletes, however, the goal of lumbar HNP treated by discectomy is not only to improve functional status but also, ultimately, to return the player to preinjury athletic performance levels. No study to date has compared the athletic performance profiles before and after discectomy in professional athletes. An analysis of NBA games summaries, weekly injury reports, player profiles, and press releases was performed to identify 24 NBA players who underwent LD for symptomatic lumbar HNP between 1991 and 2007. A 1:2 case: control study was performed using players without history of lumbar HNP who were matched for age, position, experience, and body mass index as control subjects (n = 48). Paired t tests were conducted on the following parameters: games played, minutes per game, points per 40 minutes, rebounds per 40 minutes, assists per 40 minutes, steals per 40 minutes, blocks per 40 minutes, and shooting percentage. For each athletic performance outcome, between-group comparisons evaluating preindex to postindex season performance were done (index season = season of surgery). In the LD group, 18 of 24 players (75%) returned to play again in the NBA, compared with 42 of 48 players (88%, P = 0.31) in the control group. One year after surgery, between-group comparisons revealed statistically significant increase in blocked shots per 40 minutes in the LD (0.18) versus control group (-0.33; P = 0.008) and a smaller decrease in rebounds per 40 minutes in the LD (-0

  5. Physical Characteristics and Performance of Japanese Top-Level American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Daichi; Asakura, Masaki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shinzo; Yamada, Yosuke

    2017-09-01

    Yamashita, D, Asakura, M, Ito, Y, Yamada, S, and Yamada, Y. Physical characteristics and performance of Japanese top-level American football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2455-2461, 2017-This study aimed to compare the physical characteristics and performance between top-level nonprofessional football players in Japan and National Football League (NFL) Combine invited players and between top-level and middle-level players in Japan to determine the factors that enhance performance in international and national competitions. A total of 168 American football players (>20 years) in Japan participated in an anthropometric (height and weight) and physical (vertical jump, long jump, 40-yard dash, pro-agility shuttle, 3-cone drill, and bench press repetition test) measurement program based on the NFL Combine program to compete in the selection of candidates for the Senior World Championship. All players were categorized into 1 of the 3 position groups based on playing position: skill players, big skill players, and linemen. Japanese players were additionally categorized into selected and nonselected players for the second tryout. The NFL Combine candidates had significantly better performance than selected Japanese players on all variables except on performance related to quickness among the 3 position groups. Compared with nonselected players, selected Japanese skill players had better performance in the 40-yard dash and bench press test and big skill players had better performance in the vertical jump, broad jump, and 40-yard dash. Selected and nonselected Japanese linemen were not different in any measurements. These results showed the challenges in American football in Japan, which include not only improving physical performance of top-level players, but also increasing the number of football players with good physical performance.

  6. Physical Characteristics and Performance of Japanese Top-Level American Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Masaki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shinzo; Yamada, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Yamashita, D, Asakura, M, Ito, Y, Yamada, S, and Yamada, Y. Physical characteristics and performance of Japanese top-level American football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2455–2461, 2017—This study aimed to compare the physical characteristics and performance between top-level nonprofessional football players in Japan and National Football League (NFL) Combine invited players and between top-level and middle-level players in Japan to determine the factors that enhance performance in international and national competitions. A total of 168 American football players (>20 years) in Japan participated in an anthropometric (height and weight) and physical (vertical jump, long jump, 40-yard dash, pro-agility shuttle, 3-cone drill, and bench press repetition test) measurement program based on the NFL Combine program to compete in the selection of candidates for the Senior World Championship. All players were categorized into 1 of the 3 position groups based on playing position: skill players, big skill players, and linemen. Japanese players were additionally categorized into selected and nonselected players for the second tryout. The NFL Combine candidates had significantly better performance than selected Japanese players on all variables except on performance related to quickness among the 3 position groups. Compared with nonselected players, selected Japanese skill players had better performance in the 40-yard dash and bench press test and big skill players had better performance in the vertical jump, broad jump, and 40-yard dash. Selected and nonselected Japanese linemen were not different in any measurements. These results showed the challenges in American football in Japan, which include not only improving physical performance of top-level players, but also increasing the number of football players with good physical performance. PMID:28052052

  7. Performance following a first professional concussion among National Basketball Association players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Stotts, Jeff; Zalneraitis, Brian H; Gardner, Ryan M; Kerr, Zachary Y; Solomon, Gary S

    2016-09-01

    Basketball is a physical game played on a hardwood floor among high-jumping athletes at risk for injury. It is currently unknown how sport-related concussion (SRC) affects player performance after injury among professional basketball players. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of SRC on basketball performance among National Basketball Association (NBA) players. A retrospective, archival cohort study was performed that compared NBA player performance following concussion to pre-concussive performance. A comprehensive NBA injury database, compiled from publically available sources, was queried for NBA players who suffered concussion from 2005-06 to 2014-15 (10 seasons). Intra-and inter-player analyses were performed against a matched control group of players who missed playing time for personal reasons. Following application of inclusion/exclusion criteria and a matching process, 51 concussed players and 51 control players were included in analysis. There were no statistically significant decrements in baseline to post-concussion performance metrics in intra-player or player vs. controls after 5 return games. Our findings suggest that at the NBA level, an athlete's performance in the initial 5 games following injury does not suffer from the after-effects of concussive injury. These results may be useful in counseling professional athletes following a concussion.

  8. Technical player profiles related to the physical fitness of young female volleyball players predict team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Romero, C; Hernández-Mocholí, M A; García-Hermoso, A

    2015-03-01

    This study is divided into three sequential stages: identification of fitness and game performance profiles (individual player performance), an assessment of the relationship between these profiles, and an assessment of the relationship between individual player profiles and team performance during play (in championship performance). The overall study sample comprised 525 (19 teams) female volleyball players aged 12-16 years and a subsample (N.=43) used to examine study aims one and two was selected from overall sample. Anthropometric, fitness and individual player performance (actual game) data were collected in the subsample. These data were analyzed through clustering methods, ANOVA and independence chi-square test. Then, we investigated whether the proportion of players with the highest individual player performance profile might predict a team's results in the championship. Cluster analysis identified three volleyball fitness profiles (high, medium, and low) and two individual player performance profiles (high and low). The results showed a relationship between both types of profile (fitness and individual player performance). Then, linear regression revealed a moderate relationship between the number of players with a high volleyball fitness profile and a team's results in the championship (R2=0.23). The current study findings may enable coaches and trainers to manage training programs more efficiently in order to obtain tailor-made training, identify volleyball-specific physical fitness training requirements and reach better results during competitions.

  9. Performance outcomes after repair of complete achilles tendon ruptures in national basketball association players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nirav H; Old, Andrew B; Tabb, Loni P; Garg, Rohit; Toossi, Nader; Cerynik, Douglas L

    2013-08-01

    A complete rupture of the Achilles tendon is a devastating injury. Variables affecting return to competition and performance changes for National Basketball Association (NBA) players are not readily evident. Players in the NBA who ruptured their Achilles tendons and who underwent surgical repair would have more experience in the league, and the performance of those who were able to return to competition would be decreased when compared with their performance before injury and with their control-matched peers. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Data for 18 basketball players with Achilles tendon repair over a 23-year period (1988-2011) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, and player profiles. Variables included age, body mass index (BMI), player position, and number of years playing in the league. Individual season statistics were obtained, and the NBA player efficiency rating (PER) was calculated for 2 seasons before and after injury. Controls were matched by playing position, number of seasons played, and performance statistics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the effect of each factor. At the time of injury, the average age was 29.7 years, average BMI was 25.6, and average playing experience was 7.6 years. Seven players never returned to play an NBA game, whereas 11 players returned to play 1 season, with 8 of those players returning for ≥2 seasons. Players who returned missed an average of 55.9 games. The PER was reduced by 4.57 (P = .003) in the first season and by 4.38 (P = .010) in the second season. When compared with controls, players demonstrated a significant decline in the PER the first season (P = .038) and second season (P = .081) after their return. The NBA players who returned to play after repair of complete Achilles tendon ruptures showed a significant decrease in playing time and performance. Thirty-nine percent of players never returned to play.

  10. Aerobic fitness and performance in elite female futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Barbero-Alvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its growing popularity, few studies have investigated specific physiological demands for elite female futsal. The aim of this study was to determine aerobic fitness in elite female futsal players using laboratory and field testing. Fourteen female futsal players from the Venezuelan National team (age =21.2±4.0 years; body mass =58.6±5.6 kg; height =161±5.0 cm performed a progressive maximal treadmill test under laboratory conditions. Players also performed a progressive intermittent futsal-specific field test for endurance, the Futsal Intermittent Endurance Test (FIET, until volitional fatigue. Outcome variables were exercise heart rate (HR, VO2, post-exercise blood lactate concentrations ([La]b and running speeds (km • h -2 . During the treadmill test, VO2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS, HR and peak [La]b were 45.3±5.6 ml • kg-1 • min-1, 12.5±1.77 km • h -2 , 197±8 beats • min-1 and 11.3±1.4 mmol • l-1, respectively. The FIET total distance, peak running velocity, peak HR and [La]b were 1125.0±121.0 m, 15.2±0.5 km • h -2 , 199±8 beats • min-1 and 2.5±2.2 mmol • l-1, respectively. The FIET distance and peak speed were strongly associated (r= 0.85-87, p<0.0001 with VO2max and MAS, respectively. Peak HR and [La]b were not significantly different between tests. Elite female futsal players possess moderate aerobic fitness. Furthermore, the FIET can be considered as a valid field test to determine aerobic fitness in elite level female futsal players.

  11. Aerobic fitness and performance in elite female futsal players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiela, JV; Granda-Vera, J; Castagna, C; Gómez, M; Del Coso, J

    2015-01-01

    Despite its growing popularity, few studies have investigated specific physiological demands for elite female futsal. The aim of this study was to determine aerobic fitness in elite female futsal players using laboratory and field testing. Fourteen female futsal players from the Venezuelan National team (age =21.2±4.0 years; body mass =58.6±5.6 kg; height =161±5.0 cm) performed a progressive maximal treadmill test under laboratory conditions. Players also performed a progressive intermittent futsal-specific field test for endurance, the Futsal Intermittent Endurance Test (FIET), until volitional fatigue. Outcome variables were exercise heart rate (HR), VO2, post-exercise blood lactate concentrations ([La]b) and running speeds (km · h-1). During the treadmill test, VO2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), HR and peak [La]b were 45.3±5.6 ml · kg-1 · min-1, 12.5±1.77 km · h-1, 197±8 beats · min-1 and 11.3±1.4 mmol · l-1, respectively. The FIET total distance, peak running velocity, peak HR and [La]b were 1125.0±121.0 m, 15.2±0.5 km · h-1, 199±8 beats · min-1 and 12.5±2.2 mmol · l-1, respectively. The FIET distance and peak speed were strongly associated (r= 0.85-87, p < 0.0001) with VO2max and MAS, respectively. Peak HR and [La]b were not significantly different between tests. Elite female futsal players possess moderate aerobic fitness. Furthermore, the FIET can be considered as a valid field test to determine aerobic fitness in elite level female futsal players. PMID:28479664

  12. Return to Sport and Performance After Microfracture in the Knees of National Basketball Association Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joshua D; Walton, David M; Erickson, Brandon J; Verma, Nikhil N; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Bach, Bernard R; Cole, Brian J

    2013-11-01

    Use of microfracture in the knees of National Basketball Association (NBA) players is controversial. (1) There would be a high rate of return to sport (RTS) in NBA players following microfracture, (2) players would RTS the season following surgery, (3) preoperative player performance would not be significantly different on RTS, and (4) there would be no significant difference in RTS rate or postoperative performance in players undergoing microfracture in comparison with an age-, position-, NBA experience-, and performance-matched control group. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. NBA players undergoing microfracture were evaluated. Age-, body mass index-, position-, NBA experience-, and performance-matched controls were selected from the NBA during the same years as those undergoing microfracture. An index year was selected (controls) to match the number of seasons of NBA experience in microfracture cases. RTS and performance were analyzed and compared between cases and controls. Student t tests were performed for analysis of within- and between-group variables. A total of 41 NBA players underwent microfracture and were compared with 41 demographic- and performance-matched controls. Rate of RTS after microfracture was 73% in the NBA and 83% in professional basketball (NBA, D-league, and International Basketball Federation [FIBA]). Time to RTS in NBA was 9.20 ± 4.88 months. Seventy-one percent (29/41) of players RTS the season following microfracture. Length of NBA career following microfracture (4.10 ± 3.91 years) was not significantly different from controls. After microfracture, case athletes played fewer games per season and with fewer points and steals per game (relative to premicrofracture; P NBA players undergoing microfracture returned to professional basketball. Career length was not significantly different between players undergoing microfracture and controls. However, following microfracture, players competed in fewer games per season with fewer points

  13. Break dance significantly increases static balance in 9 years-old soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Ravaschio, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    Static balance in young athletes is an important ability that has a relevant influence on their present and future sport performances, as well as on the reduction in risk of injury. The present study reports data collected on three homogeneous groups of 9 years-old athletes (n=10 for each group), whose static balance was monitored every two months during an overall period of six months. At the beginning of the study, all of the children in each of the three groups were performing soccer activity with a frequency (three times a week) that was kept constant during the observation period. During the six months, group 1 maintained only the soccer activity, group 2 also performed swimming activity (twice a week) in parallel with the soccer activity, while group 3 started, at month 2, to perform soccer activity with a break dance course (twice a week). Double leg stance (with eyes open and closed) and single leg stance (on dominant and non-dominant leg) tests were performed using a force platform, and the COP area calculated for each trial. Results show a clear decrease in the "soccer+break dance" players COP area values during the six months, suggesting an improvement in their static balance. The difference was significantly greater with respect to that of soccer players and "soccer+swimming" players. This was evident in all the tests performed starting from two months after the break dance activity began.

  14. A measure for the batting performance of cricket players : research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A single measure that can be used to assess the performance of batsmen ... a formula for batting performance and a classification table for Test players. Keywords: Batting performance, Consistency, Cricket, Present form of a batsman ...

  15. Return-to-Sport and Performance After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in National Basketball Association Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joshua D; Erickson, Brandon J; Bach, Bernard R; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Forsythe, Brian; McCormick, Frank M; Gupta, Anil K; Cole, Brian J

    2013-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a significant injury in National Basketball Association (NBA) players. NBA players undergoing ACL reconstruction (ACLR) have high rates of return to sport (RTS), with RTS the season following surgery, no difference in performance between pre- and postsurgery, and no difference in RTS rate or performance between cases (ACLR) and controls (no ACL tear). Case-control. NBA players undergoing ACLR were evaluated. Matched controls for age, body mass index (BMI), position, and NBA experience were selected during the same years as those undergoing ACLR. RTS and performance were compared between cases and controls. Paired-sample Student t tests, chi-square, and linear regression analyses were performed for comparison of within- and between-group variables. Fifty-eight NBA players underwent ACLR while in the NBA. Mean player age was 25.7 ± 3.5 years. Forty percent of ACL tears occurred in the fourth quarter. Fifty players (86%) RTS in the NBA, and 7 players (12%) RTS in the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) or D-league. Ninety-eight percent of players RTS in the NBA the season following ACLR (11.6 ± 4.1 months from injury). Two players (3.1%) required revision ACLR. Career length following ACLR was 4.3 ± 3.4 years. Performance upon RTS following surgery declined significantly (P NBA following ACLR. Nearly all players RTS the season following surgery. Performance significantly declined from preinjury level; however, this was not significantly different from controls. ACL re-tear rate was low. There is a high RTS rate in the NBA after ACLR, with no difference in performance upon RTS compared with controls.

  16. Using anthropometric and performance characteristics to predict selection in junior UK Rugby League players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; O'Hara, John; Brightmore, Amy; Cooke, Carlton; Chapman, Chris

    2011-05-01

    Research examining the factors influencing selection within talented junior Rugby League players is limited. The aims of this study were firstly to determine whether differences existed for anthropometric and performance characteristics between regional and national selection in high performance UK junior Rugby League players, and secondly to identify variables that discriminated between these selection levels. Regional representative (n=1172) selected junior players (aged 13-16 years) undertook an anthropometric and fitness testing battery with players split according to selection level (i.e., national, regional). MANCOVA analyses, with age and maturation controlled, identified national players as having lower sum of 4 skinfolds scores compared to regional players, and also performed significantly better on all physical tests. Stepwise discriminant analysis identified that estimated maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), chronological age, body mass, 20 m sprint, height, sum of 4 skinfolds and sitting height discriminated between selection levels, accounting for 28.7% of the variance. This discriminant analysis corresponded to an overall predictive accuracy of 63.3% for all players. These results indicate that performance characteristics differed between selection levels in junior Rugby League players. However, the small magnitude of difference between selection levels suggests that physical qualities only partially explain higher representative selection. The monitoring and evaluation of such variables, alongside game related performance characteristics, provides greater knowledge and understanding about the processes and consequences of selection, training and performance in youth sport. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION ON STRENGTH AND JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN VOLLEYBALL AND BEACH VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmijewski, P.; Jimenez-Olmedo, J.M.; Jové-Tossi, M.A.; Martínez-Carbonell, A.; Suárez-Llorca, C.; Andreu-Cabrera, E.

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6-week strength training with whole body vibration (WBV) on leg strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players. Twenty-three sub-elite male volleyball (VB; n=12) and beach volleyball players (BVB; n=11) aged 21.2±3.0 years were divided into two groups and subjected to 6 weeks of strength training (three one-hour sessions per week): (I) 12 players (6 VB and 6 BVB players) underwent training with WBV (30-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, 3.0-5.7 g), and (II) 11 players (6 VB and 5 BVB players) underwent traditional strength training. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement squat jump (CMJ) measurements by the Ergo Tester contact platform and maximum leg press test (1RM) were conducted. Three-factor (2 time x 2 WBV use x 2 discipline) analysis of variance for SJ, CMJ and 1RM revealed a significant time main effect (pvolleyball and beach volleyball players increases leg strength more and leads to greater improvement in jump performance than traditional strength training, but greater improvements can be expected in beach volleyball players than in volleyball players. PMID:25187676

  18. Mental rotation performance in male soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Jansen

    Full Text Available It is the main goal of this study to investigate the visual-spatial cognition in male soccer players. Forty males (20 soccer players and 20 non-athletes solved a chronometric mental rotation task with both cubed and embodied figures (human figures, body postures. The results confirm previous results that all participants had a lower mental rotation speed for cube figures compared to embodied figures and a higher error rate for cube figures, but only at angular disparities greater than 90°. It is a new finding that soccer-players showed a faster reaction time for embodied stimuli. Because rotation speed did not differ between soccer-players and non-athletes this finding cannot be attributed to the mental rotation process itself but instead to differences in one of the following processes which are involved in a mental rotation task: the encoding process, the maintanence of readiness, or the motor process. The results are discussed against the background of the influence on longterm physical activity on mental rotation and the context of embodied cognition.

  19. Quantifying the performance of individual players in a team activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Duch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Teamwork is a fundamental aspect of many human activities, from business to art and from sports to science. Recent research suggest that team work is of crucial importance to cutting-edge scientific research, but little is known about how teamwork leads to greater creativity. Indeed, for many team activities, it is not even clear how to assign credit to individual team members. Remarkably, at least in the context of sports, there is usually a broad consensus on who are the top performers and on what qualifies as an outstanding performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to determine how individual features can be quantified, and as a test bed for other team-based human activities, we analyze the performance of players in the European Cup 2008 soccer tournament. We develop a network approach that provides a powerful quantification of the contributions of individual players and of overall team performance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We hypothesize that generalizations of our approach could be useful in other contexts where quantification of the contributions of individual team members is important.

  20. A Profile of Fitness Parameters and Performance of Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind B. Taware

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ball games require comprehen-sive ability including physical, technical, men-tal and tactical abilities. Among them, physicalabilities of players exert marked effects on theskill of the players themselves and the tacticsof the team. Therefore players must have thephysical abilities to meet the demand of thesport. Volleyball is one of the most popularlyplayed games in the world. Unfortunately, thelevel of performance of the Indian volleyballplayers lags far behind the international stan-dards. Aim of the Study: The present study wasaimed to assess flexibility, muscular endurance,power and cardio-respiratory endurance of vol-leyball players and to compare the results withage matched controls. Also, to compare thefindings of the volleyball players with that ofthe international norms from the available lit-erature and to make some suggestions for theimprovement in their performance level. Ma-terial and Methods: The study was carried outin 40 male volleyball players aged between 17to 26 years and 40 ages matched male controls.Physical fitness parameters namely flexibility,muscular endurance, power and cardio-respi-ratory endurance were measured, data was ana-lyzed using unpaired ‘t’-test. Results: It was ob-served that all physical fitness parameters weresignificantly more in players as compared totheir aged-matched controls but when values ofthe subjects were compared to internationalstandards; our subjects were behind the recom-mended norms for the elite volleyball players.Conclusion: The volleyball players have moreadvantage of flexibility muscular endurance,power and cardio-respiratory endurance.

  1. Concussions are associated with decreased batting performance among Major League Baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Erin B; Abar, Beau; Shah, Manish N; Wasserman, Daniel; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2015-05-01

    Concussions impair balance, visual acuity, and reaction time--all of which are required for high-level batting performance--but the effects of concussion on batting performance have not been reported. The authors examined this relationship between concussion and batting performance among Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Batting performance among concussed MLB players will be worse upon return to play than batting performance among players missing time for noninjury reasons. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The authors identified MLB players who sustained a concussion between 2007 and 2013 through league disabled-list records and a Baseball Prospectus database. For a comparison group, they identified players who went on paternity or bereavement leave during the same period. Using repeated-measures generalized linear models, the authors compared 7 batting metrics between the 2 groups for the 2 weeks upon return, as well as 4 to 6 weeks after return, controlling for pre-leave batting metrics, number of days missed, and position. The authors identified 66 concussions and 68 episodes of bereavement/paternity leave to include in the analysis. In the 2 weeks after return, batting average (.235 vs .266), on-base percentage (.294 vs .326), slugging percentage (.361 vs .423), and on-base plus slugging (.650 vs .749) were significantly lower among concussed players relative to the bereavement/paternity leave players (time×group interaction, Pconcussed players but not statistically significantly so. Although concussed players may be asymptomatic upon return to play, the residual effects of concussion on the skills required for batting may still be present. Further work is needed to clarify the mechanism through which batting performance after concussion is adversely affected and to identify better measures to use for return-to-play decisions. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Physical performance of elite and subelite Spanish female futsal players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, JA; Carrasco-Poyatos, M; Alcaraz, PE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the parameters distinguishing top female futsal players from lower level players. Twenty-seven female futsal players participated in the study, composed of professional first division (elite; n = 15) players and semi-professional second division players (sub-elite; n = 14). Active and passive straight leg raise tests, isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60° · s-1 angular velocity, squat and counter movement jumps, 30 m sprint, 30 m agility, repeated sprint ability test and maximum ball speed during shooting were measured. The elite players were more agile and kicked harder than sub-elite players in maximum ball speed during the shooting test (P ≤ 0.05). However, no significant differences between teams were observed in active and passive hamstring flexibility, jumping ability, repeated sprint ability test, 30 m sprint time, H/Q ratio and absolute and relative torque from 60° · s-1 angular velocity. Based on these findings we conclude that agility and maximum ball speed during shooting may be important determinant factors of Spanish female futsal actions and could distinguish ability at high-level games. PMID:27601786

  3. Physical performance of elite and subelite Spanish female futsal players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJ Ramos-Campo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the parameters distinguishing top female futsal players from lower level players. Twenty-seven female futsal players participated in the study, composed of professional first division (elite; n=15 players and semi-professional second division players (sub-elite; n=14. Active and passive straight leg raise tests, isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60º • s-1 angular velocity, squat and counter movement jumps, 30 m sprint, 30 m agility, repeated sprint ability test and maximum ball speed during shooting were measured. The elite players were more agile and kicked harder than sub-elite players in maximum ball speed during the shooting test (P≤0.05. However, no significant differences between teams were observed in active and passive hamstring flexibility, jumping ability, repeated sprint ability test, 30 m sprint time, H/Q ratio and absolute and relative torque from 60° • s-1 angular velocity. Based on these findings we conclude that agility and maximum ball speed during shooting may be important determinant factors of Spanish female futsal actions and could distinguish ability at high-level games.

  4. Vitamin D and exercise performance in professional soccer players.

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    Nikolaos E Koundourakis

    Full Text Available The current study had two aims. The primary purpose was to examine the association between serum vitamin D levels and the ergometric evaluation of muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and speed in professional soccer players. The secondary aim was to evaluate the effects of the soccer off-season period on serum vitamin D levels.Sixty-seven Caucasian male soccer players (age 25.6 ± 6.2 and height 1.81 ± 0.08 m, members of two Greek Superleague Soccer teams and one Football-league championship team participated in this study. Exercise performance testing for the determination of squat jump (SJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, 10 (10 m and 20 meters (20 m sprint performance, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, anthropometry, and blood sampling were performed before (pre and after (post the six-week off-season period.Analysis of our results showed the following: (a a significant correlations between serum vitamin D levels and performance parameters in both pre (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P < 0.001, VO2max; P < 0.001, 10 m; P < 0.001, and 20 m; P < 0.001 and post (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P<0.001, VO2max; P = 0.006, 10 m; P < 0.001, and 20 m; P < 0.001 experimental sessions. (b Vitamin D concentration increased significantly (P < 0.001 following the six-week off-season period compared to baseline, while at the same time all measured performance parameters decreased (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P < 0.001, 10 m; P < 0.001, 20 m; P < 0.001, VO2max; P<0.001.Our findings suggest that vitamin D levels are associated with the ergometric evaluation of muscle strength, as expressed by SJ and CMJ, sprinting capacity, and VO2max in professional soccer players, irrespective the levels of performance. Furthermore, our data reaffirm the importance of UVB on serum vitamin D levels. Moreover, reductions in exercise training stress may also have beneficial effects on vitamin D levels, suggesting a possible association of its levels and the training-induced stress. Our results indicate a

  5. Performance and antrhropometric characteristics of Elite Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasin, Federico; Caroli, Barbara; Spigoni, Valentina; Dei Cas, Alessandra; Volpi, Riccardo; Galli, Carlo; Passeri, Giovanni

    2017-08-23

    Physical performance is the result of a complex combination of several factors such as genetic and anthropometric aspects, nutrition and hormonal status. In the past few years many studies have considered the impact of vitamin D on muscular strength and athletic performance.The aim of the present study was to assess the anthropometric measures impacting on physical performance in a group of professional rugby athletes.  As a secondary aim we investigated a possible relationship between baseline vitamin D status and athletic performance status in these subjects. All rugby players completed a test-retest reliability study on performance measures, as 70kg jump squat and body weight (BW) jump squat to assess musculoskeletal performance. Additionally at the time point we collected a blood sample of every athletes for the assessment of serum vitamin D. We found that lean mass was an important independent predictor of performance score in 70kg jump squat (p=0.007, R2=0.74) and BW jump squat (p=0.010, R2=0.66) in these well trained athletes. No statistically significant association was present between performance score and serum vitamin D in this specific setting. We demonstrate a positive interaction between lower limb lean mass and performance score, but we have not been able to identify any statistically significant association between worsening in performance measures and decrease of serum 25 OH Vitamin D.

  6. Correlates of tackling ability in high-performance rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the tackling ability of high-performance rugby league players and determined the relationship between physiological and anthropometric qualities and tackling ability in these athletes. Twenty professional (National Rugby League) and 17 semiprofessional (Queensland Cup) rugby league players underwent a standardized 1-on-1 tackling drill in a 10-m grid. Video footage was taken from the rear, side, and front of the defending player. Tackling proficiency was assessed using standardized technical criteria. In addition, all players underwent measurements of standard anthropometry (height, body mass, and sum of 7 skinfolds), acceleration (10-m sprint), change of direction speed (505 test), and lower body muscular power (vertical jump). Professional players had significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) tackling proficiency than semiprofessional players (87.5 ± 2.0 vs. 75.0 ± 2.3%). Professional players were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) older, more experienced, leaner, and had greater acceleration than semiprofessional players. The strongest individual correlates of tackling ability were age (r = 0.41, p ≤ 0.05), playing experience (r = 0.70, p ≤ 0.01), skinfold thickness (r = -0.59, p ≤ 0.01), acceleration (r = 0.41, p ≤ 0.05), and lower body muscular power (r = 0.38, p ≤ 0.05). When hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to determine which of the variables predicted tackling ability, playing experience and lower body muscular power were the only variables that contributed significantly (r2 = 0.60, p ≤ 0.01) to the predictive model. From a practical perspective, strength and conditioning coaches should emphasize the development of acceleration, lower body muscular power, and lean muscle mass to improve tackling ability in high-performance rugby league players.

  7. Relationships Between Anaerobic Performance, Field Tests and Game Performance of Sitting Volleyball Players

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    Marszalek Jolanta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between anaerobic performance, field tests, game performance and anthropometric variables of sitting volleyball players. Twenty elite Polish sitting volleyball players were tested using the 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Test for arm crank ergometer and participated in six physical field tests. Heights in position to block and to spike, as well as arm reach were measured. Players were observed during the game on the court in terms of effectiveness of the serve, block, attack, receive and defense. Pearson analysis and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used. The strongest correlations were found between the chest pass test and mean power and peak power (r=.846; p=.001 and r=.708; p=.0005, respectively, and also between the T-test and peak power (r= −.718; p=.001. Mean power correlated with the 3 m test (r= −.540; p=.014, the 5 m test (r= −.592; p=.006, and the T-test (r= −.582; p=.007. Peak power correlated with the 3 m test (r= −.632; p=.003, the 5 m test (r= −.613; p=.004, speed & agility (r= −.552; p=.012 and speed & endurance (r=−.546; p=.013. Significant correlations were observed between anthropometric parameters and anaerobic performance variables (p≤.001, and also between anthropometric parameters and field tests (p≤.05. Game performance and physical fitness of sitting volleyball players depended on their anthropometric variables: reach of arms, the position to block and to spike. The chest pass test could be used as a non-laboratory field test of anaerobic performance of sitting volleyball players.

  8. Somatotype, role and performance in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi-Russo, E; Zaccagni, L

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the importance of the somatometric components of elite male and female volleyball players in relation to their different game roles and levels of performance. Two hundred and thirty-four male athletes (aged 24.7+/-4.4 years) and 244 female athletes (aged 23.1+/-4.4 years) from the Italian A1 and A2 volleyball leagues underwent anthropometric measurements during the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 seasons. Somatotypes were estimated with the Heath-Carter method. Marked sexual dimorphism in somatotype was observed in the total sample. The average somatotype for men was 2.2-4.2-3.2 (SD 0.7-0.9-0.9), and for women it was 3.0-3.3-2.9 (SD 0.8-1.0-0.9). The somatotype was significantly different in players at different levels of performance (A1 vs A2 leagues), as it follows: 2.1-4.1-3.3 (SD 0.6-0.8-0.7) vs 2.3-4.3-3.0 (SD 0.7-1.0-0.8) in males; 2.9-3.1-3.0 (SD 0.8-1.0-0.9) vs 3.1-3.5-2.7 (SD 0.8-0.9-0.8) in females. The somatotype was also significantly different in players in different roles. In male sex the mean somatotypes for setters were 2.4-4.5-2.8 (SD 0.7-0.9-0.8), for centres they were 2.0-4.0-3.5 (SD 0.6-1.0-0.8), for spikers they were 2.2-4.3-3.0 (SD 0.6-0.9-0.7), for opposites they were 2.2-4.3-3.1 (SD 0.6-0.9-0.8). In female sex the mean somatotypes for setters were 3.1-3.6-2.5 (SD 0.8-1.0-1.0), for centres they were 2.8-3.1-3.1 (SD 0.8-0.9-0.7), for spikers they were 3.0-3.5-2.8 (SD 0.9-1.0-0.9) and for opposites they were 3.0-3.2-3.0 (SD 0.7-0.9-0.8). The physique of athletes in the A1 league is characterized by higher ectomorphy and lower endomorphy and mesomorphy. There is also a slight tendency of male players to a greater homogeneity in somatotype within the group at the maximum level of performance. Moreover somatotype differs in relation to game role in volleyball players of both sexes: the mesomorphic component is maximal in setters, while the ectomorphic component is maximal in centres.

  9. Caffeinated energy drinks improve volleyball performance in elite female players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Alberto; Salinero, Juan José; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Valadés, David; Lara, Beatriz; Hernandez, Cesar; Areces, Francisco; González, Cristina; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on female volleyball players' performance. Thirteen elite female volleyball players ingested 3 mg·kg of caffeine with an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink) in a double-blind and randomized study. Then, participants performed the following: standing spike, jumping spike, spike jump, blocking jump, squat jump, countermovement jump, manual dynamometry, and the agility t-test. A simulated volleyball game was played, videotaped, and notated afterward. In comparison to the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased the ball velocity in the standing spike (19.2 ± 2.1 vs 19.7 ± 1.9 m·s, P = 0.023) and in the jumping spike (17.9 ± 2.2 vs 18.8 ± 2.2 m·s, P = 0.038) and the jump height in the squat jump (28.1 ± 3.2 vs 29.4 ± 3.6 cm, P = 0.028), countermovement jump (32.0 ± 4.6 vs 33.1 ± 4.5 cm, P = 0.018), spike jump (43.3 ± 4.7 vs 44.4 ± 5.0 cm, P = 0.025), and block jump (35.2 ± 5.1 vs 36.1 ± 5.1 cm, P = 0.044). Furthermore, the caffeinated energy drink decreased the time needed to complete the agility t-test (11.1 ± 0.5 vs 10.9 ± 0.3 s, P = 0.036). During the game, the volleyball actions categorized as successful were more frequent with the caffeinated energy drink (34% ± 9% vs 45% ± 9%, P drink. Commercially available energy drinks can significantly improve physical performance in female volleyball players. Increased physical performance led to improved accuracy during an actual volleyball match.

  10. METABOLIC DEMANDS OF MATCH PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS

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    Alper Aslan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine metabolic responses, movement patterns and distance covered at running speeds corresponding to fixed blood lactate concentrations (FBLs in young soccer players during a match play. A further aim of the study was to evaluate the relationships between FBLs, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max and distance covered during a game. A multistage field test was administered to 32 players to determine FBLs and VO2max. Blood lactate (LA, heart rate (HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE responses were obtained from 36 players during tournament matches filmed using six fixed cameras. Images were transferred to a computer, for calibration and synchronization. In all players, values for LA and HR were higher and RPE lower during the 1st half compared to the 2nd half of the matches (p < 0.01. Players in forward positions had higher LA levels than defenders, but HR and RPE values were similar between playing positions. Total distance and distance covered in jogging, low-moderate-high intensity running and low intensity sprint were higher during the 1st half (p < 0.01. In the 1st half, players also ran longer distances at FBLs [p<0.01; average running speed at 2mmol·L-1 (FBL2: 3.32 ± 0.31m·s-1 and average running speed at 4mmol·L-1 (FBL4: 3.91 ± 0.25m·s-1]. There was a significant difference between playing positions in distance covered at different running speeds (p < 0.05. However, when distance covered was expressed as FBLs, the players ran similar distances. In addition, relationships between FBLs and total distance covered were significant (r = 0.482 to 0.570; p < 0.01. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that young soccer players experienced higher internal load during the 1st half of a game compared to the 2nd half. Furthermore, although movement patterns of players differed between playing positions, all players experienced a similar physiological stress throughout the game. Finally, total

  11. The application of soccer performance testing protocols to the non-elite player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, J; Robergs, R; Weingart, H

    2006-03-01

    The application of performance testing for the evaluation of non-elite soccer players has received little attention. The purpose of this investigation was to use tests developed for elite soccer players to evaluate performance in non-elite soccer players and compare performance test results between elite (literature) and non-elite (data) players. Thirteen male soccer players volunteered to participate. The tests included a treadmill VO2max test, 20 m sprint, vertical jump (VJ), 30 s Wingate cycle ergometer test, the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST), and 2 20-m multi-stage shuttle runs to exhaustion (fatigue test). Actual VO2max (absolute and relative) scores were correlated with the estimated VO2max scores (fatigue test), 20 m sprint, VJ, and 30 s Wingate using a Pearson's product-moment correlation. A paired t-test was conducted on the fatigue test trials. Non-significant relationships were observed between actual VO2max scores and estimated VO2max from the fatigue test (absolute and relative terms). Non-significant relationships were also observed between peak and average power output (Wingate), 20 m sprint, and VJ. Mean heart rates (HRs) throughout the LIST was 165+/-7 bpm, which represented 88% of HRmax. The results of this study demonstrate that to elicit physiological differences between elite and non-elite players, assessment must include both an aerobic and anaerobic component.

  12. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE PHYSICAL FITNESS AND PERFORMANCE OF MALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS IN DIFFERENT DIVISIONS

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    Cihat KORKMAZ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information about the influence of different practice levels on physical fitness and performance variables of male basketball players competing in different divisions. Hence, the purpose of this study is to compare selected physical fitness and performance variables of male players in Turkey National Basketball League’s Division I (D1, II (D2 and III (D3=Regional and to evaluate whether players with different divisional characteristics have different physical fitness and performance variables. From the Turkey basketball league, ninety male basketball players who are competing in the division I (n=30, division II (n=30 and division III (n=30 voluntarily participated in the study. Physical fitness (body height, mass and fat percentage and performance (vertical jump height (VJH, vertical jump power (VJP, VO2max and 20 m sprint measurements were taken in three separate consecutive days following the completion of the first session. D1 and D3 players overall weighed more and D1 players had more body fat (BF and lean body mass (LBM than D2. There were significant differences in VJP between divisions (D1>D2>D3= p≤0.05, but, the differences in sprint ability and body height were not significant. Although there was no difference between D1 and D2 in VO2max and VJH, their values were significantly higher than D3 (p≤0.05. These results showed that in spite of relatively little differences in the average physical characteristics, there were very large statistical differences between divisions in physical performance variables of male basketball players, especially VJP and LBM which is an important criterion of performance at basketball.

  13. Characteristics of sprint performance in college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechue, William F; Mayhew, Jerry L; Piper, Fontaine C

    2010-05-01

    To investigate sprinting strategy, acceleration and velocity patterns were determined in college football players (n = 61) during performance of a 9.1-, 36.6-, and 54.9-m sprints. Acceleration and velocity were determined at 9.1-m intervals during each sprint. Lower-body strength and power were evaluated by 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) squat, power clean, jerk, vertical jump, standing long jump, and standing triple jump. Sprint times averaged 1.78 +/- 0.11 seconds (9.1 m), 5.18 +/- 0.35 seconds (36.6 m), and 7.40 +/- 0.53 seconds. Acceleration peaked at 9.1 m (2.96 +/- 0.44 m x s(-2)), was held constant at 18.3 m (3.55 +/- 0.0.94 m x s(-2)), and was negative at 27.4 m (-1.02 +/- 0.72 m x s(-2)). Velocity peaked at 18.3 m (8.38 +/- 0.65 m x s(-2)) and decreased slightly, but significantly at 27.4 m (7.55 +/- 0.66 m x s(-2)), associated with the negative acceleration. Measures of lower-body strength were significantly related to acceleration, velocity, and sprint performance only when corrected for body mass. Lower-body strength/BM and power correlated highest with 36.6-m time (rs = -0.55 to -0.80) and with acceleration (strength r = 0.67-0.49; power r = 0.73-0.81) and velocity (strength r = 0.68-0.53; power r = 0.74-0.82) at 9.1 m. Sprint times and strength per body mass were significantly lower in lineman compared with linebackers-tight ends and backs. The acceleration and velocity patterns were the same for each position group, and differences in sprint time were determined by the magnitude of acceleration and velocity at 9.1 and 18.3 m. Sprint performance in football players is determined by a rapid increase in acceleration (through 18.3 m) and a high velocity maintained throughout the sprint and is independent of position played. The best sprint performances (independent of sprint distance) appear to be related to the highest initial acceleration (through 18.3 m) and highest attained and maintained velocity. Strength relative to body mass and power appears to

  14. Enhancing Performance & Preventing Injuries in Team Sport Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, Hendrike

    2016-01-01

    Next to physical load and recovery as a result of training, psychosocial stress and recovery affect performance and injury risk of team sport players. This can be concluded based on a series of studies that focus on the relation between jumping technique, training load, training recovery, psychosoci

  15. Monitoring load, recovery and performance in young elite soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Michel S.; Nederhof, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Schmikli, Sandor L.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Brink, MS, Nederhof, E, Visscher, C, Schmikli, SL, and Lemmink, KAPM. Monitoring load, recovery, and performance in young elite soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 24(3): 597603, 2010-The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between training load, recovery, and monthly field test pe

  16. Association of anthropometric qualities with vertical jump performance in elite male volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouadi, R; Jlid, M C; Khalifa, R; Hermassi, S; Chelly, M S; Van Den Tillaar, R; Gabbett, T

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between physical and anthropometric profiles and vertical jump performance in elite volleyball players. Thirty-three elite male volleyball players (21±1 y, 76.9±5.2 kg, 186.5±5 cm) were studied. Several anthropometric measurements (body mass, stature, body mass index, lower limb length and sitting height) together with jumping height anaerobic power of counter movement jump with arm swing (CMJarm) were obtained from all subjects. Forward stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine if any of the anthropometric parameters were predictive of CMJarm. Anaerobic power was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in the tallest players relative to their shorter counterparts. A significant relationship was observed between CMJarm and lower limb length (r2=0.69; P0.05) predictors of CMJarm performance. This study demonstrates that lower limb length is correlated with CMJarm in elite male volleyball players. The players with longer lower limbs have the better vertical jump performances and their anaerobic power is higher. These results could be of importance for trained athletes in sports relying on jumping performance, such as basketball, handball or volleyball. Thus, the measurement of anthropometric characteristics, such as stature and lower limb length may assist coaches in the early phases of talent identification in volleyball.

  17. Technical Performance Analysis of Iran Premier League Soccer Players in 2012-2013 Season

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    Mohsen Javani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of study : analysis of IRAN premier league soccer players’ technical performance in season 2012-2013, using a computerized match analysis system (Borhan Mobin Development Management Co, IRAN. Material and methods: in this study, data were obtained from 120 players, who performed in competitions 90 minutes. The players were classified into 3 positional roles: defenders, midfielders and forwards. Technical performance variables analysis included: total passes, total successful passes, pass accuracy, total shots; total shots to target, shot accuracy, ball interception and ball losses. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Tukey post hoc test. Results : The findings of this study showed that players performed about 45 passes per competition. Midfielders and defenders had significantly higher number of passes than forwards. Pass accuracy was about 67% and there were no significant differences between positional roles. Also, the players performed about 0.8 shots per competition, forwards and midfielders had significantly higher number of shots than defenders. Shot accuracy was about 31%; midfielders and forwards had significantly higher shot accuracy than defenders. Forwards showed significantly lower ball interception and higher ball losses than other positions. Conclusion : The result of this study showed that there were significant differences between some technical actions in positional roles. Therefore, coaches can use this information for individualization of training according to playing positions and for optimization of training in the amateur game.

  18. A Method for Using Player Tracking Data in Basketball to Learn Player Skills and Predict Team Performance.

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    Brian Skinner

    Full Text Available Player tracking data represents a revolutionary new data source for basketball analysis, in which essentially every aspect of a player's performance is tracked and can be analyzed numerically. We suggest a way by which this data set, when coupled with a network-style model of the offense that relates players' skills to the team's success at running different plays, can be used to automatically learn players' skills and predict the performance of untested 5-man lineups in a way that accounts for the interaction between players' respective skill sets. After developing a general analysis procedure, we present as an example a specific implementation of our method using a simplified network model. While player tracking data is not yet available in the public domain, we evaluate our model using simulated data and show that player skills can be accurately inferred by a simple statistical inference scheme. Finally, we use the model to analyze games from the 2011 playoff series between the Memphis Grizzlies and the Oklahoma City Thunder and we show that, even with a very limited data set, the model can consistently describe a player's interactions with a given lineup based only on his performance with a different lineup.

  19. Physical Attributes and NFL Combine Performance Tests Between Italian National League and American Football Players: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Jacopo A; Caumo, Andrea; Roveda, Eliana; Montaruli, Angela; La Torre, Antonio; Battaglini, Claudio L; Carandente, Franca

    2016-10-01

    Vitale, JA, Caumo, A, Roveda, E, Montaruli, A, La Torre, A, Battaglini, CL, and Carandente, F. Physical attributes and NFL Combine performance tests between Italian National League and American football players: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2802-2808, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine anthropometric measurements and the results of a battery of performance tests administered during the National Football League (NFL) Combine between American football players who were declared eligible to participate in the NFL Combine and football players of a top Italian team (Rhinos Milan). Participants (N = 50) were categorized by position into 1 of 3 groups based on playing position: skill players (SP) included wide receivers, cornerbacks, free safeties, strong safeties, and running backs; big skill players (BSP) consisted of fullbacks, linebackers, tight ends, and defensive ends; lineman (LM) included centers, offensive guards, offensive tackles, and defensive tackles. A 1-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test was used for comparisons between Italian players by playing position. Ninety-five percent CIs were used for comparisons between American and Italian football for the NFL Combine performance tests. Significant differences for all the variables between the 3 playing categories were observed among the Italian players; LM had higher anthropometric and body composition values than SP (p football players presented significantly higher anthropometric values and test performance scores when compared with Italian players. Administrators of professional football teams in Italy need to improve the player's physical attributes, so the gap that currently exists between American and Italian players can be reduced, which could significantly improve the quality of American football in Italy.

  20. Relationships between physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities and playing performance in professional rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities and playing performance in professional rugby league players. Fifty-eight high-performance rugby league players underwent measurements for anthropometry (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and estimated maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. National Rugby League matches were coded for attacking (e.g. line breaks, try assists, etc.) and defensive (e.g. missed tackles, tackling efficiency, etc.) statistics commonly used to assess rugby league playing performance. The number of line break assists was significantly associated (P National Rugby League players.

  1. Multidimensional performance characteristics and standard of performance in talented youth field hockey players : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Mulder, Theo

    2007-01-01

    To identify performance characteristics that could help predict future elite field hockey players, we measured the anthropometric, physiological, technical, tactical, and psychological characteristics of 30 elite and 35 sub-elite youth players at the end of three consecutive seasons. The mean age of

  2. Physical characteristics of elite adolescent female basketball players and their relationship to match performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe Azahara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16 and under-18 (U18 female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (p<0.05 higher values in upper (+21.2% and lower (+27.11% limb strength compared to the U16 group. Furthermore, no significant differences between groups were observed in match performance outcomes. Only two performance variables, steals and assists per game, correlated significantly with jump capacity, speed, agility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005. These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players.

  3. The National Football League Combine: performance differences between drafted and nondrafted players entering the 2004 and 2005 drafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierer, S Patrick; Battaglini, Claudio L; Mihalik, Jason P; Shields, Edgar W; Tomasini, Nathan T

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine performance differences between drafted and nondrafted athletes (N = 321) during the 2004 and 2005 National Football League (NFL) Combines. We categorized players into one of 3 groups: Skill, Big skill, and Linemen. Skill players (SP) consisted of wide receivers, cornerbacks, free safeties, strong safeties, and running backs. Big skill players (BSP) included fullbacks, linebackers, tight ends, and defensive ends. Linemen (LM) consisted of centers, offensive guards, offensive tackles, and defensive tackles. We analyzed player height and mass, as well as performance on the following combine drills: 40-yard dash, 225-lb bench press test, vertical jump, broad jump, pro-agility shuttle, and the 3-cone drill. Student t-tests compared performance on each of these measures between drafted and nondrafted players. Statistical significance was found between drafted and nondrafted SP for the 40-yard dash (P ready themselves for the NFL Combine.

  4. Relationship between core strength and key variables of performance in elite rink hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, M W; Freiwald, J; Baumgart, C; Born, D P; Reed, J L; Sperlich, B

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a significant relationship exists between the level of core strength-endurance and key variables of endurance, strength, power, speed, and agility performance in male elite rink hockey players. Ten male elite rink hockey players of the German national team were tested for 1) time to exhaustion, maximum oxygen uptake, and running economy, 2) one repetition maximum bench press and half squat, 3) counter movement jump height, 4) 5 m, 10 m, and 20 m speed, and 5) 22 m agility. The rink hockey players were also tested for 6) ventral, lateral-left, lateral-right, and dorsal core strength-endurance using concentric-eccentric muscle tests. The level of total and ventral core strength-endurance was very largely correlated with maximum oxygen uptake (r=0.74 and r=0.71, both Pcore strength-endurance and time to exhaustion (r=0.66, P0.05). The findings from this study suggest that the level of core strength-endurance is largely to very largely correlated with key variables of endurance performance, but not significantly with strength, power, speed, or agility indicators in male elite rink hockey players. These findings should be noted by coaches and scientists when testing physical fitness or planning strength and conditioning programs for male elite rink hockey players.

  5. Physique and Performance of Young Wheelchair Basketball Players in Relation with Classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cavedon

    Full Text Available The relationships among physical characteristics, performance, and functional ability classification of younger wheelchair basketball players have been barely investigated to date. The purpose of this work was to assess anthropometry, body composition, and performance in sport-specific field tests in a national sample of Italian younger wheelchair basketball players as well as to evaluate the association of these variables with the players' functional ability classification and game-related statistics. Several anthropometric measurements were obtained for 52 out of 91 eligible players nationwide. Performance was assessed in seven sport-specific field tests (5m sprint, 20m sprint with ball, suicide, maximal pass, pass for accuracy, spot shot and lay-ups and game-related statistics (free-throw points scored per match, two- and three-point field-goals scored per match, and their sum. Association between variables, and predictivity was assessed by correlation and regression analysis, respectively. Players were grouped into four Classes of increasing functional ability (A-D. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's correction for multiple comparisons was used to assess differences between Classes. Sitting height and functional ability Class especially correlated with performance outcomes, but wheelchair basketball experience and skinfolds did not. Game-related statistics and sport-specific field-test scores all showed significant correlation with each other. Upper arm circumference and/or maximal pass and lay-ups test scores were able to explain 42 to 59% of variance in game-related statistics (P<0.001. A clear difference in performance was only found for functional ability Class A and D.In younger wheelchair basketball players, sitting height positively contributes to performance. The maximal pass and lay-ups test should be carefully considered in younger wheelchair basketball training plans. Functional ability Class reflects to a limited extent the actual

  6. Relationship of Speed, Agility, Neuromuscular Power, and Selected Anthropometrical Variables and Performance Results of Male and Female Junior Tennis Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munivrana, Goran; Filipčić, Aleš; Filipčić, Tjaša

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyses the relation between the selected speed, agility, and neuromuscular power test items. The sample of subjects consisted of 154 male and 152 female young tennis players. Using six motor and three anthropometrical tests we investigate differences between males and females and between two age categories. Finally, we analyzed the relation between motor and anthropometrical tests and a player's tennis performance. The correlation between the two agility test items and 5-m sprint is very large in male players, while only moderate with 20-m sprint in female category. Male tennis players have higher correlations between speed test items and neuromuscular test items. The speed test item (5-m sprint) has large correlation with a player's tennis performance. One-way analysis of variance results indicated that young male tennis players performed significantly better than females in all motor test items. Significant differences between genders have not been revealed only in the body mass index. Differences between the males aged 18& under and 16& under have been noted as significant in all test items, except the vertical jump, while differences between the females have been noted as significant in three anthropometrical tests, quarter jump, and the fan-drill test. Regression analyses have shown that the system of prediction variables explains a relatively small part of variance (46%--males and 40%--females). In both genders, it has been revealed that test items measuring speed significantly influence a player's tennis performance.

  7. Peculiarities of psychical stability among basketball players of different performance level

    OpenAIRE

    Malinauskas R.; Brusokas A.

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with questions of psychical stability among basketball players of different performance level. The research was carried out in two Lithuanian basketball leagues: Lithuanian Basketball League (elite division) and the Lithuanian student's basketball league. It was established statistically significant (p

  8. SUITABILITY OF FIFA'S "THE 11" TRAINING PROGRAMME FOR YOUNG FOOTBALL PLAYERS - IMPACT ON PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Kuzmic

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of evidence regarding the use of injury prevention programmes for preadolescents participating in sport. "The 11" injury prevention programme was developed by FIFA's medical research centre (F-MARC to help reduce the risk of injury in football players aged 14 years and over. The aim of this study was to determine the suitability and effectiveness of "The 11" for younger football players. Twenty-four [12 experimental (EXP, 12 control (CON] young football players (age 10.4 ± 1.4 yr participated. The EXP group followed "The 11" training programme 5 days per week, for 6 weeks, completing all but one of the 10 exercises. Prior to, and after the intervention, both EXP and CON groups performed a battery of football-specific physical tests. Changes in performance scores within each group were compared using independent t-tests (p ? 0.05. Feedback was also gathered on the young players' perceptions of "The 11". No injuries occurred during the study in either group. Compliance to the intervention was 72%. Measures of leg power (3 step jump and counter-movement jump increased significantly (3.4 and 6.0% respectively, p < 0.05. Speed over 20 m improved by 2% (p < 0.05. Most players considered "The 11" beneficial but not enjoyable in the prescribed format. Given the observed improvements in the physical abilities and the perceived benefits of "The 11", it would appear that a modified version of the programme is appropriate and should be included in the training of young football players, for both physical development and potential injury prevention purposes, as well as to promote fair play. To further engage young football players in such a programme, some modification to "The 11" should be considered

  9. Unsupervised Pattern Recognition of Physical Fitness Related Performance Parameters among Terengganu Youth Female Field Hockey Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali M. R.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the most significant physical fitness parameters among youth female Terengganu field hockey players. Multivariate methods of unsupervised pattern recognition of principal component analysis (PCA and descriptive statistic were used to determine the most significant physical fitness related performance parameters on 42 Terengganu youth female field hockey players. The first PC’s projected high factor loading in BMI (0.86 and predicted VO2max (-0.82 as the most significant parameters indicating the requirements of body composition in this sport. The second PC’s displayed high factor loading in 1-minute sit up (0.89 and 20-meter speed (-0.84 highlighting the need for core muscle strength. The third PC’s demonstrated high factor loading in V-sit and reach (0.71 and maximum push up (0.82 recognising the importance of upper muscle strength in the sport. The results from the current study revealed that certain physical fitness components are seemed to be more pronounced in the performance of the game by the Terengganu female youth hockey players. The study has indicated that body composition, core muscle strength and upper muscle strength are the most outstanding physical fitness variables possess by the players for the enactment of the game compared to other fitness parameters. Highlighting the physical fitness performance related parameters might help to evaluate the strength and weakness of the players on the relevant parameters which could prompt to the adjustment of the training programme for the inclusive improvement of the players.

  10. Analysis of cohesion and collective efficacy profiles for the performance of soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Francisco M; Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro A; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Amado, Diana; García-Calvo, Tomás

    2013-12-18

    The principal aims of the study were to define different profiles of cohesion and perceived efficacy in soccer players and to measure their differences in performance. The subjects were 235 soccer players in the under-18 category who played in the National League in Spain and 15 coaches whose ages ranged from 29 to 45 years. Diverse instruments to assess cohesion, perceived efficacy, and expectations of success were used in the study. Moreover, we measured playing time and performance. The results of the study proved the existence of four cohesion and efficacy profiles that presented significant differences in expectations of success, playing time, and performance. Furthermore, significant differences were found in the distribution of players in the teams as a function of performance. The main conclusion of this study is that soccer players with higher cohesion and collective efficacy levels belonged to teams that completed the season at the top-level classification. In contrast, athletes with low cohesion and collective efficacy usually played in unsuccessful teams. Coaches and sports psychologists are encouraged to promote both social and task cohesion and collective efficacy to enhance team performance.

  11. Morphological, Physiological and Skating Performance Profiles of Male Age-Group Elite Ice Hockey Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allisse Maxime

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of morphological, physiological and skating performance profiles of elite age-group ice hockey players based on repeated measures spread over one season. In addition, the results of fitness tests and training programs performed in off-ice conditions and their relationship with skating performance were analyzed. Eighteen high level age-group ice hockey players (13.1 ± 0.6 years were assessed off and on-ice at the beginning and at the end of the hockey season. A third evaluation was also conducted at the beginning of the following hockey season. The players were taller, heavier, and showed bone breadths and muscle girths above the reference population of the same age. Muscular variables improved significantly during and between the two hockey seasons (p < 0.05. However, maximal aerobic power improved only during the off-season. All skating performance tests exhibited significant enhancements during the hockey season, but not during the off-season where some degradation was observed. Finally, weak observed variances (generally <20% of the explained variance between physiological variables measured off-ice and on-ice skating performance tests indicated important gaps, both in the choice of the off-ice assessment tools as well as in training methods conventionally used. The reflection on the best way to assess and train hockey players certainly deserves to be continued.

  12. Performance and Return to Sport After Sports Hernia Surgery in NFL Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Robert A; Evans, David C; Echo, Anthony; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M; Varner, Kevin E; Harris, Joshua D

    2017-04-01

    Recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of athletic pubalgia (AP), also known as sports hernia, once underrecognized and undertreated in professional football, are becoming more common. Surgery as the final treatment for sports hernia when nonsurgical treatment fails remains controversial. Given the money involved and popularity of the National Football League (NFL), it is important to understand surgical outcomes in this patient population. After AP surgery, players would: (1) return to sport (RTS) at a greater than 90% rate, (2) play fewer games for fewer years than matched controls, (3) have no difference in performance compared with before AP surgery, and (4) have no difference in performance versus matched controls. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Internet-based injury reports identified players who underwent AP surgery from January 1996 to August 2015. Demographic and performance data were collected for each player. A 1:1 matched control group and an index year analog were identified. Control and case performance scores were calculated using a standardized scoring system. Groups were compared using paired Student t tests. Fifty-six NFL players (57 AP surgeries) were analyzed (mean age, 28.2 ± 3.1 years; mean years in NFL at surgery, 5.4 ± 3.2). Fifty-three players were able to RTS. Controls were in the NFL longer (P .05) difference in pre- versus post-AP surgery performance scores and no significant (P > .05) difference in postoperative performance scores versus controls post-index. There was a high RTS rate after AP surgery without a significant difference in postoperative performance, though career length and games per season after AP surgery were significantly less than that of matched controls.

  13. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF REPEATED SPRINT PERFORMANCE IN YOUTH SOCCER PLAYERS OF CONTRASTING SKELETAL MATURITY STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Valente-dos-Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the developmental changes in performance in a repeated-sprint ability (RSA test in young soccer players of contrasting maturity status. A total of 83 regional level Portuguese youth soccer players, aged 11- 13 years at baseline was assessed annually. Stature, body mass, 7x34.2-m sprint protocol (25-s active recovery, 20-m multi-stage continuous shuttle endurance run and counter-movement jump (CMJ without the use of the arms were measured. Fat-free mass (FFM was determined by age and gender- specific formulas. Developmental changes in total sprint time across ages were predicted using multilevel modeling. Corresponding measurements were performed on an independent cross-sectional subsample of 52 youth soccer players 11-17 years to evaluate the predictive model. CA, CA2, maturational status (SA-CA, body size (mass and stature, FFM, aerobic endurance, lower limb explosive strength and annual volume training significantly improved the statistical fit of the RSA multilevel model. In 'late' maturing athletes, the best model for predicting change in RSA was expressed by the following equation: 86.54 - 2.87 x CA + 0.05 x CA2 - 0.25 x FFM + 0.15 x body mass + 0.05 x stature - 0.05 x aerobic endurance - 0.09 x lower limb explosive strength - 0.01 x annual volume training. The best fitting models for players who were 'on time' and 'early' maturing were identical to the best model for late maturing players, less 0.64 seconds and 1.74 seconds, respectively. Multilevel modeling provided performance curves that permitted the prediction of individual RSA performance across adolescent years in regional level soccer players

  14. Risk Factors for Injury Among Japanese Collegiate Players of American Football Based on Performance Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Junta; Watanabe, Yuya; Kimura, Misaka; Fujisawa, Yoshihiko; Hojo, Tatsuya; Yuasa, Yasuhiro; Higashi, Shinsuke; Kuzuhara, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Iguchi, J, Watanabe, Y, Kimura, M, Fujisawa, Y, Hojo, T, Yuasa, Y, Higashi, S, and Kuzuhara, K. Risk factors for injury among Japanese collegiate players of American football based on performance test results. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3405-3411, 2016-The purpose of this study was to identify how risk factors for injury during American football are related to players' physical strength as determined using typical performance tests. One hundred 53 Japanese collegiate players of American football were recruited for this study. Eight potential risk factors were evaluated: position (skill vs. lineman), body mass index, back squat one-repetition maximum, vertical jump height, power, height, body weight, and previous injury. Using multivariate Cox regression, we examined how these factors were associated with knee sprain, ankle sprain, and hamstring strain. We recorded 63 injuries (17 knee sprains, 23 ankle sprains, and 23 hamstring strains). Players with higher power were at significantly greater risk for knee sprains (p = 0.04), those with low power had a significantly higher incidence of ankle sprain (p = 0.01), and vertical jump height was a significant predictor of hamstring strain (p = 0.02). We identified several independent predictors of injuries associated with American football. Our findings may contribute to the development of effective screening tests and prevention exercises.

  15. Performance of future elite players at the NFL Scouting Combine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, David P

    2017-09-11

    The purpose of this study is to examine players' physical and performance measures taken at the NFL Scouting Combine and compare these to their future performance in the NFL. From 2002-2016, three types of player data (N=5,506) were collected from secondary data sources. Results players earned on various NFL Scouting Combine drills and measurements (e.g., height, weight, 40-yard dash time, vertical jump, bench press repetitions, shuttle run time, and 3-cone drill time), the position players play on the field (e.g., quarterback, running back, wide receiver, tight end, offensive line, defensive line, linebacker, and defensive back), and if players received elite performance awards (e.g., Pro Bowl and All-Pro selections) in the future were collected. After analyzing the data, the results indicate that (1) NFL quarterbacks that received All-Pro and Pro Bowl awards tend to be taller, weigh more, run faster in the 40-yard dash, jump higher, complete more bench presses, and are slower for the shuttle run and 3-cone drill; (2) All-Pro and Pro Bowl NFL running backs tend to weight more, run the 40-yard dash faster, do not jump as high, complete more bench presses, and complete the shuttle run and 3-cone drills slower; (3) NFL wide receivers that were selected for the Pro Bowl or as All-Pros tend to be taller, weigh more, run the 40-yard dash faster, have a higher vertical jump, and run the 3-cone drill faster; (4) NFL tight ends that received All-Pro and Pro Bowl awards tend to be taller, weight more, run the 40-yard dash faster, jump higher, complete more bench presses, run the shuttle run slower, and complete the 3-cone drill faster; (5) All-Pro and Pro Bowl NFL offensive linemen tend to run the 40-yard dash faster, jump higher, are able to complete more bench presses, and run both the shuttle run and 3-cone drill faster; (6) NFL defensive linemen that were selected as All-Pro and Pro Bowl players tend to be taller, weight more, run the 40-yard dash faster, jump higher

  16. Physical constitution matters for athletic performance and salary of NBA players

    OpenAIRE

    Bakkenbüll, Linn-Brit

    2017-01-01

    Basketball is one of the most practised sports in the world, especially in America. America has the most famous professional basketball league, the National Basketball Association (NBA). This study examines whether there is a relationship between the physical constitution of professional basketball players and their athletic performance in the 2015/16 NBA season. Regression results show that the relative wingspan influences the athletic performance in a significantly positive way whereas the ...

  17. Physical Fitness Attributes of Team-Handball Players are Related to Playing Position and Performance Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuca, Luis; Branco, Braulio; Miarka, Bianca; Fragoso, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    Investigations have reported differences amongst player position groups in elite team-Handball (HB) players. Nevertheless, studies with normative physical fitness data of the HB playing positions at more than two different levels of male HB players have not been reported yet. This study aimed: 1) to describe and compare the physical fitness (PF) attributes of male HB players in different playing positions, and 2) to determine which combination of PF measures best discriminate the performance level groups in each one of the individual HB playing position groups. One hundred and sixty-one male HB players participated in this study. The participants were divided into five playing position groups: 1) Goalkeeper (GK, n = 24), 2) Wing (W, n = 48), 3) Back left/right (BLR, n = 38), 4) Back center (BC, n = 29), 5) Pivot (Pi, n = 22), complementarily, performance level was recorded for each participant according to the national HB association, i.e. 1) Top Elite, 2) Moderate Elite, 3) Sub-Elite or, 4) Moderately Trained. Stature and body mass measures were taken from each HB player, and six fitness tests were performed (30 -m sprint, handgrip, vertical jumps-SJ and CMJ, sit-ups, and Yo-Yo IE2). Significant differences were observed between HB playing position groups in body size, speed, and lower limb power and handgrip strength. Nevertheless, 1) the performance in Yo-Yo IE2 was the best measure to discriminate the performance level groups when considering the HB goalkeeper group, HB center back group, and HB pivot group; 2) the average leg power (in squat jump) and the number of executions in sit up test successfully discriminated HB wing performance level groups; and, 3) Stature, countermovement jump height and the position in the Yo-Yo IE2, successfully discriminated HB left/right back performance level groups. It can be concluded that HB players profile, 1) differs according to HB playing position group, and, 2) for the same playing position group, it differs according

  18. Physiologic performance test differences in female volleyball athletes by competition level and player position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Monique; Ransdell, Lynda B; Simonson, Shawn R; Gao, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiologic performance test differences by competition level (high school and Division-I collegiate athletes) and player position (hitter, setter, defensive specialist) in 4 volleyball-related tests. A secondary purpose was to establish whether a 150-yd shuttle could be used as a field test to assess anaerobic capacity. Female participants from 4 varsity high school volleyball teams (n = 27) and 2 Division-I collegiate volleyball teams (n = 26) were recruited for the study. Participants completed 4 performance-based field tests (vertical jump, agility T-test, and 150- and 300-yd shuttle runs) after completing a standardized dynamic warm-up. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments (when appropriate) and effect sizes were used for the analyses. The most important findings of this study were that (a) college volleyball athletes were older, heavier, and taller than high school athletes; (b) high school athletes had performance deficiencies in vertical jump/lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness; (c) lower-body power was the only statistically significant difference in the performance test measures by player position; and (d) the correlation between the 150- and 300-yd shuttle was moderate (r = 0.488). Female high school volleyball players may enhance their ability to play collegiate volleyball by improving their vertical jump, lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness. Furthermore, all player positions should emphasize lower-body power conditioning. These physical test scores provide baseline performance scores that should help strength and conditioning coaches create programs that will address deficits in female volleyball player performance, especially as they transition from high school to college.

  19. Locomotion Characteristics and Match-Induced Impairments in Physical Performance in Male Elite Team Handball Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, L B; Aagaard, Peter; Madsen, Klavs

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physical demands and match-induced impairments in physical performance in male elite Team Handball (TH) players in relation to playing position. Male elite TH field players were closely observed during 6 competitive seasons. Each player (wing players......: WP, pivots: PV, backcourt players: BP) was evaluated during match-play using video recording and subsequently performing locomotion match analysis. A total distance of 3 627±568 m (group means±SD) was covered per match with a total effective playing time (TPT) of 53:51±5:52 min:s, while full...

  20. Importance of muscle power variables in repeated and single sprint performance in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Segovia, Manuel; Dellal, Alexandre; Chamari, Karim; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2014-03-27

    This study examined the relationship between lower body power and repeated as well as single sprint performance in soccer players. The performance of nineteen male soccer players was examined. The first testing session included the countermovement jump (CMJL) and the progressive full squat (FSL), both with external loads. Power in the CMJL and FSL was measured with each load that was lifted. The second session included a protocol of 40-m repeated sprints with a long recovery period (2 min). The number of sprints executed until there was a 3% decrease in performance for the best 40-m sprint time was recorded as a repeated sprint index (RSI). The RSI was moderately associated with power output relative to body mass in the CMJL and FSL (r = 0.53/0.54, p ≤ 0.05). The most and least powerful players (determined by FSL) showed significant differences in the RSI (9.1 ± 4.2 vs. 6.5 ± 1.6) and 10 m sprint time (p ± 0.01). Repeated and single sprints are associated with relatively lower body power in soccer players.

  1. Physical growth and changes in intermittent endurance run performance in young male Basque soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Humberto M; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Lekue, José António; Amado, Markos; Figueiredo, António J; Gil, Susana M

    2014-01-01

    The present 4-year longitudinal study examined physical growth and development of intermittent endurance run performance in young Basque soccer players aged 10-15 years applying multilevel regression modeling. Anthropometry, predicted adult stature and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1) of players from the under-11 teams from the Athletic Club of Bilbao were measured at pre- and end-season (two measurements per year of study, n = 33 considered for analysis). A non-linear effect of age on intermittent endurance run was observed, with significantly higher increases in Yo-Yo IR1 between 10-11 year-old and 14-15 year-old players. The development of Yo-Yo IR1 performance in all the years of the study was influenced positively by training exposure during the seasons (P 0.05). The steady development of intermittent endurance run performance during pubertal years in adolescent Basque soccer players is partially influenced by training exposure.

  2. Star Excursion Balance Test performance and application in elite junior rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Garrett F; Delahunt, Eamonn; O'Sullivan, Eoghan; Fullam, Karl; Green, Brian S; Caulfield, Brian M

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate performance on selected reach directions of the Start Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in an elite underage rugby union population, and determine if differences exist between the forward and back position units. This information may have implications for the application of this test in player injury prevention and management. Descriptive study. Gymnasium at an elite junior rugby union screening camp. 102 healthy male elite rugby union players (age = 17.9 ± 1.1 years, height = 1.83 ± 0.07 m, body mass = 90.5 ± 11.3 kg). Participants were assessed on the Anterior (A), Posterior-medial (PM), and Posterior-lateral (PL) reach directions of the SEBT. Normative data for SEBT performance in the A, PM and PL reach directions were established for an elite junior rugby union population. No significant differences in dynamic postural stability were observed between the forward and back position units. This study provides normative SEBT data on an elite junior rugby union population, which enables clinicians to compare player dynamic postural stability and has implications for use in the prevention and management of player injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Monitoring performance, pituitary-adrenal hormones and mood profiles: how to diagnose non-functional over-reaching in male elite junior soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmikli, Sándor L; de Vries, Wouter R; Brink, Michel S; Backx, Frank Jg

    2012-11-01

    To verify if in male elite junior soccer players a minimum 1-month performance decrease is accompanied by a mood profile and hormone levels typical of non-functional over-reaching (NFOR). A prospective case-control study using a monthly performance monitor with a standardised field test to detect the performance changes. Players with a performance decrease lasting at least 1 month were compared with control players without a performance decrease on mood scores and pre-exercise and postexercise levels of stress hormones. Sporting field and sports medical laboratory. Ninety-four young elite soccer players were monitored during the 2006-2008 seasons. Twenty-one players were invited to the laboratory, seven of whom showed a significant performance decrease. Performance change over time, scores on the profile of mood states and premaximal and postmaximal exercise serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol. Players with a performance decrease showed psychological and hormonal changes typical of the non-functional state of over-reaching. Scores were higher on depression and anger, whereas the resting GH levels and ACTH levels after maximal exercise were reduced. ACTH and GH were capable of classifying all but one player correctly as either NFOR or control. Performance-related criteria in field tests are capable of identifying players with worsened mood and adaptations of the endocrine system that fit the definition of NFOR. Performance, mood and hormone levels may therefore be considered as valid instruments to diagnose NFOR in young elite soccer players.

  4. EFFECTS OF SMALL-SIDED GAMES ON PHYSICAL CONDITIONING AND PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Katis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine, first, the movement actions performed during two different small-sided games and, second, their effects on a series of field endurance and technical tests. Thirty-four young soccer players (age: 13 ± 0.9 yrs; body mass: 62.3 ± 15.1 kg; height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m participated in the study. Small-sided games included three-a-side (3 versus 3 players and six-a-side (6 versus 6 players games consisting of 10 bouts of 4 min duration with 3 min active recovery between bouts. Soccer player performance was evaluated using five field tests: a 30m sprint, b throw-in for distance, c Illinois Agility Test, d dribbling the ball and e horizontal jump before, in the middle and after the implementation of both game situations. Heart rate was monitored during the entire testing session. Each game was also filmed to measure soccer movements within the game. The ANOVA analysis indicated that the three-a- side games displayed significantly higher heart rate values compared with the six-a-side games (p < 0.05. The number of short passes, kicks, tackles, dribbles and scoring goals were significantly higher during the three-a-side compared with the six-a-side game condition (p < 0. 05 while players performed more long passes and headed the ball more often during the six-a-side (p < 0.05. After the three-a-side games, there was a significant decline in sprint and agility performance (p < 0.05, while after both game conditions significant alterations in the throw-in and the horizontal jump performance were observed (p < 0.05. The results of the present study indicated that three-a-side games provide higher stimulus for physical conditioning and technical improvement than six-a-side games and their use for training young soccer players is recommended

  5. Performance Indicators of the Top Basketball Players: Relations with Several Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindik, Josko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in performance indicators for top senior male basketball players, with respect to several independent variables: position in the team, total situation-related efficiency, age, playing experience and the time spent on the court within the game and during championship season. The final sample of participants was selected from all teams in A-1 Croatian men's basketball league. Significant differences have been found according to the players': position in the team, total situation-related efficiency, and in interactions of the position in the team / total situation-related efficiency and minutes spent on the court in a game / playing experience. The differences in the situation-related efficiency between players have not been found according to the players' age and the number of games played. Further research can be directed towards deeper analysis of the influence of more complex differentiated variables playing experience and time spent on the court in a game on situation-related efficiency in basketball.

  6. Respiratory muscle strength and aerobic performance of wheelchair basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael N. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The respiratory system has been described as a limiting factor in the performance of athletes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the respiratory muscle strength (RMS and aerobic performance of wheelchair basketball players (WCBPs. We evaluated 19 male WCBPs who were divided into two groups: trunk control group (TCG and without trunk control group (WTCG. All participants underwent a pulmonary function test, evaluation of maximal inspiratory (MIP and expiratory (MEP pressures, and an aerobic performance test. The MIP of both groups and the MEP values of TCG exceeded the predicted values for age and gender. No differences were observed in the MIP and aerobic performance between the groups although a difference was observed in the MEP values. Positive correlations were observed between MIP/MEP and the aerobic performance for both groups. These results suggested that the overall RMS of this group of WCBPs fell within or above the predicted values. Hence, the study concluded that RMS can positively influence the aerobic performance of WCBP.

  7. Effects of Modified Multistage Field Test on Performance and Physiological Responses in Wheelchair Basketball Players

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    Thierry Weissland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A bioenergetical analysis of manoeuvrability and agility performance for wheelchair players is inexistent. It was aimed at comparing the physiological responses and performance obtained from the octagon multistage field test (MFT and the modified condition in “8 form” (MFT-8. Sixteen trained wheelchair basketball players performed both tests in randomized condition. The levels performed (end-test score, peak values of oxygen uptake (VO2peak, minute ventilation (VEpeak, heart rate (HRpeak, peak and relative blood lactate (Δ[Lact−] = peak – rest values, and the perceived rating exertion (RPE were measured. MFT-8 induced higher VO2peak and VEpeak values compared to MFT (VO2peak: 2.5 ± 0.6 versus 2.3 ± 0.6 L·min−1 and VEpeak: 96.3 ± 29.1 versus 86.6 ± 23.4 L·min−1; P<0.05 with no difference in other parameters. Significant relations between VEpeak and end-test score were correlated for both field tests (P<0.05. At exhaustion, MFT attained incompletely VO2peak and VEpeak. Among experienced wheelchair players, MFT-8 had no effect on test performance but generates higher physiological responses than MFT. It could be explained by demands of wheelchair skills occurring in 8 form during the modified condition.

  8. Relationship between performance variables and baseball ability in youth baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hiroki; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Kiwako; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the relationship of performance variables and anthropometric measurements on baseball ability in 164 youth baseball players (age: 6.4-15.7 years). To evaluate their baseball performance, ball speeds in pitching and batting were recorded and kinetic energies of the pitched and hit balls were calculated. To record anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics, height and weight were measured and a battery of physical fitness tests covering standing long jump, side steps, sit-ups, 10-m sprint, trunk flexion, back strength, and grip strengths of both hands were conducted. The results of a multiple regression analysis revealed several significant predictors: age, body mass index (BMI), standing long jump, 10-m sprint, and grip strength for pitched ball kinetic energy and age, BMI, standing long jump, and back strength for hit ball kinetic energy. This study provides scientific evidence that relates certain specific physical performance tests and body characteristics with high achievement in the actual performance of pitching and batting. Youth players, their parents, coaches, and trainers would benefit by addressing these characteristics when planning training programs to improve the baseball performance of youth players.

  9. An investigation of the relationships different protocols anaerobic performance tests determined in American football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Eyuboğlu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships different protocols anaerobic performance tests in American football players. 27 American football players from a university team participated in this study voluntarily ( age: 23.07±3.45 yrs. For the determination of body composition, subjects height, body weight and skinfold thicknesses were taken and body fat percentage was determined by the Acikada   formula (1991. Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAnT, squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ,  repeated-jump and 10-20-30 meter transition (speed times were used for the determination of anaerobic performance. Results of Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis, WAnT anaerobic power was significantly correlated with anaerobic capacity (r=.394; p

  10. Physiological and performance effects of generic versus specific aerobic training in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, F M; Marcora, S M; Castagna, C; Reilly, T; Sassi, A; Iaia, F M; Rampinini, E

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of specific (small-sided games) vs. generic (running) aerobic interval training on physical fitness and objective measures of match performance in soccer. Forty junior players were randomly assigned to either generic (n=20) or specific (n=20) interval training consisting of 4 bouts of 4 min at 90-95 % of maximum heart rate with 3 min active rest periods, completed twice a week. The following outcomes were measured at baseline (Pre), after 4 weeks of pre-season training (Mid), and after a further 8 weeks of training during the regular season (Post): maximum oxygen uptake, lactate threshold (Tlac), running economy at Tlac, a soccer-specific endurance test (Ekblom's circuit), and indices of physical performance during soccer matches (total distance and time spent standing, walking, and at low- and high-intensity running speed). Training load, as quantified by heart rate and rating of perceived exertion, was recorded during all training sessions and was similar between groups. There were significant improvements in aerobic fitness and match performance in both groups of soccer players, especially in response to the first 4 weeks of pre-season training. However, no significant differences between specific and generic aerobic interval training were found in any of the measured variables including soccer specific tests. The results of this study showed that both small-sided games and running are equally effective modes of aerobic interval training in junior soccer players.

  11. Vertical jump performance of professional male and female volleyball players: effects of playing position and competition level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Hadžić, Vedran; Dervišević, Edvin; Markovic, Goran

    2015-06-01

    Vertical jump (VJ) performance is an important element for successful volleyball practice. The aims of the study were (a) to explore the overall VJ performance of elite volleyball players of both sexes, (b) to explore the differences in VJ performance among different competition levels and different playing positions, and (c) to evaluate the sex-related differences in the role of the arm swing and 3-step approach with arm swing on the jump height. We assessed the VJ capacity in 253 volleyball players (113 males and 140 females) from Slovenian first and second Volleyball Division. The height of squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump, block jump, and attack jump was tested using an Optojump system. We observed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in VJ height between different levels of play that were most pronounced in the SJ. Position-related differences in VJ performance were observed in male players between receivers and setters (p ≤ 0.05), whereas in females, VJ performance across different playing positions seems equal. Finally, we found that male players significantly better use the arm swing during VJ than females (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the use of eccentric part of the jump and approach before the spike to improve VJ performance seem to be equally mastered activity in both sexes. These results could assist coaches in the development of jumping performance in volleyball players. Furthermore, presented normative data for jump heights of elite male and female volleyball players could be useful in selection and profiling of young volleyball players.

  12. Magnesium status and the physical performance of volleyball players: effects of magnesium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setaro, Luciana; Santos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Nunes, Newton; Greve, Júlia Maria; Colli, Célia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that magnesium supplementation influences the physical performance of volleyball players, as the efficacy of this approach remains questionable. Twenty-five professional male volleyball players were assigned randomly to experimental (350 mg Mg · d(-1), 4 weeks) and control groups (500 mg maltodextrin · d(-1), 4 weeks) maintaining inter-group homogeneity of urinary magnesium. Erythrocyte, plasma and urinary magnesium levels, plasma creatine kinase activity, lactate production, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and plyometric (squat jump, countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arm swing) and isokinetic (peak torque, potency and total work) performances were evaluated before (T0) and after (T1) supplementation. Levels of erythrocyte and urinary magnesium and creatine kinase activity and VO2 max remained within normal ranges in both groups. Plasma magnesium decreased significantly only within the experimental group. Significant decreases in lactate production and significant increases (of up to 3 cm) in countermovement jump and countermovement jump with arm swing values were detected in the experimental group following magnesium supplementation, but not in the control group at T1. It is concluded that magnesium supplementation improved alactic anaerobic metabolism, even though the players were not magnesium-deficient.

  13. INSPECTION OF THE AFFECTS OF SOME PHYSICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS ON GROUNDSTROKE PERFORMANCES OF JUNIOR TENNIS PLAYERS

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    Şeniz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigate some physical and physiological parameters of junior tennis players of 8 years old and to understand the relationship of these parameters with their groundstroke performance. The sampling group of the study consists of 8 girl and 8 boy junior tennis players, 16 in total. Static stability, dynamic stability, star test, speed, ball throwing, flexibility and Hewiit test scores have been measured. The results have been analyzed with SPSS package program. Descriptive statistics of the analyses have been evaluated with Mann-Whitney U Test in order to define the differences of variables of two groups. Relationships between the variables have been investigated with Sperman correlation coefficient. A significant statistical difference has been found between the male and female junior tennis players in terms of vertical jump, star test, ball throwing and groundstroke (Hewitt test averages (p<0,05, p<0,01. While a negative relationship has been found between the groundstroke performances of junior tennis players (Hewitt test and the star test and the speed test; a positive relationship has been found with vertical jump (p<0,05, p<0,01. As a result, it has been found that junior tennis players show some physical differences and there is a relationship between the physical features and groundstroke performance of junior tennis players.

  14. The Effects of Plyometric Type Neuromuscular Training on Postural Control Performance of Male Team Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Abbas; Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Arazi, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common in basketball athletes; common preventive programs for decreasing these injures may be enhancing postural control (PC) or balance with plyometric training. This study investigated the efficiency of plyometric training program within basketball practice to improve PC performance in young basketball players. Sixteen players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric + basketball training group (PT) or basketball training group (BT). All players trained twice per week, but the PT + BT followed a 6-week plyometric program implemented within basketball practice, whereas the BT followed regular practice. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) at 8 directions (anterior, A; anteromedial, AM; anterolateral, AL; medial, M; lateral, L; posterior, P; posteromedial, PM; and posterolateral, PL) was measured before and after the 6-week period. The PT group induced significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) and small to moderate effect size in the SEBT (A = 0.95, AM = 0.62, AL = 0.61, M = 0.36, L = 0.47, P = 0.27, PM = 0.25, PL = 0.24). No significant improvements were found in the BT group. Also, there were significant differences between groups in all directions except PM and PL. An integrated plyometric program within the regular basketball practice can lead to significant improvements in SEBT and consequently PC. It can be recommended that strength and conditioning professionals use PT to enhance the athletes' joint awareness and PC to reduce possible future injuries in the lower extremity.

  15. Influence of Glove Type on Mobility Performance for Wheelchair Rugby Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different glove types on mobility performance in a series of field tests specific to wheelchair rugby. Design: Ten international wheelchair rugby players performed three drills in each glove condition: (i) players' current gl

  16. Influence of Glove Type on Mobility Performance for Wheelchair Rugby Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different glove types on mobility performance in a series of field tests specific to wheelchair rugby. Design: Ten international wheelchair rugby players performed three drills in each glove condition: (i) players' current

  17. Effects of limited peripheral vision on shuttle sprint performance of soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmink, KAPM; Dijkstra, B; Visscher, C

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effect of limited peripheral vision oil the shuttle sprint performance of soccer players. Participants were 14 male soccer players of a student soccer club (M age = 22.1 yr., SD = 1.3 yr.). They performed a repeated shuttle sprint with full and limited peripheral vision. Mean

  18. Diurnal variations in physical performances related to football in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtourou, Hamdi; Hammouda, Omar; Souissi, Hichem; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of time-of-day on aerobic and anaerobic performances during the Yo-Yo, repeated sprint ability (RSA) and the Wingate tests in young soccer players. In a counterbalanced and a random order, twenty junior male soccer players completed the Yo-Yo, the RSA, and the Wingate tests at two different times-of-day: 07:00 and 17:00 h. During the Yo-Yo test, the total distance (TD) covered and the estimated maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) were determined. The peak power (PP) during each sprint, the percentage of decrement of PP (PD) and total work (Wtotal) during the RSA test were, also, measured. In addition, during the Wingate test, the peak (P(peak)) and mean (P(mean)) powers were recorded. During the Wingate test, P(peak) and P(mean) were significantly higher at 17:00 than 07:00 h (Pplayers.

  19. Performance and Return to Sport After Clavicle Open Reduction and Internal Fixation in National Football League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Robert A; Sochacki, Kyle R; Navarro, Sergio M; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M; Harris, Joshua D

    2017-08-01

    Clavicle fractures are common injuries in professional football. Surgical fixation of these injuries may lead to decreased nonunion rates, improved shoulder strength, and decreased residual functional impairment. To determine (1) return-to-sport (RTS) rate in National Football League (NFL) players after clavicle fracture open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), (2) postoperative career length and games per season, (3) pre- and postoperative performance, and (4) postoperative performance compared with control players matched by position, age, years of experience, and performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Publicly available records were used to identify players who underwent surgical treatment of a clavicle fracture while playing in the NFL. Demographic and performance data were collected for each player, and matched controls were identified. Control and case performance scores were calculated using a standardized scoring system. RTS was defined as playing in 1 NFL game after surgery. Comparisons between case and control groups at preoperative and postoperative time points were made using paired-samples Student t tests. Seventeen surgeries (16 players) were analyzed. Fifteen players (94.1%) were able to RTS in the NFL at a mean 211.3 ± 144.7 days postsurgery; 7 (44%) returned within the same season as their injury and subsequent fixation. The overall rate of a player's remaining in the NFL 1 year after surgery was 88.2%. Players who underwent surgery played in a similar number of games per season and had similar career lengths in the NFL as controls (P > .05). There were no significant (P > .05) differences between cases and matched controls presurgery and preindex. There was no difference (P > .05) in postoperative performance scores or games per season compared with preoperative scores or games per season for any position. Quarterbacks (n = 3, P = .049) and running backs (n = 5, P = .039) had significantly worse postoperative performance scores when

  20. Analysis of player's in-game performance vs rating: Case study of Heroes of Newerth

    CERN Document Server

    Caplar, Neven; Matijasevic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the rating system of "Heroes of Newerth" (HoN), a multiplayer online action role-playing game, by using statistical analysis and comparison of a player's in-game performance metrics and the player rating assigned by the rating system. The datasets for the analysis have been extracted from the web sites that record the players' ratings and a number of empirical metrics. Results suggest that the HoN's Matchmaking rating algorithm, while generally capturing the skill level of the player well, also has weaknesses, which have been exploited by players to achieve a higher placement on the ranking ladder than deserved by actual skill. In addition, we also illustrate the effects of the choice of the business model (from pay-to-play to free-to-play) on player population.

  1. EFFECTS OF ARTIFICIAL TURF AND NATURAL GRASS ON PHYSICAL AND TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS

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    Juan Carlos Ávalos Guillén

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of artificial turf (AT and natural grass (NG on the physical and technical performance of professional soccer players. A total of 17 healthy male soccer players (24.0 ± 4.1 years, height 174 ± 6.1 cm; body weight 73.4 ± 6.3 kg; body fat % 14.2 ± 2.3; VO2max 55.5 ± 5.3 ml/kg/min from a Costa Rican Professional Soccer League club were subjected to different tests in both types of surfaces (technical test, agility test, repeated sprint ability test, and a small-sided game [8 minutes, 32 x 32 meters, 5 vs. 5]. Players were monitored using a GPS in two sessions, separated by 48 hours, during the club’s pre-season. There were no significant differences between the two types of surfaces for the technical, agility, and repeated sprint ability tests. The physiological and kinematic variables analyzed during the small-sided game presented significant differences in average heart rate (NG = 168.5 ± 8.8, AT = 154.8 ± 11.8, p <.001, maximum heart rate (NG = 183.2 ± 8.3, AT = 175.9 ± 10.4, p =.02, body load (NG = 34.3 ± 11.2, AT = 30.5 ± 11.4, p =.03, and total impacts (NG = 230.1 ± 89.5, AT = 194. 8 ± 86.4, p=.03. It is concluded that playing on the natural grass surface caused more impact on physiological and perceived body load in players. In the case of technical variables, it is concluded that there were no statistically significant differences between the two types of surfaces (p <0.05.

  2. Holistic patterns as an instrument for predicting the performance of promising young soccer players – a 3-year longitudinal study

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    Claudia Zuber

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multidimensional and dynamic talent models represent the current state of the art, but these demands have hardly ever been implemented so far. One reason for this could be the methodological problems associated with these requirements. This paper will present a proposal for dealing with this, namely for examining the development of young soccer players holistically. The patterns formed by the constructs net hope, motor abilities, technical skills and biological maturity were examined, as well as the way in which these holistic patterns are related to subsequent sporting success. 119 young elite soccer players were questioned and tested three times at intervals of one year, beginning at the age of 12. At the age of 15, the level of performance reached by the players was determined. At all three measuring points, four patterns were identified, which displayed partial structural and high individual stability. The highly skilled players, scoring above average on all factors – but not necessarily those having the highest overall scores –, were significantly more likely to advance to the highest level of performance. Failure-fearing fit players, i.e. physically strong, early developed players but with some technical weaknesses, have good chances of reaching the middle performance level. In contrast, none of the achievement-oriented, highly skilled, late-matured or late-matured, low skilled players reached the highest performance level. The results indicate the importance of holistic approaches for predicting performance among promising soccer talents in the medium-term and thus provide valuable clues for their selection and promotion.

  3. Effects of slackline training on postural control, jump performance, and myoelectrical activity in female basketball players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Luis; Fernández-Río, Javier; Fernández-García, Benjamín

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to assess the effects of slackline training on the postural control system and jump performance of athletes. Twenty-five female basketball players were randomized into 2 groups: control (N 12) and experimental (N 13). The latter experienced a 6-week supervised...... training in both groups. Performance on a countermovement jump test significantly improved only in the experimental group (effect side was 3.21 and 1.36 [flight time and jump height, respectively], which is described as a large effect). Mechanical power of the legs, as measured through the 30-second...

  4. Longitudinal study of repeated sprint performance in youth soccer players of contrasting skeletal maturity status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Severino, Vitor; Duarte, Joao; Martins, Raul S.; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Seabra, Andre T.; Philippaerts, Renaat M.; Cumming, Sean P.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Malina, Robert M.

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the developmental changes in performance in a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test in young soccer players of contrasting maturity status. A total of 83 regional level Portuguese youth soccer players, aged 11-13 years at baseline was assessed annually. Stature,

  5. Longitudinal study of repeated sprint performance in youth soccer players of contrasting maturity status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Duarte; A. Seabra; A. Figueiredo; S. Cumming; R. Martins; R. Philippaerts; M. Coelho e Silva; J. Valente dos Santos; V. Severino; Marije Elferink-Gemser

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the developmental changes in performance in a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test in young soccer players of contrasting maturity status. A total of 83 regional level Portuguese youth soccer players, aged 11- 13 years at baseline was assessed annually.

  6. Effect of player position on movement behaviour, physical and physiological performances during an 11-a-side football game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Bruno V; Figueira, Bruno E; Maçãs, Vítor; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differences in time-motion, modified training impulse, body load and movement behaviour between defenders, midfielders and forwards, during an 11-a-side simulated football game. Twenty elite youth male footballers from the same squad participated in this study (age: 18.1 ± 0.7 years old, body mass: 70.5 ± 4.3 kg, height: 1.8 ± 0.3 m and playing experience: 9.4 ± 1.3 years). All data were collected using GPS units (SPI-Pro, GPSports, Canberra, Australia). The movement behaviour was measured with kinematic data, used to calculate position-specific centroids (defenders, midfielders and forwards), and processed with non-linear statistical procedures (approximate entropy normalised and relative phase). There were significant effects and interactions in all variables across the players' positions. The results showed that displacements of all players (defenders, midfielders and forwards) were nearer and more coordinated with their own position-specific centroids than with the other centroids. However, this coupling effect was stronger in midfield players and weaker in forwards. All players' dynamical positioning showed more irregularity when related to the forwards' centroid, as a consequence of their need to be less predictable when playing. The time-motion and physiological variables showed lower activity in forward players. Adding together, the results may contribute to a better understanding of players' specific performances and football complexity.

  7. The effects of 6 weeks of preseason skill-based conditioning on physical performance in male volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajković, Nebojša; Milanović, Zoran; Sporis, Goran; Milić, Vladan; Stanković, Ratko

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in physical performance after a 6-week skill-based conditioning training program in male competitive volleyball players. Sixteen male volleyball players (mean ± SD: age 22.3 ± 3.7 years, body height 190.7 ± 4.2 cm, and body mass 78.4 ± 4.5 kg) participated in this study. The players were tested for sprinting (5- and 10-m sprint), agility, and jumping performance (the vertical-jump test, the spike-jump test, and the standing broad jump [SBJ]). Compared with pretraining, there was a significant improvement in the 5- and 10-m speed. There were no significant differences between pretraining and posttraining for lower-body muscular power (vertical-jump height, spike-jump height, and SBJ) and agility. Based on our results, it could be concluded that a preseason skill-based conditioning program does not offer a sufficient stimulus for volleyball players. Therefore, a general conditioning and hypertrophy training along with specific volleyball conditioning is necessary in the preseason period for the development of the lower-body strength, agility and speed performance in volleyball players.

  8. Correlations of Back Strength with Selected Anthropometric Variables and Performance Tests in Indian Inter-University Male Field Hockey Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available : The purpose of this study was of two-fold: first, to estimate the back strength of Indian inter-university male field hockey players and, second, to search the correlations of it with selected anthropometric variables and performance tests. To serve this purpose, a total of nine anthropometric variables, such as height, weight, body mass index, percent body fat, knee height, length of femur, femur biepicondylar diameter, skeletal mass and back strength, and two performance tests, such as sit and reach test and Slalom sprint and dribble test were measured on purposely selected 120 Indian inter-university male hockey players aged 18–25 years collected from the inter-university competition held in Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India during March, 2014. An adequate number of controls (n=119 were also taken from the same place for comparison. The results showed that the hockey players had the higher mean values in all the variables, except percent body fat and slalom sprint and dribble test than their control counterparts, showing statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.003 – 0.001 between them. No significant correlations of back strength were found with any of the variables in Indian inter-university male field hockey players. In conclusion, it may be stated that back strength may not be used as one of the indicating factors for the performance of the field hockey players.

  9. Morning melatonin ingestion and diurnal variation of short-term maximal performances in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattassi, K; Hammouda, O; Graja, A; Boudhina, N; Chtourou, H; Hadhri, S; Driss, T; Souissi, N

    2016-03-01

    Aim Very few studies have investigated the temporal specificity of melatonin (MEL) ingestion upon short-term maximal athletic performances. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of morning MEL ingestion on cognitive and physical performances measured in the afternoon. Methods Twelve soccer players from a Tunisian squad (17.9 ± 1.3 years, 1.74 ± 0.06 m and 62.0 ± 8.8 kg) participated in the present study. They performed two testing sessions at 08:00 h, 12:00 h and 16:00 h after either MEL (5mg) or placebo (PLA) ingestion, in a randomized order. During each period, the participants performed the following cognitive and physical tests: reaction time and vigilance tests, medicine-ball throw (MBT), five jumps, handgrip strength (HG), and agility tests. Results cognitive and physical performances were significantly higher at 16:00 h compared to 08:00 h during the two conditions (p ingestion did not affect physical and cognitive performances measured at 12:00 h and 16:00 h. Conclusion morning MEL ingestion has no unfavourable effect on afternoon physical and cognitive performances in soccer players.

  10. THE MODEL CHARACTERISTICS OF JUMP ACTIONS STRUCTURE OF HIGH PERFORMANCE FEMALE VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stech M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop generalized and individual models of the jump actions of skilled female volleyball players. The main prerequisite for the development of the jump actions models were the results of our earlier studies of factor structure of jump actions of 10 sportswomen of the Polish volleyball team "Gedania" (Premier League in the preparatory and competitive periods of the annual cycle of preparation. The athletes age was 22.0 +- 2.9 years, the sports experience - 8.1 +- 3.1 years, body height - 181.9 +- 8.4 years and body weight - 72.8 +- 10.8 kg. Mathematical and statistical processing of the data (the definition of M ± SD and significant differences between the samples was performed using a standard computer program "STATISTICA 7,0". Based on the analysis of the factor structure of 20 jump actions of skilled women volleyball players determined to within 5 of the most informative indexes and their tentative values recommended for the formation of a generalized model of this structure. Comparison of individual models of jump actions of skilled women volleyball players with their generalized models in different periods of preparation can be used for the rational choice of means and methods for the increasing of the training process efficiency.

  11. The effect of visual and sensory performance on head impact biomechanics in college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Jacqueline A; Mihalik, Jason P; Littleton, Ashley C; Frank, Barnett S; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    The development of prevention strategies is critical to address the rising prevalence of sport-related concussions. Visual and sensory performance may influence an individual's ability to interpret environmental cues, anticipate opponents' actions, and create appropriate motor responses limiting the severity of an impending head impact. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between traditional and visual sensory reaction time measures, and the association between visual and sensory performance and head impact severity in college football players. Thirty-eight collegiate football players participated in the study. We used real-time data collection instrumentation to record head impact biomechanics during games and practices. Our findings reveal no significant correlations between reaction time on traditional and visual sensory measures. We found a significant association between head impact severity and level of visual and sensory performance for multiple assessments, with low visual and sensory performers sustaining a higher number of severe head impacts. Our findings reveal a link between level of visual and sensory performance and head impact biomechanics. Future research will allow clinicians to have the most appropriate testing batteries to identify at-risk athletes and create interventions to decrease their risk of injurious head impacts.

  12. Repeated Sprint Ability in Elite Water Polo Players and Swimmers and its Relationship to Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Meckel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine indices of swimming repeated sprint ability (RSA in 19 elite water polo players compared to 16 elite swimmers during a repeated sprint swimming test (RST, and to examine the relationships between these indices and aerobic and anaerobic performance capabilities in both groups. Indices of RSA were determined by the ideal sprint time (IS, the total sprint time (TS, and the performance decrement (PD recorded during an 8 x 15-m swimming RST. Single long - (800-m and short-(25-m distance swim tests were used to determined indices of aerobic and anaerobic swimming capabilities, respectively. The water polo players exhibited lower RSA swimming indices, as well as lower scores in the single short and long swim distances, compared to the swimmers. Significant relationships were found between the 25- m swim results and the IS and the TS, but not the PD of both the swimmers and the water polo players. No significant relationships were found between the 800-m swim results and any of the RSA indices in either the swimmers or the water polo players. No significant relationships were found between the 25-m and the 800-m swim results in either the swimmers or the water polo players. The results indicate that swimmers posses better RSA as well as higher anaerobic and aerobic capabilities, as reflected by the single short- and long-distance swim tests, compared to water polo players. The results also indicate that, as for running and cycling, repeated sprint swim performance is strongly related to single sprint performance.

  13. Somatic parameters of 17 year old soccer players in the older youth category in relation to sports performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kutáč

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Somatic parameters are included not only in the general structure of sporting performance, but also in the structure of sporting performance in soccer. In light of this structure, higher performance players should have better somatic performance prerequisites, and their somatic parameters should differ from players with lower performance levels. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to assess the somatic parameters of players with different performance levels. METHODS: The research included 90 soccer players in the age of 17 years in three performance categories playing in the junior competition in the Czech Republic. Average age of the individual levels – highest performance 17.61 ± 0.48, middle performance 17.50 ± 0.50, lowest performance 17.50 ± 0.50 years. The following was monitored – basic anthropometric parameters (body weight, body height, somatotype (Heath-Carter, representation of body fat (BF, fat free mass (FFM and the total body water (TBW. The Tanita 418 MA tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance (BIA scale was used for the determination of the representation of BF and the TBW. All players were measured at the beginning of the competition period in the same year. All measurements were implemented in the morning hours by the same person with corresponding experience. RESULTS: The average values of somatic parameters measured in the individual performance categories show that we can only consider them to be an indicator of sporting performance up to a particular performance level. The boundary was the middle performance level (teams playing regional competition as their mean values of the monitored somatic parameters significantly differed from the mean values of players at the lowest performance level (teams playing at the district and municipal levels but they did not differ when compared with the mean values of the players at the highest performance level (teams playing the top junior league. CONCLUSIONS

  14. Acute Consumption of an Energy Drink Does Not Improve Physical Performance of Female Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Campos, Catalina; Dengo, Ana L; Moncada-Jiménez, José

    2015-06-01

    To determine the acute effect of an energy drink (ED) on physical performance of professional female volleyball players. 19 females (age= 22.3 ± 4.9 yr.; height= 171.8 ± 9.4 cm; weight= 65.2 ± 10.1 kg) participated in a randomized, crossover, double-blind study to measure grip strength, vertical jump and anaerobic power in 3 different sessions (ED, placebo [PL] or no beverage [CTL]). For each session, participants arrived in a fasted state, consumed a standardized breakfast meal, and 1 hr later completed the 3 baseline performance tests without having ingested the beverage. After completing the premeasurements, the athletes drank 6 ml/kg of body weight of the ED or PL and in the CTL condition no beverage was consumed. Posttest measurements were taken 30 min after the ingestion of liquids. A 3 × 2 repeated-measures ANOVA revealed no significant within-session and measurement time interactions for each performance test. Regardless of the measurement time, right hand grip strength was significantly higher in the ED condition (34.6 ± 0.9 kg) compared with PL (33.4 ± 1.1 kg) and CTL (33.6 ± 1.0 kg) (p performance of professional Costa Rican female volleyball players.

  15. Physiological correlates of multiple-sprint ability and performance in international-standard squash players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael; Cooke, Matthew; Murray, Stafford; Thompson, Kevin G; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Winter, Edward M

    2012-02-01

    From measures on a battery of fitness tests in elite-standard squash players on different tiers of a national performance program, we examined the relationships among test scores and player rank, and fitness factors important for squash-specific multiple-sprint ability. Thirty-one (20 men, 11 women) squash players from the England Squash performance program participated: n = 12 senior; n = 7 transition; n = 12 talented athlete scholarship scheme (TASS) players. In 1 test session and in a fixed order, the players completed a battery of tests to assess countermovement jump height, reactive strength, change-of-direction speed, and multiple-sprint ability on squash-specific tests and endurance fitness. Two-way analysis of variance compared senior, transition, and TASS players by sex on all measures except jump height where only senior and transition players were compared. Effect size (ES) was calculated for all comparisons. Pearson's correlation examined relationships among test scores and multiple-sprint ability. Spearman's ρ investigated relationships among test scores and players' rank in men and women separately. Regardless of sex, seniors outperformed TASS players on all except the endurance test (p sprint ability than did transition players (p Men outperformed women in all tests at all performance program tiers (p men, rank was related to multiple-sprint ability, fastest-multiple-sprint-test repetition, and change-of-direction speed (ρ = 0.78, 0.86, 0.59, respectively). In women, rank was related to fastest multiple-sprint-test repetition (ρ = 0.65). In men and women, multiple-sprint ability was related to change-of-direction speed (r = 0.9 and 0.84) and fastest-multiple-sprint-test repetition (r = 0.96 for both) and to reactive strength in men (r = -0.71). The results confirm that high-intensity variable-direction exercise capabilities are important for success in elite squash.

  16. Effects of Strength Training on Squat and Sprint Performance in Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, William J; Matthews, Martyn J; Comfort, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Styles, WJ, Matthews, MJ, and Comfort, P. Effects of strength training on squat and sprint performance in soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1534-1539, 2016-Researchers have demonstrated that increases in strength result in increases in athletic performance, although the development of strength is still neglected in some sports. Our aim was to determine whether a simple in-season strength training program would result in increases in maximal squat strength and short sprint performance, in professional soccer players. Professional soccer players (n = 17, age = 18.3 ± 1.2 years, height = 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass [BM] = 75.5 ± 6.1 kg) completed 1 repetition maximum (1RM) back squat and sprint tests (5, 10, and 20 m) before and after a 6-week (×2 week) in-season strength training (85-90% 1RM) intervention. Strength training resulted in significant improvements in absolute and relative strength (before = 125.4 ± 13.8 kg, after = 149.3 ± 16.2 kg, p ≤ 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.62; 1RM/BM before: 1.66 ± 0.24 kg·kg, after = 1.96 ± 0.29 kg·kg, p ≤ 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.45; respectively). Similarly, there were small yet significant improvements in sprint performance over 5 m (before = 1.11 ± 0.04 seconds, after = 1.05 ± 0.05 seconds, p ≤ 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.55), 10 m (before = 1.83 ± 0.05 seconds, after = 1.78 ± 0.05 seconds, p ≤ 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.45), and 20 m (before = 3.09 ± 0.07 seconds, after = 3.05 ± 0.05 seconds, p ≤ 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.31). Changes in maximal squat strength seem to be reflected in improvements in short sprint performance highlighting the importance of developing maximal strength to improve short sprint performance. Moreover, this demonstrates that these improvements can be achieved during the competitive season in professional soccer players.

  17. Determinants of sport-specific postural control strategy and balance performance of amateur rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Gary C C; Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Joanne W Y; Chung, Louisa M Y; Ma, Ada W W; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2016-11-01

    Postural control strategy and balance performance of rugby players are important yet under-examined issues. This study aimed to examine the differences in balance strategy and balance performance between amateur rugby players and non-players, and to explore training- and injury-related factors that may affect rugby players' balance outcomes. Cross-sectional and exploratory study. Forty-five amateur rugby players and 41 healthy active individuals participated in the study. Balance performance and balance strategies were assessed using the sensory organization test (SOT) of the Smart Equitest computerized dynamic posturography machine. Rugby training history and injury history were solicited from the participants. The SOT strategy scores were 1.99-54.90% lower in the rugby group than in the control group (prugby group than in the control group (prugby training (in years) was independently associated with the SOT condition 6 strategy score, explaining 15.7% of its variance (p=0.006). There was no association between SOT condition 6 strategy/equilibrium scores and injury history among the rugby players (p>0.05). Amateur rugby players demonstrated inferior balance strategy and balance performance compared to their non-training counterparts. Their suboptimal balance strategy was associated with insufficient training experience but not with history of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Caffeine on Repeat-High-Intensity-Effort Performance in Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Brandon M; Leveritt, Michael D; Kelly, Vincent G

    2017-02-01

    Repeat-high-intensity efforts (RHIEs) have recently been shown to occur at critical periods of rugby league matches. To examine the effect that caffeine has on RHIE performance in rugby league players. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 11 semiprofessional rugby league players (age 19.0 ± 0.5 y, body mass 87.4 ± 12.9 kg, height 178.9 ± 2.6 cm) completed 2 experimental trials that involved completing an RHIE test after either caffeine (300 mg caffeine) or placebo (vitamin H) ingestion. Each trial consisted of 3 sets of 20-m sprints interspersed with bouts of tackling. During the RHIE test, 20-m-sprint time, heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate were measured. Total time to complete the nine 20-m sprints during the caffeine condition was 1.0% faster (28.46 ± 1.4 s) than during the placebo condition (28.77 ± 1.7 s) (ES = 0.18, 90%CI -0.7 to 0.1 s). This resulted in a very likely chance of caffeine being of benefit to RHIE performance (99% likely to be beneficial). These improvements were more pronounced in the early stages of the test, with a 1.3%, 1.0%, and 0.9% improvement in sprint performance during sets 1, 2, and 3 respectively. There was no significant difference in RPE across the 3 sets (P = .47, 0.48, 1.00) or mean HR (P = .36), maximal HR (P = .74), or blood lactate (P = .50) between treatment conditions. Preexercise ingestion of 300 mg caffeine produced practically meaningful improvements in RHIE performance in rugby league players.

  19. Modeling Longitudinal Changes in 5 m Sprinting Performance Among Young Male Tennis Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Tamara; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J; Malina, Robert M; Huijgen, Barbara C H; Smith, Joanne; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Year-to-year changes in sprinting in youth tennis players were examined in a mixed-longitudinal study (256 male players, aged 10-15 years: 993 measurements). Height (h), body mass (BM), lower limb explosive strength (LLES), and a 5-m sprint were measured over five years. During that period, players were classified as elite or sub-elite. To account for the repeated measurements within the individual nature of longitudinal data, multilevel random effects regression analyses were used. Sprint performance improved with age at each additional 1 year of age, thus predicting ∼.016 sec improvement in five-meter sprint time by all variables of the model. It was possible to predict the performance of elite tennis players in the 5-m sprint (sec) for elite players (1.1493 - (0.0159 ċ centered age) - (0.009 ċ BM) - (0.044 ċ LLES) and sub-elite players (1.1493 - (0.0159 ċ centered age) + 0.0135 - (0.009 ċ BM) - (0.044 ċ LLES) - (0.0557 ċ centered age). Sprint performance differences between elite and sub-elite players was related to longitudinal changes in body size and lower limb strength up until age 13.

  20. Repeated sprint ability in elite water polo players and swimmers and its relationship to aerobic and anaerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckel, Yoav; Bishop, David; Rabinovich, Moran; Kaufman, Leonid; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine indices of swimming repeated sprint ability (RSA) in 19 elite water polo players compared to 16 elite swimmers during a repeated sprint swimming test (RST), and to examine the relationships between these indices and aerobic and anaerobic performance capabilities in both groups. Indices of RSA were determined by the ideal sprint time (IS), the total sprint time (TS), and the performance decrement (PD) recorded during an 8 x 15-m swimming RST. Single long - (800-m) and short-(25-m) distance swim tests were used to determined indices of aerobic and anaerobic swimming capabilities, respectively. The water polo players exhibited lower RSA swimming indices, as well as lower scores in the single short and long swim distances, compared to the swimmers. Significant relationships were found between the 25- m swim results and the IS and the TS, but not the PD of both the swimmers and the water polo players. No significant relationships were found between the 800-m swim results and any of the RSA indices in either the swimmers or the water polo players. No significant relationships were found between the 25-m and the 800-m swim results in either the swimmers or the water polo players. The results indicate that swimmers posses better RSA as well as higher anaerobic and aerobic capabilities, as reflected by the single short- and long-distance swim tests, compared to water polo players. The results also indicate that, as for running and cycling, repeated sprint swim performance is strongly related to single sprint performance. Key PointsElite water polo players demonstrated lower repeated sprint ability (RSA), aerobic and anaerobic capabilities compared to elite swimmers.A 25-m swim trial correlated significantly with ideal sprint time and total sprint time, emphasizing the important contribution of anaerobic metabolism for these exercise types in both water polo players and swimmers.800-m swim results did not correlate with RSA or 25-m

  1. Sleep restriction and serving accuracy in performance tennis players, and effects of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyner, L A; Horne, J A

    2013-08-15

    Athletes often lose sleep on the night before a competition. Whilst it is unlikely that sleep loss will impair sports mostly relying on strength and endurance, little is known about potential effects on sports involving psychomotor performance necessitating judgement and accuracy, rather than speed, as in tennis for example, and where caffeine is 'permitted'. Two studies were undertaken, on 5h sleep (33%) restriction versus normal sleep, on serving accuracy in semi-professional tennis players. Testing (14:00 h-16:00 h) comprised 40 serves into a (1.8 m×1.1 m) 'service box' diagonally, over the net. Study 1 (8 m; 8 f) was within-Ss, counterbalanced (normal versus sleep restriction). Study 2 (6m;6f -different Ss) comprised three conditions (Latin square), identical to Study 1, except for an extra sleep restriction condition with 80 mg caffeine vs placebo in a sugar-free drink, given (double blind), 30 min before testing. Both studies showed significant impairments to serving accuracy after sleep restriction. Caffeine at this dose had no beneficial effect. Study 1 also assessed gender differences, with women significantly poorer under all conditions, and non-significant indications that women were more impaired by sleep restriction (also seen in Study 2). We conclude that adequate sleep is essential for best performance of this type of skill in tennis players and that caffeine is no substitute for 'lost sleep'. 210.

  2. A new physical performance classification system for elite handball players: cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bautista Iker J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify different cluster groups of handball players according to their physical performance level assessed in a series of physical assessments, which could then be used to design a training program based on individual strengths and weaknesses, and to determine which of these variables best identified elite performance in a group of under-19 [U19] national level handball players. Players of the U19 National Handball team (n=16 performed a set of tests to determine: 10 m (ST10 and 20 m (ST20 sprint time, ball release velocity (BRv, countermovement jump (CMJ height and squat jump (SJ height. All players also performed an incremental-load bench press test to determine the 1 repetition maximum (1RMest, the load corresponding to maximum mean power (LoadMP, the mean propulsive phase power at LoadMP (PMPPMP and the peak power at LoadMP (PPEAKMP. Cluster analyses of the test results generated four groupings of players. The variables best able to discriminate physical performance were BRv, ST20, 1RMest, PPEAKMP and PMPPMP. These variables could help coaches identify talent or monitor the physical performance of athletes in their team. Each cluster of players has a particular weakness related to physical performance and therefore, the cluster results can be applied to a specific training programmed based on individual needs.

  3. A new physical performance classification system for elite handball players: cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Iker J; Chirosa, Ignacio J; Robinson, Joseph E; van der Tillaar, Roland; Chirosa, Luis J; Martín, Isidoro Martínez

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify different cluster groups of handball players according to their physical performance level assessed in a series of physical assessments, which could then be used to design a training program based on individual strengths and weaknesses, and to determine which of these variables best identified elite performance in a group of under-19 [U19] national level handball players. Players of the U19 National Handball team (n=16) performed a set of tests to determine: 10 m (ST10) and 20 m (ST20) sprint time, ball release velocity (BRv), countermovement jump (CMJ) height and squat jump (SJ) height. All players also performed an incremental-load bench press test to determine the 1 repetition maximum (1RMest), the load corresponding to maximum mean power (LoadMP), the mean propulsive phase power at LoadMP (PMPPMP) and the peak power at LoadMP (PPEAKMP). Cluster analyses of the test results generated four groupings of players. The variables best able to discriminate physical performance were BRv, ST20, 1RMest, PPEAKMP and PMPPMP. These variables could help coaches identify talent or monitor the physical performance of athletes in their team. Each cluster of players has a particular weakness related to physical performance and therefore, the cluster results can be applied to a specific training programmed based on individual needs.

  4. EFFECT OF MUSIC THERAPY ON INTRINSIC MOTIVATION, PHYSICAL SELF EFFICACY AND PERFORMANCE OF FEMALE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mamta Sharma; Gagandeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Music therapy is increasingly used in sports for enhancing sport performance. It provides a mean of improving mental strength among sportspersons. The purpose of this study is to enhance intrinsic motivation, physical self-efficacy and performance of female football players through music therapy. For this purpose, twenty two female football players, in the age group of 21-26 were screened on the basis of their scores on Sport Motivation Scale and Physical Self-Efficacy Scale. Then, they were ...

  5. Effects of a Custom Bite-Aligning Mouthguard on Performance in College Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Scott N; Swisher, Anna M; Buchanan, Christina A; Donath, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Besides injury prevention, mouthguards can also be employed to improve physical performance. The effects of personalization of mouthguards have rarely been investigated. This 3-armed, randomized, controlled crossover trial investigated the difference of wearing (a) personalized or custom-made (CM, e.g., bite-aligned), (b) standard (BB, boil and bite), and (c) no (CON) mouthguards on general fitness parameters in experienced collegiate football players. A group of 10 upperclassmen (age, 19-22 years; mean ± SD: age = 20.7 ± 0.8 years; body mass = 83 ± 7.4 kg; height = 179.1 ± 5.2 cm; body mass index = 25.9 ± 2.2 kg·cm), National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II football players with at least 2 years of playing experience, were randomly assigned to the 3 mouthguard conditions: a randomized, within-subjects repeated-measures design was applied. All participants were randomly tested on strength and endurance performance V[Combining Dot Above]O2max testing, with Bruce treadmill protocol including (a) time to fatigue, (b) blood lactate concentration in millimoles per liter at stage 2 and (c) at peak fatigue, (d) flexibility, (e) reaction time, (f) squat vertical jump, (g) countermovement vertical jump, and (h) 1 repetition maximum bench press. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no significant differences between the 3 conditions for each outcome variable (0.23 football players is questioned. Further studies with larger sample sizes, gender comparison, and (sport) discipline-specific performance testing are needed.

  6. Anthropometric, Physical, and Age Differences by the Player Position and the Performance Level in Volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palao José M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to study the ranges in height, weight, age, spike reach, and block reach of volleyball players in relation to the player position and the level of their respective teams in peak performance. The analysed sample included 1454 male and 1452 female players who participated in the volleyball competitions of the Olympic Games and World Championships in the 2000-2012 period. A descriptive, correlational, and longitudinal design was used. The variables studied were: the player position, body height, weight, body mass index, spike reach, block reach, age, and team level. The results show differences between body height, spike and block reaches, and the age of the players by their position. These differences are related to the needs of the different positions with regard to the actions they execute. Middle-blockers, outside-hitters, and opposites have the characteristics that are most suitable for blocking and spiking, and the setters and liberos appear to have characteristics conducive to setting and receiving as well as digging, respectively. The differences found in the studied variables with regard to the playing position are related to players' needs regarding the actions they perform. Player´s age was a variable that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for males, and physical capacities (body height, weight, spike reach, and block reach were variables that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for females.

  7. VARIATION IN FOOTBALL PLAYERS' SPRINT TEST PERFORMANCE ACROSS DIFFERENT AGES AND LEVELS OF COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sampaio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare sprint test performance performed by football players of different ages and levels of competition. One hundred and forty six Portuguese players from different teams completed the test (seven maximal sprints interspersed with 25 s active recovery. A 6 (level of competition: 1st national division, 2nd national division, 1st regional division, sub 16, sub 14, sub 12 7 (sprint trial: sprint 1, sprint 2, sprint 3, sprint 4, sprint 5, sprint 6, sprint 7 repeated measures ANOVA was carried out on subjects sprint times. The main effect of level of competition was statistically significant, F(5, 140 = 106.28, p < 0.001. Subjects from 1st national division were significantly faster than subjects from 2nd national division; subjects from 1st regional division obtained similar performances when compared to sub 16 and sub 14 level; subjects from sub 12 level were the slowest. The main effect of sprint trial was also statistically significant, F (6, 840 = 7.37, p < 0.001. Mean sprint times from the first trial were significantly slower than mean sprint times from the second, third and fourth trial. Results from the fifth, sixth and seventh trials were slower, denoting a decrement in performance. The two main effects were qualified by a significant level of competition x sprint trial interaction, F (30, 840 = 9.47 p < 0.001, identifying markedly different performance profiles. Coaches should be aware that normative data regarding this test can play a very important role if used frequently and consistently during the whole season.

  8. EFFECT OF PLIOMETRIC TRAINING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsa SAĞIROĞLU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of plyometric training in two different training frequencies between the competition seasons on vertical jump performance, anaerobic capability. Male basketball players aged 15-17 participated in this study. A total of 18 basketball players were divided into three groups as unbiased and in equal number (n=6; two experimental and one control group. One of these groups applied the drop jump plyometric exercise following the basketball training routine once a week while the other two groups did it three times a week, and, then, the training was completed with a stretching exercise. The study of the control group was completed with a stretching exercise after the routine. The training took eight weeks. Some measurements were taken before and after the eight weeks of the training session. Anaerobic power and capacity was recorded by the Wingate anaerobic test. Statistical comparisons among the three groups in this study were calculated by taking mean values of dependent variables, and Mann-Whitney U test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for significance effects of dependent variables. Significance level was determined as p =5 . At the end of the training, it was observed that the values of the anaerobic power and capacity values of plyometric exercise groups showed statistically significant improvements. A statistically significant increase in the values of anaerobic power and capacity was provided for the experimental group doing the plyometric exercise once a week compared with the control group.

  9. Specific physiological and biomechanical performance in elite, sub-elite and in non-elite male team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Herbert; Fuchs, Philip X; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2017-05-30

    Team handball is a dynamic sport game that is played professionally in numerous countries. However, knowledge about training and competition is based mostly on practical experience due to limited scientific studies. Consequently, the aims of our study were to compare specific physiological and biomechanical performance in elite, sub-elite and in non-elite male team handball players. Thirty-six elite, sub-elite and non-elite male team handball players performed a game based performance test, upper-body and lower-body strength tests, 30m sprint test, counter movement jump test and an incremental treadmill running test. Significant differences (Pperformance test, maximal oxygen uptake in the incremental treadmill running test as well as in maximal leg strength and leg explosive strength in the isometric strength test. Elite male players have an enhanced specific agility, a better throwing performance, a higher team handball specific oxygen uptake and higher leg strength compared to sub-elite and non-elite players. Based on these results we recommend that training in team handball should focus on game based training methods to improve performance in specific agility, endurance and technique.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF FLUID INGESTION ON PERFORMANCE OF SOCCER PLAYERS DURING A MATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Tirapegui

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink on soccer performance. Twenty soccer players volunteered to participate in the study. Players were allocated to two assigned trials according to their positional roles in the team: CHO group (ingesting a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution at regular 15 minutes intervals and NCHO (ingesting no fluid during 75 min on-field soccer game. During the trials, body mass loss, heart rate, time spent running, number of sprints and core temperature were measured. There were statistically significant changes (p < 0.05 in body mass loss (CHO: 1.14 ± 0.37 kg vs. NCHO: 1.75 ± 0.47 kg and number of sprints performed (CHO: 14.70 ± 4.38 vs. NCHO: 10.70 ± 5.80 between groups. The main finding of the present study indicates that supplementation with a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink during a soccer match is beneficial in helping to prevent deterioration in performance.

  11. High-intensity interval training has positive effects on performance in ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimo, M A; de Souza, E O; Wilson, J M; Carpenter, A L; Gilchrist, P; Lowery, R P; Averbuch, B; White, T M; Joy, J

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the well-known benefits that have been shown, few studies have looked at the practical applications of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance. This study investigated the effects of a HIIT program compared to traditional continuous endurance exercise training. 24 hockey players were randomly assigned to either a continuous or high-intensity interval group during a 4-week training program. The interval group (IG) was involved in a periodized HIIT program. The continuous group (CG) performed moderate intensity cycling for 45-60 min at an intensity that was 65% of their calculated heart rate reserve. Body composition, muscle thickness, anaerobic power, and on-ice measures were assessed pre- and post-training. Muscle thickness was significantly greater in IG (p=0.01) when compared to CG. The IG had greater values for both ∆ peak power (p<0.003) and ∆ mean power (p<0.02). Additionally, IG demonstrated a faster ∆ sprint (p<0.02) and a trend (p=0.08) for faster ∆ endurance test time to completion for IG. These results indicate that hockey players may utilize short-term HIIT to elicit positive effects in muscle thickness, power and on-ice performance.

  12. Change of direction ability performance in cerebral palsy football players according to functional profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul eReina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to evaluate the validity and reliability of the two different change of direction ability (CODA tests in elite football players with cerebral palsy (CP and to analyse the differences in performance of this ability between current functional classes (FT and controls. The sample consisted of 96 international cerebral palsy football players (FPCP and 37 football players. Participants were divided into four different groups according to the International Federation of Cerebral Palsy Football classes and a control group (CG: FT5 (n = 8; FT6 (n = 12; FT7 (n = 62; FT8 (n = 14; and CG (n = 37. The reproducibility of Modified Agility Test (MAT and Illinois Agility Test (IAT (ICC = 0.82-0.95, SEM = 2.5-5.8% showed excellent to good values. In two CODA tests, CG performed faster scores compared with FPCP classes (p < 0.01, d = 1.76-3.26. In IAT, FT8 class comparisons regarding the other classes were: FT5 (p = 0.047, d = 1.05, FT6 (p = 0.055, d = 1.19 and FT7 (p = 0.396, d = 0.56. With regard to MAT, FT8 class was also compared with FT5 (p = 0.006, d = 1.30, FT6 (p = 0.061, d = 0.93 and FT7 (p = 0.033, d = 1.01. No significant differences have been found between FT5, FT6 and FT7 classes. According to these results, IAT and MAT could be useful and reliable and valid tests to analyse CODA in FPCP. Each test (IAT and MAT could be applied considering the cut point that classifiers need to make a decision about the FT8 class and the other FT classes (FT5, FT6 and FT7.

  13. Physical fitness and performance of polish ice-hockey players competing at different sports levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roczniok Robert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the values of selected aerobic and anaerobic capacity variables, physical profiles, and to analyze the results of on-ice tests performed by ice-hockey players relegated to a lower league. Performance of 24 ice-hockey players competing in the top league in the 2012/2013 season was analysed to this end. In the 2013/2014 season, 14 of them still played in the top league (the control group, while 10 played in the first league (the experimental group. The study was conducted one week after the end of the playoffs in the seasons under consideration. The results revealed that only in the experimental group the analysed variables changed significantly between the seasons. In the Wingate test, significant changes were only noted in mean relative power (a decrease from 9.91 to 9.14 W/kg; p=0.045 and relative total work (a decrease from 299.17 to 277.22 J/kg; p=0.048. The ramp test indicated significantly lower power output in its final stages (364 compared with 384 W; p=0.034, as well as a significant decrease in relative VO2max (from 52.70 to 48.30 ml/min/kg. Blood lactate concentrations were recorded at the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th min of recovery after the ramp test. The rate of post-exercise recovery, ∆LA, recorded after the ramp test turned out to be significantly lower. The times recorded in the on-ice “6x30 m stop” test increased from 32.18 to 33.10 s (p=0.047. The study showed that playing in a lower league where games were less intensive, training sessions shorter and less frequent, had an adverse effect on the performance level of the investigated players. Lower VO2max recorded in the study participants slowed down their rates of post-exercise recovery and led to a significantly worse performance in the 6x30 m stop test, as well as lower relative power and relative total work in the Wingate test.

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRUNK ENDURANCE PLANK TESTS AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE TESTS IN ADOLESCENT SOCCER PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneoka, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Background Although it is believed that trunk function is important for athletic performance, few researchers have demonstrated a significant relationship between the trunk function and athletic performance. Recently, the prone plank and side plank tests have been used to assess trunk function. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between trunk endurance plank tests and athletic performance tests, including whether there is a relationship between long distance running and trunk endurance plank tests in adolescent male soccer players. Study design Cross sectional study design. Methods Fifty-five adolescent male soccer players performed prone and side plank tests and seven performance tests: the Cooper test, the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, the step 50 agility test, a 30-m sprint test, a vertical countermovement jump, a standing five-step jump, and a rebound jump. The relationships between each individual plank test, the combined score of both plank tests, and performance tests were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results The combined score of plank tests was highly correlated with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (r = 0.710, p < 0.001), and was moderately correlated with the Cooper test (r = 0.567, p < 0.001). Poor correlation was observed between the prone plank test and step 50 agility test (r = -0.436, p = 0.001) and no significant correlations were observed between plank tests and jump performance tests. Conclusions The results suggest that trunk endurance plank tests are positively correlated with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, the Cooper test, and the step 50 agility test. Level of Evidence Level 2 PMID:27757284

  15. Effects of Unstable Conditions on Kinematics and Performance Variables in Young Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbán, Tomás; Gutiérrez, Óscar; Moreno, Francisco J

    2015-06-27

    The execution variability and outcomes found in throwing actions have received special attention in numerous studies in recent years. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of an unstable condition on velocity, accuracy and kinematics of movement in the seven metres throw in handball. Twenty-five young handball players took part in an experiment, throwing towards a target on a stable and an unstable surface. Each participant performed 32 throws, 16 for each situation. Linear variability of the dominant hand was assessed by 3D Motion Tracking. A radar sports gun was used to record the velocity of the ball and the throws were video recorded to establish their accuracy. Results showed significant decreases in throwing velocity in unstable conditions, but these did not significantly affect the accuracy achieved in performance. Differences were also found in movement kinematics between the two throwing conditions and relationships were found between kinematics, velocity and accuracy.

  16. Effects of Unstable Conditions on Kinematics and Performance Variables in Young Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbán Tomás

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The execution variability and outcomes found in throwing actions have received special attention in numerous studies in recent years. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of an unstable condition on velocity, accuracy and kinematics of movement in the seven metres throw in handball. Twenty-five young handball players took part in an experiment, throwing towards a target on a stable and an unstable surface. Each participant performed 32 throws, 16 for each situation. Linear variability of the dominant hand was assessed by 3D Motion Tracking. A radar sports gun was used to record the velocity of the ball and the throws were video recorded to establish their accuracy. Results showed significant decreases in throwing velocity in unstable conditions, but these did not significantly affect the accuracy achieved in performance. Differences were also found in movement kinematics between the two throwing conditions and relationships were found between kinematics, velocity and accuracy.

  17. Impact of Fitness Characteristics on Tennis Performance in Elite Junior Tennis Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Alexander; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The impact of fitness characteristics on tennis performance in adolescent players is not clearly understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test whether physical characteristics are related to players' competitive level (i.e., national youth ranking). A secondary aim was to compare adolescent tennis players by performance level (i.e., regional selected players and the national team). A total of 902 male and female junior players (aged, 11-16 years) in Germany were evaluated using a physical testing battery: grip strength; countermovement jump; 10 and 20-m sprint; tennis-specific sprint; overhead, forehand, and backhand medicine ball throws (MBT); serve velocity and tennis-specific endurance test (hit and turn tennis test). Results showed that serve velocity (r = -0.43 to 0.64 for female subjects [♀]; r = -0.33 to 0.49 for male subjects [♂]) and upper-body power (e.g., MBT r = -0.26 to -0.49 ♀; r = -0.20 to -0.49 ♂) were the most correlated predictors of tennis performance (i.e., national youth ranking) in both female and male tennis players. Moreover, national selected players showed better performance levels than their regional counterparts, mainly in the most predictive physical characteristics (i.e., serve velocity: effect size [ES], 0.78-1.04 ♀; ES 0.92-1.02 ♂, MBT: ES, 0.66-0.88 ♀; ES, 0.67-1.04 ♂) and specific endurance (ES, 0.05-0.95 ♀; ES, 0.31-0.73 ♂). The present findings underline the importance of certain physical attributes, especially serve velocity and strength- and power-related variables (upper body), and suggest the need to include these parameters in the area of training, physical testing, and talent identification of young tennis players.

  18. Effects of gluteal kinesio-taping on performance with respect to fatigue in rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutzenberger, Gerda; Moore, Joseph; Griffiths, Hywel; Schwameder, Hermann; Irwin, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    Kinesio-tape(®) has been suggested to increase blood circulation and lymph flow and might influence the muscle's ability to maintain strength during fatigue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gluteal Kinesio-tape(®) on lower limb muscle strength in non-fatigued and fatigued conditions. A total of 10 male rugby union players performed 20-m sprint and vertical jump tests before and after a rugby-specific fatigue protocol. The 20-m sprint time was collected using light gates (SMARTSPEED). A 9-camera motion analysis system (VICON, 100 Hz) and a force plate (Kistler, 1000 Hz) measured the kinematics and kinetics during a counter movement jump and drop-jump. The effect of tape and fatigue on jump height, maximal vertical ground reaction force, reactivity strength index as well as lower limb joint work were analysed via a two-way analysis of variance. The fatigue protocol resulted in significantly decreased performance of sprint time, jump heights and alterations in joint work. No statistical differences were found between the taped and un-taped conditions in non-fatigued and fatigued situation as well as in the interaction with fatigue. Therefore, taping the gluteal muscle does not influence the leg explosive strength after fatiguing in healthy rugby players.

  19. MONITORING TRAINING LOADS, STRESS, IMMUNE-ENDOCRINE RESPONSES AND PERFORMANCE IN TENNIS PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, A.; Lodo, L.; Nosaka, K.; Coutts, A.J.; Aoki, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to investigate the effect of a periodised pre-season training plan on internal training load and subsequent stress tolerance, immune-endocrine responses and physical performance in tennis players. Well-trained young tennis players (n = 10) were monitored across the pre-season period, which was divided into 4 weeks of progressive overloading training and a 1-week tapering period. Weekly measures of internal training load, training monotony and stress tolerance (sources and symptoms of stress) were taken, along with salivary testosterone, cortisol and immunoglobulin A. One repetition maximum strength, running endurance, jump height and agility were assessed before and after training. The periodised training plan led to significant weekly changes in training loads (i.e. increasing in weeks 3 and 4, decreasing in week 5) and post-training improvements in strength, endurance and agility (P < 0.05). Cortisol concentration and the symptoms of stress also increased in weeks 3 and/or 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). Conversely, the testosterone to cortisol ratio decreased in weeks 3 and 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the training plan evoked adaptive changes in stress tolerance and hormonal responses, which may have mediated the improvements in physical performance. PMID:24744485

  20. Post-warmup strategies to maintain body temperature and physical performance in professional rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel J; Russell, Mark; Bracken, Richard M; Cook, Christian J; Giroud, Tibault; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of using passive-heat maintenance, explosive activity or a combination of both strategies during the post-warmup recovery time on physical performance. After a standardised warmup, 16 professional rugby union players, in a randomised design, completed a counter-movement jump (peak power output) before resting for 20 min and wearing normal-training attire (CON), wearing a passive heat maintenance (PHM) jacket, wearing normal attire and performing 3 × 5 CMJ (with a 20% body mass load) after 12 min of recovery (neuromuscular function, NMF), or combining PHM and NMF (COMB). After 20 min, participants completed further counter-movement jump and a repeated sprint protocol. Core temperature (Tcore) was measured at baseline, post-warmup and post-20 min. After 20 min of recovery, Tcore was significantly lower under CON and NMF, when compared with both PHM and COMB (P union players.

  1. An investigation of the relationships different protocols anaerobic performance tests determined in American football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Eyupoğlu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships different protocols anaerobic performance tests in American football players. 27 American football players from a university team participated in this study voluntarily ( age: 23.07±3.45 yrs. For the determination of body composition, subjects height, body weight and skinfold thicknesses were taken and body fat percentage was determined by the Acikada formula (1991. Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAnT, squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ, repeated-jump and 10-20-30 meter transition (speed times were used for the determination of anaerobic performance. Results of Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis, WAnT anaerobic power was significantly correlated with anaerobic capacity (r=.394; p<0.05, however WAnT anaerobic capacity was significantly correlated with squat jump (r=.536; p<0.01, 10m. sprint (r=-.608; p<0.01, 20m. sprint (r=-.626; p<0.01 and 30m. sprint (r=-.593; p<0.01. Similarly repeated jump was significantly correlated with squat jump (r=-.596; p<0.01, countermovement jump (r=-.462; p<0.05, 10m. sprint (r=-.632; p<0.01, 20m. sprint (r= -.558; p<0.01 and 30m. sprint (r=-.580; p<0.01. In addition to countermovement jump was significantly correlated with squat jump (r=-.791; p<0.01, 10m. sprint (r=-.609; p<0.01, 20m. sprint (r=-.590; p<0.01 and 30m. sprint (r=-.588; p<0.01. Results also indicated that squat jump was significantly correlated with 10m. sprint (r=-.711; p<0.01, 20m. sprint (r=-.658; p<0.01 and 30m. sprint (r=-.638; p<0.01. As a conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that the relationships different protocols anaerobic performance tests in American football player and arise from test protocols have different anaerobic structure.

  2. The effect of heart rate variability biofeedback on performance psychology of basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Maman; Garg, Kanupriya

    2012-06-01

    Coping with pressure and anxiety is an ineluctable demand of sports performance. Heart rate variability (HRV) Biofeedback (BFB) shall be used as a tool for self regulating physiological responses resulting in improved psycho physiological interactions. For further analysis, the present study has been designed to examine the relationship between anxiety and performance and also effectiveness of biofeedback protocol to create stress-eliciting situation in basketball players. Thirty basketball players of university level and above (both male and female) aged 18-28 years, who scored a minimum of 20 in state trait anxiety inventory, were randomly divided into three equal groups- Experimental (Biofeedback) group, Placebo group and Control (No Treatment) group. The BFB group received HRV BFB training for 10 consecutive days for 20 min that included breathing at individual's resonant frequency through a pacing stimulus; Placebo group was shown motivational video clips for 10 consecutive days for 10 min, whereas No Treatment Control group was not given any intervention. Two way repeated measure ANOVA was applied to analyze the differences within and between the groups. Anxiety, coping self-efficacy, heart rate variability, respiration rate, and performance (dribbling, passing and shooting) at session 1, 10 and 1 month follow up were statistically significant in each group along with interaction of group and time (p performance post training. The Control group showed no change in any variable except performance. The results of the study support the idea that HRV BFB lowers the anxiety and thus there seems to be a potential association between HRV BFB and performance optimization.

  3. Functional Performance Among Active Female Soccer Players After Unilateral Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Compared With Knee-Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fältström, Anne; Hägglund, Martin; Kvist, Joanna

    2017-02-01

    Good functional performance with limb symmetry is believed to be important to minimize the risk of injury after a return to pivoting and contact sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). This study aimed to investigate any side-to-side limb differences in functional performance and movement asymmetries in female soccer players with a primary unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-reconstructed knee and to compare these players with knee-healthy controls from the same soccer teams. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. This study included 77 active female soccer players at a median of 18 months after ACLR (interquartile range [IQR], 14.5 months; range, 7-39 months) and 77 knee-healthy female soccer players. The mean age was 20.1 ± 2.3 years for players with an ACL-reconstructed knee and 19.5 ± 2.2 years for controls. We used a battery of tests to assess postural control (Star Excursion Balance Test) and hop performance (1-legged hop for distance, 5-jump test, and side hop). Movement asymmetries in the lower limbs and trunk were assessed with the drop vertical jump and the tuck jump using 2-dimensional analyses. The reconstructed and uninvolved limbs did not differ in any of the tests. In the 5-jump test, players with an ACL-reconstructed knee performed worse than controls (mean 8.75 ± 1.05 m vs 9.09 ± 0.89 m; P = .034). On the drop vertical jump test, the ACL-reconstructed limb had significantly less knee valgus motion in the frontal plane (median 0.028 m [IQR, 0.049 m] vs 0.045 m [IQR, 0.043 m]; P = .004) and a lower probability of a high knee abduction moment (pKAM) (median 69.2% [IQR, 44.4%] vs 79.8% [IQR, 44.8%]; P = .043) compared with the control players' matched limb (for leg dominance). Results showed that 9% to 49% of players in both groups performed outside recommended guidelines on the different tests. Only 14 players with an ACL-reconstructed knee (18%) and 15 controls (19%) had results that met the recommended

  4. Performance enhancement among adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate baseball weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Wen; Liu, Ya-Chen; Lu, Lee-Chang; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Chou, Paul Pei-Hsi; Liu, Chiang

    2013-12-01

    Compared with regulation-weight baseballs, lightweight baseballs generate lower torque on the shoulder and elbow joints without altering the pitching movement and timing. This study investigates the throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and maximum shoulder external rotation (MSER) of adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate lightweight baseballs. We assigned 24 adolescent players to a lightweight baseball group (group L) and a regulation-weight baseball group (group R) based on their pretraining throwing velocity. Both groups received pitching training 3 times per week for 10 weeks with 4.4- and 5-oz baseballs. The players' throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and MSER were measured from 10 maximum efforts throws using a regulation-weight baseball before and after undergoing the pitching training. The results showed that the players in group L significantly increased their throwing velocity and arm swing velocity (p baseball, whereas group R did not (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the percentage change in the throwing velocity and arm swing velocity of group L was significantly superior to that of group R (p baseball substantially enhanced the arm swing velocity and throwing velocity of the adolescent baseball players. These findings suggest that using a lightweight baseball, which can reduce the risk of injury without altering pitching patterns, has positive training effects on players in the rapid physical growth and technique development stage.

  5. Functional Movement Screen Scores and Physical Performance among Youth Elite Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study had two main objectives: (1 to determine if differences in Functional Movement Screen (FMS scores exist between two levels of competition; and (2 to analyze the association between FMS individual and overall scores and physical performance variables of lower-limb power (jumps, repeated sprint ability and shot speed. Twenty-two Under 16 (U16 and twenty-six Under 19 (U19 national competitive soccer players participated in this study. All participants were evaluated according to anthropometrics, FMS, jump performance, instep kick speed and anaerobic performance. There were no significant differences in the individual FMS scores between competitive levels. There were significant negative correlations between hurdle step (right and Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST power average ( ρ = −0.293; p = 0.043 and RAST fatigue index (RAST FatIndex ( ρ = −0.340; p = 0.018. The hurdle step (left had a significant negative correlation to squat jump (SJ ( ρ = −0.369; p = 0.012. Rotary stability had a significant negative correlation to RAST fatigue index (Right: ρ = −0.311; p = 0.032. Left: ρ = −0.400; p = 0.005. The results suggest that individual FMS scores may be better discriminants of performance than FMS total score and established minimal association between FMS scores and physical variables. Based on that, FMS may be suitable for the purposes of determining physical function but not for discriminating physical performance.

  6. Game Performance and Length of Rally in Professional Padel Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Alcaraz Martínez, Bernardino Javier; Cañas, Jerónimo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyse differences in rally length considering attack effectiveness, a players’ location and a game outcome in professional padel players. A total of 1527 rallies from 10 male matches of the 2013 Masters Finals of the World Padel Tour were registered through systematic observation. Data treatment included non-parametric mean comparisons (Mann-Withney and Kruskal-Wallis tests), and association analyses (crosstabs and Chi square analysis). In overall, 40% of unforced errors were made within the first 4 s of the rally, over 50% of points were scored between the 5th and 11th s, and 30% of forced errors occurred after the 11th –s of the rally. Hence, the ability to score in rallies of over 11 s duration and not making unforced errors within the first 4 s contributed to the rally outcome. More specifically, winners played longer rallies compared to losers (10.42 ± 7.77 s vs. 8.42 ± 6.43 s); particularly at the net, when scoring from the baseline (11.04 ± 7.64 s vs. 8.90 ± 5.41 s) and making forced (8.86 ± 7.44 s vs. 6.86 ± 6.24 s) and unforced errors (11.91 ± 9.47 s vs. 8.33 ± 6.92 s). Such knowledge may have implications in the design and structure of specific training programmes for padel players according to competition requirements. PMID:28210348

  7. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Performance in Subelite Gaelic Football Players From Under Thirteen to Senior Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Mark; Malone, Shane

    2016-11-01

    Roe, M and Malone, S. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance in subelite Gaelic football players from under thirteen to senior age groups. J Strength Cond Res 30 (11): 3187-3193, 2016-Gaelic football is indigenous to Ireland and has similar locomotion profiles to soccer and Australian Football. Given the increasing attention on long-term player development, investigations on age-related variation in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) performance may provide useful information in talent identification, program design, and player monitoring. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate Yo-YoIR1 performance across Gaelic football age groups. Male participants (n = 355) were recruited from division one, Gaelic football teams. Participants were allocated to one of the 7 groups according to respective age groups from under 13 (U13), under 14, under 15 (U15), under 16 (U16), minor, under 21 (U21), to senior age groups. Total Yo-YoIR1 distance (m) increased progressively from U13 (885 ± 347 m) to U16 (1,595 ± 380 m) equating to a rate of change of 180.2%. In comparison to U13, total distance at minor (1,206 ± 327 m) increased by 136.4%. Subsequent increases were observed in U21 (1,585 ± 445 m) and senior players (2,365 ± 489). Minimum (800-880 m) and maximum (2,240-2,280 m) total distances were comparable for U15, U16, and U21 players. Differences in total distance (m) for all age groups were statistically significant when compared to U13 players (p 0.8). Similar trends were observed for maximum velocity and estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The evolution of Yo-YoIR1 performance in Gaelic football players from adolescents to adulthood highlights how maturation may influence sport-related running ability. Changes in Yo-YoIR1 performance should be closely monitored to optimize interventions for individuals transitioning across age groups.

  8. Anthropometric factors related to sprint and agility performance in young male soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathisen G

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gunnar Mathisen, Svein Arne Pettersen School of Sport Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway Objective: To investigate the relationship between anthropometrics and sprint and agility performance and describe the development of sprint (acceleration and agility performance in 10- to 16-year-old male soccer players. Methods: One hundred and thirty-two participants were divided into three age groups, 10–12 years (mean 10.8±0.50, 13–14 years (mean 13.9±0.50, and 15–16 years (mean 15.5±0.24, with assessment of 20 m sprint with 10 m split time and agility performance related to body height and body mass within groups. Results: In the 10- to 12-year-olds, there were no significant correlations between height, weight, and the performance variables, except for body mass, which was correlated to 10–20 m sprint (r=0.30. In the 13- to 14-year-olds, body height was significantly correlated with 10 m sprint (r=0.50 and 20 m sprint (r=0.52, as well as 10–20 m sprint (r=0.50 and agility performance (r=0.28. In the 15- to 16-year-old group, body height was correlated to 20 m (r=0.38 and 10–20 m (r=0.45 sprint. Body mass was significantly correlated to 10 m spring (r=0.35 in the 13- to 14-year-olds, as well as 20 m (r=0.33 and 10–20 m (r=0.35 sprint in the 15- to 16-year-olds. Conclusion: Height and body mass were significantly correlated with sprint performance in 13- to 16-year-old male soccer players. However, the 10- to 12-year-olds showed no significant relationship between sprint performance and anthropometrics, except for a small correlation in 10–20 m sprint. This may be attributed to maturation, with large differences in body height and body mass due to different patterns in the growth spurt. The agility performance related to anthropometrics was insignificant apart from a moderate correlation in the 13- to 14-year-olds. Keywords: youth soccer, running speed, development, football, puberty, skills 

  9. Anthropometric analysis and performance characteristics to predict selection in young male and female handball players

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    Juan J. Fernández-Romero

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was two-fold. The first aim was to determine if there were any anthropometric and physical performance differences (controlling for maturation between male and female handball players selected in training categories as well asthe relation of these differences with the performance level achieved. The second aim was to identify the discriminatory variables between the performance levels achieved. A total of 216 young handball players (125 men and 91 women participated in the study. The data were classified by selection level (regional n=154; national n=62, gender (men; women and age category (under-15; under-17. The use of MANCOVA analyses, controllingfor maturation, identified how gender could determine variables related to handball players' future competitive levels. The results revealed that anthropometric variables such as height, arm span, trochanter height, thigh girth, and leg girth were more influential in men than in women. In addition, the physical performance tests of vertical jump (squat jump and counter movement jump with/without arm and 10x5m shuttle run were determinants in both sexes. Discriminatory analysis predicted that a combination of five variables (counter movement jump with arm, body mass, 10x5m shuttle run, dominant hand length and trochanter height would successfully distinguish between regional and national players, with a predictive accuracy of 81.9% for all players.

  10. Relative age effect and its relationship with morphological characteristics and performance in young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Pedretti,

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In soccer, the relative age effect (RAE was observed in both adult and young players. The RAE appears to be more pronounced in elite sports, probably by the need to select the best players to compete internationally. This study review: (1 the prevalence of RAE in soccer players, (a considering competitive level (b and specific position and (2 association between RAE (a and anthropometric characteristics, (b physical fitness components and technical skills. A total of 12 studies met all inclusion criteria for this review. One trial (meta-analysis was included after the eligibility process. Overall, 77675 young soccer players were analysed. In all studies, significance level of 0.05 was set for the type I error. There is a consensus about the presence of an RAE in men’s soccer, and the percentage of players born in the first quarter in the selection year for professionals is high, with peak values found for elite young athletes, and a large decrease is evident throughout the regional and school representation. The relationship between RAE and the specific position is controversial, according to few studies. It is likely that players born in the first quarter differ in a variety of anthropometric characteristics and physical fitness components compared with peers born in the last quarter. Researchers need to understand the mechanisms by which RAE increase and decrease in order, to reduce and eliminate this social inequality that influence the experiences of athletes, especially in periods of development. Organizational and practical intervention is required.

  11. Long-term power performance of elite Australian rules football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Michael R; Cormack, Stuart; Newton, Robert U

    2009-01-01

    Measuring and tracking performance variables such as peak power output is essential for assessing the effects of training and for informing adjustments to optimize program design. The purpose of this study was to track the long-term changes in muscular power, velocity, and jump height of elite Australian Rules Football (ARF) players during a 3-year period. Twelve members of an ARF team were tracked during the study. The physical characteristics of the subjects were age, 25.3 6 2.8 years; body mass, 93.0 6 6.8 kg; and height, 192 6 6 cm. The subjects performed unweighted and weighted (40 kg) countermovement jumps (CMJ) and static jumps (SJ). Peak power, jump height, and bar velocity were determined using a force plate and position transducer.Measures of peak power output during both the CMJ and SJ indicated significant (p# 0.001) increases of 13% (effect size [ES] = 0.70) and 17% (ES = 1.77), respectively, during the course of the tracking period. There was also a significant 9% (ES = 0.71) increase in CMJ40 peak power. The subjects' CMJ peak velocity improved by 10.7% (ES = 0.34), and SJ peak velocity improved by 12.6% (ES = 0.37). The data from this study show that elite-level ARF players can continue to increase muscular power and velocity. This information is of interest to strength and conditioning coaches who are interested in improving power performance of their athletes for a long-term period.

  12. A caffeinated energy drink improves jump performance in adolescent basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abian-Vicen, Javier; Puente, Carlos; Salinero, Juan José; González-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Muñoz, Gloria; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of a commercially available energy drink on shooting precision, jump performance and endurance capacity in young basketball players. Sixteen young basketball players (first division of a junior national league; 14.9 ± 0.8 years; 73.4 ± 12.4 kg; 182.3 ± 6.5 cm) volunteered to participate in the research. They ingested either (a) an energy drink that contained 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body weight or (b) a placebo energy drink with the same appearance and taste. After 60 min for caffeine absorption, they performed free throw shooting and three-point shooting tests. After that, participants performed a maximal countermovement jump (CMJ), a repeated maximal jumps test for 15 s (RJ-15), and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1). Urine samples were obtained before and 30 min after testing. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink did not affect precision during the free throws (Caffeine = 70.7 ± 11.8 % vs placebo = 70.3 ± 11.0 %; P = 0.45), the three-point shooting test (39.9 ± 11.8 vs 38.1 ± 12.8 %; P = 0.33) or the distance covered in the Yo-Yo IR1 (2,000 ± 706 vs 1,925 ± 702 m; P = 0.19). However, the energy drink significantly increased jump height during the CMJ (38.3 ± 4.4 vs 37.5 ± 4.4 cm; P energy drink (3 mg/kg body weight) increased jump performance although it did not affect basketball shooting precision.

  13. Does one night of partial sleep deprivation affect the evening performance during intermittent exercise in Taekwondo players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Mhenni, Thouraya; Tayech, Amel; Hammouda, Omar; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2016-02-01

    Athletes and coaches believe that adequate sleep is essential for peak performance. There is ample scientific evidence which support the conclusion that sleep loss seems to stress many physiological functions in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of one night's sleep deprivation on intermittent exercise performance in the evening of the following day. Ten male Taekwondo players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in three sleep conditions (reference sleep night [RN], partial sleep deprivation at the beginning of night [PSDBN], partial sleep deprivation at the end of night [PSDEN]) in a counterbalanced order, allowing a recovery period ≥36 hr in between them. Heart rate peak (HRpeak), plasma lactate concentrations (Lac) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test. A significant effect of sleep restriction was observed on the total distance covered in YYIRT (PTaekwondo players in the evening of the following day, without alteration of HRpeak and RPE.

  14. Role of adolescent female volleyball players' psychophysiological properties and body build in performance of different elements of the game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Raini; Stamm, Meelis; Thomson, Kaivo

    2005-08-01

    Body-build peculiarities (49 body measurements) and psychophysiological properties (21 computerized tests) of 32 adolescent female volleyballers were studied to assess their significance in performance at competitions. Games were recorded by the original computer program Game, and an index of proficiency representative elements of the game was calculated for each player. Regression analysis was applied to predict the best psychophysiological and anthropometric models for serve, reception, block, feint, and attack. Seven tests of psychophysiological indices and 14 anthropometric variables explained 38-98% and 32-83% of skill performance, respectively. Consequently, to improve young volleyball players' performance, everyday coaching should be complemented by detailed assessment of their body build and psychophysiological characteristics.

  15. Effect of strength and high-intensity training on jumping, sprinting, and intermittent endurance performance in prepubertal soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrete, Carlos; Requena, Bernardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luís; de Villarreal, Eduardo Sáez

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 26-week on-field combined strength and high-intensity training on the physical performance capacity among prepubertal soccer players who were undertaking a competitive phase of training. Twenty-four prepubertal soccer players between the age of 8 and 9 years were randomly assigned to 2 groups: a control (C; n = 13) and an experimental group (S; n = 11). Both groups performed an identical soccer-training program, whereas the S group also performed combined strength and high-intensity training before the soccer-specific training. The 15-m sprint time (seconds), countermovement jump (CMJ) displacement, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (Yo-Yo IE), and Sit and Reach flexibility were each measured before (baseline) and after 9 (T2), 18 (T3), and 26 weeks (posttest) of training. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested at baseline. After 26 weeks, significant improvements were found in the CMJ (6.72%; effect size [ES] = 0.37), Yo-Yo IE (49.57%, ES = 1.39), and Flexibility (7.26%; ES = 0.37) variables for the S group. Conversely, significant decreases were noted for the CMJ (-10.82%; ES = 0.61) and flexibility (-13.09%; ES = 0.94) variables in the C group. A significant negative correlation was found between 15-m sprint time and CMJ (r = -0.77) and Yo-Yo IE (r = -0.77) in the S group. Specific combined strength and high-intensity training in prepubertal soccer players for 26 weeks produced a positive effect on performance qualities highly specific to soccer. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for prepubertal soccer players to include strength and high-intensity training for athlete preparation in this sport.

  16. Reference values for the sprint performance in male football players aged from 9–35 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaidis Pantelis Theodoros

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of the present study was twofold: firstly, to examine the effect of age on a 20 m sprint performance; and secondly, to establish normative data for the 20 m sprint performance by age in football players.

  17. Self-regulation of learning and performance level of elite youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toering, Tynke; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Jordet, Geir; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-regulated learning and performance level of 256 elite youth soccer players aged 12 to 17 years (M-age = 14.2; SD = 1.2). As relative age may affect this relationship through its association with maturation, experience, and performance level, we contr

  18. Seasonal Variation of Agility, Speed and Endurance Performance in Young Elite Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Dragijsky

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the linear running speed (LRS for 30 m, change of direction speed (CODS, and endurance in young elite Czech soccer players. The following tests were conducted to assess CODS and endurance: Agility 505 turning toward the dominant (A505DL and non-dominant lower limb (A505NL; Illinois Agility Test (IAT; and intermittent test (Yo-Yo IRT1. During the soccer season, we investigated performance at the following time periods: the start (t1 and the end of the pre-season period (t2; during (t3 and at the end of the competitive period (t4. Repeated measurement analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of time period on selected fitness parameters (p < 0.05. Post hoc analysis for test A505DL revealed significant improvements of performance at t3 (2.71 ± 0.08 s and t4 (2.72 ± 0.06 s compared to t1 (2.81 ± 0.09 s. A505NL was significantly different between t1 (2.83 ± 0.09 s and t2 (2.76 ± 0.09 s, t3 (2.7 ± 0.07 s and t4 (2.71 ± 0.09 s. Performance of CODS at t1 for the IAT (18.82 ± 0.56 s was significantly lower (p < 0.05 than any other time period (t2 = 18.52 ± 0.63 s, t3 = 17.94 ± 0.51 s, t4 = 17.89 ± 0.66 s. The power of LRS was significantly different at t3 (4.99 ± 0.15 s, and t4 (4.98 ± 0.17 s compared to t1 (5.15 ± 0.21 s, and t2 (5.07 ± 0.14 s. For the Yo-Yo IRT1 test, we observed a significant increase in performance between t1 (625.26 ± 170.34 m, t2 (858.95 ± 210.55 m, and t3 (953.68 ± 229.88 m. These results show the impact of soccer season time period on young soccer player performance and may further serve as a basis for comparison with similar research conducted by peers. These results may aid sports practice for clinicians, conditioning coaches, soccer coaches and physiotherapeutic coaches.

  19. VO2 kinetics and performance in soccer players after intense training and inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Krustrup, Peter; Gunnarsson, Thomas P.;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE:: To examine the effects of a short-term period with intensified training or training cessation of trained soccer players on VO2 kinetics at 75% maximal aerobic speed (MAS), oxidative enzymes and performance in repeated high intensity exercise. METHODS:: After the last match of the season...... 18 elite soccer players were, for a two-week period, assigned to a high intensity training group (HI, n=7) performing 10 training sessions mainly consisting of aerobic high intensity training (8×2 min) and speed endurance training (10-12×30-s sprints) or a training cessation group (TC, n=11...

  20. On-field Performances of Rugby Union Players--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie

    2016-03-01

    A review of 16 studies examining on-field performances of rugby union players was conducted. Based on this review, we discuss a number of methodological and measurement concerns, and provide practical implications for practitioners who develop training programs for rugby players. Among the main findings that emerged from our review were (a) rugby is an intermittent sport in nature with many tempo changes, ranging from high-intensity sprints and static exertion to jogging, standing, and walking, and (b) differences in on-field performance among players playing different positions are common, and are especially apparent among forwards, who are involved in more static high-intensity efforts, and backs, who spend more time in high-intensity running. Among the methodological concerns in these studies are the lack of a standardized method of coding movement categories and the lack of data about the opposing team. We suggest that practitioners design training programs, which reflect the specific needs of players playing different positions, and that they use up-to-date technology to accurately assess players' on-field efforts.

  1. Anthropometric, Physical, and Age Differences by the Player Position and the Performance Level in Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palao, José M.; Manzanares, Policarpo; Valadés, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study the ranges in height, weight, age, spike reach, and block reach of volleyball players in relation to the player position and the level of their respective teams in peak performance. The analysed sample included 1454 male and 1452 female players who participated in the volleyball competitions of the Olympic Games and World Championships in the 2000–2012 period. A descriptive, correlational, and longitudinal design was used. The variables studied were: the player position, body height, weight, body mass index, spike reach, block reach, age, and team level. The results show differences between body height, spike and block reaches, and the age of the players by their position. These differences are related to the needs of the different positions with regard to the actions they execute. Middle-blockers, outside-hitters, and opposites have the characteristics that are most suitable for blocking and spiking, and the setters and liberos appear to have characteristics conducive to setting and receiving as well as digging, respectively. The differences found in the studied variables with regard to the playing position are related to players’ needs regarding the actions they perform. Player’s age was a variable that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for males, and physical capacities (body height, weight, spike reach, and block reach) were variables that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for females. PMID:25713683

  2. Does Testosterone Modulate Mood States and Physical Performance in Young Basketball Players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloski, Bernardo; Aoki, Marcelo S; de Freitas, Camila G; Schultz de Arruda, Ademir F; de Moraes, Helena S; Drago, Gustavo; Borges, Thiago O; Moreira, Alexandre

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to examine and compare mood states profile and physical performance during different training phases between 2 groups of adolescent basketball players that were differentiated according to baseline testosterone concentration (T). The basketball players were submitted to an intensified training period (OVL) followed by a tapering period (TP). Twenty-three young male basketball players initiated the study. Experimental criteria data were used to stratify 16 players into high-testosterone (HTC) or low-testosterone (LTC) concentration groups. All the 16 athletes undertook 5 weeks of OVL followed by a 3-week TP. Saliva sampling, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IRL1) test and the T-test were conducted at the beginning (T1), after OVL (T2), and after TP (T3). A similar increase in internal training load was observed during OVL when compared with TP in both groups (p 0.05); however, LTC displayed a higher score for fatigue (p 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that LTC athletes may be more susceptible to changes in mood states during intensified training periods. In addition, data indicate that a periodized training program successfully improved the physical performance (endurance and agility) of young basketball players; however, this improvement was not affected by testosterone level.

  3. Visual tracking speed is related to basketball-specific measures of performance in NBA players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Rogowski, Joseph P; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Beyer, Kyle S; Bohner, Jonathan D; Pruna, Gabriel J; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between visual tracking speed (VTS) and reaction time (RT) on basketball-specific measures of performance. Twelve professional basketball players were tested before the 2012-13 season. Visual tracking speed was obtained from 1 core session (20 trials) of the multiple object tracking test, whereas RT was measured by fixed- and variable-region choice reaction tests, using a light-based testing device. Performance in VTS and RT was compared with basketball-specific measures of performance (assists [AST]; turnovers [TO]; assist-to-turnover ratio [AST/TO]; steals [STL]) during the regular basketball season. All performance measures were reported per 100 minutes played. Performance differences between backcourt (guards; n = 5) and frontcourt (forward/centers; n = 7) positions were also examined. Relationships were most likely present between VTS and AST (r = 0.78; p basketball-specific performance measures. Backcourt players were most likely to outperform frontcourt players in AST and very likely to do so for VTS, TO, and AST/TO. In conclusion, VTS seems to be related to a basketball player's ability to see and respond to various stimuli on the basketball court that results in more positive plays as reflected by greater number of AST and STL and lower turnovers.

  4. Neck Cooling Improves Table Tennis Performance amongst Young National Level Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terun Desai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of neck cooling on table tennis performance. Eight young, National level, male table tennis players (age 16 ± 2 years, height 1.77 ± 0.08 m, body mass 67.54 ± 10.66 kg were recruited. Participants attended four testing sessions separated by a week. Session one determined fitness levels, and session two was a familiarisation trial. The final two sessions involved completing the table tennis-specific protocol either with (ICE or without (CON neck cooling for 1 min before each exercise period (bout: 80–90 shots, which represented an individual game. The exercise protocol required completing three bouts to represent a match, each simulating a different skill (forehand, backhand, alternate forehand and backhand, against a mechanical ball thrower. Performance was measured by the number of balls hitting two pre-determined targets. Heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, and thermal sensation (TS were measured. Total performance scores (shots on target were significantly greater during ICE (136 ± 26, compared to CON (120 ± 25; p = 0.006 with a 15 (±12% improvement. Effects for time (p < 0.05 but not condition (p > 0.05 were found for RPE and all other physiological variables. TS significantly decreased with cooling throughout the protocol (p = 0.03. Neck cooling appears to be beneficial for table tennis performance by lowering thermal sensation.

  5. Exploring Game Performance in the National Basketball Association Using Player Tracking Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sampaio

    Full Text Available Recent player tracking technology provides new information about basketball game performance. The aim of this study was to (i compare the game performances of all-star and non all-star basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA, and (ii describe the different basketball game performance profiles based on the different game roles. Archival data were obtained from all 2013-2014 regular season games (n = 1230. The variables analyzed included the points per game, minutes played and the game actions recorded by the player tracking system. To accomplish the first aim, the performance per minute of play was analyzed using a descriptive discriminant analysis to identify which variables best predict the all-star and non all-star playing categories. The all-star players showed slower velocities in defense and performed better in elbow touches, defensive rebounds, close touches, close points and pull-up points, possibly due to optimized attention processes that are key for perceiving the required appropriate environmental information. The second aim was addressed using a k-means cluster analysis, with the aim of creating maximal different performance profile groupings. Afterwards, a descriptive discriminant analysis identified which variables best predict the different playing clusters. The results identified different playing profile of performers, particularly related to the game roles of scoring, passing, defensive and all-round game behavior. Coaching staffs may apply this information to different players, while accounting for individual differences and functional variability, to optimize practice planning and, consequently, the game performances of individuals and teams.

  6. Exploring Game Performance in the National Basketball Association Using Player Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-González, Julio; Jiménez Sáiz, Sergio; Schelling i del Alcázar, Xavi; Balciunas, Mindaugas

    2015-01-01

    Recent player tracking technology provides new information about basketball game performance. The aim of this study was to (i) compare the game performances of all-star and non all-star basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA), and (ii) describe the different basketball game performance profiles based on the different game roles. Archival data were obtained from all 2013-2014 regular season games (n = 1230). The variables analyzed included the points per game, minutes played and the game actions recorded by the player tracking system. To accomplish the first aim, the performance per minute of play was analyzed using a descriptive discriminant analysis to identify which variables best predict the all-star and non all-star playing categories. The all-star players showed slower velocities in defense and performed better in elbow touches, defensive rebounds, close touches, close points and pull-up points, possibly due to optimized attention processes that are key for perceiving the required appropriate environmental information. The second aim was addressed using a k-means cluster analysis, with the aim of creating maximal different performance profile groupings. Afterwards, a descriptive discriminant analysis identified which variables best predict the different playing clusters. The results identified different playing profile of performers, particularly related to the game roles of scoring, passing, defensive and all-round game behavior. Coaching staffs may apply this information to different players, while accounting for individual differences and functional variability, to optimize practice planning and, consequently, the game performances of individuals and teams. PMID:26171606

  7. Exploring Game Performance in the National Basketball Association Using Player Tracking Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Jaime; McGarry, Tim; Calleja-González, Julio; Jiménez Sáiz, Sergio; Schelling I Del Alcázar, Xavi; Balciunas, Mindaugas

    2015-01-01

    Recent player tracking technology provides new information about basketball game performance. The aim of this study was to (i) compare the game performances of all-star and non all-star basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA), and (ii) describe the different basketball game performance profiles based on the different game roles. Archival data were obtained from all 2013-2014 regular season games (n = 1230). The variables analyzed included the points per game, minutes played and the game actions recorded by the player tracking system. To accomplish the first aim, the performance per minute of play was analyzed using a descriptive discriminant analysis to identify which variables best predict the all-star and non all-star playing categories. The all-star players showed slower velocities in defense and performed better in elbow touches, defensive rebounds, close touches, close points and pull-up points, possibly due to optimized attention processes that are key for perceiving the required appropriate environmental information. The second aim was addressed using a k-means cluster analysis, with the aim of creating maximal different performance profile groupings. Afterwards, a descriptive discriminant analysis identified which variables best predict the different playing clusters. The results identified different playing profile of performers, particularly related to the game roles of scoring, passing, defensive and all-round game behavior. Coaching staffs may apply this information to different players, while accounting for individual differences and functional variability, to optimize practice planning and, consequently, the game performances of individuals and teams.

  8. Variations in Star Excursion Balance Test Performance Between High School and Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Ryan S; Kosik, Kyle B; Beard, Megan Q; Terada, Masafumi; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Gribble, Phillip A

    2015-10-01

    The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) is a reliable inexpensive tool used to assess dynamic postural control deficits and efficacy in the prediction of musculoskeletal injuries, but with little previous consideration for performance differences across age and skill levels. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in SEBT scores between high school and collegiate football players. Three-hundred eighteen high school football players and 180 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate football players volunteered to participate. Star Excursion Balance Test scores were obtained bilaterally for anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions, and for an overall composite (COMP) score. The mean of 3 trials from each leg was normalized to stance leg length and presented as a percentage score. Bilaterally averaged scores were compared between high school and collegiate football players using separate independent t-tests. A multiple linear backward regression determined the amount of variance in SEBT scores explained by age, mass, and height. Compared with collegiate athletes, high school athletes had lower PL (72.8 ± 11.4% vs. 77.1 ± 10.2%; p football players.

  9. Evaluation of the body bearing of high performance female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stech M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the results of the study of body bearing in 12 high performance female volleyball players of polish team (TPS Rumia are presented. To estimate body bearing the New-York's test of the body bearing classification was used. The results of the study have shown that asymmetrical positions of volleyball players in the time of services and attacks are contributed to formed some asymmetrical disturbances of body bearing. At the majority of sportsmen it is exhibited in omitting the left brachium and the left blade, in a right-hand scoliosis, in the tendency to a platypodia. It requires use of special preventive and adjusting exercises.

  10. Diurnal Variations in Physical Performances Related to Football in Young Soccer Players

    OpenAIRE

    Chtourou, Hamdi; Hammouda, Omar; Souissi, Hichem; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the effects of time-of-day on aerobic and anaerobic performances during the Yo-Yo, repeated sprint ability (RSA) and the Wingate tests in young soccer players. Methods In a counterbalanced and a random order, twenty junior male soccer players completed the Yo-Yo, the RSA, and the Wingate tests at two different times-of-day: 07:00 and 17:00 h. During the Yo-Yo test, the total distance (TD) covered and the estimated maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) were determined....

  11. Somatic, Endurance Performance and Heart Rate Variability Profiles of Professional Soccer Players Grouped According to Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botek Michal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study compared somatic, endurance performance determinants and heart rate variability (HRV profiles of professional soccer players divided into different age groups: GI (17–19.9 years; n = 23, GII (20–24.9 years; n = 45, GIII (25–29.9 years; n = 30, and GIV (30–39 years; n = 26. Players underwent somatic and HRV assessment and maximal exercise testing. HRV was analyzed by spectral analysis of HRV, and high (HF and low (LF frequency power was transformed by a natural logarithm (Ln. Players in GIV (83 ± 7 kg were heavier (p 25 years showed negligible differences in Pmax unlike the age group differences demonstrated in VO2max. A shift towards relative sympathetic dominance, particularly due to reduced vagal activity, was apparent after approximately 8 years of competing at the professional level.

  12. Effect of various warm-up protocols on jump performance in college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagaduan, Jeffrey C; Pojskić, Haris; Užičanin, Edin; Babajić, Fuad

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of warm-up strategies on countermovement jump performance. Twenty-nine male college football players (age: 19.4 ± 1.1 years; body height: 179.0 ± 5.1 cm; body mass: 73.1 ± 8.0 kg; % body fat: 11.1 ± 2.7) from the Tuzla University underwent a control (no warm-up) and different warm-up conditions: 1. general warm-up; 2. general warm-up with dynamic stretching; 3. general warm-up, dynamic stretching and passive stretching; 4. passive static stretching; 5. passive static stretching and general warm-up; and, 6. passive static stretching, general warm-up and dynamic stretching. Countermovement jump performance was measured after each intervention or control. Results from one way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference on warm-up strategies at F (4.07, 113.86) = 69.56, p hoc revealed that a general warm-up and a general warm-up with dynamic stretching posted the greatest gains among all interventions. On the other hand, no warm-up and passive static stretching displayed the least results in countermovement jump performance. In conclusion, countermovement jump performance preceded by a general warm-up or a general warm-up with dynamic stretching posted superior gains in countermovement jump performance.

  13. Assessment of professional baseball players aerobic exercise performance depending on their positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung-Won

    2014-11-01

    This study reports the average and SD of professional baseball players' cardiorespiratory endurance, maximum oxygen consumption, oxygen consumption during anaerobic threshold, maximum oxygen consumption of anaerobic threshold %, maximum heart rate, and heart rate of anaerobic threshold. We also report the comparison between pitchers and fielders. Considering the total number of results, percentile was used and results were classified into 5 grades. One professional baseball players' organization with more than 14 years of experience participated in this study. First, we observed that the average pitchers' V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was 53.64 ml·kg·min, whereas the average fielders' was 52.30 ml·kg·min. These values were lower than other sports players. Second, in case of the V[Combining Dot Above]O2AT, pitchers showed 39.35 ml·kg·min and fielders showed 39.96 ml·kg·min. %V[Combining Dot Above]O2AT showed a significant difference of 71.13% between pitchers and fielders-pitchers, whereas fielders showed 73.89% (p baseball players and higher than other sports players. In conclusion, both professional baseball pitchers and fielders should be aware of the necessity of systematic cardiorespiratory endurance data analysis. Moreover, baseball teams, athletic trainers, and coaches should also be aware of the importance of cardiorespiratory endurance.

  14. Morphological and maturational predictors of technical performance in young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Oliveira Matta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to describe the association between chronological age, morphology, biological maturation and sport experience in relation to technical performance in young Brazilian soccer players. Technical, maturation and anthropometric variables were assessed in 119 soccer players, 74 and 45 in the under-15 and under-17 categories, respectively. Data were analyzed using a multiple linear regression model. Adiposity was negatively associated with technical performance regardless the age-category. Weight was negatively associated with technical performance in under-15 and positively with the under-17 category, respectively. In under-17 biological maturation was negatively related to the dribbling test and positively associated with the ball control test. Years of experience proved to be positively associated with technique taught to soccer player in the under-17 category. The explained variance was different between categories. The technical performance of Brazilian soccer players aged 14-to-17 seems to be related to biological maturation, adiposity, weight and years of experience.

  15. Achievement goals and sportsmanlike attitudes in young soccer players and its association with perceived pressure from significant social agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Trindade Vaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to characterize the achievement goals and sportsmanlike attitudes in young soccer players and their association with perceived pressure from different significant social agents (parents/family, coaches, teammates and friends. The sample of the study was comprised of 118 young soccer players, aged between 11 and 19 years (M= 14.68, SD= 2.16. Athletes had 5.40 ± 2.39 years of sport experience and 71 (60.2% of the athletes had competed at a regional level, while 47 (39.8% had participated in national competitions. Participants completed a socio-demographic survey, the Task and Ego Orientation in Sports Questionnaire and the Sports Values Questionnaire. The statistical analyses involved univariate normality and descriptive, comparative and correlational analyses. Results revealed that task orientation was positively correlated with sportsmanlike attitudes (r= 0.47, p<0.01 and negatively associated with unsportsmanlike attitudes (r= −0.46, p<0.01, whereas ego orientation effects were contrary (sportsmanlike attitudes: r= −0.33, p<0.01 and unsportsmanlike attitudes: r= 0.42, p<0.01. Perceived pressures from all significant social agents were positively and significantly associated with unsportsmanlike attitudes (p<0.05, with perceived pressure from coaches also being associated with higher ego orientation scores and with lower task orientation and sportsmanlike attitudes in young soccer players. In summary, these results indicate the need for coaches and other social agents to promote a competition climate that reinforces selfreferenced improvements and the expression of positive social attitudes in sports contexts.

  16. Mechanisms for Triceps Surae Injury in High Performance Front Row Rugby Union Players: A Kinematic Analysis of Scrummaging Drills

    OpenAIRE

    Flavell, Carol A.; Sayers, Mark G.L.; Gordon, Susan J; Lee, James B.

    2013-01-01

    The front row of a rugby union scrum consists of three players. The loose head prop, hooker and tight head prop. The objective of this study was to determine if known biomechanical risk factors for triceps surae muscle injury are exhibited in the lower limb of front row players during contested scrummaging. Eleven high performance front row rugby union players were landmarked bilaterally at the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS), greater trochanter, lateral femoral epicondyle, midline of t...

  17. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7-11 years) Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Irene R; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Faber, Niels R; Oosterveld, Frits G J; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players' potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player's future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7-11 years). Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05). Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items 'aiming at target', 'throwing a ball', and 'eye-hand coordination' in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%). Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment's outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%). This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be included in a talent

  18. Increased blood pH but not performance with sodium bicarbonate supplementation in elite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sonya L; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Brown, Rachel C; Gray, Andrew R; Fairbairn, Kirsty A

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of ingesting 0.3 g/kg body weight (BW) of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on physiological responses, gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability, and sprint performance in elite rugby union players. Twenty-five male rugby players, age 21.6 (2.6) yr, participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Sixty-five minutes after consuming 0.3 g/kg BW of either NaHCO₃ or placebo, participants completed a 25-min warm-up followed by 9 min of high-intensity rugby-specific training followed by a rugby-specific repeated-sprint test (RSRST). Whole-blood samples were collected to determine lactate and bicarbonate concentrations and pH at baseline, after supplement ingestion, and immediately after the RSRST. Acute GI discomfort was assessed by questionnaire throughout the trials, and chronic GI discomfort was assessed during the 24 hr postingestion. After supplement ingestion and immediately after the RSRST, blood HCO₃⁻ concentration and pH were higher for the NaHCO₃ condition than for the placebo condition (p rugby players but did not significantly improve exercise performance. The higher incidence and greater severity of GI symptoms after ingestion of NaHCO₃ may negatively affect physical performance, and the authors strongly recommend testing this supplement during training before use in competitive situations.

  19. Technical and physical determinants of soccer match-play performance in elite youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Owain; Fenner, Jonathan; Unnithan, Viswanath

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether physical performance characteristics could be a better predictor than technical skills in determining the technical level of county soccer players in a match situation. With institutional ethics approval, 25 male youth soccer players aged 16-18.5 years from a professional soccer academy in South East Asia were selected and height and body mass were recorded. Players were tested for sexual maturity (pubertal development scale [PDS] self-assessment), aerobic capacity (yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 [YYIR1]), repeated sprint ability (7 x 35 m sprints) acceleration (15 m sprint) and four soccer skills tests (dribble with pass, dribbling speed, passing and shooting accuracy). Players' technical ability during match play was assessed in small-sided games of soccer (5 v 5) using a novel game technical scoring chart (scoring chart completed by coaches to assess technical performance in a match situation) developed from criteria (e.g., first touch, dribbling and two footedness) used by youth soccer coaches for talent identification. A Spearman's rank correlation showed the YYIR1 test and 15 m sprint test were limited in predicting technical match performance (r=0.03, P=0.88, r=-0.23, P=0.32 respectively). A Pearson product moment correlation showed that the repeated sprint test was also limited in predicting technical match performance (r=-0.34, P=0.14). A dribbling skill with a pass was found to be the best determinant of a player's technical ability in a match (r=-0.57, P=0.00). Talent identification and selection programs in Asian youth soccer should include a dribbling skill performed with a pass.

  20. The Use of Player-centered Positive Reinforcement to Schedule In-game Rewards Increases Enjoyment and Performance in a Serious Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniket Nagle

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the methods used to increase enjoyment and performance in serious games, reward schedules, i.e., determining when in-game rewards should be given, have not been sufficiently explored. In the present study, we designed a simple memory training serious game and compared two methods of scheduling rewards, both based on the paradigm of positive reinforcement: fixed ratio schedule, in which rewards were given after a fixed number of correct responses, and variable ratio schedule, in which rewards were given after an unpredictable number of correct responses. To account for the variability in player preference for rewards, a player-centered sub-mode was included in both schedules by adjusting the schedule ratio according to player preference for rewards. The effectiveness of this approach was tested by comparing it against two more sub-modes: one which used a predetermined ratio, and another which set the ratio to the opposite of player preference. The game was put online and tested with 210 participants. Enjoyment, performance, duration of gameplay, and likelihood to play again were significantly higher in the player-centered sub-mode than the other sub-modes. On average, the variable-ratio schedule was better in the outcome measures than the fixed-ratio schedule. The results highlight the importance of in-game rewards, and indicate that giving rewards according to a player-centered variable-ratio schedule has the potential to make serious games more effective.

  1. Longitudinal Predictors of Aerobic Performance in Adolescent Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Duarte, Joao; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Liparotti, Joao R.; Sherar, Lauren B.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The importance of aerobic performance in youth soccer is well established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contributions of chronological age (CA), skeletal age (SA), body size, and training to the longitudinal development of aerobic performance in youth male soccer play

  2. Longitudinal Predictors of Aerobic Performance in Adolescent Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Duarte, Joao; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Liparotti, Joao R.; Sherar, Lauren B.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The importance of aerobic performance in youth soccer is well established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contributions of chronological age (CA), skeletal age (SA), body size, and training to the longitudinal development of aerobic performance in youth male soccer

  3. On-court endurance and performance testing in competitive male tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiget, Ernest; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime; Iglesias, Xavier; Vallejo, Lisímaco; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to establish a specific endurance test procedure for competitive tennis players, combining performance, physiological and technical parameters and (b) to determine the relationship between these parameters and their competitive levels. Thirty-eight competitive male tennis players (age, 18.2 ± 1.3 years; height, 180 ± 0.08 cm; body mass, 72.7 ± 8.6 kg; mean ± SD) performed a specific endurance field test. Performance (level achieved), physiological (heart rate, maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2), and technical parameters (technical effectiveness [TE]) were assessed. Bivariate and multivariate models for predicting performance level were developed. Technical effectiveness was 63.1 ± 9.1%, with 3 identified phases throughout the test (adaptation, maximum effectiveness, and steady decline). Low to moderate correlations were found between performance (final stage), physiological (VT1, VT2) and TE, and competitive performance (r = 0.35-0.61; p = 0.038-0.000). Technical effectiveness explained 37% of variability in competitive performance (r = 0.61; p = 0.001). Using TE combined with VT2 or predictability increased explaining approximately 55% (p tennis players, and VT2 values combined with TE were good predictors of tennis performance.

  4. Anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness and technical performance of under-19 soccer players by competitive level and field position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebelo, A; Brito, J; Maia, J

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness and technical skills of under-19 (U19) soccer players were compared by competitive level (elite, n=95; non-elite, n=85) and playing position (goalkeeper, central defender, fullback, midfield, forward). Fitness tests included 5- and 30-m sprints...... and ball control tests (d>1.2). Elite players presented better agility and Yo-Yo IE2 performances than non-elite players within all positional roles (d>0.6). In conclusion, U19 players differed in anthropometric characteristics, physical fitness and technical skills by competitive level within field...

  5. Relationships between the yo-yo intermittent recovery test and anaerobic performance tests in adolescent handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Aouadi, Ridha; Khalifa, Riadh; van den Tillaar, Roland; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel

    2015-03-29

    The aim of the present study was to investigate relationships between a performance index derived from the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) and other measures of physical performance and skill in handball players. The other measures considered included peak muscular power of the lower limbs (Wpeak), jumping ability (squat and counter-movement jumps (SJ, CMJ), a handball skill test and the average sprinting velocities over the first step (VS) and the first 5 m (V5m). Test scores for 25 male national-level adolescent players (age: 17.2 ± 0.7 years) averaged 4.83 ± 0.34 m·s(-1) (maximal velocity reached at the Yo-Yo IR1); 917 ± 105 Watt, 12.7 ± 3 W·kg(-1) (Wpeak); 3.41 ± 0.5 m·s(-1) and 6.03 ± 0.6 m·s(-1) (sprint velocities for Vs and V5m respectively) and 10.3 ± 1 s (handball skill test). Yo-Yo IR1 test scores showed statistically significant correlations with all of the variables examined: Wpeak (W and W·kg(-1)) r = 0.80 and 0.65, respectively, p≤0.001); sprinting velocities (r = 0.73 and 0.71 for VS and V5m respectively; p≤0.001); jumping performance (SJ: r = 0.60, p≤0.001; CMJ: r= 0.66, p≤0.001) and the handball skill test (r = 0.71; p≤0.001). We concluded that the Yo-Yo test score showed a sufficient correlation with other potential means of assessing handball players, and that intra-individual changes of Yo-Yo IR1 score could provide a useful composite index of the response to training or rehabilitation, although correlations lack sufficient precision to help in players' selection.

  6. Analysis of Running and Technical Performance in Substitute Players in International Male Rugby Union Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacome, Mathieu; Piscione, Julien; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Carling, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the patterns and performance of substitutions in 18 international 15-a-side men's rugby union matches. A semiautomatic computerized time-motion system compiled 750 performance observations for 375 players (422 forwards, 328 backs). Running and technical-performance measures included total distance run, high-intensity running (>18.0 km/h), number of individual ball possessions and passes, percentage of passes completed, and number of attempted and percentage of successful tackles. A total of 184 substitutions (85.2%) were attributed to tactical and 32 (14.8%) to injury purposes respectively. The mean period for non-injury-purpose substitutions in backs (17.7%) occurred between 70 and 75 min, while forward substitutions peaked equally between 50-55 and 60-65 min (16.4%). Substitutes generally demonstrated improved running performance compared with both starter players who completed games and players whom they replaced (small differences, ES -0.2 to 0.5) in both forwards and backs over their entire time played. There was also a trend for better running performance in forward and back substitutes over their first 10 min of play compared with the final 10 min for replaced players (small to moderate differences, ES 0.3-0.6). Finally, running performance in both forward and back substitutes was generally lower (ES -0.1 to 0.3, unclear or small differences) over their entire 2nd-half time played compared with their first 10 min of play. The impact of substitutes on technical performance was generally considered unclear. This information provides practitioners with practical data relating to the physical and technical contributions of substitutions that subsequently could enable optimization of their impact on match play.

  7. Effects of Three Different Resistance Training Frequencies on Jump, Sprint, and Repeated Sprint Ability Performance in Professional Futsal Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Franco, Adrián; Rey, Ezequiel; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2017-02-21

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 3 different resistance training frequencies (one strength training session per week (1W), two strength training sessions per week (2W) or one strength training session every second week (0.5W)) on jump, sprint and repeated sprint performance (RSA) in professional futsal players. Thirty-five futsal players were randomized into 1 of 3 groups, the 1W group (n= 12), 2W group (n= 12), or the 0.5W group (n= 11). The players performed the same resistance training during 6 weeks and only training frequency differed between the groups. Within-group analysis showed significant improvements in jump (p≤0.001, Effect Size (ES)= 0.13-0.35), sprint (p≤0.001, ES= 0.48-0.71), and RSA (p≤0.01, ES= 0.22-0.63) from pretest to posttest in 1W and 2W. However, no significant (p>0.05) pre-post changes were observed for the 0.5W in any variable. In the between-groups analysis, significant better results were found in jump (p≤0.01), sprint (p≤0.01), and RSA performance (p≤0.01) in the 1W group and 2W group in comparison with 0.5W group. Also, jump (p≤0.05) and 5 m sprint (p≤0.05) performances was significantly better in the 2W group in comparison with 1W group. In conclusion, the current study showed that 6 weeks of RT one or two times per week in addition to typical futsal training, produced significant improvements in jump, sprint and RSA performance. Additionally, RT one every second week may be sufficient to maintain physical fitness in professional futsal players. This information may be useful for coaches when planning training contents during congested fixture schedules or in periods where the emphasis need to be put on other qualities and spend as little time as possible on maintaining or increasing physical performance.

  8. Effect of age on anthropometric and physical performance measures in professional baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Fragala, Maren S; Vazquez, Jose; Krause, Matthew C; Gillett, Javair; Pichardo, Napoleon

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related changes in anthropometric and performance variables in professional baseball players. Baseball players (n = 1,157) from several professional baseball organizations were categorized into 7 cohorts based upon age. All adolescent athletes were categorized as age group 1 (AG1), whereas the next 5 groups (AG2-AG6) consisted of players 20-22, 23-25, 26-28, 29-31, and 31-34 years, respectively. The final group (AG7) comprised athletes ≥35 years. All performance assessments were part of the athlete's normal preseason training camp testing routine. Field assessments were used to analyze lower-body power, speed, agility, grip strength, and body composition. The players were heaviest between the ages of 29 and 31 (AG5), and their body mass in that age group was 10.1% (p = 0.004) greater than that of AG1. A 7.0% increase (p = 0.000) in lean body mass occurred between AG1 and AG5. No differences in 10-yd sprint times or agility were seen across any age group or position. A 2.0 seconds (p = 0.001) slower run time for the 300-yd shuttle was seen between AG4 and AG5 for all positions combined. Elevations in grip strength were seen at AG4 compared with AG1 (p = 0.001) and AG2 (p = 0.007) for all positions combined. No other differences were noted. Lower-body power was increased for all positions combined from AG1 to AG3 (p = 0.007). This pattern was similar to that observed in position players, but a 12.4% decrease (p = 0.024) in VJMP was seen between AG7 and AG5 in pitchers. Results of this study indicate that lower-body power is maintained in baseball players until the age of 29-31, whereas speed, agility, and grip strength are maintained in players able to play past the age of 35 years. Age-related differences observed in this study suggest that athletes focus on their strength and conditioning programs to extend the length of their professional careers.

  9. Does small-sided-games’ court area influence metabolic, perceptual, and physical performance parameters of young elite basketball players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PR Marcelino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of court size on physiological responses and physical performance of young elite basketball players. Twelve male basketball players (18.6 ± 0.5 years; 88.8 ± 14.5 kg; 192.6 ± 6.5 cm from an under-19 team performed two small-sided games (matches with different court areas (28x15 m and 28x9 m; 28x15 and 28x9 protocols. The number of players (3x3 was kept the same in each protocol. The players performed a repeated-sprint ability (RSA test before and after each match. Blood lactate concentration was collected before (pre and after (post the matches, and the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE was determined 30 minutes after the match. Best and mean time in the RSA test were not different between the 28x15 and the 28x9 match protocols (p>0.05. A significant difference was observed for lactate concentration from pre- to post-match (p 0.0S, ES=(0.41. In summary, the results of the current study suggest that the different court areas induced similar responses. Although there was no significant difference in effort perception, players tended to perceive a greater effort in the larger court size.

  10. When 'just doing it' is not enough: assessing the fidelity of player performance of an injury prevention exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortington, Lauren V; Donaldson, Alex; Lathlean, Tim; Young, Warren B; Gabbe, Belinda J; Lloyd, David; Finch, Caroline F

    2015-05-01

    To obtain benefits from sports injury prevention programs, players are instructed to perform the exercises as prescribed. We developed an observational checklist to measure the quality of exercise performance by players participating in FootyFirst, a coach-led, exercise-based, lower-limb injury prevention program in community Australian Football (AF). Observational. The essential performance criteria for each FootyFirst exercise were described in terms of the technique, volume and intensity required to perform each exercise. An observational checklist was developed to evaluate each criterion through direct visual observation of players at training. The checklist was trialled by two independent raters who observed the same 70 players completing the exercises at eight clubs. Agreement between observers was assessed by Kappa-statistics. Exercise fidelity was defined as the proportion of observed players who performed all aspects of their exercises correctly. The raters agreed on 61/70 observations (87%) (Kappa=0.72, 95% CI: 0.55; 0.89). Of the observations with agreed ratings, 41 (67%) players were judged as performing the exercises as prescribed. The observational checklist demonstrated high inter-rater reliability. Many players observed did not perform the exercises as prescribed, raising concern as to whether they would be receiving anticipated program benefits. Where quality of exercise performance is important, evaluation and reporting of program fidelity should include direct observations of participants. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of immediate post-training active and passive recovery interventions on anaerobic performance and lower limb flexibility in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Ezequiel; Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Casáis, Luis; Lago-Ballesteros, Joaquín

    2012-03-01

    The capacity to recover from intense training, competition and matches is considered an important determinant in soccer performance. At present, there is no consensus on the effect of post-training recovery interventions on subsequent training session. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of active (12 min submaximal running and 8 min of static stretching) and passive recovery (20 min sitting on a bench) interventions performed immediately after a training session on anaerobic performances (CMJ, 20 m sprint and Balsom agility test) and lower limb flexibility 24 h after the training. During two experimental sessions, 31 professional soccer players participated in a randomized fully controlled trial design. The first session was designed to evaluate the player's anaerobic performances and lower limb flexibility (pretest). After baseline measurements, participants performed a standardized soccer training during which heart rate and RPE were recorded to evaluate the training load. At the end of the training unit all players were randomly assigned to the active recovery group and the passive recovery group. A second experimental session was organized to obtain the posttest values. Players performed the same test, administered in the same order than in the first trial. No significant differences between groups were observed in heart rate and RPE. No significant effect due to recovery interventions was found on lower limb flexibility and anaerobic performances except CMJ that posttest value was significantly greater in the active recovery group than in the passive group (p < 0.05).

  12. Enhancing physical performance in male volleyball players with a caffeine-containing energy drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Pérez-López, Alberto; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Salinero, Juan Jose; Lara, Beatriz; Valadés, David

    2014-11-01

    There are no scientific data about the effects of caffeine intake on volleyball performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a caffeine-containing energy drink to enhance physical performance in male volleyball players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used. In 2 different sessions separated by 1 wk, 15 college volleyball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min, participants performed volleyball-specific tests: standing spike test, maximal squat jump (SJ), maximal countermovement jump (CMJ), 15-s rebound jump test (15RJ), and agility T-test. Later, a simulated volleyball match was played and recorded. In comparison with the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased ball velocity in the spike test (73 ± 9 vs 75 ± 10 km/h, P energy drink (10.8 ± 0.7 vs 10.3 ± 0.4 s, P performed successful volleyball actions more frequently (24.6% ± 14.3% vs 34.3% ± 16.5%, P energy drink than with the placebo drink during the simulated game. A caffeine-containing energy drink, with a dose equivalent to 3 mg of caffeine per kg body mass, might be an effective ergogenic aid to improve physical performance and accuracy in male volleyball players.

  13. Neuromuscular performance of elite rugby union players and relationships with salivary hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair T; Lowe, Tim; Weatherby, Robert P; Gill, Nicholas; Keogh, Justin

    2009-10-01

    This study compared the neuromuscular performance (speed, power, strength) of elite rugby union players, by position, and examined the relationship between player performance and salivary hormones, by squad and position. Thirty-four professional male rugby players were assessed for running speed (10-m, 20-m or 30-m sprints), concentric mean (MP) and peak power (PP) during a 70-kg squat jump (SJ) and 50-kg bench press throw (BT), and estimated 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength for a box squat (BS) and bench press (BP). Tests were performed on separate days with absolute and normalized (power and strength only) values computed. Saliva was collected before each test and assayed for testosterone (Sal-T) and cortisol (Sal-C). In absolute terms, the backs demonstrated greater speed and BT MP, whereas the forwards produced greater SJ PP and MP and BS 1RM (p 0.05). A comparison (absolute and normalized) of BT PP showed no positional differences (p > 0.05), whereas BP 1RM was greater for the forwards (p neuromuscular performance and hormone secretion patterns. Based on these findings, it was suggested that training to increase whole-body and muscle mass might facilitate general performance improvements. Training prescription might also benefit from acute and chronic hormone monitoring to identify those individuals likely to respond more to hormonal change.

  14. Periodization Training Focused on Technical-Tactical Ability in Young Soccer Players Positively Affects Biochemical Markers and Game Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Q T Aquino, Rodrigo; Cruz Gonçalves, Luiz G; Palucci Vieira, Luiz H; Oliveira, Lucas P; Alves, Guilherme F; Pereira Santiago, Paulo R; Puggina, Enrico F

    2016-10-01

    Aquino, RLQT, Cruz Gonçalves, LG, Palucci Vieira, LH, Oliveira, LP, Alves, GF, Pereira Santiago, PR, and Puggina, EF. Periodization training focused on technical-tactical ability in young soccer players positively affects biochemical markers and game performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2723-2732, 2016-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 22 weeks of periodized training, with an emphasis on technical-tactical ability, on indirect markers of muscle damage, and the on-field performance of young soccer players. Fifteen players (age 15.4 ± 0.2 years, height 172.8 ± 3.6 cm; body mass 61.9 ± 2.9 kg; % fat 11.7 ± 1.6; V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 48.67 ± 3.24 ml·kg·min) underwent 4 stages of evaluation: prepreparatory stage-T0; postpreparatory stage-T1; postcompetitive stage I-T2 and; postcompetitive stage II-T3. The plasmatic activity of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated, as well as the on-field performance (movement patterns, tactical variables). Regarding the plasmatic activity of CK and LDH, there was a significant reduction (p ≤ 0.05) throughout the periodization training (T0: 350 U·L; T3: 150 U·L). Significant increases were observed (p ≤ 0.05) in the intensity of the game, high-intensity activities (HIA) (T0: 22%; T3: 27%), maximum speed (T0: 30 km·h; T3: 34 km·h) and tactical performance, team surface area (T0: 515 m; T3: 683 m), and spread (T0: 130 m; T3: 148 m). In addition, we found significant inverse correlations between the percentage variation of T0 to T3 in CK and LDH activities with percentage variation in high-intensity running (r = -0.85; p ≤ 0.05 and r = -0.84; p performance and the tactical performance of the study participants. Furthermore, players who showed greater reduction in plasma activity of CK and LDH also obtained greater increases in-game high-intensity performance along the periodization. These results may contribute to the expansion and future consolidation of the

  15. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves physical performance in female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Salinero, Juan Jose; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Areces, Francisco; Barbero-Alvarez, Jose Carlos; Muñoz, Víctor; Portillo, Luis Javier; Gonzalez-Rave, Jose Maria; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-05-01

    There is little information about the effects of caffeine intake on female team-sport performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a caffeine-containing energy drink to improve physical performance in female soccer players during a simulated game. A double-blind, placebo controlled and randomized experimental design was used in this investigation. In two different sessions, 18 women soccer players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg in the form of an energy drink or an identical drink with no caffeine content (placebo). After 60 min, they performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) and a 7 × 30 m sprint test followed by a simulated soccer match (2 × 40 min). Individual running distance and speed were measured using GPS devices. In comparison to the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased the CMJ height (26.6 ± 4.0 vs 27.4 ± 3.8 cm; P energy drink increased the total running distance (6,631 ± 1,618 vs 7,087 ± 1,501 m; P 18 km/h (161 ± 99 vs 216 ± 103 m; P energy drink did not affect the prevalence of negative side effects after the game. An energy drink with a dose equivalent to 3 mg of caffeine/kg might be an effective ergogenic aid to improve physical performance in female soccer players.

  16. Changes in Body Composition and Physical Performance in Wheelchair Basketball Players During a Competitive Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iturricastillo Aitor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the changes in body composition and physical performance in wheelchair basketball (WB players during one competitive season. Players from a WB team competing in the first division of the Spanish League (n = 8, age: 26.5 ± 2.9 years, body mass: 79.8 ± 12.6 kg, sitting height: 91.4 ± 4.4 cm participated in this research. The upper limbs showed a decrease in subcutaneous adipose tissue and there was an improvement in physical abilities such as sprinting with the ball (5 and 20 m, handgrip and aerobic capacity. However, the changes in physical fitness concerning sprinting without the ball and agility tests were low. It would be interesting to study the effects of implementing specific programs to improve physical performance in WB and to establish more test sessions to monitor the effects of the programs followed.

  17. Position Affects Performance in Multiple-Object Tracking in Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Martín

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an experiment that examines the performance of rugby union players and a control group composed of graduate student with no sport experience, in a multiple-object tracking task. It compares the ability of 86 high level rugby union players grouped as Backs and Forwards and the control group, to track a subset of randomly moving targets amongst the same number of distractors. Several difficulties were included in the experimental design in order to evaluate possible interactions between the relevant variables. Results show that the performance of the Backs is better than that of the other groups, but the occurrence of interactions precludes an isolated groups analysis. We interpret the results within the framework of visual attention and discuss both, the implications of our results and the practical consequences.

  18. Match activities of elite women soccer players at different performance levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter; Andersson, Helena;

    2008-01-01

    by high intensity running in a 5-minute interval was 33% longer (P 5 minutes immediately after the peak interval top-class players covered 17% less (P ... intensity running in the final 15 minutes compared with the first four 15-minutes intervals, whereas the high-level group performed less (P minutes of each half in comparison with the 2 previous 15-minute periods in the respective half. Peak distance covered...

  19. Morphological characteristics of adult male handball players considering five levels of performance and playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuça, Luís; Fragoso, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    This study aims 1--to describe and compare the anthropometric characteristics of male handball players from different levels of performance, and 2--to identify the morphological variables that allow differentiation of the level of performance for each individual playing position. A total of 212 male handball players (age, 23.6 ± 5.2 years) were included in this study, and divided into five levels of performance for comparison. The playing position of each player was recorded. All participants were tested during the 2008-2009 Portuguese handball season. Twenty-eight anthropometric measures were taken by a group of anthropometrics accredited by International Society of the Advance of Kinanthropometry. Body composition, fat mass and muscle mass were calculated from the equations proposed by Faulkner26, Yuhase28, Durnin and Womersley25, Jackson and Pollock29, Matiegka33, Heymsfield, McManus, Smith, Stevens and Nixon34, Martin, Spenst, Drinkwater and Clarys21, Doupe, Martin, Searle, Kriellaars and Giesbrecht35 and Lee, Wang, Heo, Ross, Janssen and Heymsfield36. The research findings showed that the morphological optimization is important to have success in handball.

  20. The influence of physical and cognitive factors on reactive agility performance in men basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron; Humphries, Brendan; Tucker, Patrick S; Dalbo, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the influence of physical and cognitive measures on reactive agility performance in basketball players. Twelve men basketball players performed multiple sprint, Change of Direction Speed Test, and Reactive Agility Test trials. Pearson's correlation analyses were used to determine relationships between the predictor variables (stature, mass, body composition, 5-m, 10-m and 20-m sprint times, peak speed, closed-skill agility time, response time and decision-making time) and reactive agility time (response variable). Simple and stepwise regression analyses determined the individual influence of each predictor variable and the best predictor model for reactive agility time. Morphological (r = -0.45 to 0.19), sprint (r = -0.40 to 0.41) and change-of-direction speed measures (r = 0.43) had small to moderate correlations with reactive agility time. Response time (r = 0.76, P = 0.004) and decision-making time (r = 0.58, P = 0.049) had large to very large relationships with reactive agility time. Response time was identified as the sole predictor variable for reactive agility time in the stepwise model (R(2) = 0.58, P = 0.004). In conclusion, cognitive measures had the greatest influence on reactive agility performance in men basketball players. These findings suggest reaction and decision-making drills should be incorporated in basketball training programmes.

  1. Selective loads periodization attenuates biochemical disturbances and enhances performance in female futsal players during competitive season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricelli Endrigo Ruppel da Rocha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of selective loads periodization on physical performance and biochemical parameters in professional female futsal players during competitive season. Twelve elite female futsal players from Kindermann team (Brazil participated in the study. Variables of physical performance and erythrogram, leukogram, plasma cortisol, plasma immunoglobulin A (IgA in the beginning of the preparatory period (PP, in the competitive period (CP and in the final competitive period (FCP were evaluated. Using selective loads periodization, all variables of physical performance increased (p < .01 during CP and were maintained during FCP (p < .05. White blood cells did not modify during CP and the increase of FCP in 28% remained within normal ranges. Plasma cortisol also increased during CP (p < .01 and was within the normal ranges during FCP. Plasma IgA also was within the normal ranges during CP and FCP. Selective loads periodization is adequate and attends the requirements of the sport during competitive season in female futsal players.

  2. Do force-time and power-time measures in a loaded jump squat differentiate between speed performance and playing level in elite and elite junior rugby union players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Keir T; Cronin, John B; Pickering, Stuart L; Douglas, Lee

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the discriminative ability of rebound jump squat force-time and power-time measures in differentiating speed performance and competition level in elite and elite junior rugby union players. Forty professional rugby union players performed 3 rebound jump squats with an external load of 40 kg from which a number of force-time and power-time variables were acquired and analyzed. Additionally, players performed 3 sprints over 30 m with timing gates at 5, 10, and 30 m. Significant differences (p rugby union players; however, a number of force and power variables including peak force, PP, force at 100 milliseconds from minimum force, and force and impulse 200 milliseconds from minimum force were significantly (p rugby union players. For speed development in rugby union players, training strategies should aim to optimize the athlete's power to weight ratio, and lower body resistance training should focus on movement velocity. For player development to transition elite junior players to elite status, adding lean mass is likely to be most beneficial.

  3. Match performance and physiological capacity of female elite team handball players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, L B; Madsen, Klavs; Aagaard, P

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the physical demands imposed on female elite team handball players in relation to playing position. Female elite team handball field players were examined during match-play over a 5-year period using video based computerized locomotion analysis of tournament matches......) performed 663.8±99.7 activity changes per match, and the mean speed was 5.31±0.33 km · h-1. High-intensity running constituted 0.8±0.5% of total effective playing time per match corresponding to 2.5±1.8% of the total distance covered. The amount of high-intensity running was reduced (p...

  4. Assessing Cognitive Performance in Badminton Players: A Reproducibility and Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, Tanja; Faber, Irene; Elferink-Gemser, Marije

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Fast reaction and good inhibitory control are associated with elite sports performance. To evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a newly developed Badminton Reaction Inhibition Test (BRIT), fifteen elite (25 ± 4 years) and nine non-elite (24 ± 4 years) Dutch male badminton players participated in the study. The BRIT measured four components: domain-general reaction time, badminton-specific reaction time, domain-general inhibitory control and badminton-specific inhibitory control. Five participants were retested within three weeks on the badminton-specific components. Reproducibility was acceptable for badminton-specific reaction time (ICC = 0.626, CV = 6%) and for badminton-specific inhibitory control (ICC = 0.317, CV = 13%). Good construct validity was shown for badminton-specific reaction time discriminating between elite and non-elite players (F = 6.650, p 0.05). Concurrent validity for domain-general reaction time was good, as it was associated with a national ranking for elite (p = 0.70, p 0.05). In conclusion, reproducibility and validity of inhibitory control assessment was not confirmed, however, the BRIT appears a reproducible and valid measure of reaction time in badminton players. Reaction time measured with the BRIT may provide input for training programs aiming to improve badminton players’ performance. PMID:28210347

  5. Effect of creatine supplementation on jumping performance in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne-Lacasse, Martin; Nadon, Raymond; Goulet E, D B

    2011-12-01

    Jump height is a critical aspect of volleyball players' blocking and attacking performance. Although previous studies demonstrated that creatine monohydrate supplementation (CrMS) improves jumping performance, none have yet evaluated its effect among volleyball players with proficient jumping skills. We examined the effect of 4 wk of CrMS on 1 RM spike jump (SJ) and repeated block jump (BJ) performance among 12 elite males of the Sherbrooke University volleyball team. Using a parallel, randomized, double-blind protocol, participants were supplemented with a placebo or creatine solution for 28 d, at a dose of 20 g/d in days 1-4, 10 g/d on days 5-6, and 5 g/d on days 7-28. Pre- and postsupplementation, subjects performed the 1 RM SJ test, followed by the repeated BJ test (10 series of 10 BJs; 3 s interval between jumps; 2 min recovery between series). Due to injuries (N = 2) and outlier data (N = 2), results are reported for eight subjects. Following supplementation, both groups improved SJ and repeated BJ performance. The change in performance during the 1 RM SJ test and over the first two repeated BJ series was unclear between groups. For series 3-6 and 7-10, respectively, CrMS further improved repeated BJ performance by 2.8% (likely beneficial change) and 1.9% (possibly beneficial change), compared with the placebo. Percent repeated BJ decline in performance across the 10 series did not differ between groups pre- and postsupplementation. In conclusion, CrMS likely improved repeated BJ height capability without influencing the magnitude of muscular fatigue in these elite, university-level volleyball players.

  6. Acute Effects of Three Neuromuscular Warm-Up Strategies on Several Physical Performance Measures in Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco; Calderón-López, Ana; Delgado-Gosálbez, Juan Carlos; Parra-Sánchez, Sergio; Pomares-Noguera, Carlos; Hernández-Sánchez, Sergio; López-Valenciano, Alejandro; De Ste Croix, Mark

    2017-01-01

    No studies have analysed the acute effects of the FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee warm-up programmes on major physical performance measures. The aim of this study was to analyse the acute (post-exercise) effects of the FIFA 11+, Harmoknee and dynamic warm-up routines on several physical performance measures in amateur football players. A randomized, crossover and counterbalanced study design was used to address the purpose of this study. A total of sixteen amateur football players completed the following protocols in a randomized order on separate days: a) FIFA 11+; b) Harmoknee; and c) dynamic warm-up (DWU). In each experimental session, 19 physical performance measures (joint range of motion, hamstring to quadriceps [H/Q] strength ratios, dynamic postural control, 10 and 20 m sprint times, jump height and reactive strength index) were assessed. Measures were compared via a magnitude-based inference analysis. The results of this study showed no main effects between paired comparisons (FIFA 11+ vs. DWU, Harmoknee vs. DWU and Harmoknee vs. FIFA 11+) for joint range of motions, dynamic postural control, H/Q ratios, jumping height and reactive strength index measures. However, significant main effects (likely effects with a probability of >75–99%) were found for 10 (1.7%) and 20 (2.4%) m sprint times, demonstrating that both the FIFA 11+ and Harmoknee resulted in slower sprint times in comparison with the DWU. Therefore, neither the FIFA 11+ nor the Harmoknee routines appear to be preferable to dynamic warm-up routines currently performed by most football players prior to training sessions and matches. PMID:28060927

  7. Five-week sensory motor training program improves functional performance and postural control in young male soccer players - A blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleno, Lucas Rafael; da Silva, Rubens A; Shigaki, Leonardo; Araújo, Cynthia Gobbi Alves; Coelho Candido, Cristiane Regina; Okazaki, Victor Hugo Alves; Frisseli, Ariobaldo; Macedo, Christiane de S Guerino

    2016-11-01

    Sensory motor training programs are used in the rehabilitation and prevention of injuries among soccer players. Inconsistencies are found in the literature regarding the duration of the protocols and the exercises and equipment used. To evaluate the benefits of a five-week sensory motor training program on the functional performance and postural control of young soccer players. The study sample comprised 22 young male soccer players who were evaluated using: the Figure-of-Eight Test (F8), Side Hop Test (SHT), Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), and a force platform. The players were randomly divided into a control group (N = 10), who continued their soccer practice sessions and an intervention group (N = 12), who continued their soccer practice sessions and were also enrolled in a supervised five-week sensory motor training program. After the five-week training program, the intervention group obtained significant results in the F8, SHT and SEBT, as well as in the following parameters: area of pressure of sway center (COP), mean velocity and mean frequency of COP. The five-week sensory motor training program, carried out with easily available and low cost equipment, was effective at improving functional performance and postural control in young soccer players. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Real World Significance of Performance Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Wang, Qing Yang; Trivedi, Shubhendu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the educational data mining and user modeling communities have been aggressively introducing models for predicting student performance on external measures such as standardized tests as well as within-tutor performance. While these models have brought statistically reliable improvement to performance prediction, the real world…

  9. The effects of menstrual cycle phase on physical performance in female soccer players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Ross; Hecksteden, Anne; Fullagar, Hugh H. K.; Meyer, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Background Female soccer has grown extensively in recent years, however differences in gender-specific physiology have rarely been considered. The female reproductive hormones which rise and fall throughout the menstrual cycle, are known to affect numerous cardiovascular, respiratory, thermoregulatory and metabolic parameters, which in turn, may have implications on exercise physiology and soccer performance. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to investigate potential effects of menstrual cycle phase on performance in soccer specific tests. Methods Nine sub elite female soccer players, all of whom have menstrual cycles of physiological length; performed a series of physical performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent endurance test (Yo-Yo IET), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 3x30 m sprints). These were conducted at distinct time points during two main phases of the menstrual cycle (early follicular phase (FP) and mid luteal phase (LP)) where hormones contrasted at their greatest magnitude. Results Yo-Yo IET performance was considerably lower during the mid LP (2833±896 m) as compared to the early FP (3288±800 m). A trend towards significance was observed (p = 0.07) and the magnitude based inferences suggested probabilities of 0/61/39 for superiority/equality/inferiority of performance during the mid LP, leading to the inference of a possibly harmful effect. For CMJ (early FP, 20.0±3.9 cm; mid LP 29.6±3.0 cm, p = 0.33) and sprint (early FP, 4.7±0.1 s; mid LP, 4.7±0.1 s, p = 0.96) performances the results were unclear (8/24/68, 48/0/52, respectively). Conclusion The results of this study are in support of a reduction in maximal endurance performance during the mid LP of the menstrual cycle. However, the same effect was not observed for jumping and sprint performance. Therefore, consideration of cycle phase when monitoring a player’s endurance capacity may be worthwhile. PMID:28288203

  10. Effect of Vertical, Horizontal, and Combined Plyometric Training on Explosive, Balance, and Endurance Performance of Young Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Gallardo, Francisco; Henriquez-Olguín, Carlos; Meylan, Cesar M P; Martínez, Cristian; Álvarez, Cristian; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cadore, Eduardo L; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 6 weeks of vertical, horizontal, or combined vertical and horizontal plyometric training on muscle explosive, endurance, and balance performance. Forty young soccer players aged between 10 and 14 years were randomly divided into control (CG; n = 10), vertical plyometric group (VG; n = 10), horizontal plyometric group (HG; n = 10), and combined vertical and horizontal plyometric group (VHG; n = 10). Players performance in the vertical and horizontal countermovement jump with arms, 5 multiple bounds test (MB5), 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index (RSI20), maximal kicking velocity (MKV), sprint, change of direction speed (CODS), Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1), and balance was measured. No significant or meaningful changes in the CG, apart from small change in the Yo-Yo IR1, were observed while all training programs resulted in meaningful changes in explosive, endurance, and balance performance. However, only VHG showed a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in all performance test and most meaningful training effect difference with the CG across tests. Although no significant differences in performance changes were observed between experimental groups, the VHG program was more effective compared with VG (i.e., jumps, MKV, sprint, CODS, and balance performance) and HG (i.e., sprint, CODS, and balance performance) to small effect. The study demonstrated that vertical, horizontal, and combined vertical and horizontal jumps induced meaningful improvement in explosive actions, balance, and intermittent endurance capacity. However, combining vertical and horizontal drills seems more advantageous to induce greater performance improvements.

  11. Beetroot Juice Supplementation Improves High-Intensity Intermittent Type Exercise Performance in Trained Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakayiru, Jean; Jonvik, Kristin L.; Trommelen, Jorn; Pinckaers, Philippe J. M.; Senden, Joan M.; van Loon, Luc J. C.; Verdijk, Lex B.

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Thirty-two male soccer players (age: 23 ± 1 years, height: 181 ± 1 m, weight: 77 ± 1 kg, playing experience: 15.2 ± 0.5 years, playing in the first team of a 2nd or 3rd Dutch amateur league club) participated in this randomized, double-blind cross-over study. All subjects participated in two test days in which high-intensity intermittent running performance was assessed using the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Subjects ingested nitrate-rich (140 mL; ~800 mg nitrate/day; BR) or a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PLA) for six subsequent days, with at least eight days of wash-out between trials. The distance covered during the Yo-Yo IR1 was the primary outcome measure, while heart rate (HR) was measured continuously throughout the test, and a single blood and saliva sample were collected just prior to the test. Six days of BR ingestion increased plasma and salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations in comparison to PLA (p < 0.001), and enhanced Yo-Yo IR1 test performance by 3.4 ± 1.3% (from 1574 ± 47 to 1623 ± 48 m; p = 0.027). Mean HR was lower in the BR (172 ± 2) vs. PLA trial (175 ± 2; p = 0.014). Six days of BR ingestion effectively improves high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. PMID:28327503

  12. Beetroot Juice Supplementation Improves High-Intensity Intermittent Type Exercise Performance in Trained Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Nyakayiru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Thirty-two male soccer players (age: 23 ± 1 years, height: 181 ± 1 m, weight: 77 ± 1 kg, playing experience: 15.2 ± 0.5 years, playing in the first team of a 2nd or 3rd Dutch amateur league club participated in this randomized, double-blind cross-over study. All subjects participated in two test days in which high-intensity intermittent running performance was assessed using the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Subjects ingested nitrate-rich (140 mL; ~800 mg nitrate/day; BR or a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PLA for six subsequent days, with at least eight days of wash-out between trials. The distance covered during the Yo-Yo IR1 was the primary outcome measure, while heart rate (HR was measured continuously throughout the test, and a single blood and saliva sample were collected just prior to the test. Six days of BR ingestion increased plasma and salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations in comparison to PLA (p < 0.001, and enhanced Yo-Yo IR1 test performance by 3.4 ± 1.3% (from 1574 ± 47 to 1623 ± 48 m; p = 0.027. Mean HR was lower in the BR (172 ± 2 vs. PLA trial (175 ± 2; p = 0.014. Six days of BR ingestion effectively improves high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players.

  13. Multiple Off-Ice Performance Variables Predict On-Ice Skating Performance in Male and Female Division III Ice Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, Jeffrey M; Beltz, Nicholas M; Dalleck, Lance D

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if off-ice performance variables could predict on-ice skating performance in Division III collegiate hockey players. Both men (n = 15) and women (n = 11) hockey players (age = 20.5 ± 1.4 years) participated in the study. The skating tests were agility cornering S-turn, 6.10 m acceleration, 44.80 m speed, modified repeat skate, and 15.20 m full speed. Off-ice variables assessed were years of playing experience, height, weight and percent body fat and off-ice performance variables included vertical jump (VJ), 40-yd dash (36.58m), 1-RM squat, pro-agility, Wingate peak power and peak power percentage drop (% drop), and 1.5 mile (2.4km) run. Results indicated that 40-yd dash (36.58m), VJ, 1.5 mile (2.4km) run, and % drop were significant predictors of skating performance for repeat skate (slowest, fastest, and average time) and 44.80 m speed time, respectively. Four predictive equations were derived from multiple regression analyses: 1) slowest repeat skate time = 2.362 + (1.68 x 40-yd dash time) + (0.005 x 1.5 mile run), 2) fastest repeat skate time = 9.762 - (0.089 x VJ) - (0.998 x 40-yd dash time), 3) average repeat skate time = 7.770 + (1.041 x 40-yd dash time) - (0.63 x VJ) + (0.003 x 1.5 mile time), and 4) 47.85 m speed test = 7.707 - (0.050 x VJ) - (0.01 x % drop). It was concluded that selected off-ice tests could be used to predict on-ice performance regarding speed and recovery ability in Division III male and female hockey players. Key pointsThe 40-yd dash (36.58m) and vertical jump tests are significant predictors of on-ice skating performance specific to speed.In addition to 40-yd dash and vertical jump, the 1.5 mile (2.4km) run for time and percent power drop from the Wingate anaerobic power test were also significant predictors of skating performance that incorporates the aspect of recovery from skating activity.Due to the specificity of selected off-ice variables as predictors of on-ice performance, coaches can

  14. Acute effects of a caffeine-taurine energy drink on repeated sprint performance of American college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwacham, Nnamdi; Wagner, Dale R

    2012-04-01

    Consumption of energy drinks is common among athletes; however, there is a lack of research on the efficacy of these beverages for short-duration, intense exercise. The purpose of this research was to investigate the acute effects of a low-calorie caffeine-taurine energy drink (AdvoCare Spark) on repeated sprint performance and anaerobic power in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. Twenty football players (age 19.7 ± 1.8 yr, height 184.9 ± 5.3 cm, weight 100.3 ± 21.7 kg) participated in a double-blind, randomized crossover study in which they received the energy drink or an isoenergetic, isovolumetric, non-caffeinated placebo in 2 trials separated by 7 days. The Running Based Anaerobic Sprint Test, consisting of six 35-m sprints with 10 s of rest between sprints, was used to assess anaerobic power. Sprint times were recorded with an automatic electronic timer. The beverage treatment did not significantly affect power (F = 3.84, p = .066) or sprint time (F = 3.06, p = .097). However, there was a significant interaction effect between caffeine use and the beverage for sprint times (F = 4.62, p = .045), as well as for anaerobic power (F = 5.40, p = .032), indicating a confounding effect. In conclusion, a caffeine-taurine energy drink did not improve the sprint performance or anaerobic power of college football players, but the level of caffeine use by the athletes likely influenced the effect of the drink.

  15. Effect of Small-Sided Games and Repeated Shuffle Sprint Training on Physical Performance in Elite Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Ardigò, Luca P; Meckel, Yoav; Padulo, Johnny

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of small-sided games (SSGs) and repeated shuffle sprint (RSS) training on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests performances of elite handball players. Eighteen highly trained players (24.8 ± 4.4 years) were assigned to either SSG or RSS group training protocols twice a week for 8 weeks. The SSG training consisted of 5 small-sided handball games with 3-a-side teams excluding goalkeepers. The RSS consisted of 2 sets of 14-17 of 20-m shuttle sprints and 9-m jump shots interspersed by 20-second recoveries. Before and after training, the following performance variables were assessed: speed on 10-m and 20-m sprint time, agility and RSA time, CMJ height, standing throw, and jump shot speed. Significant pre-to-post treatment improvements were found in all the assessed variables following both training protocols (multivariate analysis of variance, p ≤ 0.05). There was a significantly greater improvement on 10-m sprint, CMJ, and jump shooting, after the RSS in comparison with SSG training (+4.4% vs. +2.4%, +8.6% vs. +5.6%, and +5.5% vs. +2.7%, respectively). Conversely, agility and standing throwing showed lower improvements after RSS in comparison with SSG (+1.0% vs. +7.8% and +1.6% vs. +9.0%, respectively). These results indicate that these training methods are effective for fitness development among elite adult handball players during the last period of the competitive season. Specifically, SSG seems to be more effective in improving agility and standing throw, whereas RSS seems preferable in improving 10-m sprint, CMJ, and jump shot.

  16. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves physical performance of elite rugby players during a simulated match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Ramírez, Juan A; Muñoz, Gloria; Portillo, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Muñoz, Víctor; Barbero-Álvarez, José C; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a caffeine-containing energy drink in enhancing rugby players' physical performance during a simulated match. A second purpose was to determine the urinary caffeine excretion derived from the energy drink intake. In a randomized and counterbalanced order, 26 elite rugby players (mean ± SD for age and body mass, 25 ± 2 y and 93 ± 15 kg) played 2 simulated rugby games (2 × 30 min) 60 min after ingesting (i) 3 mg of caffeine per kilogram of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure, ProEnergetics) or (ii) the same drink without caffeine (placebo). During the matches, the individual running distance and the instantaneous speed were measured, and the number of running actions above 20 km·h(-1) (i.e., sprints) were determined, using global positioning system devices. The number of impacts above 5 g during the matches was determined by accelerometry. The ingestion of the energy drink, compared with the placebo, increased the total distance covered during the match (4749 ± 589 vs 5139 ± 475 m, p energy drink also resulted in a greater overall number of impacts (481 ± 352 vs 641 ± 366, p energy drink with a caffeine dose equivalent to 3 mg·kg(-1) considerably enhanced the movement patterns of rugby players during a simulated match.

  17. Strength, Endurance, Throwing Velocity and in-Water Jump Performance of Elite German Water Polo Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinner Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was threefold: 1 to assess the eggbeater kick and throwing performance using a number of water polo specific tests, 2 to explore the relation between the eggbeater kick and throwing performance, and 3 to investigate the relation between the eggbeater kick in the water and strength tests performed in a controlled laboratory setting in elite water polo players. Fifteen male water polo players of the German National Team completed dynamic and isometric strength tests for muscle groups (adductor, abductor, abdominal, pectoralis frequently used during water polo. After these laboratory strength tests, six water polo specific in-water tests were conducted. The eggbeater kick assessed leg endurance and agility, maximal throwing velocity and jump height. A 400 m test and a sprint test examined aerobic and anaerobic performance. The strongest correlation was found between jump height and arm length (p < 0.001, r = 0.89. The laboratory diagnostics of important muscles showed positive correlations with the results of the in-water tests (p < 0.05, r = 0.52-0.70. Muscular strength of the adductor, abdominal and pectoralis muscles was positively related to in-water endurance agility as assessed by the eggbeater kick (p < 0.05; r = 0.53-0.66. Findings from the current study emphasize the need to assess indices of water polo performance both in and out of the water as well as the relation among these parameters to best assess the complex profile of water polo players.

  18. Effect of Static and Dynamic Stretching on the Diurnal Variations of Jump Performance in Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Hammouda, Omar; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The present study addressed the lack of data on the effect of different types of stretching on diurnal variations in vertical jump height - i.e., squat-jump (SJ) and countermovement-jump (CMJ). We hypothesized that dynamic stretching could affect the diurnal variations of jump height by producing a greater increase in short-term maximal performance in the morning than the evening through increasing core temperature at this time-of-day. Methods Twenty male soccer players (age, 18.6±1.3 yrs; height, 174.6±3.8 cm; body-mass, 71.1±8.6 kg; mean ± SD) completed the SJ and CMJ tests either after static stretching, dynamic stretching or no-stretching protocols at two times of day, 07:00 h and 17:00 h, with a minimum of 48 hours between testing sessions. One minute after warming-up for 5 minutes by light jogging and performing one of the three stretching protocols (i.e., static stretching, dynamic stretching or no-stretching) for 8 minutes, each subject completed the SJ and CMJ tests. Jumping heights were recorded and analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures (3 [stretching]×2 [time-of-day]). Results The SJ and CMJ heights were significantly higher at 17:00 than 07:00 h (pstretching protocol. These daily variations disappeared (i.e., the diurnal gain decreased from 4.2±2.81% (pstretching due to greater increases in SJ and CMJ heights in the morning than the evening (8.4±6.36% vs. 4.4±2.64%, pstretching on the diurnal variations of SJ and CMJ heights was observed. Conclusion Dynamic stretching affects the typical diurnal variations of SJ and CMJ and helps to counteract the lower morning values in vertical jump height. PMID:23940589

  19. Examination of mechanisms underlying enhanced memory performance in action video game players: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianchun; Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Jiaying; Pan, Yafeng; Hu, Yi; Ku, Yixuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown enhanced memory performance resulting from extensive action video game playing. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefit were investigated in the current study. We presented two types of retro-cues, with variable intervals to memory array (Task 1) or test array (Task 2), during the retention interval in a change detection task. In Task 1, action video game players demonstrated steady performance while non-action video game players showed decreased performance as cues occurred later, indicating their performance difference increased as the cue-to-memory-array intervals became longer. In Task 2, both participant groups increased their performance at similar rates as cues presented later, implying the performance difference in two groups were irrespective of the test-array-to-cue intervals. These findings suggested that memory benefit from game plays is not attributable to the higher ability of overcoming interference from the test array, but to the interactions between the two processes of protection from decay and resistance from interference, or from alternative hypotheses. Implications for future studies were discussed.

  20. Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on jump performance after 15 min of reconditioning shooting phase in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annino, Giuseppe; Ruscello, Bruno; Lebone, Pietro; Palazzo, Francesco; Lombardo, Mauro; Padua, Elvira; Verdecchia, Luca; Tancredi, Virginia; Iellamo, Ferdinando

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of static (SS) and dynamic stretching (DS) on vertical jump performance executed before, immediately after and at the end of the shooting phase (i.e., 15 min later), as to simulate the actual conditions preceding a match, in professional basketball players. Ten elite basketball players (age: 29±6.73 years, height: 194.67±7.75 cm, weight: 91±8.17 kg and BMI 23.8±7.91 kg.m-2) participated to the study. SS and DS protocols were administered during the first training session of the week, 48 hours after the championship match. Stretching protocols consisted in ~7 minutes of general warm-up phase followed by ~8 minutes of SS and DS, performed with a cross-over design., and ~15 minutes of a specific warm-up shooting phase (SP). Vertical jump tests consisted in counter movement jump (CMJ) and CMJ with arm swings (CMJas) and were performed immediately after the end of each stretching phase (preS, postS, postSP). A significant decrease (P=0.05; η2partial=0.29) in jumping tests height occurred in CMJas, when performed after the SS (i.e., PostS). However, no significant differences in jumping performances, occurred after the general warm phase and the specific warm-up shooting phase, between the two stretching protocols. These results would indicate that, overall, stretching routines either dynamic or static, performed before a basketball match are transient and affect only marginally leg muscles performance. Stretching routines, particularly the dynamic ones, may be useful to maintain muscle performance before a competition, provided that this latter begins shortly after.

  1. High-Intensity Training Improves Exercise Performance in Elite Women Volleyball Players During a Competitive Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-11-01

    Purkhús, E, Krustrup, P, and Mohr, M. High-intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3066-3072, 2016-Elite women volleyball players (n = 25; mean ± SD: age, 19 ± 5 years; height, 171 ± 7 cm; weight, 63 ± 10 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high-intensity training (HIT; n = 13) group and a control (CON; n = 12) group. In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT performed 6-10 × 30-seconds all-out running intervals separated by 3-minute recovery periods 3 times per week during a 4-week in-season period whereas CON only completed the team training sessions and games. Preintervention and postintervention, all players completed the arrowhead agility test (AAT), a repeated sprint test (RST; 5 × 30 meters separated by 25 seconds of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 minute rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT in week 1 was 152 ± 4 m and increased (p ≤ 0.05) by 4.6% (159 ± 3 m) in week 4. The AAT performance improved (p ≤ 0.05) by 2.3% (18.87 ± 0.97-18.44 ± 1.06 seconds) and RST by 4.3% postintervention in the HIT group only. Baseline RST fatigue index was 7.0 ± 2.9 and 6.2 ± 5.0% in HIT and CON, respectively, but was lowered (p ≤ 0.05) to 2.7 ± 3.0% posttraining in HIT and remained unaltered in CON (5.5 ± 5.0%). In HIT, Yo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance improved by 12.6 and 18.3% postintervention, respectively, with greater (p ≤ 0.05) Yo-yo IR1 change scores than in CON. In conclusion, additional high-intensity in-season training performed as interval running improved agility, repeated sprint ability, and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in elite women volleyball players.

  2. The Functional Classification and Field Test Performance in Wheelchair Basketball Players

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    Gil Susana María

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheelchair basketball players are classified in four classes based on the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF system of competition. Thus, the aim of the study was to ascertain if the IWBF classification, the type of injury and the wheelchair experience were related to different performance field-based tests. Thirteen basketball players undertook anthropometric measurements and performance tests (hand dynamometry, 5 m and 20 m sprints, 5 m and 20 m sprints with a ball, a T-test, a Pick-up test, a modified 10 m Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, a maximal pass and a medicine ball throw. The IWBF class was correlated (p<0.05 to the hand dynamometry (r= 0.84, the maximal pass (r=0.67 and the medicine ball throw (r= 0.67. Whereas the years of dependence on the wheelchair were correlated to the velocity (p<0.01: 5 m (r= −0.80 and 20 m (r= −0.77 and agility tests (r= −0.77, p<0.01. Also, the 20 m sprint with a ball (r= 0.68 and the T-test (r= −0.57 correlated (p<0.05 with the experience in playing wheelchair basketball. Therefore, in this team the correlations of the performance variables differed when they were related to the disability class, the years of dependence on the wheelchair and the experience in playing wheelchair basketball. These results should be taken into account by the technical staff and coaches of the teams when assessing performance of wheelchair basketball players.

  3. PPARα gene variants as predicted performance-enhancing polymorphisms in professional Italian soccer players

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    Proia P

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrizia Proia,1 Antonino Bianco,1 Gabriella Schiera,2 Patrizia Saladino,2 Valentina Contrò,1 Giovanni Caramazza,3 Marcello Traina,1 Keith A Grimaldi,4 Antonio Palma,1 Antonio Paoli5 1Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, 2Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Regional Sports School of CONI Sicilia, Sicily, Italy; 4Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, Institute of Communication and Computer Systems, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 5Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padua, Italy Background: The PPARα gene encodes the peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor alpha, a central regulator of expression of other genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of G allele of the PPARα intron 7 G/C polymorphism (rs4253778 in professional Italian soccer players. Methods: Sixty professional soccer players and 30 sedentary volunteers were enrolled in the study. Samples of venous blood were obtained at rest, in the morning, by conventional clinical procedures; blood serum was collected and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. An aliquot of anticoagulant-treated blood was used to prepare genomic DNA from whole blood. The G/C polymorphic site in PPARα intron 7 was scanned by using the PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol with TaqI enzyme. Results: We found variations in genotype distribution of PPARα polymorphism between professional soccer players and sedentary volunteers. Particularly, G alleles and the GG genotype were significantly more frequent in soccer players compared with healthy controls (64% versus 48%. No significant correlations were found between lipid profile and genotype background. Conclusion: Previous results

  4. Nursing care management in the context of the high performance volleyball player

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    Rafael Marcelo Soder

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand the relationship between the central phenomenon “care management in the context of the high performance volleyball player: living and surviving in the multidimensionality of the sporting environment” and the categories which involved the perspective of management of health care of the athletes in the context of volleyball. Methods: it is a qualitative study, guided by the Theory Grounded in Data, made between February and September 2013, with 34 participants in three sample groups. Results: four categories were found, meaning care, health and disease concerning the high performance volleyball athlete; living and surviving on the limit between being a high performance athlete and a human being; waking up to the reality of high performance volleyball; unveiling possibilities and potentialities of health care in high performance volleyball. Conclusion: it is evident that there are concrete and tangible possibilities of insertion of the management of health care and nursing in the high performance volleyball.

  5. Temporal Changes in Technical and Physical Performances During a Small-Sided Game in Elite Youth Soccer Players.

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    Moreira, Alexandre; Saldanha Aoki, Marcelo; Carling, Chris; Alan Rodrigues Lopes, Rafael; Felipe Schultz de Arruda, Ademir; Lima, Marcelo; Cesar Correa, Umberto; Bradley, Paul S

    2016-12-01

    There have been claims that small-sided games (SSG) may generate an appropriate environment to develop youth players' technical performance associated to game-related problem solving. However, the temporal change in technical performance parameters of youth players during SSG is still unknown. The aim of this study was to examine temporal changes in technical and physical performances during a small-sided game (SSG) in elite soccer players. Sixty elite youth players (age 14.8 ± 0.2 yr; stature 177 ± 5 cm; body mass 66.2 ± 4.7 kg) completed a 5 v 5 SSG using two repetitions of 8 minutes interspersed by 3 minutes of passive recovery. To evaluate temporal changes in performance, the data were analysed across 4 minutes quarters. Physical performance parameters included the total distance covered (TDC), the frequency of sprints (>18 km•h(-1)), accelerations and decelerations (> 2.0 m•s(-2) and - 2.0 m•s(-2)), metabolic power (W•kg(-1)), training impulse (TRIMP), TDC: TRIMP, number of impacts, and body load. Technical performance parameters included goal attempts, total number of tackles, tackles and interceptions, total number of passes, and passes effectiveness. All physical performance parameters decreased from the first to the last quarter with notable declines in TDC, metabolic power and the frequency of sprints, accelerations and decelerations (P technical performance parameters did not vary across quarters (P > 0.05; trivial ES for 1st v 4th quarters: 0.15 - 0.33). The data demonstrate that technical performance is maintained despite substantial declines in physical performance during a SSG in elite youth players. This finding may have implications for designing SSG's for elite youth players to ensure physical, technical and tactical capabilities are optimized. Modifications in player number, pitch dimensions, rules, coach encouragement, for instance, should be included taking into account the main aim of a given session and then focused on overloading

  6. Analysis of the distances covered and technical actions performed by professional tennis players during official matches.

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    Pereira, Tiago Julio Costa; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; de Jesus, Mayra Tardelli; Vieira, Claudio Luís Roveri; Misuta, Milton Shoiti; de Barros, Ricardo Machado Leite; Moura, Felipe Arruda

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the physical and technical performances of professional tennis players during official matches. The trajectories of eight players were obtained during matches, using an automatic tracking method. The distances covered and technical performances were analysed for the first and second sets. The athletes covered (mean ± standard deviation) a total of 1702.4 ± 448.2 m in the first set, 1457.6 ± 678.1 m in the second set and 3160.0 ± 880.1 in the entire match. No differences were found between the sets for the physical variables (lateral and forward displacements, distance covered per rally, per game and per set, and the percentage of time spent in each range of velocity). However, the distances covered by the athletes during the rallies in which they were serving (median = 5.2; interquartile range (IQR) = 6.7 m) were statistically smaller than when they were returning (median = 6.2; IQR = 7.7 m). Forehand ground stroke proficiency decreased from the first (mean ± standard deviation: 75.2 ± 4.11%) to the second set (mean ± standard deviation = 65.5 ± 14.3%). In conclusion, tennis players did not present reduced physical performance from the first to the second set.

  7. Enhancing physical performance in elite junior tennis players with a caffeinated energy drink.

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    Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Portillo, Javier; Muñoz, Victor; Juarez, Daniel; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a caffeinated energy drink to enhance physical performance in elite junior tennis players. In 2 different sessions separated by 1 wk, 14 young (16 ± 1 y) elite-level tennis players ingested 3 mg caffeine per kg body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min, participants performed a handgrip-strength test, a maximal-velocity serving test, and an 8 × 15-m sprint test and then played a simulated singles match (best of 3 sets). Instantaneous running speed during the matches was assessed using global positioning (GPS) devices. Furthermore, the matches were videotaped and notated afterward. In comparison with the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased handgrip force by ~4.2% ± 7.2% (P = .03) in both hands, the running pace at high intensity (46.7 ± 28.5 vs 63.3 ± 27.7 m/h, P = .02), and the number of sprints (12.1 ± 1.7 vs 13.2 ± 1.7, P = .05) during the simulated match. There was a tendency for increased maximal running velocity during the sprint test (22.3 ± 2.0 vs 22.9 ± 2.1 km/h, P = .07) and higher percentage of points won on service with the caffeinated energy drink (49.7% ± 9.8% vs 56.4% ± 10.0%, P = .07) in comparison with the placebo drink. The energy drink did not improve ball velocity during the serving test (42.6 ± 4.8 vs 42.7 ± 5.0 m/s, P = .49). The preexercise ingestion of caffeinated energy drinks was effective to enhance some aspects of physical performance of elite junior tennis players.

  8. Effect of static and dynamic stretching on the diurnal variations of jump performance in soccer players.

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    Hamdi Chtourou

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The present study addressed the lack of data on the effect of different types of stretching on diurnal variations in vertical jump height - i.e., squat-jump (SJ and countermovement-jump (CMJ. We hypothesized that dynamic stretching could affect the diurnal variations of jump height by producing a greater increase in short-term maximal performance in the morning than the evening through increasing core temperature at this time-of-day. METHODS: Twenty male soccer players (age, 18.6±1.3 yrs; height, 174.6±3.8 cm; body-mass, 71.1±8.6 kg; mean ± SD completed the SJ and CMJ tests either after static stretching, dynamic stretching or no-stretching protocols at two times of day, 07:00 h and 17:00 h, with a minimum of 48 hours between testing sessions. One minute after warming-up for 5 minutes by light jogging and performing one of the three stretching protocols (i.e., static stretching, dynamic stretching or no-stretching for 8 minutes, each subject completed the SJ and CMJ tests. Jumping heights were recorded and analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures (3 [stretching]×2 [time-of-day]. RESULTS: The SJ and CMJ heights were significantly higher at 17:00 than 07:00 h (p<0.01 after the no-stretching protocol. These daily variations disappeared (i.e., the diurnal gain decreased from 4.2±2.81% (p<0.01 to 1.81±4.39% (not-significant for SJ and from 3.99±3.43% (p<0.01 to 1.51±3.83% (not-significant for CMJ after dynamic stretching due to greater increases in SJ and CMJ heights in the morning than the evening (8.4±6.36% vs. 4.4±2.64%, p<0.05 for SJ and 10.61±5.49% vs. 6.03±3.14%, p<0.05 for CMJ. However, no significant effect of static stretching on the diurnal variations of SJ and CMJ heights was observed. CONCLUSION: Dynamic stretching affects the typical diurnal variations of SJ and CMJ and helps to counteract the lower morning values in vertical jump height.

  9. Video game players show higher performance but no difference in speed of attention shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, David J; Wiesmann, Helene; Ilg, Uwe J

    2016-09-01

    Video games have become both a widespread leisure activity and a substantial field of research. In a variety of tasks, video game players (VGPs) perform better than non-video game players (NVGPs). This difference is most likely explained by an alteration of the basic mechanisms underlying visuospatial attention. More specifically, the present study hypothesizes that VGPs are able to shift attention faster than NVGPs. Such alterations in attention cannot be disentangled from changes in stimulus-response mappings in reaction time based measurements. Therefore, we used a spatial cueing task with varying cue lead times (CLTs) to investigate the speed of covert attention shifts of 98 male participants divided into 36 NVGPs and 62 VGPs based on their weekly gaming time. VGPs exhibited higher peak and mean performance than NVGPs. However, we did not find any differences in the speed of covert attention shifts as measured by the CLT needed to achieve peak performance. Thus, our results clearly rule out faster stimulus-response mappings as an explanation for the higher performance of VGPs in line with previous studies. More importantly, our data do not support the notion of faster attention shifts in VGPs as another possible explanation.

  10. Kinetic and Kinematic Analysis for Assessing the Differences in Countermovement Jump Performance in Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floría, Pablo; Gómez-Landero, Luis A; Suárez-Arrones, Luis; Harrison, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Floría, P, Gómez-Landero, LA, Suárez-Arrones, L, and Harrison, AJ. Kinetic and kinematic analysis for assessing the differences in countermovement jump performance in rugby players. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2533-2539, 2016-The aim of this study was to ascertain the differences in kinetic and kinematic profiles between better and poorer performers of the vertical jump within a homogeneous group of trained adults. Fifty rugby players were divided into low scoring (LOW) and high scoring (HIGH) groups based on their performance in the vertical jump. The force, velocity, displacement, and rate of force development (RFD)-time curves were analyzed to determine the differences between groups. The analysis of the data showed differences in all the patterns of the ensemble mean curves of the HIGH and LOW groups. During the eccentric phase, the differences in the HIGH group with respect to the LOW group were lower crouch position, higher downward velocity, and higher force and RFD during the braking of the downward movement. During the concentric phase, the HIGH group achieved higher upward velocity, higher force at the end of phase, and a higher position at takeoff. The higher jump performances seem to be related to a more effective stretch-shortening cycle function that is characterized by a deeper and faster countermovement with higher eccentric forces being applied to decelerate the downward movement leading to enhanced force generation during the concentric phase.

  11. CATECHOLAMINES AND β2-ADRENOCEPTOR GENE EXPRESSION BEFORE AND AFTER MAXIMAL INCREMENTAL CYCLE TEST IN YOUNG ICE HOCKEY PLAYERS: RELATION TO WORK PERFORMED

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    Urszula Mazurek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations as well as whole blood β2-adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2 expression in young ice hockey players before and immediately after exercise in relation to performed work. Nineteen Youth National Team ice hockey players were subjected to the maximal incremental cycloergometer exercise. The test was done in the pre-competitive phase of training. Among many parameters the plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations and ADRB2 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were determined before and after exercise. The average performed work was 3261.3 ± 558.3 J · kg-1 and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max for all players was 53.85 ± 3.91 mL · kg-1 min-1. The geometric mean of the ADRB2 gene expression was statistically significantly different before and after exercise (P ≤ 0.05, while adrenaline and noradrenaline levels in plasma significantly increased after exercise. In the analysed group of athletes we found that initial level of plasma noradrenaline correlated with the performed work (r = - 0.55, P < 0.014 and normalized ADRB2 expression before the exercise correlated with the work done by them (r = 0.48, P<0.039. However, no statistically significant correlations were found between the plasma adrenaline or noradrenaline concentrations and ADRB2 gene expression in peripheral blood of the players. The performed work in the maximal incremental exercise test of regularly training young ice hockey players depends on the initial levels of noradrenaline in plasma and ADRB2 mRNA in PBMC.

  12. Multiple Off-Ice Performance Variables Predict On-Ice Skating Performance in Male and Female Division III Ice Hockey Players

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    effrey M. Janot, Nicholas M. Beltz, Lance D. Dalleck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if off-ice performance variables could predict on-ice skating performance in Division III collegiate hockey players. Both men (n = 15 and women (n = 11 hockey players (age = 20.5 ± 1.4 years participated in the study. The skating tests were agility cornering S-turn, 6.10 m acceleration, 44.80 m speed, modified repeat skate, and 15.20 m full speed. Off-ice variables assessed were years of playing experience, height, weight and percent body fat and off-ice performance variables included vertical jump (VJ, 40-yd dash (36.58m, 1-RM squat, pro-agility, Wingate peak power and peak power percentage drop (% drop, and 1.5 mile (2.4km run. Results indicated that 40-yd dash (36.58m, VJ, 1.5 mile (2.4km run, and % drop were significant predictors of skating performance for repeat skate (slowest, fastest, and average time and 44.80 m speed time, respectively. Four predictive equations were derived from multiple regression analyses: 1 slowest repeat skate time = 2.362 + (1.68 x 40-yd dash time + (0.005 x 1.5 mile run, 2 fastest repeat skate time = 9.762 - (0.089 x VJ - (0.998 x 40-yd dash time, 3 average repeat skate time = 7.770 + (1.041 x 40-yd dash time - (0.63 x VJ + (0.003 x 1.5 mile time, and 4 47.85 m speed test = 7.707 - (0.050 x VJ - (0.01 x % drop. It was concluded that selected off-ice tests could be used to predict on-ice performance regarding speed and recovery ability in Division III male and female hockey players.

  13. EFFECTS OF MAXIMAL SQUAT EXERCISE TESTING ON VERTICAL JUMP PERFORMANCE IN AMERICAN COLLEGE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

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    Jay R. Hoffman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Maximal strength and power testing are common assessments that are used to evaluate strength/power athletes. The validity and reliability of these tests have been well established (Hoffman, 2006, however the order of testing may have a profound effect on test performance outcome. It is generally recommended that the least fatiguing and highly-skilled tests are performed first, while highly fatiguing tests are performed last (Hoffman, 2006. Recent research has demonstrated that maximal isometric contractions and maximal or near- maximal dynamic exercise can augment the rate of force development, increase jump height and enhance sprint cycle performance (Chiu et al., 2003; French et al., 2003. The use of a maximal or near-maximal activity to enhance strength and power performance has been termed "muscle postactivation potentiation", and appears to be more common in the experienced resistance-trained athletes than in the recreationally-trained population (Chiu et al., 2003. It is believed that postactivation potentiation can enhance muscle performance by increasing the neural signal that activates the muscle (Hamada et al., 2000. Since heavy loading in a similar movement pattern of exercise appears to enhance maximal strength and power performance in the experienced resistance-trained athlete, it may be hypothesized that the postactivation potentiation associated with heavy loading has the potential to augment subsequent performance of tests utilizing similar motion. Therefore, consideration of an appropriate sequence of athletic performance testing in strength and power athletes is warranted. We would like to share our experience on the effect of performing a maximal lower body strength test on vertical jump performance in experienced resistance-trained strength/power athletes.We examined 64 NCAA Division III American collegiate football players (age = 20.1 ± 1.9 yr; body mass = 97.5 ± 17.8 kg; height = 1.80 ± 0.12 m. All testing was performed

  14. Modeling Longitudinal Changes in 5m Sprinting Performance Among Young Male Tennis Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Tamara; Valente-Dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J.; Malina, Robert M.; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Year-to-year changes in sprinting in youth tennis players were examined in a mixed-longitudinal study (256 male players, aged 10-15 years: 993 measurements). Height (h), body mass (BM), lower limb explosive strength (LLES), and a 5-m sprint were measured over five years. During that period, players

  15. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7-11 years Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study.

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    Irene R Faber

    Full Text Available Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players' potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player's future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7-11 years. Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05. Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items 'aiming at target', 'throwing a ball', and 'eye-hand coordination' in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%. Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment's outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%. This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be

  16. Winning matches in Grand Slam men's singles: an analysis of player performance-related variables from 1991 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shang-Min; Liu, Chao-Chin; Tan, Yue; Ma, Shang-Chun

    2013-01-01

    This study examines factors that lead to winning matches in men's singles Grand Slam tennis, and proposes guidelines for coaches and professional tennis players both in training and preparation for Grand Slam competitions. Using longitudinal data between 1991 and 2008 retrieved from the official website of the Association of Tennis Professionals, we analysed player performance over 9,144 matches in men's singles Grand Slam tournaments. To predict match outcome, 16 variables were classified into one of three categories: player skills and performance, player characteristics and match characteristics. The three categories were entered sequentially into a logistic regression model to predict the dependent variable: the chance of winning a men's singles Grand Slam match. The final altered model explains 79.4% of the variance (Nagelkerke's pseudo R (2)) in match outcomes and correctly predicted 90.6% of cases. The importance of serving, receiving, and break points is further confirmed. The positive effect of stature diminishes when players are taller than 186 cm. We recommend more training in returning skills; to avoid overestimation of the positive impact of stature, left hand and professional experience; and that a male player begins his professional tennis career by participating in the US Open or Wimbledon.

  17. The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Landreth, Andrew; Beam, Stacey; Jones, Taylor; Norton, Layne; Cholewa, Jason Michael

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI) on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat) participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C) for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI) received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal), carbohydrate (CHO), protein (PRO), fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat) were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg) but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg). FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec) compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec). Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players.

  18. Effects of Combined Resistance Training and Plyometrics on Physical Performance in Young Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Márquez, F; Rodríguez-Rosell, D; González-Suárez, J M; Pareja-Blanco, F; Mora-Custodio, R; Yañez-García, J M; González-Badillo, J J

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of combined resistance training and plyometrics on physical performance in under-15 soccer players. One team (n=20) followed a 6-week resistance training program combined with plyometrics plus a soccer training program (STG), whereas another team (n=18) followed only the soccer training (CG). Strength training consisted of full squats with low load (45-60% 1RM) and low-volume (2-3 sets and 4-8 repetitions per set) combined with jumps and sprints twice a week. Sprint time in 10 and 20 m (T10, T20, T10-20), CMJ height, estimated one-repetition maximum (1RMest), average velocity attained against all loads common to pre- and post-tests (AV) and velocity developed against different absolute loads (MPV20, 30, 40 and 50) in full squat were selected as testing variables to evaluate the effects of the training program. STG experienced greater gains (Ptraining combined with plyometrics in addition to soccer training produce greater gains in physical performance than typical soccer training alone in young soccer players. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Effect of Instructions Prioritizing Speed or Accuracy on Kinematics and Kicking Performance in Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Fuglstad, Pål

    2017-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to investigate if there is a speed accuracy trade-off in soccer kicking by using instructions prioritizing velocity, accuracy, or both upon soccer kicking performance and kicking direction in experienced soccer players. In addition, kinematics were measured to investigate the eventual differences in performance. Thirteen experienced male footballers performed penalty kicks with different instructions prioritizing velocity, accuracy or both. Three-dimensional kinematics, together with maximal ball velocity and hitting accuracy, were measured on all kicks. The main findings were that when the main aim was accuracy, accuracy increased, while the velocity reduced, which supports Fitts' law (Fitts, 1954 ). In addition, kicking accuracy was higher when kicking to the contralateral side. The slower ball velocity was caused by lower segmental and in run velocities. These lower segmental velocities were mainly caused by the lower maximal knee extension and pelvis rotation during the accuracy priority kicks.

  20. Effects of leg contrast strength training on sprint, agility and repeated change of direction performance in male soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Mehréz; Negra, Yassine; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed-Souhaiel

    2017-11-01

    Contrast training is a popular technique among individuals who are involved in dynamic sports, having as its goal an increase in dynamic muscular performance. It is characterized by the use of high and low loads in the same strength training session. The present investigation aimed to determine the effects of adding 8 weeks of contrast strength training (CSTP) to regular soccer practice in U-17 male soccer players during the competitive season. We hypothesized that CSTP would enhance their performance. Subjects were divided randomly between a control group (CG, N.=12) and a contrast strength group (CSG, N.=19). The 2 groups trained together; controls followed the regular soccer program, which was replaced by a contrast strength training program for the experimental group. Performance was assessed before and after training, using 10 measures: 5-10-, 20- 30-, and 40-m sprints, a 4x5 m sprint (S4x5), a 9-3-6-3-9 m sprint with 180° turns (S180), a 9-3-6-3-9 m sprint with backward and forward running (SBF), a Repeated-Shuttle-Sprint Ability Test (RSSA), and a Repeated Change of Direction Test (RCOD). CSG showed gains relative to controls in 5-m (Psprints. There were also significant gains in S180°, SBF, and S4 x 5 agility tests (P<0.01), and all RCOD parameters (P<0.05) except RCOD-FI (P=0.055) but no significant change in any RSSA parameters. We conclude that biweekly contrast strength training can be commended to U-17 male soccer players as a means of improving many important components of athletic performance relative to standard in-season training.

  1. The Effect of Two Speed Endurance Training Regimes on Performance of Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Fiorenza, Matteo; Perri, Enrico; Alberti, Giampietro; Millet, Grégoire P.; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the specificity of training adaptations, we compared the effects of two different anaerobic training regimes on various types of soccer-related exercise performances. During the last 3 weeks of the competitive season, thirteen young male professional soccer players (age 18.5±1 yr, height 179.5±6.5 cm, body mass 74.3±6.5 kg) reduced the training volume by ~20% and replaced their habitual fitness conditioning work with either speed endurance production (SEP; n = 6) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM; n = 7) training, three times per wk. SEP training consisted of 6–8 reps of 20-s all-out running bouts followed by 2 min of passive recovery, whereas SEM training was characterized by 6–8 x 20-s all-out efforts interspersed with 40 s of passive recovery. SEP training reduced (prepeated sprint ability test (RSAt) by 2.5%. SEM training improved the 200-m sprint performance (from 26.59±0.70 to 26.02±0.62 s, psprint performances. In conclusion, these two training strategies target different determinants of soccer-related physical performance. SEP improved repeated sprint and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, whereas SEM increased muscles’ ability to maximize fatigue tolerance and maintain speed development during both repeated all-out and continuous short-duration maximal exercises. These results provide new insight into the precise nature of a stimulus necessary to improve specific types of athletic performance in trained young soccer players. PMID:26394225

  2. Comparing performance and kinematics of throwing with a circular and whip-like wind up by experienced handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, R; Zondag, A; Cabri, J

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance (throwing velocity of the ball) and kinematics of overarm throwing with the circular and whip-like wind up in elite handball players. Twenty-two elite handball players (11 men and 11 women) conducted both types of throws. The ball release velocity, maximal ball acceleration, maximal velocity of the end points of the five segments and maximal angles, angles at ball release and maximal angular velocities of the 11 joint movements and their timing during the throw were analyzed. Significantly higher ball release velocities (21.9 m/s vs 20.6 m/s) were reached together with higher maximal linear velocities of the end points of all segments and longer throwing time with the circular wind up than with the whip-like wind up. Furthermore, it seems that the timing and amount of maximal angular pelvis rotation was the main contributor to the difference in the maximal ball release velocity between the two wind ups. The findings support the observation that overarm throwing with the circular wind up results in higher ball releases but also a longer throwing movement in comparison to whip-like wind up throws.

  3. Kicking velocity and physical, technical, tactical match performance for U18 female football players - effect of a new ball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T. Bull; Bendixen, Mads; Pedersen, Jens Meldgaard

    2012-01-01

    We investigated kicking velocity and physical, technical, and tactical match performance for under-18 (U18) female football players and evaluated the effect of using a newly developed lighter smaller ball. Ten regional league teams participated. Maximal ball velocity was 4±1% higher when kicking...... football games, and decrements in running performance occurred towards the end of games. The players kicked faster and reported lower muscular exertion during games played with a lighter smaller ball, but locomotor activities, heart rate and overall technical-tactical game performance remained unaffected....

  4. Searching for the right form: A self-taught village player recalling performance live

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Repertoire of the excellent self-taught traditional dvojnice-player, Miladin Arsenijević, from the vicinity of Topola (central Serbia consists of lyrical songs of a newer rural repertoire. During a 'cognitive interview', in his attempt to recall and reconstruct old-time traveler's (putničko playing through performance, a 'real music situation', he has gradually condensed the developed form of the homophonic shepherd's song into the fragmentary form of heterophonic traveler's playing. In this paper the accent is on the player's search and creative process in his attempt to derive the right musical form of a piece, using his long-term memory, since he has not heard or played the piece for quite a long time. It is also a successful attempt to bring musical data from passive to active musical memory, and a transit from one collective semantic musical code to another. The motoric component plays an important role as well. The analysis of musical change shows that musical memory is a distributive system, and data is organized in groups. Musical parameters change: rhythm and tone are changed first, while other parameters seem to depend mostly on the shape of the melodic model; they gradually change while this element finds its right form.

  5. Comparison of Two Types of Warm-Up Upon Repeated-Sprint Performance in Experienced Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland; von Heimburg, Erna

    2016-08-01

    van den Tillaar, R and von Heimburg, E. Comparison of two types of warm-up upon repeated-sprint performance in experienced soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2258-2265, 2016-The aim of the study was to compare the effects of a long warm-up and a short warm-up upon repeated-sprint performance in soccer players. Ten male soccer players (age, 21.9 ± 1.9 years; body mass, 77.7 ± 8.3 kg; body height, 1.85 ± 0.03 m) conducted 2 types of warm-ups with 1 week in between: a long warm-up (20 minutes: LWup) and a short warm-up (10 minutes: SWup). Each warm-up was followed by a repeated-sprint test consisting of 8 × 30 m sprints with a new start every 30th second. The best sprint time, total sprinting time, and % decrease in time together with heart rate, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. No significant differences in performance were found for the repeated-sprint test parameters (total sprint time: 35.99 ± 1.32 seconds [LWup] and 36.12 ± 0.96 seconds [SWup]; best sprint time: 4.32 ± 0.13 seconds [LWup] and 4.30 ± 0.10 seconds [SWup]; and % sprint decrease: 4.16 ± 2.15% [LWup] and 5.02 ± 2.07% [SWup]). No differences in lactate concentration after the warm-up and after the repeated-sprint test were found. However, RPE and heart rate were significantly higher after the long warm-up and the repeated-sprint test compared with the short warm-up. It was concluded that a short warm-up is as effective as a long warm-up for repeated sprints in soccer. Therefore, in regular training, less warm-up time is needed; the extra time could be used for important soccer skill training.

  6. The ingestion of a caffeinated energy drink improves jump performance and activity patterns in elite badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abian, Pablo; Del Coso, Juan; Salinero, Juan José; Gallo-Salazar, Cesar; Areces, Francisco; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Lara, Beatriz; Soriano, Lidon; Muñoz, Victor; Abian-Vicen, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a caffeine-containing energy drink to enhance physical and match performance in elite badminton players. Sixteen male and elite badminton players (25.4 ± 7.3 year; 71.8 ± 7.9 kg) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomised experiment. On two different sessions, badminton players ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min, participants performed the following tests: handgrip maximal force production, smash jump without and with shuttlecock, squat jump, countermovement jump and the agility T-test. Later, a 45-min simulated badminton match was played. Players' number of impacts and heart rate was measured during the match. The ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased squat jump height (34.5 ± 4.7 vs. 36.4 ± 4.3 cm; P energy drink may be an effective nutritional aid to increase jump performance and activity patterns during game in elite badminton players.

  7. Vitamin D3 Supplementation Does Not Improve Sprint Performance in Professional Rugby Players: A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Double Blind Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Kirsty A; Ceelen, Ingrid Jm; Skeaff, C Murray; Cameron, Claire M; Perry, Tracy L

    2017-08-03

    Vitamin D insufficiency is common in athletes and may lower physical performance. Many cross-sectional studies associate vitamin D status with physical performance in athletes, however there have been few prospective randomised controlled trials with adequate statistical power to test this relationship, and none in the southern hemisphere. Thus, a prospective double blind, randomised placebo-controlled intervention trial was conducted, involving 57 professional rugby union players in New Zealand. Participants were randomised to receive 50,000 IU of cholecalciferol (equivalent to 3,570 IU/day) or placebo once every two weeks over 11-12 weeks. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations and physical performance were measured at baseline, weeks 5-6 and weeks 11-12. Mean (SD) serum 25(OH)D concentrations for all participants at baseline was 94 (18) nmol/L, with all players above 50 nmol/L. Vitamin D supplementation significantly increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations compared to placebo, with a 32 nmol/L difference between groups at 11-12 weeks (95%CI, 26 to 38; P 0.05). Performance on the weighted reverse-grip chin up was significantly higher in players receiving vitamin D compared with placebo, by 5.5 kg (95%CI, 2.0 to 8.9; P = 0.002). Despite significantly improving vitamin D status in these professional rugby union players, vitamin D supplementation had little impact on physical performance outcomes. Thus, it is unlikely that vitamin D supplementation is an ergogenic aid in this group of athletes.

  8. Deliberate practice predicts performance throughout time in adolescent chess players and dropouts: A linear mixed models analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de A.B.H.; Smits, N.; Rikers, R.M.J.P.; Schmidt, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the longitudinal relation between deliberate practice and performance in chess was examined using a linear mixed models analysis. The practice activities and performance ratings of young elite chess players, who were either in, or had dropped out of the Dutch national chess training,

  9. The Effect of Biological Movement Variability on the Performance of the Golf Swing in High- and Low-Handicapped Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth J.; Keogh, Justin W. L.; Hume, Patria A.; Maulder, Peter S.; Nortje, Jacques; Marnewick, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of neuromotor noise on golf swing performance in high- and low-handicap players. Selected two-dimensional kinematic measures of 20 male golfers (n = 10 per high- or low-handicap group) performing 10 golf swings with a 5-iron club was obtained through video analysis. Neuromotor noise was calculated…

  10. The Effect of Biological Movement Variability on the Performance of the Golf Swing in High- and Low-Handicapped Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth J.; Keogh, Justin W. L.; Hume, Patria A.; Maulder, Peter S.; Nortje, Jacques; Marnewick, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of neuromotor noise on golf swing performance in high- and low-handicap players. Selected two-dimensional kinematic measures of 20 male golfers (n = 10 per high- or low-handicap group) performing 10 golf swings with a 5-iron club was obtained through video analysis. Neuromotor noise was calculated…

  11. Deliberate practice predicts performance throughout time in adolescent chess players and dropouts: A linear mixed models analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de A.B.H.; Smits, N.; Rikers, R.M.J.P.; Schmidt, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the longitudinal relation between deliberate practice and performance in chess was examined using a linear mixed models analysis. The practice activities and performance ratings of young elite chess players, who were either in, or had dropped out of the Dutch national chess training,

  12. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Grams

    Full Text Available Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy and calcium (73%. The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49, the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39 and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42 food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61 and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44 adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001, a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible

  13. Relationships Between the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test and Anaerobic Performance Tests in Adolescent Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermassi Souhail

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate relationships between a performance index derived from the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1 and other measures of physical performance and skill in handball players. The other measures considered included peak muscular power of the lower limbs (Wpeak, jumping ability (squat and counter-movement jumps (SJ, CMJ, a handball skill test and the average sprinting velocities over the first step (VS and the first 5 m (V5m. Test scores for 25 male national-level adolescent players (age: 17.2 ± 0.7 years averaged 4.83 ± 0.34 m·s-1 (maximal velocity reached at the Yo-Yo IR1; 917 ± 105 Watt, 12.7 ± 3 W·kg-1 (Wpeak; 3.41 ± 0.5 m·s-1 and 6.03 ± 0.6 m·s-1 (sprint velocities for Vs and V5m respectively and 10.3 ± 1 s (handball skill test. Yo-Yo IR1 test scores showed statistically significant correlations with all of the variables examined: Wpeak (W and W·kg-1 r = 0.80 and 0.65, respectively, p≤0.001; sprinting velocities (r = 0.73 and 0.71 for VS and V5m respectively; p≤0.001; jumping performance (SJ: r = 0.60, p≤0.001; CMJ: r= 0.66, p≤0.001 and the handball skill test (r = 0.71; p≤0.001. We concluded that the Yo-Yo test score showed a sufficient correlation with other potential means of assessing handball players, and that intra-individual changes of Yo-Yo IR1 score could provide a useful composite index of the response to training or rehabilitation, although correlations lack sufficient precision to help in players’ selection.

  14. Cognitive processes among skilled miniature golf players: effects of instructions on motor performance, concentration time, and perceived difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckman, L; Molander, B

    1991-01-01

    Highly skilled miniature golf players were examined on a simplified miniature golf task under different instructional conditions. Results indicated that requirements to attend to a variety of technical aspects of the game during preparation impaired motor performance, whereas providing players with those aspects of the game they reported thinking of did not affect motor performance. Data on concentration time and perceived difficulty indicated that increasing cognitive demands were associated with a decline in motor precision. The overall pattern of results was interpreted such that attention directed at technical aspects of the game interfered with the players' normal cognitive activity. Susceptibility to interference is a characteristic feature of controlled cognitive operations. Thus, the present results are consistent with the view that conscious cognitive activity may support motor behavior also at late stages of skill development.

  15. Discriminant effect of morphology and range of attack on the performance level of volleyball players. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n3p223

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Machado Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the discriminant effect of morphology and range of attack-related variables on the performance level of under-17 female volleyball players. The sample consisted of young volleyball players (n=40 divided into two groups: players of the Brazilian national team (n=21 aged 15.86 ± 0.36 years, body weight of 68.11 ± 8.73 kg, and height of 181.61 ± 6.11 cm, and players of the state team of Rio Grande do Norte (n=19 aged 15.16 ± 0.88 years, body weight of 60.54 ± 7.60 kg, and height of 170.52 ± 7.97 cm. The somatotype was assessed using the Heath & Carter method. A modified Sargent test was used to assess vertical jump height and maximum attack height. The measures were compared between the two groups using the Student t-test for independent samples. Discriminant function analysis was applied to predict group allocation using the measures obtained as independent variables. The two groups differed significantly in terms of body weight, fat mass, height, maximum attack height, range of attack, and somatotype. Discriminant function analysis identified the somato-type measures (endomorphy, ectomorphy, and mesomorphy with correlation coefficients below 0.30. The canonical correlation coefficient obtained with this function was 0.856. In conclusion, somatotype or vertical jump ability does not seem to distinguish elite athletes from non-elite athletes in under-17 female volleyball players, and height is the main morphological determinant to achieve elite level performance.

  16. Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime.

  17. Performance changes in NBA basketball players vary in starters vs. nonstarters over a competitive season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Hoffman, Jay R; Rogowski, Joseph P; Burgos, William; Manalo, Edwin; Weise, Keon; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare starters (S) with nonstarters (NS), on their ability to maintain strength, power, and quickness during a competitive National Basketball Association (NBA) season. Twelve NBA players were assessed at the beginning and end of the competitive season. However, because of trades and injury, only 7 (S = 4, NS = 3) players (28.2 ± 3.4 years; 200.9 ± 9.4 cm; 104.7 ± 13.9 kg; 7.2 ± 1.9% body fat) participated in both testing sessions and underwent analysis. Anthropometric performance (repetitive vertical jump power [VJP], squat power [SQT power], and reaction time) and subjective feelings of energy, focus, alertness, and fatigue were recorded during each testing session. Results were interpreted using magnitude-based statistics to make inferences on true differences between starters and nonstarters using the unequal variances t-statistic. Starters played an average of 27.8 ± 6.9 minutes per game and nonstarters played an average of 11.3 ± 7.0 minutes per game. During the course of the season, changes in VJP indicated that starters were likely to increase VJP (Δ = 77.3 ± 78.1 W) compared to nonstarters (Δ= -160.0 ± 151.0 W). There also appeared to be a possible beneficial effect on maintaining reaction time in starters (Δ = 0.005 ± 0.074 seconds) compared with nonstarters (Δ = 0.047 ± 0.073 seconds). In addition, no clear differences in ΔSQT power were seen between starters (Δ = 110.8 ± 141.4 W) and nonstarters (Δ = 143.5 ± 24.7 W). Changes in subjective feelings of energy indicated that starters were very likely to maintain their energy over the course of a season. It also appeared possible that starters were able to have a more positive response to subjective measures of fatigue and alertness than nonstarters, with only trivial differences between starters and nonstarters in regards to maintaining focus. Results of this study suggest that NBA players may enhance lower-body power, repetitive jump ability, and

  18. Vitamin D Deficiency Among Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Matthew P; Lombardo, Stephen J; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in several systems of the human body. Various studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to stress and insufficiency fractures, muscle recovery and function, and athletic performance. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the elite athletic population has not been extensively studied, and very few reports exist among professional athletes. There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency among players attending the National Basketball Association (NBA) Combine. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. This is a retrospective review of data previously collected as part of the routine medical evaluation of players in the NBA Combines from 2009 through 2013. Player parameters evaluated were height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and vitamin D level. Statistical analysis using t tests and analysis of variance was used to detect any correlation between the player parameters and vitamin D level. Vitamin D levels were categorized as deficient (32 ng/mL). After institutional review board approval was submitted to the NBA, the NBA released deidentified data on 279 players who participated in the combines from 2009 through 2013. There were 90 players (32.3%) who were deficient, 131 players (47.0%) who were insufficient, and 58 players (20.8%) who were sufficient. A total of 221 players (79.3%) were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. Among all players included, the average vitamin D level was 25.6 ± 10.2 ng/mL. Among the players who were deficient, insufficient, and sufficient, the average vitamin D levels were 16.1 ± 2.1 ng/mL, 25.0 ± 3.4 ng/mL, and 41.6 ± 8.6 ng/mL, respectively. Player height and weight were significantly increased in vitamin D-sufficient players compared with players who were not sufficient (P = .0008 and .009, respectively). Player age and BMI did not significantly differ depending on vitamin D status (P = .15 and .77, respectively). There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency

  19. Determination of Aerobic Performance in Youth Soccer Players: Effect of Direct And Indirect Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higino, Wonder Passoni; Sorroche, Alex de Souza; de Mattos Falqueiro, Pedro Guilherme; Suzuki Lima, Yuri Cristina; Higa, Camila Lie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to correlate and compare values for variables determined in indirect tests with the values determined directly in youth soccer players. The study subjects were 27 youth soccer players (age 16.77 ± 0.75 years; body mass 63.29 ± 7.37 kg; body height 174.14 ± 8.46 cm) playing in the basic categories of a first division team at the regional level of Brazilian soccer. Each subject was evaluated with the following tests: a) a treadmill test to directly determine values of VO2max and Vamax (Treadmill); b) an indirect Shuttle Run Test (SRT); c) an indirect Carminatti’s test (TCar). VO2max showed significantly different values in the Treadmill and the SRT (59.21 ± 5.88 and 50.67 ± 3.58 ml⋅kg−1⋅min−1, respectively). Similarly, values obtained for VPeak in the treadmill test and for Vamax in TCar were different from values for SRT VPeak (15.01 ± 1.10, 14.92 ± 0.87 and 12.64 ± 0.62 km⋅h−1, respectively). A correlation analysis showed a moderate relationship between values for VPeak TCar and VO2max determined on a treadmill (r = 0.46) and Vamax determined on a treadmill (r = 0.54). The analysis also showed a high correlation between values of VO2max determined on the treadmill and VO2max evaluated in the SRT (r = 0.69), as well as VPeak determined in the SRT and VO2max tested on the treadmill (r = 0.71), as well as between VPeak determined in the SRT and VO2max evaluated on the treadmill (r = 0.77). We concluded that the SRT underestimated values of VO2max and Vamax. Additionally, VPeak TCar showed no difference compared to Vamax, although it did show a low correlation with it. In addition the SRT, even with high correlations, did not seem to be a great predictor of aerobic fitness in youth soccer players. PMID:28469749

  20. The Effect of Two Speed Endurance Training Regimes on Performance of Soccer Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Marcello Iaia

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the specificity of training adaptations, we compared the effects of two different anaerobic training regimes on various types of soccer-related exercise performances. During the last 3 weeks of the competitive season, thirteen young male professional soccer players (age 18.5±1 yr, height 179.5±6.5 cm, body mass 74.3±6.5 kg reduced the training volume by ~20% and replaced their habitual fitness conditioning work with either speed endurance production (SEP; n = 6 or speed endurance maintenance (SEM; n = 7 training, three times per wk. SEP training consisted of 6-8 reps of 20-s all-out running bouts followed by 2 min of passive recovery, whereas SEM training was characterized by 6-8 x 20-s all-out efforts interspersed with 40 s of passive recovery. SEP training reduced (p<0.01 the total time in a repeated sprint ability test (RSAt by 2.5%. SEM training improved the 200-m sprint performance (from 26.59±0.70 to 26.02±0.62 s, p<0.01 and had a likely beneficial impact on the percentage decrement score of the RSA test (from 4.07±1.28 to 3.55±1.01% but induced a very likely impairment in RSAt (from 83.81±2.37 to 84.65±2.27 s. The distance covered in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 was 10.1% (p<0.001 and 3.8% (p<0.05 higher after SEP and SEM training, respectively, with possibly greater improvements following SEP compared to SEM. No differences were observed in the 20- and 40-m sprint performances. In conclusion, these two training strategies target different determinants of soccer-related physical performance. SEP improved repeated sprint and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, whereas SEM increased muscles' ability to maximize fatigue tolerance and maintain speed development during both repeated all-out and continuous short-duration maximal exercises. These results provide new insight into the precise nature of a stimulus necessary to improve specific types of athletic performance in

  1. The role of visual perception measures used in sports vision programmes in predicting actual game performance in Division I collegiate hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavski, Dmitri; Biberdorf, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the growing field of sports vision little is still known about unique attributes of visual processing in ice hockey and what role visual processing plays in the overall athlete's performance. In the present study we evaluated whether visual, perceptual and cognitive/motor variables collected using the Nike SPARQ Sensory Training Station have significant relevance to the real game statistics of 38 Division I collegiate male and female hockey players. The results demonstrated that 69% of variance in the goals made by forwards in 2011-2013 could be predicted by their faster reaction time to a visual stimulus, better visual memory, better visual discrimination and a faster ability to shift focus between near and far objects. Approximately 33% of variance in game points was significantly related to better discrimination among competing visual stimuli. In addition, reaction time to a visual stimulus as well as stereoptic quickness significantly accounted for 24% of variance in the mean duration of the player's penalty time. This is one of the first studies to show that some of the visual skills that state-of-the-art generalised sports vision programmes are purported to target may indeed be important for hockey players' actual performance on the ice.

  2. MECHANISMS FOR TRICEPS SURAE INJURY IN HIGH PERFORMANCE FRONT ROW RUGBY UNION PLAYERS: A KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF SCRUMMAGING DRILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Flavell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The front row of a rugby union scrum consists of three players. The loose head prop, hooker and tight head prop. The objective of this study was to determine if known biomechanical risk factors for triceps surae muscle injury are exhibited in the lower limb of front row players during contested scrummaging. Eleven high performance front row rugby union players were landmarked bilaterally at the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS, greater trochanter, lateral femoral epicondyle, midline of the calcaneus above the plantar aspect of the heel, midline lower leg 5cm and 20cm proximal to the lateral malleolus, at the axis of subtalar joint, lateral malleolus, and head of the fifth metatarsal. Players were video recorded during a series of 2 on 1 live scrummaging drills. Biomechanical three dimensional analysis identified large angular displacements, and increased peak velocities and accelerations at the ankle joint during attacking scrummaging drill techniques when in the stance phase of gait. This places the triceps surae as increased risk of injury and provides valuable information for training staff regarding injury prevention and scrum training practices for front row players

  3. Effect of Core Training Program on Physical Functional Performance in Female Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of core training program on speed, acceleration, vertical jump, and standing long jump in female soccer players. A total of 40 female soccer players volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided randomly into 1 of 2 groups: core training group (CTG; n = 20) and control group (CG;…

  4. Comparison of Two Different Modes of Active Recovery on Muscles Performance after Fatiguing Exercise in Mountain Canoeist and Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Anna; Oleksy, Łukasz; Kielnar, Renata; Wodka-Natkaniec, Ewa; Twardowska, Magdalena; Kamiński, Kamil; Małek, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to assess if the application of different methods of active recovery (working the same or different muscle groups from those which were active during fatiguing exercise) results in significant differences in muscle performance and if the efficiency of the active recovery method is dependent upon the specific sport activity (training loads). Design A parallel group non-blinded trial with repeated measurements. Methods Thirteen mountain canoeists and twelve football players participated in this study. Measurements of the bioelectrical activity, torque, work and power of the vastus lateralis oblique, vastus medialis oblique, and rectus femoris muscles were performed during isokinetic tests at a velocity of 90°/s. Results Active legs recovery in both groups was effective in reducing fatigue from evaluated muscles, where a significant decrease in fatigue index was observed. The muscles peak torque, work and power parameters did not change significantly after both modes of active recovery, but in both groups significant decrease was seen after passive recovery. Conclusions We suggest that 20 minutes of post-exercise active recovery involving the same muscles that were active during the fatiguing exercise is more effective in fatigue recovery than active exercise using the muscles that were not involved in the exercise. Active arm exercises were less effective in both groups which indicates a lack of a relationship between the different training regimens and the part of the body which is principally used during training. PMID:27706260

  5. Comparison of Two Different Modes of Active Recovery on Muscles Performance after Fatiguing Exercise in Mountain Canoeist and Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Anna; Oleksy, Łukasz; Kielnar, Renata; Wodka-Natkaniec, Ewa; Twardowska, Magdalena; Kamiński, Kamil; Małek, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess if the application of different methods of active recovery (working the same or different muscle groups from those which were active during fatiguing exercise) results in significant differences in muscle performance and if the efficiency of the active recovery method is dependent upon the specific sport activity (training loads). A parallel group non-blinded trial with repeated measurements. Thirteen mountain canoeists and twelve football players participated in this study. Measurements of the bioelectrical activity, torque, work and power of the vastus lateralis oblique, vastus medialis oblique, and rectus femoris muscles were performed during isokinetic tests at a velocity of 90°/s. Active legs recovery in both groups was effective in reducing fatigue from evaluated muscles, where a significant decrease in fatigue index was observed. The muscles peak torque, work and power parameters did not change significantly after both modes of active recovery, but in both groups significant decrease was seen after passive recovery. We suggest that 20 minutes of post-exercise active recovery involving the same muscles that were active during the fatiguing exercise is more effective in fatigue recovery than active exercise using the muscles that were not involved in the exercise. Active arm exercises were less effective in both groups which indicates a lack of a relationship between the different training regimens and the part of the body which is principally used during training.

  6. Elite female soccer players perform more high-intensity running when playing in international games compared with domestic league games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Helena Å.; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Heiner-Møller, Anja

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare movement pattern, fatigue development, and heart rate (HR) for top-class elite female players when playing international (INT) vs. domestic league games (DOM). Video-based time-motion analyses and HR recordings were performed on 17 players during INT and DOM....... The distances covered in high-intensity running (HIR) and sprinting were longer (p types...... no differences were observed between the game types for defenders. No difference in the HR response was found between INT and DOM. In conclusion, more HIR and sprinting occur in international compared with domestic games, which may affect the fatigue development for players in physically demanding roles. Thus...

  7. Physical match performance of youth football players in relation to physical capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebelo, António; Brito, João; Seabra, André

    2014-01-01

    , aged 14-17 years, carried out a laboratory treadmill test for determination of [Formula: see text] as well as the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) tests. Time-motion analysis and heart rate (HR) recordings were performed during two....... The total distance covered in the last 13.3-min period of the match was 40%, 26% and 17% lower than in the first, second and fourth 13.3-min periods of the match, respectively (P0.05) or Yo-Yo test performances (r=0.09-0.26; P>0.05). In conclusion, youth football players have a high heart-rate loading...... during match play and a decreased running performance towards the end of the game. The intermittent exercise capacity, as determined in the Yo-Yo IR1 test, appears to be a valid indicator of high-intensity exercise performance in youth matches....

  8. Hypoxic Repeat Sprint Training Improves Rugby Player's Repeated Sprint but Not Endurance Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J; Olsen, Peter D; Marshall, Helen C; Lizamore, Catherine A; Elliot, Catherine A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the performance changes in 19 well-trained male rugby players after repeat-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5 s sprints with 25 s and 5 min of active recovery between reps and sets, respectively) in either normobaric hypoxia (HYP; n = 9; FIO2 = 14.5%) or normobaric normoxia (NORM; n = 10; FIO2 = 20.9%). Three weeks after the intervention, 2 additional repeat-sprint training sessions in hypoxia (FIO2 = 14.5%) was investigated in both groups to gauge the efficacy of using "top-up" sessions for previously hypoxic-trained subjects and whether a small hypoxic dose would be beneficial for the previously normoxic-trained group. Repeated sprint (8 × 20 m) and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (YYIR1) performances were tested twice at baseline (Pre 1 and Pre 2) and weekly after (Post 1-3) the initial intervention (intervention 1) and again weekly after the second "top-up" intervention (Post 4-5). After each training set, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. Compared to baseline (mean of Pre 1 and Pre 2), both the hypoxic and normoxic groups similarly lowered fatigue over the 8 sprints 1 week after the intervention (Post 1: -1.8 ± 1.6%, -1.5 ± 1.4%, mean change ± 90% CI in HYP and NORM groups, respectively). However, from Post 2 onwards, only the hypoxic group maintained the performance improvement compared to baseline (Post 2: -2.1 ± 1.8%, Post 3: -2.3 ± 1.7%, Post 4: -1.9 ± 1.8%, and Post 5: -1.2 ± 1.7%). Compared to the normoxic group, the hypoxic group was likely to have substantially less fatigue at Post 3-5 (-2.0 ± 2.4%, -2.2 ± 2.4%, -1.6 ± 2.4% Post 3, Post 4, Post 5, respectively). YYIR1 performances improved throughout the recovery period in both groups (13-37% compared to baseline) with unclear differences found between groups. The addition of two sessions of "top-up" training after intervention 1, had little effect on either group. Repeat-sprint training in

  9. Hypoxic Repeat Sprint Training Improves Rugby Player's Repeated Sprint but Not Endurance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J.; Olsen, Peter D.; Marshall, Helen C.; Lizamore, Catherine A.; Elliot, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the performance changes in 19 well-trained male rugby players after repeat-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5 s sprints with 25 s and 5 min of active recovery between reps and sets, respectively) in either normobaric hypoxia (HYP; n = 9; FIO2 = 14.5%) or normobaric normoxia (NORM; n = 10; FIO2 = 20.9%). Three weeks after the intervention, 2 additional repeat-sprint training sessions in hypoxia (FIO2 = 14.5%) was investigated in both groups to gauge the efficacy of using “top-up” sessions for previously hypoxic-trained subjects and whether a small hypoxic dose would be beneficial for the previously normoxic-trained group. Repeated sprint (8 × 20 m) and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (YYIR1) performances were tested twice at baseline (Pre 1 and Pre 2) and weekly after (Post 1–3) the initial intervention (intervention 1) and again weekly after the second “top-up” intervention (Post 4–5). After each training set, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. Compared to baseline (mean of Pre 1 and Pre 2), both the hypoxic and normoxic groups similarly lowered fatigue over the 8 sprints 1 week after the intervention (Post 1: −1.8 ± 1.6%, −1.5 ± 1.4%, mean change ± 90% CI in HYP and NORM groups, respectively). However, from Post 2 onwards, only the hypoxic group maintained the performance improvement compared to baseline (Post 2: −2.1 ± 1.8%, Post 3: −2.3 ± 1.7%, Post 4: −1.9 ± 1.8%, and Post 5: −1.2 ± 1.7%). Compared to the normoxic group, the hypoxic group was likely to have substantially less fatigue at Post 3–5 (−2.0 ± 2.4%, −2.2 ± 2.4%, −1.6 ± 2.4% Post 3, Post 4, Post 5, respectively). YYIR1 performances improved throughout the recovery period in both groups (13–37% compared to baseline) with unclear differences found between groups. The addition of two sessions of “top-up” training after intervention 1, had little effect on either

  10. The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrício Eduardo Rossi, Andrew Landreth, Stacey Beam, Taylor Jones, Layne Norton, Jason Michael Cholewa

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI) on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat) participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C) for body composition and performance. The...

  11. Isokinetic muscle performance and salivary immune-endocrine responses in handball players by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Caetano Júnior

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: The handball players had good muscle performance of the lower limbs in the isokinetic evaluation. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis identified the main absorption bands of cortisol and salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A, as well as playing positions that demand higher stress levels, through changes of bands related to salivary cortisol.

  12. The Influence of Whole-Body Vibration on Creatine Kinase Activity and Jumping Performance in Young Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachina, Rafael; da Silva, Antônio; Falcão, William; Montagner, Paulo; Borin, João; Minozzo, Fábio; Falcão, Diego; Vancini, Rodrigo; Poston, Brach; de Lira, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify creatine kinase (CK) activity changes across time following an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) and determine the association between changes in CK activity and jumping performance. Method: Twenty-six elite young basketball players were assigned to 3 groups: 36-Hz and 46-Hz vibration groups (G36 and G46, respectively)…

  13. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7-11 years) Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Faber, N.R.; Oosterveld, F.G.; Nijhuis, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of

  14. Effects of Exercise Training under Hyperbaric Oxygen on Oxidative Stress Markers and Endurance Performance in Young Soccer Players: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Burgos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of three weeks of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2 training on oxidative stress markers and endurance performance in young soccer players. Participants (18.6±1.6 years were randomized into hyperbaric-hyperoxic (HH training (n=6 and normobaric normoxic (NN training (n=6 groups. Immediately before and after the 5th, 10th, and 15th training sessions, plasma oxidative stress markers (lipid hydroperoxides and uric acid, plasma antioxidant capacity (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid [TROLOX], arterial blood gases, acid-base balance, bases excess (BE, and blood lactate analyses were performed. Before and after intervention, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and peak power output (PPO were determined. Neither HH nor NN experienced significant changes on oxidative stress markers or antioxidant capacity during intervention. VO2max and PPO were improved (moderate effect size after HH training. The results suggest that HBO2 endurance training does not increase oxidative stress markers and improves endurance performance in young soccer players. Our findings warrant future investigation to corroborate that HBO2 endurance training could be a potential training approach for highly competitive young soccer players.

  15. Effects of Exercise Training under Hyperbaric Oxygen on Oxidative Stress Markers and Endurance Performance in Young Soccer Players: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Andrade, David Cristóbal; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; White, Allan; Cerda-Kohler, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of three weeks of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) training on oxidative stress markers and endurance performance in young soccer players. Participants (18.6 ± 1.6 years) were randomized into hyperbaric-hyperoxic (HH) training (n = 6) and normobaric normoxic (NN) training (n = 6) groups. Immediately before and after the 5th, 10th, and 15th training sessions, plasma oxidative stress markers (lipid hydroperoxides and uric acid), plasma antioxidant capacity (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid [TROLOX]), arterial blood gases, acid-base balance, bases excess (BE), and blood lactate analyses were performed. Before and after intervention, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and peak power output (PPO) were determined. Neither HH nor NN experienced significant changes on oxidative stress markers or antioxidant capacity during intervention. VO2max and PPO were improved (moderate effect size) after HH training. The results suggest that HBO2 endurance training does not increase oxidative stress markers and improves endurance performance in young soccer players. Our findings warrant future investigation to corroborate that HBO2 endurance training could be a potential training approach for highly competitive young soccer players. PMID:28083148

  16. The significance of task significance: Job performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Adam M

    2008-01-01

    Does task significance increase job performance? Correlational designs and confounded manipulations have prevented researchers from assessing the causal impact of task significance on job performance. To address this gap, 3 field experiments examined the performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions of task significance. In Experiment 1, fundraising callers who received a task significance intervention increased their levels of job performance relative to callers in 2 other conditions and to their own prior performance. In Experiment 2, task significance increased the job dedication and helping behavior of lifeguards, and these effects were mediated by increases in perceptions of social impact and social worth. In Experiment 3, conscientiousness and prosocial values moderated the effects of task significance on the performance of new fundraising callers. The results provide fresh insights into the effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions of task significance, offering noteworthy implications for theory, research, and practice on job design, social information processing, and work motivation and performance.

  17. The effects of tapering on power-force-velocity profiling and jump performance in professional rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacey, James; Brughelli, Matt; McGuigan, Michael; Hansen, Keir; Samozino, Pierre; Morin, Jean-Benoit

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a preseason taper on individual power-force-velocity profiles and jump performance in professional National Rugby League players. Seven professional rugby league players performed concentric squat jumps using ascending loads of 25, 50, 75, 100% body mass before and after a 21-day step taper leading into the in-season. Linear force-velocity relationships were derived, and the following variables were obtained: maximum theoretical velocity (V0), maximum theoretical force (F0), and maximum power (Pmax). The players showed likely-to-very likely increases in F0 (effect size [ES] = 0.45) and Pmax (ES = 0.85) from pre to posttaper. Loaded squat jump height also showed likely-to-most likely increases at each load (ES = 0.83-1.04). The 21-day taper was effective at enhancing maximal power output and jump height performance in professional rugby players, possibly as a result of a recovery from fatigue and thus increased strength capability after a prolonged preseason training period. Rugby league strength and conditioning coaches should consider reducing training volume while maintaining intensity and aerobic conditioning (e.g., step taper) leading into the in-season.

  18. Quantification of the perceived training load and its relationship with changes in physical fitness performance in junior soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Rey, Erreka; Lezaun, Alejandro; Los Arcos, Asier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between perceived respiratory and muscular training load (TL) and changes in physical fitness in elite and non-elite junior soccer players. Twenty-eight elite (n = 14, 17.6 ± 0.6 years, 70.3 ± 4.4 kg, 179.7 ± 5.6 cm) and non-elite (n = 14, 17.5 ± 0.5 years, 71.1 ± 6.5 kg, 178.1 ± 5.6 cm) soccer players belonging to a Spanish first and third division football academies and competing in junior Spanish first division (2012-2013) participated in the study. Countermovement jump (CMJ), CMJ arm swing, 5 and 15 m sprints and the Université de Montreal endurance test were performed in January and 9 weeks later in March. In order to quantify TLs, after each training session and match, players reported their session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) separately for respiratory (sRPEres) and leg musculature (sRPEmus). Elite players accumulated greater weekly training volume (361 ± 14 vs. 280 ± 48 min; effect sizes (ES) = 5.23 ± 1.74; most likely), and perceived respiratory (1460 ± 184 vs. 1223 ± 260 AU; ES = 1.12 ± 0.79; very likely) and muscular (1548 ± 216 vs. 1318 ± 308 AU; ES = 0.99 ± 0.84; likely) TL than did non-elite players. Training volume, sRPEres-TL and sRPEmus-TL were positively and largely correlated (r = 0.67-0.71) with the changes in aerobic fitness. The present results suggest that a low training volume and TL can impair improvement in aerobic fitness in junior soccer players during the in-season period.

  19. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7–11 years) Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players’ potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player’s future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7–11 years). Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05). Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items ‘aiming at target’, ‘throwing a ball’, and ‘eye-hand coordination’ in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%). Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment’s outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%). This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be

  20. Preseason changes in markers of lower body fatigue and performance in young professional rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Gregory A B; Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the changes in measures of neuromuscular fatigue and physical performance in young professional rugby union players during a preseason training period. Fourteen young (age: 19.1 ± 1.2 years) professional rugby union players participated in the study. Changes in measures of lower body neuromuscular fatigue (countermovement jump (CMJ) mean power, mean force, flight-time) and physical performance (lower body strength, 40 m sprint velocity) were assessed during an 11-week preseason period using magnitude-based inferences. CMJ mean power was likely to very likely decreased during week 2 (-8.1 ± 5.5% to -12.5 ± 6.8%), and likely to almost certainly decreased from weeks 5 to 11 (-10 ± 4.3% to -14.7 ± 6.9%), while CMJ flight-time demonstrated likely to very likely decreases during weeks 2, and weeks 4-6 (-2.41 ± 1% to -3.3 ± 1.3%), and weeks 9-10 (-1.9 ± 0.9% to -2.2 ± 1.5%). Despite this, possible improvements in lower body strength (5.8 ± 2.7%) and very likely improvements in 40 m velocity (5.5 ± 3.6%) were made. Relationships between changes in CMJ metrics and lower body strength or 40 m sprint velocity were trivial or small (neuromuscular fatigue (as measured by CMJ). The findings of this study question the usefulness of CMJ for monitoring fatigue in the context of strength and sprint velocity development. Future research is needed to ascertain the consequences of negative changes in CMJ in the context of rugby-specific activities to determine the usefulness of this test as a measure of fatigue in this population.

  1. Match and Game Performance Structure Variables in Elite and Youth International Badminton Players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kah Loon Leong; Oleksandr Krasilshchikov

    2016-01-01

    ...) and Youth International under 19 years of age (U-19) International badminton players. A total of 14 matches including semi-finals and finals of International tournaments were selected for the analysis...

  2. Caracterização da performance muscular em atletas profissionais de futebol Characterization of professional soccer players' muscle performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio T. da Fonseca

    2007-06-01

    . However, there is a paucity of data that characterizes the muscular performance in Brazilian professional soccer athletes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to make a descriptive analysis of parameters related to the muscular performance of this population. METHODS: The sample of this study was composed of 117 athletes belonging to professional soccer clubs in Minas Gerais State. In order to evaluate the muscular performance of the athletes, an isokinetic dynamometer was used and the tests involved maximum voluntary contractions of the selected muscles. Hip abductors and adductors were assessed at the speeds of 30º/s, 60º/s and 120º/s; knee flexors and extensors at 60º/s, 180º/s and 300º/s; and ankle dorsiflexors, plantarflexors, invertors and evertors at 30º/s, 60º/s and 180º/s. Descriptive statistics were used to present the normative data and paired t-tests were used to identify significant differences between legs considering the parameters evaluated in this study. RESULTS: This study generated normative data to characterize the profile of Brazilian professional soccer players relative to their capacity of producing torque, muscle work and power. Significant differences were observed between legs considering some of the study's variables. CONCLUSION: The established normative data can be used as reference values in the prevention, training and rehabilitation of the athletes. In addition, these data may be used as reference for future studies with the objective of testing the association between muscular performance and incidence of injury in soccer practice.

  3. The Effects of Sleep Extension on the Athletic Performance of Collegiate Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Cheri D.; Mah, Kenneth E.; Kezirian, Eric J.; Dement, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of sleep extension over multiple weeks on specific measures of athletic performance as well as reaction time, mood, and daytime sleepiness. Setting: Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic and Research Laboratory and Maples Pavilion, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Participants: Eleven healthy students on the Stanford University men's varsity basketball team (mean age 19.4 ± 1.4 years). Interventions: Subjects maintained their habitual sleep-wake schedule for a 2–4 week baseline followed by a 5–7 week sleep extension period. Subjects obtained as much nocturnal sleep as possible during sleep extension with a minimum goal of 10 h in bed each night. Measures of athletic performance specific to basketball were recorded after every practice including a timed sprint and shooting accuracy. Reaction time, levels of daytime sleepiness, and mood were monitored via the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS), respectively. Results: Total objective nightly sleep time increased during sleep extension compared to baseline by 110.9 ± 79.7 min (P timed sprint following sleep extension (16.2 ± 0.61 sec at baseline vs. 15.5 ± 0.54 sec at end of sleep extension, P time and Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores decreased following sleep extension (P sleep extension indicate that optimal sleep is likely beneficial in reaching peak athletic performance. Citation: Mah CD; Mah KE; Kezirian EJ; Dement WC. The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players. SLEEP 2011;34(7):943-950. PMID:21731144

  4. Iron supplementation prevents a decline in iron stores and enhances strength performance in elite female volleyball players during the competitive season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Zourdos, Michael C; Calleja-González, Julio; Urdampilleta, Aritz; Ostojic, Sergej

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 11 weeks of iron supplementation on hematological and strength markers in elite female volleyball players. Twenty-two volleyball players (aged 27.0 ± 5.6 years) from 2 Spanish First National League teams participated and were counterbalanced into 1 of 2 groups based upon iron status: (i) control group (CG, n = 11); or (ii) iron treatment group (ITG, n = 11), which received 325 mg/day of ferrous sulphate daily. Subjects performed their team's regimen of training or match play every day. Both groups were tested for hematological and strength levels at 2 points: (i) baseline (T0, before preseason) and (ii) 11 weeks later (T11, post-testing). Hematological parameters were serum iron (sFe), serum ferritin (FER), transferrin saturation index (TSI), and hemoglobin (Hb); strength assessments were bench press, military press, half-squat, power clean, clean and jerk, and pull-over. CG experienced a significant decrease (p 0.05). Consequently, in ITG all hematological parameters were significantly greater (p volleyball players during the competitive season.

  5. Effects of Peer-Assessed Feedback, Goal Setting and a Group Contingency on Performance and Learning by 10-12-Year-Old Academy Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Josh E.; Kinchin, Gary; Clarke, Gill

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coaches developing young talent in team sports must maximise practice and learning of essential game skills and accurately and continuously assess the performance and potential of each player. Relative age effects highlight an erroneous process of initial and on-going player assessment, based largely on subjective opinions of game…

  6. Effect of Caffeine Contained in Sports Drink on Hormones Producing Energy Following Sprint Test Performance in Male Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fayiz Abumoh'd

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of caffeine contained in sports drink on hormones producing energy and sprint test performance in male soccer players. Twelve participants (25.97 ± 2.70 y performed the test under thre e conditions (one week apart: caffeine with sports drink (SD-CAF, sports drink (SD, and placebo (PLA. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover protocol, participants performed SD-CAF trial (5 mg/kg of caffeine contained in 300 ml of sports drink 30 minutes prior to sprinting test (7 × 30 m, SD trial (solely 300 ml of sports drink 30 minutes prior to sprinting test, or placebo. Blood analysis indicated significantly higher level of free thyroxine in SD-CAF (21.450 ± 3.048 compared to SD (18.742 ± 1.151 and PLA (16.983 ± 1.783. Similar findings existed regarding insulin (P 0.05. No significant differences were observed between trials in first–fourth repetitions (P > 0.05. Time of fifth-seventh repetitions were significantly lower in SD-CAF compared to SD and PLA (P < 0.05, and were significantly lower in SD than that in PLA (P < 0.05. The time of 7th repetition was (4.331 ± 0.210, 4.610 ± 0.197, 4.81 6 ± 0.171 s for SD-CAF, SD, and PLA, respectively; P < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine interferes hormones that are responsible for producing energy which in turn have a positive effect on repeated sprint bouts.

  7. Influence of the mechanical properties of third-generation artificial turf systems on soccer players' physiological and physical performance and their perceptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Sánchez

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of the mechanical properties of artificial turf systems on soccer players' performance. A battery of perceptive physiological and physical tests were developed on four different structural systems of artificial turf (System 1: Compacted gravel sub-base without elastic layer; System 2: Compacted gravel sub-base with elastic layer; System 3: Asphalt sub-base without elastic layer; System 4: Asphalt sub-base with elastic layer. The sample was composed of 18 soccer players (22.44±1.72 years who typically train and compete on artificial turf. The artificial turf system with less rotational traction (S3 showed higher total time in the Repeated Sprint Ability test in comparison to the systems with intermediate values (49.46±1.75 s vs 47.55±1.82 s (S1 and 47.85±1.59 s (S2; p0.05. The physiological load was similar in all four artificial turf systems. However, players felt more comfortable on the harder and more rigid system (S4; visual analogue scale = 70.83±14.28 than on the softer artificial turf system (S2; visual analogue scale = 54.24±19.63. The lineal regression analysis revealed a significant influence of the mechanical properties of the surface of 16.5%, 15.8% and 7.1% on the mean time of the sprint, the best sprint time and the maximum mean speed in the RSA test respectively. Results suggest a mechanical heterogeneity between the systems of artificial turf which generate differences in the physical performance and in the soccer players' perceptions.

  8. The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Landreth, Andrew; Beam, Stacey; Jones, Taylor; Norton, Layne; Cholewa, Jason Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI) on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat) participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C) for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI) received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal), carbohydrate (CHO), protein (PRO), fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat) were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg) but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg). FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec) compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec). Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players. Key points Sport nutrition education intervention increased nutritional knowledge and nutritional status. Sport nutrition education intervention reduced body fat percentage, total fat mass, 5-10-5 shuttle times, and trended towards greater increases in lean mass compared to controls. Both groups increased strength and jump ability similarly. PMID:28344452

  9. Six weeks of β-alanine supplementation did not enhance repeated-sprint ability or technical performances in young elite basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milioni, Fabio; Redkva, Paulo E; Barbieri, Fabio A; Zagatto, Alessandro M

    2017-06-01

    Supplementation with β-alanine plays an important role as a precursor of carnosine, the most effective intramuscular buffer, and has been seen as a potential ergogenic aid, especially for high-intensity modalities such as basketball. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of β-alanine supplementation on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and technical performances in young elite Brazilian basketball players. In total, 27 young basketball players (17±1 years) were randomized into a β-alanine group (Gβ - 6.4 g day(-1) of β-alanine) and a placebo group (GP - 6.4 g day(-1) of dextrose). Before and after the supplementation period the athletes performed a RSA test composed of ten 30 m sprints with two 180° changes of direction interspaced by 30 s of recovery. During the recovery period (i.e., after the sprints) the athletes performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) and a set of three free throws. After 48 h they performed a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1). Both groups increased the distance covered in the Yo-Yo IR1 after the supplementation period ( p = 0.001). On the other hand, both groups presented impairment in RSA time-performance (total time, best time, and mean time, p ≤ 0.04), while no significant changes were observed for technical task performances (i.e., CMJ and free throws) ( p ≥ 0.07). No between-group interactions were observed for any variable measured ( p ≥ 0.31). Thus, 6 weeks of β-alanine supplementation did not improve RSA or technical performances in young elite basketball players.

  10. The effects of resisted sprint training on acceleration performance and kinematics in soccer, rugby union, and Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Christopher D; Murphy, Aron J; Spinks, Warwick L; Lockie, Robert G

    2007-02-01

    Acceleration is a significant feature of game-deciding situations in the various codes of football. However little is known about the acceleration characteristics of football players, the effects of acceleration training, or the effectiveness of different training modalities. This study examined the effects of resisted sprint (RS) training (weighted sled towing) on acceleration performance (0-15 m), leg power (countermovement jump [CMJ], 5-bound test [5BT], and 50-cm drop jump [50DJ]), gait (foot contact time, stride length, stride frequency, step length, and flight time), and joint (shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee) kinematics in men (N = 30) currently playing soccer, rugby union, or Australian football. Gait and kinematic measurements were derived from the first and second strides of an acceleration effort. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions: (a) 8-week sprint training of two 1-h sessions x wk(-1) plus RS training (RS group, n = 10), (b) 8-week nonresisted sprint training program of two 1-h sessions x wk(-1) (NRS group, n = 10), or (c) control (n = 10). The results indicated that an 8-week RS training program (a) significantly improves acceleration and leg power (CMJ and 5BT) performance but is no more effective than an 8-week NRS training program, (b) significantly improves reactive strength (50DJ), and (c) has minimal impact on gait and upper- and lower-body kinematics during acceleration performance compared to an 8-week NRS training program. These findings suggest that RS training will not adversely affect acceleration kinematics and gait. Although apparently no more effective than NRS training, this training modality provides an overload stimulus to acceleration mechanics and recruitment of the hip and knee extensors, resulting in greater application of horizontal power.

  11. Comparison of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise to improve isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance and balance of female volleyball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise on female volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to two exercise groups (whole-body vibration exercise group and plyometric exercise group). The exercise was conducted three times each week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance were measured before starting the exercise and after finishing the 8 weeks of exercise. [Results] Measurements of isokinetic muscular strength revealed that the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group had no significant increase in lumbar flexion, extension, and knee flexion. Measurements of vertical jumping revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group had no significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group showed significant increase. Measurements of balance revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase. However, the plyometric exercise group showed no significant increase. [Conclusion] Although both whole-body vibration and plyometric exercises are effective intervention methods, the two methods have different effects on the improvement of isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance of female volleyball players. PMID:27942136

  12. Mechanisms for triceps surae injury in high performance front row rugby union players: a kinematic analysis of scrummaging drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavell, Carol A; Sayers, Mark G L; Gordon, Susan J; Lee, James B

    2013-01-01

    The front row of a rugby union scrum consists of three players. The loose head prop, hooker and tight head prop. The objective of this study was to determine if known biomechanical risk factors for triceps surae muscle injury are exhibited in the lower limb of front row players during contested scrummaging. Eleven high performance front row rugby union players were landmarked bilaterally at the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS), greater trochanter, lateral femoral epicondyle, midline of the calcaneus above the plantar aspect of the heel, midline lower leg 5cm and 20cm proximal to the lateral malleolus, at the axis of subtalar joint, lateral malleolus, and head of the fifth metatarsal. Players were video recorded during a series of 2 on 1 live scrummaging drills. Biomechanical three dimensional analysis identified large angular displacements, and increased peak velocities and accelerations at the ankle joint during attacking scrummaging drill techniques when in the stance phase of gait. This places the triceps surae as increased risk of injury and provides valuable information for training staff regarding injury prevention and scrum training practices for front row players. Key pointsFront rowers exhibited patterns of single leg weight bearing, in a position of greater ankle plantar flexion and knee extension at toe off during scrummaging, which is a risk position for TS injury.Front rowers also exhibited greater acceleration at the ankle, knee, and hip joints, and greater changes in ankle ROM from toe strike to toe off during attacking scrum drills.These reported accelerations and joint displacements may be risk factors for TS injury, as the ankle is accelerating into plantar flexion at final push off and the muscle is shortening from an elongated state.

  13. Increasing Performance of Professional Soccer Players and Elite Track and Field Athletes with Peak Performance Training and Biofeedback: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijken, Noortje H; Soer, Remko; de Maar, Ewold; Prins, Hilco; Teeuw, Wouter B; Peuscher, Jan; Oosterveld, Frits G J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of an intervention consisting of mental coaching combined with either electro encephalogram (EEG) alpha power feedback or heart rate variability (HRV) feedback on HRV, EEG outcomes and self-reported factors related to stress, performance, recovery and sleep quality in elite athletes. A prospective pilot study was performed with two distinct cohorts. Soccer players were provided with four sessions of mental coaching combined with daily HRV biofeedback (Group A); track and field athletes were provided with four sessions of mental coaching in combination with daily neurofeedback (Group B). Measurements were performed at baseline, post intervention and at 5 weeks follow-up. Objective measures: EEG and ECG. Subjective measures: Numeric Rating Scale for performance, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Rest and Stress Questionnaire and Sports Improvement-60. Group characteristics were too distinct to compare the interventions. Linear mixed models were used to analyze differences within groups over time. In Group A, significant changes over time were present in alpha power at 5 of 7 EEG locations (p performance-related outcomes and stress reduction. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of either type of feedback and to compare effects with a control group.

  14. Adaptivity to Age, Gender, and Gaming Platform Topology in Physical Multi-Player Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Friðriksson, Rafn Vídalín; Björnsson, Davíð Þór

    2012-01-01

    In games where players are competing against each other, it can be of interest to ensure that all players are challenged according to their individual skills. In order to investigate such adaptivity to the individual player in physical multi-player games, we developed a game on modular interactive...... and adults, and between male and female players. Also, results show statistically significant differences in the game interactions between different physical set-ups of the modular interactive tiles, i.e. the interaction depended on the topology of the modular tiles set-up. Changing the physical set......-up of the physical game platform changes the interaction and performance of the players....

  15. The Structure of Morpho-Functional Conditions Determining the Level of Sports Performance of Young Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the structure of morpho-functional models that determine the level of sports performance in three consecutive stages of training of young badminton players. In the course of the study, 3 groups of young badminton players were examined: 40 preadolescents aged 11–13, 32 adolescents aged 14–16, and 24 adolescents aged 17–19. The scope of the study involved basic anthropometric measurements, computer tests analysing motor coordination abilities, motor skills encompassing speed, muscular power and strength, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Results of the study indicate that the structure of morpho-functional models varies at different stages of sports training. Sets of variables determining sports performance create characteristic complexes of variables that do not constitute permanent models. The dominance of somatic features and coordination abilities in the early stages of badminton training changes for the benefit of speed and strength abilities.

  16. Selecting team players: Considering the impact of contextual performance and workplace deviance on selection decisions in the National Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Steven W; Maynes, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    Contextual performance and workplace deviance likely influence team functioning and effectiveness and should therefore be considered when evaluating job candidates for team-based roles. However, obtaining this information is difficult given a lack of reliable sources and the desire of job applicants to present themselves in a favorable light. Thus, it is unknown whether those selecting employees for teams incorporate prior contextual performance and workplace deviance into their evaluations, or whether doing so improves the quality of selection decisions. To address these issues, we examined the impact of prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance on National Football League (NFL) decision maker (organizational insider) and external expert (organizational outsider) evaluations of college football players in the NFL draft, using a content analysis methodology to generate measures of contextual performance and workplace deviance. Our findings indicate that insiders value contextual performance more than outsiders, which is likely because of differing interests and goals that lead to different levels of motivation and/or ability to acquire information about prior contextual performance. We also propose that prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance will predict player performance in the NFL. Our results support this prediction for task and contextual performance. In addition, we investigated the quality of insider and outsider judgments using Brunswik's (1952) lens model. Implications of our findings for the team selection, contextual performance, and workplace deviance literatures are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Technical and tactical soccer players' performance in conceptual small-sided games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Javier Ramirez Lizana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractConceptual small-sided games (CSSGs may be interesting as a methodology for training soccer players given its connection to the unpredictability that is inherent to soccer. Our aim was investigate, through videogrammetry, if the technical and tactical principles promoted through the adoption of distinct rules from two distinct CSSGs (maintaining ball possession; and progression to the target would actually be achieved. The study included 24 athletes assigned to 6-player teams. Our data showed that the CSSGs' organising principles create situations with differing levels of difficulty that obey the propositions of maintaining ball possession and progression to the target, i.e., CSSGs permit systematic training on technical and tactical components in order to emphasize the concepts adopted in this study in games context. Our data credit the CSSGs for teaching technical and tactical lessons that, when coupled with adequate physical conditioning, can facilitate a player's capacity to merge thoughts and events in different situations.

  18. Effects of Fatigue on Throwing Performance in Experienced Team Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño, Alberto; Chirosa, Ignacio J; van den Tillaar, Roland; Guisado, Rafael; Martín, Ignacio; Martinez, Isidoro; Chirosa, Luis J

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of central and peripheral physiological fatigue on throwing accuracy and ball release velocity in team handball. Twenty male subjects (age 24.7 ± 3.9 yrs, body mass 88.5 ± 5.0 kg, body height 1.86 ± 0.05 m, training experience 12.7 ± 3.8 yrs) from one handball team participated in this study. The participants completed four sets of eight laps of a circuit that consisted of specific team handball drills/exercises, with decreasing recovery times between the laps in each set in order to induce physiological fatigue. Duration of the recovery intervals determined the description of the effort made in each set: "light" (80 s recovery between laps), "moderate" (40 s), "hard" (20 s) and "very hard" (10 s). A heart rate, concentration of lactate in blood and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Ball velocity and accuracy were measured after each set and they both decreased during a fatigue protocol. However, accuracy only decreased significantly in the end of the protocol, while ball release was already affected after the first round of the protocol. The results substantiate the initial hypothesis and confirm that both throwing accuracy and ball release velocity decrease significantly as physiological fatigue increases. These variables began to decrease when the fatigue quantification values were high or very high. The findings can be used by coaches to develop training programs to teach players how to identify fatigue thresholds and combat the effects of fatigue through decision-making skills at critical game moments.

  19. Using balance training to improve the performance of youth basketball players

    OpenAIRE

    Boccolini, G.; A. Brazzit; Bonfanti, L; Alberti, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 12 weeks of balance training to improve the balance and vertical jump abilities of young basketball players. Twenty-three players from two teams in the Under Fifteen Basketball Excellence category participated in the study. Participants were divided into two training groups: balance training (BAL, n = 11) and isotonic training (ISO, n = 12). Both groups were tested for balance and vertical jumps at the beginning of the competitive sea...

  20. The Effect of Predeparture Training Loads on Posttour Physical Capacities in High-Performance Junior Tennis Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alistair P; Duffield, Rob; Kellett, Aaron; Gescheit, Dani; Reid, Machar

    2015-11-01

    Difficulties in preserving physical capacities while on tennis tours necessitate targeted training prescription. This study analyzed training and match loads performed before and on tour for their relationship with posttour physical-capacity changes. A secondary aim was to determine whether the presence of a strength and conditioning (S&C) coach affected the type and volume of on-tour training load. The training and match loads of 30 high-performance junior tennis players were recorded over 8 wk: 4 wk before and 4 wk during an international tour. Fitness tests were conducted pretour and posttour, including double and single-leg (dominant and nondominant) countermovement jump, speed (5, 10, and 20 m), modified 5-0-5 agility, 10 × 20-m repeated-sprint ability, and multistage fitness tests. Tour training and match loads were categorized according to whether S&C support was present or absent. Total and tennis training loads were significantly greater on tour than pretour (P ≤ .05, d > 0.8). Increases in on-tour, on-court training loads were moderately correlated with decrements in speed and aerobic power (r = .31-.52). Finally, S&C presence on tour significantly increased total, on-court, and off-court training load completed (P ≤ .05, d > 0.8). Training loads should be carefully prescribed to ensure that sufficient total and tennis loads are completed pretour. Specifically, speed and aerobic capacities may regress with increased training on tour. Finally, a practical observation was that on-tour S&C support resulted in increased S&C training load (around match loads), potentially countering the observed regression of physical capacities. Such a finding has the capacity to alter current physical-preparation structures in high-performance tennis environments with finite resources.

  1. Supramaximal intermittent running performance in relation to age and locomotor profile in highly-trained young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine supramaximal intermittent running performance in highly-trained young soccer players, with regard to age and locomotor profile. Twenty-seven Under 14, 19 U16 and 16 U18 highly-trained soccer players performed an incremental intermittent running test (30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test) to assess supramaximal intermittent running performance (VIFT), an incremental running test to estimate maximal aerobic speed (VVam-Eval) and a 40-m sprint to estimate maximal sprinting speed (MSS). U16 and U18 presented very likely greater VIFT (19.2 ± 0.9, 19.7 ± 1.0 vs. 17.4 ± 0.9 km · h(-1)) and VVam-Eval (16.2 ± 0.9, 16.7 ± 1.0 vs. 14.6 ± 0.9 km · h(-1)) than U14, while there was no clear difference between U16 and U18. MSS (25.1 ± 1.6, 29.3 ± 1.6 and 31.0 ± 1.1 km · h(-1) for U14, U16 and U18) was very likely different between all groups. When data were pooled together, VIFT was very largely correlated with VVam-Eval and MSS (overall r =0.89, partial r = 0.74 and 0.29, respectively). Within-age group correlations showed that the older the players, the greater the magnitude of the correlations between VIFT and VVam-Eval (r = 0.67, 0.73 and 0.87). In conclusion, the major predictors of VIFT were, in order of importance, VVam-Eval and MSS; however, the older the players, the greater the correlations with VVam-Eval.

  2. Goal orientations, beliefs about success, and performance improvement among young elite Dutch soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Duda, Joan L.

    1999-01-01

    Extending past work testing goal perspective theory in sport, one purpose of this study was to examine, via a longitudinal design, the relationship of goal orientations to the beliefs about the causes of success in the case of elite male Dutch soccer players. A second purpose was to determine the re

  3. Academic performance and self-regulatory skills in elite youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Laura; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Toering, Tynke T.; Lyons, James; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Although elite athletes have been reported to be high academic achievers, many elite soccer players struggle with a stereotype of being low academic achievers. The purpose of this study was to compare the academic level (pre-university or pre-vocational) and self-regulatory skills (planning, self-mo

  4. Academic performance and self-regulatory skills in elite youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Laura; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Toering, Tynke T.; Lyons, James; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Although elite athletes have been reported to be high academic achievers, many elite soccer players struggle with a stereotype of being low academic achievers. The purpose of this study was to compare the academic level (pre-university or pre-vocational) and self-regulatory skills (planning,

  5. Effect of in-season creatine supplementation on body composition and performance in rugby union football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Magnus, Charlene; Anderson, Matthew

    2007-12-01

    Rugby union football requires muscular strength and endurance, as well as aerobic endurance. Creatine supplementation may enhance muscular performance, but it is unclear if it would interfere with aerobic endurance during running because of increased body mass. The purpose of this study was to determine if creatine supplementation during 8 weeks of a season of rugby union football can increase muscular performance, without negatively affecting aerobic endurance. Rugby union football players were randomized to receive 0.1 g.kg(-1).d(-1) creatine monohydrate (n=9) or placebo (n=9) during 8 weeks of the rugby season. Players practiced twice per week for approximately 2 h per session and played one 80 min game per week. Before and after the 8 weeks, players were measured for body composition (air displacement plethysmography), muscular endurance (number of repetitions at 75% of one repetition maximum (1 RM) for bench press and leg press), and aerobic endurance (Leger shuttle-run test with 1 min stages of progressively increasing speed). There were time main effects for body mass (-0.7+/-0.4 kg; p=0.05), fat mass (-1.9+/-0.8 kg; prugby union football season is effective for increasing muscular endurance, but has no effect on body composition or aerobic endurance.

  6. Use of NIRS to assess effect of training on peripheral muscle oxygenation changes in elite rugby players performing repeated supramaximal cycling tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin; Cooper, C E

    2014-01-01

    In most team sports, intermittent high intensity sprint efforts combined with short recovery periods have been identified as a key factor of physical performance; the ability to repeat these efforts at a sustained level is of great importance. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been proposed as a tool to monitor muscle oxygenation changes during such sprint efforts. The purpose of this study was to observe muscle reoxygenation rate (reoxy rate) (% s⁻¹) between sprint efforts in a repeat sprint cycle test. A two wavelength spatially resolved NIR spectrometer (Portamon, Artinis Inc.) was used to assess reoxy rate changes in the vastus lateralis of the dominant leg before and after a training stimulus. Eight UK premiership academy level rugby players were assessed (age 20.6 ± 0.9) years; height 187 ± 0.6 cm; weight 109.5 ± 8.6 kg; quadriceps skin fold 16.6 ± 4.5 mm); the subjects completed ten repeated 10-s cycle sprints interspersed with 40 s recovery, upon a Wattbike Pro cycle. Hemoglobin variables (ΔHHb, ΔtHb, ΔO₂Hb, ΔTSI %) during the sprint and the post-sprint reoxygenation rate (%TSI s⁻¹) were measured. During both cycle tests all subjects experienced a drop in muscle oxygen saturation (Pre-Δ - 12.39 ± 6.01 %), Post-Δ - 14.83 ± 3.88 %). Post-training, there was an increase in the extent of desaturation (drop in TSI %) in the group means, both for the biggest single change and the average of all ten changes. Seven out of eight players showed an increase based on the maximum change and six based on the average of their ten tests. Additionally, seven out of eight players showed a significant increase in ΔHHb (Pre-Δ + 76.80 ± 61.92, Post-Δ + 121.28 ± 69.76) (p < 0.01) (including the one player who did not show a significant effect on the TSI measure). Players who exercised at the highest power tended to decrease their muscle oxygenation to a greater extent. The number of bike training sessions undertaken correlated with improvements in

  7. Kicking Performance and Muscular Strength Parameters with Dominant and Nondominant Lower Limbs in Brazilian Elite Professional Futsal Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Luiz Henrique Palucci; de Souza Serenza, Felipe; de Andrade, Vitor Luiz; de Paula Oliveira, Lucas; Mariano, Fábio Pamplona; Santana, Juliana Exel; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the current study were to analyze a kick from 10 m in a futsal context and the parameters of muscular strength using an isokinetic dynamometer in a laboratory environment, performed with the dominant (DL) and nondominant lower limbs (NDL). Seventeen professional elite players participated. Kicking performance was evaluated from the second penalty mark. Next, athletes completed a strength evaluation with an isokinetic dynamometer at speeds of 60°⋅s(-1), 180°⋅s(-1), and 300°⋅s(-1). Significant differences were observed for hip (15.64 ± 3.44; 13.97 ± 2.62), ankle (63.19 ± 8.90; 52.55 ± 8.72), foot (82.31 ± 7.93; 68.41 ± 7.85), and ball (99.74 ± 8.45; 88.31 ± 7.93) speeds (km⋅h(-1)), and average power at 180°⋅s(-1) (325.59 ± 40.47; 315.79 ± 39.49 W), but not for accuracy (1.33 ± 0.57; 1.66 ± 0.77 m) between the DL and NDL, respectively. Few moderate correlations were observed in the DL (r = .54-.64) or NDL (r = .53-.55) between the kinematic variables of kick and muscular strength parameters (P imbalance in muscular strength is very small. We recommend that specific court tests be conducted to reliably characterize kicking performance in futsal. Success in kicking seems to be too variable and complex to be totally predicted only by joints, foot and ball speed, and lower limb muscular strength parameters.

  8. Effects of high-dose large neutral amino acid supplementation on exercise, motor skill, and mental performance in Australian Rules Football players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stepto, Nigel K; Shipperd, Benjamin B; Hyman, Graeme; McInerney, Bernie; Pyne, David B

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of high-dose large neutral amino acid (LNAA) supplementation on attenuating fatigue-induced decrements in exercise and motor skill performance in Australian Rules Football (ARF) players...

  9. Executive functioning in highly talented soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J A; van Lange, Paul A M; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer.

  10. Effect of two different regimes of carbohydrate and protein on performance and serum level of insulin and glucose in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hozoori

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two different regimes, containing different carbohydrate to protein ratios on performance, serum glucose and insulin after exercise in soccer players in Tehran; Iran. Methods: Nineteen male soccer players under training [age = 17/5 +/- 1.5 (SE yr] were selected and completed two sequential trials separated by 1 week, in a paired cross-over study design. In each trial, subjects after running to fatigue; received one of three regimes, using a random- order design as follows: HPRO ( CHO 56%, PRO 19% & fat 25% of total energy; HCHO ( CHO 64%, PRO 11% & fat 25% of total energy or control ( CHO 60%, PRO 15% & fat 25% of total energy. The calorie of 3 regimes were equal. After consumption of meal up to120 min, blood was obtained before and at intervals. After 3 hours athlete performance was measured. Results: The study indicates no significant difference in the serum insulin and glucose response among three regimes (P > 0.05. There was no difference in performance between three regimes after 3 h (p > 0.05. Conclusion: The results suggest that post exercise regimes have no influence on performance, serum glucose and serum insulin. Thus total energy content and carbohydrate content may be important in recovery after exercise.

  11. COMPARISON OF TWO TECHNIQUES MASSAGE; STATIC STRETCHING AND COMBINATION OF MASSAGE AND STRETCHING IN LOWER LIMB MUSCLE ON FLEXIBILITY; POWER AND AGILITY TESTS PERFORMANCE IN SOCCER PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Chourli; Hadi Rohani; Ali Mostafalou; Somaye Khosrojerdi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was investigating Comparison of two techniques massage; staticstretching and combination of massage and stretching in lower limb muscle on flexibility;power and agility tests performance in soccer players. 45 soccer players in three groupsrandomly massage (15 cases); stretching (15 cases) and a combination of massage andstretching group (15 cases) were selected; performed the Sit and Reach; Toe-Touch; VerticalJump and 4×9 tests in two stages before and after massage;...

  12. Increasing Performance of Professional Soccer Players and Elite Track and Field Athletes with Peak Performance Training and Biofeedback: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rijken, Noortje H.; Soer, Remko; de Maar, Ewold; Prins, Hilco; Teeuw, Wouter B.; Peuscher, Jan; Oosterveld, Frits G. J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of an intervention consisting of mental coaching combined with either electro encephalogram (EEG) alpha power feedback or heart rate variability (HRV) feedback on HRV, EEG outcomes and self-reported factors related to stress, performance, recovery and sleep quality in elite athletes. A prospective pilot study was performed with two distinct cohorts. Soccer players were provided with four sessions of mental coaching combined with daily...

  13. Can an early perceptuo-motor skills assessment predict future performance in youth table tennis players? An observational study (1998-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Irene R; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Oosterveld, Frits G J; Twisk, Jos W R; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2017-03-01

    This study intended to investigate the capability of the 4 test items "sprint", "agility", "speed while dribbling" and "throwing a ball" of the Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment used at the age of 7-10 years to predict table tennis performance (U13, U15 and U18) in an observational study. Data of 1191 young table tennis players, collected from 1998 to 2013, were analysed in univariable and multivariable logistic and linear regression models. The test items "sprint" and "throwing a ball" showed to be significant predictors for table tennis performance outcomes in boys (P test items also "speed while dribbling" had a significant contribution (P test items specifically assessing eye hand coordination and other domains, for example, the psychological and the environmental domain, related to table tennis performance are recommended.

  14. Acute Effects of Two Different Resistance Circuit Training Protocols on Performance and Perceived Exertion in Semiprofessional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Tomás T; Calleja-González, Julio; Alarcón, Francisco; Alcaraz, Pedro E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two different resistance circuit training protocols on basketball players' physical and technical performance and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). In a repeated-measures, crossover experimental design, 9 semiprofessional basketball players performed a Power Circuit Training (PCT; 45% 1RM) and a High-Resistance Circuit Training (HRC; 6RM), on consecutive weeks. Vertical and horizontal jump performance, 3-points shooting accuracy, repeated-sprint ability (RSA), agility, and upper body power output were measured before and after training. The RPE was assessed 20 minutes after resistance training. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance showed performance decrements in vertical jump height and peak power, horizontal jump distance, 3-points percentage, bench-press power output, RSA total and ideal time, and agility T-Test at total time following HRC, but not PCT (p ≤ 0.05). The RPE was higher in HRC compared with PCT. The results of this study indicated that HRC was perceived as being harder and produced higher fatigue levels, which in turn lowered acute performance. However, low-to-moderate intensity loads did not negatively affect performance. Thus, completing a PCT session may be the most appropriate option before a practice or game as it avoids acute-resistance-training-induced performance decrements. However, if the objective of the basketball session is to develop or perfect technical skills during fatiguing conditions, HRC may be the more suitable option.

  15. Impact of a competition with two consecutive matches in a day on physical performance in young tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Salazar, Cesar; Del Coso, Juan; Barbado, David; Lopez-Valenciano, Alejandro; Santos-Rosa, Francisco Javier; Sanz-Rivas, David; Moya, Manuel; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of playing 2 tennis matches on the same day on physical performance in young tennis players. Twelve well-trained young tennis players took part in a simulated tennis competition consisting of 2 tennis matches on the same day (morning and afternoon sessions). Before and the day after the competition, physical performance was measured using a battery of countermovement jumps; a 10 m sprint; the 5-0-5 agility test; hip, grip and shoulder maximal isometric strength; shoulder range of motion; and a serve velocity test. Postcompetition results showed reduced performance in 10 m (-3.3%, effect size (ES) = small), dominant and nondominant 5-0-5 agility test (-4.6%, ES = moderate; -4.2%, ES = moderate, respectively), bilateral (-5.2%, ES = small), and unilateral countermovement jumps (dominant leg: -7.2%, ES = small; non-dominant leg: -9.1%, ES = small). Both dominant and nondominant shoulder external rotation range of motion increased (12.2%, ES = moderate; 5.6%, ES = small), whereas internal rotation decreased (-4.2%, ES = small; -3.3%, ES = small) in the postcompetition tests, together with the dominant shoulder external rotation (-10.7%, ES = moderate) and internal rotation (-9.3%, ES = small) strength. Physical impairments occurred in neuromuscular performance variables involving lower (e.g., jumping, sprinting, and change of direction) and upper (e.g., isometric strength and range of motion) limbs the day after playing a competition with 2 consecutive matches on the same day. These alterations in neuromuscular and sport-specific performance need to be taken into consideration when planning tournament schedules for young tennis players, as well as preparing match and recovery strategies.

  16. Relationships between field performance tests in high-level soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Brochmann, Marit; Castagna, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    after two and four minutes of the Yo-Yo IR tests by testing 57 high-level soccer players. All players played regularly in one of the three highest levels of Norwegian soccer and were tested during three sessions on three consecutive days. Large correlations were observed between Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2 test...... using only one of the Yo-Yo tests and a RSA test, in a general soccer-specific field test protocol. The sub-maximal heart rate measures during Yo-Yo tests are reproducible and may be utilized for frequent, time-efficient and non-exhaustive testing of intermittent exercise capacity of high-level soccer...

  17. Differences in Soccer Kick Kinematics between Blind Players and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Natsikas, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p less than 0.05) ball…

  18. Stepping stones to significant market shares for renewables. The European forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This invitation to a two-day European Forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy business lists the presentations made at the conference in 2007. The programme included contributions in the following areas: Policies and market deployment initiatives, market trends and experience - from support schemes to market experience, opportunities in a changing framework in Switzerland, instruments and infrastructure requirements - how to make the market work and supply and demand aspects of a growing market. The conference examined how renewable forms of energy can gain significant market shares and reach a quota of 50% renewables in 50 years. The first session examined policies and market deployment initiatives, the second market trends and experiences, the third opportunities for Switzerland in a changing framework. The second day featured sessions on instruments and infrastructure requirements as well as on supply and demand aspects in a growing market. The conference was complemented with four workshops.

  19. Relationships and Predictive Capabilities of Jump Assessments to Soccer-Specific Field Test Performance in Division I Collegiate Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Lockie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Leg power is an important characteristic for soccer, and jump tests can measure this capacity. Limited research has analyzed relationships between jumping and soccer-specific field test performance in collegiate male players. Nineteen Division I players completed tests of: leg power (vertical jump (VJ, standing broad jump (SBJ, left- and right-leg triple hop (TH; linear (30 m sprint; 0–5 m, 5–10 m, 0–10, 0–30 m intervals and change-of-direction (505 speed; soccer-specific fitness (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2; and 7 × 30-m sprints to measure repeated-sprint ability (RSA; total time (TT, performance decrement (PD. Pearson’s correlations (r determined jump and field test relationships; stepwise regression ascertained jump predictors of the tests (p < 0.05. All jumps correlated with the 0–5, 0–10, and 0–30 m sprint intervals (r = −0.65–−0.90. VJ, SBJ, and left- and right-leg TH correlated with RSA TT (r = −0.51–−0.59. Right-leg TH predicted the 0–5 and 0–10 m intervals (R2 = 0.55–0.81; the VJ predicted the 0–30 m interval and RSA TT (R2 = 0.41–0.84. Between-leg TH asymmetry correlated with and predicted left-leg 505 and RSA PD (r = −0.68–0.62; R2 = 0.39–0.46. Improvements in jumping ability could contribute to faster speed and RSA performance in collegiate soccer players.

  20. Relationship of soccer heading to computerized neurocognitive performance and symptoms among female and male youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Anthony P; Dolese, Angela; Elbin, R J; Covassin, Tracey; Warren, Barbara L

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between soccer heading and computerized neurocognitive performance and symptoms in female and male youth soccer players. Cross-sectional and prospective design. A total of 63 (27 females, 36 males) youth soccer players aged 13-18 years (M = 15.89, SD = 1.17) participated in the study. Participants completed the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) and symptom report. Computerized neurocognitive performance (e.g., verbal and visual memory, motor processing, and reaction time) and symptoms. There were no differences in neurocognitive performance or symptoms among low-, moderate-, and high-exposure header groups. The current sample outperformed the 10th percentile norms for neurocognitive and symptom scores. Males headed the ball more frequently and reported lower verbal and visual memory and motor processing speed scores than females. The current findings did not support a relationship between soccer heading and computerized neurocognitive performance and symptoms. The researchers suggest that any purported effects of soccer heading in youth are subtle and may affect only a small number of athletes. The reported sex differences in heading exposure warrant further attention.

  1. Morning-evening difference of team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances in female team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhenni, Thouraya; Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar; Chamari, Karim

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the two different time-of-day effect on team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances. At two different time-of-day, fifteen young female team handball players performed different physical tests: HandGrip (HG) test, Ball-Throwing Velocity (BTV) test, Modified Agility T-test (MAT) and Repeated Shuttle-Sprint and Jump Ability (RSSJA) test. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was determined following the termination of the last test. Measurements were performed at two separate testing sessions (i.e., in the morning (7:00-8:30 h) and in the early evening (17:00-18:30 h)) in a randomised and counter-balanced setting on non-consecutive days. The results showed that HG (P = 0.0013), BTV (P = 0.0027) and MAT (P handball players, team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances were better in the afternoon than in the morning.

  2. A method to assess the influence of individual player performance distribution on match outcome in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sam; Gupta, Ritu; McIntosh, Sam

    2016-10-01

    This study developed a method to determine whether the distribution of individual player performances can be modelled to explain match outcome in team sports, using Australian Rules football as an example. Player-recorded values (converted to a percentage of team total) in 11 commonly reported performance indicators were obtained for all regular season matches played during the 2014 Australian Football League season, with team totals also recorded. Multiple features relating to heuristically determined percentiles for each performance indicator were then extracted for each team and match, along with the outcome (win/loss). A generalised estimating equation model comprising eight key features was developed, explaining match outcome at a median accuracy of 63.9% under 10-fold cross-validation. Lower 75th, 90th and 95th percentile values for team goals and higher 25th and 50th percentile values for disposals were linked with winning. Lower 95th and higher 25th percentile values for Inside 50s and Marks, respectively, were also important contributors. These results provide evidence supporting team strategies which aim to obtain an even spread of goal scorers in Australian Rules football. The method developed in this investigation could be used to quantify the importance of individual contributions to overall team performance in team sports.

  3. Achievement motivation, competitiveness and sports performance in a team of sportsmen soccer players between 14 and 24 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo García-Naveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify to what extent competitiveness trait is related to sport performance in soccer, and to what extent the age and sport category can influence these variables, a descriptive cross-sectional study has been developed. The variables age, sport category, sport performance, achievement motivation (Me, motivation to avoid the failure (Mef and competitiveness trait have been assessed in 151 men soccer players (between 14 and 24 y.o. of a Spanish sport club. The results indicated that the sport performance ascends with age. Consequently, a direct relationship between the sport category and the performance has been observed. Me, Mef and competitiveness trait have been associated with the performance and has varied based on the sport category. No correlation between Me, Mef, competitiveness and age of the sportsmen has been found

  4. ACUTE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT WARM-UP PROCEDURES ON 30M. SPRINT, SLALOM DRIBBLING, VERTICAL JUMP AND FLEXIBILITY PERFORMANCE IN WOMEN FUTSAL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Ibrahim ,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the acute effects of warm-ups procedures which was applied different days on slalom dribbling, 30m. sprint, vertical jump performance and flexibility in women futsal players. Ten women athletes who play futsal in Mugla Sıtkı Kocman University, participated this study. Ten women athletes were assigned randomly to 3 different warm-up procedures (Warm up group I; 5 minutes jogging, Warm up group II; 5 minutes jogging and static streching, Warm-up group III; 5 minutes jogging and dynamic exercises on non-consecutive days. After each warm-up session, all athletes were tested on slalom dribbling, 30m. sprint, vertical jump and flexibility performances. 30m. sprint and slalom dribbling test performances was measured wtih a stopwatch. For Flexibility, Sit and reach test was used. Vertical jump performance of athletes were measured by taking difference between the height that they can reach by standing and the height that they can reach by jumping. For the analysis of the data obtained from the study, SPSS 16.0 program was used. To find out whether there are any significant differences between the groups, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used and to find out which group cause the difference, Tukey HSD test was used. As a result of the study, significant differences were found 30m. sprint and slalom dribbling performance (p<0,05. Consequently, different warm up procedures may have different effect on slalom dribbling and 30m. sprint performance in women futsal players

  5. Effects of Pre - Season Short - Term Daily Undulating Periodized Training on Muscle Strength and Sprint Performance of Under - 20 Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ricardo L OPES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of daily undulating training periodization designed for maximal lower limb muscle strength and sprint performance in under - 20 soccer players. Twenty - four male athletes (age = 19.1 ± 1.2 yr; mass = 71.1 ± 6. 8 kg; height = 178.0 ± 0.1 cm participated in four weeks of a daily undulating periodized (DUP training soccer program. During the pre - and post - training periods the subjects performed a one repetition maximum (1 RM half back squat test and a 15 - meter s print. Significant training - induced changes were observed in sprint times (pre = 2.38 ± 0.01 s; post = 2.31 ± 0.02 s and 1 RM tests (pre = 107.0 ± 2.0 kg; post = 128.0 ± 2.2 kg. These results indicate that a DUP program is efficient in promoting positive neuromuscular adaptations in soccer players, even with a short - term preseason training period.

  6. Kicking velocity and physical, technical, tactical match performance for U18 female football players--effect of a new ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Thomas B; Bendiksen, Mads; Pedersen, Jens M; Ørntoft, Christina; Brito, João; Jackman, Sarah R; Williams, Craig A; Krustrup, Peter

    2012-12-01

    We investigated kicking velocity and physical, technical, and tactical match performance for under-18 (U18) female football players and evaluated the effect of using a newly developed lighter smaller ball. Ten regional league teams participated. Maximal ball velocity was 4±1% higher when kicking the new ball (NB) compared with the standard ball (SB) in a laboratory testing situation (23.2±0.4 vs. 22.4±0.3 ms(-1); p.05), but lower-limb muscular RPE was lower with NB (4.2±0.4 vs. 5.2±0.3; p.05). High-intensity running decreased (p.05). In conclusion, physiological demands were high in youth female football games, and decrements in running performance occurred towards the end of games. The players kicked faster and reported lower muscular exertion during games played with a lighter smaller ball, but locomotor activities, heart rate and overall technical-tactical game performance remained unaffected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Adding whole body vibration to preconditioning exercise increases subsequent on-ice sprint performance in ice-hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Slettaløkken, Gunnar; Ellefsen, Stian

    2016-04-01

    The phenomenon postactivation potentiation can possibly be used to acutely improve sprint performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body-loaded half-squats with added whole body vibration (WBV) on subsequent 20 m on-ice sprint performance. Fifteen male ice-hockey players performed 4 test sessions on separate days and in a randomized order. Two of this test sessions were with WBV and 2 were with noWBV and the best sprint time was used to determine effectiveness. Each test session included preconditioning 30 seconds half-squat exercise, 2 of which were supplemented with 50 Hz WBV at a amplitude of 3 mm. One minute after the cessation of the preconditioning exercise, the 20 m sprint test was performed. Intermediate time was sampled after 10 m. Preconditioning exercise performed with 50 Hz WBV resulted in superior 10 m and 20 m sprint performance compared to preconditioning exercise performed without WBV (1.84 6 0.10 seconds vs. 1.89 6 0.10 seconds and 3.14 6 0.13 vs. 3.17 6 0.13 seconds, respectively, p # 0.01). There was no difference between the protocols in perceived well-being of the legs before the warm-up or after the warm up (p = 0.3). However, there was an improved well-being in the legs immediately after the preconditioning exercise with WBV (p , 0.05). In conclusion, preconditioning exercise performed with WBV at 50 Hz seems to enhance on-ice sprint performance in ice-hockey players. This suggests that coaches can incorporate such exercise into the preparation to specific sprint training to improve the quality of the training.

  8. Training Significantly Improves Fetoscopy Performance: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietzsch, Stefan; Boettcher, Johannes; Yang, Sisi; Chantereau, Pierre; Romero, Philip; Bergholz, Robert; Reinshagen, Konrad; Boettcher, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Background Implementation of complex fetoscopic procedures that included intracorporeal suturing has been limited due to technical difficulties that might be surmounted with adequate training. Evaluating the impact of laparoscopic or fetoscopic training on fetoscopic performance was the aim of this study. Methods To evaluate fetoscopic performance after either laparoscopic or fetoscopic training, subjects were asked to perform four surgeon's square knots fetoscopically prior and post 2 hours of hands-on training. All subjects were medical students and novice in laparoscopic and fetoscopic interventions. Total time, knot stability (evaluated via tensiometer), suture accuracy, knot quality, and fetoscopic performance were assessed. Results Forty-six subjects were included in the study; after simple randomization, 24 were trained fetoscopically and 22 laparoscopically. Both groups had comparable baseline characteristics and improved after training significantly regarding all aspects assessed in this study. Subjects who trained fetoscopically were superior in terms of suturing and knot-tying performance. Conclusion Training significantly improves fetoscopic performance and may indeed be the keystone for future complex fetoscopic interventions. It seems advisable to train rather fetoscopically than laparoscopically resulting in higher suture and knot-tying quality. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Photobiomodulation Therapy Improves Performance and Accelerates Recovery of High-Level Rugby Players in Field Test: A Randomized, Crossover, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Henrique D; Vanin, Adriane A; Miranda, Eduardo F; Tomazoni, Shaiane S; Johnson, Douglas S; Albuquerque-Pontes, Gianna M; Aleixo, Ivo de O; Grandinetti, Vanessa Dos S; Casalechi, Heliodora L; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso C; Leal, Ernesto Cesar P

    2016-12-01

    Pinto, HD, Vanin, AA, Miranda, EF, Tomazoni, SS, Johnson, DS, Albuquerque-Pontes, GM, de Oliveira Aleixo Junior, I, Grandinetti, VdS, Casalechi, HL, de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, P, and Pinto Leal Junior. Photobiomodulation therapy improves performance and accelerates recovery of high-level rugby players in field test: A randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3329-3338, 2016-Although growing evidence supports the use of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) for performance and recovery enhancement, there have only been laboratory-controlled studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of PBMT in performance and recovery of high-level rugby players during an anaerobic field test. Twelve male high-level rugby athletes were recruited in this randomized, crossover, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. No interventions were performed before the Bangsbo sprint test (BST) at familiarization phase (week 1); at weeks 2 and 3, pre-exercise PBMT or placebo were randomly applied to each athlete. Photobiomodulation therapy irradiation was performed at 17 sites of each lower limb, employing a cluster with 12 diodes (4 laser diodes of 905 nm, 4 light emitting diodes [LEDs] of 875 nm, and 4 LEDs of 640 nm, 30 J per site, manufactured by Multi Radiance Medical). Average time of sprints, best time of sprints, and fatigue index were obtained from BST. Blood lactate levels were assessed at baseline, and at 3, 10, 30, and 60 minutes after BST. Athletes' perceived fatigue was also assessed through a questionnaire. Photobiomodulation therapy significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved the average time of sprints and fatigue index in BST. Photobiomodulation therapy significantly decreased percentage of change in blood lactate levels (p ≤ 0.05) and perceived fatigue (p ≤ 0.05). Pre-exercise PBMT with the combination of super-pulsed laser (low-level laser), red LEDs, and infrared LEDs can enhance performance

  10. The impact of the achievement motive on athletic performance in adolescent football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent.

  11. Peak power in the hexagonal barbell jump squat and its relationship to jump performance and acceleration in elite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Thomas S; Tobin, Daniel P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-05-01

    Recent research suggests that jump squats with a loaded hexagonal barbell are superior for peak power production to comparable loads in a traditional barbell loaded jump squat. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between relative peak power output during performance of the hexagonal barbell jump squat (HBJS), countermovement jump (CMJ) height, and linear acceleration speed in rugby union players. Seventeen professional rugby union players performed 10- and 20-m sprints, followed by a set of 3 unloaded CMJs and a set of 3 HBJS at a previously determined optimal load corresponding with peak power output. The relationship between HBJS relative peak power output, 10- and 20-m sprint time, and CMJ height was investigated using correlation analysis. The contribution of HBJS relative peak power output and CMJ height to 10- and 20-m sprint time was investigated using standard multiple regression. Strong, significant, inverse correlations were observed between HBJS relative peak power output, 10-m sprint time (r = -0.70, p < 0.01), and 20-m sprint time (r = -0.75, p < 0.01). A strong, significant, positive correlation was observed between HBJS relative peak power output and CMJ height (r = 0.80, p < 0.01). Together, HBJS relative peak power output and CMJ height explained 46% of the variance in 10-m sprint time while explaining 59% of the variance in 20-m sprint time. The findings of the current study demonstrate a significant relationship between relative peak power in the HBJS and athletic performance as quantified by CMJ height and 10- and 20-m sprint time.

  12. Effects of 4-Week Training Intervention with Unknown Loads on Power Output Performance and Throwing Velocity in Junior Team Handball Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sabido

    Full Text Available To compare the effect of 4-week unknown vs known loads strength training intervention on power output performance and throwing velocity in junior team handball players.Twenty-eight junior team-handball players (17.2 ± 0.6 years, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 75.6 ± 9.4 kgwere divided into two groups (unknown loads: UL; known loads: KL. Both groups performed two sessions weekly consisting of four sets of six repetitions of the bench press throw exercise, using the 30%, 50% and 70% of subjects' individual 1 repetition maximum (1RM. In each set, two repetitions with each load were performed, but the order of the loads was randomised. In the KL group, researchers told the subjects the load to mobilise prior each repetition, while in the UL group, researchers did not provide any information. Maximal dynamic strength (1RM bench press, power output (with 30, 50 and 70% of 1RM and throwing velocity (7 m standing throw and 9 m jumping throw were assessed pre- and post-training intervention.Both UL and KL group improved similarly their 1RM bench press as well as mean and peak power with all loads. There were significant improvements in power developed in all the early time intervals measured (150 ms with the three loads (30, 50, 70% 1RM in the UL group, while KL only improved with 30% 1RM (all the time intervals and with 70% 1RM (at certain time intervals. Only the UL group improved throwing velocity in both standing (4.7% and jumping (5.3% throw (p > 0.05.The use of unknown loads has led to greater gains in power output in the early time intervals as well as to increases in throwing velocity compared with known loads. Therefore unknown loads are of significant practical use to increase both strength and in-field performance in a short period of training.

  13. Does a one year age gap modify the influence of age, maturation and anthropometric parameters as determinants of performance among youth elite soccer players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Lekue, José Antonio; Amado, Markos; Gil, Susana Maria

    2017-08-22

    Since age-groups in soccer often comprise children born within a two-year timeframe, characteristics that define the profile of a successful player may not be appropriate for the oldest or youngest players of the same age group. Therefore, this study aimed to determine to what extent performance was influenced by age, maturation and body size in elite soccer players with barely one year age gap. Anthropometry, 15-m sprint test, modified Barrow´s agility test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1, countermovement jump, and handgrip test were conducted in players aged twelve and under (n=82, 11.1 ± 0.6 years; Mean ± SD) and between twelve and thirteen (n=79, 12.8 ± 0.6 years; Mean ± SD). A total score of performance, chronological age and age at peak height velocity were calculated. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-tests, and multiple linear regressions were performed. The explained variance in composite score was greater in the older (54%) than in the younger (30%) players. Sum of skinfolds was the primary predictor of 15-m sprint and countermovement jump in the younger group whereas in the older group chronological age and body size appeared as predictors of performance (41%). Body size explained the variance in most tests in older players. In the younger group biological maturity status explained the variance in endurance (35%) and handgrip (59%) tests. In summary, chronological age and sum of skinfolds influenced most tests; however, predictors differed between age groups. These findings highlight the importance of assessing individual differences in young male soccer players regardless of their similarity in age.

  14. Training-induced changes in physical performance can be achieved without body mass reduction after eight week of strength and injury prevention oriented programme in volleyball female players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lehnert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyse the changes in muscle strength, power, and somatic parameters in elite volleyball players after a specific pre-season training programme aimed at improving jumping and strength performance and injury prevention. Twelve junior female volleyball players participated in an 8-week training programme. Anthropometric characteristics, isokinetic peak torque (PT single-joint knee flexion (H and extension (Q at 60º/s and 180º/s, counter movement jump (CMJ, squat jump (SJ, and reactive strength index (RSI were measured before and after intervention. Significant moderate effects were found in flexor concentric PT at 60º/s and at 180 º/s in the dominant leg (DL (18.3±15.1%, likely; 17.8±11.2%, very likely and in extensor concentric PT at 180º/s (7.4%±7.8%, very likely in the DL. In the non-dominant leg (NL significant moderate effects were found in flexor concentric PT at 60º/s and at 180º/s (13.7±11.3%, likely; 13.4±8.0%, very likely and in extensor concentric PT at 180º/s (10.7±11.5%, very likely. Small to moderate changes were observed for H/QCONV in the DL at 60º/s and 180º/s (15.9±14.1%; 9.6±10.4%, both likely and in the NL at 60º/s (moderate change, 9.6±11.8%, likely, and small to moderate decreases were detected for H/QFUNC at 180º/s, in both the DL and NL (-7.0±8.3%, likely; -9.5±10.0%, likely. Training-induced changes in jumping performance were trivial (for RSI to small (for CMJ and SJ. The applied pre-season training programme induced a number of positive changes in physical performance and risk of injury, despite a lack of changes in body mass and composition. CITATION: Lehnert M, Sigmund M, Lipinska P et al. Training-induced changes in physical performance can be achieved without body mass reduction after eight week of strength and injury prevention oriented programme in volleyball female players. Biol Sport. 2017;34(2:205-213.

  15. Changes in physical size among major league baseball players and its attribution to elite offensive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotin, Ryan L; Forsythe, Charles M; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) players have not been longitudinally examined for changes in physical size. Height, weight, and body mass indices (BMIs) were examined among offensive league leaders (OLL) and MLB reference cohorts at 1970, 1990, and 2010. Anthropometric values were expected to increase successively, where OLL were expected to be larger at each respective time point. A Mixed Model analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) examined anthropometric differences over time within and between groups. Mass and BMI increased over successive years with the largest effect seen between 1990 and 2010 (p baseball scouts may have been influenced by greater offensive prowess shown by larger athletes; yet, increased secular anthropometrics must also be factored in greater heights, weights, BMIs shown over time in MLB. It is possible that greater participation in strength and conditioning programs at an earlier age, advances in sport nutrition, and potential abuse of anabolic drugs are factors perpetuating growth rates at present.

  16. Effects of 12-weeks resistance training on sprint and jump performance in competitive adolescent rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Simon K; Lubans, David R; Buxton, Anthony; MacDougall, Thomas H J; Callister, Robin

    2017-07-17

    Sprint performance is an important characteristic for success in many sports, including rugby union. Resistance training is used to increase muscular fitness (i.e. strength, endurance and power) and may also be effective for improving sprint and jump performances. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of resistance training using two different periodized programs (linear and daily undulating) on sprint and jump performance and explore relationships between performance measures. Sixteen male (16.9 ± 1.0 y) adolescent rugby union players participated in 12 weeks of resistance training. A further 10 male (15.5 ± 1.0 y) participants were recruited as a control group. Assessments of strength (box squat), 10 and 20 m sprint (electronically timed), and jump height (maximal unloaded (body mass only) and loaded (body mass + 10 kg) countermovement jumps) were conducted before and after 12 weeks training. Large to very large increases in 1RM box squat (linear: 33.9%; p < 0.001; ES = 1.64; daily undulating: 44.5%; p < 0.001; ES = 2.33) were observed after training. Small decreases were seen in 10 (linear: -1.6%; p = 0.171; ES = -0.84; daily undulating: -2.5%; p = 0.038; ES = -0.36) and 20 m (linear: -0.5%; p = 0.506; ES = -0.20; daily undulating: -1.7%; p = 0.047; ES = -0.27) sprint times. Small-to-moderate associations between changes in lower body strength and improvements in 10 and 20 m sprint times were found. Resistance training increases lower body strength in adolescent rugby union players and increases in lower body strength may transfer to improved sprinting performance with improvements following daily undulating periodized resistance training slightly superior.

  17. Discrepancy between exercise performance, body composition, and sex steroid response after a six-week detraining period in professional soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos E Koundourakis

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a six-week off-season detraining period on exercise performance, body composition, and on circulating sex steroid levels in soccer players. METHODS: Fifty-five professional male soccer players, members of two Greek Superleague Teams (Team A, n = 23; Team B, n = 22, participated in the study. The first two weeks of the detraining period the players abstained from any physical activity. The following four weeks, players performed low-intensity (50%-60% of VO2max aerobic running of 20 to 30 minutes duration three times per week. Exercise performance testing, anthropometry, and blood sampling were performed before and after the six-week experimental period. RESULTS: Our data showed that in both teams A and B the six-week detraining period resulted in significant reductions in maximal oxygen consumption (60,31±2,52 vs 57,67±2,54; p<0.001, and 60,47±4,13 vs 58,30±3,88; p<0.001 respectively, squat-jump (39,70±3,32 vs 37,30±3,08; p<0.001, and 41,05±3,34 vs 38,18±3,03; p<0.001 respectively, and countermovement-jump (41,04±3,99 vs 39,13±3,26; p<0.001 and 42,82±3,60 vs 40,09±2,79; p<0.001 respectively, and significant increases in 10-meters sprint (1,74±0,063 vs 1,79±0,064; p<0.001, and 1,73±0,065 vs 1,78±0,072; p<0.001 respectively, 20-meters sprint (3,02±0,05 vs 3,06±0,06; p<0.001, and 3,01±0,066 vs 3,06±0,063; p<0.001 respectively, body fat percentage (Team A; p<0.001, Team B; p<0.001, and body weight (Team A; p<0.001, Team B; p<0.001. Neither team displayed any significant changes in the resting concentrations of total-testosterone, free-testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, Δ4-androstenedione, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. Furthermore, sex steroids levels did not correlate with exercise performance parameters. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the six-week detraining period resulted in a rapid loss of

  18. Muscle damage, inflammatory, immune and performance responses to three football games in 1 week in competitive male players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We examined effects of a three-game, 1-week microcycle (G1, G2, G3) on recovery of performance and inflammatory responses in professional male footballers. METHODS: Players were randomized into an experimental (EXP; N = 20) and a control group (CON; N = 20). Blood was drawn and repeated...... the greatest increase. Leukocyte count, testosterone, IL-1β and IL6 responses, although altered 24 h post each game, were comparable among games. Plasma TBARS and protein carbonyls rose by ~50 % post-games with G2 eliciting the greatest increase 48 h of recovery. Reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio declined...... for 24 h post all games with G2 displaying the slowest recovery. Total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase activity increased (9-56 %) for 48 h in response to game play. CONCLUSION: In summary, post-game performance recovery and inflammatory adaptations in response to a three-game weekly...

  19. Contralateral leg deficits in kinetic and kinematic variables during running in Australian rules football players with previous hamstring injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brughelli, Matt; Cronin, John; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Kinsella, Dave; Nosaka, Ken

    2010-09-01

    Contralateral leg deficits between lower limbs during athletic movements are thought to increase the risk of injury and compromise performance. The purpose of this study was to quantify the magnitude of leg deficits during running in noninjured and previously injured Australian Rules football (ARF) players. The players included a group of noninjured ARF players (n = 11) and a group of previously injured ARF players (n = 11; hamstring injuries only). The players in the injured group (IG) had at least 1 acute hamstring injury in the previous 2 years. The legs of the noninjured players (NIG) were classified as right and left, whereas the legs of the injured players were classified as injured or noninjured. The players ran on a nonmotorized force treadmill at approximately 80% of their maximum velocity (Vmax). For the NIG, there were no significant differences between right and left legs for any of the variables. For the IG, the only variable that was significantly (p velocities.

  20. Monitoring performance, pituitary-adrenal hormones and mood profiles : how to diagnose non-functional over-reaching in male elite junior soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmikli, Sandor L.; de Vries, Wouter R.; Brink, Michel S.; Backx, Frank J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To verify if in male elite junior soccer players a minimum 1-month performance decrease is accompanied by a mood profile and hormone levels typical of non-functional over-reaching (NFOR). Design A prospective case-control study using a monthly performance monitor with a standardised field

  1. Veto players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warntjen, Andreas; Dowding, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Veto players are political actors whose consent is necessary to adopt a new policy. Put otherwise, they have veto power which allows them to prevent a change to the status quo. The concept is crucial to the influential veto player theory developed by George Tsebelis. Building on earlier work in form

  2. Veto players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warntjen, Andreas; Dowding, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Veto players are political actors whose consent is necessary to adopt a new policy. Put otherwise, they have veto power which allows them to prevent a change to the status quo. The concept is crucial to the influential veto player theory developed by George Tsebelis. Building on earlier work in form

  3. Cognitive Predictors of Performance in Well-Trained Table Tennis Players With Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Mactavish, Jennifer; Kerremans, Janne; Vanlandewijck, Yves C

    2016-10-01

    Evidence-based classification systems in Paralympic sport require knowledge of the underlying effect of impairment in a specific sport. This study investigated the relationship between cognition and tactical proficiency in 88 well-trained table tennis players with intellectual disability (ID; 29 women, 59 men, M ± SD IQ 59.9 ± 9.6). Data were collected at 3 competitions sanctioned by the International Federation for Para-Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities (INAS). A generic cognitive test consisting of 8 neuropsychological subtests was used to assess cognitive abilities relevant to sport (reaction time, processing speed, and decision speed; spatial visualization; fluid reasoning; memory; executive functioning; and visual processing). The backward stepwise-regression analysis model revealed that 18% of the variance in tactical proficiency was attributed to spatial visualization and simple reaction time. Applications of these findings resulted in an evidence-based classification system that led to the reinclusion of athletes with ID in Paralympic table tennis and provide the basis for future research in this important area.

  4. EFFECTS OF PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION ON MUSCULAR PERFORMANCE AND RESTING HORMONAL CHANGES IN COLLEGE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Hoffman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of protein supplementation on athletic performance and hormonal changes was examined in 21 experienced collegiate strength/power athletes participating in a 12-week resistance training program. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a protein supplement (PR; n = 11 or a placebo (PL; n = 10 group. During each testing session subjects were assessed for strength (one repetition maximum [1-RM] bench press and squat, power (Wingate anaerobic power test and body composition. Resting blood samples were analyzed at weeks 0 (PRE, 6 (MID and 12 (POST for total testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and IGF-1. No difference was seen in energy intake between PR and PL (3034 ± 209 kcal and 3130 ± 266 kcal, respectively, but a significant difference in daily protein intake was seen between PR (2.00 g·kg body mass[BM]-1·d-1 and PL (1.24 g·kgBM-1·d-1. A greater change (p < 0.05 in the ∆ 1-RM squat was seen in PR (23.5 ± 13.6 kg compared to PL (9.1 ± 11.9 kg. No other significant strength or power differences were seen between the groups. Cortisol concentrations were significantly lower at MID for PL and this difference was significantly different than PR. No significant changes were noted in resting growth hormone or IGF-1 concentrations in either group. Although protein supplementation appeared to augment lower body strength development, similar upper body strength, anaerobic power and lean tissue changes do not provide clear evidence supporting the efficacy of a 12-week protein supplementation period in experienced resistance trained athletes

  5. Monitoring training load, recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in elite female basketball players during a periodized training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João A; Moreira, Alexandre; Crewther, Blair T; Nosaka, Ken; Viveiros, Luis; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of a periodized training program on internal training load (ITL), recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in 19 elite female basketball players. The participants were monitored across a 12-week period before an international championship, which included 2 overloading and tapering phases. The first overloading phase (fourth to sixth week) was followed by a 1-week tapering, and the second overloading phase (eighth to 10th week) was followed by a 2-week tapering. ITL (session rating of perceived exertion method) and recovery-stress state (RESTQ-76 Sport questionnaire) were assessed weekly and bi-weekly, respectively. Pretraining and posttraining assessments included measures of salivary IgA, testosterone and cortisol concentrations, strength, jumping power, running endurance, and agility. Internal training load increased across all weeks from 2 to 11 (p ≤ 0.05). After the first tapering period (week 7), a further increase in ITL was observed during the second overloading phase (p ≤ 0.05). After the second tapering period, a decrease in ITL was detected (p ≤ 0.05). A disturbance in athlete stress-recovery state was noted during the second overloading period (p ≤ 0.05), before returning to baseline level in end of the second tapering period. The training program led to significant improvements in the physical performance parameters evaluated. The salivary measures did not change despite the fluctuations in ITL. In conclusion, a periodized training program evoked changes in ITL in elite female basketball players, which appeared to influence their recovery-stress state. The training plan was effective in preparing participants for competition, as indicated by improvements in recovery-stress state and physical performance after tapering.

  6. Effect of 2-wk intensified training and inactivity on muscle Na+/K+ pump expression, phospholemman (FXYD1) phosphorylation and performance in soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Martin; Christensen, Peter Møller; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson;

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined muscle adaptations and alterations in performance of highly trained soccer players with intensified training or training cessation. Eighteen elite soccer players were for a 2-wk period assigned to either a group which performed high intensity training with a reduction....... The present data suggest that short-term intensified training even for trained soccer players can increase muscle Na(+)/K(+) pump alpha2 isoform expression and that cessation of training for two weeks does not affect the expression of Na(+)/K(+) pump isoforms. Resting phosphorylation status of the Na...... in the amount of training (HI, n=7) or an inactivity group without training (IN, n=11). HI improved (P

  7. Sport-specific factors predicting player retention in junior cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpey, Scott; Croucher, Tom; Bani Mustafa, Ahmed; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-04-01

    Understanding factors that motivate young athletes to continue participation in sport can help key stakeholders cultivate an environment that fosters long-term participation. This investigation sought to determine the performance and participation factors that influenced continued participation in junior cricket. Administration-level data were collected each annual season across a seven-year period by a community-level junior cricket association in Australia and analysed to identify the performance and participation-based predictors of player retention. All players were males aged <16 years. Players were categorised according to whether they remained in (or departed from) the association at the end of each playing season. A multivariate logistic regression model with a stepwise variable selection was employed to identify significant independent predictors of player retention. The number of innings batted and overs bowled were significant participation-related contributors to junior cricket player retention. Performance factors such as the number of wickets taken and the number of runs scored also significantly influenced player retention. Finally, team age group, the number of previous seasons played and age were also significant factors in player retention. This demonstrates that sufficient opportunity for children to participate in the game and expression of skills competence are key factors for retention in cricket.

  8. The effects of using a portable music player on simulated driving performance and task-sharing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristie L; Mitsopoulos-Rubens, Eve; Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Lenné, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the effects of performing scrollable music selection tasks using a portable music player (iPod Touch™) on simulated driving performance and task-sharing strategies, as evidenced through eye glance behaviour and secondary task performance. A total of 37 drivers (18-48 yrs) completed the PC-based MUARC Driver Distraction Test (DDT) while performing music selection tasks on an iPod Touch. Drivers' eye glance behaviour was examined using faceLAB eye tracking equipment. Results revealed that performing music search tasks while driving increased the amount of time that drivers spent with their eyes off the roadway and decreased their ability to maintain a constant lane position and time headway from a lead vehicle. There was also evidence, however, that drivers attempted to regulate their behaviour when distracted by decreasing their speed and taking a large number of short glances towards the device. Overall, results suggest that performing music search tasks while driving is problematic and steps to prohibit this activity should be taken.

  9. Resistance training priming activity improves upper body power output in rugby players: Implications for game day performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Billy R J; Argus, Christos K; Norcott, Ben; Ball, Nick

    2016-07-05

    'Priming' or pre-activation strategies performed in the hours leading into competition have been suggested to improve game day performance. Therefore, this study assessed the effectiveness of a resistance training priming activity on eliciting changes in lower- and upper-body power output, along with perceptual measures. To assess these changes, 13 state level rugby players (aged 18.5 ± 0.5 years) completed a test retest protocol using a counterbalanced crossover design. Perceptual (readiness to perform questionnaire) and performance measures (20 kg counter-movement jump (CMJ), 20 kg bench throw) were completed prior to either a control (rest) or priming activity (four sets of three banded back squats and banded bench press). Following a one hour and 45 minute recovery period, perceptual and performance measures were repeated. Readiness to perform showed no meaningful differences pre and post intervention. Bench throw peak power (8.5 ± 5.8%, 90% confidence limit; ppriming activity when compared to the control trial. CMJ peak power (3.4 ± 4.9%; p>0.05) had a small decrease following the priming activity when compared with the control trial. Therefore, completing a priming activity one hour and 45 minutes prior to competition is recommended to improve upper body power output. However, further research into lower body priming protocols should be conducted before implementing a lower body priming activity prior to competition.

  10. Significant improvements in long trace profiler measurement performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, P.Z. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bresloff, C.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-07-01

    A Modifications made to the Long Trace Profiler (LTP II) system at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory have significantly improved the accuracy and repeatability of the instrument The use of a Dove prism in the reference beam path corrects for phasing problems between mechanical efforts and thermally-induced system errors. A single reference correction now completely removes both error signals from the measured surface profile. The addition of a precision air conditioner keeps the temperature in the metrology enclosure constant to within {+-}0.1{degrees}C over a 24 hour period and has significantly improved the stability and repeatability of the system. We illustrate the performance improvements with several sets of measurements. The improved environmental control has reduced thermal drift error to about 0.75 microradian RMS over a 7.5 hour time period. Measurements made in the forward scan direction and the reverse scan direction differ by only about 0.5 microradian RMS over a 500mm, trace length. We are now able to put 1-sigma error bar of 0.3 microradian on an average of 10 slope profile measurements over a 500mm long trace length, and we are now able to put a 0.2 microradian error bar on an average of 10 measurements over a 200mm trace length. The corresponding 1-sigma height error bar for this measurement is 1.1 run.

  11. Relations of competitive state anxiety and efficacy of young volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milavić, Boris; Jurko, Damir; Grgantov, Zoran

    2013-05-01

    With the aim of validating the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory on a population of young Croatian volleyball players, 286 examinees, 106 male and 180 female volleyball players (average age of 16.09+/-1.83), filled out the CSAI-2, constructed by Martens, Vealey, Burton, Bump and Smith (1990)1. Given the fact that all scales of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory have good homogeneity, reliability and sensitivity, it can be concluded that they represent high-quality measuring instruments for measuring psychological characteristics of young volleyball players. Young male and female volleyball players generally have a moderate level of self-confidence, and their cognitive anxiety is more prominent that somatic anxiety. In order to determine the age and gender differences in somatic and cognitive anxiety and self-confidence, parametric analysis of differences was performed and coefficients of the independent samples t-test were calculated. By analysis of differences according to age, it has been established that female junior players, in relation to female youth players, express a significantly lower level of somatic and cognitive anxiety and a significantly higher level of self-confidence. As opposed to female players, male youth and junior players do not differ in any of the analysed variables. By analysis of differences according to gender, it has been established that male youth players have a significantly higher level of self-confidence in comparison to female youth players. No significant differences were found in the level of competitive anxiety and self-confidence by analysis of variance between different player roles. No significant differences were found by discriminant analysis in somatic and cognitive anxiety, and self-confidence of female volleyball players of different situational efficacy. The group of least efficient male volleyball players is characterized by a very low level of self-confidence, while the most efficient group of volleyball

  12. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FUNCTIONAL TRAINING PROGRAM AND STANDARDIZED REHABILITATION PROGRAM AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION IN IMPROVING FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Thamburaj A

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to find out whether there is any significant difference between the functional training program and standardized rehabilitation program in improving functional performance of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACLR football players. Methods: A total of 30 subjects who met the selection criteria were divided into two groups respectively (15 per group. Subjects were randomly assigned in to two groups: a functional training group A (FTG, n = 15 and a control group B (CG, n = 15 at 3 months post- Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (ACLR. The FTG participated twice per week in the functional training program (4hrs/week including: a variety of intense, more aggressive and complex exercises designed to specifically increase neuromuscular control, muscle strength and power, proprioception, speed, and agility of the lower limbs, combined with an aerobic running training. The CG did not participate in any exercises performed by the FTG, following the standardized rehabilitation protocol, i.e., 3 sessions per week (6hrs/week (consisting of running and strengthening, a few plyometric exercises with low intensity and slow progression, very few exercises of directional changing but no horizontal jump nor agility exercises. The two groups were assessed at 3rd and 6th month post-ACLR and the effects of training were measured using the following assessments: the functional performance done by standing long jump test and 3 hop test. Results: Paired t-test was used to compare the effect within the group and paired t-test of statistical analysis shows that the pre and post comparison for the standing long jump score (Group A: p=0.000, Group B: p=0.000 and three hop test score (Group A: p=0.000, Group B: p=0.000 shows significant difference (p<0.05. Independent ‘t’ test used to compare the difference between two groups. Result shows that there is statistical significant difference in the result in which

  13. Effect of spinal manipulative therapy with stretching compared with stretching alone on full-swing performance of golf players: a randomized pilot trial☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Soraya M.V.; Chibana, Yumi E.T.; Giavarotti, Leandro; Compagnoni, Débora S.; Shiono, Adriana H.; Satie, Janice; Bracher, Eduardo S.B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective There has been a steady growth of chiropractic treatment using spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) that aims to increase the performance of athletes in various sports. This study evaluates the effect of SMT by chiropractors on the performance of golf players. Methods Golfers of 2 golf clubs in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in this study. They were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: Group I received a stretch program, and group II received a stretch program in addition to SMT. Participants in both groups performed the same standardized stretching program. Spinal manipulative therapy to dysfunctional spinal segments was performed on group II only. All golfers performed 3 full-swing maneuvers. Ball range was considered as the average distance for the 3 shots. Treatment was performed after the initial measurement, and the same maneuvers were performed afterward. Each participant repeated these procedures for a 4-week period. Student t test, Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, and 1-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with significance level of 5% were used to analyze the study. Results Forty-three golfers completed the protocol. Twenty participants were allocated to group I and 23 to group II. Average age, handicap, and initial swing were comparable. No improvement of full-swing performance was observed during the 4 sessions on group I (stretch only). An improvement was observed at the fourth session of group II (P = .005); when comparing the posttreatment, group II had statistical significance at all phases (P = .003). Conclusions Chiropractic SMT in association with muscle stretching may be associated with an improvement of full-swing performance when compared with muscle stretching alone. PMID:19948307

  14. The Effectiveness Evaluation among Different Player-Matching Mechanisms in a Multi-Player Quiz Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fu-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether different player-matching mechanisms in educational multi-player online games (MOGs) can affect students' learning performance, enjoyment perception and gaming behaviors. Based on the multi-player quiz game, TRIS-Q, developed by Tsai, Tsai and Lin (2015) using a free player-matching (FPM) mechanism, the same…

  15. Validity and reliability of 6-a-side small-sided game locomotor performance in assessing physical fitness in football players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, T.G.A.; Ruiter, de C.J.; Beek, P.J.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn order to determine whether small-sided game (SSG) locomotor performance can serve as a fitness indicator, we (1) compared 6-a-side (6v6) SSG-intensity of players varying in fitness and skill, (2) examined the relationship of the 6v6-SSG and Yo-Yo IR2 and (3) and assessed the reliability o

  16. Significance of Attaining Users’ Feedback in Building Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, building is a structure that provides basic shelter for the humans to conduct general activities. In common prose, the purpose of buildings is to provide humans a comfortable working and living space and protected from the extremes of climate. However, a building usage is depends on the lifespan and the change of rate effected on their impact on efficiency of use. Hence, more attention needs to be emphasized on the performance of buildings as the changes are not static over time. This paper highlights the concept and requirements in evaluating building performance. Exploration on the concept of building performance is also addressed on the purposes of building performance and the link of performance towards the end-users and incorporating their feedback. It concludes that obtaining users’ feedback is vital in building performance and the requirements of assessment must outline the performance criteria and mandates in such building.

  17. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%, and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%. The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10–19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%, while the proportions of Osgood–Schlatter disease in the 10–19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy in the 20–29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively. However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.Keywords: sports injury, sex, anterior cruciate ligament injury, Osgood–Schlatter disease, basketball

  18. Effects of adding a weekly eccentric-overload training session on strength and athletic performance in team-handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabido, Rafael; Hernández-Davó, Jose Luis; Botella, Javier; Navarro, Angel; Tous-Fajardo, Julio

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the influence of adding a weekly eccentric-overload training (EOT) session in several athletic performance's tests, 18 team-handball players were assigned either to an EOT (n = 11) or a Control (n = 7) group. Both groups continued to perform the same habitual strength training, but the EOT group added one session/week during a 7-week training programme consisting of four sets of eight repetitions for the bilateral half-squat and unilateral lunge exercises. The test battery included handball throwing velocity, maximum dynamic strength (1RM), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20 m sprint, triple hop for distance, and eccentric/concentric power in both the half-squat and lunge exercises. Data were analysed using magnitude-based inferences. Both groups improved their 1RM in the half squat, 20 m sprint time, and CMJ performance to a similar extent, but the EOT group showed a beneficial effect for both right [(42/58/0), possibly positive] and left [(99/1/0), very likely positive] triple hop for distance performance. In addition, the EOT group showed greater power output improvements in both eccentric and concentric phases of the half-squat (difference in percent of change ranging from 6.5% to 22.0%) and lunge exercises (difference in per cent of change ranging from 13.1% to 24.9%). Nevertheless, no group showed changes in handball throwing velocity. Selected variables related to team-handball performance (i.e. functional jumping performance, power output) can be improved by adding a single EOT session per week, highlighting the usefulness of this low-volume/high-intensity training when aiming at optimizing dynamic athletic performance.

  19. Effects of weather anomalies on the intellectual performance: Chess mistakes of the world top-ranked players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, J.; Verőci, Zs.; Fülöp, A.; Hirsch, T.; Dúll, A.

    2009-04-01

    Weather disturbances like fronts, influence human biorhythm, our biological balance becomes manipulated, and adaptation mechanisms are impaired. Our working hypothesis is that even the best chess players of the world are not exceptions from this rule. As their movements on the chess board, as well as the best possible ones, if they missed to make, are already assessed by computers objectively, we can use this game as a model of intellectual performance. By the date of the Abstract edition, 580 wrong chess moves were selected with the threshold of over 1/3 peasant to be lost. I.e. this is the minimum difference between the assessment of the positions after the best possible and the really performed move. (Obviously, all moves both sides in ca. the same number of games were checked, i.e. over 35,000 moves were assessed.) For assessing the moves, the most popular database is MegaDatabase 2006 (ChessBase- Hamburg), Chess Informant Expert from Chess Informant Beograd and the program ChessBase 9.0 together with the engines Fritz 10, Rybka 2.3, Junior 10. First of all the World Chess Champions, Karpov, Kasparov, Kramnik and Anand were examined played in the traditional big chess tournaments, category 19th and more (average rating more the 2701 Elo-points). We further selected the games by the top-ranked players of the world between 2005 and 2008. This selection is explained by the likely fact that they make the less wrong moves for simply the lack of chess understanding, moreover, as full professionals, they allow the minimum of non-weather disturbing circumstances (e.g. imperfect sleeping before the game, etc.). Their moves were selected as (i) very wrong move with more than 3.0 differences, (i.e. unforced loss of a knight, or a bishop, (ii) very weak move with an assessment of 1.0-3.0, (i.e. unforced loss between one peasant and one bishop/knight) and (iii) weak move with less than 1.0 assessment of the passed chance, or unforced loss of less than one peasant. These new

  20. Throwing speed and accuracy in baseball and cricket players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeston, Jonathan; Rooney, Kieron

    2014-06-01

    Throwing speed and accuracy are both critical to sports performance but cannot be optimized simultaneously. This speed-accuracy trade-off (SATO) is evident across a number of throwing groups but remains poorly understood. The goal was to describe the SATO in baseball and cricket players and determine the speed that optimizes accuracy. 20 grade-level baseball and cricket players performed 10 throws at 80% and 100% of maximal throwing speed (MTS) toward a cricket stump. Baseball players then performed a further 10 throws at 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of MTS toward a circular target. Baseball players threw faster with greater accuracy than cricket players at both speeds. Both groups demonstrated a significant SATO as vertical error increased with increases in speed; the trade-off was worse for cricketers than baseball players. Accuracy was optimized at 70% of MTS for baseballers. Throwing athletes should decrease speed when accuracy is critical. Cricket players could adopt baseball-training practices to improve throwing performance.

  1. Comparison of In-Season-Specific Resistance vs. A Regular Throwing Training Program on Throwing Velocity, Anthropometry, and Power Performance in Elite Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; van den Tillaar, Roland; Khlifa, Riadh; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Chamari, Karim

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a specific resistance training program (throwing movement with a medicine ball) with that of regular training (throwing with regular balls) on ball velocity, anthropometry, maximal upper-body strength, and power. Thirty-four elite male team handball players (age: 18 ± 0.5 years, body mass: 80.6 ± 5.5 kg, height: 1.80 ± 5.1 m, body fat: 13.4 ± 0.6%) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 groups: control (n = 10), resistance training group (n = 12), or regular throwing training group (n = 12). Over the 8-week in season, the athletes performed 3 times per week according to an assigned training program alongside their normal team handball training. One repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and 1RM pullover scores assessed maximal arm strength. Anthropometry was assessed by body mass, fat percentage, and muscle volumes of upper body. Handball throwing velocity was measured by a standing throw, a throw with run, and a jump throw. Power was measured by measuring total distance thrown by a 3-kg medicine ball overhead throw. Throwing ball velocity, maximal strength, power, and muscle volume increases for the specific resistance training group after the 8 weeks of training, whereas only maximal strength, muscle volume and power and in the jump throw increases were found for the regular throwing training group. No significant changes for the control group were found. The current findings suggest that elite male handball players can improve ball velocity, anthropometrics, maximal upper-body strength, and power during the competition season by implementing a medicine ball throwing program.

  2. Reference Values and Gender Differences of the Functional Parameters in Romanian Elite Junior Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian NAGEL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To establish the reference values and gender differences regarding fitness, strength, and time reaction of the Romanian elite junior tennis players. Material and Methods: Thirty four junior tennis players (19 male, 15 female with a mean age of 15 years were selected from the database of the Cardiopulmonary Effort Testing and Physical Performance Laboratory from Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, West University of Timisoara. To be included in the study, a tennis player had to belong to the Romanian Tennis Federation as a junior, be among the 50 best players in his/her category, and have no pathology at the evaluation moment. All subjects underwent functional evaluation by performing a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test, the counter movement jump test and complex opto-acoustic reaction test. Results: The functional performance are significantly different for males and females in all parameters studied, with male tennis players showing better performance than female tennis players. Conclusions: The mean values of functional parameters of the Romanian elite junior tennis players are lower than international competitive tennis athletes. There are significant gender differences in junior tennis players. We hope that the present study results provide useful reference values for coaches and physical trainers in order to improve functional performance of their junior tennis players.

  3. Relative risk for concussions in young female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Sarah; Lechuga, David; Zachariah, Thomas; Beaulieu, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative risk and reported symptoms of concussions in 11- to 13-year-old, female soccer players. For this, a survey to compare the reported incidence of concussion in age-matched female soccer players to nonsoccer players was performed. The survey included 342 girls between the ages of 11 and 13: 195 were involved in an organized soccer team and 147 were not involved in organized soccer but were allowed to participate in any other sport or activity. A total of 94 of the 195 soccer players, or 48%, reported at least one symptom consistent with a concussion. The most prevalent symptom for these girls was headache (84%). A total of 34 of the 147 nonsoccer players, or 23%, reported at least one symptom consistent with a concussion in the previous six months. These results determined that the relative risk of probable concussions among 11- to 13-year-old, female soccer players is 2.09 (p concussions in young female soccer players is significantly higher than in a control group of nonsoccer players of the same sex and age.

  4. Improving the technical preparation of football players on the basis of the control of discriminative characteristics when performing combinations of techniques during a game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitova Olena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the issue of improving the technical preparation of football players during initial basic training. A special attention is paid to the development and experimental substantiation of the methods of technical preparation of young football players in an annual cycle at the stage of initial basic training on the basis of the control of discriminative characteristics when performing inseparable combinations of techniques during a game. An attempt was made to uncover the underlying causes of a low technical preparedness of football players at different stages of multi-year training and to implement an integrated scientific approach to improvement of the process of technical preparation of 10-11 years old football players in an annual cycle at the stage of initial basic training on the basis of the control of discriminative characteristics when performing inseparable combinations of techniques during competitive activity, along with the peculiarities of psychophysical condition and a level of development of physical qualities. This approach in teaching technical skills will be of interest to specialists and coaches in football, since the pedagogical experiment has determined the effectiveness of the developed methodology.

  5. Vitamin D profile in National Football League players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroon, Joseph C; Mathyssek, Christina M; Bost, Jeffrey W; Amos, Austin; Winkelman, Robert; Yates, Anthony P; Duca, Mark A; Norwig, John A

    2015-05-01

    By maintaining phosphate and calcium homeostasis, vitamin D is critical for bone health and possibly physical performance. Hence, vitamin D is important to athletes. Few studies have investigated vitamin D levels in relation to fractures and performance in athletes, and no published study has included a multiracial sample of professional American football players. To assess vitamin D levels, including the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, in professional American football players and to evaluate the association of vitamin D levels with race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position, which may be a marker for athletic performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Serum vitamin D levels of 80 professional football players from a single team in the National Football League were obtained during the 2011 off-season (mean age, 26.5±3.7 years; black, n=67 [84%]). These levels were used to compare injury reports from the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons. Statistical analyses were performed to test if vitamin D levels were related to race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position. Mean vitamin D level was 27.4±11.7 ng/mL, with significantly lower levels for black players (25.6±11.3 ng/mL) versus white players (37.4±8.6 ng/mL; F 1,78=13.00, P=.001). All athletes who were vitamin D deficient were black. When controlling for number of professional years played, vitamin D levels were significantly lower in players with at least 1 bone fracture when compared with no fractures. Players who were released during the preseason because of either injury or poor performance had significantly lower vitamin D levels than did players who played in the regular season. Black professional football players have a higher rate of vitamin D deficiency than do white players. Furthermore, professional football players with higher vitamin D levels were more likely to obtain a contract position in the National Football League

  6. The effect of two speed endurance training regimes on performance of soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F Marcello; Fiorenza, Matteo; Perri, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    -8 reps of 20-s all-out running bouts followed by 2 min of passive recovery, whereas SEM training was characterized by 6-8 x 20-s all-out efforts interspersed with 40 s of passive recovery. SEP training reduced (prepeated sprint ability test (RSAt) by 2.5%. SEM training improved...... different determinants of soccer-related physical performance. SEP improved repeated sprint and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, whereas SEM increased muscles' ability to maximize fatigue tolerance and maintain speed development during both repeated all-out and continuous short...... the 200-m sprint performance (from 26.59±0.70 to 26.02±0.62 s, p

  7. Half-time re-warm up increases performance capacity in male elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edholm, P; Krustrup, Peter; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2015-01-01

    in CON, whereas sprint performance was maintained and the decrement in jump performance (3.1%; P running was observed, but less defensive high-intensity running was observed after RW than CON (0.14 ± 0.06 vs 0.22 ± 0.07 km; P ... such deteriorations. Less defensive high-intensity running and more ball possession were observed after RW, indicating a game advantage at the onset of the second half....

  8. Performance enhancement effects of Fédération Internationale de Football Association's "The 11+" injury prevention training program in youth futsal players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, Ivan; Rebelo, António; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    .7 years). INTERVENTION:: Players were randomized to an intervention group (n = 18) or a control group (n = 18). Intervention group performed "The 11+" twice per week for 12 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Isokinetic testing to access maximal quadriceps (Q) and hamstring (H) strength, vertical jump (squat...... jump, SJ; countermovement jump, CMJ), 5-m and 30-m sprint, agility, slalom, and balance performances were also measured. RESULTS:: Intervention group increased (P

  9. Investigating Aerobic, Anaerobic Combine Technical Trainings' Effects on Performance in Tennis Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suna, Gürhan; Kumartasli, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate eight-week aerobic, anaerobic combine technical trainings' effects on developments of performance. 21 athletes of tennis proficiency students from Sports Sciences Department were joined to the study voluntarily. Participated in the research athletes' ages' mean was 22,2 ± 0,3 year, lengths' mean was 177,3 ±…

  10. Self-regulation of learning and performance level of elite youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Jordet; Marije Elferink-Gemser; T. Toering; C. Visscher; G. Pepping

    2012-01-01

    In learning and development, self-regulation can be described as the extent to which individuals are metacognitively, motivationally, and behaviourally proactive participants in their learning process (Zimmerman, 1989, 2006). We examined the relationship between self-regulation and performance level

  11. An analysis of the efficiency of player performance at the 2011 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) and stochastic multicriteria ... top performers at the most recent CWC held in India in 2011 is shown in Table 1. These measures are ..... 2005), prospect the- ory (Lahdelma ... the set of weight vectors w that result in DMUj obtaining rank r be denoted by Wr j . SMAA-DEA is ...

  12. Self-regulation and performance level of elite and non-elite youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toering, T. T.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Jordet, G.; Visscher, C.

    2009-01-01

    In learning and development, self-regulation can be described as the extent to which individuals are metacognitively, motivationally, and behaviourally proactive participants in their learning process (Zimmerman, 1989, 2006). We examined the relationship between self-regulation and performance level

  13. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF LEADERSHIP FOR PERFORMANCE OF CONTRACT SERVICEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomicheva O. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and, in particular, large-scale organizational and personnel changes, the transition to acquisition of the army and navy mostly contract servicemen, demanded new approaches to training and education of this category of servicemen. One of the innovative approaches of pedagogy, in this way, has been the development of techniques to build leadership skills and training of soldiers under contract to perform the functions of the military leader of the team that can win credibility with their subordinates, bring people together and send to the effective performance of duties. The article deals with the problem and the urgency of the formation of leadership qualities and the ability of the warrior-contractor for the effective performance of the functions under the leadership of the leader of the primary military collectives. Based on the analysis of domestic and foreign scientific literature on the study of the problems of leadership and formation of leadership in military, the article defines the essence of the concepts of "leadership" and "leader", and gives specific definitions of the concepts as applied to military-professional work of contract servicemen. The article concretized the value of leadership in the practical professional military activity warriors contract and the main features of its manifestations in the military collective

  14. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  15. Fueling the rugby player: maximizing performance on and off the pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiero, Deena

    2013-01-01

    Fueling the rugby athlete requires a sports nutrition plan that balances energy intake with energy output while providing the athlete with adequate fuel for recovery. The content and timing of meals are fundamental parts of a successful regimen and often require the athlete to participate in extensive planning and preparation to succeed. Carbohydrates, protein, and fat are the primary fuel of the rugby athlete's diet, and proper hydration is imperative to optimize performance. The use of dietary supplements such as energy drinks and caffeine are controversial, and the supplementation of vitamins and minerals is generally not recommended. The use of creatine monohydrate as a supplement to a well-balanced diet has been shown to be safe and effective. With the help of sports nutritionists, team physicians, educated athletes, and coaches, a multifactorial all-encompassing plan is required generally to maximize optimal performance on and off the rugby pitch.

  16. The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Cheri D; Mah, Kenneth E; Kezirian, Eric J; Dement, William C

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the effects of sleep extension over multiple weeks on specific measures of athletic performance as well as reaction time, mood, and daytime sleepiness. Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic and Research Laboratory and Maples Pavilion, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Eleven healthy students on the Stanford University men's varsity basketball team (mean age 19.4 ± 1.4 years). Subjects maintained their habitual sleep-wake schedule for a 2-4 week baseline followed by a 5-7 week sleep extension period. Subjects obtained as much nocturnal sleep as possible during sleep extension with a minimum goal of 10 h in bed each night. Measures of athletic performance specific to basketball were recorded after every practice including a timed sprint and shooting accuracy. Reaction time, levels of daytime sleepiness, and mood were monitored via the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS), respectively. Total objective nightly sleep time increased during sleep extension compared to baseline by 110.9 ± 79.7 min (P sleep extension (16.2 ± 0.61 sec at baseline vs. 15.5 ± 0.54 sec at end of sleep extension, P sleep extension (P sleep extension indicate that optimal sleep is likely beneficial in reaching peak athletic performance.

  17. Position statement--altitude training for improving team-sport players' performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2013-12-01

    Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports.

  18. Earlier visual N1 latencies in expert video-game players: a temporal basis of enhanced visuospatial performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Latham

    Full Text Available Increasing behavioural evidence suggests that expert video game players (VGPs show enhanced visual attention and visuospatial abilities, but what underlies these enhancements remains unclear. We administered the Poffenberger paradigm with concurrent electroencephalogram (EEG recording to assess occipital N1 latencies and interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT in expert VGPs. Participants comprised 15 right-handed male expert VGPs and 16 non-VGP controls matched for age, handedness, IQ and years of education. Expert VGPs began playing before age 10, had a minimum 8 years experience, and maintained playtime of at least 20 hours per week over the last 6 months. Non-VGPs had little-to-no game play experience (maximum 1.5 years. Participants responded to checkerboard stimuli presented to the left and right visual fields while 128-channel EEG was recorded. Expert VGPs responded significantly more quickly than non-VGPs. Expert VGPs also had significantly earlier occipital N1s in direct visual pathways (the hemisphere contralateral to the visual field in which the stimulus was presented. IHTT was calculated by comparing the latencies of occipital N1 components between hemispheres. No significant between-group differences in electrophysiological estimates of IHTT were found. Shorter N1 latencies may enable expert VGPs to discriminate attended visual stimuli significantly earlier than non-VGPs and contribute to faster responding in visual tasks. As successful video-game play requires precise, time pressured, bimanual motor movements in response to complex visual stimuli, which in this sample began during early childhood, these differences may reflect the experience and training involved during the development of video-game expertise, but training studies are needed to test this prediction.

  19. Earlier visual N1 latencies in expert video-game players: a temporal basis of enhanced visuospatial performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Andrew J; Patston, Lucy L M; Westermann, Christine; Kirk, Ian J; Tippett, Lynette J

    2013-01-01

    Increasing behavioural evidence suggests that expert video game players (VGPs) show enhanced visual attention and visuospatial abilities, but what underlies these enhancements remains unclear. We administered the Poffenberger paradigm with concurrent electroencephalogram (EEG) recording to assess occipital N1 latencies and interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) in expert VGPs. Participants comprised 15 right-handed male expert VGPs and 16 non-VGP controls matched for age, handedness, IQ and years of education. Expert VGPs began playing before age 10, had a minimum 8 years experience, and maintained playtime of at least 20 hours per week over the last 6 months. Non-VGPs had little-to-no game play experience (maximum 1.5 years). Participants responded to checkerboard stimuli presented to the left and right visual fields while 128-channel EEG was recorded. Expert VGPs responded significantly more quickly than non-VGPs. Expert VGPs also had significantly earlier occipital N1s in direct visual pathways (the hemisphere contralateral to the visual field in which the stimulus was presented). IHTT was calculated by comparing the latencies of occipital N1 components between hemispheres. No significant between-group differences in electrophysiological estimates of IHTT were found. Shorter N1 latencies may enable expert VGPs to discriminate attended visual stimuli significantly earlier than non-VGPs and contribute to faster responding in visual tasks. As successful video-game play requires precise, time pressured, bimanual motor movements in response to complex visual stimuli, which in this sample began during early childhood, these differences may reflect the experience and training involved during the development of video-game expertise, but training studies are needed to test this prediction.

  20. Comparison of static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ratan Khuman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Athletes from different sports requires balance control for their better performance depending on game type they involved. When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare the static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students, college level male players from five different colleges were requited for the study with purposive sampling. They were assigned into three different groups according to their types of sports, cricket n = 50, soccer n = 50, volleyball n = 50. The static and dynamic balance was assessed using flamingo balance test (FBT and star excursion balance test (SEBT in institutional based sports physiotherapy department. Results: Intra-group comparison for FBT and SEBT score shows no significance difference (P > 0.05. Multiple comparison of FBT and SEBT score between groups reveals significantly difference between cricket and soccer player (P = 0.000, between cricket and volleyball player (P = 0.000 and between soccer player and volleyball players (P = 0.000. FBT and SEBT score were significantly higher in soccer players than volleyball and cricketer were found to have the least score compared with soccer and volleyball players. Conclusion: There is significance difference in static and dynamic balance among collegiate cricket, soccer and volleyball male players. The soccer players demonstrate higher balance than volleyball players and the volleyball players have a higher balance than that of cricketers both statically and dynamically.

  1. High intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    separated by 25 s of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 min rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT-training in wk-1 was 152±4 m and increased (P....87±0.97 to 18.44±1.06 s) and RST by 4.3% post-intervention in the HIT-group only. Baseline RST fatigue index (FI) was 7.0±2.9 and 6.2±5.0% in HIT and CON, respectively, but was lowered (PYo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance...

  2. Changes in repeated-sprint performance in relation to change in locomotor profile in highly-trained young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of changes in maximal aerobic (MAS) and sprinting (MSS) speeds and the anaerobic reserve (ASR) on repeated-sprint performance. Two hundred and seventy highly-trained soccer players (14.5 ± 1.6 year) completed three times per season (over 5 years) a maximal incremental running test to approach MAS, a 40-m sprint with 10-m splits to assess MSS and a repeated-sprint test (10 × 30-m sprints), where best (RSb) and mean (RSm) sprint times, and percentage of speed decrement (%Dec) were calculated. ASR was calculated as MSS-MAS. While ∆RSb were related to ∆MSS and ∆body mass (r(2) = 0.42, 90%CL[0.34;0.49] for the overall multiple regression, n = 334), ∆RSm was also correlated with ∆MAS and ∆sum of 7 skinfolds (r(2) = 0.43 [0.35;0.50], n = 334). There was a small and positive association between ∆%Dec and ∆MAS (r(2) = 0.02 [-0.07;0.11], n = 334). Substantial ∆MSS and ∆MAS had a predictive value of 70 and 55% for ∆RSm, respectively. Finally, ∆ASR per se was not predictive of ∆RSm (Cohen's = +0.8 to -0.3 with increased ASR), but the greater magnitude of ∆RSm improvement was observed when MSS, MAS and ASR increased together (0.8 vs. +0.4 with ASR increased vs. not, additionally to MSS and MAS). Low-cost field tests aimed at assessing maximal sprinting and aerobic speeds can be used to monitor ∆RS performance.

  3. Training program influences the relation between functional and neuromuscular performance indicators during the season in young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Mateus Pagoto Spigolon

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a training program on the relation between performance indicators of different physical capacities intra and inter functional and neuromuscular systems at different times of the season. Subjects were 16 young soccer players with an average age of 16.5 ± 0.4 years. The study was carried out for 17 weeks, including three assessment moments (T1: 1st, T2: 10th and T3: 17th week. High correlation was found between indicators of neuromuscular predominance (30 meters sprint test (30 m and Maximum Sprint (MaxSprint (RAST in T1 (r = 0.93, p ≤ 0.001, functional (Sprints Average (MidSprint and Minimal Sprint (MinSprint (RAST in T1, T2 and T3; MinSprint and Fatigue Index (FI (RAST in T3 (r = 0.95, 0.85, 0.91; -0.86, p ≤ 0.001, respectively and between functional and neuromuscular indicators (30 m and MidSprint in T1; 30 m and MinSprint in T1; MaxSprint and MidSprint in T1 and T2 and MaxSprint and MinSprint in T1 (r = 0.95, 0.93, 0.96, 0.84, 0.87, p ≤ 0.001, respectively. The training contents had influence on the correlation of performance indicators at different times of the season.

  4. The Suitability of the Remedy of Specific Performance to Breach of a "Player's Contract" with Specific Reference to the Mapoe and Santos cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mould

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990s, rugby union formation in the Republic of South Africa developed rapidly from a system of strict amateurism to one of professionalism. Professional participants in the sport received salaries for participation, and rugby became a business like any other. As in all forms of business, rugby had to be regulated moreefficiently than had previously been the case. Tighter regulations were instituted by governing bodies, and ultimately labour legislation became applicable to professional rugby. A professional sportsman or woman participating in a team sport is generallyconsidered an employee. This means that the same principles that govern employees in general should also apply to professional sportsmen and women. The exact nature of the "player's contract", a term generally used to describe the contract of employment between a professional sportsman or sportswoman and his or her employer, deserves closer attention. It has been argued with much merit that the "player's contract", while in essence a contract of employment, possesses certain sui generis characteristics. The first aim of this article is to demonstrate how this statement is in fact a substantial one. If it is concluded that the "player's contract" isin fact a sui generis contract of employment, the most suitable remedy in case of breach of contract must be determined. The second aim of this article is to indicate why the remedy of specific performance, which is generally not granted in cases where the defaulting party has to provide services of a personal nature, is the most suitable remedy in case of breach of "player's contracts". To substantiate this statement, recent applicable case law is investigated and discussed, particularly the recent case of Vrystaat Cheetahs (Edms Beperk v Mapoe. Suggestions are finally offered as to how breach of "player's contracts" should be approached by South African courts in future.

  5. Competition performance of rugby-players of youth championship of Europe U-20.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvasnitsa O.M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of pedagogical supervision and comparative analysis of components of contention activity of the best commands of participants of zonal and final part of championship of Europe are rotined on rugby among masculine youth collapsible commands. Age of sportsmen made 19-20 years. 16 games were treated in all. For research video data and protocols of games of youth championship of Europe served as information in Warsaw (Poland. The comparative analysis of quantitative and high-quality competition performance indicators was carried out on the basic components of game on middle indexes in a game: amount of collisions for a game and their realization; amount of corridors for a game and their realization; amount of attempts and their realization; amount of the appointed penalty shots and their high-quality implementation; general effectiveness of game. The necessity of display of psychological emotional firmness sportsmen is well-proven, to exactness in execution motions, special adroitness, speed-power qualities.

  6. Managing player load in professional rugby union: a review of current knowledge and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Blackie, Josh; Cook, Christian J; Fuller, Colin W; Gabbett, Tim J; Gray, Andrew J; Gill, Nicholas; Hennessy, Liam; Kemp, Simon; Lambert, Mike; Nichol, Rob; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Piscione, Julien; Stadelmann, Jörg; Tucker, Ross

    2017-03-01

    The loads to which professional rugby players are subjected has been identified as a concern by coaches, players and administrators. In November 2014, World Rugby commissioned an expert group to identify the physical demands and non-physical load issues associated with participation in professional rugby. To describe the current state of knowledge about the loads encountered by professional rugby players and the implications for their physical and mental health. The group defined 'load' as it relates to professional rugby players as the total stressors and demands applied to the players. In the 2013-2014 seasons, 40% of professional players appeared in 20 matches or more, and 5% of players appeared in 30 matches or more. Matches account for ∼5-11% of exposure to rugby-related activities (matches, team and individual training sessions) during professional competitions. The match injury rate is about 27 times higher than that in training. The working group surmised that players entering a new level of play, players with unresolved previous injuries, players who are relatively older and players who are subjected to rapid increases in load are probably at increased risk of injury. A mix of 'objective' and 'subjective' measures in conjunction with effective communication among team staff and between staff and players was held to be the best approach to monitoring and managing player loads. While comprehensive monitoring holds promise for individually addressing player loads, it brings with it ethical and legal responsibilities that rugby organisations need to address to ensure that players' personal information is adequately protected. Administrators, broadcasters, team owners, team staff and the players themselves have important roles in balancing the desire to have the 'best players' on the field with the ongoing health of players. In contrast, the coaching, fitness and medical staff exert significant control over the activities, duration and intensity of training

  7. The correlation between isokinetic strength of knee extensors and vertical jump performance in adolescent soccer players in an annual training cycle

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    Michal Lehnert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isokinetic testing is often used to provide coaches with important information about the physical status of athletes. Therefore, a number of studies focused on the assessment of the relationship between isokinetic and functional tests including soccer. The results of a limited number of studies indicate that the relationship changes in different training periods. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the characteristics of the isokinetic strength of knee extensors and vertical jump performance in three different periods of the annual training cycle in adolescent soccer players. METHODS: A group of adolescent soccer players (n = 16; average age 16.7 ± 0.7 years was tested at the end of the competitive season, at the beginning of the off-season and during the sixth week of a new competitive season. The isokinetic concentric peak torque (PT, peak power (Pmax and time to peak torque (TPT of the dominant leg and non-dominant leg were measured at angular velocities of 60°•s–1, 180°•s–1, 360°•s–1. The explosive strength of the lower extremities was measured using the countermovement jump with free arms (CMJF method and countermovement jump with the arms crossed over the chest. Based on literary reviews, a logically significant value of the correlation was set at > 0.30. RESULTS: The correlations between the isokinetic strength characteristics and vertical jump performance irrespective of the training period were low to moderate; 56% of the correlations were > 0.30. In the different periods of the annual training cycle, the occurrence of correlations > 0.30 as well as their value varied – 67% at the end of the competitive season, 31% at the beginning of the off-season and 64% at the beginning of the competitive season. For both types of jumps, the correlations for Pmax and PT parameters were the lowest during the second measurement in most cases; no trend was observed for the TPT

  8. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Petersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent...

  9. Extensive monitoring through multiple blood samples in professional soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Mette F; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive gathering of consecutive detailed blood samples from professional soccer players, and to analyze different blood parameters in relation to seasonal changes in training and match exposure.Blood samples were collected five times during a six...... months period and analyzed for 37 variables in 27 professional soccer players from the best Danish league. Additionally, players were tested for body composition, VO2max and physical performance by the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance sub-max test (IE2).Multiple variations in blood parameters occurred during...... of the season. Leucocytes decreased with increased physical training. Lymphocytes decreased at the end of the season. VO2max decreased towards the end of the season whereas no significant changes were observed in the IE2 test.The regular blood samples from elite soccer players reveal significant changes...

  10. An outbreak of herpes rugbiorum managed by vaccination of players and sociosexual contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, G R; Davies, J; Ahmad, A; McLeish, P; Buchan, A

    1996-11-01

    An outbreak of herpes rugbiorum involved nine players including the scrum half and the full back. The infection was characterized by significant constitutional upset with decreased levels of general fitness and match performance for 1-4 months following the outbreak; one player had herpetic lesions on his right eyelid and corneum. Every infected player, 15 non-infected players and five sociosexual contacts received two vaccinations with intracellular subunit vaccine NFU. Ac. HSV-1 (S-MRC5). None of the players or contacts developed cutaneous herpetic recurrence during a follow-up period of 3 years; the player with ocular disease had one recurrence at 30 months following the original episode. These findings encourage consideration of prophylactic or post-exposure vaccination of participants in rugby or other contact sports with this or other appropriate herpes simplex vaccine.

  11. The Effects of a Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy Exposure on Physiological, Performance, and Perceptual Responses of Professional Academy Soccer Players After Repeated Sprint Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; Birch, Jack; Love, Thomas; Cook, Christian J; Bracken, Richard M; Taylor, Tom; Swift, Eamon; Cockburn, Emma; Finn, Charlie; Cunningham, Daniel; Wilson, Laura; Kilduff, Liam P

    2017-02-01

    Russell, M, Birch, J, Love, T, Cook, CJ, Bracken, RM, Taylor, T, Swift, E, Cockburn, E, Finn, C, Cunningham, D, Wilson, L, and Kilduff, LP. The effects of a single whole-body cryotherapy exposure on physiological, performance, and perceptual responses of professional academy soccer players after repeated sprint exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 415-421, 2017-In professional youth soccer players, the physiological, performance, and perceptual effects of a single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session performed shortly after repeated sprint exercise were investigated. In a randomized, counterbalanced, and crossover design, 14 habituated English Premier League academy soccer players performed 15 × 30 m sprints (each followed by a 10 m forced deceleration) on 2 occasions. Within 20 minutes of exercise cessation, players entered a WBC chamber (Cryo: 30 seconds at -60° C, 120 seconds at -135° C) or remained seated (Con) indoors in temperate conditions (∼25° C). Blood and saliva samples, peak power output (countermovement jump), and perceptual indices of recovery and soreness were assessed pre-exercise and immediately, 2-hour and 24-hour postexercise. When compared with Con, a greater testosterone response was observed at 2-hour (+32.5 ± 32.3 pg·ml, +21%) and 24-hour (+50.4 ± 48.9 pg·ml, +28%) postexercise (both P = 0.002) in Cryo (trial × treatment interaction: P = 0.001). No between-trial differences were observed for other salivary (cortisol and testosterone/cortisol ratio), blood (lactate and creatine kinase), performance (peak power output), or perceptual (recovery or soreness) markers (all trial × treatment interactions: P > 0.05); all of which were influenced by exercise (time effects: all P ≤ 0.05). A single session of WBC performed within 20 minutes of repeated sprint exercise elevated testosterone concentrations for 24 hours but did not affect any other performance, physiological, or perceptual measurements taken. Although unclear, WBC may be

  12. The effect of four-week high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic performance and some blood parameters in girls basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahareh ketabdar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of four-week high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic performance and some blood parameters in girls basketball players. Materials & Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. Twenty female basketball players, with the mean age of 24.65 ± 4.81 years, height of 166.97 ± 4.12 cm, weight of 59.15 ± 5.23 kg and body mass index of 21.5 ± 1.23 kg/m2, were divided into two groups, including intervention (exercise + supplement and control groups. Two days before and after the intervention, the subjects performed Wingate test (to estimate the average aerobic power and Bruce test (to estimate VO2max.The subjects attended basketball training two sessions per week; Intervention group performed high-intensity interval training in addition to the basketball training in every session. The dose of beta-alanine supplementation was 2.4, 3.6, 4.8 g per day. After four weeks, creatine kinase and lactate levels and performance tests were reevaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 21, with a significance level of P0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation resulted in delay in the fatigue threshold, stabilization of PH and hydrogen ions balance, increased aerobic-anaerobic capacity and exercise performance in female basketball players.

  13. Performance and Metabolic Demand of a New Repeated-Sprint Ability Test in Basketball Players: Does the Number of Changes of Direction Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, Alessandro M; Ardigò, Luca P; Barbieri, Fabio A; Milioni, Fabio; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Camargo, Bruno H F; Padulo, Johnny

    2017-09-01

    Zagatto, AM, Ardigò, LP, Barbieri, FA, Milioni, F, Dello Iacono, A, Camargo, BHF, and Padulo, J. Performance and metabolic demand of a new repeated-sprint ability test in basketball players: does the number of changes of direction matter? J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2438-2446, 2017-This study compared 2 repeated-sprint ability (RSA) tests in basketball players. Both tests included 10 × 30-m sprints, with the difference that the previously validated test (RSA2COD) featured 2 changes of direction (COD) per sprint, whereas the experimental test (RSA5COD) featured 5 CODs per sprint. Test performances and metabolic demands were specifically assessed in 20 basketball players. First, RSA5COD test-retest reliability was investigated. Then, RSA2COD, RSA5COD sprint times, peak speeds, oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and posttest blood lactate concentration [La] were measured. The RSA5COD results showed to be reliable. RSA2COD performance resulted better than the RSA5COD version (p sprint times and higher peak speeds. Over sprints, the tests did not differ from each other in terms of V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (p > 0.05). Over whole bout, the RSA2COD was more demanding than the RSA5COD, considering overall metabolic power requirement (i.e., VO2-driven + [La]-driven components). Given that RSA5COD (a) mimics real game-play as sprint distance and action change frequency/direction and (b) has the same metabolic expenditure per task completion as metabolic cost, RSA5COD is a valuable option for players and coaches for training basketball-specific agility and assessing bioenergetic demands.

  14. RESEARCH ON THE COMPETITIVE PERFORMANCE OF THE BULGARIAN NATIONAL TEAM OF UNDER – 16 FEMALE PLAYERS IN THE EUROPEAN CHAMPIONSHIP, DIVISION B IN 2012

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    Tsanko Tsankov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In today's basketball, the opinion that achieving high and stable sports results can be realized only by science-based long-term preparation is gaining more and more popularity. A major part of this preparation is the participation of adolescent female players in European Championships for the respective age group. The purpose of this study is to analyze the competitive performance of the Bulgarian National basketball team, consisting of female players up to 16 years of age, who took part in the European Championship, Division B, held in Tallinn, Estonia from 12 to 22 July 2012. For the purpose of the study information was gathered on the gaming performance of the players of the national team in all 9 played matches, comparing them by 16 indicators. The unit of observation of this study was the single game. The team competitive efficiency is a combination of the gaming performance of all players involved in the basketball game, regardless of the time that they were actually playing in the match. After analyzing the surveyed indicators, the following conclusions were made and those need to be the ground for the future education and training program of the researched national team, namely: increased activity in shooting from the two-point and three-point lines; increasing the effectiveness of the shooting from the two-point line and the free throws; improved ability to pass accurate (in space, time and effort assists; improving the technique of blocking in defense and offense; improving the quality and the aggressiveness in defense play, which would increase the number of steals, but not at the expense of increased number of fouls.

  15. Short-term performance effects of three different low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, João; Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Oliveira, José

    2014-01-01

    group (n=12), complex training group (n=12), or a control group (n=21). In the mid-season, players underwent a 9-week strength-training programme, with two 20 min training sessions per week. Short-term effects on strength, sprint, agility, and vertical jump abilities were measured. All training groups...

  16. How should "hot" players in basketball be defended? The use of fast-and-frugal heuristics by basketball coaches and players in response to streakiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Peter; Avugos, Simcha; Raab, Markus; Bar-Eli, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that changes in shot difficulty may have rendered the hot-hand effect in basketball unobservable and are potentially a result of defensive adjustments. However, it has not been directly analysed whether strategic changes indeed take place in response to streakiness and whether they are effective with respect to winning games. The current work consists of an experimental study with 18 professional coaches and 20 players based on video sequences from National Basketball Association games, where the shown player displayed a streaky performance in half of the sequences. While coaches were asked to devise a defensive strategy after each viewed sequence, players had to assume the role of the shown player and decide whether to shoot or pass the ball. We find that coaches tended to increase the defensive pressure significantly more often on presumably hot players and thus make use of the hot-hand heuristic. Meanwhile, players chose to shoot more frequently in low-pressure and streaky situations but selected "pass" regardless of the previous performance when they faced increased defensive pressure. Assuming that a streaky player's performance is indeed elevated during hot phases, hot-hand behaviour can be considered adaptive in certain situations as it led hot players to pass instead of shoot.

  17. Caffeine supplementation and reactive agility in elite youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, J Bradley; Korgaokar, Ajit; Farley, Richard S; Coons, John M; Caputo, Jennifer L

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the effects of caffeine supplementation (6 mg·kg-1) on performance of a reactive agility test (RAT) in 17 elite, male, youth (M = 14 y) soccer players. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures design, players completed 4 days of testing on the RAT after a standardized warm-up. On day 1, anthropometric measurements were taken and players were accommodated to the RAT. On day 2, baseline performance was established. Caffeine or placebo conditions were randomly assigned on day 3 and the condition was reversed on day 4. Players completed 3 randomized trials of the RAT on days 2, 3, and 4 with at least 1 trial to the players' dominant and nondominant sides. There were no significant differences among conditions in reaction time (RT) to the dominant side, heart rates at any point of measurement, or ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) after completion of the warm-up. Caffeine produced faster RT to the nondominant side (P = .041) and higher RPE at the conclusion of the RAT (P = .013). The effect on the total time (TT) to complete the agility test to the nondominant side approached significance (P = .051). Sprint time and TT to either side did not differ. Caffeine supplementation may provide ergogenic benefit to elite, male, youth soccer players.

  18. Identification af explosive power factors as predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgantov, Zoran; Milić, Mirjana; Katić, Ratko

    2013-05-01

    With the purpose of determining the factor structure of explosive power, as well as the influence of each factor on situational efficiency, 56 young female volleyball players were tested using 14 tests for assessing nonspecific and specific explosive power. By factor analysis, 4 significant factors were isolated which explained the total of over 80% of the common variability in young female volleyball players. The first factor was defined as volleyball-specific jumping, the second factor as nonspecific jumping and sprinting, the third factor as throwing explosive power, while the fourth factor was interpreted as volleyball-specific throwing and spiking speed from the ground. Results obtained by regression analysis in the latent space of explosive power indicate that the identified factors are good predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players. The fourth factor defined as throwing and spiking speed from the ground had the largest influence on player quality, followed by volleyball-specific jumping and nonspecific jumping and sprinting, and to a much lesser extent, by throwing explosive power The results obtained in this age group bring to the fore the ability of spiking and serving a ball of high speed, which hinders the opponents from playing those balls in serve reception and field defence. This ability, combined with a high standing vertical jump reach and spike approach vertical jump reach (which is the basis of the 1st varimax factor) enables successful performance of all volleyball elements by which points are won in complex 1 (spike) and complex 2 (serve and block). Even though the 2nd factor (nonspecific jumping and sprinting) has a slightly smaller impact on situational efficiency in young players, this ability provides preconditions i.e. preparation for successful realisation of all volleyball elements, so greater attention must be paid to perfecting it in young female volleyball players.

  19. The development of a test of repeated-sprint ability for elite women's soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a game-specific test of repeated-sprint ability for elite women's soccer players. Nineteen elite women's soccer players (mean +/- SD; age, 18.1 +/- 2.9 y) participated in this study. After familiarization, players completed a repeated-sprint test consisting of 6 x 20-m maximal effort sprints, on a 15-second cycle. At the completion of each sprint, players performed a 10-m deceleration and a 10-m active jog recovery. Ten elite female soccer players performed the test on 2 occasions, 1 week apart, to determine the reliability of the test. In addition, the validity of the repeated-sprint test to discriminate among players of different playing ability was evaluated by testing national (n = 11) and state (n = 8) women's soccer players. Heart rate and blood lactate concentration were recorded to determine the physiological responses to the test. The total sprint time proved to be highly reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91; typical error of measurement = 1.5%). However, the percentage decrement was less reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.14, typical error of measurement = 19.5%). The repeated-sprint test was valid in discriminating between national- and state-level players, with national players having significantly lower (p repeated-sprint times than state players (20.9 +/- 0.5 s vs. 23.3 +/- 0.4 s). The mean (+/-SD) heart rate and blood lactate concentration were 182 +/- 6 beats/min and 9.3 +/- 2.0 mmol/L, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that the developed repeated-sprint test discriminates players of higher and lesser skill levels and offers a reliable method of assessing repeated-sprint ability in elite women's soccer players when results are expressed as the total sprint time.

  20. Effects of an In-season Plyometric Training Program on Repeated Change of Direction and Sprint Performance in the Junior Soccer Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Mehréz; Negra, Yassine; Aouadi, Ridha; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel

    2016-12-01

    Hammami, M, Negra, Y, Aouadi, R, Shephard, RJ, and Chelly, MS. Effects of an in-season plyometric training program on repeated change of direction and sprint performance in the junior soccer player. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3312-3320, 2016-We aimed to determine the gains in explosive movements of male junior soccer players induced by incorporating an 8-week plyometric training program (PTP) into a standard soccer conditioning regimen 5 months after the beginning of the competitive season. Our hypothesis was that PTP would enhance explosive movements, and thus sprint running, repeated shuttle sprint ability (RSSA), agility and the ability to make repeated changes of direction (RCOD). A group of junior soccer players were randomly divided into 2 groups: an experimental group (E, n = 15, age 15.7 ± 0.2 years) and a control group (C, n = 13, age 15.8 ± 0.2 years). The participants in E and C performed training exercises and matches together, but for an 8-week period in the latter part of the season, the experimental group replaced a part of the normal regimen (the tactical session) by a biweekly course of PTP (hurdle and drop jumps). Two familiarization sessions were held 2 weeks before definitive testing. The ability of the players was assessed by 3 agility tests (a sprint test with 180° turns, a 9-3-6-3-9 m sprint with backward and forward running, and a four 5-m sprint test with turns); 2 repeated sprint tests (RSSA and RCOD); and running times over 5-, 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-m distances. Participants in E showed gains relative to C in sprint times (p ≤ 0.05 for 5, 10, and 20 m), and 2 of 3 the RCOD parameters (RCOD best, p ≤ 0.001; RCOD total, p ≤ 0.05). However, with the pattern of plyometric training that we adopted, and perhaps because participants were in good initial physical condition, the agility and RSSA test scores remained unchanged. Nevertheless, we conclude that our PTP can be commended to junior soccer players as a means of improving

  1. A PILOT STUDY COMPARING TWO FIELD TESTS WITH THE TREADMILL RUN TEST IN SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Aziz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the performances obtained during soccer-specific field tests of the 20 m multistage shuttle run test (MST and the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (YIET, with the measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max obtained in both field tests as well as that obtained in the traditional test of running to exhaustion on a treadmill (TRT, in young trained soccer players. Twenty-one National-level youth players performed, in random order, the MST and YIET to determine the relationship between the two field tests. From these, eight randomly chosen players performed their field tests as well as a TRT, equipped with an ambulatory gas exchange measurement device. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis showed that the players' performance (i.e. distance covered in the MST and YIET was correlated (r = 0.65, p 0.05. In contrast, significant correlations were observed between the players' performance in the MST with the measured VO2max obtained in the same MST and in the YIET (both p < 0.05; and attained almost statistical significance with the measured VO2max in the TRT (p = 0.06. The lack of association between distances covered in the YIET with all the measured VO2max values suggest that measured VO2max per se may not be suitable to characterize soccer players' intermittent endurance performance. In comparison with the MST, the YIET may be a more favourable field-based assessment of soccer player's endurance performance

  2. The Effect of the Contrastive Training Using Weights and Plyometrics on the Development of the Vertical Jump Ability to Improve the Performance of the Smash for Volleyball Players

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    Zabchi Noreddine

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering training as a purposeful educational process that implies scientific planning for the sake of preparing the players, with their different physical, psychological and skill levels, to achieve the highest possible levels, it acquired a special character and was implemented into different important domains to achieve athletic goals at various levels for the development of motor performance. Many methods are used commonly by most of the trainers, and this led us, as researchers, to suggest a training programme that is based on the use of a contrastive training method using weights and plyometrics to achieve the highest degrees of efficiency, through using strength in different and opposite ways within the training unit or within a set of exercises, while trying to contribute to the clarification of this way for all types, in general, and applying it with the volleyball students as a sample representing the research community. The research process is meant to be conducted through pre and post tests on two groups; one as the control group and the other pilot. The first sample group underwent a programme established under the supervion of the professor of the subject, while the second underwent the suggested programme. Ultimately we found out through the statistical analysis of the results the existence of significant statistical differences between the pre and post tests in favour of the pilot group on the account of the control one. Researchers attribute these results to the impact of the suggested contrastive training using weights and plyometrics, which leads to the improvement of the ability to jump through bridging the gap between strength training and speed, using the so-called reactive prolongation which facilitates and adapts the additional kinetic units in the muscles during the performance, and gains muscle elasticity, and thus the development of vertical jumping ability, which contributes to the improvement of the smash skill in

  3. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players

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    Vaquera Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of elite basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18 had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams. There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg, height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm, skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men’s elite leagues.

  4. Four weeks of optimal load ballistic resistance training at the end of season attenuates declining jump performance of women volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert U; Rogers, Ryan A; Volek, Jeff S; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kraemer, William J

    2006-11-01

    Anecdotal and research evidence is that vertical jump performance declines over the competitive volleyball season. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a short period of ballistic resistance training would attenuate this loss. Fourteen collegiate women volleyball players were trained for 11 weeks with periodized traditional and ballistic resistance training. There was a 5.4% decrease (p ballistic training period (midseason to end of season), but values were not different from start to end of season. These changes in overall jump performance were reflective of changes in underlying neuromuscular performance variables: in particular, power output and peak velocity during loaded jump squats, countermovement jumps, and drop jumps. During the first 7 weeks of traditional heavy resistance training, it appears that the neuromuscular system is depressed, perhaps by the combination of training, game play, and skills practice precluding adequate recovery. Introduction of a novel training stimulus in the form of ballistic jump squats and reduction of heavy resistance training of the leg extensors stimulated a rebound in performance, in some cases to exceed the athlete's ability at the start of the season. Periodization of in-season training programs similar to that used in this study may provide volleyball players with good vertical jump performance for the crucial end-of-season games.

  5. Comparative cervical profiles of adult and under-18 front-row rugby players: implications for playing policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D F; Gatherer, D; Robson, J; Graham, N; Rennie, N; MacLean, J G B; Simpson, A H R W

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the cervical isometric strength, fatigue endurance and range of motion of adult and under-18 age-grade front-row rugby players to inform the development of a safe age group policy with particular reference to scrummaging. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting ‘Field testing’ at Murrayfield stadium. Participants 30 high-performance under-18 players and 22 adult front-row rugby players. Outcome measures Isometric neck strength, height, weight and grip strength. Results Youth players demonstrated the same height and grip strength as the adult players; however, the adults were significantly heavier and demonstrated substantially greater isometric strength (prugby players demonstrate the same peripheral strength as their adult counterparts on grip testing, the adults demonstrate significantly greater cervical strength. If older youths and adults are to play together, such findings have to be noted in the development of age group policies with particular reference to the scrum. PMID:24797427

  6. Relationship between Repeated Sprint Ability and Aerobic Capacity in Professional Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys M. Jones

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity ( and repeated sprint ability (RSA in a group of professional soccer players. Methods. Forty-one professional soccer players (age  yrs, height  cm, weight  kg were required to perform tests to assess RSA and on two separate days with at least 48 hr rest between testing sessions. Each player performed a treadmill test to determine their and a test for RSA involving the players completing  m sprints (turn after 20 m with 20 s active recovery between each sprint. Results. There was a significant negative correlation between body mass normalised and mean sprint time ( (; and total sprint time ( (, . Conclusion. Results of the current study indicate that is one important factor aiding soccer players in the recovery from repeated sprint type activities.

  7. Stroke performance in high-level Spanish wheelchair tennis players. [Rendimiento del golpeo en jugadores españoles de tenis en silla de ruedas de alto nivel].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Torres-Luque

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse shot selection in a wheelchair tennis (WT tournament, comparing winning and losing players and evaluating the outcome of strokes. Sixteen men’s singles WT matches (comprising a total of 5,720 strokes were analysed. Each match was recorded and the following variables were analysed: services, returns, groundstrokes and net shots. Additionally, all strokes were coded according to type of point (non-game point opportunity, NGO; game point opportunity, GO, outcome (error; rally; winner and set outcome (winner; loser. A Z-test was used to assess differences between winning and losing players and between NGOs and GOs. The results showed that WT players make more errors (19% than winning strokes (10.6%. Service and return shots make up about 55% of shots played during a point and volleys and smashes are infrequent (2.1%. Winning players hit more winners on service, return and groundstrokes than losing players. At the net losing players hit more winners than winning players, although they also made more errors. The critical situation (GO could be not affect on game actions of WT points. These results and the differences between performances should be taken into consideration by wheelchair tennis coaches. Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer los tipos de golpeo en un torneo de tenis en silla de ruedas (WT, observar las diferencias entre ganadores y perdedores, y evaluar su resultado. Se analizaron 16 partidos individuales, con un total de 5720 golpes. Cada partido fue grabado y analizado en base a las siguientes variables: saques, restos, golpes de fondo y golpes de red. Además, cada golpeo fue codificado con el tipo de punto (sin oportunidad de ganar el juego –NGO-, o con oportunidad de ganar el juego -GO, con el resultado del golpeo (error, peloteo, o golpe ganador, y el resultado del set (ganador y perdedor. Se utilizó el test Z para comparar las diferencias entre ganadores y perdedores, así como

  8. Influence of Pokémon Go on physical activity levels of university players: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona Y

    2017-02-22

    The prevalence of overweight is increasing and the effectiveness of various weight management and exercise programs varied. An augmented reality smartphone game, Pokémon Go, appears to increase activity levels of players. This study assessed the players and ex-players' frequencies and durations of staying outdoors, and walking/jogging before and during the time they played Pokémon Go, evaluated the physical activity levels of players, ex-players and non-players, and investigated the potential factors which determined their play statuses. Students in a university answered an online-questionnaire survey. The IPAQ-short form was incorporated to measure vigorous-intensity activities, moderate-intensity activities and walking. Chi square tests were used to compare frequencies and durations of staying outdoors and walking/jogging, health discomforts and physical activity levels between players, ex-players and non-players. Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were performed to assess the changes prior to and during the time when the players and ex-players played Pokémon Go. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess factors contributing to playing, quitting or not playing Pokémon Go. 644 university students answered the questionnaire. Compared with the ex-players, the players were significantly more frequent to stay outdoors when playing Pokémon Go (P Go. The game can be used as a starting point for sedentary people to begin an active lifestyle. The impact of Pokémon Go on physical activity can provide insights to public health workers in using novel strategies in health promotion.

  9. Dynamic Visual Acuity Training in Cricket Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Edgar, B.Optom

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dynamic visual acuity (DVA is the ability of an observer to correctly identify details of a moving target and is considered to be important for tasks like driving. Dynamic Visual Acuity is better in athletes involved in sports such as basketball and baseball; however, no previous studies have considered the sport of cricket. We conducted a study to determine whether there was any difference in DVA between cricket and non-cricket players. Method: Dynamic visual acuity was measured by asking subjects to identify the orientation of the gap of a moving Landolt C target as a four-alternative forced-choice task. The Landolt C targets had confusion bars surrounding them. The participants in the study were tested twice with a break of seven weeks. In between the two measurements, participants underwent two training sessions (similar to the testing sessions, each three weeks apart. Results: The initial mean DVA for cricket players was 107.7 deg/sec, and the mean DVA for non-cricket players was 105.5 deg/sec, with a target size of 6/15. The subjects who participated in training (cricketers and non-cricketers improved in DVA by 41 deg/sec in contrast to the improvement in the non-training subjects of 18 deg/sec (p=0.0032. The cricketers who participated in the training improved in DVA by 44 deg/sec, whereas the cricketers who did not participate in the training improved by 19 deg/sec (p=0.0167. Conclusions: We found no significant difference in initial DVA between the cricket players and the non-cricket players. The training resulted in an extremely significant improvement in DVA performance by both the cricketers and non-cricketers.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of trunk muscle strength in wheelchair basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sileno da Silva Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trunk muscle strength affects trunk controlling playing an important role in performance and to define the classes of wheelchair basketball players. Trunk control capacity differs among players and quantitative assessments of trunk muscle strength have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to identify and correlate quantitative measures of trunk muscle strength with the wheelchair basketball players' classification. Forty-two male wheelchair basketball players with spinal cord injury, amputation, post-poliomyelitis sequelae, and cerebral palsy had their trunk extension and flexion strength evaluated with isokinetic dynamometer. The classes 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 were considered for statistical analysis. Comparison of trunk muscle strength differed significantly between classes: 1.0 and 3.0; 1.0 and 4.0; 2.0 and 3.0; and 2.0 and 4.0. High correlation was found between the trunk muscle strength and players' classes. The findings of the present study showed a strong correlation of trunk muscle strength and wheelchair basketball classes being able to distinguish players in their classes. However, this quantitative method of evaluation of the trunk muscle strength cannot be solely used to make a decision on the full trunk control.

  11. An investigation of player to player character identification via personal pronouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hichens, Michael; Drachen, Anders; Richards, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The player character is an important feature of many games, where it is through the character that the player interacts with game world. There has been considerable interest in the relationship between the player and the player character. Much of this work has examined the identification of players...... in playing video games, did have a statistically significant affect, indicating that different levels of identification are more dependent on the player than on the game. This indicates that players are not a homogeneous group with respect to player character identification and is an important consideration...... with their characters, generally taking either a textual analysis approach, or has been empirical work that has explicitly identified the idea of identification through survey instruments, etc. The work presented here takes a different empirical approach, focusing on the use of various pronoun forms (first, second...

  12. Anthropometric Characteristics, Body Composition and Somatotype of 9-12 Years Old Table Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Behdari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to describe the anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of top-level male table tennis players, to compare the first 12 top-level table tennis players with the lower ranked players, and to establish profile chart for total of 112 top-level table tennis players. A total of 112 top-level table tennis players, aged between 9 and 12 years participated in this study. The athletes were divided into three groups, the first 12 (Group A, n=12 and the lower ranked players (Group B, n=47 and (Group C, n=53. In the analysis and comment of the data, One Way Variance Analysis (ANOVA Test were used. There were no significant differences in anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype among the groups. A mesomorph – endomorph somatotype was registered for total of 112 top-level table tennis players. But analysis, taking into account, revealed a balanced ectomorph somatotype for the first 12 players, and a mesomorph - ectomorph somatotype for B group and a mesomorph - endomorph somatotype for C group. Although the influence of anthropometric characteristics on table tennis performance is not clear yet, it seems obvious that a mesomorph - ectomorph predominance can play a decisive role in any sport, On the other hand, high levels of body fat could have a negative effect on sport performance. Regarding to somatotype assessment, balanced ectomorph was the most important component in the first 12 players. In the present study, a greater body fat mass were observed lower ranked players than first 12 players

  13. Upper extremity sensorimotor control among collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudner, Kevin G

    2012-03-01

    Injuries stemming from shoulder instability are very common among athletes participating in contact sports, such as football. Previous research has shown that increased laxity negatively affects the function of the sensorimotor system potentially leading to a pathological cycle of shoulder dysfunction. Currently, there are no data detailing such effects among football players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in upper extremity sensorimotor control among football players compared with that of a control group. Forty-five collegiate football players and 70 male control subjects with no previous experience in contact sports participated. All the subjects had no recent history of upper extremity injury. Each subject performed three 30-second upper extremity balance trials on each arm. The balance trials were conducted in a single-arm push-up position with the test arm in the center of a force platform and the subjects' feet on a labile device. The trials were averaged, and the differences in radial area deviation between groups were analyzed using separate 1-way analyses of variance (p football players showed significantly more radial area deviation of the dominant (0.41 ± 1.23 cm2, p = 0.02) and nondominant arms (0.47 ± 1.63 cm2, p = 0.03) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that football players may have decreased sensorimotor control of the upper extremity compared with individuals with no contact sport experience. The decreased upper extremity sensorimotor control among the football players may be because of the frequent impacts accumulated during football participation. Football players may benefit from exercises that target the sensorimotor system. These findings may also be beneficial in the evaluation and treatment of various upper extremity injuries among football players.

  14. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper L; Petersen, Jesper; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Bangsbo, Jens; Saltin, Bengt; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent a testing protocol including measurements of cycle performance, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body composition, and muscle fibre types and capillarisation were determined from m. vastus lateralis biopsy. In SP, time to exhaustion was longer (16.3 ± 2.0 min; P exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile are markedly better for lifelong trained SP than for age-matched UT controls. Incremental exercise capacity and muscle aerobic capacity of SP are also superior to lifelong ST athletes and comparable to endurance athletes.

  15. Neural strategies for selective attention distinguish fast-action video game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Lavanya; Kang, Albert; Sperling, George; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the psychophysical and neurophysiological differences between fast-action video game players (specifically first person shooter players, FPS) and non-action players (role-playing game players, RPG) in a visual search task. We measured both successful detections (hit rates) and steady-state visually evoked EEG potentials (SSVEPs). Search difficulty was varied along two dimensions: number of adjacent attended and ignored regions (1, 2 and 4), and presentation rate of novel search arrays (3, 8.6 and 20 Hz). Hit rates decreased with increasing presentation rates and number of regions, with the FPS players performing on average better than the RPG players. The largest differences in hit rate, between groups, occurred when four regions were simultaneously attended. We computed signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of SSVEPs and used partial least squares regression to model hit rates, SNRs and their relationship at 3 Hz and 8.6 Hz. The following are the most significant results: RPG players' parietal responses to the attended 8.6 Hz flicker were predictive of hit rate and were positively correlated with it, indicating attentional signal enhancement. FPS players' parietal responses to the ignored 3 Hz flicker were predictive of hit rate and were positively correlated with it, indicating distractor suppression. Consistent with these parietal responses, RPG players' frontal responses to the attended 8.6 Hz flicker, increased as task difficulty increased with number of regions; FPS players' frontal responses to the ignored 3 Hz flicker increased with number of regions. Thus the FPS players appear to employ an active suppression mechanism to deploy selective attention simultaneously to multiple interleaved regions, while RPG primarily use signal enhancement. These results suggest that fast-action gaming can affect neural strategies and the corresponding networks underlying attention, presumably by training mechanisms of distractor suppression.

  16. Anthropometric and physical characteristics allow differentiation of young female volleyball players according to playing position and level of expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, M; Grgantov, Z; Chamari, K; Bianco, A; Padulo, J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the differences in some anthropometric and physical performance variables of young Croatian female volleyball players (aged 13 to 15) in relation to playing position (i.e., independent variable) and performance level within each position (i.e., independent variable). Players were categorized according to playing position (i.e., role) as middle blockers (n=28), opposite hitters (n=41), passer-hitters (n=54), setters (n=30), and liberos (n=28). Within each position, players were divided into a more successful group and a less successful group according to team ranking in the latest regional championship and player quality within the team. Height and body mass, somatotype by the Heath-Carter method, and four tests of lower body power, speed, agility and upper body power (i.e., dependent variables) were assessed. Players in different positions differed significantly in height and all three somatotype components, but no significant differences were found in body mass, body mass index or measured physical performance variables. Players of different performance level differed significantly in both anthropometric and physical performance variables. Generally, middle blockers were taller, more ectomorphic, less mesomorphic and endomorphic, whereas liberos were shorter, less ectomorphic, more mesomorphic and endomorphic than players in other positions. More successful players in all positions had a lower body mass index, were less mesomorphic and endomorphic, and more ectomorphic than less successful players. Furthermore, more successful players showed better lower body power, speed, agility and upper body power. The results of this study can potentially provide coaches with useful indications about the use of somatotype selection and physical performance assessment for talent identification and development. PMID:28416892

  17. Comparison of shuttle and straight repeated-sprint ability tests and their relationship to anthropometrics and explosive muscular performance of lower limb in elite handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Schwesig, René; Wollny, Rainer; Fieseler, Georg; van den Tillaar, Roland; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed S

    2017-06-21

    This study assessed inter-relationships between shuttle and straight repeated-sprint ability tests and the relationship of each measure to anthropometric and explosive lower limb performance data in elite handball players. Twenty-two elite male handball players (18.9 ± 0.2 years; body mass: 83.3 ± 1.1 kg, height: 1.79 ± 2.30 m, body fat: 12.8 ± 0.2%) completed tests that included a lower limb force-velocity test of peak power (Wpeak), jumping ability (squat and counter-movement jumps; SJ, CMJ), 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) half back squat, average sprint velocity over 5 m (V-5 m), peak velocity between 25-30 m (Vmax), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1), and anthropometric determinations of cross-sectional areas and muscle volumes for leg and thigh muscles. Data were compared with performance on 2 repeated sprint tests; the straight test [6 × 30 m (RSA30)] and the intermittent test [6 x (2 x 15 m) shuttle sprints (RSA15)]. V-5 m; 1-RM; and thigh and leg muscle cross-sectional areas and volumes showed relevant relationships to the shuttle RSA test (r2≥0.5). The Yo-Yo IR1 explained the largest percentage of variance in RSA15 total time (60%), and V-5 m also explained 56% of the variance in RSA15 total time. RSA15% fatigue was only related to 1-RM (explained variance: 58%), and the RSA30 test showed no useful correlations with any of the investigated predictors. Multiple-regression analyses using all physical tests explained 91% of the variance in RSA15 total time (prepeated sprints over distances of 15 m or less. RSA15 is related to muscular power, maximal strength, speed and endurance performance; however, the straight repeated sprint ability test is not, and thus does not seem relevant for the testing of handball players.

  18. [Dietary behaviours of volleyball and basketball players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska, Elzbieta; Spałkowska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    In sports, such as basketball and volleyball, players must demonstrate the speed, strength, stamina and concentration. Correct nutrition affects the strength of the muscles and the extension of capacity. It is also necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system and determines the rate of regeneration after physical effort. The aim of this study was to assess dietary behaviours of professional volleyball and basketball players and compare the prevalence of correct behaviours in both groups. 209 professional volleyball and basketball players from sports clubs localized in six Silesian cities were survived with the mean of author questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the prevalence of the correct behaviours among players. Analysis of the results obtained showed that 52% of the players had 4-5 meals a day. 35% of respondents had wholemeal bread and/or groats daily. Milk and dairy products daily ate 71% of surveyed players, meat and sausages 70% respectively. 41% of respondents had cottage cheese and 28% had fish several times a week. Vegetables and fruit were eaten by 21% and respectively 23% of respondents. Sweets were eaten daily by 40% of surveyed, while fast-food were eaten several times a week by 17% of players. Nutrients for athletes were used by 32%, and vitamin supplementation by 48% of respondents. Prevalence of correct dietary behaviour in the group of professional volleyball and basketball players differed. Basketball players statistically more frequently than volleyball players had 4-5 meals a day, had wholemeal bread and/or thick groats, milk and dairy products, meat and sausages, especially poultry. They had raw vegetables and fruit several times a day. They drank more than 2.5 liters of fluids per day. They also significantly more frequently than volleyball players consumed the fast-food occasionally or never. Dietary behaviours of surveyed players were incorrect. Comparison of prevalence of proper behaviours

  19. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Luís

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8 and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9 were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents.

  20. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Luís; Morais, Tomaz; Rocha, Henrique; James, Nic

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8) and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9) were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents. PMID:25114750

  1. Comparison of Shoulder Strength in Routinely Trained Badminton Players and Non-Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Zhen Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shoulder pain is a common reason for patients to seek medical help in any healthcare center. Shoulder pain is influenced by a few factors such as gender, posture during daily activities, aging and psychological factors. Based on the study of Epidemiology of Injuries and Prevention Strategies in Competitive Swimmers, shoulder pain due to shoulder injuries can be reduced by strengthening the shoulder muscle. Badminton has become one of the most popular sports in Asia, especially in Indonesia. This study was conducted to determine if badmintonis able to strengthen the shoulder muscle group. Methods: A cross-sectional analytic experimental study was conducted on September 2015 at Lodaya Badminton Training Center and Bale Padjadjaran of Universitas Padjadjaran. Subjects were 30 healthy male routinely trained badminton players and 30 non-badminton players who voluntarily follow the rstudy procedures. Strength measurement procedures were provided to the subjects after getting informed consent.  Data analysis was performed using T-test. Results: The shoulder strength  in routinely trained badminton players was significantly different from  non-badminton players (P<0.05. Conclusions: Shoulder strength can be improved through routine training of badminton to reduce risk of shoulder injury.   DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1083

  2. Relationships between core strength, hip external rotator muscle strength, and star excursion balance test performance in female lacrosse players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Angela T; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Caswell, Shane V

    2013-04-01

    PURPOSEBACKGROUND: Female athletes have high rates of lower extremity (LE) injuries. Core strength (CS) and hip external rotator (HER) strength have been suggested to be factors that influence LE injury risk. Better balance has also been shown to decrease LE injury risk. Still, little research has examined whether core strength and hip muscle strength can influence LE balance. Therefore the purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships between core strength, hip ER strength and lower extremity balance as measured by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). CS was examined via the bent knee lowering test (BKLT) (grades 1-5). Hip external rotator (HER) strength was measured singularly (HERL and HERR and combined (HERCOM) assessed via hand held dynamometry (reported in Newtons), and balance assessed via the SEBT expressed as % leg length, bilaterally in the postero-medial, postero-lateral, anterior directions and as a combined score (SEBTCOM). All outcomes were assessed in 45 female lacrosse players (16.0 ± 5.9 yrs, 65.1 ± 2.4 cm, 57.3 ± 7.4 kgs, experience=5.9 ± 2.9 yrs). Pearson product-moment correlations examined relationships between the BKLT, HER and SEBT. Linear regression analyses examined possible influences of CS and HER on balance (p ≤ .05). SEBTCOM was not correlated with BKLT [r(45)=-.20, p=.18] or HERCOM [r(45)=.20, p=.18]. There was no correlation between HER strength and CS (BKLT) [r(45)=.20, p=.20]. Overall scores on the BKLT were not correlated with any of the three balance SEBT scores. HERL [r(45)=.36, p=.02] and HERR [r(45)=.30, p=.05] were moderately positively correlated with left posteromedial SEBT direction. HERCOM and BKLT did not predict overall SEBTCOM balance scores (r(2)=.068, p=.23). BKLT scores and combined HER strength did not correlate with LE balance, as measured by the SEBT, in female lacrosse players. However, HER strength of both the left and right LE's (singularly) was moderately correlated with scores on one

  3. Psychological and sport-specific characteristics of football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, A; Dvorak, J; Rösch, D; Graf-Baumann, T; Chomiak, J; Peterson, L

    2000-01-01

    It is hypothesized that players of different levels of play might differ not only in their football skills but also in their way of playing football and with respect to psychological factors such as concentration, reaction time, or competitive anxiety. The psychological characteristics of a player might influence his way of playing football (in particular with respect to fair play) and also his risk of injury. A group of 588 football players were studied by questionnaire; additionally, reaction time tests were performed. Psychological characteristics were assessed by three established self-evaluation questionnaires: the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory, the State Competitive Anxiety Test, and the State-Trait-Anger-Expression-Inventory. Football-specific characteristics that were investigated included playing experience and positions played, style of play, number of training hours and games, as well as aspects of fair play. Reaction time was tested twice: without the influence of physical exercise and immediately after a 12-minute run. A significant reduction in reaction time was observed after physical exercise. In high-level players, the reaction time immediately after the 12-minute run was significantly shorter than it was in low-level players. The questionnaire answers given regarding fair play clearly indicated that fair play is not paid sufficient respect. The relationship between psychological characteristics and attitudes toward fair play was analyzed and discussed.

  4. Can we detect non-functional overreaching in young elite soccer players and middle-long distance runners using field performance tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmikli, Sandor L; Brink, M S; de Vries, W R; Backx, F J G

    2011-06-01

    To study whether field performance tests can make a valid distinction between non-functionally overreaching (NFO) athletes and control athletes. Monthly field performance tests were used to determine a performance decrement (PD) throughout a season. Athletes with a minimum of 1 month PD were compared with control athletes without a PD on mood characteristics and resting levels of stress hormones. Sporting field and sports medical laboratory. 129 young elite athletes, 77 soccer players and 52 middle-long distance runners were followed prospectively during the 2006-2007 season. Fifteen of them were invited to the laboratory. Eight athletes showed a performance decrease lasting longer than 1 month, and seven athletes without a performance decrease acted as their controls. Performance changes over time were measured using field tests. Profile of Mood States and resting levels of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in blood were measured in the laboratory. PD athletes showed several symptoms typical of the non-functional state of overreaching (OR). The PD group scored higher on depression and anger than controls. They also showed a specific pattern of correlations between negative mood subscales (tension, fatigue and depression), which was absent in controls. ACTH levels at rest were similar, but lower cortisol levels in PD athletes pointed at a blunted cortisol response. Cortisol levels were decoupled from ACTH levels only in PD athletes. Implementing performance-related criteria in field tests can help coaches and sports physicians to distinguish NFO athletes from athletes with balanced workload and recovery.

  5. The effect of perceived streakiness on the shot-taking behaviour of basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Peter; Avugos, Simcha; Raab, Markus; Bar-Eli, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We examine behavioural changes of basketball players arising from the hot-hand belief and use data of 1216 National Basketball Association games to measure the effect of cold and hot streaks on three proxies of shot difficulty. We find that the more consecutive shots players make (miss), the more difficult (easier) shots become along the three dimensions. Furthermore, most players' performance seems to improve during hot streaks because they attempt more difficult shots while no significant decrease in shooting accuracy takes place. This might explain why most previous studies could not find empirical evidence for the hot-hand belief in basketball when considering in-game field goal shooting.

  6. Improvement of Repeated-Sprint Ability and Horizontal-Jumping Performance in Elite Young Basketball Players With Low-Volume Repeated-Maximal-Power Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Casajús, José Antonio; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of a low-volume repeated-power-ability (RPA) training program on repeated-sprint and change-of- direction (COD) ability and functional jumping performance. Twenty-two male elite young basketball players (age 16.2 ± 1.2 y, height 190.0 ± 10.0 cm, body mass 82.9 ± 10.1 kg) were randomly assigned either to an RPA-training group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 11). RPA training consisted of leg-press exercise, twice a week for 6 wk, of 1 or 2 blocks of 5 sets × 5 repetitions with 20 s of passive recovery between sets and 3 min between blocks with the load that maximized power output. Before and after training, performance was assessed by a repeated-sprint-ability (RSA) test, a repeated-COD-ability test, a hop for distance, and a drop jump followed by tests of a double unilateral hop with the right and left legs. Within-group and between-groups differences showed substantial improvements in slowest (RSAs) and mean time (RSAm) on RSA; best, slowest and mean time on repeated-COD ability; and unilateral right and left hop in the RPA group in comparison with control. While best time on RSA showed no improvement in any group, there was a large relationship (r = .68, 90% CI .43;.84) between the relative decrement in RSAm and RSAs, suggesting better sprint maintenance with RPA training. The relative improvements in best and mean repeated-COD ability were very largely correlated (r = .89, 90% CI .77;.94). Six weeks of lowvolume (4-14 min/wk) RPA training improved several physical-fitness tests in basketball players.

  7. Neuropsychological consequence of soccer play in adolescent U.K. School team soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Richard; Rutherford, Andrew; Potter, Douglas; Fernie, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    To assess mild head injury effects in adolescent soccer players, neuropsychological performance across school team soccer players, rugby players and noncontact sport players was assessed in a quasi-experimental cross-sectional design. One hundred eighty-five males were tested (ages 13-16; response rate 55%) and 86 contributed data to the analyses after exclusion for recent concussion and overlapping sports participation. Soccer players showed lower premorbid intellectual functioning, but neither soccer players nor rugby players showed neuropsychological decrement compared with noncontact sport players. Cumulative heading did not predict neuropsychological performance. While no specific attribute of soccer was linked with neuropsychological impairment, head injury predicted reduced attention for all participants.

  8. Comparative Effects of In-Season Full-Back Squat, Resisted Sprint Training, and Plyometric Training on Explosive Performance in U-19 Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoyo, Moises; Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Sañudo, Borja; Carrascal, Claudio; Plaza-Armas, Jose R; Camacho-Candil, Fernando; Otero-Esquina, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of 3 different low/moderate load strength training methods (full-back squat [SQ], resisted sprint with sled towing [RS], and plyometric and specific drills training [PLYO]) on sprinting, jumping, and change of direction (COD) abilities in soccer players. Thirty-two young elite male Spanish soccer players participated in the study. Subjects performed 2 specific strength training sessions per week, in addition to their normal training sessions for 8 weeks. The full-back squat protocol consisted of 2-3 sets × 4-8 repetitions at 40-60% 1 repetition maximum (∼ 1.28-0.98 m · s(-1)). The resisted sprint training was compounded by 6-10 sets × 20-m loaded sprints (12.6% of body mass). The plyometric and specific drills training was based on 1-3 sets × 2-3 repetitions of 8 plyometric and speed/agility exercises. Testing sessions included a countermovement jump (CMJ), a 20-m sprint (10-m split time), a 50-m (30-m split time) sprint, and COD test (i.e., Zig-Zag test). Substantial improvements (likely to almost certainly) in CMJ (effect size [ES]: 0.50-0.57) and 30-50 m (ES: 0.45-0.84) were found in every group in comparison to pretest results. Moreover, players in PLYO and SQ groups also showed substantial enhancements (likely to very likely) in 0-50 m (ES: 0.46-0.60). In addition, 10-20 m was also improved (very likely) in the SQ group (ES: 0.61). Between-group analyses showed that improvements in 10-20 m (ES: 0.57) and 30-50 m (ES: 0.40) were likely greater in the SQ group than in the RS group. Also, 10-20 m (ES: 0.49) was substantially better in the SQ group than in the PLYO group. In conclusion, the present strength training methods used in this study seem to be effective to improve jumping and sprinting abilities, but COD might need other stimulus to achieve positive effects.

  9. Physical Characteristics Of Female Basketball Players According To Playing Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucsa Richard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical characteristics play an important role in the selection of young basketball players and the progress in their playing performance. The aim of the study was to analyze differences in chosen physical characteristics of Slovak U17 female basketball players with respect to their playing positions. We assumed, that there will be statistically significant differences between playing positions in each performance tests results. Chosen characteristics were analyzed for 14 players (mean/SD, age 16.34±0.82; body height 179.72±8.04 cm; body weight 67.62±7.10 kg; body fat 16.59±2.04 %; VO2max 46.20±4.71 ml.kg−1.min−1 according to their playing positions (guard, forward, center. Five specific performance tests for each player were conducted as a 3/4 Basketball court sprint, 10 × 5m Shuttle test, Lane agility drill, No-step vertical jump and Maximum vertical jump. The differences in tests results by playing positions were evaluated by one-way ANOVA. There were no significant differences found in results of chosen performance tests between playing positions (p>.05. In spite of fact, that there were no significant differences, we found interesting results between playing positions in physical characteristics. Guards had better results in speed (3.73±0.16 s, quickness (17.43±0.56 s and both lower-body power tests (47.16±3.06 cm; 57.00±3.40 cm than forwards and centers. Forwards had the best results in agility test (12.54±0.43 s. The results of this study produce useful information about physical characteristics of young basketball players according to their playing position and help to diagnose and improve their performance.

  10. Physiological characteristics of international female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Sarah A; Brughelli, Matt; Harris, Nigel K

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological characteristics of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) eligible international female soccer players aged 14-36 years and to determine if measures were significantly different for players selected (i.e., starters) to the starting line up for an FIFA tournament as compared with those not selected (i.e., nonstarters). Fifty-one (N = 18 Under 17; N = 18 Under 20; N = 15 Senior) international female soccer players participated in this study. The subjects underwent measurements of anthropometry (height and body mass), lower body strength (isokinetic testing), sprint kinetics and kinematics (nonmotorized treadmill), leg power (unilateral jumping), and maximal aerobic velocity (30:15 intermittent fitness test) during the final preparatory stage for an FIFA event. Outcomes of the age group data indicate that differences in physiological capacities are evident for the Under 17 players as compared with those for the Under 20 and Senior capped international players, suggesting a plateau in the acquisition of physical qualities as players mature. Starters tended to be faster (effect size [ES] = 0.55-1.0, p velocity (ES = 0.78-2.45, p velocity (ES = 0.87, p players, where maximal aerobic velocity was the primary difference between starters and nonstarters (ES = 0.83-2.45, p players. Coaches should emphasize the development of speed, maximal aerobic velocity, and leg strength in developing female soccer players.

  11. Outcomes of microfracture in professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerynik, Douglas L; Lewullis, Gabriel E; Joves, Brian C; Palmer, Michael P; Tom, James A

    2009-09-01

    Surgical treatment for chondral defects of the knee in competitive running and jumping athletes remains controversial. This study evaluated the performance outcomes of professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who underwent microfracture. Data from 24 professional basketball players from 1997 to 2006 was obtained and analyzed. NBA player efficiency ratings (PER) were calculated for two seasons before and after injury. A control group of 24 players was used for comparison. Study group and control group demographics including age, NBA experience, and minutes per game demonstrated no statistical difference. Mean time to return to an NBA game was 30.0 weeks from the time of surgery. The first season after returning to competition PER and minutes per game decreased by 3.5 (P 0.05) and 3.0 min (P NBA game. On return to competition player performance and minutes per game are diminished.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF BODY COMPOSITION, HORMONE PROFILE, PHYSICAL FITNESS, GENERAL PERCEPTUAL MOTOR SKILLS, SOCCER SKILLS AND ON-THE-BALL PERFORMANCE IN SOCCER-SPECIFIC LABORATORY TEST AMONG ADOLESCENT SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Vänttinen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the development of on-the-ball skills in soccer-specific laboratory test and to examine how traditional measures of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills and soccer skills were related to performance measured in open skill environment among 10, 12, and 14-year-old regional male soccer players (n = 12/group. The measured variables were height, weight, fat, muscle mass, testosterone, 10m sprint, agility, counter movement jump, peripheral awareness, Eye- Hand-Foot coordination, passing skill, dribbling skill and on-the-ball skills (performance time and passing accuracy in soccer-specific laboratory test. A significant main effect by age was found in all measured variables except in fat, in peripheral awareness and in passing accuracy. In discriminant analysis 63.9% (λ = 0.603, F = 4.600, p < 0.01 of the players were classified correctly based on physical fitness and general perceptual motor skills into three ability groups originally classified with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test. Correlation co- efficient analysis with-in age groups revealed that variables associated with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test were peripheral awareness (r = 0.72, p < 0.01 in 10-year-olds; testosterone (r = -0.70, p < 0.05, dribbling skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01 and passing skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01 in 12-year-olds; agility (r = 0.79, p < 0.01, counter movement jump (r = - 0.62, p < 0.01, dribbling skill (r = 0.80, p < 0.01 and passing skill (r = 0.58, p < 0. 05 in 14-year olds. Corresponding relationships with passing accuracy were weight (r = 0.59, p < 0.05, fat (r = 0.66, p < 0.05, 10m sprint (r = 0.71, p < 0.01 and countermovement jump (r = -0.64, p < 0.05 in 10-year-olds; Eye-Hand-Foot coordination (r = 0.63, p < 0.05 in 14-year- olds. The relationship between soccer-specific anticipation time and performance time in soccer- specific

  13. Leadership power perceptions of soccer coaches and soccer players according to their education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konter, Erkut

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the leadership power perceptions of soccer coaches and soccer players according to their educational levels. Data were collected from 165 male soccer coaches and 870 male soccer players. Adapted versions of the "Power in Soccer Questionnaire-Other", the "Power in Soccer Questionnaire-Self" and an "information form" were used for data collection, and collected data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney Tests. Analysis of the Power in Soccer Questionnaire-Other revealed significant differences between soccer players' level of education and their perception of Coercive Power (pPower, Legitimate Power and Expert Power. Analysis of the Power in Soccer Questionnaire-Self also revealed the only significant difference between coaches' level of education and their perception of Legitimate Power (ppowers between coaches and players might create communication and performance problems in soccer.

  14. Influence of the number of players in decision making and performance in the teaching of handball INFLUENCIA DEL NÚMERO DE JUGADORES/AS EN LA TOMA DE DECISIONES Y EL RENDIMIENTO EN LA ENSEÑANZA DEL BALONMANO [Influence of the number of players in decision making and performance in the teaching of handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Chirosa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Handball is a sport in which many actions occur with speed and the pressure of time and space. It constitutes a special context in the decisions making of the players. The aim of this study was to analyze the performance and decision making using the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI, in situations of numerical equality (three against three and numerical inequality (three against two during 396 cycles of game performed by12 students of High School. Significant differences were obtained between the situations of numerical equality and inequality in three of the seven indices: in Decision Making (p=0,047, Technical Execution (p=0,032 and in Mark (p=0,050. In the first two indices the differences were in favor of numerical inequality situations and in the third, the differences were favorable in the situations of numerical equality. Finally, it could be concluded that GPAI is a valid instrument of assessing for an educational context offering an alternative to the evaluation model orientated exclusively towards the skills.Key words: GPAI, Physical Education, numerical Equality-Inequality.El balonmano es un deporte en el que se producen numerosas acciones a gran velocidad, en las que la presión del tiempo y el espacio están muy presentes, constituyendo un contexto especial en la toma de decisiones de los jugadores/as. El objetivo principal del estudio fue estudiar el rendimiento y la toma de decisiones en balonmano usando el Game Perfomance Assessment Instrument (GPAI, en situaciones reducidas de igualdad numérica (tres contra tres y desigualdad numérica (tres contra dos durante 396 ciclos de juego realizados por 12 alumnos/as de Bachillerato. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las situaciones de igualdad y desigualdad numérica en tres de los siete índices del GPAI: Toma de Decisiones (p=0,047, Ejecución Técnica (p=0,032 y Marcaje (p=0,050. En los dos primeros índices los resultados fueron favorables a las

  15. Acute effect of different stretching methods on Illinois agility test in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Sahebozamani, Mansour; Tabrizi, Kourosh G; Yusof, Ashril B

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static, dynamic, and the combination of static and dynamic stretching within a pre-exercise warm-up on the Illinois agility test (IAT) in soccer players. Nineteen professional soccer players (age = 22.5 ± 2.5 years, height = 1.79 ± 0.003 m, body mass = 74.8 ± 10.9 kg) were tested for agility performance using the IAT after different warm-up protocols consisting of static, dynamic, combined stretching, and no stretching. The players were subgrouped into less and more experienced players (5.12 ± 0.83 and 8.18 ± 1.16 years, respectively). There were significant decreases in agility time after no stretching, among no stretching vs. static stretching; after dynamic stretching, among static vs. dynamic stretching; and after dynamic stretching, among dynamic vs. combined stretching during warm-ups for the agility: mean ± SD data were 14.18 ± 0.66 seconds (no stretch), 14.90 ± 0.38 seconds (static), 13.95 ± 0.32 seconds (dynamic), and 14.50 ± 0.35 seconds (combined). There was significant difference between less and more experienced players after no stretching and dynamic stretching. There was significant decrease in agility time following dynamic stretching vs. static stretching in both less and more experienced players. Static stretching does not appear to be detrimental to agility performance when combined with dynamic warm-up for professional soccer players. However, dynamic stretching during the warm-up was most effective as preparation for agility performance. The data from this study suggest that more experienced players demonstrate better agility skills due to years of training and playing soccer.

  16. Decreased Nerve Conduction Velocity in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Didehdar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower limbs nerves are exposed to mechanical injuries in the football players and the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of football on the lower leg nerves. Materials and Methods: Nerve conduction studies were done on 35 male college students (20 football players, 15 non active during 2006 to 2007 in the Shiraz rehabilitation faculty. Standard nerve conduction techniques using to evaluate dominant and non dominant lower limb nerves. Results: The motor latency of deep peroneal and tibial nerves of dominant leg of football players and sensory latency of superficial peroneal, tibial and compound nerve action potential of tibial nerve of both leg in football players were significantly prolonged (p<0.05. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity of tibial and common peroneal in football players were significant delayed (p<0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that football is sport with high contact and it causes sub-clinical neuropathies due to nerve entrapment.

  17. Influence of fatigue on tackling technique in rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the influence of fatigue on tackling technique in rugby league players and determined the relationship between selected physiological capacities and fatigue-induced decrements in tackling technique. Eight rugby league players underwent a standardized one-on-one tackling drill in a 10-m grid. Players performed the one-on-one tackling drill before strenuous exercise and following game-specific repeated-effort exercise of progressively increasing intensities (corresponding to moderate, heavy, and very heavy intensity) in order to induce fatigue that was representative of match conditions. Video footage was taken from the rear, side, and front of the defending player. Tackling technique was objectively assessed using standardized technical criteria. In addition, all players underwent measurements of standard anthropometry (height, body mass, and sum of 7 skinfold measurements), speed (10-, 20-, and 40-m sprint), muscular power (vertical jump), agility (L run), and estimated maximal aerobic power (VO2max multistage fitness test). A progressive increase in total repeated-effort time, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and ratings of perceived exertion occurred throughout the repeated-effort protocol, demonstrating a progressive increase in intensity and fatigue. Fatigue resulted in progressive reductions in tackling technique. Players with the best tackling technique in a nonfatigued state demonstrated the greatest decrement in tackling technique under fatigued conditions. In addition, a significant association was observed between estimated VO2max (r = -0.62) and agility (r = 0.68) and fatigue-induced decrements in tackling technique. From a practical perspective, these findings suggest that strength and conditioning programs designed to develop endurance, change of direction speed, and anticipation skills may reduce fatigue-induced decrements in tackling technique. Furthermore, any defensive drills designed to improve tackling technique

  18. The cervical spine of professional front-row rugby players: correlation between degenerative changes and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, B A; Hogan, N A; Vos, P M; Eustace, S J; Kenny, P J

    2010-06-01

    Injuries to the cervical spine (C-spine) are among the most serious in rugby and are well documented. Front-row players are particularly at risk due to repetitive high-intensity collisions in the scrum. This study evaluates degenerative changes of the C-spine and associated symptomatology in front-row rugby players. C-spine radiographs from 14 professional rugby players and controls were compared. Players averaged 23 years of playing competitive rugby. Two consultant radiologists performed a blind review of radiographs evaluating degeneration of disc spaces and apophyseal joints. Clinical status was assessed using a modified AAOS/NASS/COSS cervical spine outcomes questionnaire. Front-row rugby players exhibited significant radiographic evidence of C-spine degenerative changes compared to the non-rugby playing controls (P < 0.005). Despite these findings the rugby players did not exhibit increased symptoms. This highlights the radiologic degenerative changes of the C-spine of front-row rugby players. However, these changes do not manifest themselves clinically or affect activities of daily living.

  19. Beta-Alanine Supplementation Improves Throwing Velocities in Repeated Sprint Ability and 200-m Swimming Performance in Young Water Polo Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Gabriel Machado; Redkva, Paulo Eduardo; Brisola, Gabriel Mota Pinheiro; Malta, Elvis Sousa; de Araujo Bonetti de Poli, Rodrigo; Miyagi, Willian Eiji; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on specific tests for water polo. Fifteen young water polo players (16 ± 2 years) underwent a 200-m swimming performance, repeated-sprint ability test (RSA) with free throw (shooting), and 30-s maximal tethered eggbeater kicks. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups (placebo × beta-alanine) and supplemented with 6.4g∙day(-1)of beta-alanine or a placebo for six weeks. The mean and total RSA times, the magnitude based inference analysis showed a likely beneficial effect for beta-alanine supplementation (both). The ball velocity measured in the throwing performance after each sprint in the RSA presented a very like beneficial inference in the beta-alanine group for mean (96.4%) and percentage decrement of ball velocity (92.5%, likely beneficial). Furthermore, the percentage change for mean ball velocity was different between groups (beta-alanine=+2.5% and placebo=-3.5%; p = .034). In the 30-s maximal tethered eggbeater kicks the placebo group presented decreased peak force, mean force, and fatigue index, while the beta-alanine group maintained performance in mean force (44.1%, possibly beneficial), only presenting decreases in peak force. The 200-m swimming performance showed a possibly beneficial effect (68.7%). Six weeks of beta-alanine supplementation was effective for improving ball velocity shooting in the RSA, maintaining performance in the 30-s test, and providing possibly beneficial effects in the 200-m swimming performance.

  20. Accuracy of Skill Performance in the Basketball Free Throw Shooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igawa Shoji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal and shot timing. Shot timing was not significant difference. Shooting successful rate of skilled players was higher than unskilled players. Offtarget distance of skilled players was significant smaller than naive player. Consequently, skilled player is possible to aim at the center of the goal and shooting near the center of goal.

  1. Factores de rendimiento en el desplazamiento del tenista influenciados por el calzado. (Performance factors on tennis player displacements influenced by the shoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Llana Belloch

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos desplazamientos laterales son de gran importancia en el tenis. Sin embargo, no ha sido publicado ningún estudio sobre el efecto del calzado sobre el rendimiento en este tipo de movimientos. En el estudio participaron 5 jugadores habituales de tenis y se analizaron 10 calzados comerciales de tenis. El movimiento estudiado consistió en un desplazamiento lateral con parada y cambio de sentido, registrándose las fuerzas mediante una plataforma dinamométrica Dinascan-IBV y grabándose el movimiento con dos cámaras de vídeo S-VHS Panasonic WV-BL600. Los resultados de los ANOVAs realizados mostraron que algunas de las variables analizadas eran dependientes del calzado (p Abstract Sideward cutting movements are very important in tennis. However, no studies on their effect on performance have been published. 5 tennis players (age 21.5 ± 0.8, weight 75.2 ± 2.8 kg, height, 1.78 ± 0.05 m participated in the study on a voluntary basis and 10 tennis shoes were analysed. Subjects perform a sideward cutting movement. An extensometric force plate (Dinascan-IBV was used to record the kinetic variables and 2 video cameras (Panasonic-WV-BL600 were utilized for the kinematic variables. ANOVA results showed several variables as shoe-dependent (p

  2. Effect of in-season creatine supplementation on body composition and performance in rugby union football players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magnus, Charlene; Chilibeck, Philip D; Anderson, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to determine if creatine supplementation during 8 weeks of a season of rugby union football can increase muscular performance, without negatively affecting aerobic endurance...

  3. An investigation into the variation that exists between the physical performance indicators of hurling players at different levels of participation

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed Background: There is a paucity of research profiling the anthropometric measures and physical performance indicators of hurling athletes. Such profiles are essential to optimising the physical preparation structures of hurling athletes. Methods: A battery of tests profiling the anthropometric measures and physical performance indicators of 95 hurling athletes from three different levels of participation, senior elite (n1=34), senior sub- elite (n2=28) & junior elite (n3=33...

  4. Prevalence of Dehydration Before Training Sessions, Friendly and Official Matches in Elite Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro-Sepulveda Mauricio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate and compare the hydration states prior to different sporting events (training sessions, friendly and official matches in elite female soccer players and relate that to the importance that the player attached to the hydration state as a determinant of sports performance. The hydration state of 17 female elite soccer players (age: 21.5 ± 3 years; body mass: 62 ± 6 kg; body height: 165 ± 9 cm was determined by measuring their urine specific gravity (USG prior to three different sports events: training sessions (PT, friendly (PF and official (PO matches. The importance that each player attached to the hydration state as a determinant of sports performance was evaluated through a simple questionnaire. An average of 47.05% of the soccer players were severely dehydrated (USG > 1.030, 33.33% were significantly dehydrated (USG > 1.020, 17.64% were mildly dehydrated (USG > 1.010 and 1.96% were euhydrated (USG < 1.010. The average USG was 1.027 ± 0.007 (PT = 1.029 ± 0.009; PF = 1.023 ± 0.010 and PO = 1.030 ± 0.006. Differences were found between urine specific gravity prior to a friendly and an official match (p = 0.03. No relationship was found between urine specific gravity and the importance each player attached to the hydration state as a determinant of sports performance. The results show that dehydration is the most prevalent hydration state of elite soccer players before training sessions, friendly and official matches. Players were most dehydrated prior to official matches, which was unlinked to the players’ perceived importance of hydration for sports performance.

  5. Analysis of Motor Activities of Professional Soccer Players during the 2014 World Cup in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, Paweł; Andrzejewski, Marcin; Konefał, Marek; Mroczek, Dariusz; Rokita, Andrzej; Chmura, Jan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze motor activities of soccer players in seven consecutive rounds of matches of the 2014 World Cup in Brazil and to compare the performance of the world champions, the German national team with other participating teams. The study sample comprised 905 observations of 340 soccer players, who played full-time matches in all seven rounds of the tournament. The study was conducted using data collected from the Castrol Performance Index, a kinematic game analysis system that records movements of players with semi-automatic cameras. The following variables were analyzed: total distance covered, the percentage of total distance covered at high intensity, the number of sprints, frequency of sprints and peak running speed. A statistically significant increase (p ≤ 0.01) was noted in total distance covered, the percentage of distance covered at high intensity and total number of sprints, between the quarter-finals and semi-finals of the World Cup tournament in Brazil. The German national team covered a significantly longer total distance (p ≤ 0.05) and had a greater percentage of distance covered at high intensity (p ≤ 0.001) than players from other teams. The obtained results point to the necessity of development of players' aerobic endurance and speed-endurance abilities while preparing for top-level soccer tournaments. Winning a soccer championship requires players to run longer mean total distances and longer distances at high intensity during a single match.

  6. Detraining Effect of the Post-Season on Selected Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance Variables in National League Rugby Union Players: A Focus on Positional Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nirmalendran, Rohaan; Ingle, Lee

    2010-01-01

    ...: 34 English National Division One rugby players (mean age 24.6 ± 3.7 years; stature 184 ± 8 cm) were recruited from one professional club and divided into four groups based on playing positions...

  7. Scouting the Elite, Unbreakable Football Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M

    1981-02-01

    Some NFL football teams see physiological profiling as a means to protect and enhance their competitive and business success. Whether football players will benefit by increased performance and fewer injuries remains to be seen.

  8. Significant alterations in reported clinical practice associated with increased oversight of organ transplant center performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schold, Jesse D; Arrington, Charlotte J; Levine, Greg

    2010-09-01

    In the past several years, emphasis on quality metrics in the field of organ transplantation has increased significantly, largely because of the new conditions of participation issued by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These regulations directly associate patients' outcomes and measured performance of centers with the distribution of public funding to institutions. Moreover, insurers and marketing ventures have used publicly available outcomes data from transplant centers for business decision making and advertisement purposes. We gave a 10-question survey to attendees of the Transplant Management Forum at the 2009 meeting of the United Network for Organ Sharing to ascertain how centers have responded to the increased oversight of performance. Of 63 responses, 55% indicated a low or near low performance rating at their center in the past 3 years. Respondents from low-performing centers were significantly more likely to indicate increased selection criteria for candidates (81% vs 38%, P = .001) and donors (77% vs 31%, P < .001) as well as alterations in clinical protocols (84% vs 52%, P = .007). Among respondents indicating lost insurance contracts (31%), these differences were also highly significant. Based on respondents' perceptions, outcomes of performance evaluations are associated with significant changes in clinical practice at transplant centers. The transplant community and policy makers should practice vigilance that performance evaluations and regulatory oversight do not inadvertently lead to diminished access to care among viable candidates or decreased transplant volume.

  9. A heuristic biomarker selection approach based on professional tennis player ranking strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Xie, Ruifei; Li, Lihua; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Shen

    2014-01-01

    Extracting significant features from high-dimension and small sample size biological data is a challenging problem. Recently, Michał Draminski proposed the Monte Carlo feature selection (MC) algorithm, which was able to search over large feature spaces and achieved better classification accuracies. However in MC the information of feature rank variations is not utilized and the ranks of features are not dynamically updated. Here, we propose a novel feature selection algorithm which integrates the ideas of the professional tennis players ranking, such as seed players and dynamic ranking, into Monte Carlo simulation. Seed players make the feature selection game more competitive and selective. The strategy of dynamic ranking ensures that it is always the current best players to take part in each competition. The proposed algorithm is tested on 8 biological datasets. Results demonstrate that the proposed method is computationally efficient, stable and has favorable performance in classification.

  10. Application of the Copenhagen Soccer Test in high-level women players - locomotor activities, physiological response and sprint performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Mads; Pettersen, Svein Arne; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the physiological response, sprint performance and technical ability in various phases of the Copenhagen Soccer Test for Women (CSTw) and investigated whether the locomotor activities of the CSTw were comparable to competitive match-play (CM). Physiological measurements and physical/...

  11. Variation in the Ace Gene in Elite Polish Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cięszczyk Paweł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. A common polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme I gene (the ACE I/D variant represents one of the first characterized and the most widely studied genetic variants in the context of elite athletes status and performance related traits. The aim of the study was to determine the genotype and allele distribution of the allele and genotype of the ACE gene in Polish male football players. Methods. The total of 106 Polish male professional football players were recruited. They were divided into groups according to the position in the field: forwards, defenders, midfielders, and goalkeepers. For controls, samples were prepared with 115 unrelated volunteers. DNA was extracted from the buccal cells donated by the subjects, and the PCR amplification of the polymorphic region of the ACE gene containing either the insertion (I or deletion (D fragment was performed. Results. The genotype distribution and allele frequencies among all football players did not differ significantly when compared with sedentary control individuals (p = 0.887, p = 0.999, respectively. Likewise, the analysis of forwards, defenders, midfielders, and goalkeepers revealed no significant differences in either ACE genotype or allele frequencies. Conclusions. We did not provide evidence for difference of variation of the ACE I/D polymorphism between Polish football players and controls, as we did not obtain any statistically significantly higher frequency of either of the analysed alleles (I and D or genotypes (DD, ID, and II in the studied subgroups. It may be suspected that harbouring of I/D allelic variants of the ACE gene neither decreases nor increases the probability of being a professional football player in Poland.

  12. Attributes of top elite team-handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuça, Luís M; Fragoso, Isabel; Teles, Júlia

    2014-01-01

    Researchers in the field of excellence in sport performance are becoming increasingly focused on the study of sport-specific characteristics and requirements. In accordance with this, the purposes of this study were (a) to examine the morphologic-, fitness-, handball-specific skills and psychological and "biosocial" differences between top elite and nontop elite team-handball players and (b) to investigate the extent to which they may be used to identify top elite team-handball players. One hundred sixty-seven adult male team-handball players were studied and divided in 2 groups: top elite (n = 41) and nontop elite (n = 126). Twenty-eight morphologic-, 9 fitness-, 1 handball-specific skills and 2 psychological-based and 2 "biosocial"-based attributes were used. Top elite and nontop elite groups were compared for each variable of interest using Student's t-test, and 5 logistic regression analyses were performed with the athlete's performance group (top elite or nontop elite) as the dependent variable and the variables of each category as predictors. The results showed that (a) body mass, waist girth, radiale-dactylion length, midstylion-dactylion length, and absolute muscle mass (morphologic model); (b) 30-m sprint time, countermovement jump height and average power, abdominal strength and the class of performance in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test (fitness model); (c) offensive power (specific-skills model); (d) ego-based motivational orientation (psychological model); (e) socioeconomic status and the energy spent (for week) in handball activity (biosocial model); significantly (p handball player. Moreover, the fitness model exhibited higher percentages of correct classification (i.e., 91.5%) than all the other models did. This study provided (a) the rational to reduce the battery of tests for evaluation purposes, and (b) the initial step to work on building a multidisciplinary model to predict the probability of a handball athlete to be a top elite player.

  13. Dynamic Difficulty Balancing for Cautious Players and Risk Takers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hawkins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic balancing of game difficulty can help cater for different levels of ability in players. However, performance in some game tasks depends on not only the player's ability but also their desire to take risk. Taking or avoiding risk can offer players its own reward in a game situation. Furthermore, a game designer may want to adjust the mechanics differently for a risky, high ability player, as opposed to a risky, low ability player. In this work, we describe a novel modelling technique known as particle filtering which can be used to model various levels of player ability while also considering the player's risk profile. We demonstrate this technique by developing a game challenge where players are required to make a decision between a number of possible alternatives where only a single alternative is correct. Risky players respond faster but with more likelihood of failure. Cautious players wait longer for more evidence, increasing their likelihood of success, but at the expense of game time. By gathering empirical data for the player's response time and accuracy, we develop particle filter models. These models can then be used in real-time to categorise players into different ability and risk-taking levels.

  14. A study of static, kinetic, and dynamic visual acuity in 102 Japanese professional baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshina K

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kohji Hoshina,1 Yuichi Tagami,2 Osamu Mimura,3 Hiroshi Edagawa,4 Masao Matsubara,5 Teiichi Nakayama6 1Hoshina Eye Clinic, Nishinomiya, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kobe Century Memorial Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan; 4Edagawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo, Japan; 6Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan Background: It seemed that visual functions might have some effects on the performance of baseball players. We measured static, kinetic, and dynamic visual acuity (SVA, KVA, and DVA, respectively of Japanese professional baseball players to ascertain whether there would be any difference in SVA, KVA, and DVA among player groups stratified according to their performance level. Methods: The subjects were 102 male professional baseball players with a mean age of 26 years who were members of a Japanese professional baseball club from 2000 to 2009. They were stratified into three groups according to their performance level: A (players who were on the roster of the top-level team all the time throughout the study period, B (players who were on the roster of the top-level team sometimes but not all the time, and C (players who were never on the roster of the top-level team. They were interviewed for the use of corrective visual aids, and examined for SVA, KVA, and DVA. The measurements of these parameters were compared among groups A, B, and C. We also investigated and analyzed the association of KVA or DVA with player position (pitchers or fielders and with hand dominance for batting. KVA was compared between the pitchers and the fielders because they each require different playing skills. DVA was compared between the right-handed and the left-handed batters. Results: There was no statistically significant difference among groups A, B, and C. There was a statistically significant difference in

  15. Cumulative Incidence of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Capitellum in Child and Adolescent Baseball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwame, Toshiyuki; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prevalence of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum is high among individuals who have played baseball since childhood. Recently two cross-sectional studies according to prevalence of OCD have been published. In a study of 1040 baseball players aged 10 to 12 years, Matsuura et al found that 2.1% of players had OCD, with no differences in prevalence according to age or player position. Kida et al., in their study of 2433 baseball players aged 12 to 18 years, found OCD in 3.4% of subjects. Furthermore, they found that players with OCD began playing baseball at earlier ages, had played for longer periods, and had experienced more elbow pain. The player’s current baseball position may not be related to the existence of OCD lesions. Together, these findings led us to examine the longitudinal study for examining the risk factors for occurrence of OCD. Our objectives were to determine (1) cumulative incidence rates of OCD in the school child players aged 6-11 years old, (2) the relative risk of OCD by age, beginning age playing baseball, playing period, experimental hours per week, playing position, and elbow pain. Methods: A total of 1,275 players aged 6-11 years (mean, 9.4 years) belonged to youth baseball teams without OCD lesions received examination in the next year and were the subjects of this investigation. Subjects were examined by questionnaire, and ultrasonographic and radiographic examination. Questionnaire items included age, player position, beginning age of playing baseball, playing period of baseball, number of training hours per week and history of elbow pain. Ultrasonography of the lateral aspect of the elbow was performed. An irregularity of the subchondral bone of the capitellum was regarded as an abnormality. Radiographic examination was recommended to players who had an abnormal finding on ultrasonographic examination. We investigated the following risk factors for occurrence of OCD: age, player position, beginning age of

  16. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and time-motion analysis of female basketball players during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew, Dionne; Delextrat, Anne

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the physiological demands and movement patterns of female basketball players after changes in the rules of the game. Nine varsity players were studied during nine official games. Each game was videotaped to identify the frequencies of the main movements performed, heart rate was recorded continuously, and blood samples were collected to determine blood lactate concentration when the competition rules allowed. The main results showed that the players performed on average 652 +/- 128 movements per game, which corresponded to a change in activity every 2.82 s. Mean heart rate was 165 +/- 9 beats . min(-1) (89.1% of maximum heart rate) for total time and 170 +/- 8 beats . min(-1) (92.5% of maximum) for live time. Mean blood lactate concentration was 5.2 +/- 2.7 mmol . l(-1) (55.9% of maximum blood lactate concentration). In addition, heart rates were significantly higher in the first half than the second half of games. These results indicate: (1) a greater physiological load compared with previous studies on female players tested before the rules modification (Beam & Merrill, 1994; McArdle et al., 1971) and (2) lower movement frequencies compared with male players competing under modern rules (Ben Abdelkrim et al., 2007). These observations must be taken into account by coaches and conditioning specialists working with female players.

  17. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve Compact Disc Players playability regarding playing Compact Discs with surface faults, like scratches and fingerprints etc, the attention has been put on fault tolerant control schemes. Almost every of those methods are based on fault detection. The standard approach is to use...... a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  18. Relationship between measures of aerobic fitness, speed and repeated sprint ability in full and part time youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, N; Currie, J; Johnston, R; Hill, J

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between repeated sprint ability (RSA) involving changes in direction, short linear sprinting and aerobic capacity in young elite soccer players. A secondary aim was to assess any differences in performance of these assessments between players of different age groups. Thirty-two male adolescent soccer players belonging to the same elite club academy were assessed for RSA comprising 6 x 40m efforts interspersed by 25s recovery, linear sprinting speed over 15m, and aerobic capacity via the YYIE2 assessment. There was a significant correlation between performance in the YYIE2 and RSA total time, RSA fastest sprint and RSA percentage decrement (r = -0.71, -0.53, and -0.52 respectively. Psprint (Psprinting. Assessments of RSA over 40m and incorporating changes of direction appear to be significantly correlated with YYIE2 performance in young elite level soccer players. In addition older players performed significantly better in the YYIE2 assessment and RSA protocol but not in short linear sprinting. These results have implications for the design of assessment protocols for young elite soccer players of different ages.

  19. Extended Stereopsis Evaluation of Professional and Amateur Soccer Players and Subjects without Soccer Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan ePaulus

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Stereopsis is one of several visual depth cues. It has been evaluated for athletes of different types of sports in the past. However, most studies do not cover the full range of stereopsis performance. Therefore, we propose computer-supported stereopsis tests that provide an extended assessment and analysis of stereopsis performance including stereo acuity and response times. By providing stationary and moving stimuli they cover static and dynamic stereopsis. The proposed stereopsis tests were used to compare professional and amateur soccer players with subjects without soccer background. The soccer players could not perform significantly (p <= 0.05 superior than the subjects without soccer background. However, the soccer players showed significantly (p <= 0.01 superior choice reaction times for monocular stimuli. The results are in congruence with previous findings in literature.

  20. A Pilot Study on the influence of fatigue on kicking velocity in the soccer players

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    RICARDO FERRAZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Soccer is a game in which fatigue could influence player's performance. The aim of thepresent study was to evaluate the effect of fatigue, induced acutely, by a specifically soccer activities circuit onkicking velocity.Approach: Nine experienced male soccer players performed prior and after the implementation of an intensiveand intermittent exercise protocol maximal instep kicks.Results: Analysis of variance designs with repeated measures indicated a significant difference (p<0.05 in thekicking velocity before and after performing the circuit.Conclusions/Recommendations: The present’s results confirmed the initial hypothesis of the negative influenceof fatigue on velocity of the kicking soccer

  1. The Responses of Physiological Stress during Table Tennis Competition in Elite Female Players

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    Sara Barmaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress is inevitable in competitive sports. Table tennis in the world known as a fastest ball game that requires attention and control stress. The main purpose of this study was investigation of physiological stress responses in elite table tennis players during competition. 16 female table tennis players (age average of 18.7 ± 3.8, height average of 161.6 ± 3.4 cm and weight average of 50.1 ± 4.2 kg that participating in elective national team selected. During 8 competitive racing, salivary levels of Cortisol (C, testosterone (T and Immunoglobulin A (sIgA at rest, 60 and 30 minutes before and 60 and 30 minutes after racing were measured through saliva by enzymatic methods (ELISA. Data were analyzed using two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. The findings presented that Cortisol level in loser player was significantly increased than winner player (p0.05. Also significant difference in salivary testosterone, Cortisol and sIgA periods of 60 and 30 minutes before and after competition observed in the group of winners and losers than rest(p<0.05. Table tennis competition puts high stress on young players, that probably these indicators affect the performance table tennis players. Cortisol as an indicator of stress has an important effect on losers than winners.

  2. The Effect of Moderate and High-Intensity Fatigue on Groundstroke Accuracy in Expert and Non-Expert Tennis Players

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Lyons; Yahya Al-Nakeeb; Joanne Hankey; Alan Nevill

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Exploring the effects of fatigue on skilled performance in tennis presents a significant challenge to the researcher with respect to ecological validity. This study examined the effects of moderate and high-intensity fatigue on groundstroke accuracy in expert and non-expert tennis players. The research also explored whether the effects of fatigue are the same regardless of gender and player's achievement motivation characteristics. 13 expert (7 male, 6 female) and 17 non-expe...

  3. THE EFFECT OF MODERATE AND HIGH-INTENSITY FATIGUE ON GROUNDSTROKE ACCURACY IN EXPERT AND NON-EXPERT TENNIS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lyons

    2013-06-0